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Sample records for plasma pon1 activity

  1. Interethnic variability of plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity towards organophosphates and PON1 polymorphisms among Asian populations--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, Safiyya; Chia, Sin Eng

    2008-08-01

    Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a progressively worrying phenomenon as worldwide pesticide production and consumption has doubled. On average, WHO estimates that 3% of agricultural workers in developing Asian countries suffer an episode of pesticide poisoning every year. Furthermore, the threat of OP usage in terrorism is existent, as seen by the subway tragedy in Tokyo in 1995 where sarin was used. Despite these alarming facts, there is currently no global system to track poisonings related to pesticide use. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) is the enzyme that hydrolyses OP compounds. Serum PON1 levels and activity vary widely among different ethnic populations. Two commonly studied polymorphisms of PON1 are PON1Q192R and PON1L55M. PON1R192 hydrolyses paraoxon faster than PON1Q192 but hydrolyses diazoxon, sarin and soman eight times slower, and vice versa. PON1M55 has lower plasma levels of PON1 than PON1L55. As the prevalence of the different alleles and genotypic distribution vary between the Asian populations we studied, we propose the necessity to study PON1 polymorphisms and its role in OP toxicity in Asian populations. This would help safeguard the proper care of agricultural workers who might be affected by OP poisoning, and alert relevant anti biological terrorism agencies on possible risks involved in the event of an OP attack and provide effective counter measures.

  2. The activity of paraoxonase type 1 (PON-1) in boar seminal plasma and its relationship with sperm quality, functionality, and in vivo fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, I; Tvarijonaviciute, A; Perez-Patiño, C; Alkmin, D V; Ceron, J J; Martinez, E A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Roca, J

    2015-03-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) is a hydrolytic enzyme present in body fluids, capable of protecting cells against oxidative stress. The hypothesis was hereby to test that PON-1, present in seminal plasma (SP), acts protecting boar spermatozoa when showing a reasonable high activity in the ejaculate. SP-PON-1 activity differed (p boars (from 0.10 to 0.29 IU/mL). Intra-boar variability was also observed (p boars. SP-PON-1 activity differed among ejaculate portions, showing the spermatozoa-peak portion of spermatozoa-rich ejaculate fraction the highest levels (0.35 ± 0.03 IU/mL, ranging from 0.12 to 0.69) and the post-sperm ejaculate fraction the lowest levels (0.12 ± 0.01 IU/mL, ranging from 0.03 to 0.21). SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with rapid and progressive movement (p boars with highest farrowing rates. In conclusion, SP-PON-1 activity differed among boars and ejaculate fractions/portions. SP-PON-1 activity was positively correlated with sperm quality and functionality of liquid-stored semen samples and it evidenced a positive association with in vivo fertility.

  3. The role of genetic (PON1 polymorphism) and environmental factors, especially physical activity, in antioxidant function of paraoxonase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Orłowska-Majdak, Monika

    2009-12-30

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a member of a three-gene family (PON1, PON2, and PON3). PON1 activity dominates in human plasma. It is secreted from hepatic cells and is found in the circulation bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). For many years it has been known only for its ability to hydrolyze organophosphate derivatives. More recently, PON1's antioxidant activity draws attention as the enzyme was described to prevent oxidation of lipoproteins by reactive oxygen species formed during oxidative stress. PON1 was also shown to hydrolyze atherogenic products of oxidative lipid modification such as phospholipid peroxides and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides. Some studies indicate that the enzyme presents a lipolactonase activity and hydrolyzes homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). There is growing evidence as to PON1's protective role in atherosclerosis. Genetic (PON1 polymorphism) and environmental factors and lifestyle may influence PON1 blood concentration and biological activity. Among the many recognized factors accounting for lifestyle, physical activity plays an important role. Various, often opposite, effects on PON1 status are observed in regular training and single physical activities. The results of different studies are often contradictory. It may depend on the time, intensity, and frequency of physical activity. Additionally, it seems that the effects of physical activity on PON1 blood concentration and activity are modified by environmental and lifestyle factors as well as PON1 polymorphism.

  4. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: jbknaak@aol.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: rwbrowne@buffalo.edu [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  5. Paraoxonase activity against nerve gases measured by capillary electrophoresis and characterization of human serum paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphism in the coding region (Q192R).

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    Kanamori-Kataoka, Mieko; Seto, Yasuo

    2009-02-01

    An analytical method for determining paraoxonase activity against sarin, soman and VX was established. We used capillary electrophoresis to measure directly the hydrolysis products: alkyl methylphosphonates. After enzymatic reaction of human serum paraoxonase (PON1) with nerve gas, substrate was removed with dichloromethane, and alkyl methylphoshphonates were quantified by capillary electrophoresis of reversed osmotic flow using cationic detergent and sorbic acid. This method was applied to the characterization of human serum PON1 polymorphism for nerve gas hydrolytic activity in the coding region (Q192R). PON1-192 and PON1-55 genotypes were determined by their gel electrophoretic fragmentation pattern with restriction enzymes after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of blood leukocyte genomic DNA. Frequencies of genotypes among 63 members of our institutes with PON1-192 and PON1-55 were 9.5% ((192)QQ), 30.1% ((192)QR) and 44.4% ((192)RR), and 82.5% ((55)LL), 17.5% ((55)LM) and 0% ((55)MM), respectively. (192)Q and (192)R enzymes were purified from the respective genotype human plasma, using blue agarose affinity chromatography and diethyl amino ethane (DEAE) anion exchange chromatography. V(max) and K(m) were measured using Lineweaver-Burk plots for hydrolytic activities against sarin, soman and VX at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. For sarin and soman, the V(max) for (192)Q PON1 were 3.5- and 1.5-fold higher than those for (192)R PON1; and k(cat)/K(m) for (192)Q PON1 were 1.3- and 2.8-fold higher than those for (192)R PON1. For VX, there was little difference in V(max) and k(cat)/K(m) between (192)Q and (192)R PON1, and VX hydrolyzing activity was significantly lower than those for sarin and soman. PON1 hydrolyzed sarin and soman more effectively than paraoxon.

  6. Lead exposure is associated with decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and genotypes.

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    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-08-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investigate whether lead exposure has influence on serum PON1 activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers from a lead battery manufactory and lead recycling plant. Blood samples were analyzed for whole-blood lead levels, serum PON1 activity, and three common PON1 polymorphisms (Q192R, L55M, -108C/T). The mean blood lead level (+/-SD) of this cohort was 27.1+/-15 microg/dL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with decreased serum PON1 activity (p<0.001) in lead workers. This negative correlation was more evident for workers who carry the R192 allele, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the decrease in serum PON1 activity due to lead exposure may render individuals more susceptible to atherosclerosis, particularly subjects who are homozygous for the R192 allele.

  7. Lead Exposure Is Associated with Decreased Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Activity and Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-01-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investig...

  8. Effects of aerobic training on serum paraoxonase activity and its relationship with PON1-192 phenotypes in women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulbin Rudarli Nalcakan; S. Rana Varol; Faruk Turgay; Mesut Nalcakan; M. Zeki Ozkol; S. Oguz Karamizrak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme that protects high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. Limited studies have addressed the influenc of exercise on PON1 activity and its relationship with PON1 phenotypes. We investigated relationships between PON1-192 phenotypes, PON1 activity, aerobic exercise, and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in middle-aged women. Methods: An exercise group (n=50) engaging in regular aerobic exercise and a control group (n=41) were selected from a subset of 300 Caucasian women that met the inclusion criteria. Serum PON1, salt-stimulated PON1 (SSPON1), and arylesterase (ARE) activities;cholesterol levels and ARE activities of total HDL and HDL subgroups (HDLs) (supernatants obtained by polyethylene glycol);and blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were determined by standardized enzymatic methods. PON1-192 QQ (low activity), QR (moderate activity), and RR (high activity) phenotype groups were define using serum SSPON1/ARE activity ratios. The R-carries (RC) phenotype group consisted of the QR and RR groups combined. Results: All lipid and lipoprotein concentrations were greater in the exercise group than in the control group. Regardless of phenotype, no significan differences were observed between the exercise and control groups in terms of serum PON1, SSPON1, or ARE activity associated with HDLs (p>0.05), whereas PON1 activities in QQ-phenotyped women in the exercise group were significant y higher than those in the control group (p Conclusion: These results showed that a regular aerobic exercise program can improve PON1 activity depending on PON1-192 phenotype, but not on lipid and lipoprotein levels, in middle-aged Turkish women.

  9. PLTP activity inversely correlates with CAAD: effects of PON1 enzyme activity and genetic variants on PLTP activity.

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    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A; Ranchalis, Jane E; Vuletic, Simona; Vaisar, Tomas; Li, Wan-Fen; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Dong, Weijiang; Eintracht, Jason F; Motulsky, Arno G; Brunzell, John D; Albers, John J; Furlong, Clement E; Jarvik, Gail P

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have failed to demonstrate a causal cardioprotective effect of HDL cholesterol levels, shifting focus to the functional aspects of HDL. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an HDL-associated protein involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This study sought to determine the genetic and nongenetic predictors of plasma PLTP activity (PLTPa), and separately, to determine whether PLTPa predicted carotid artery disease (CAAD). PLTPa was measured in 1,115 European ancestry participants from a case-control study of CAAD. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to elucidate the relationship between PLTPa and CAAD. Separately, a stepwise linear regression determined the nongenetic clinical and laboratory characteristics that best predicted PLTPa. A final stepwise regression considering both nongenetic and genetic variables identified the combination of covariates that explained maximal PLTPa variance. PLTPa was significantly associated with CAAD (7.90 × 10(-9)), with a 9% decrease in odds of CAAD per 1 unit increase in PLTPa (odds ratio = 0.91). Triglyceride levels (P = 0.0042), diabetes (P = 7.28 × 10(-5)), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity (P = 0.019), statin use (P = 0.026), PLTP SNP rs4810479 (P = 6.38 × 10(-7)), and PCIF1 SNP rs181914932 (P = 0.041) were all significantly associated with PLTPa. PLTPa is significantly inversely correlated with CAAD. Furthermore, we report a novel association between PLTPa and PON1 activity, a known predictor of CAAD.

  10. PLTP activity inversely correlates with CAAD: effects of PON1 enzyme activity and genetic variants on PLTP activity1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel Seung; Burt, Amber A.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; Vuletic, Simona; Vaisar, Tomas; Li, Wan-Fen; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Dong, Weijiang; Eintracht, Jason F.; Motulsky, Arno G.; Brunzell, John D.; Albers, John J.; Furlong, Clement E.; Jarvik, Gail P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have failed to demonstrate a causal cardioprotective effect of HDL cholesterol levels, shifting focus to the functional aspects of HDL. Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an HDL-associated protein involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This study sought to determine the genetic and nongenetic predictors of plasma PLTP activity (PLTPa), and separately, to determine whether PLTPa predicted carotid artery disease (CAAD). PLTPa was measured in 1,115 European ancestry participants from a case-control study of CAAD. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to elucidate the relationship between PLTPa and CAAD. Separately, a stepwise linear regression determined the nongenetic clinical and laboratory characteristics that best predicted PLTPa. A final stepwise regression considering both nongenetic and genetic variables identified the combination of covariates that explained maximal PLTPa variance. PLTPa was significantly associated with CAAD (7.90 × 10−9), with a 9% decrease in odds of CAAD per 1 unit increase in PLTPa (odds ratio = 0.91). Triglyceride levels (P = 0.0042), diabetes (P = 7.28 × 10−5), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity (P = 0.019), statin use (P = 0.026), PLTP SNP rs4810479 (P = 6.38 × 10−7), and PCIF1 SNP rs181914932 (P = 0.041) were all significantly associated with PLTPa. PLTPa is significantly inversely correlated with CAAD. Furthermore, we report a novel association between PLTPa and PON1 activity, a known predictor of CAAD. PMID:26009633

  11. Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) activity:an in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan Syt; Elif Duygu Kaya; kr Beydemir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro effects of the antibacterial drugs, meropenem trihydrate, piperacillin sodium, and cefoperazone sodium, on the activity of human serum paraoxonase Methods: hPON1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. Results:The three antibacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. Inhibition mechanisms meropenem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive. Conclusions:Our results showed that antibacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity, both in vitro, with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro.

  12. Monocyte-macrophage membrane possesses free radicals scavenging activity: stimulation by polyphenols or by paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

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    Rosenblat, M; Elias, A; Volkova, N; Aviram, M

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we analysed free radicals scavenging activity of monocytes-macrophages in the absence or presence of antioxidants such as polyphenols or paraoxonase 1 (PON1). THP-1 human monocytic cell line, murine J774A.1 macrophages, as well as human primary monocytes have the capability to scavenge free radicals, as measured by the 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This effect (which could be attributed to the cell's membrane) was cell number and incubation time dependent. Upon incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), with VLDL, or with the radical generator, AAPH, the cells' lipid peroxides content, and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) activity were significantly increased. While non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 65%, the Ac-LDL-, VLDL- or AAPH-treated cells, decreased it by only 33%, 30%, or 45%, respectively. We next analysed the effect of J774A.1 macrophage enrichment with antioxidants, such as polyphenols or PON1 on the cells' free radicals scavenging activity. Non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 50%, whereas vitamin E-, punicalagin- or PJ-treated cells significantly further decreased it, by 75%. Similarly, in PON1-treated cells DPPH absorbance was further decreased by 63%, in association with 23% increment in PON1 catalytic activity. In cells under oxidative stress [treated with AAPH-, or with oxidized LDL], PON1 activity was decreased by 31% or 40%, as compared to the activity observed in PON1 incubated with non-treated cells. We conclude that monocytes-macrophages possess free radicals scavenging activity, which is decreased under atherogenic conditions, and increased upon cell enrichment with potent antioxidants such as nutritional polyphenols, or PON1.

  13. Investigation of PON1 activity and MDA levels in patients with epilepsy not receiving antiepileptic treatment

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    Dönmezdil N

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nilüfer Dönmezdil, Mehmet Uğur Çevik, Hasan Hüseyin Özdemir, Muhterem Taşin Department of Neurology, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey Purpose: There are many studies dedicated to researching the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy. In such research, oxidative and antioxidant indicators of etiopathogenesis have also been examined under the scope. Drawing on a group of patients with epilepsy who were receiving no treatment, we have tried to evaluate whether or not an increase in oxidative indicators is linked directly with the disorder, independent of epileptic medicaments.Methods: Thirty people in good health and 30 newly diagnosed with epilepsy and who received ambulatory treatment in the polyclinic of the Neurology Department took part in the study. The tests relating to serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels and paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity were carried out in the biochemistry laboratory.Results: Even though the levels of MDA in the patient group (14.34±3.59 nmol/mL were found to be high compared to those of the control group, which consisted of people in good health (13.53±3.56 nmol/mL, there was no statistically significant difference. PON1 activity in the serum taken from people in the patient group (0.65±0.17 was lower in comparison to that observed in the serum of the control group (0.71±0.17 U/L. Nonetheless, it was not so low as to have significance from a statistical point of view.Conclusion: We conclude that such a high level of oxidative parameters should have been related to the disease and that statistically significant findings that emerged in some other studies could have been related to an antiepileptic treatment. Keywords: epilepsy, paraoxonase 1, malondialdehyde, oxidative stress, epilepsy, biochemical marker

  14. Aerobic Training Modulates the Effects of Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress on PON1 Activity: A Preliminary Study

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    Aneta Otocka-Kmiecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME on paraoxonase (PON and arylesterase (ARE activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S and physically active (PA. All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  15. Low serum PON1 activity: an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in North-West Indian type 2 diabetics.

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    Gupta, Nidhi; Binu, K B K; Singh, Surjit; Maturu, Nagarjuna V; Sharma, Yash P; Bhansali, Anil; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2012-04-25

    The paraoxonase (PON1) gene polymorphisms are known to affect the PON1 activity and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. Studies done so far have given conflicting results. In the present study, we determined the role of PON1 genetic variants and PON1 activity in the development of CAD in North-West Indian Punjabis, a distinct ethnic group, having high incidence of both CAD and type 2 diabetes. 300 angiographically proven CAD with type 2 diabetics and 250 type 2 diabetics with no clinically evident CAD were enrolled. Serum PON1 activity and genotyping of coding (Q192R, L55M) and promoter (-909G/C, -162A/G, -108C/T) region polymorphisms were carried out and haplotypes were determined using PHASE software. The serum PON1 activity was significantly lower in CAD with type 2 diabetics as compared to diabetics alone (51.0 vs. 114.2nmol/min/ml). In logistic regression model after adjusting for confounding variables, lower PON1 activity was found to be significantly associated with CAD risk in type 2 diabetics with OR being 16.8 (95% CI: 10.2-27.7). The lower serum PON1 activity, irrespective of genotypes and haplotypes is a risk factor for development of CAD in North-West Indian Punjabis with type 2 diabetics.

  16. Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1(hPON1)activity:an in vitro study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hakan; Syt; Elif; Duygu; Kaya; Skr; Beydemir

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the in vitro effects of the antihacterial drugs,mcropenem trihydrate.piperacillin sodium,and cefoperazone sodium,on the activity of human serum paraoxonase mPOND.Methods:hPQN1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods.including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography.Results:The three antihacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity.Inhibition mechanisms meropcnem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive.Conclusions:Our results showed that antihacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity,both in vitro,with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro.

  17. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 polymorphisms, haplotypes and activity in predicting cad risk in North-West Indian Punjabis.

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    Nidhi Gupta

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1 prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hydrolyzes the oxidized form, therefore preventing the development of atherosclerosis. The polymorphisms of PON1 gene are known to affect the PON1 activity and thereby coronary artery disease (CAD risk. As studies are lacking in North-West Indian Punjabi's, a distinct ethnic group with high incidence of CAD, we determined PON1 activity, genotypes and haplotypes in this population and correlated them with the risk of CAD.350 angiographically proven (≥ 70% stenosis CAD patients and 300 healthy controls were investigated. PON1 activity was determined towards paraoxon (Paraoxonase; PONase and phenylacetate (Arylesterase; AREase substrates. In addition, genotyping was carried out by using multiplex PCR, allele specific oligonucleotide -PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and haplotyping was determined by PHASE software. The serum PONase and AREase activities were significantly lower in CAD patients as compared to the controls. All studied polymorphisms except L55M had significant effect on PONase activity. However AREase activity was not affected by them. In a logistic regression model, after adjustment for the conventional risk factors for CAD, QR (OR: 2.73 (1.57-4.72 and RR (OR, 16.24 (6.41-41.14 genotypes of Q192R polymorphism and GG (OR: 2.07 (1.02-4.21 genotype of -162A/G polymorphism had significantly higher CAD risk. Haplotypes L-T-G-Q-C (OR: 3.25 (1.72-6.16 and L-T-G-R-G (OR: 2.82 (1.01-7.80 were also significantly associated with CAD.In conclusion this study shows that CAD patients had lower PONase and AREase activities as compared to the controls. The coding Q192R polymorphism, promoter -162A/G polymorphism and L-T-G-Q-C and L-T-G-R-G haplotypes are all independently associated with CAD.

  18. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

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    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  19. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  20. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2015-05-27

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  1. Common variants APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 are associated with variation in plasma lipoprotein traits in Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahiry, Piya; Ban, Matthew R; Pollex, Rebecca L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We undertook studies of the association between common genomic variations in APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 genes and variation in biochemical phenotypes in a sample of Greenlanders. STUDY DESIGN: Genetic association study of quantitative lipoprotein traits. METHODS: In a sample of 1,310...

  2. Arylesterase activity is associated with antioxidant intake and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene methylation in metabolic syndrome patients following an energy restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Rocio; Mansego, Maria L; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Zulet, M Angeles; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The arylesterase (ARE) activity linked to the paraoxonase-1 (PON1) gene is known to protect lipoproteins from oxidation and provide defense against metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular diseases. The epigenetic regulation of enzymatic activities is gaining importance nowadays. This research aimed to assess the potential relationships between the ARE activity with the methylation levels of the PON1 gene transcriptional regulatory region, anthropometrics, biochemical markers and antioxidant dietary components. Forty-seven subjects (47 ± 10 y.o; BMI 36.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2); 46.8 % female) with MetS features, who followed a six-month energy-restricted dietary weight-loss intervention, were included in this study (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086). Anthropometric, biochemical, enzymatic and dietary data were assessed using validated procedures. PON1 transcriptional regulatory region methylation was analyzed by a microarray technical approach. Volunteers reduced ARE activity in parallel with body weight (p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.006), total fat mass (p = 0.020), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.018), mean blood pressure (p = 0.022) and triglycerides (p = 0.014). Methylation levels of some CpG sites of the PON1 gene correlated negatively with ARE activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, dietary vitamin C (p = 0.001), tocopherols (p = 0.009) and lycopene (p = 0.038) were positively associated with ARE activity and showed an inverse correlation (p = 0.004, p = 0.029 and p = 0.021, respectively) with the methylation of some selected CpG sites of the PON1 gene. In conclusion, ARE activity decreased in parallel with MetS-related markers associated to the energy restriction, while dietary antioxidants might enhance the ARE activity by lowering the PON1 gene methylation in patients with MetS features.

  3. The effect of HDL-bound and free PON1 on copper-induced LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Ahmet; Bayrak, Tülin; Bodur, Ebru; Kılınç, Kamer; Demirpençe, Ediz

    2016-09-25

    Oxidative modification of LDL plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) confers protection against atherosclerosis and the antioxidative properties of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been suggested to contribute to this effect of HDL. The PON1 exist in two major polymorphic forms (Q and R), which regulate the concentration and activity of the enzyme and alter its ability to prevent lipid oxidation. However, the association of Q192R polymorphism with PON1's capacity to protect against LDL lipoperoxidation is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the purified PON1 Q192R and the partially purified HDL-bound PON1 Q192R isoenzymes (HDL-PON1 Q192R) on LDL oxidation, with respect to their arylesterase/homocysteine thiolactonase (HTLase) activities. Cupric ion-induced LDL oxidation was reduced up to 48% by purified PON1 Q192, but only 33% by an equivalent activity of PON1 R192. HDL-PON1 Q192 isoenzyme caused a 65% reduction, whereas HDL-PON1 R192 isoenzyme caused only 46% reduction in copper ion-induced LDL oxidation. These findings reflect the fact that PON1 Q and PON1 R allozymes may have different protective characteristics against LDL oxidation. The protection against LDL oxidation provided by HDL-PON1 Q192R isoenzymes is more prominent than the purified soluble enzymes. Inhibition of the Ca(+2)-dependent PON1 Q192R arylesterase/HTLase by the metal chelator EDTA, did not alter PON1's ability to inhibit LDL oxidation. These studies indicate that the active site involvement of the purified enzyme is not similar to the HDL-bound one, in terms of both PON1 arylesterase/HTLase activity and the protection of LDL from copper ion-induced oxidation. Moreover, PON1's ability to protect LDL from oxidation does not seem to require calcium.

  4. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status and Risk of Insecticide Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlong, Clement E.; Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2005-06-23

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme that catalyzes a number of different reactions including the hydrolysis of the toxic oxon metabolites of the insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 has also been implicated in the detoxication of oxidized lipids and the metabolism of a number of drugs, activating some, while inactivating others. There are two common PON1 coding region polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R). The latter determines the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of a number of substrates including chlorpyrifos oxon, but not diazoxon. Evidence for the physiological importance of PON1 in modulating exposures to these two insecticides comes from several different studies. Early studies noted that species with high levels of PON1 were much more resistant to certain organophosphorus (OP) insecticides than were species with low levels. Another early study by Main demonstrated that injected rabbit paraoxonase protected rats from paraoxon toxicity. Our research group began the development of a mouse model system for examining the importance of PON1 in the detoxication of OP insecticides.

  5. Role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in organophosphate metabolism: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Laboratory of Neurological Sciences, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides are a class of compounds that are widely used in agricultural and rural areas. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a phase-I enzyme that is involved in the hydrolysis of organophosphate esters. Environmental poisoning by organophosphate compounds has been the main driving force of previous research on PON1 enzymes. Recent discoveries in animal models have revealed the important role of the enzyme in lipid metabolism. However although PON1 function is well established in experimental models, the contribution of PON1 in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. In this minireview we summarize the involvement of PON1 genotypes in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A brief overview of latest epidemiological studies, regarding the two most important PON1 coding region polymorphisms PON1-L55M and PON1-Q192R is presented. Positive and negative associations of PON1 with disease occurrence are reported. Notably the MM and RR alleles contribute a risk enhancing effect for the development of some neurodegenerative diseases, which may be explained by the reduced lipoprotein free radical scavenging activity that may give rise to neuronal damage, through distinct mechanism. Conflicting findings that fail to support this postulate may represent the human population ethnic heterogeneity, different sample size and environmental parameters affecting PON1 status. We conclude that further epidemiological studies are required in order to address the exact contribution of PON1 genome in combination with organophosphate exposure in populations with neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) status in pancreatic cancer: relation to clinical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecka, M; Jáchymová, M; Vávrová, L; Kodydková, J; Macášek, J; Urbánek, M; Krechler, T; Slabý, A; Dušková, J; Muravská, A; Zák, A

    2012-01-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been shown to decrease the level of systemic oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to cancer development. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between PON1 status and some clinical characteristics in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). A group of 73 consecutive patients with PC (stage II-IV) and 73 control subjects were examined. Laboratory studies included five polymorphisms of the PON1 gene (L55M, Q192R, -108C/T, -126C/T, and -162A/G), PON1 arylesterase (PON1-A) and lactonase (PON1-L) activities, as well as some markers of protein metabolism, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress. In comparison with the control group, no difference in the distribution of the PON1 polymorphisms was found in cancer patients, both arylesterase and lactonase activities being significantly lower (-33, -47 %, respectively, both P < 0.001). There was neither statistically significant association of PON1 polymorphisms with tumour stages nor with diabetes mellitus connected with PC. The genotype distribution of L55M and ‑108C/T differed only in a subgroup of patients presenting clinically relevant malnutrition (χ² = 6.50, 6.25, respectively, both P < 0.05). In the PC group, PON1-A and PON1-L activities correlated with Nutritional Risk Index (r = 0.351, 0.409, respectively, both P < 0.01), PON1-L with mid-arm muscle circumference (r = 0.328, P < 0.05), and PON1-A and PON1-L with serum albumin (r = 0.352, 0.391 respectively, both < 0.01). Our results suggest that PON1 plays an important role in PC, especially in cancer-associated malnutrition.

  7. The Relationship between PON1 phenotype and PON1-192 genotype in detoxification of three oxons by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Elaine; Daly, Ann K; Williams, Faith M

    2007-02-01

    Phosphorothioate pesticides (OP) such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion are activated to highly toxic oxon metabolites by the cytochromes P450 (P450s), mainly in the liver. Simultaneously, the P450s catalyze detoxification of OP to nontoxic dearylated metabolites. The oxon is then detoxified to the dearylated metabolite by PON1, an A-esterase present in the liver and blood serum. The aims of this study were to define the influence of PON1-192 genotype and phenotype on the capacity of human liver microsomes (n = 27) to detoxify the oxons diazoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and paraoxon. Near physiological assay conditions were used to reflect as closely as possible metabolism in vivo and because the hydrolytic activity of the allelic variants of PON1-192 are differentially affected by a number of conditions. The rates of hydrolysis of diazoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and paraoxon varied 5.7-, 16-, and 56-fold, respectively, regardless of PON1-192 genotype. Individuals with the PON1-192RR genotype preferentially hydrolyzed paraoxon (p < 0.01), and the R allele was associated with higher hydrolytic activity toward chlorpyrifos-oxon, but not diazoxon. There were strongly significant relationships between phenylacetate and paraoxon hydrolysis (p < 0.001) and phenylacetate and chlorpyrifos-oxon hydrolysis (p < 0.001), but not between phenylacetate and diazoxon hydrolysis. These data highlight the importance of PON1 phenotype for efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos-oxon, but environmental and yet unknown genetic factors are more important than PON1-192 genotype in determining capacity to hydrolyze diazoxon.

  8. ESTABLISHMENT OF PARAOXONASE AND ARYLESTERASE ACTIVITY OF PARAOXONASE 1 (PON1 IN DEPENDENCE ON 55(L/M AND 192(Q/R DNA POLYMORPHISM IN ADULT PEOPLE WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SÝKORA

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase 1 is a calcium-dependent esterase located on high density lipoproteins (HDL. It inhibits LDL peroxidation and hydrolysis of oxide forms of phospholipides and therefore significantly affects the development of ateroscletosis. The aim of this study was to establish the paraoxonase and arylesterase activity of PON1 in adult people with Down syndrome (DS. Adults with DS (10 men and 10 women ages 16 to 37 years participated and were compared to a control group (10 men and 10 women age ranging from 17 to 45 years. The 55(L/M and 192(Q/R DNA polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method and paraoxonase and arylesterase activity was investigated in every patient. The results showed the reduction of PON1 activity in people with DS, in contrast to the decreased development of atherosclerosis in DS. Therefore it can be concluded, that PON1 does not have a direct effect on the lower prevalence of atherosclerosis in people with DS.

  9. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  10. Novel nucleophiles enhance the human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1)-mediated detoxication of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Chambers, Howard W; Meek, Edward C; Funck, Kristen E; Bhavaraju, Manikanthan H; Gwaltney, Steven R; Pringle, Ronald B

    2015-01-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent hydrolase associated with serum high-density lipoprotein particles. PON1 hydrolyzes some organophosphates (OPs), including some nerve agents, through nucleophilic attack of hydroxide ion (from water) in the active site. Most OPs are hydrolyzed inefficiently. This project seeks to identify nucleophiles that can enhance PON1-mediated OP degradation. A series of novel nucleophiles, substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes, has been synthesized which enhance the degradation of surrogates of sarin (nitrophenyl isopropyl methylphosphonate; NIMP) and VX (nitrophenyl ethyl methylphosphonate; NEMP). Two types of in vitro assays have been conducted, a direct assay using millimolar concentrations of substrate with direct spectrophotometric quantitation of a hydrolysis product (4-nitrophenol) and an indirect assay using submicromolar concentrations of substrate with quantitation by the level of inhibition of an exogenous source of acetylcholinesterase from non-hydrolyzed substrate. Neither NIMP nor NEMP is hydrolyzed effectively by PON1 if one of these novel oximes is absent. However, in the presence of eight novel oximes, PON1-mediated degradation of both surrogates occurs. Computational modeling has created a model of PON1 embedded in phospholipid and has indicated general agreement of the binding enthalpies with the relative efficacy as PON1 enhancers. PON1 enhancement of degradation of OPs could be a unique and unprecedented mechanism of antidotal action.

  11. In vitro inhibition effect of some coumarin compounds on purified human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, Basak; Gencer, Nahit; Arslan, Oktay; Karatas, Mert Olgun; Alici, Bulent

    2016-08-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1; EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein associated, calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyses aromatic esters, organophosphates and lactones and can protect the low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. In this study, in vitro effect of some hydroxy and dihydroxy ionic coumarin derivatives (1-20) on purified PON1 activity was investigated. Among these compounds, derivatives 11-20 are water soluble. In investigated compounds, compounds 6 and 13 were found the most active (IC50 = 35 and 34 µM) for PON1, respectively. The present study has demonstrated that PON1 activity is very highly sensitive to studied coumarin derivatives.

  12. PON1 L55M and Q192R gene polymorphisms and CAD risks in patients with hyperlipidemia : Clinical study of possible associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Ding, S; Zhou, M; Wu, X; Liu, X; Liu, J; Wu, Y; Liu, D

    2017-08-23

    A decreased plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level is a strong risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Antioxidant activity of HDL mainly lies in the activity of paraoxonase (PON). This study aimed to investigate the relationships between PON1 L55M and Q192R polymorphisms, and the risks of CAD in patients with hyperlipidemia. From January 2014 to January 2016, 244 patients were divided into hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia + CAD, and control groups. The hyperlipidemia and hyperlipidemia + CAD groups were designated as the case group. Serum PON1 concentrations were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. After isolating genomic DNA, the PON1 L55M and Q192R genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. In the case group, the genotypes LM and LL were detected significantly more often than in the control group, as were the alleles R (33.33%, 42.12%) and L (22.78%, 29.11%). The frequency of QR and RR genotypes was significantly higher in the hyperlipidemia + CAD group than in the hyperlipidemia group; the allele R in the hyperlipidemia + CAD group (42.77%) was more frequent than in the hyperlipidemia group (23.78%). The Q192R polymorphism was associated with low serum PON1 concentrations, and the lowest concentration was observed in the 192QR + 192RR genotype (P = 0.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant correlation between the 192R allele and smoking (P = 0.03), body mass index (P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.004), total cholesterol (P = 0.03), triglycerides (P = 0.01), HDL (P = 0.004), and low density lipoprotein (P = 0.02). The PON1 alleles 192R and 55L are associated with CAD, and the Q192R polymorphism may be a risk factor for CAD.

  13. Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim G; Bouchard, Maryse; Bradman, Asa; Boyd-Barr, Dana; Johnson, Caroline; Holland, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides remain widely used in agriculture. Previously, we reported that PON1 genotype was directly associated with neurodevelopment at age two, and that PON1 genotype may increase susceptibility to OP exposure. We examined the relationships of maternal and child PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels and neurodevelopment at school age and examined their interaction with maternal dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels to investigate differential susceptibility to OP-related neurotoxicity. Participants were from the CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort of Latino families in an agricultural region of California. We measured DAP metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal and child urine samples, and analyzed PON1192 and PON1-108 genotypes and enzyme activity [arylesterase (ARYase), paraoxonase (POase)] in maternal and child blood. We examined their association with children׳s performance on the Conners׳ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years (n=296) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at 7 years (n=327). Maternal and child PON1 genotype was not related to performance on K-CPT or WISC, although WISC scores tended to be lowest in children and children of mothers who carried the PON-108TT genotype. Pregnancy ARYase levels were positively associated with all WISC subscales (e.g., 4.0 point increase in Full Scale IQ per standard deviation increase in ARYase, 95% CI=1.6, 6.4), while pregnancy POase levels were positively associated with WISC Processing Speed only. Maternal PON1-108 weakly modified the relationship of maternal DAPS and K-CPT scores (pinteraction=0.21) and WISC verbal IQ (pinteraction=0.71). The association between DAPs and Full-Scale IQ was strongest for children of mothers with lowest-tertile ARYase levels (pinteraction=0.27). This relationship held for both diethyl and dimethyl DAPs and for all subscales of the WISC. We extend our previous findings that PON1 genotype and enzyme levels may be

  14. Contrasting genetic influence of PON 1 coding gene polymorphisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nadia Youssef Sadek Morcos

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... c Toxicity Department, Poison Control Center, Ain Shams Universty Hospital, Egypt ... frequency distribution of PON1 Q192R polymorphism showed a highly ... at position 192, where either glutamine (Q) or arginine (R).

  15. Dietary antioxidants (selenium and N-acetylcysteine) modulate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in PCB 126-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, not only decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione (GSH) but also increases levels of the antiatherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB 126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity, and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), an indicator of lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed not only between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting

  16. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Huen

    Full Text Available Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity, to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373 living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs. Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively. The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should

  17. In vitro inhibition effect of some dihydroxy coumarin compounds on purified human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzengin, Mahmut; Basaran, Ismet; Cakir, Umit; Aybey, Aynur; Sinan, Selma

    2012-11-01

    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1; EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein associated, calcium-dependent enzyme that hydrolyses aromatic esters, organophosphates and lactones and can protect the low-density lipoprotein against oxidation. In this study, in vitro inhibition effect of some dihydroxy coumarin compounds namely 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(2-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (A), 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(3-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (B) and 6,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methylphenyl)-2H-chromen-2-one (C) on purified PON1 were investigated by using paraoxon as a substrate. PON1 was purified using two-step procedures, namely ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified enzyme had a specific activity of 11.76 U/mg. The dihydroxy coumarin derivatives of A and B compounds inhibited PON1 enzyme activity in a noncompetitive inhibition manner with K(i) of 0.0080±0.256 and 0.0003±0.018 mM values, respectively. C compound exerted an uncompetitive inhibition of PON1 enzyme activity with K(i) of 0.0010±0.173 mM. Moreover, dihydroxy coumarin derivatives of A, B and C compounds were effective inhibitors on purified human serum PON1 activity with IC(50) of 0.012, 0.022 and 0.003 mM values, respectively. IC(50) value of unsubstituted 6,7 dihydroxy coumarin was found as 0.178 mM. The present study has demonstrated that PON1 activity is very highly sensitive to studied coumarin derivatives.

  18. Maternal exposure to floricultural work during pregnancy, PON1 Q192R polymorphisms and the risk of low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Banda, G.; Blanco-Munoz, J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lacasana, M., E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP) (Spain); Rothenberg, S.J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center of Research and Advanced Studies, National Institute Polytechnic, Department of Toxicology, Av, Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Deleg. Gustavo A. Madero, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Garduno, C. [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Andalusian Observatory of Environmental Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Gamboa, R. [Department of Physiology, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico); Perez-Mendez, O. [Department of Molecular Biology and cardiovascular Diseases Genomic and Proteomic, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    Background: Although there is evidence from animal studies of impaired reproductive function by exposure to organophosphates (OP), the effects on birth weight have not been sufficiently evaluated in epidemiological studies. Paraoxonase (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates by cleavage of active oxons. Some PON1 gene polymorphisms could reduce the enzyme activity and increase susceptibility to OP toxicity. Objective: To assess the association between maternal exposure to floriculture during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (< 2500 g) in their offspring, as well as to evaluate the interaction between this exposure and maternal genotype for PON1 Q192R polymorphisms. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in two Mexican states (States of Mexico and Morelos) with high frequencies of greenhouse activity. We interviewed and collected blood samples from 264 females (floriculturists or partners of floricultural workers) who became pregnant during the 10 years prior to the interview. The questionnaire measured socioeconomic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diseases and occupational and reproductive history. We also applied a food frequency questionnaire. Information was obtained pertaining to 467 pregnancies. DNA was extracted from white cells, and PON1 genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Q192R polymorphisms. Results were analyzed with generalized estimating equations models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, we detected a statistically significant interaction between maternal exposure to flower growing work during pregnancy and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms on risk of low birth weight. The risk of having a baby with LBW is nearly six times higher if a mother is a floriculture worker during pregnancy and has PON1 192RR genotype (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.28, 27.5). Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between maternal floriculture work during pregnancy and 192RR PON1

  19. Coincubation of PON1, APO A1, and LCAT increases the time HDL is able to prevent LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, David; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike

    2012-02-01

    The inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a major antiatherogenic property of this lipoprotein. This activity is due, in part, to HDL associated proteins. However, whether these proteins interact in the antioxidant activity of HDL is unknown. LDL was incubated with apolipoprotein A1 (apo A1), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) alone or in combination, in the presence or absence of HDL under oxidizing conditions. LDL lipid peroxide concentrations were determined. Apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 all inhibit LDL oxidation in the absence of HDL and enhance the ability of HDL to inhibit LDL oxidation. Their effect was additive rather than synergistic; the combination of these proteins significantly enhanced the length of time LDL was protected from oxidation. This seemed to be due to the ability of PON1 to prevent the oxidative inactivation of LCAT. Apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 can all contribute to the antioxidant activity of HDL in vitro. The combination of apo A1, LCAT, and PON1 prolongs the time that HDL can prevent LDL oxidation, due, at least in part, to the prevention LCAT inactivation.

  20. Paraoxonase-1 activity is positively related to phospholipid transfer protein activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Role of large HDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullaart, Robin P F; Gruppen, Eke G; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M

    2016-04-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) exerts anti-oxidative properties, whereas phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is able to convert mature HDL into larger and smaller HDL particles. Here we tested associations of PON-1 with PLTP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a condition characterized by lower PON-1 activity and higher PLTP activity. Serum PON-1 (arylesterase activity), plasma PLTP activity (liposome-vesicle HDL system), and (apo)lipoproteins were measured in 81 T2DM subjects (mean age 59±9years; 31 women; no insulin treatment). In 48 participants, HDL subfractions were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In univariate correlation analysis, PON-1 activity was positively related to PLTP activity (r=0.348, p=0.001). PLTP activity was positively related to blood pressure, body mass index and triglycerides, whereas PON-1 activity was positively to HDL cholesterol and apoA-I (p<0.05 to <0.01 for each). Both PLTP activity and PON-I activity were positively related to large HDL particles (r=0.379, p=0.008 and r=0.411, p=0.004, respectively). In multivariable linear regression analysis, PON-1 activity was associated with PLTP activity independent of clinical covariates and HDL cholesterol or apoA-I (β=0.340, p=0.001 and β=0.320, p=0.003, respectively). The association of PON-1 activity with PLTP activity was lost in analysis which included large HDL particles (large HDL: β=0.411, p=0.004). PON-1 activity is positively related to PLTP activity in T2DM, raising the possibility that PLTP could act to maintain PON-1. This association may in part be attributable to a common relationship of PON-1 and PLTP with large HDL particles. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Indications that paraoxonase-1 contributes to plasma high density lipoprotein levels in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Himbergen, Thomas M; Roest, Mark; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Hattori, Hiroaki; Kastelein, John J P; Voorbij, Hieronymus A M; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; van Tits, Lambertus J H

    2005-03-01

    HDL-associated paraoxonase type 1 (PON1) can protect LDL and HDL against oxidative modification in vitro and therefore may protect against cardiovascular disease. We investigated the effects of PON1 levels, activity, and genetic variation on high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, circulating oxidized LDL (OxLDL), subclinical inflammation [high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP)], and carotid atherosclerosis. PON1 genotypes (L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, -162A/G, -824G/A, and -907G/C) were determined in 302 patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. PON1 activity was monitored by the hydrolysis rate of paraoxon, diazoxon, and phenyl acetate. PON1 levels, OxLDL, and Hs-CRP were determined using an immunoassay. The genetic variants of PON1 that were associated with high levels and activity of the enzyme were associated with higher HDL-C levels (P values for trend: 0.008, 0.020, 0.042, and 0.037 for L55M, Q192R, -107C/T, and -907G/C, respectively). In addition to the PON1 genotype, there was also a positive correlation between PON1 levels and activity and HDL-C (PON1 levels: r = 0.37, P < 0.001; paraoxonase activity: r = 0.23, P = 0.01; diazoxonase activity: r = 0.29, P < 0.001; arylesterase activity: r = 0.19, P = 0.03). Our observations support the hypothesis that both PON1 levels and activity preserve HDL-C in plasma.

  2. Paraoxonase (PON1 55 polymorphism and association with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Bahrehmand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a serum HDL-bound enzyme that hydrolyzes a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters including lipid peroxides, preventing LDL oxidation. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE patients are at greater risk of oxidative stress, which is associated with abnormal plasma lipid metabolism. In this study, association of PON-55 polymorphism with serum arylesterase (ARE activities, malondialdehyde (MDA, neopterin, lipids and lipoproteins levels in SLE patients and the development of hypertension was investigated. The present case-control study consisted of 109 SLE patients with and without high blood pressure (BP and 103 healthy controls from the population in the west of Iran. PON-55 Metactivity, MDA, neoptrin, lipid and apolipoprotein levels were determined by spectrophotometery and HPLC and enzyme assay, respectively. The presence of PON-55 M/M genotype was found to be associated with SLE and the development of high BP. The SLE patients with PON-M (M/L+M/M allele had significantly lower serum ARE activity, but higher neoptrin and LDL-C than the carriers of corresponding genotypes in control group. The ARE activity was positively correlated with HDL-C and negatively correlated with LDL-C and MDA levels in SLE patients. Whereas, in SLE patients with high BP, ARE activity was only found to be negatively correlated with MDA concentration. These data suggest that PON-55 M/M genotype is a risk factor for SLE. The carriers of this allele have high levels of MDA, neopterin and LDL-C, thus, they are more likely to develop hypertension.

  3. [The different genotypes of MTHFR 1298A>C and PON1 -108C>T polymorphisms confer the increased risk of the abdominal aortic aneurysm in the smoking and nonsmoking persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ewa; Waliszewski, Krzysztof; Pawlak, Andrzej L

    2005-01-01

    In abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) both the etiology and the pathogenesis are of the multifactorial character. The genetic component in the determination of this disease is proven by its familial occurrence. Smoking represents the best recognized risk factor of the AAA development. Increased concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) in plasma are the common finding in these patients. It is assumed that the Hcy thiolactone, the most reactive metabolite of Hcy, may participate in the aortic wall destruction in AAA. The polymorphic variants of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C) influence tissue concentrations of the Hcy. Paraoxonase (PON1), the enzyme associated in plasma with the HDL fraction, as lactonase detoxicates the Hcy thiolactone. The promotor polymorphism of PON1 - 108C>T gene may determine the lower activity of this enzyme. In the case-control study of 106 patients with AAA and 97 healthy persons, the effects of selected genetic and nongenetic risk factors on development of AAA were assessed, considering the possibilities of interaction between them. It was found, that the arterial hypertension, cigarette smoking and the lower HDL fraction are independent risk factors of AAA. The arterial hypertension was a risk factor both in the smoking and the nonsmoking males, whereas the lower HDL fraction has been the risk factor only for the smoking men. By the multivariate analysis in the nonsmoking males the MTHFR 1298 AC and CC genotypes increased the risk of AAA development 4,8-fold in relation to the MTHFR 1298 AA nonsmoking males. In reference to the genotypes of the expected high impact on the metabolism of Hcy and of Hcy thiolactone, the genotypes of MTHFR 677TT and PON1 -108CT and TT were more frequent in smoking ones, but the difference was not significant. This observation fits with the assumption that the influence of smoking on the occurrence of AAA prevails over that of genetic variability. When the patients age was considered

  4. Q192R Paraoxonase (PON)1 Polymorphism, Insulin Sensitivity, and Endothelial Function in Essential Hypertensive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell’Omo, Giulia; Penno, Giuseppe; Pucci, Laura; Lucchesi, Daniela; Prato, Stefano Del; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    AIMS Essential hypertension is characterized by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation harmful for insulin sensitivity and nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasomotor function, a noxious effect that paraoxonase (PON)1, an antioxidant circulating high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound esterase, may counteract. The PON1 gene contains several polymorphisms including a glutamine (Q) to arginine (R) transition at position 192 encoding circulating allozymes with higher antioxidant activity that might influence both parameters. METHODS Q192R was determined by polymerase chain reaction in 72 never-treated, glucose-tolerant, uncomplicated essential hypertensive men. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) and endothelial function by forearm vasodilation (strain-gage venous plethysmography) to intra-arterial acetylcholine (ACH) with sodium nitroprusside (NIP) as a NO-independent control. Additional evaluation variables included 24-hour blood pressure (BP), lipids, BMI, smoking status, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) by Adult Treatment Panel (ATP)-III criteria. R192 was considered as the rare allele, and its associations analyzed by dominant models (Q/Q vs. Q/R + R/R). RESULTS Genotype frequencies were consistent with the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. HOMA was lower and insulin resistance (the upper fourth of HOMA values distribution) less prevalent in Q/R + R/R carriers in whom ACH-mediated vasodilatation was greater and endothelial dysfunction (the bottom fourth of ACHAUC values distribution) less frequent than in Q/Q homozygotes. Q192R polymorphism and MetS were unrelated parameters despite their common association with insulin resistance. 24-hour BP, BMI, lipids, and smoking habits were homogeneously distributed across genotypes. CONCLUSIONS Q192R polymorphism associates differentially with insulin sensitivity and endothelial function in essential hypertensive men. PMID:25089090

  5. Relationship of PON1 192 and 55 gene polymorphisms to calcific valvular aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moura, Luis M; Faria, Susana; Brito, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonases may exert anti-atherogenic action by reducing lipid peroxidation. Previous studies examined associations between polymorphisms in the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene and development of coronary artery disease (CAD), with inconsistent results. Given the similarities in clinical and pathophy......Paraoxonases may exert anti-atherogenic action by reducing lipid peroxidation. Previous studies examined associations between polymorphisms in the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) gene and development of coronary artery disease (CAD), with inconsistent results. Given the similarities in clinical...... and pathophysiological risk factors of CAD and calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS), we postulated a link between PON1 alleles and CAVS progression....

  6. Correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yayuan; Huang, Zemin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Gao, Bo; He, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies have investigated the relationship between the PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the conclusions are not consistent. In this paper, a meta-analysis was conducted to explore the possible reasons for these inconsistencies, expecting to further clarify the correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Methods: After searches in the database such as MEDLINE, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, High-Wire, SID (Scientific Informati...

  7. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  8. PON1 L55M polymorphism might contribute to the risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Peizeng; Ma, Yongchen; Zhang, Lingling; Ma, Sheng

    2017-03-01

    The results involved in correlation of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk are still inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis for the effects of PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk. We carried out a database search in PubMed (Medline) and EMBASE covering all published articles. The strength of association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk was estimated by pooled ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Twenty-one independent case-control studies concerned with association between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found that there was a statistical significance between PON1 L55M polymorphism and cancer risk (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40). In stratified analyses by site of cancer, statistically significant increased breast cancer risk was found (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.29-3.21). In stratified analyses by ethnicity, statistically significant increased cancer risk was found in Caucasian populations (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.03-1.51). In stratified analyses by source of control, significant increased cancer risk was found in hospital-based studies (OR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). This meta-analysis suggested that PON1 L55M polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer.

  9. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measured...... phenotypes. 74% of hemodialysis patients showed PON phenotype 1, 21% PON phenotype 2, and 5% PON phenotype 3. Compared to hemodialysis patients with PON 1, patients with PON 2 or 3 showed higher conversion rates for 4-nitrophenylacetate. We observed a significant reduction of PON ratio with increasing...

  10. Extra-virgin olive oil consumption reduces the age-related decrease in HDL and paraoxonase 1 anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loued, Soumaya; Berrougui, Hicham; Componova, Pamela; Ikhlef, Souad; Helal, Olfa; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is associated with HDL and modulates the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of HDL. The goals of the present study were to investigate the effect of ageing and the role of PON1 on the anti-inflammatory activity of HDL, and to determine whether extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption could improve the atheroprotective activity of HDL. HDL and PON1 were isolated from the plasma of ten young (Y-HDL and Y-PON1) and ten elderly (E-HDL and E-PON1) healthy volunteers before and after 12 weeks of EVOO consumption. Inflammation was assessed by measuring intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukaemia cell line) monocyte chemotaxis was measured using a Boyden chamber. Oxidative damage to HDL was assessed by measuring conjugated diene formation and changes in electrophoretic migration. Y-HDL had more anti-inflammatory activity than E-HDL. The conjugated diene content and the electrophoretic mobility of E-HDL were higher than those of Y-HDL. Y-PON1 had significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing ICAM-1 expression by 32·64 (SD 2·63)%, while E-PON1 had no significant effect. THP-1 chemotaxis measurements confirmed the ICAM-1 expression results. The 12 weeks of EVOO consumption significantly increased the anti-inflammatory activities of both HDL and PON1. The anti-inflammatory activity of HDL was modulated by PON1 and was lower in the elderly volunteers. EVOO consumption increased the anti-inflammatory effect of HDL and reduced the age-related decrease in anti-atherogenic activity.

  11. Paraoxonase (PON1 and PON3 polymorphisms: impact on liver expression and atorvastatin-lactone hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eRiedmaier

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Atorvastatin δ-lactone, a major, pharmacologically inactive metabolite, has been associated with toxicity. In a previous study we showed that polymorphisms of UGT1A3 influence atorvastatin δ-lactone formation. Here we investigated the reverse reaction, atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis, in a human liver bank. Screening of microarray data revealed paraoxonases PON1 and PON3 among 17 candidate esterases. Microsomal δ-lactone hydrolysis was significantly correlated to PON1 and PON3 protein (rs=0.60; rs=0.62, respectively; P<0.0001. PON1 and PON3 were strongly correlated to each other (rs=0.60 but PON1 was shown to be more extensively glycosylated than PON3. In addition a novel splice variant of PON3 was identified. Genotyping of 40 polymorphisms within the PON-locus identified PON1 promoter polymorphisms (-108T>C, -832G>A, -1741G>A and a tightly linked group of PON3 polymorphisms (-4984A>G, -4105G>A, -1091A>G, -746C>T and F21F to be associated with changes in atorvastatin δ-lactone hydrolysis and expression of PON1 but not PON3. However, carriers of the common PON1 polymorphisms L55M or Q192R showed no difference in δ-lactone hydrolysis or PON expression. Haplotype analysis revealed decreased δ-lactone hydrolysis in carriers of the most common haplotype *1 compared to carriers of haplotypes *2, *3, *4 and *7. Analysis of non-genetic factors showed association of hepatocellular and cholangiocellular carcinoma with decreased PON1 and PON3 expression, respectively. Increased C-reactive protein and γ-glutamyl transferase levels were associated with decreased protein expression of both enzymes, and increased bilirubin levels, cholestasis and pre-surgical exposure to omeprazole or pantoprazole were related to decreased PON3 protein. In conclusion, PON-locus polymorphisms affect PON1 expression whereas non-genetic factors have an effect on PON1 and PON3 expression. This may influence response to therapy or adverse events in statin treatment.

  12. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measured PON activity in 377 hemodialysis patients photometrically using the substrates 4-nitrophenylacetate and phenylacetate. The PON ratio was calculated from 4-nitrophenylacetate-derived activity divided by phenylacetate-derived activity. Frequency distribution of the PON ratio showed three different PON phenotypes. 74% of hemodialysis patients showed PON phenotype 1, 21% PON phenotype 2, and 5% PON phenotype 3. Compared to hemodialysis patients with PON 1, patients with PON 2 or 3 showed higher conversion rates for 4-nitrophenylacetate. We observed a significant reduction of PON ratio with increasing dialysis vintage (Pvintage. In conclusion, plasma PON ratio significantly declines with increasing dialysis vintage.

  13. Studies on the correlation of PON1 gene rs854572 single nucleotide polymorphism to clopidogrel resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-fei LIU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of PON1 (Paraoxonase-1 gene rs854572 to the occurrence of clopidogrel resistance (CR. Methods A case-control method was employed in present study. A total of 850 hospitalized patients with coronary artery diseases (CAD in General Hospital of Shenyang Command were enrolled. The residual platelet aggregation rate (RPA induced by 20μmol/L of adenosine diphosphate (ADP was detected by optical nephelometry, and RPA≥70% was defined as CR. Accordingly, all the enrolled 850 patients were then divided into CR group (n=215 and non-CR (NCR group (n=635. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and pyrophosphate sequencing were executed to determine the genotypes and the allele frequencies of PON1 gene rs854572. Results The genotype frequencies in rs854572 of PON1 gene conformed well to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both CR group and NCR group. Three frequencies of genotype CC, CG and GG were 23.7%, 49.3%, 27.0% in CR group, and 24.1%, 50.2%, 25.7% in NCR groups, respectively. No significant difference in genotype and allele frequency existed between CR group and NCR group (P=0.93 and 0.76, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that no correlation between rs854572 SNP of PON1 gene and the formation of CR in patients with CAD after adjustment of correspondent factors including age, gender, body mess index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Conclusions It is considered that no correlation exists between PON1 gene rs854572 polymorphism and clopidogrel resistance in patients with coronary heart disease.

  14. PON1 is a longevity gene: results of a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescai, Francesco; Marchegiani, Francesca; Franceschi, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is one of the most studied genes regarding cardiovascular risk, oxidative stress and inflammation. Several lines of evidence suggests that PON1 promotes an atheroprotective effect. Patients carrying PON1 codon 192 QQ genotype display a higher risk of cardiovascular events, the major cause of mortality in the elderly: it can be predicted that gene variants increasing the risk of mortality will be under-represented in long-living individuals. We first reported that PON1 R allele (R+) carriers are significantly more represented in Italian centenarians; subsequently this topic has been addressed by many other groups, and here we report a meta-analysis on 11 studies in different populations selected by a review of the literature available in PubMed and testing the effect of the Q192R polymorphism on human ageing. QUORUM guidelines for meta-analysis have been followed, and a total number of 5962 subjects have been included: 2795 young controls (65 years of age). The Mantel-Haenszel weighting for pooling in presence of a fixed effects model has been applied. The meta-analysis of R carriers showed a significant result with an overall OR of 1.16 (1.04-1.30, 95% CI, p=0.006). The meta-analysis of QR genotype also showed a significant result, with an overall OR of 1.14 (1.02-1.27, 95% CI, p=0.016). The results show that PON1 gene variants at codon 192 impact on the probability of attaining longevity, and that subjects carrying RR and QR genotypes (R+ carriers) are favoured in reaching extreme ages. These results likely represent the counterpart of the effects observed on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as centenarians and nonagenarians escaped or delayed the onset of the major age-related diseases, including CVD.

  15. Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quang Anh Tuan; Kim, Seonghoon; Chang, Rakwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2015-07-30

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a versatile enzyme for the hydrolysis of various substrates (e.g., lactones, phosphotriesters) and for the formation of a promising chemical platform γ-valerolactone. Elucidation of the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction mechanism is very important for understanding the enzyme function and for engineering this enzyme for specific applications. Kinetic study and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method were used to investigate the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and (R)-γ-valerolactone (GVL). The activation energies obtained from the QM/MM calculations were in good agreement with the experiments. Interestingly, the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/3-21G(d,p) level for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were respectively 14.3-16.2 and 11.5-13.1 kcal/mol, consistent with the experimental values (15.57 and 14.73 kcal/mol derived from respective kcat values of 36.62 and 147.21 s(-1)). The QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d,p) levels were also in relatively good agreements with the experiments. Importantly, the difference in the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2 level with all investigated basis sets for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were in excellent agreement with the experiments (0.9-3.1 and 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively). A detailed mechanism for the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction was also proposed in this study.

  16. Significant interethnic differencies in functional variants of PON1 and P2RY12 genes in Roma and Hungarian population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsek, Ingrid; Sipeky, Csilla; Bene, Judit; Duga, Balazs; Melegh, Bela I; Melegh, Bela; Sümegi, Katalin; Jaromi, Luca; Magyari, Lili; Melegh, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is one of the most common therapies given to patients worldwide. However, the clinical efficacy and toxicity of clopidogrel is not constant in every patient due to interindividual variations. There are several factors that contribute to these interindividual differencies such as SNPs in genes of specific receptors and enzymes. PON1 (paraoxonase 1) plays an important role in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of this gene decrease the activity of paraoxonase enzyme and lead to an unefficient clopidogrel effect. P2RY12 (purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12) gene is coding a receptor, which is situated on the surface of the platelets and plays a role in ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In this study we investigated 2 functional SNPs of PON1 gene (rs662 and rs854560) and 3 variants of the P2RY12 gene (rs2046934, rs6798347, rs6801273) in samples pooled from average Hungarian Roma and Hungarian population samples with PCR-RFLP method. For the PON1 variants we detected that the R allele frequency was significantly lower in the Roma group compared to the Hungarian population. (0.249 vs 0.318 p Roma than in Hungarians (0.332 vs 0.290 p Romas (1.4 vs 0.2 %, p Roma people that has not been reported for other populations.

  17. Human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1): in vitro inhibition effects of moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkeş, Cüneyt; Söyüt, Hakan; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of antibacterial drugs (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium) on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) enzyme activity from human serum in vitro conditions. For this purpose, hPON1 enzyme was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods. The antibacterial drugs exhibited inhibitory effects on hPON1 at low concentrations. Ki constants were calculated to be 2.641 ± 0.040 mM, 5.525 ± 0.817 mM, 35.092 ± 1.093 mM, 252.762 ± 5.749 mM and 499.244 ± 10.149 mM, respectively. The inhibition mechanism of moxifloxacin hydrochloride was competitive, whereas levofloxacin hemihidrate, cefepime hydrochloride, cefotaxime sodium and ceftizoxime sodium were noncompetitive inhibitors.

  18. Both Paraoxonase-1 Genotype and Activity Do Not Predict the Risk of Future Coronary Artery Disease; the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.S. Birjmohun; M. Vergeer; E.S.G. Stroes; M.S. Sandhu; S.L. Ricketts; M.W. Tanck; N.J. Wareham; J.W. Jukema; J.J.P. Kastelein; K.T. Khaw; S.M. Boekholdt

    2009-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant enzyme, that resides on high-density lipoprotein (HDL). PON1-activity, is heavily influenced by the PON1-Q192R polymorphism. PON1 is considered to protect against atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether this relation is independent of its carrier, HDL. In or

  19. Correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yayuan; Huang, Zemin; Zhang, Xiaohua; Gao, Bo; He, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the relationship between the PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk, but the conclusions are not consistent. In this paper, a meta-analysis was conducted to explore the possible reasons for these inconsistencies, expecting to further clarify the correlation between PON1 gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. After searches in the database such as MEDLINE, EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, High-Wire, SID (Scientific Information Database) and PubMed, 7 literatures were collected. RevMan 5.2 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was used to analyze the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. The analysis of L55M single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed that M allele frequency was positively correlated with the incidence risk of breast cancer (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.74). While we did not found Q192R polymorphism associated with the risk of breast cancer (OR=1.0, 95% CI: 0.71-1.42). For PON1 gene, the frequencies of M allele were associated with the incidence risk of breast cancer.

  20. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Satyender [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Kumar, Vivek [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Banerjee, Basu Dev, E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com [Environmental Biochemistry and Molecular Biology laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and GTB Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110095 (India); Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Epidemiology and Parasitic Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India); Rai, Arvind [Division of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Centre for Disease Control 22, Sham Nath Marg, Delhi-110054 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37 {+-} 2.15 vs. 6.24 {+-} 1.37 tail% DNA, p < 0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3 PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p < 0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C, CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes on DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Workers exposed to some OPs demonstrated increased DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYP2D6 *3 PM and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes are associated with DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 genotypes can increase DNA damage.

  1. Polymorphisms in three obesity-related genes (LEP, LEPR, and PON1) and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chibo; Liu, Liu

    2011-12-01

    Common genetic variations in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genes have been considered to be implicated in the development of breast cancer. However, the results were inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the associations of five polymorphisms, including LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, PON1 L55M, and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms, with breast cancer risk. Published literature from PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase databases, CNKI, and Wanfang Data were retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, PON1 L55M, or PON1 Q192R polymorphism and breast cancer risk were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed- or random-effects model. Three studies (2,003 cases and 1,967 controls) for LEP G2548A polymorphism, nine studies (4,627 cases and 5,476 controls) for LEPR Q223R polymorphism, five studies (2,759 cases and 2,573 controls) for LEPR Lys109Arg polymorphism, four studies (1,517 cases and 1,379 controls) for PON1 L55M polymorphism, and five studies (1,575 cases and 2,283 controls) for PON1 Q192R polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the results showed null significant association between LEP G2548A, LEPR Q223R, LEPR Lys109Arg, or PON1 Q192R polymorphism and breast cancer risk; however, PON1 L55M was significantly associated with breast cancer risk overall (MM vs. LL: OR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.76-2.66). For LEPR Q223R polymorphism, further subgroup analysis suggested that the association was only statistically significant in East Asians (OR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36-0.70) but not in Caucasians (OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.77-1.45) or Africans (OR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.03). The present meta-analysis suggested that LEPR Q223R polymorphism might be implicated in the development of breast cancer in East Asians; PON1 L55M might increase breast cancer risk. However, given the limited

  2. Analysis of Coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mraković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the simulation model of coexisting GPON and NG-PON1 (10G-PON systems is presented, which has been developed for the analysis of feasibility and implementation issues of this coexistence. The aim was to analyze the impact of the most important parameters of the components that are needed for new network elements, on the performance of these coexistent networks. On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal parameters of the new system components were defined.

  3. Relationship between plasma paraoxonase-1 activity and oxygen free radical metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis%类风湿关节炎患者血浆对氧磷酯酶-1活性与氧自由基代谢水平的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓岚; 蒋兴亮; 邢艳; 刘素兰; 张均; 王光华; 罗书久

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between plasma paraoxonase-1 (PON-1)activity and oxygen free radical (OFR)metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The levels of plasma PON-1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxide (GSH-Px) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in 118 patients with RA and 56 healthy controls were measured. The correlative relationship between plasma PON-1 activity and OFR metabolism variables was analyzed. Results The levels of plasma PON-1, GSH-Px and SOD in RA patients were(122.2±24.1)kU/L,(156.4±32.2)U/L and (78.2±21.3)kU/L, and these were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (P<0.01). The levels of ox-LDL, MDA and AOPP in RA patients were (832.0±256.2)μg/L,(16.2±6.4) μmol/L and (342.3±118.1) μmol/L, and these were significantly higher than those in healthy controls (P<0.01). PON-1 activity was positively correlated with GSH-Px(r=0.781,P<0.01)and SOD (r=0.702,P<0.01), and it was negatively correlated with ox-LDL (r=-0.721,P<0.01), MDA ( r=-0.789,P<0.01) and AOPP (r=-0.679,P<0.01). Conclusions The plasma PON-1 activity in RA patients decreases significantly. PON-1 may participate in the pathophysiologic process of RA through the reduction of antioxidant properties.%目的 探讨类风湿关节炎(RA)患者血浆对氧磷酯酶-1(PON-1)活性与氧自由基代谢水平的关系. 方法检测118 例RA患者和56名健康对照者血浆PON-1活性、氧化修饰低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)、丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和循环谷胱苷肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性及晚期蛋白质氧化产物(AOPP)水平,分析PON-1活性与氧自由基代谢水平的关系. 结果 RA患者血浆PON-1、SOD、GSH-Px活性分别为(122.2±24.1)kU/L、(78.2±21.3)kU/L 、(156.4±32.2)U/L,低于对照组(P<0.01).ox-LDL、AOPP、MDA水平分别为(832.0±256.2)μg/L、(342.3±118.1) μmol/L、(16.2±6.4)

  4. The positive relationship of serum paraoxonase-1 activity with apolipoprotein E is abrogated in metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.

    Background: High density lipoproteins (HDL) contain paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which has strong anti-oxidative properties. Apolipoprotein E (apoE) may enhance PON-1 activity in vitro, but the extent to which PON-1 activity is determined by circulating apoE levels is unknown. Here we determined

  5. Role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satyender; Kumar, Vivek; Vashisht, Kapil; Singh, Priyanka; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Rautela, Rajender Singh; Grover, Shyam Sunder; Rawat, Devendra Singh; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Jain, Sudhir Kumar; Rai, Arvind

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (pdamage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, pdamage when compared to other genotypes (pdamage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PON1 Q192R genetic variant and response to clopidogrel and prasugrel: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and a meta-analysis of clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Jessica L; Close, Sandra L; Wiviott, Stephen D; Man, Michael; Duvvuru, Suman; Walker, Joseph R; Sundseth, Scott S; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Delaney, Jessica T; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; Murphy, Sabina A; Paré, Guillaume; Price, Matthew J; Sibbing, Dirk; Simon, Tabassome; Trenk, Dietmar; Antman, Elliott M; Sabatine, Marc S

    2016-04-01

    Clopidogrel and prasugrel are antiplatelet therapies commonly used to treat patients with cardiovascular disease. They are both pro-drugs requiring biotransformation into active metabolites. It has been proposed that a genetic variant Q192R (rs662 A>G) in PON1 significantly alters the biotransformation of clopidogrel and affects clinical outcomes; however, this assertion has limited support. The relationship between this variant and clinical outcomes with prasugrel has not been studied. We genotyped PON1 Q192R in 275 healthy subjects treated with clopidogrel or prasugrel and 2922 patients with an ACS undergoing PCI randomized to treatment with clopidogrel or prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial. A meta-analysis was performed including 13 studies and 16,760 clopidogrel-treated patients. Among clopidogrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.62) or change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.51). Consistent with these results, in clopidogrel-treated patients in TRITON-TIMI 38, there was no association between Q192R and the rates of CV death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (RR 11.2 %, QR 8.6 %, and QQ 9.3 %; P = 0.66) or stent thrombosis (RR 2.4 %, QR 0.7 %, and QQ 1.6 %, P = 0.30), with patients with the putative at-risk Q variant having numerically lower event rates. Likewise, among prasugrel-treated subjects, there were no associations between Q192R and active drug metabolite levels (P = 0.88), change in platelet aggregation (P = 0.97), or clinical outcomes (P = 0.72). In a meta-analysis, the Q variant was not significantly associated with MACE (QQ vs. RR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.84-1.76) or stent thrombosis (QQ vs. RR OR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.77-2.38). Furthermore, when restricted to the validation studies, the OR (95 % CI) for MACE and stent thrombosis were 0.99 (0.77-1.27) and 1.23 (0.74-2.03), respectively. In the present study, the Q192R genetic variant in PON1 was not associated with the pharmacologic or clinical

  7. The rs662 polymorphism of paraoxonase 1 affects the difference in the inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase activity by organophosphorus pesticides in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dae Cheol; Ha, Yu Mi; Park, Min Kyu; Cho, Sung Kweon

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a human health hazard. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve endings and accumulate acetylcholine (ACh) at these sites. High levels of ACh and long exposure promote cholinergic crisis. The hydrolysis of OPs by serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) plays a role in cholinergic crisis in humans. Human serum PON1 can break down organophosphate before binding to ChE. We investigated the effect of PON1 polymorphisms on AChE activity after OP treatment. 50 healthy volunteers were randomly recruited with informed consent. We investigated butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity changes in plasma as a biomarker of AChE after OP treatment in human blood samples immediately following blood sampling. After the standardization of BuChE activity in human blood, we correlated changes in BuChE activity with changes in blood pH. We analyzed the PON1 polymorphisms (rs854560 and rs662) of 50 participants to retrospectively investigate the interindividual variability of changes in BuChE activity. Changes in BuChE activity are strongly correlated with pH changes after OP treatment (R2 = 0.913). We used changes in pH as a surrogate marker for BuChE inhibition after OP treatment. OP treatment significantly decreased BuChE activity by 56.4 ± 5.1% (p < 0.001). The degree of BuChE inhibition was significantly different in the PON1 rs662 genotype (56.10 ± 4.74% vs. 57.96 ± 5.67% vs. 52.34 ± 1.51%; GG vs. GA vs. AA, respectively). Changes in pH can be used as a surrogate marker for the detection of BuChE inhibition after OP exposure. The rs662 polymorphism of PON1 may explain the inter-individual variability in BuChE inhibition.

  8. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  9. Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Higher Serum Amyloid A Levels in Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul Jan Willem Herman; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke Pier; Dullaart, Robin Pieter Frank

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) contain the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), which is important for atheroprotection. The acute phase reactant, serum amyloid A (SAA), an HDL-associated apolipoprotein, may impair PON-1 activity, whereas SAA and PON-1 are reciprocally

  10. Refolded Recombinant Human Paraoxonase 1 Variant Exhibits Prophylactic Activity Against Organophosphate Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Datusalia, Ashok K; Sharma, Shyam S; Pande, Abhay H

    2016-09-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are neurotoxic chemicals, and current treatments available for OP-poisoning are considered as unsatisfactory and inadequate. There is an urgent need for the development of more effective treatment(s) for OP-poisoning. Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is known to hydrolyze a variety of OP-compounds and is a leading candidate for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic agent against OP-poisoning in humans. Non-availability of effective system(s) for the production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) makes it hard to produce improved variant(s) of this enzyme and analyze their in vivo efficacy in animal models. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop variant(s) of h-PON1. Recently, we have developed a procedure to produce active rh-PON1 enzymes by using E. coli expression system. In this study, we have characterized the OP-hydrolyzing properties of refolded rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant. Our results show that refolded rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) variant exhibit enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity in in vitro and ex vivo assays and exhibited prophylactic activity in mouse model of OP-poisoning, suggesting that refolded rh-PON1 can be developed as a therapeutic candidate.

  11. Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant human paraoxonase 1 from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Pande, Abhay H

    2015-11-01

    Human PON1 (h-PON1) is a Ca(2+)-dependent serum enzyme and can hydrolyze (and inactivate) a wide range of substrates. It is a multifaceted enzyme and exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, and organophosphate (OP)-detoxifying properties. Thus, h-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of therapeutic intervention against these conditions in humans. Insufficient hydrolyzing activity of native h-PON1 against desirable substrate affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) of h-PON1 having enhanced activity. Production of recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) using an Escherichia coli expression system is a key to develop such variant(s). However, generation of rh-PON1 using E. coli expression system has been elusive until now because of the aggregation of over-expressed rh-PON1 protein in inactive form as inclusion bodies (IBs) in the bacterial cells. In this study, we have over-expressed rh-PON1(wt) and rh-PON1(H115W;R192K) proteins as IBs in E. coli, and refolded the inactive enzymes present in the IBs to their active form using in vitro refolding. The active enzymes were isolated from the refolding mixture by ion-exchange chromatography. The catalytic properties of the refolded enzymes were similar to their soluble counterparts. Our results show that the pure and the active variant of rh-PON1 enzyme having enhanced hydrolyzing activity can be produced in large quantities using E. coli expression system. This method can be used for the industrial scale production of rh-PON1 enzymes and will aid in developing h-PON1 as a therapeutic candidate.

  12. Paraoxonase 1 phenotype and paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarioglu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase are esterase enzymes displaying antioxidant characteristics. PON1 activity varies widely among individuals and ethnic groups, partly related to polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine the activities of PON1 and arylesterase including the phenotype distribution of PON1 in asthmatic patients and healthy subjects. Forty-nine asthmatic patients and 41 healthy people were included in this study. Serum PON1 and arylesterase activities were determined by spectrophotometric assays, as well as the lipid profiles. The PON1 ratio (salt stimulated paraoxonase/arylesterase was trimodally distributed and this ratio was used to determine the individual phenotypes of all subjects. The PON1 activity in the asthmatic patients was significantly lower (p=0.024 when compared to the healthy control group, however no significant difference in the activity of arylesterase was observed between the two groups. The prevalence of the PON1 phenotypes in the asthmatic population were 26.5%, 16.3% and 57.2 % for QQ, QR and RR, respectively. PON1 activity was significantly lower in asthmatic patients; in addition, the results of this investigation indicated that PON1 RR phenotype may be an important risk factor in asthma disease.

  13. Active probing of space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chang; Silevitch, Michael B.; Villalon, Elena

    1989-09-01

    During the course of the research period our efforts were focused on the following areas: (1) An examination of stochastic acceleration mechanisms in the ionosphere; (2) A study of nonequilibrium dynamics of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system; and (3) Laboratory studies of active space experiments. Reprints include: Dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body -- Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation; Laboratory study of the electron temperature in the near wake of a conducting body; New model for auroral breakup during substorms; Substorm breakup on closed field lines; New model for substorm on sets -- The pre-breakup and triggering regimes; Model of the westward traveling surge and the generation of Pi 2 pulsations; Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances; Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields; Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas.

  14. Paraoxonase 1 activity in subchronic low-level inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olusegun K; Wusu, Adedoja D; Ogunrinola, Olufunmilayo O; Abam, Esther O; Babayemi, David O; Dosumu, Oluwatosin A; Onunkwor, Okechukwu B; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Odukoya, Olusegun O; Ademuyiwa, Oladipo

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological evidences indicate close association between inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. While the exact mechanism of this arsenic-mediated increase in cardiovascular risk factors remains enigmatic, epidemiological studies indicate a role for paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the association between inorganic arsenic exposure and cardiovascular diseases, rats were exposed to sodium arsenite (trivalent; 50, 100, and 150 ppm As) and sodium arsenate (pentavalent; 100, 150, and 200 ppm As) in their drinking water for 12 weeks. PON1 activity towards paraoxon (PONase) and phenylacetate (AREase) in plasma, lipoproteins, hepatic, and brain microsomal fractions were determined. Inhibition of PONase and AREase in plasma and HDL characterized the effects of the two arsenicals. While the trivalent arsenite inhibited PONase by 33% (plasma) and 46% (HDL), respectively, the pentavalent arsenate inhibited the enzyme by 41 and 34%, respectively. AREase activity was inhibited by 52 and 48% by arsenite, whereas the inhibition amounted to 72 and 67%, respectively by arsenate. The pattern of inhibition in plasma and HDL indicates that arsenite induced a dose-dependent inhibition of PONase whereas arsenate induced a dose-dependent inhibition of AREase. In the VLDL + LDL, arsenate inhibited PONase and AREase while arsenite inhibited PONase. In the hepatic and brain microsomal fractions, only the PONase enzyme was inhibited by the two arsenicals. The inhibition was more pronounced in the hepatic microsomes where a 70% inhibition was observed at the highest dose of pentavalent arsenic. Microsomal cholesterol was increased by the two arsenicals resulting in increased cholesterol/phospholipid ratios. Our findings indicate that decreased PON1 activity observed in arsenic exposure may be an incipient biochemical event in the cardiovascular effects of arsenic. Modulation of PON1 activity by arsenic may also be

  15. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity status in patients with liver disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kedage Vivekananda; Muttigi Manjunatha; Shetty Mahesh; Suvarna Renuka; Rao Soumya; Joshi Chitralekha; Prakash Mungli

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14), cirrhosis with port...

  16. The effect of in vitro dieldrin exposure on the rat paraoxonase 1 (pon1) promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Mary Beth; Pickin, Rebecca; Crow, John Allen; Chambers, Janice E

    2014-05-01

    The legacy organochlorine insecticide, dieldrin, is still found in soil and accumulation in individuals is possible. Paraoxonase 1 hydrolyzes the oxon metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides, as well as other substrates. Putative binding sites for pregnane X receptor (PXR) exist in the paraoxonase promoter, and studies have indicated that dieldrin can activate PXR-regulated gene expression. We examined rat paraoxonase promoter activity in the presence of dieldrin alone or combined with nuclear receptors (NRs). In vitro dieldrin concentrations from 10 to 100 µM significantly increased (p dieldrin can increase paraoxonase promoter activity in the presence of NRs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of dieldrin increasing paraoxonase promoter activity. Since many organochlorine insecticides are in the same chemical class as dieldrin, these results could be typical of other bioaccumulative persistent pollutants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms Q192R and L55M are not associated with human longevity: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gan-Zhong; Zhu, Mei-Yan; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Yue-Guang; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Tong-Yang; Luo, Ying; Tang, Wen-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Genetic mutations in the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) encoding gene have been considered to affect mortality and of these the functional promoter region polymorphisms Q192R and L55M are among the most widely studied. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Q192R and L55M polymorphisms of PON1 can increase susceptibility to longevity. A meta-analysis was performed to obtain a comprehensive estimation of the association between Q192R and L55M and longevity in long-lived individuals (LLIs) aged 80 years or more. A search was carried out in the PubMed database (from January 2001 to May 2014) to obtain data on the role of PON1 polymorphisms in longevity and a pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the associations. The meta-analysis was based on 9 studies of PON1 Q192R and 5 studies of PON1 L55M that covered a total of 5086 LLIs and 4494 controls. Overall, significantly increased risks were not observed for either Q192R or L55M. The results of the statistical calculations were as follows: R vs. Q (additive model): OR = 1.080, 95% CI = 0.989-1.179, p = 0.088 and RR + RQ vs. QQ (dominant model): OR = 1.099, 95% CI = 0.975-1.240, p = 0.124; M vs. L (additive model): OR = 0.946, 95% CI = 0.862-1.039, p = 0.245 and MM + ML vs. LL (dominant model): OR = 0.951, 95% CI = 0.836-1.081, p = 0.442 for Q192R and L55M, respectively. The results did not change with an age cut-off among the LLIs of ≥ 93 years. No evidence that the Q192R and L55M polymorphisms of PON1 impacted on the probability of reaching extreme ages was found although this cannot be completely ruled out; however, the possibility of population-specific effects due to the influence of and interaction between different genes or environmental factors could not be ruled out.

  18. Plasma diamine oxidase activity in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Toyoshima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine plays an important role in the development of asthmatic symptoms. Diamine oxidase (DAO histaminase, which inactivates histamine, is located in the intestine and kidney and is released into plasma. Plasma DAO activity in asthmatic children was measured by a recently developed high performance liquid chromatographic method using histamine as the DAO substrate. Diamine oxidase activity was higher in severely asthmatic children than in those with mild asthma. A time course study during the acute exacerbation phase revealed that DAO activity rose during acute asthmatic attacks and then decreased gradually over several days. Although the mechanisms of plasma DAO activity increase during acute asthmatic attacks could not be explained, data showed that plasma DAO activity is an important index of histamine metabolism in asthmatics and may relate to some mechanisms of acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Consequently, fluctuations in plasma DAO can be used as one of various indices of instability in management of asthma.

  19. Interaction between prenatal pesticide exposure and a common polymorphism in the PON1 gene on DNA methylation in genes associated with cardio-metabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Declerck, Ken; Remy, Sylvie; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prenatal environmental conditions may influence disease risk in later life. We previously found a gene-environment interaction between the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Q192R genotype and prenatal pesticide exposure leading to an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile at school age. However......, the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been resolved. It was hypothesized that epigenetics might be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether DNA methylation patterns in blood cells were related to prenatal pesticide exposure level, PON1 Q192R genotype, and associated...... metabolic effects observed in the children. Methods: Whole blood DNA methylation patterns in 48 children (6–11 years of age), whose mothers were occupationally unexposed or exposed to pesticides early in pregnancy, were determined by Illumina 450 K methylation arrays. Results: A specific methylation profile...

  20. No influence of increased intake of orange and blackcurrant juices and dietary amounts of vitamin E on paraoxonase-1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Christiansen, Lene; Jonung, Torbjörn

    2007-01-01

    by dietary factors like the antioxidants. AIM OF THE STUDY: We examined the effect of antioxidant-rich orange and blackcurrant juices and vitamin E supplement on PON1 activity in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Furthermore, we studied whether genetic polymorphisms in the PON1 gene predicted...... the change in PON1 activity. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-over trial with 48 participants who received two of the four possible treatments: (1) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice; (2) 15 mg vitamin E; (3) 250 ml orange juice and 250 ml blackcurrant juice and 15 mg vitamin E...... significant interaction was observed between treatment and PON1 genotype, such that PON1 activity increased after juice alone in patients carrying the PON1 L55-allele. Results need to be interpreted with care since the study population was relatively small. CONCLUSION: Consumption of orange and blackcurrant...

  1. Study of the Active Screen Plasma Nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cheng; C. X. Li; H. Dong; T. Bell

    2004-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a novel nitriding process, which overcomes many of the practical problems associated with the conventional DC plasma nitriding (DCPN). Experimental results showed that the metallurgical characteristics and hardening effect of 722M24 steel nitrided by ASPN at both floating potential and anodic (zero) potential were similar to those nitrided by DCPN. XRD and high-resolution SEM analysis indicated that iron nitride particles with sizes in sub-micron scale were deposited on the specimen surface in AS plasma nitriding. These indicate that the neutral iron nitride particles, which are sputtered from the active screen and transferred through plasma to specimen surface, are considered to be the dominant nitrogen carder in ASPN. The OES results show that NH could not be a critical species in plasma nitriding.

  2. Lipid, Oxidative and Inflammatory Profile and Alterations in the Enzymes Paraoxonase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Plasma of Patients with Homocystinuria Due CBS Deficiency: The Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Donida, Bruna; Hammerschimidt, Tatiane Grazieli; Ribas, Graziela S; Kolling, Janaína; Scherer, Emilene B; Vilarinho, Laura; Nogueira, Célia; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Wajner, Moacir; Wyse, Angela T S; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-08-01

    Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the main cause of homocystinuria. Homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, and other metabolites of Hcy accumulate in the body of affected patients. Despite the fact that thromboembolism represents the major cause of morbidity in CBS-deficient patients, the mechanisms of cardiovascular alterations found in homocystinuria remain unclear. In this work, we evaluated the lipid and inflammatory profile, oxidative protein damage, and the activities of the enzymes paraoxonase (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma of CBS-deficient patients at diagnosis and during the treatment (protein-restricted diet supplemented with pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine, and vitamin B12). We also investigated the effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on these parameters. We found a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) levels, as well as in PON1 activity in both untreated and treated CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. BuChE activity and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in not treated patients. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between PON1 activity and sulphydryl groups and between IL-6 levels and carbonyl content were verified. Moreover, vitamin B12 was positively correlated with PON1 and ApoA-1 levels, while folic acid was inversely correlated with total Hcy concentration, demonstrating the importance of this treatment. Our results also demonstrated that CBS-deficient patients presented important alterations in biochemical parameters, possibly caused by the metabolites of Hcy, as well as by oxidative stress, and that the adequate adherence to the treatment is essential to revert or prevent these alterations.

  3. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  4. Prenatal pesticide exposure and PON1 genotype associated with adolescent body fat distribution evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, J.; Wohlfahrt-Veje, C.; Husby, S.

    2016-01-01

    ) at age 10-15. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with increased total, android, and gynoid fat% (DXA) at age 10-15 years after adjustment for sex, socioeconomic status, and puberty (all β = 0.5 standard deviation score (SDS) p ... (total fat: β = 0.7 SDS, android-gynoid ratio: β = 0.1, both p ... circumference were found. Prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with higher adolescent body fat content, including android fat deposition, independent of puberty. Girls appeared more susceptible than boys. Furthermore, the association depended on maternal and child PON1 Q192R genotype....

  5. Relationships between PON1 Q192R polymorphism and clinical outcome of antiplatelet treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Bu, Shu-Hong; Lu, Xiao-Tong; Li, Li-Xia; Xu, A-Jing; Tang, Yue-Nian; Zhang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to assess the relationships between the PON1 Q192R (rs662 T>C) polymorphism and the clinical outcome of antiplatelet treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A range of electronic databases were searched: Web of Science (1945-2013), the Cochrane Library Database (Issue 12, 2013), PubMed (1966-2013), EMBASE (1980-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982-2013) without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio (OR) with their 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Six clinical cohort studies with a total number of 5,189 patients undergoing PCI for coronary heart disease were included. Our meta-analysis revealed that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism was correlated with an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI (C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.04-1.43, P = 0.014; CT+CC vs. TT: OR = 1.38, 95 % CI 1.03-1.86, P = 0.029; CC vs. TT: OR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.05-1.99, P = 0.024; respectively), especially among Asians. Furthermore, we found significantly positive correlations between the PON1 Q192R polymorphism and the incidence of stent thrombosis in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI (C allele vs. T allele: OR = 1.42, 95 % CI 1.08-1.87, P = 0.011; CT+CC vs. TT: OR = 1.93, 95 % CI 1.01-3.67, P = 0.046; CC vs. TT: OR = 2.18, 95 % CI 1.09-4.35, P = 0.027; respectively). Our meta-analysis of clinical cohort studies provides evidence that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism may increase the risk of MACE and stent thrombosis in patients receiving antiplatelet treatment after PCI.

  6. Effect of Vitamin E and Selenium Supplement on Paraoxonase-1 Activity, Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and Antioxidant Defense in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on serum paraoxonase (PON1 activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty two female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group (n=8 received a standard diet; streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats (n=12, received corn oil and physiological solution; and vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic rats (n=12 were treated with oral administration of vitamin E (300 mg/kg and sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Results: Significantly lower total antioxidant status (TAS, PON1and erythrocyte SOD activities and a higher fasting plasma glucose level were observed in the diabetic rats compared to the control. A significant increase in SOD and GPX activities in vitamin E and selenium supplemented diabetic group was observed after 5 weeks of the experiment. Compared to the normal rats, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL levels were higher in the diabetic animals; however, these values reduced significantly following vitamin E and selenium supplementation. Conclusion: Vitamin E and selenium supplementation in diabetic rats has hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects and may slow down the progression of diabetic complications through its protective effect on PON1 activity and lipoproteins oxidation.

  7. Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity Is Associated with Fatty Acid Composition of High Density Lipoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1. Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men. Methods. One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate. Results. Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA. PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω6 fatty acids of HDL. Conclusion. The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.

  8. U.S. BURNING PLASMA ORGANIZATION ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond J. Fonck

    2009-08-11

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: 1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; 2) activation of the advisory Council; 3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; 4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; 5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  9. Human Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to the Number of CD4+ T-Cells and Is Restored by Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Morganti Ferreira Maselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods. PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve, and 509 were receiving HAART. HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n=195 or nevirapine (NVP; n=95 or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n=219. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios were determined. Results. PON1 activity (U/L was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r=0,121; P=0,014. The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio in comparison with other groups. Conclusion. PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.

  10. Measurement of serum paraoxonase-1 activity in the evaluation of liver function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jordi Camps; Judit Marsillach; Jorge Joven

    2009-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an esterase and lactonase synthesized by the liver and found in the circulation associated with high-density lipoproteins. The physiological function of PON1 seems to be to degrade specific oxidized cholesteryl esters and oxidized phospholipids in lipoproteins and cell membranes. PON1 is, therefore, an antioxidant enzyme. Alterations in circulating PON1 levels have been reported in a variety of diseases involving oxidative stress including chronic liver diseases. Measurement of serum PON1 activity has been proposed as a potential test for the evaluation of liver function. However, this measurement is still restricted to research and has not been extensively applied in routine clinical chemistry laboratories. The reason for this restriction is due to the problem that the substrate commonly used for PON1 measurement,paraoxon, is toxic and unstable. The recent development of new assays with non-toxic substrates makes this proposal closer to a practical development. The present editorial summarizes PON1 biochemistry and function,its involvement with chronic liver impairment, and some aspects related to the measurement of PON1 activity in circulation.

  11. Targeted Proteomics Identifies Paraoxonase/Arylesterase 1 (PON1) and Apolipoprotein Cs as Potential Risk Factors for Hypoalphalipoproteinemia in Diabetic Subjects Treated with Fenofibrate and Rosiglitazone*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsein, Graziella E.; Reyes-Soffer, Gissette; He, Yi; Oda, Michael; Ginsberg, Henry; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and high triglyceride levels contribute to the excess rate of cardiovascular events seen in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Fenofibrate treatment partially reverses dyslipidemia in these subjects. However, a paradoxical marked reduction in HDL-C and HDL's major protein, apolipoprotein A-I, is a complication of fenofibrate in combination with rosiglitazone, an insulin-sensitizing agent. Risk factors for this condition, termed hypoalphalipoproteinemia, have yet to be identified. Using a case-control study design with subjects enrolled in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in HDL's protein cargo predispose diabetic subjects to fenofibrate/rosiglitazone-induced hypoalphalipoproteinemia. HDL was isolated from blood obtained from controls (no decreases or increase in HDL-C while receiving fenofibrate/rosiglitazone therapy) and cases (developed hypoalphalipoproteinemia after fenofibrate/rosiglitazone treatment) participating in the ACCORD study before they began fenofibrate/rosiglitazone treatment. HDL proteins were quantified by targeted parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) with isotope dilution. This approach demonstrated marked increases in the relative concentrations of paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON1), apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), apolipoprotein C-I, and apolipoprotein H in the HDL of subjects who developed hypoalphalipoproteinemia. The case and control subjects did not differ significantly in baseline HDL-C levels or other traditional lipid risk factors. We used orthogonal biochemical techniques to confirm increased levels of PON1 and APOC2. Our observations suggest that an imbalance in HDL proteins predisposes diabetic subjects to develop hypoalphalipoproteinemia on fenofibrate/rosiglitazone therapy. PMID:26667175

  12. Both paraoxonase-1 genotype and activity do not predict the risk of future coronary artery disease; the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh S Birjmohun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme, that resides on high-density lipoprotein (HDL. PON1-activity, is heavily influenced by the PON1-Q192R polymorphism. PON1 is considered to protect against atherosclerosis, but it is unclear whether this relation is independent of its carrier, HDL. In order to evaluate the atheroprotective potential of PON1, we assessed the relationships among PON1-genotype, PON1-activity and risk of future coronary artery disease (CAD, in a large prospective case-control study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cases (n = 1138 were apparently healthy men and women aged 45-79 years who developed fatal or nonfatal CAD during a mean follow-up of 6 years. Controls (n = 2237 were matched by age, sex and enrollment time. PON1-activity was similar in cases and controls (60.7+/-45.3 versus 62.6+/-45.8 U/L, p = 0.3 and correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.16, p<0.0001. The PON1-Q192R polymorphism had a profound impact on PON1-activity, but did not predict CAD risk (Odds Ratio [OR] per R allele 0.98[0.84-1.15], p = 0.8. Using conditional logistic regression, quartiles of PON1-activity showed a modest inverse relation with CAD risk (OR for the highest versus the lowest quartile 0.77[0.63-0.95], p = 0.01; p-trend = 0.06. PON1-activity adjusted for Q192R polymorphism correlated better with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.26, p<0.0001 and more linearly predicted CAD risk (0.79[0.64-0.98], p = 0.03; p-trend = 0.008. However, these relationships were abolished after adjustment for HDL (particles-cholesterol-size and apolipoproteinA-I (0.94[0.74-1.18], p-trend = 0.3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, shows that PON1-activity inversely relates to CAD risk, but not independent of HDL, due to its close association with the HDL-particle. These data strongly suggest that a low PON1-activity is not a causal factor in atherogenesis.

  13. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  14. Relationship between MPV and paraoxonase-1 activity, brachial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activity and PON-1 activity, BAd and BA-IMT regardless of obesity and diabetic complications. Keywords: .... patients, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, body ... was considered the thickest, and where the clearest B mode image.

  15. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: A functional analytic description

    OpenAIRE

    Lapke, Martin; Oberrath, Jens; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-01-01

    The term "Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy" refers to a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: An signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept h...

  16. Plasma dopamine beta hydroxylase activity in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M; Dunner, D L; Mendlewicz, J; Frewin, D B; Lawlor, W; Fleiss, J L; Stallone, F; Fieve, R R

    1976-03-16

    Plasma dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) activity was measured in patients with affective disorders and in their relatives. The groups studied had wide distributions of values for plasma DBH activity. No significant difference of plasma DBH activity was found between unipolar and bipolar patients, nor between patients given lithium or placebo. Exercise on a treadmill at 40 degrees or 10 degrees C elicited a different pattern of response for plasma DBH activity in three patients as compared to control subjects. In familial studies we found the values of plasma DBH activity to be almost identical in monozygotic twin pairs and quite similar in dizygotic twin pairs. All pairs, however, were discordant for affective illness. There was also a marked similarity of plasma DBH activity in 15 pairs of the same sex sibs discordant for affective illness. These studies suggest that the resting level of plasma DBH activity is not related to affective illness but is genetically determined.

  17. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATION TO SERUM LIPIDS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase1 (PON1 is a calcium dependent es terase enzyme that hydrolyses lipid peroxides accumulating on low density lipoproteins. In the serum, PON1 enzyme is almost exclusively located on the high density lipoprotein (HDL. It hydrolyses oxidised lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL and could therefore retard the development of atherosclerosis. As PON1 activity has a role in preventing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is common in Kerala, this study was conducted to assess the activity of the enzyme and its corelation to serum lipids. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this case - control study, one hundred patients with coronary artery disease and one hundred healthy controls were included. Serum paraoxonase activity was meausured using phenyl acetate as substrate and lipid profile was done in a uto analyzer . RESULTS : The mean PON 1 activity {(70.21  27.62 in cases against (135.86  33.48 in controls (p value .000} was significantly low in CAD group compared to the control group. The CHD group had a significantly lower mean total cholesterol level (202.82  57.77 against 219.45  46.08 and lower mean HDL level (40.88  10.08 against 56.79  17.24. Correlation of the activity of PON1 with other variables for the combined group ( C ases and controls taken together showed that age is negatively correlated an d HDL is positively correlated with PON 1 activity. CONCLUSIONS : The activity of serum paraoxonase enzyme (PON1 is low in patients with coronary artery disease compared to healthy controls. Thus low serum PON1 enzyme activity is a risk factor for CAD. The activity of the serum PON1 enzyme increases with increase in HDL level and decreases with increase in age for the combined group.

  18. Methodological constraints in interpreting serum paraoxonase-1 activity measurements: an example from a study in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joven Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme that attenuates the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in vitro. Although oxidation and inflammation are closely related processes, the association between PON1 and MCP-1 has not been completely characterised due, probably, to that the current use of synthetic substrates for PON1 measurement limits the interpretation of the data. In the present study, we explored the relationships between the circulating levels of PON1 and MCP-1 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to the multifunctional capabilities of PON1. Methods We measured selected variables in 227 patients and in a control group of 409 participants. Serum PON1 esterase and lactonase activities were measured as the rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and of 5-(thiobutyl-butyrolactone, respectively. Oxidised LDL and MCP-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-density lipoproteins cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by standard automated methods. Results There were significant relationships between PON1 activity and several indices of oxidation and inflammation in control subjects and in infected patients. However, these relationships varied not only with disease status but also on the type of substrate used for PON1 measurement. Conclusion The present study is a cautionary tale highlighting that results of clinical studies on PON1 may vary depending on the methods used as well as the disease studied. Until more specific methods using physiologically-akin substrates are developed for PON1 measurement, we suggest the simultaneous employment of at least two different substrates in order to improve the reliability of the results obtained.

  19. Consumption of argan oil may have an antiatherogenic effect by improving paraoxonase activities and antioxidant status: Intervention study in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherki, Mounia; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Drissi, Anas; El Messal, Mariame; Bamou, Youssef; Idrissi-Ouadghiri, Azzedine; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Adlouni, Ahmed

    2005-10-01

    Due to its high antioxidant and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid content virgin argan oil (VAO) could play a beneficial role in cardiovascular prevention. We were therefore interested in determining whether the consumption of VAO could improve plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activities and antioxidant status in healthy men. Sixty young men were included in this interventional study. They were given a controlled diet for 2 weeks as baseline and then received 25 g/day of butter. The group was randomised to two diet group periods of 3 weeks each. The VAO group received 25 ml/day of oil and the extra virgin olive oil (EVO) group received the same quantity of EVO as control group. Plasma PON1 activities, antioxidant vitamins and LDL susceptibility to oxidation were measured. The analysis of the results shows that PON1 activities increase significantly in both groups and that lipoperoxides and conjugated dienes formation decreases significantly in VAO and EVO groups compared to baseline values (P=0.001 and P=0.014, respectively). Vitamin E concentration increases significantly only in VAO group (P=0.007). Susceptibility of LDL to lipid peroxidation shows a significant increase in lag phase and a significant decrease in maximum diene production in VAO (P=0.005) and EVO groups (P=0.041 and P=0.005, respectively). Our findings confirm the beneficial effect of EVO on plasma antioxidant status and show for the first time the same effect for VAO supplementation in man. Thus, VAO offers an additional natural food supplement to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  20. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J;

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...... in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...

  1. Investigation of plasma parameters in an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma used for plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Khattak, Z. I.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shabir, S.; Khan, A. W.; Zakaullah, M.

    2014-11-01

    Active screen cage-pulsed dc plasmas are widely used in the material processing applications such as plasma nitriding, carburizing and nitrocarburizing. Specifically for plasma nitriding applications, a H2-N2 mixture is used. In this article, a study of the electron number density (ne), atomic nitrogen density ([N]), electron temperature ? and the excitation temperature ? is reported in the presence of an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma. The ne and ? are determined here by a triple Langmuir probe, while [N] and ? are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The two temperatures and their ratio ? are compared for different input parameters (such as applied power, gas pressure and H2 percentage). This study is useful in active screen cage plasma nitriding applications where only few plasma diagnostic measurements have been reported.

  2. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity status in patients with liver disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedage Vivekananda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is an esterase, exclusively synthesized by liver. The present study has two objectives: to determine the PON1 activity status in various disorders associated with hepatocellular damage and to correlate the changes of PON1 activity with the standard liver function and fasting lipid profile tests in these disorders. Patients and Methods: The study groups consisted of 95 patients with liver diseases including acute viral hepatitis (14, cirrhosis with portal hypertension (33, leptospirosis (14, sepsis and multi organ failure (15, left ventricular failure (9, and falciparum malaria (10; and 53 healthy controls. Serum PON1 activity was measured manually using spectrophotometer. Liver function test parameters and fasting lipid profile were performed in clinical chemistry auto analyzer (Hitachi 912. Results: The serum PON1 activity in patients with acute viral hepatitis and sepsis decreased significantly ( P < 0.001 and moderately in falciparum malaria ( P < 0.05. However, in patients with cirrhosis, leptospirosis and left ventricular patients, its activity did not change significantly. On applying Pearson correlation, serum PON1 activity correlated positively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C in patients with sepsis (r=0.633, P < 0.05, left ventricular failure patients (r=0.814, P < 0.05 and negatively with acute viral hepatitis patients (r=- 0.528, P < 0.05. Conclusion: PON1 activity has decreased significantly in acute viral hepatitis, sepsis with multi organ failure and falciparum malaria patients. Determination of PON1 activity may serve as a useful additional test in assessing these conditions.

  3. Plasma Renin Activity in Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Heui Jung; Park Jung Sik; Kim, Sung Kwon; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    To evaluate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in diabetes mellitus, basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and its response to intravenous furosemide were determined in 40 diabetic subjects. The diabetics were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of nephropathy and/or hypertension. Uncomplicated diabetics (Group I) were taken as control group and the results of the other groups were compared to this group. In diabetics with nephropathy alone (Group II), and with nephropathy and hypertension (Group III), basal PRA values were 0.63+-0.59 ng/ml/hr., and 0.79+-0.62 ng/ml/hr., respectively, both significantly lower than control group. (1.53+-1.09 ng/ml/hr.). (p<0.05) In both of the above groups, the responses to intravenous furosemide tended to be blunted. On the other hand, in diabetics, with hypertension only (Group IV), the basal and stimulated PRA were not significantly different from control. Above results suggests that nephropathy may be one of the factors which suppress renin activity in diabetes mellitus

  4. Monster Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated HT-7 Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡立群; 石跃江; 刘胜侠

    2001-01-01

    Experimental properties of monster sawtooth activities in ohmic HT-7 plasma are presented in this paper. The monster sawtooth activities belong to global fluctuations and are characterized with a series of large core collapses on SXR intensity traces with a long period, a large amplitude fluctuation and a large inversion radius. However, they emerge without apparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major plasma disruption. During the events,long partial sawtooth collapses and abundant MHD phenomena are also observed.

  5. Relationship between paraoxonase 1 activity and high density lipoprotein concentration during naturally occurring babesiosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, G; Kuleš, J; Rafaj, R Barić; Mrljak, V; Lauzi, S; Giordano, A; Paltrinieri, S

    2014-10-01

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a negative acute phase protein bound to high density lipoproteins (HDL) and during the acute phase response (APR) protects HDL from peroxidation. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between PON1 and HDL in canine babesiosis, a disease characterized by oxidative damages and by an APR. PON1, HDL and C-reactive protein (CRP), were measured in blood collected from 15 controls and 29 dogs with babesiosis sampled at admission, and on days 1 and 7 after treatment. At admission, PON1 and HDL were significantly lower in affected dogs. HDL concentration increased at day 1 while PON1 increased and CRP decreased at day 7. This suggests that the decrease of PON1 at admission is in part due to an increased consumption, the decreased HDL may depend on lipid peroxidation and its rapid increase after treatment may depend on the antioxidant activity of PON1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Dietary Supplement Protandim® Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C.; Arevalo, Nicole L.; Rabon, Rick E.; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K.; McCord, Joe M.; Tseng, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim® is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim® provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim®-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim® chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim®, a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim® group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim®-treated mice. Protandim® increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim® showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim® did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria. PMID:20740052

  7. The Dietary Supplement Protandim Decreases Plasma Osteopontin and Improves Markers of Oxidative Stress in Muscular Dystrophy Mdx Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Muddasir; McClure, Warren C; Arevalo, Nicole L; Rabon, Rick E; Mohr, Benjamin; Bose, Swapan K; McCord, Joe M; Tseng, Brian S

    2010-06-01

    Therapeutic options for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and lethal neuromuscular disorder in children, remain elusive. Oxidative damage is implicated as a pertinent factor involved in its pathogenesis. Protandim((R)) is an over-the-counter supplement with the ability to induce antioxidant enzymes. In this study we investigated whether Protandim((R)) provided benefit using surrogate markers and functional measures in the dystrophin-deficient (mdx)mouse model of DMD. Male 3-week-old mdx mice were randomized into two treatment groups: control (receiving standard rodent chow) and Protandim((R))-supplemented standard rodent chow. The diets were continued for 6-week and 6-month studies. The endpoints included the oxidative stress marker thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), plasma osteopontin (OPN), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) activity, H&E histology, gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of leg muscle and motor functional measurements. The Protandim((R)) chow diet in mdx mice for 6 months was safe and well tolerated. After 6 months of Protandim((R)), a 48% average decrease in plasma TBARS was seen; 0.92 nmol/mg protein in controls versus 0.48 nmol/mg protein in the Protandim((R)) group (p = .006). At 6 months, plasma OPN was decreased by 57% (p = .001) in the Protandim((R))-treated mice. Protandim((R)) increased the plasma antioxidant enzyme PON1 activity by 35% (p = .018). After 6 months, the mdx mice with Protandim((R)) showed 38% less MRI signal abnormality (p = .07) than mice on control diet. In this 6-month mdx mouse study, Protandim((R)) did not significantly alter motor function nor histological criteria.

  8. Serum paraoxonase activity, total thiols levels, and oxidative status in patients with acute brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Emin; Cıkman, Aytekin; Yakan, Umit; Sunnetcioglu, Mahmut; Selek, Sahbettin

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity may decrease during the course of infection and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate serum PON1 activity, oxidative status, and thiols levels in patients with acute brucellosis. In addition, we investigated the PON1 phenotype in patients with acute brucellosis. Thirty patients with acute brucellosis and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, thiols levels, lipid hydroperoxide levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined. Serum basal and salt-stimulated paraoxonase-arylesterase activities, TAC levels and thiols levels were significantly lower in patients with acute brucellosis than controls (for all, p brucellosis. These results indicate that lower PON1 activity is associated with oxidant-antioxidant imbalance.

  9. Hemagglutinin activity of human plasma fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuento, M

    1979-09-01

    Purified human plasma fibronectin at concentrations of about 30 microgram/ml was found to agglutinate trypsin-treated erythrocytes from certain species. The hemagglutination reaction was inhibited by specific antibodies to fibronectin, by relatively low concentrations of polyamines and by higher concentrations of basic amino acids and nonacetylated amino sugars. The divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate did not affect the reaction. None of the neutral amino acids, neutral sugars or polyanions tested was inhibitory. The results imply that plasma fibronectin is capable of interacting with cell surfaces and support the idea of a similarity between cellular and plasma fibronectins.

  10. Novel Associations of Nonstructural Loci with Paraoxonase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E. Quillen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density-lipoprotein-(HDL- associated esterase paraoxonase 1 (PON1 is a likely contributor to the antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic capabilities of HDL. Two nonsynonymous mutations in the structural gene, PON1, have been associated with variation in activity levels, but substantial interindividual differences remain unexplained and are greatest for substrates other than the eponymous paraoxon. PON1 activity levels were measured for three substrates—organophosphate paraoxon, arylester phenyl acetate, and lactone dihydrocoumarin—in 767 Mexican American individuals from San Antonio, Texas. Genetic influences on activity levels for each substrate were evaluated by association with approximately one million single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs while conditioning on PON1 genotypes. Significant associations were detected at five loci including regions on chromosomes 4 and 17 known to be associated with atherosclerosis and lipoprotein regulation and loci on chromosome 3 that regulate ubiquitous transcription factors. These loci explain 7.8% of variation in PON1 activity with lactone as a substrate, 5.6% with the arylester, and 3.0% with paraoxon. In light of the potential importance of PON1 in preventing cardiovascular disease/events, these novel loci merit further investigation.

  11. Isolation of biologically-active exosomes from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Laurent; Hong, Chang-Sook; Stolz, Donna B; Watkins, Simon C; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of exosomes present in human plasma on immune cells have not been examined in detail. Immunological studies with plasma-derived exosomes require their isolation by procedures involving ultracentrifugation. These procedures were largely developed using supernatants of cultured cells. To test biologic activities of plasma-derived exosomes, methods are necessary that ensure adequate recovery of exosome fractions free of contaminating larger vesicles, cell fragments and protein/nucleic acid aggregates. Here, an optimized method for exosome isolation from human plasma/serum specimens of normal controls (NC) or cancer patients and its advantages and pitfalls are described. To remove undesirable plasma-contaminating components, ultrafiltration of differentially-centrifuged plasma/serum followed by size-exclusion chromatography prior to ultracentrifugation facilitated the removal of contaminants. Plasma or serum was equally acceptable as a source of exosomes based on the recovered protein levels (in μg protein/mL plasma) and TEM image quality. Centrifugation on sucrose density gradients led to large exosome losses. Fresh plasma was the best source of morphologically-intact exosomes, while the use of frozen/thawed plasma decreased exosome purity but not their biologic activity. Treatments of frozen plasma with DNAse, RNAse or hyaluronidase did not improve exosome purity and are not recommended. Cancer patients' plasma consistently yielded more isolated exosomes than did NCs' plasma. Cancer patients' exosomes also mediated higher immune suppression as evidenced by decreased CD69 expression on responder CD4+ T effector cells. Thus, the described procedure yields biologically-active, morphologically-intact exosomes that have reasonably good purity without large protein losses and can be used for immunological, biomarker and other studies.

  12. Comparison of Plasma Activation of Thin Water Layers by Direct and Remote Plasma Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark

    2014-10-01

    Plasma activation of liquids is now being investigated for a variety of biomedical applications. The plasma sources used for this activation can be generally classified as direct (the plasma is in contact with the surface of the liquid) or remote (the plasma does not directly touch the liquid). The direct plasma source may be a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) where the surface of the liquid is a floating electrode or a plasma jet in which the ionization wave forming the plasma plume reaches the liquid. The remote plasma source may be a DBD with electrodes electrically isolated from the liquid or a plasma jet in which the ionization wave in the plume does not reach the liquid. In this paper, a comparison of activation of thin water layers on top of tissue, as might be encountered in wound healing, will be discussed using results from numerical investigations. We used the modeling platform nonPDPSIM to simulate direct plasma activation of thin water layers using DBDs and remote activation using plasma jets using up to hundreds of pulses. The DBDs are sustained in humid air while the plasma jets consist of He/O2 mixtures flowed into humid air. For similar number of pulses and energy deposition, the direct DBD plasma sources produce more acidification and higher production of nitrates/nitrites in the liquid. This is due to the accumulation of NxOy plasma jets, the convective flow removes many of these species prior to their diffusing into the water or reacting to form higher nitrogen oxides. This latter effect is sensitive to the repetition rate which determines whether reactive species formed during prior pulses overlap with newly produced reactive species. in the gas phase. In the plasma jets, the convective flow removes many of these species prior to their diffusing into the water or reacting to form higher nitrogen oxides. This latter effect is sensitive to the repetition rate which determines whether reactive species formed during prior pulses overlap with

  13. Responses of cells in plasma-activated medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kae; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Kano, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-09-01

    Plasma consists of electrons, ions, radicals, and lights, and produces various reactive species in gas and liquid phase. Cells receive various inputs from their circumstances, and induce several physiological outputs. Our goal is to clarify the relationships between plasma inputs and physiological outputs. Plasma-activated medium (PAM) is a circumstance that plasma provides cells and our previous studies suggest that PAM is a promising tool for cancer therapy. However, the mode of actions remains to be elucidated. We propose survival and proliferation signaling networks as well as redox signaling networks are key factors to understand cellular responses of PAM-treated glioblastoma cells.

  14. Changes of Serum Paraoxonasel Activities and Metabolic Syndrome Varibles in Preeclamptic Women%子痫前期对氧磷酶1活性和代谢综合征变量变化的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董淑晓; 王立方; 辛虹

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究子痫前期患者血清对氧磷酶1(PON-1)活性及代谢综合征变量的变化和发生情况.方法:选择年龄、孕周、产次相匹配的轻度子痫前期患者38例(MPE组),重度子痫前期患者45例(SPE组),正常孕妇63例(对照组)为研究对象,测定其血清PON-1活性、丙二醛( MDA)、血脂及空腹血糖水平等指标.结果:子痫前期患者(MPE组+SPE组)血清MDA、总胆固醇、甘油三酯、低密度脂蛋白水平(LDL)均明显高于对照组(P<0.05),而血清PON-1活性及高密度脂蛋白( HDL)较对照组明显降低(P<0.05);SPE组空腹血糖较MPE组和对照组明显升高(P均<0.05).子痫前期患者血清PON-1活性与MDA、甘油三酯、LDL水平呈负相关(P均<0.05),与HDL水平呈正相关(P<0.05),与BMI及空腹血糖无明显相关性(P>0.05).对照组、MPE组及SPE组代谢综合征的发生率分别为3.2%,18.4%,33.3%.结论:子痫前期患者有代谢综合征的标志,推断两种疾病相互关联.子痫前期患者血清PON-1活性显著降低,可能为两种疾病相互关联的重要原因之一.%Objective:To explore the activity of paraoxonase and changes of metabolic syndrome variables in preeclamptic women. Methods :38 pregnant women with mild preeclampsia (MPE), 45 women with severe preeclampsia (SPE), and 63 normal pregnant women as control were recruited in this study after the age, gestination age and parity were matched. Fasting serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity was determined, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. Results: Patients with preeclampsia had significantly higher serum MDA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein levels compared with the control group (P0. 05). The incidence of metabolic syndrome in control group, MPE and SPE were 3.2%, 18.4%, 33.3% respectively. Conclusions: Preeclampsia presents the characteristics of metabolic syndrome, so these are two correlated disease

  15. Study of MHD activities in the plasma of SST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Pradhan, Subrata, E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Kumar, Sameer

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • An account of MHD activity in the plasma of SST-1 • Observation of MHD instabilities with mode m = 2, n = 1 in SST-1 plasma. • MHD instabilities study of characteristic growth time, growth rate of island and island width etc. in SST-1 plasma. - Abstract: Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is a medium size Tokamak in operation at the Institute for Plasma Research, India. SST-1 has been consistently producing plasma currents in excess of 60 kA, with plasma durations above 400 ms and a central magnetic field of 1.5 T over last few experimental campaigns of 2014. Investigation of these experimental data suggests the presence of MHD activity in the SST-1 plasma. Further analysis clearly explains the behavior of MHD instabilities observed (i.e. tearing modes with m = 2, n = 1), estimating the growth rate and the island width in the SST-1 plasma. Poloidal magnetic field and Toroidal magnetic field fluctuations in SST-1 are observed using Mirnov coils. Onsets of disruptions in connection with MHD activities have been correlated with other diagnostics such as ECE, Density and Hα etc. The observations have been cross compared with the theoretical calculations and are found to be in good agreement.

  16. Plasma paraoxonase, oxidative status level, and their relationship with asthma control test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, O; Hasan, A; Rusen, D M

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of asthma with a control test has been suggested as a relevant approach in recent years. However, no biomarker of systemic inflammation has been included in the assessment of asthma control. To evaluate plasma paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in children with asthma according to the disease control, and the performance in the identification of uncontrolled patients. Stable asthmatic children (n=85) and healthy controls (n=55) were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for plasma PON1, TOS, and TAS measurements. Any contributing factors that may affect plasma PON1, TAS, and TOS levels were excluded from both groups. The diagnostic potential of these measures was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Comparing the asthmatic children with the control group, plasma TAS and TOS levels were significantly higher (TAS; 6.9 ± 2.1, 1.05 ± 0.32, Pasthma, respectively. Asthma Control Test (ACT) presented an AUC of 0.972 for the identification of uncontrolled asthma. PON1 and TOS levels may be systemic markers of uncontrolled asthma in children. Combined use of these two biomarkers with asthma control test may identify patients with uncontrolled asthma in children. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative assessment of the influence of paraoxonase 1 activity and coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingsong; Lang, Xilong; Cui, Shitao; Zou, Liangjian; Cao, Jia; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xintian

    2012-06-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent high-density lipoprotein associated ester hydrolase that has attracted considerable attention as a candidate factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) based on its function as a key factor in lipoprotein catabolism pathways. This meta-analysis aimed to clarify the inconsistency of published studies and to establish a comprehensive picture of the relationship between PON1 activity and CHD susceptibility. A systematic search was performed from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and CNKI databases. Ratio of means (RoM) between case and control and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. The source of heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analysis and meta-regression. We identified 47 eligible studies including a total of 9853 CHD cases and 11,408 controls. The pooled analysis showed that CHD patients had a 19% lower PON1 activity than did the controls (RoM=0.81; 95% CI: 0.74-0.89, pPON1 activity associated with CHD risk was observed in almost all subgroup analysis according to ethnicity, sample size, study design, mean age of cases, source, and type of control. Decreased PON1 activity may act as a risk factor for the development of CHD. Progressive decrease in serum PON1 activity may exist for an individual with severe disease. However, larger studies using a prospective approach are needed to confirm our results.

  18. Generator of chemically active low-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Sargsyan, M. A.; Demirov, N. A.; Spector, N. O.

    2016-11-01

    A new generator of high enthalpy (H 0 > 40 kJ/g), chemically active nitrogen and air plasmas was designed and constructed. Main feature of the generator is an expanding channel of an output electrode; the generator belongs to the class of DC plasma torches with thermionic cathode with an efficiency of 80%. The generator ensures the formation of a slightly divergent plasma jet (2α = 12°) with a diameter of D = 10-12 mm, an electric arc maximum power of 20-50 kW, plasma forming gas flow rate 1.0-2.0 g/s, and the average plasma temperature at an outlet of 8000-11000 K.

  19. The association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health cohort study and a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessling Matthew

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been inconsistent results from case-control studies assessing the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with coronary heart disease (CHD. Most studies have included predominantly men and the association in women is unclear. Since lipid levels vary between the sexes the antioxidant effect of PON1 and any genes associated with it may also vary by sex. We have examined the association of the PON1 Q192R polymorphism with CHD in a large cohort of British women and combined the results from our cohort study with those from all other published studies. Results The distribution of genotypes was the same among women with CHD and those without disease. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval of having CHD comparing those with either the QR or RR genotype to those with QQ genotype (dominant model of association was 1.03 (0.89, 1.21 and the per allele odds ratio was 0.98 (0.95, 1.01. In a meta-analysis of this and 38 other published studies (10,738 cases and 17,068 controls the pooled odds ratio for the dominant effect was 1.14 (1.08, 1.20 and for the per allele effect was 1.10 (1.06, 1.13. There was evidence of small study bias in the meta-analyses and the dominant effect among those studies with 500 or more cases was 1.05 (0.96, 1.15. Ethnicity and reporting of whether the genotyping was done blind to the participants clinical status also contributed to heterogeneity between studies, but there was no difference in effect between studies with 50% or more women compared to those with fewer women and no difference between studies of healthy populations compared to those at high risk (with diabetes, renal disease of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Conclusion There is no robust evidence that the PON1 Q192R polymorphism is associated with CHD risk in Caucasian women or men.

  20. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  1. Pressure effects on catalytic properties and structural stability of human paraoxonase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clery-Barraud, C; Leva, J; Bakdouri, N E; Renault, F; Masson, P; Rochu, D [Departement de Toxicologie, Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, BP 87, 38702 La Tronche cedex (France)], E-mail: cclerybarraud@crssa.net

    2008-07-15

    Human paraoxonase (HuPON1) is a candidate as catalytic bioscavenger for pre-treatment and therapy of poisoning by organophosphate compounds. HuPON1 is a hydrophobic protein associated with a partner, the human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) in plasma high density lipoproteins. The relationship between the composition and the size of multimeric states of HuPON1 is not well understood. Moreover the effect of HPBP's presence on enzyme catalytic mechanisms and stability is unclear. We investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on structural stability and activity of different PON1 preparations (hybrid recombinant PON1, natural HuPON1 free of its partner or in the presence of 50% w/w HPBP). We showed that PON1 exists under several multimeric forms and that the binding of HPBP amends the size of the hetero-oligomeric states and exerts a stabilizing effect on the activity of PON1.

  2. Pressure effects on catalytic properties and structural stability of human paraoxonase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cléry-Barraud, C.; Leva, J.; Bakdouri, N. E.; Renault, F.; Masson, P.; Rochu, D.

    2008-07-01

    Human paraoxonase (HuPON1) is a candidate as catalytic bioscavenger for pre-treatment and therapy of poisoning by organophosphate compounds. HuPON1 is a hydrophobic protein associated with a partner, the human phosphate binding protein (HPBP) in plasma high density lipoproteins. The relationship between the composition and the size of multimeric states of HuPON1 is not well understood. Moreover the effect of HPBP's presence on enzyme catalytic mechanisms and stability is unclear. We investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on structural stability and activity of different PON1 preparations (hybrid recombinant PON1, natural HuPON1 free of its partner or in the presence of 50% w/w HPBP). We showed that PON1 exists under several multimeric forms and that the binding of HPBP amends the size of the hetero-oligomeric states and exerts a stabilizing effect on the activity of PON1.

  3. Generation and remote delivery of plasma activated species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Paul; Mahony, Charles; Kelsey, Colin; Rutherford, David; Mariotti, Davide; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Diver, Declan

    2016-09-01

    Plasma interactions with microdroplets offer new opportunities to deliver active chemical agents and nanoparticles to remote substrates downstream with many potential applications from cancer theranostics and wound healing in biomedicine, gentle food decontamination and seed germination in plasma agriculture to catalyst production and photonic structures fabrication, among others. We demonstrate plasma-liquid based pristine nanomaterials synthesis in flight and subsequent delivery up to 120mm from the atmospheric pressure plasma source. Monosized and non-aggregating metal nanoparticles are formed in the rf plasma in less than 100us, representing an increase in precursor reduction rate that is many (>4) orders of magnitude faster than that observed with standard colloidal chemistry or via high energy radiolytic techniques. Also the collection and purification limitations of the latter are avoided. Plasma activated liquid including OH radicals and H2O2 are transported over 120mm and have demonstrated high efficacy bacterial decontamination. These results will be compared with charge species and radical transport from the rf plasma without microdroplets. Reaction models based on high solvated surface electron concentrations will be presented. Funding from EPSRC acknowledged (Grants EP/K006088/1 and EP/K006142/1).

  4. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10%. T...

  5. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10...

  6. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath ("plasma shield") that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  7. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  8. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: A functional analytic description

    CERN Document Server

    Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-01-01

    The term "Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy" refers to a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: An signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostics technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism for a symmetric probe desing is given, as well as an interpreation...

  9. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy: a functional analytic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapke, M.; Oberrath, J.; Mussenbrock, T.; Brinkmann, R. P.

    2013-04-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ denotes a class of diagnostic methods which employ the ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the plasma frequency. The basic idea dates back to the early days of discharge physics: a signal in the GHz range is coupled to the plasma via an electrical probe; the spectral response is recorded, and then evaluated with a mathematical model to obtain information on the electron density and other plasma parameters. In recent years, the concept has found renewed interest as a basis of industry compatible plasma diagnostics. This paper analyzes the diagnostic technique in terms of a general description based on functional analytic (or Hilbert Space) methods which hold for arbitrary probe geometries. It is shown that the response function of the plasma-probe system can be expressed as a matrix element of the resolvent of an appropriately defined dynamical operator. A specialization of the formalism to a symmetric probe design is given, as well as an interpretation in terms of a lumped circuit model consisting of series resonance circuits. We present ideas for an optimized probe design based on geometric and electrical symmetry.

  10. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP. Results show that curcumin significantly (p<0.01 downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects.

  11. Plasma Treated Active Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma treatment on commercial active carbon (AC was carried out in a capacitively coupled plasma system using Ar + 10% O2 at pressure of 4.0 Torr. The RF plasma power ranged from 50 W to 100 W and the processing time was 10 min. The carbon film electrode was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed the highly increased disorder of sp2 C lattice for the AC treated at 75 W. An electrosorption capacity of 6.15 mg/g was recorded for the carbon treated at 75 W in a 0.1 mM NaCl solution when 1.5 V was applied for 5 hours, while the capacity of the untreated AC was 1.01 mg/g. The plasma treatment led to 5.09 times increase in the absorption capacity. The jump of electrosorption capacity by plasma treatment was consistent with the Raman spectra and electrochemical double layer capacitance. This work demonstrated that plasma treatment was a potentially efficient approach to activating biochar to serve as electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI.

  12. Betaine increases the butyrylcholinesterase activity in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišková, K; Dubničková, M; Pašková, Ľ; Rajdl, D; Ďuračková, Z; Muchová, J; Pauliková, I; Racek, J

    2016-01-01

    The physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8, BChE) is not clearly understood, but a role was suggested in the fat utilization process, resulting in positive correlation between plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and BChE activity. Consequently we tested the hypothesis that regular intake of betaine, a natural compound intervening in the liver TG metabolism could influence the BChE activity. The BChE activity was estimated spectrophotometrically in plasma of rats fed with betaine enriched standard (B) or high-fat diet (HFB). The results confirmed decreased TG plasma levels after betaine treatment independently on the type of diet (0.15+/-0.03 (B) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.003 and 0.13+/-0.03 (HFB) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.005). The BChE activity increased significantly with betaine administration, however the change was more distinct in the HFB group (0.84+/-0.34 (HFB) vs. 0.22+/-0.04 (control) O.D./min/mg; pbetaine intake led to elevated BChE activity in plasma and this effect was potentiated by the HF diet. Since betaine is in general used as a supplement in the treatment of liver diseases accompanied by TG overload, its impact on the BChE activity in the role of the liver function marker should be taken into account.

  13. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in cats with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamamoto, T; Ohno, K; Takahashi, M; Fukushima, K; Kanemoto, H; Fujino, Y; Tsujimoto, H

    2017-03-01

    In this study, plasma MMP-9 activity was evaluated in cats with lymphoma. Plasma samples were obtained from 26 cats with lymphoma before treatment. From 13 of the included 26 cats, plasma samples were obtained 4 weeks after the initiation of treatment. Plasma samples were also obtained from 10 healthy cats as a control. Plasma MMP-9 activity was examined by gelatin zymography and semi-quantitative value (arbitrary unit; a.u.) for each sample was calculated. Relatively high levels of MMP-9 were observed in cats with lymphoma compared with those in healthy control cats. MMP-9 quantification through zymography showed significantly higher activity in cats with lymphoma (median, 0.63 a.u.; range, 0.23-3.24 a.u.) than in healthy controls (0.22 a.u.; 0.12-0.46 a.u.; P cats with lymphoma may become an appropriate monitoring tool for feline lymphoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  15. Malate dehydrogenase activity in human seminal plasma and spermatozoa homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Leventerler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Malate Dehydrogenase is an important enzyme of the Krebs cycle, most cells require this enzyme for their metabolic activity. We evaluated the Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates in normozoospermic, fertile and infertile males. Also glucose and fructose concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma samples. Material and Methods: Malate Dehydrogenase (NAD/NADP activity in human seminal plasma and sperm homogenates of normozoospermic and infertile males was determined by spectrophotometric method. Semen analysis was considered according to the WHO Criteria. Results: Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in seminal plasma (the mean ± SD, mU/ml of asthenoteratospermic (40.0±25.7 and azospermic (38.0±43.6 groups were significantly lower than normozoospermic, (93.9±52.1 males. Malat Dehydrogenase-NAD value in sperm homogenates (the mean ± SD, mU/ 20x106 sperm of teratospermic group (136.8±61.8 was significantly higher compared to the normozoospermic (87.3±26.5 males. Glucose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (4.0±1.4 and azospermic (15.4±6.4 groups were significantly higher than fertile (2.0±2.1 males. Also fructose concentration (mg/dl in asthenoteratospermic (706.6±143.3 and azospermic (338.1±228.2 groups were significantly high compared to the normozoospermic (184.7±124.8 group. Conclusion: Sperm may be some part of the source of Malat Dehydrogenase activity in semen. Malat Dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma has an important role on energy metabolism of sperm. Intermediate substrates of Krebs cycle might have been produced under the control of Malat Dehydrogenase and these substrates may be important for sperm motility and male infertility. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 648-658

  16. Diagnostic evaluation of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilan ZHANG; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using the plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio (PAC/PRA ratio) as the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients, we studied the clinical character-istics and the diagnostic value of PAC/PRA ratio in primary aldosteronism. The plasma aldosterone concen-tration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 902 hypertensive patients from out-patient clinics or hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six suspected primary aldosteronism patients whose PAC/PRA ratio was > 25 ng/dL/ng/mL/ hr had a lamellar computed tomography (CT) scan in the adrenal gland and follow-up visits. The proportion of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients was 14% (126/902). There were 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia and 25 patients with adenoma according to the CT scan. 39% (49/126) of the patients with primary aldosteronism had hypokalemia. Twenty-five patients received surgical treatment. The efficacy and cure rates were 100% (25/25) and 48% (12/25), respect-ively. The effective rate of aldactone and the single-drug cure rate were 89% (48/54) and 24% (13/54), respectively. Primary aldosteronism affects over 10% of hypertensive patients in China. The PAC/PRA ratio can be considered as a routine screening test in hypertensives, especially resistant hypertensive patients and a high PAC/PRA ratio is an invaluable index in primary aldosteronism diagnosis.

  17. Spectroscopic diagnostics of active screen plasma nitriding processes: on the interplay of active screen and model probe plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-09-01

    In a reactor used for active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) the interplay of two plasma types, (i) the plasma of the cylindrical active screen driven in a pulsed dc mode (f = 1 kHz, 60% duty cycle) and (ii) the plasma at an internal model probe driven in a cw dc mode, ignited in a low pressure H2-N2 gas mixture (p = 3 mbar) containing small amounts of CH4 and CO2 have been studied by tunable diode laser infrared absorption (TDLAS) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) techniques. Applying in situ TDLAS the evolution of the carbon containing precursors, CH4 and CO2, and of the reaction products, NH3, HCN, CO and H2O, has been monitored. The degree of dissociation of the carbon containing precursor molecules varied between 70% and 92%. The concentrations of the reaction products were found to be in the range 1012…1015 molecules cm-3. By analyzing the development of the molecular concentrations at changes of gas mixtures and plasma power values, it was found that (i) HCN and NH3 are the main products of plasma conversion in the case of methane admixture and (ii) CO, HCN and NH3 in the carbon dioxide case. The fragmentation efficiencies of methane and carbon dioxide (RF(CH4)  ≈  1…2   ×   1015 molecules J-1, RF(CO2)  ≈  0.5…1.0   ×   1016 molecules J-1) and the respective conversion efficiencies to the product molecules (R C(product) ≈ 1013-1015 molecules J-1) have been determined for different gas mixtures and plasma power values, while the influence of probe and screen plasmas, i.e. the phenomena caused by the interplay of both plasma sources, was analyzed. The additional usage of the plasma at the model probe has a sensitive influence on the generation of the reaction products, in particular that of NH3 and HCN. With the help of OES the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined, which increases with power from 770 K to 950 K. Also with power the ionic component of nitrogen molecules, i

  18. TAE modes and MHD activity in TFTR DT plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E.; Batha, S.; Bell, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high power deuterium and tritium experiments on TFTR have produced fusion a parameters similar to those expected on ITER. The achieved {beta}{sub {alpha}}/{beta} and the R{triangledown}{beta}{sub {alpha}} in TFRR D-T shots are 1/2 to 1/3 those predicted in the ITER EDA. Studies of the initial TFTR D-T plasmas find no evidence that the presence of the fast fusion {alpha} population has affected the stability of MHD, with the possible exception of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE`s). The initial TFTR DT plasmas had MHD activity similar to that commonly seen in deuterium plasmas. Operation of TFTR at plasma currents of 2.0--2.5 MA has greatly reduced the deleterious effects of MHD commonly observed at lower currents. Even at these higher currents, the performance of TFTR is limited by {beta}-limit disruptions. The effects of MHD on D-T fusion {alpha}`s was similar to effects observed on other fusion products in D only plasmas.

  19. Plasma from preeclamptic women activates endothelial cells via monocyte activation in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Anninga, Zwanine A.; Salomons, Jet; Westra, Inge M.; Donker, Rogier B.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; de Vos, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this study we tested whether plasma from preeclamptic women contains factors that can activate endothelial cells in the presence of monocytes in vitro. Plasma from preeclamptic women (n = 6), healthy pregnant women (n = 6) and nonpregnant women (n = 6) was incubated with mono-cultures and co-cult

  20. Serum paraoxonase-1 activity is more closely related to HDL particle concentration and large HDL particles than to HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullaart, Robin P F; Otvos, James D; James, Richard W

    2014-08-01

    We determined relationships of the anti-oxidative enzyme, paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), with high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, and tested whether these relationships are stronger than those with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Serum PON-1 (arylesterase activity) and HDL subfractions (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were determined in 67 T2DM patients and in 56 non-diabetic subjects. PON-1 activity, HDL cholesterol and apoA-I were decreased in T2DM (all pHDL particle concentration was unaltered, but large HDL particles, medium HDL particles and HDL particle size were decreased, whereas small HDL particles were increased in T2DM (all pHDL cholesterol than to apoA-I (p=0.001). In turn, the positive relationship of PON-1 with the HDL particle concentration and with large HDL particles was stronger than that with HDL cholesterol (both pHDL cholesterol or HDL particle characteristics. PON-1 activity is more closely related to the HDL particle concentration or large HDL particles than to HDL cholesterol. Impaired PON-1 activity in T2DM is not to a considerable extent explained by altered HDL subfraction levels. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  2. Polymorphisms in the genes of citohrom oxidase P450 2D6 (CYP2D6, paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and apolipoproteine E (APOE as risk factors for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The presence of Parkinson's disease (PD among the members of a family is a clear indication of the significance of genetics in its development. In spite of that, the majority of patients with PD shows a sporadic form of the disease induced as a result of interaction of both environmental and genetic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of polymorphisms in the genes of cytohrome P450 2D6(CYP2D6, paraoxonase 1 (PON 1 and apolipoprotein E (APOE, as risk factors for PD. Methods. We examined 106 patients with PD (65 men and 41 women and 75 ethnically matched control subjects. The mean age at onset of PD in the patients was 46.9±9.4 years (ranging from 30 to 70 years. Genotyping was performed using standard PCR amplification and restriction endonuclease digestion protocols described for known polymorphism in the candidate genes under study. Results. The genotype A/A polymorphisms 2D6* gene of CYP2D6 and genotype M/M polymorphisms L54M gene of PON1 were significantly more frequent in the patients with PD than in the control group. The patients with genotypes A/A and M/M had 3.4 and 3.2 higher risk of PD, respectively than the control group (p = 0.01. The relation between genotypes A/A gene of CYP2D6 and M/M gene of PON1 was modified by the age at onset. The genotypes were associated with early onset of PD (p = 0.001, p = 0.004. The carriers of the A and M alleles in homozygote had 2.4 and 4.2 years respectively earlier onset of PD than carriers of other genotypes with these polymorphisms. The frequency allele ε4 gene of APOE was higher in the PD patients with early onset (20% than in PD with later onset (7.4%, while the genotype ε3/ε3 was associated with PD late onset (p = 0.024. Combined genotype I (carriers of the two risk allels in homozygote and one alleles risk in heterozygote and combined genotype II (carriers of the three alleles risk in homozygote caused early PD. Combined genotype II was detected in 12

  3. Plasmas and atom beam activation of the surface of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Santos, C; Yubero, F; Cotrino, J; Barranco, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, A R [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda Americo Vespucio 49, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: arge@icmse.csic.es

    2008-11-21

    Wetting properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and low-density polyethylene polymers have been investigated after treatment with a microwave (MW) plasma discharge at low pressure and a dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure. Experiments have also been carried out in situ with an atom source installed in an x-ray photoemission spectrometer (XPS). The water contact angle measured on both polymers experienced a significant decrease after activation, but a progressive recovery up to different values after ageing. Standard chemical analysis by XPS showed that the plasma and oxygen beam treatments produced an increase in the concentration of -C(O){sub x} functional groups at the outermost surface layers of the treated polymers. Besides, the oxygen distribution between the topmost surface layer and the bulk has been obtained by non-destructive XPS peak shape analysis. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the surface topography showed that, except for PET treated with the MW plasma and the atom beam, the surface roughness increased after the plasma treatments. Wetting angle variations, oxygen content and distribution, surface roughness and evolution of these properties with time are comparatively discussed by taking into account the basic processes that each type of activation procedure induces in the outmost surface layers of the treated polymers.

  4. Overview of modelling activities for Plasma Control Upgrade in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R., E-mail: raffaele.albanese@unina.it [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bellizio, T. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Coccorese, V. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F. [ENEA Fus, EURATOM Assoc, 00040 Frascati (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); De Tommasi, G.; Fresa, R. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Piccolo, F. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The JET enhancement project Plasma Control Upgrade (PCU) aimed at increasing the capabilities of the plasma vertical stabilization (VS) system. One of the activities of this project was devoted to the development of simple but sufficiently accurate models of the VS system so as to address the main design choices, use the simulation tools as reliable test-beds, and provide an adequate support to the engineering design and commissioning of the new Enhanced Radial Field Amplifier (ERFA). This paper illustrates some of the main achievements of the modelling activity, which gave rise to a closed loop model of the VS system, including plasma, PF coils and passive structures. In particular the paper deals with the selection of the set of turns to be used in the control coils and with the estimation of the eddy current effects on the VS system. The latter analysis addressed an upgrade of the converter units of ERFA, successfully implemented during its commissioning on plasma in August 2009.

  5. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  6. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  7. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S; Börner, K; Burlacov, I; Spies, H-J; Strämke, M; Strämke, S; Röpcke, J

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  8. Disruption avoidance through active magnetic feedback in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Zanca, Paolo; Yanovskiy, Vadim; Finotti, Claudio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Piron, Chiara; Carraro, Lorella; Franz, Paolo; RFX Team

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions avoidance and mitigation is a fundamental need for a fusion relevant tokamak. In this paper a new experimental approach for disruption avoidance using active magnetic feedback is presented. This scheme has been implemented and tested on the RFX-mod device operating as a circular tokamak. RFX-mod has a very complete system designed for active mode control that has been proved successful for the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs). In particular the current driven 2/1 mode, unstable when the edge safety factor, qa, is around (or even less than) 2, has been shown to be fully and robustly stabilized. However, at values of qa (qa > 3), the control of the tearing 2/1 mode has been proved difficult. These results suggested the idea to prevent disruptions by suddenly lowering qa to values around 2 where the tearing 2/1 is converted to a RWM. Contrary to the universally accepted idea that the tokamaks should disrupt at low qa, we demonstrate that in presence of a well designed active control system, tokamak plasmas can be driven to low qa actively stabilized states avoiding plasma disruption with practically no loss of the plasma internal energy.

  9. Plasma catecholamines and renin activity in wrestlers following vigorous swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigas, M; Celko, J; Juránková, E; Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R

    1998-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to exercise in a physically fit and an untrained group of young healthy subjects were compared to study the significance of physical fitness for performance in a discipline for which the athletes were not trained. Ten wrestlers of national rank prepared for an international competition (age 18 years) and 9 untrained healthy males (age 21 years). Exercise consisted of 27-min swimming, freestyle, in water of 29 degrees C, with last 3 min increased to maximal effort. The blood pressure, heart rate and sublingual temperature were measured and blood samples were withdrawn before exercise, immediately after and after a 30 min period of rest. Catecholamines were analyzed by radioenzymatic method and plasma renin activity (PRA) using commercial kits. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate after swimming were increased comparably in the two groups, diastolic pressure was unchanged in the controls and decreased in the wrestlers. Plasma cortisol remained unchanged. Plasma glucose tended to increase in the controls and so decrease in wrestlers, with a significant difference between them after swimming (p < 0.05). However, plasma adrenaline was concomitantly increased in both groups (p < 0.01). Noradrenaline and PRA were increased after swimming in both the control and trained group. The increments of noradrenaline and PRA in wrestlers were significantly reduced compared to the control group (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, respectively). Higher physical fitness in athletes significantly reduced plasma noradrenaline and angiotensin responses to maximal exercise demanding special skill in work performance which had not been included in their training program. Training of wrestlers did not cause an exaggerated plasma adrenaline response to exercise.

  10. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  11. Sawtooth Activity in Ohmically Heated Plasma on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sawtooth activity on HT-7 tokamak has been investigated experimentally mainly by using soft x-ray diode array and magnetic probes. Their behaviors and occurrences are correlatedclosely to the discharge conditions: the electron density Ne, the electron temperature Te, the safetyfactor qa on plasma boundary and wall condition etc. When central line-averaged electron densityNe(0) is over 2.0×1013cm-3, major sawtooth activity emerges with a period of up to 6.5 ms and afluctuation amplitude of up to 2~30 % of SXR radiation signal. In some cases such as the safetyfactor between 4.2~4.7 and Zeff=3.0~6.0, a monster sawtooth activity often emerges withoutapparent deterioration of plasma confinement and without major disruption. During these events,abundant MHD phenomena are observed including partial sawtooth oscillations. In this paper, theobserved sawtooth behaviors and their dependence on the and their dependence density Ne andwall condition in ohmically heated plasma are introduced, the results are discussed and presented.

  12. Paraoxonase 1: genetics and activities during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Francesca; Marra, Maurizio; Olivieri, Fabiola; Cardelli, Maurizio; James, Richard W; Boemi, Massimo; Franceschi, Claudio

    2008-02-01

    The increasing longevity of the population, one of the most important issues throughout the planet, is a very complex phenomenon (trait), likely resulting from a variety of environmental determinants interacting with and modulated by genetic mechanisms, mostly devoted to maintenance and repair. In fact, the genes involved in longevity impact upon basic processes such as inflammation, glucose and energy utilization, and oxidative stress. Based on the free radical theory of aging, in the past few years we have focused our attention on an enzyme that protects lipids from peroxidative damage-paraoxonase 1 (PON1). PON1 has been widely investigated, especially for its involvement in atherosclerosis and age-related diseases. In this review, we summarize data on the role played by PON1 on aging and its possible involvement in human longevity, focusing on the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity and its capability to counteract oxidative stress.

  13. The Density of Coronal Plasma in Active Stellar Coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, P; Peres, G; Testa, Paola; Drake, Jeremy J.; Peres, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution X-ray spectra of a sample of 22 active stars observed with the High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on {\\em Chandra} in order to investigate their coronal plasma density. Densities where investigated using the lines of the He-like ions O VII, Mg XI, and Si XIII. While Si XIII lines in all stars of the sample are compatible with the low-density limit, Mg XI lines betray the presence of high plasma densities ($> 10^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$) for most of the sources with higher X-ray luminosity ($> 10^{30}$ erg/s); stars with higher $L_X$ and $L_X/L_{bol}$ tend to have higher densities at high temperatures. Ratios of O VII lines yield much lower densities of a few $10^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$, indicating that the ``hot'' and ``cool'' plasma resides in physically different structures. Our findings imply remarkably compact coronal structures, especially for the hotter plasma emitting the Mg XI lines characterized by coronal surface filling factor, $f_{MgXI}$, ranging from $10^{-4}$ to $10^{-...

  14. Elevated plasma phospholipase A2 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Denizot

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This clinical study reports that blood levels of the pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF did not change in colorectal cancer patients. In contrast, plasma levels of two enzymatic activities, one implicated in PAF production (i.e. phospholipase A2 and one in PAF degradation (i.e. PAF acetylhydrolase activity were significantly elevated.

  15. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heysell, Scott K; Mtabho, Charles; Mpagama, Stellah; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Pholwat, Suporn; Ndusilo, Norah; Gratz, Jean; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-12-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C(2 h)). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C(2 h) plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C(2 h) rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ~1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤ 2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C(2 h) levels, and very low (≤ 1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.

  16. Plasma membrane mechanical stress activates TRPC5 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Shen

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces exerted on cells impose stress on the plasma membrane. Cells sense this stress and elicit a mechanoelectric transduction cascade that initiates compensatory mechanisms. Mechanosensitive ion channels in the plasma membrane are responsible for transducing the mechanical signals to electrical signals. However, the mechanisms underlying channel activation in response to mechanical stress remain incompletely understood. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP channels serve essential functions in several sensory modalities. These channels can also participate in mechanotransduction by either being autonomously sensitive to mechanical perturbation or by coupling to other mechanosensory components of the cell. Here, we investigated the response of a TRP family member, TRPC5, to mechanical stress. Hypoosmolarity triggers Ca2+ influx and cationic conductance through TRPC5. Importantly, for the first time we were able to record the stretch-activated TRPC5 current at single-channel level. The activation threshold for TRPC5 was found to be 240 mOsm for hypoosmotic stress and between -20 and -40 mmHg for pressure applied to membrane patch. In addition, we found that disruption of actin filaments suppresses TRPC5 response to hypoosmotic stress and patch pipette pressure, but does not prevent the activation of TRPC5 by stretch-independent mechanisms, indicating that actin cytoskeleton is an essential transduction component that confers mechanosensitivity to TRPC5. In summary, our findings establish that TRPC5 can be activated at the single-channel level when mechanical stress on the cell reaches a certain threshold.

  17. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  18. Paraoxonase 1 activity and phenotype distribution in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorac, Dražan; Ćelap, Ivana; Kačkov, Sanja; Robić, Vera; Miletić, Tomislav; Meštrić, Zlata Flegar; Hulina, Andrea; Kuna, Krunoslav; Grubišić, Tihana Žanić; Rajković, Marija Grdić

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: The study included 51 women in reproductive age (25 in follicular and 26 in luteal phase of the menstrual cycle) and 23 women in postmenopause. Lipid parameters in sera were determined using original reagents and according to manufacturer protocol. PON1 activity in serum was assessed by spectrophotometric method with substrates: paraoxon and phenylacetate. PON1 phenotype was determined by double substrate method. Results: Compared to the women in follicular and luteal phase, postmenopausal women have significantly higher concentration of triglyceride [0.9 (0.7–1.3), 0.7 (0.6–1.0) vs. 1.5 (0.9–1.7) mmol/L; P = 0.002], cholesterol [5.10 (4.78–6.10), 5.05 (4.70–5.40) vs. 6.30 (5.73–7.23) mmol/L; P < 0.001], LDL [3.00 (2.56–3.63), 3.00 (2.70–3.70) vs. 3.90 (3.23–4.50) mmol/L; P < 0.001], and apolipoprotein B [0.88 (0.75–1.00), 0.79 (0.68–1.00) vs. 1.07 (0.90–1.24) mmol/L; P = 0.002]. PON1 basal [104 (66–260), 106 (63–250) vs. 93 (71–165) U/L; P = 0.847] and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity [210 (131–462), 211 (120–442) vs. 180 (139–296) U/L; P = 0.857] as well as arylesterase activity [74 (63–82), 70 (54–91) vs. 70 (60–81) kU/L; P = 0.906] and PON1 phenotype (P = 0.810) were not different in the study groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in PON1 activity and PON1 phenotype between women with regular menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women. PMID:24969921

  19. Study of TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of bovine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, J; Black, W D; Gentry, P A

    1978-07-01

    The TAMe (p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester) esterase activity of mature and immature bovine plasma was studied and compared with the activity of this enzyme in human plasma. Kaolin activation of 2 minutes was required to produce maximal activation in cattle, as compared with 1 minute activation in man. The kaolin-activated TAMe esterase values in bovine plasma were approximately one-half the values found in human plasma. The activity of this enzyme was statistically greater in immature than in mature cattle (P less than 0.05) at kaolin activation times of 1, 2, 15, and 20 minutes.

  20. Paraoxonase-1 activity and pleiotropic properties of simvastatin in obese and non-obese patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed to assess paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, pleiotropic effects of simvastatin, and its relationship to Q192R and M55L polymorphisms in obese and non-obese subjects with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). The study included 53 subjects (22 obese) aged from 35 to 65 years with CAD. The control group consisted of 53 (18 obese) police officers without CAD. Patients with CAD were treated with simvastatin 40 mg/day for 12 months. The lipid profile, flow mediated dilation (FMD), intima media-thickness (IMT), fibrinogen, hs-CRP, TNF-α, urine 8-iso-PGF2α, and PON1 activity were evaluated in definite time points. PON1 polymorphisms were assessed at baseline in all observed individuals. The patients with CAD and obesity presented at baseline significantly increased hs-CRP level, insignificantly decreased FMD and lower PON1 activity compared to non-obese individuals. There was no association of obesity with 8-iso-PGF2α in the CAD and control group. The PON1 activity was significantly higher in 192R carriers in patients and controls, irrespective of obesity. Obesity was not associated with the effects of simvastatin on PON1 activity, urine 8-iso-PGF2α, and TNF-α, whereas it blunted its effect on the FMD improvement. The Q192R polymorphism was associated with simvastatin effectiveness on hs-CRP and FMD. Obesity and Q192R PON1 polymorphism are significantly associated with pleiotropic effects of simvastatin therapy in patients with stable CAD.

  1. Does metformin increase paraoxonase activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome? Additional data from the MEFISTO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Eduardo; Sierra-Vargas, Patricia; Meaney, Alejandra; Guzmán-Grenfell, Martín; Ramírez-Sánchez, Israel; Hicks, Juan Jose; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne; Ceballos, Guillermo

    2012-06-01

    In a subanalysis on the metformin, arterial function, intima-media thickness, and nitroxidation in the metabolic syndrome (MEFISTO)(8) (an open-label fashion, with 1 year of 850 mg daily of metformin) subjects' samples, we measured the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in 39 patients that finished the study and relate values with high density lipoprotein (HDL). The comparative PON1 activities at the beginning and at the end of the study were 5.528 ± 0.588 and 4.743 ± 0.619 nmol/mg protein/min (NS) for control group and 3.229 ± 0.403 and 5.135 ± 0.585 nmol/mg protein/min (p < 0.02) for the metformin group. Our data showed an enhance of PON1 activity in patients with metabolic syndrome treated with metformin, although in them, the raise of HDL concentration was less than control patients, suggesting that the increase in quality (measured here as PON1 activity) could be at least as important as an increase in its concentration. Our results point out that there is a relationship among PON1 activity and the reduction of carotideal intima-media thickness.

  2. Plasma B-esterase activities in European raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Claudie; Grolleau, Gérard; Chamoulaud, Serge; Rivière, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    B-esterases are serine hydrolases composed of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterase (CbE). These esterases, found in blood plasma, are inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides and can be used as nondestructive biomarkers of exposure to anticholinesterase insecticides. Furthermore, B-esterases are involved in detoxification of these insecticides. In order to establish the level of these enzymes and to have reference values for their normal activities, total plasma cholinesterase (ChE), AChE and BChE activities, and plasma CbE activity were determined in 729 European raptors representing 20 species, four families, and two orders. The diurnal families of the Falconiforme order were represented by Accipitridae and Falconidae and the nocturnal families of the Strigiforme order by Tytonidae and Strigidae. Intraspecies differences in cholinesterase activities according to sex and/or age were investigated in buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), barn owls (Tyto alba), and tawny owls (Strix aluco). Sex-related differences affecting ChE and AChE activities were observed in young kestrels (2-3-mo-old) and age-related differences in kestrels (ChE and AChE), sparrowhawks (AChE), and tawny owls (ChE, AChE, and BChE). The interspecies analysis yielded a negative correlation between ChE activity and body mass taking into account the relative contribution of AChE and BChE to ChE activity, with the exception of the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). The lowest ChE activities were found in the two largest species, Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) belonging to the Accipitridae family. The highest ChE activities were found in the relatively small species belonging to the Tytonidae and Strigidae families and in honey buzzard of the Accipitridae family. Species of the Accipitridae, Tytonidae, and

  3. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Pragmatical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-11-01

    Most plasmas have very thin sheath compared with plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculation of plasma and sheath. Bohm criterion provides boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy is reported. Additional information on the subject will be posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub/report/2002/ http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/ Work supported by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory through a University Research Support Program.

  4. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    Bond strength and hermeticity of plasma activated bonded (PAB) Si-Si interfaces are reported. Bonding of 100 mm Si(1 0 0) wafers was performed. An average bond strength of 9.0+/-3.9 MPa was achieved without performing any annealing steps. Cavities bonded in vacuum were found to be hermetic based...... on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  5. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the prote

  6. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  7. Progress Report for Activities of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, James W

    2009-04-07

    This report describes the activities of the past year of the U. S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO), a national organization of scientists involved in researching the properties of magnetically confined burning fusion plasmas. Its main activities are the coordination, facilitation, and promotion of research activities in the U. S. fusion energy sciences program relevant to burning plasma science and, specifically, of preparations for U. S. participation in the international ITER experiment. Specifically, the USBPO mission is to advance the scientific understanding of burning plasmas and to ensure the greatest benefit from a burning plasma experiment by coordinating relevant U. S. fusion research with broad community participation.

  8. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer's solution for anti-tumor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-08

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer's solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer's lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer's lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer's lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  9. Demonstration in human plasma of a lectin activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Thiel, S; Isager, H

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of the existence in human plasma of an activity analogous to that of bovine conglutinin is presented. The human plasma component was characterized antigenically and functionally. Human plasma was shown to agglutinate complement-coated erythrocytes in the presence of Ca2+, and this conglu...

  10. Implications of Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma Aldosterone Concentration in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with volume status and vascular tone in septic shock. The present study aimed to assess whether plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC measurements compared with conventional severity indicators are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. Methods We evaluated 105 patients who were admitted for septic shock. Plasma levels of the biomarkers PRA and PAC, the PAC/PRA ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP level, and cortisol level on days 1, 3, and 7 were serially measured. During the intensive care unit stay, relevant clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. Results Patients were divided into two groups according to 28-day mortality: survivors (n = 59 and non-survivors (n = 46. The survivor group showed lower PRA, PAC, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score than did the non-survivor group (all P < 0.05. The SOFA score was positively correlated with PRA (r = 0.373, P < 0.001 and PAC (r = 0.316, P = 0.001. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of PRA and PAC to predict 28-day mortality were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.79; P = 0.001 and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.77; P = 0.003, respectively, similar to the APACHE II scores and SOFA scores. In particular, the group with PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 on day 1 showed significantly greater mortality than did the group with PRA value <3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (log-rank test, P < 0.001. According to multivariate analysis, SOFA score (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.22, PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.60, previous history of cancer (hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.72 to 6.90, and coronary arterial occlusive disease (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.08 were predictors of 28-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated

  11. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A.; Loots, Du Toit; Rijken, Dingeman C.

    2017-01-01

    Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g), platelet-containing (352 g) and platelet-rich plasma (200 g) were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation). Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin) showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly through release of

  12. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  13. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  14. 汉族人芳香二烷基磷酸酯酶启动子-162 A/G基因多态性与冠心病发病的关系%Relationship between PON1-162A/G gene polymorphism and CHD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 周新; 霍麟; 杜寒松

    2004-01-01

    目的研究湖北地区汉族人芳香二烷基磷酸酯酶(paraoxonasc,PON1)启动子基因-162位Ala-Gly基因多态性与冠心病(CHD)发病的关系.方法应用多聚酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性的分析方法(PCR-RELP)检测湖北汉族地区CHD患者及正常对照组PON1基因启动子-162位点的多态性,血脂用酶法测定.结果 PON1启动子-162位点存在多态性,有AA,AG,GG 3种基因型.128例正常人中AA基因型占4.7%,AG基因型占20.3%,GG基因型占75.0%,而CHD组与对照组-162 Ala-Gly基因型分布总体构成比差异无显著性.对照组和CHD组PON基因G等位基因频率分别为0.852和0.913,差异也无显著性(P>0.05).结论未发现PON1启动子基因-162位Ala-Gly多态性与中国人CHD有关.

  15. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklamani, Georgia, E-mail: g.kaklamani@bham.ac.uk [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dong, Hanshan [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Grover, Liam M. [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Chemical Engineering, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Stamboulis, Artemis [University of Birmingham, College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, School of Metallurgy and Materials, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  16. Influence of sedentary versus physically active conditions on regulation of plasma renin activity and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick J

    2008-09-01

    Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Sedentary animals compared to physically active controls exhibit enhanced sympathoexcitatory responses, including arterial baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitation. Hypotension-induced sympathoexcitation is also associated with the release of vasoactive hormones. We hypothesized that sedentary conditions may enhance release of the vasoactive hormones AVP and ANG II. To test this hypothesis, the humoral response to hypotension was examined in conscious rats after 9-12 wk of sedentary conditions or "normally active" conditions. Normally active conditions were produced by allowing rats access to running wheels in their home cages. Running distance peaked after 4 wk (4.5 +/- 0.7 km/day), and the total distance run after 9 wk was 174 +/- 23 km (n = 25). Similar levels of hypotension were induced in conscious sedentary or physically active animals with the arterial vasodilator, diazoxide (25 mg/kg iv). Control experiments used a saline injection of equivalent volume. Plasma samples were collected and assayed for plasma AVP concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA). Sedentary conditions significantly enhanced resting and hypotension-induced PRA relative to normal physical activity. In contrast, resting and hypotension-induced AVP levels were not statistically different between groups. These data suggest that baroreflex-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but not AVP secretion, is enhanced by sedentary conditions. We speculate that augmented activation of the renin-angiotensin system may be related to enhanced sympathetic outflow observed in sedentary animals and may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the sedentary population.

  17. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  18. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and phospholipdase A activities in plasma membranes from fusing muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C; Vagelos, P R

    1976-06-17

    Plasma membrane from fusing embryonic muscle cells were assayed for phospholipase A activity to determine if this enzyme plays a role in cell fusion. The membranes were assayed under a variety of conditions with phosphatidylcholine as the substrate and no phospholipase A activity was found. The plasma membranes did contain a phosphatidic acid phosphatase which was optimally active in the presence of Triton X-100 and glycerol. The enzyme activity was constant from pH 5.2 to 7.0, and did not require divalent cations. Over 97% of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity was in the particulate fraction. The subcellular distribution of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase was the same as the distributions of the plasma membrane markers, (Na+ + k+)-ATPase and the acetylcholine receptor, which indicates that this phosphatase is located exclusively in the plasma membranes. There was no detectable difference in the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activities of plasma membranes from fusing and non-fusing cells.

  19. Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 Level and Paraoxonase-1 Lactonase Activity in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Their Impact on the Incidence of Native AV Fistula Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohny, Samir F; El-Fattah, Mahmoud Abd; Khan, Jalaluddin A

    2016-10-14

    Thrombosis of native arteriovenous (AV) fistula is an important cause of complications in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of measuring circulating fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) level and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) lactonase activity as potential predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in chronic HD patients. This study included 83 HD patients (48 with thrombosed and 35 with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas) and 38 healthy volunteers. Serum FGF-23 level was measured using the ELISA technique, while serum PON1 lactonase activity was measured spectrophotometrically using gamma-thiobutyrolactone as a substrate. FGF-23 was significantly increased while PON1 lactonase was markedly decreased in both thrombosed and non-thrombosed HD patients compared with controls (P AV fistulas compared with HD patients with non-thrombosed native AV fistulas (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). A significant negative correlation was found between FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase in HD patients with thrombosed native AV fistulas (r = -0.342, P = 0.017). This study shows a potential value of FGF-23 and PON1 lactonase as predictors of native AV fistula thrombosis in HD patients.

  20. Altered activity of plasma hemopexin in patients with minimal change disease in relapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, WW; van Dael, CML; Pierik, LJWM; van Wijk, JAE; Nauta, J; Borghuis, T; Kapojos, JJ

    2005-01-01

    Since an active isoform of plasma hemopexin (Hx) has been proposed to be a potential effector molecule in minimal change disease (MCD), we tested plasma and urine samples from subjects with MCD in relapse (n =18) or in remission (n =23) (after treatment with prednisolone) for presence or activity of

  1. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  2. Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine as an early response marker in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plattel, Wouter J.; van den Berg, Anke; Visser, Lydia; van der Graaf, Anne-Marijn; Pruim, Jan; Vos, Hans; Hepkema, Bouke; Diepstra, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine is a potential biomarker for classical Hodgkin's lymphoma. To define its value as a marker to monitor treatment response, we correlated serial plasma thymus and activation-regulated chemokine levels with clinical response in newly diagnose

  3. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igochine, Valentin (ed.) [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Written and edited by leading plasma physics researchers. Provides a toolkit for scientists and engineers aiming to optimize plasma performance. Comprehensive treatment of different plasma instabilities. During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity. However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for ''old hands'' and newcomers alike.

  4. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M.; Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  5. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M., E-mail: mlarouss@odu.edu; Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H. [Plasma Engineering and Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  6. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, D; Demoulin, P; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L; Green, L M; Steed, K; Carlyle, J

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EIS instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359 arcsec x 485 arcsec. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the AR age, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP b...

  7. Effect of vitamins, probiotics and protein level on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters of post-moult male broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R U; Rahman, Z U; Javed, I; Muhammad, F

    2013-01-01

    1. A study was designed to investigate the comparative effect of supplementary vitamin E, vitamin C, probiotics and dietary crude protein concentration on semen traits and seminal plasma biochemical parameters in male broiler breeders after Zn-induced moulting. 2. A total of 180 male broiler breeders were induced to moult at 65 weeks of age by mixing ZnO in diet at the rate 3000 mg/kg of feed. After moulting, the males were divided into six groups that were given feed supplemented with: vitamin C (500 IU/kg), vitamin E (100 IU/kg), protein (140 g CP/kg), probiotics (50 mg/kg) and the combination of these components, while one group was kept as a control. Semen samples were collected weekly and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration, motility and dead spermatozoa percentage were determined. Seminal plasma was separated to determine the concentration of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), homocysteine, paraoxonase (PON1), arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. 3. Semen volume was significantly higher in the vitamin E and C groups compared to the control. Spermatozoa motility was higher in the vitamin E group and dead spermatozoa percentage was significantly lower in the vitamin C group compared with the control group. 4. Seminal plasma TAC was higher in the vitamin E group, homocysteine was lower in the vitamin C and E groups. PON1 was higher in the combination group. Arylesterase increased significantly in the vitamin C and combination groups over time. Seminal plasma AST was significantly lower in the vitamin C and E supplemented groups whereas ALT decreased significantly only in the vitamin E group compared with the control. Higher concentrations of ceruloplasmin were observed in the combination group compared with the other treatments. 5. It was concluded that additional vitamin E and C or their combination was the most potent nutrient treatment for improving the semen traits and

  8. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus.

  9. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Plasma Markers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the Second and Third Trimester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhenbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine plasma markers of oxidative stress during the second and third trimester of pregnancy in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Study Design. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study involving 400 pregnant women, 22 of whom developed GDM. As control group, 30 normal pregnant women were chosen randomly. Plasma samples were analyzed for 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), advanced oxidative protein products (AOPPs), protein carbonyl (PCO), glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX-3), and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) at 16–20 weeks, 24–28 weeks, and 32–36 weeks of gestation. Results. Compared to control subjects, the plasma levels of PCO, AOPPs, and 8-iso-PGF2α were elevated at 16–20 weeks' and 32–36 weeks' gestation in GDM. There was no significant difference in PCO and 8-iso-PGF2α at 24–28 weeks in GDM. GPX-3 was statistically significantly increased at 16–20 weeks and 32–36 weeks in GDM. PON1 reduced in patients with GDM. No significant differences were found at 24–28 and 32–36 weeks between the GDM and control groups. In GDM, PCO, AOPPs, and 8-iso-PGF2α levels were higher and GPX-3 and PON1 levels were lower in the second than the third trimester. Conclusion. Oxidation status increased in GDM, especially protein oxidation, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of GDM. PMID:27803713

  11. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  12. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    2003-01-01

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity a

  13. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity

  14. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  15. Validity of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen cage plasma nitriding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, A.; Khan, A. W.; Jan, F.; Abrar, M.; Khalid, M.; Zakaullah, M.

    2013-05-01

    The validity of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen plasma nitriding for nitrogen mass transfer mechanism is investigated. The dominant species including NH, Fe-I, N2+, N-I and N2 along with Hα and Hβ lines are observed in the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. Active screen cage and dc plasma nitriding of AISI 316 stainless steel as function of treatment time is also investigated. The structure and phases composition of the nitrided layer is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness profile is obtained by Vicker's microhardness tester. Increasing trend in microhardness is observed in both cases but the increase in active screen plasma nitriding is about 3 times greater than that achieved by dc plasma nitriding. On the basis of metallurgical and OES observations the use of "sputtering and re-condensation" model in active screen plasma nitriding is tested.

  16. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  17. Mechanism of Growth Enhancement of Plants Induced by Active Species in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Ono, Reoto; Hayashi, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    Plant growth enhances when seeds are irradiated by plasma. However the mechanism of the growth enhancement by plasma has not been clarified. In this study, growth enhancement of plants using various active species and variation of plant cells are investigated. RF plasma is generated under conditions where pressure is 60 Pa and input electrical power is 60 W. Irradiation period varies from 0 (control) to 75 min. Air plasma shows maximum growth of plants with irradiation period of 60 min on the other hand, oxygen plasma shows the maximum growth with irradiation period of 15 min. From change of gaseous species and pressure dependence, growth enhancing factor is expected to be active oxygen species produced in plasma. According to gene expression analysis of Arabidopsis, there are two speculated mechanism of plant growth enhancement. The first is acceleration of cell cycle by gene expressions of photosynthesis and glycolytic pathway, and the second is increase of cell size via plant hormone production.

  18. The assessment of carotid intima media thickness and serum Paraoxonase-1 activity in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Halide S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis has been increasingly discussed. Although the seroepidemiological studies have suggested a relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection and atherosclerosis; the issue is still controversial. It is well known that abnormal lipid profil is related to atherosclerosis and the measurement of carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT is one of the surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The serum concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C has been known to have an inverse correlation with the development of atherosclerosis. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is a major anti-atherosclerotic component of HDL-C. PON1 activity is related to lipid peroxidation and prospective cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to investigate CIMT and serum PON1 activities along with lipid parameters in H. pylori positive and negative subjects. Methods Thirty H. pylori positive subjects and thirty-one negative subjects were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by the presence of positivity of stool H. pylori antigen test or Carbon 14 labeled urea breath test. Serum PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were investigated and laboratory analysis included measurement of serum triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. We assessed CIMT by high-resolution ultrasound of both common carotid arteries. Results We found that the mean and maximum values of right and overall CIMT in H. pylori positive subjects were significantly thicker than those of H. pylori negative subjects. There was no significant differences in serum HDL-C, LDL-C, TC levels and TC/HDL-C ratios between two groups. Serum TG levels of H. pylori positive subjects were significantly higher than those of H. pylori negative subjects (p = 0.014. We found that PON1

  19. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  20. Enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 by plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Shin; Yoshida, Tomoko; Ohno, Noriyasu; Ishida, Tomoya; Kitaoka, Daiki

    2016-10-01

    In this study, plasma irradiations to titanium were conducted to enhance the photocatalytic activity of titanium oxide. When titanium is exposed to He plasmas, various morphology changes occur as forming nano-bubbles near the surface. Photocatalytic activity of the oxidized helium plasma irradiated titanium samples with nano-cones and microstructures were assessed by the hydrogen production from aqueous methanol solution. It is shown that the He plasma irradiation increases the photocatalytic activity more than double. Moreover, nitrogen mixture plasma irradiation to titanium (oxide) was conducted for doping nitrogen, which has been regarded as method to create visible light reactivity. It is shown from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis that nitrogen doping has been successfully conducted under specific conditions.

  1. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were si

  2. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  3. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  4. Plasma Activation of Integrated Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Electrochemical Detection of Catechol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shenggao; WANG Tao; LI Yanqiong; ZHAO Xiujian; HAN Jianjun; WANG Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    In this study,integrated multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes were prepared in the holes of glass directly by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MWPCVD).The electrochemical behaviour of catechol at the integrated MWCNT electrodes was investigated.The oxygen plasma treated CNT electrodes had better electrochemical performance for the analysis of catechol than that of as-synthesized CNT electrodes.Both the as-synthesized CNTs and plasma treated CNTs were characterized by TEM(transmission electron microscopy,XPS(X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and Raman spectroscopy.The results revealed that the oxygen plasma activation is an effective method to enhance the electrochemical properties of CNT electrodes.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [University of New Mexico

    2013-07-07

    A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.

  6. The relationship between the daily dose, the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-dopamine D2 and anti-serotonin 5-HT2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2010-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) possesses anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity in addition to anti-dopamine D(2) activity, which is characteristic of second-generation antipsychotics, little information is available on its pharmacologic profile in vivo. We investigated the BNS daily dose, plasma concentration, plasma anti-D(2) activity, and plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity in schizophrenia in a total of 14 subjects. Blood samples were taken 14 days after the BNS dose was fixed, and the plasma concentration was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. In addition, the plasma anti-D(2) activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity were measured by means of radioreceptor assays in which [(3)H]-spiperone and [(3)H]-ketanserin were used. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the daily dose and the plasma concentration (p = 0.04). Statistically significant correlations were also observed between the plasma concentration and the anti-D(2) activity and between the plasma concentration and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity (p = 0.003 and 0.04). It is therefore believed that both the anti-D(2) activity in plasma and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity in plasma are regulated almost solely by the unchanged principal. Moreover, the mean plasma serotonin/dopamine (S/D) ratio was 0.9 and BNS exhibited both anti-D(2) activity and also anti-5-HT(2A) activity in vivo, as well, so it was clear that the in vitro pharmacological profile was retained in vivo.

  7. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold, E-mail: lumsdainea@ornl.gov; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} with ion fluxes up to 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2} s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  8. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  9. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H2O2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H2O2 addition with O2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O2 injected and H2O2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  10. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  11. Effect of capture stress on plasma enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, G.R.; Cairns, M. A.; Christian, A. R.

    1978-01-01

    Four capture methods were used to collect domesticated rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): angling, electroshocking, seining, and direct netting (control). Blood was sampled rapidly upon capture, usually within 2 min. No significant differences were noted within the time frame of the experiment between the four capture groups for plasma protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase activity, or leucine aminonaphthylamidase activity. Creatine phosphokinase activity was elevated among electroshocked fish. Acid phosphatase activity was too low for accurate measurement. Hematocrits were significantly elevated by capture struggles. These results indicate that these capture methods do not preclude the use of plasma enzyme levels for investigating the health of wild fish. Key words: plasma enzyme, capture stress, physiology, plasma protein, rainbow trout, lactate dehydrogenase, leucine aminonaphthylamidase, creatine phosphokinase

  12. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  13. Plasma Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase as an Index of Peripheral Noradrenergic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-17

    significant increase in NE after a 40-60% blood loss in dogs . Hemoconcentration is 34 a possible explanation. A sustained and controlled hypotension...was not maintained, and the rise in plasma enzyme activity did not reach levels signif icantly dif ferent from control values (200). In another dog ...change. 45 Decreased plasma DBH levels appear in patients with autism , and patients treated for acute alcoholism had enzyme activities essentially

  14. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  15. Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone: Correlations with Moderate Hypohydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    MATERIALS AND METHODS min walk, 10 min rest with uninterrupted monitoring of Sixteen young adult male test subjects were recruited core temperature...specific gravity (S.G., refractometry ) was tested post- lib, but information on hydration status (assessed during prandially to assure adequate hydration...hemoglobin was quantitated using the cyanmethemoglo- test subjects were assigned to one of four clothing and bin method . Changes in plasma volume

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  17. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments. PMID:28212288

  18. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

    2017-02-15

    Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  19. The Search for Dietary Supplements to Elevate or Activate Circulating Paraoxonases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1 have been associated with the development of several pathological conditions, whereas high levels have been shown to be anti-atherosclerotic in mouse models. These findings suggest that PON1 could be a good surrogate biomarker. The other members of the family, namely PON2 and PON3, the role of which has been much less studied, deserve more attention. This paper provides a systematic review of current evidence concerning dietary supplements in that regard. Preliminary studies indicate that the response to dietary supplements may have a nutrigenetic aspect that will need to be considered in large population studies or in clinical trials. A wide range of plant preparations have been found to have a positive action, with pomegranate and some of its components being the best characterized and Aronia melanocarpa one of the most active. Flavonoids are found in the composition of all active extracts, with catechins and genistein being the most promising agents for increasing PON1 activity. However, some caveats regarding the dose, length of treatment, bioavailability, and stability of these compounds in formulations still need to be addressed. Once these issues have been resolved, these compounds could be included as nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of increasing PON1 activity, thereby helping with the long-term prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic ailments.

  20. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the presence of type IV collagen, whereas plasma kallikrein and β-factor XIIa were more stable. The rate of inhibition of plasma kallikrein by C1-inhibitor was decreased by type IV collagen in a dose-dependent manner. These studies could be relevant to the properties of biomaterials, which contain collagen, and should be considered in the testing for biocompatibility.

  1. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  2. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Activation of Raf as a result of recruitment to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, D; Macdonald, S G; Cadwallader, K; Symons, M; Hancock, J F

    1994-06-01

    The small guanine nucleotide binding protein Ras participates in a growth promoting signal transduction pathway. The mechanism by which interaction of Ras with the protein kinase Raf leads to activation of Raf was studied. Raf was targeted to the plasma membrane by addition of the COOH-terminal localization signals of K-ras. This modified form of Raf (RafCAAX) was activated to the same extent as Raf coexpressed with oncogenic mutant Ras. Plasma membrane localization rather than farnesylation or the presence of the additional COOH-terminal sequence accounted for the activation of RafCAAX. The activation of RafCAAX was completely independent of Ras; it was neither potentiated by oncogenic mutant Ras nor abrogated by dominant negative Ras. Raf, once recruited to the plasma membrane, was not anchored there by Ras; most activated Raf in cells was associated with plasma membrane cytoskeletal elements, not the lipid bilayer. Thus, Ras functions in the activation of Raf by recruiting Raf to the plasma membrane where a separate, Ras-independent, activation of Raf occurs.

  4. Antibacterial activity of plasma from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommanee Jintana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis is a critically endangered species of freshwater crocodiles. Crocodilians live with opportunistic bacterial infection but normally suffer no adverse effects. They are not totally immune to microbial infection, but their resistance thereto is remarkably effective. In this study, crude and purified plasma extracted from the Siamese crocodile were examined for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated, human pathogenic bacterial strains and the related reference strains. Methods Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile by differential sedimentation. The crude plasma was examined for antibacterial activity by the liquid growth inhibition assay. The scanning electron microscopy was performed to confirm the effect of crude crocodile plasma on the cells of Salmonella typhi ATCC 11778. Effect of crude crocodile plasma on cell viability was tested by MTT assay. In addition, the plasma was purified by anion exchange column chromatography with DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M and the purified plasma was tested for antibacterial activity. Results Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile and exhibited substantial antibacterial activities of more than 40% growth inhibition against the six reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the four clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae. Especially, more than 80% growth inhibition was found in the reference strains of Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and in the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The effect of the crude plasma on bacterial cells of Salmonella typhi, a certain antibacterial material probably penetrates progressively into the cytoplasmic space

  5. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.

  6. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  7. Vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator is quiescent in human plasma in the absence of fibrin unlike human tissue plasminogen activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, S J; Hare, T R; Bergum, P W; Cuca, G C; O'Neill-Palladino, L; Zavodny, S M

    1990-12-15

    The vampire bat salivary plasminogen activator (Bat-PA) is a potent PA that exhibits remarkable selectivity toward fibrin-bound plasminogen (Gardell et al, J Biol Chem 256: 3568, 1989). Herein, we describe the activity of recombinant DNA-derived Bat-PA (rBat-PA) in a human plasma milieu. rBat-PA and recombinant human single-chain tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are similarly efficacious at lysing plasma clots. In stark contrast to rt-PA, the addition of 250 nmol/L rBat-PA to plasma in the absence of a clot failed to deplete plasminogen, alpha 2-antiplasmin and fibrinogen. The lytic activities exhibited by finger-domain minus Bat-PA (F- rBat-PA) and finger and epidermal growth factor-like domains minus Bat-PA (FG- rBat-PA) were less than rBat-PA, especially at low concentrations of PA; nevertheless, these truncated forms also possessed a strict requirement for a fibrin cofactor. The loss of PA activity following the addition of rBat-PA to plasma was slower than that observed when either rt-PA or two-chain rt-PA was added. The efficacy, fibrin selectivity, and decreased susceptibility to inactivation exhibited by rBat-PA in vitro in a human plasma milieu suggests that rBat-PA may be superior to rt-PA for the treatment of thrombotic complications.

  8. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  9. Enhancement of NOx and hydrocarbon conversion in plasma-activated catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bill; Adress, Wahmeed; Goguet, Alexandre; Yang, Hui; De Rosa, Fabio; Hardacre, Christopher; Stere, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure, non-thermal plasma-activated-catalysis is showing real promise in a number of applications. Here we report on how electrical, visible and FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy measurements in a kHz atmospheric pressure He plasma jet coupled with a Ag/Al2O3 catalyst allowed us produce and confirm a strong enhancement of both NOx and hydrocarbon conversion at a measured gas temperature of <= 250° C. How these and other measurements have provided an insight into the fundamental physical and chemical processes in the plasma environment that have helped us move to a more efficient system and other processes will be discussed.

  10. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma NPY and GAL, and on the Components of Stress Response System, hs-CRP, and S100B Protein in Serum of Patients with Refractory Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhen; Tan, Yan; Ge, Yuxing; Chen, Yujuan; Liu, Xueyuan

    2015-11-01

    Our objective is to explore the effects of levetiracetam on the levels of neuropeptides, serum activity and concentrations of oxidative stress and inflammatory response proteins, and levels of brain injury marker in patients with refractory epilepsy. Seventy-two patients with refractory epilepsy received levetiracetam treatment. Neuropeptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected using double-antibody sandwich immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) and serum concentrations of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and S100B. Arylesterase (ARE) activity was measured by colorimetric assay, and immune scatter turbidimetry was used to detect a high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). After treatment, NPY and GAL in plasma and CSF of the patients were significantly decreased as compared to concentrations before treatment (P hs-CRP and S100B protein were significantly lower after levetiracetam administrations than before treatment (P hs-CRP, and S100B. Levetiracetam therefore may be considered a drug of choice for treating refractory epilepsy.

  11. Influence of season on plasma antidiuretic hormone, angiotensin II, aldosterone and plasma renin activity in young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Maki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated seasonal changes in hormonal and thermoregulatory responses. Eight volunteers were subjected to the experiment at four times of the year: around the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, and at the summer and winter solstices at latitude 35 degrees N. Plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone (ALD) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were analyzed before and after water immersion. Seasonal changes in thermoregulatory responses were assessed by measuring core temperature and sweat rate during immersion of the leg in hot water (at 42 degrees C) for 30 min in a room maintained at 26 degrees C. The concentration of plasma ADH and ALD before water immersion was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. The concentrations of ANG II and PRA did not show seasonal variations. Changes in tympanic temperature during water immersion showed significant differences between seasons, and were higher in winter than in other seasons. The sweat rate was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. In summary, ADH and ALD concentrations displayed a seasonal rhythm with marked elevation in summer; this may be a compensative mechanism to prevent dehydration from increased sweat loss during summer due to heat acclimatization.

  12. Dose dependence of endotoxin-induced activation of the plasma contact system: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeise, O; Bouma, B N; Stadaas, J O; Aasen, A O

    1988-12-01

    The dose and time dependence of endotoxin-induced activation of the plasma contact system have been studied. Citrated pool plasma was incubated at 37 degrees C with endotoxin doses of 2.10(5), 2.10(6), 2.10(7), and 2.10(9) ng/l (lipopolysaccharide B, E. coli 026: B6, Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) for 24 hr. Samples for determination of components of the contact system were obtained prior to incubation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hr. Plasma kallikrein (KK) activity markedly increased at 12 hr in test plasma containing the highest dose of endotoxin (2.10(9) ng/l). Coincident with the elevated KK activity, reductions of both plasma prekallikrein (PKK) and functional kallikrein inhibition (KKI) were seen as assayed by chromogenic peptide substrate analyses. Also, functionally determined alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2-M) and C1 inhibitor (C1INH) values were decreased, confirming the reduction of KKI values. Changes of Hageman factor (FXII), PKK, and high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) values were also found at the same time point when assayed by immunochemical techniques. The same pattern of changes was seen in test plasma containing 2.10(7) and 2.10(6) ng/l of endotoxin. These changes, however, were less pronounced and not seen until 24 hr after beginning incubation. In control plasma and in plasma containing the lowest dose of endotoxin (2.10(5) ng/l), no changes were seen in any factors of the contact system. Our study shows that in vitro endotoxin-induced activation of the contact system is a slow process that is both time and dose dependent.

  13. Conductivity and Activation Energy in Polymers Synthesized by Plasmas of Thiophene

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. Guadalupe Olayo; Cruz, Guillermo J.; Salvador López; Juan Morales; Roberto Olayo

    2010-01-01

    The electric conductivity, activation energy and morphology of polythiophene synthesized by radiofrequency resistive plasmas are studied in this work. The continuous collisions of particles in the plasma induce the polymerization of thiophene but also break some of the monomer molecules producing complex polymers with thiophene rings and aliphatic hydrocarbon segments. These multidirectional chemical reactions are more marked at longer reaction times in which the morphology of the polymers ev...

  14. Paraoxonase and Arylesterase Activities, Lipid Profile, and Oxidative Damage in Experimental Ischemic Colitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethem Unal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In the present study, since PON1 is known as an HDL-associated antioxidant enzyme that inhibits the oxidative modification of LDL and oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of mesenteric ischemia, we investigated the changes in PON1 activity and lipid profile in an experimental ischemic colitis model. Methods. Forty male Wistar albino rats were divided into two groups: the control group (N=15 and the experimental group (N=25. All animals were anesthetized with ether and ketamine anesthesia to undergo a midline laparotomy. Ischemic colitis was induced by marginal vessel ligation in the splenic flexura (devascularization process. A sham laparotomy was performed in the control group. All animals were sacrificed on the seventh postoperative day. Oxidative stress marker (malonyldialdehyde, MDA, lipid profile, and paraoxonase (PON-1 and arylesterase activities were determined. Histopathological evaluation was done under light microscopy, after sectioning and staining with hematoxyline and eosin. Statistical analysis was conducted using Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney U test, and P0.05. Conclusions. PON1 and arylesterase play an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic colitis.

  15. Modulation of C1-Inhibitor and Plasma Kallikrein Activities by Type IV Collagen

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram Ravindran; Marc Schapira; Patston, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    The contact system of coagulation can be activated when in contact with biomaterials. As collagen is being tested in novel biomaterials in this study, we have investigated how type IV collagen affects plasma kallikrein and C1-inhibitor. Firstly, we showed C1-inhibitor binds to type IV collagen with a Kd of 0.86 μM. The effects of type IV collagen on plasma kallikrein, factor XIIa, and β-factor XIIa activity and on C1-inhibitor function were determined. Factor XIIa rapidly lost activity in the...

  16. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  17. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J

    2015-06-06

    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources.

  18. ACTIVATION OF PLASMA SYSTEMS AND BLOOD-CELLS BY ENDOTOXIN IN RABBITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, NJG; VANOEVEREN, W; HOITING, BH; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    Endotoxin plays an important role in the pathogenesis of septicaemia by activation of cellular and plasmatic systems. This study was performed to investigate the effects of infusion of endotoxin in rabbits by measuring the activation of cellular and plasma systems. Endotoxin was infused at a rate of

  19. Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma activates lactate in Ringer’s solution for anti-tumor effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Nakamura, Kae; Mizuno, Masaaki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Takeda, Keigo; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Utsumi, Fumi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a novel approach for wound healing, blood coagulation, and cancer therapy. A recent discovery in the field of plasma medicine is that non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma not only directly but also indirectly affects cells via plasma-treated liquids. This discovery has led to the use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel chemotherapy. We refer to these plasma-treated liquids as plasma-activated liquids. We chose Ringer’s solutions to produce plasma-activated liquids for clinical applications. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution has anti-tumor effects, but of the four components in Ringer’s lactate solution, only lactate exhibited anti-tumor effects through activation by non-thermal plasma. Nuclear magnetic resonance analyses indicate that plasma irradiation generates acetyl and pyruvic acid-like groups in Ringer’s lactate solution. Overall, these results suggest that plasma-activated Ringer’s lactate solution is promising for chemotherapy.

  20. Degradation of triclosan in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with activated carbon fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lu; Sun, Yabing; Feng, Jingwei; Wang, Jian; He, Dong

    2016-02-01

    The degradation of triclosan (TCS) in aqueous solution by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma with activated carbon fibers (ACFs) was investigated. In this study, ACFs and DBD plasma coexisted in a planar DBD plasma reactor, which could synchronously achieve degradation of TCS, modification and in situ regeneration of ACFs, enhancing the effect of recycling of ACFs. The properties of ACFs before and after modification by DBD plasma were characterized by BET and XPS. Various processing parameters affecting the synergetic degradation of TCS were also investigated. The results exhibited excellent synergetic effects in DBD plasma-ACFs system on TCS degradation. The degradation efficiency of 120 mL TCS with initial concentration of 10 mg L(-1) could reach 93% with 1 mm thick ACFs in 18 min at input power of 80 W, compared with 85% by single DBD plasma. Meanwhile, the removal rate of total organic carbon increased from 12% at pH 6.26-24% at pH 3.50. ACFs could ameliorate the degradation efficiency for planar DBD plasma when treating TCS solution at high flow rates or at low initial concentrations. A possible degradation pathway of TCS was investigated according to the detected intermediates, which were identified by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) combined with theoretical calculation of Gaussian 09 program.

  1. Changes in plasma inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase activity during the adolescent growth spurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M; Butcher, S; Steele, R

    1979-01-01

    Longitudinal data on changes in the concentrations of plasma inorganic phosphorus and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity in 23 girls and 44 boys during the adolescent growth spurt are reported together with the height velocities, ages and sexual maturity ratings. The average age at the peak of the growth spurt was 12.5 years in the girls and 14.1 years in the boys with mean annual height gains of 7.0 and 9.7 cm/year respectively. In both sexes, plasma alkaline phosphatase activity rose and fell with the growth velocity during the growth spurt. Plasma inorganic phosphorus rose to reach a peak in the 4 months before the peak of the growth spurt in height; this rise was statisically significant in the boys but not in the girls. Values subsequently fell rapidly towards the normal adult concentrations. Plasma calcium, total protein, and albumin concentrations were also followed during this time, but were not at any point significantly different from normal adult values. These findings provide a guide for the interpretation of plasma biochemistry in adolescent patients.

  2. Measurement of factor v activity in human plasma using a microplate coagulation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Derek; Levit, Irina; Samis, John A

    2012-09-09

    In response to injury, blood coagulation is activated and results in generation of the clotting protease, thrombin. Thrombin cleaves fibrinogen to fibrin which forms an insoluble clot that stops hemorrhage. Factor V (FV) in its activated form, FVa, is a critical cofactor for the protease FXa and accelerator of thrombin generation during fibrin clot formation as part of prothrombinase (1, 2). Manual FV assays have been described (3, 4), but they are time consuming and subjective. Automated FV assays have been reported (5-7), but the analyzer and reagents are expensive and generally provide only the clot time, not the rate and extent of fibrin formation. The microplate platform is preferred for measuring enzyme-catalyzed events because of convenience, time, cost, small volume, continuous monitoring, and high-throughput (8, 9). Microplate assays have been reported for clot lysis (10), platelet aggregation (11), and coagulation Factors (12), but not for FV activity in human plasma. The goal of the method was to develop a microplate assay that measures FV activity during fibrin formation in human plasma. This novel microplate method outlines a simple, inexpensive, and rapid assay of FV activity in human plasma. The assay utilizes a kinetic microplate reader to monitor the absorbance change at 405 nm during fibrin formation in human plasma (Figure 1) (13). The assay accurately measures the time, initial rate, and extent of fibrin clot formation. It requires only μl quantities of plasma, is complete in 6 min, has high-throughput, is sensitive to 24-80 pM FV, and measures the amount of unintentionally activated (1-stage activity) and thrombin-activated FV (2-stage activity) to obtain a complete assessment of its total functional activity (2-stage activity - 1-stage activity). Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired coagulopathy that most often develops from pre-existing infections (14). DIC is associated with a poor prognosis and increases mortality

  3. In vitro antioxidative activity of (-)-epicatechin glucuronide metabolites present in human and rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Osakabe, Naomi; Yasuda, Akiko; Baba, Seigo; Tokunaga, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuo; Osawa, Toshihiko; Terao, Junji

    2004-12-01

    Recently we identified four conjugated glucuronide metabolites of epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (E3'G), 4'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-3'-O-glucuronide (4'ME3'G), (-)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (E7G) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-7-O-glucuronide (3'ME7G) from plasma and urine. E3'G and 4'ME3'G were isolated from human urine, while E7G and 3'ME7G were isolated from rats that had received oral administration of (-)-epicatechin (Natsume et al. (2003), Free Radic. Biol. Med. 34,840-849). It has been suggested that these metabolites possess considerable in vivo activity, and therefore we carried out a study to compare the antioxidant activities of the metabolites with that of the parent compound. This was achieved by measuring superoxide scavenging activity, reduction of plasma TBARS production and reduced susceptibility of low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation. (-)-Epicatechin was found to have more potent antioxidant activity than the conjugated glucuronide metabolites. Both (-)-epicatechin and E7G had marked antioxidative properties with respect to superoxide radical scavenging activity, plasma oxidation induced by 2,2'-azobis-(2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and LDL oxidation induced by copper ions or 2,2'-azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile) (MeO-AMVN). In contrast, the other metabolites had light antioxidative activities over the range of physiological concentrations found in plasma.

  4. Stability of silanols and grafted alkylsilane monolayers on plasma-activated mica surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberelle, Benoît; Banquy, Xavier; Giasson, Suzanne

    2008-04-01

    We investigated the effect of physical and chemical modifications of mica surfaces induced by water vapor-based plasma treatments on the stability of silanols and grafted alkylsilane monolayers. The plasma-activated substrates were characterized using XPS, TOF-SIMS, and contact angle measurements. They revealed a large surface coverage of silanol groups (Si-OH) and a loss of aluminum atoms compared to freshly cleaved mica surfaces. The stability of plasma-induced silanol groups was investigated by contact angle measurements using ethylene glycol as a probe liquid. The Si-OH surface coverage decreased rapidly under vacuum or thermal treatment to give rise to hydrophobic dehydrated surfaces. The stability of end-grafted monofunctionalized n-alkylsilanes was investigated in different solvents and at different pH using water contact angle measurements. The degrafting of alkylsilanes from the activated mica was promoted in acidic aqueous solutions. This detachment was associated with the hydrolysis of covalent bonds between the alkylsilanes and the mica surface. The monolayer stability was enhanced by increasing the length of the alkyl chains that probably act as a hydrophobic protective layer against hydrolysis reactions. Stable alkylsilane monolayers in water with pH greater than 5.5 were obtained on mica surfaces activated at low plasma pressure. We attributed this stability to the loss of surface Al atoms induced by the plasma treatment.

  5. Plasma Homocysteine Is Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Welders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Hsin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association of vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine with oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities in welders. Workers were divided into either the welding exposure group (n=57 or the nonexposure controls (n=42 based on whether they were employed as welders. There were no significant differences in vitamin B6 status and plasma homocysteine concentration between the welding exposure group and the nonexposure controls. The welding exposure group had significantly higher levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower erythrocyte glutathione concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities when compared to nonexposure controls. Plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate concentration did not correlate with oxidative stress indicators or antioxidant capacities in either group. However, plasma homocysteine significantly correlated with total antioxidant capacity (TAC (partial rs=-0.34, P<0.05 and erythrocyte SOD activities (partial rs=0.29, P<0.05 after adjusting for potential confounders in the welding exposure group. In the welding exposure group, adequate vitamin B6 status was not associated with oxidative stress or antioxidant capacities. However, elevated plasma homocysteine seemed to be a major contributing factor to antioxidant capacities (TAC and erythrocyte SOD activities in welders.

  6. Higher Plasma Pyridoxal Phosphate Is Associated with Increased Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Critically Ill Surgical Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsiang Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients experience severe stress, inflammation and clinical conditions which may increase the utilization and metabolic turnover of vitamin B-6 and may further increase their oxidative stress and compromise their antioxidant capacity. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between vitamin B-6 status (plasma and erythrocyte PLP oxidative stress, and antioxidant capacities in critically ill surgical patients. Thirty-seven patients in surgical intensive care unit of Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, were enrolled. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte PLP, serum malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activities (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase were determined on the 1st and 7th days of admission. Plasma PLP was positively associated with the mean SOD activity level on day 1 (r=0.42, P<0.05, day 7 (r=0.37, P<0.05, and on changes (Δ (day 7 − day 1 (r=0.56, P<0.01 after adjusting for age, gender, and plasma C-reactive protein concentration. Higher plasma PLP could be an important contributing factor in the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in critically ill surgical patients.

  7. Isolation of biologically active and morphologically intact exosomes from plasma of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sook Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Isolation from human plasma of exosomes that retain functional and morphological integrity for probing their protein, lipid and nucleic acid content is a priority for the future use of exosomes as biomarkers. A method that meets these criteria and can be scaled up for patient monitoring is thus desirable. Methods: Plasma specimens (1 mL of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML or a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC were differentially centrifuged, ultrafiltered and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography in small disposable columns (mini-SEC. Exosomes were eluted in phosphate-buffered saline and were evaluated by qNano for particle size and counts, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, protein content, molecular profiles by western blots, and for ability to modify functions of immune cells. Results: Exosomes eluting in fractions #3–5 had a diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm by qNano, with the fraction #4 containing the bulk of clean, unaggregated exosomes. The exosome elution profiles remained constant for repeated runs of the same plasma. Larger plasma volumes could be fractionated running multiple mini-SEC columns in parallel. Particle concentrations per millilitre of plasma in #4 fractions of AML and HNSCC were comparable and were higher (p<0.003 than those in normal controls. Isolated AML exosomes co-incubated with normal human NK cells inhibited NKG2D expression levels (p<0.004, and HNSCC exosomes suppressed activation (p<0.01 and proliferation of activated T lymphocytes (p<0.03. Conclusions: Mini-SEC allows for simple and reproducible isolation from human plasma of exosomes retaining structural integrity and functional activity. It enables molecular/functional analysis of the exosome content in serial specimens of human plasma for clinical applications.

  8. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  9. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  10. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. PMID:26193433

  11. Plasma tPA-Activity and Progression of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities in Lacunar Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overbeek, Ellen C.; Staals, Julie; Knottnerus, Iris L. H.; ten Cate, Hugo; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) antigen are considered to be haemostasis-related markers of endothelial activation and relate to presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) as was earlier shown in a cross-sectional study. We investigated whether tPA-activity and PAI-1 levels are associated with WMH progression in a longitudinal study. Methods In 127 first-ever lacunar stroke patients in whom baseline brain MRI and plasma levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1-antigen were available, we obtained a 2-year follow-up MRI. We assessed WMH progression by a visual WMH change scale. We determined the relationship between levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1 and WMH progression, by logistic regression analysis. Results Plasma tPA-activity was associated with periventricular WMH progression (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.01–5.49, with correction for age and sex and baseline presence of WMH), but not with deep or any (periventricular and/or deep) WMH progression. PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with WMH progression, but these results were not significant. Conclusion We found a relationship between plasma tPA-activity and progression of periventricular WMH. More research is needed to determine whether there is a (direct) role of tPA in the development and progression of WMH. PMID:26942412

  12. Plasma tPA-Activity and Progression of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities in Lacunar Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen C van Overbeek

    Full Text Available Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA-activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 antigen are considered to be haemostasis-related markers of endothelial activation and relate to presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH as was earlier shown in a cross-sectional study. We investigated whether tPA-activity and PAI-1 levels are associated with WMH progression in a longitudinal study.In 127 first-ever lacunar stroke patients in whom baseline brain MRI and plasma levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1-antigen were available, we obtained a 2-year follow-up MRI. We assessed WMH progression by a visual WMH change scale. We determined the relationship between levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1 and WMH progression, by logistic regression analysis.Plasma tPA-activity was associated with periventricular WMH progression (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.01-5.49, with correction for age and sex and baseline presence of WMH, but not with deep or any (periventricular and/or deep WMH progression. PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with WMH progression, but these results were not significant.We found a relationship between plasma tPA-activity and progression of periventricular WMH. More research is needed to determine whether there is a (direct role of tPA in the development and progression of WMH.

  13. Elevated phospholipase A2 activities in plasma samples from multiple cancers.

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    Hui Cai

    Full Text Available Only in recent years have phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2s emerged as cancer targets. In this work, we report the first detection of elevated PLA2 activities in plasma from patients with colorectal, lung, pancreatic, and bladder cancers as compared to healthy controls. Independent sets of clinical plasma samples were obtained from two different sites. The first set was from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC; n = 38 and healthy controls (n = 77. The second set was from patients with lung (n = 95, bladder (n = 31, or pancreatic cancers (n = 38, and healthy controls (n = 79. PLA2 activities were analyzed by a validated quantitative fluorescent assay method and subtype PLA2 activities were defined in the presence of selective inhibitors. The natural PLA2 activity, as well as each subtype of PLA2 activity was elevated in each cancer group as compared to healthy controls. PLA2 activities were increased in late stage vs. early stage cases in CRC. PLA2 activities were not influenced by sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, or body-mass index (BMI. Samples from the two independent sites confirmed the results. Plasma PLA2 activities had approximately 70% specificity and sensitivity to detect cancer. The marker and targeting values of PLA2 activity have been suggested.

  14. Oxidation of limonene using activated carbon modified in dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonek, Karolina; Wróblewska, Agnieszka; Makuch, Edyta; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Rafał. J.; Koren, Zvi C.; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-10-01

    The waste from industrial fruits processing is utilized for the extraction of limonene, a renewable terpene biomass compound obtained from orange peels. This was followed by limonene oxidation, which produces highly useful oxygenated derivatives (carveol, and perillyl alcohol, 1,2-epoxylimonene and its diol). New catalysts were obtained by treating relatively inexpensive commercially available EuroPh and FPV activated carbons with plasma. These catalysts were characterized by the following instrumental methods XRD, sorption of N2 and CO2, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The activities of the plasma-treated catalysts were measured in the oxidation of limonene by means of either hydrogen peroxide or t-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidizing agents. During the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide the new plasma-treated catalysts were more active than their untreated counterparts. This effect was noticeable in the considerable increase in the conversion of limonene. The mechanism explaining this property is proposed, and it takes into account the role of the appropriate functional groups on the surface of the catalysts. This work has shown for the first time that the commercial EuroPh and FPV activated carbons, after having been treated by plasma, are active catalysts for the selective limonene oxidation for the production of value-added industrial products.

  15. Removal NO with non-thermal plasma assisted catalyst modified activated carbon from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.G. [Toyahashi Univ. of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Ecological Engineering; Anhui Univ. of Science and Technology, Huainan, Anhui (China). School of Chemical Engineering; Takashima, T.; Mizuno, A. [Toyahashi Univ. of Technology, Toyohashi, Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Ecological Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Non-thermal plasma can produce a significant number of free electrons, ions, reactive free radicals and a variety of free particles in excited states, containing a large number of active atomic oxygen (O) and higher activity energy so it can increase the chemical reaction rate. An effective way to generate the non-thermal plasma is through dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). There are three types of dielectric barrier discharge reactors: wire (or bar)-cylinder; wire-plate; and plate-plate structure. This paper examined the effect of gas concentration, space velocity, catalyst loading volume, and the input voltage on the removal ratio of nitric oxide (NO) in the process of non-thermal plasma assisted with modified activated carbon from coal. A form of bar-cylinder reactor was used and combined with a catalyst of modified activated carbon from coal. The catalyst was packed between the bar and the cylinder in the fixed bed reactor. It was concluded that a non-thermal plasma assisted catalyst which modifies activated carbon from coal is an effective way to remove NO, and the input voltage, gas concentration, gas space velocity and the catalyst packed weight has a certain degree of impact on the NO removal ratio. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  16. A low-glycemic-index diet reduces plasma PAI-1 activity in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    to decrease during weight loss. However, the beneficial effects of healthy diets on PAI-1 levels may not solely depend on weight loss, but other factors may also play a role. For example better glycemic control has been observed in diabetic patients after a low glycemic index (GI) diet compared to a high GI......Introduction An elevated level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma is a core feature of the metabolic syndrome. Plasma PAI-1 is elevated in obesity and might be responsible for some of the secondary effects of obesity as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PAI-1 has been shown...... diet. Still, the relevance of GI in preventing the metabolic syndrome is controversial. Objectives The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of 10 weeks intake of a low glycemic index vs. a high glycemic index high-carbohydrate, low fat ad libitum diet on plasma PAI-1 activity...

  17. Comparison Between Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Ozone Regenerations of Activated Carbon Exhausted with Pentachlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Qu, Dong; Huang, Yimei; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O3) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O3 regeneration. O3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration.

  18. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  19. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rebeca Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart., a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control diet or a high-fat (HF diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  20. Active experiments in geospace plasmas with gigawatts of RF power at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, James

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere provides a relatively quiescent plasma target, stable on timescales of minutes, for a whole host of active plasma experiments. The largest HF transmitter built to date is the HAARP phased-array HF transmitter near Gakona, Alaska which can deliver up to 3.6 Gigawatts (ERP) of CW RF power in the range of 2.8 - 10 MHz to the ionosphere with millisecond pointing, power modulation, and frequency agility. With an ionospheric background thermal energy in the range of only 0.1 eV, this amount of power gives access to the highest regimes of the nonlinearity (RF intensity to thermal pressure) ratio. HAARP's unique features have enabled the conduct of a number of nonlinear plasma experiments in the inter¬action region of overdense ionospheric plasma including generation of artificial aurorae, artificial ionization layers, VLF wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, parametric instabilities, stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE), strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) and suprathermal electron acceleration. Diagnostics include the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) sited at HAARP, the SuperDARN-Kodiak HF radar, spacecraft radio beacons, HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and optics for optical emissions. We report on short timescale ponderomotive overshoot effects, artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI), the aspect angle dependence of the intensity of the HF-enhanced plasma line, and production of suprathermal electrons. Applications are made to the controlled study of fundamental nonlinear plasma processes of relevance to laboratory plasmas, ionospheric irregularities affecting spacecraft communication and navigation systems, artificial ionization mirrors, wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere, active global magnetospheric experiments, and many more.

  1. Lipoprotein lipase activity and interactions studied in human plasma by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimund, Mart; Kovrov, Oleg; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Lookene, Aivar

    2017-01-01

    LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Due to the complex regulation mechanism, it has been difficult to mimic the physiological conditions under which LPL acts in vitro. We demonstrate that isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), using human plasma as substrate, overcomes several limitations of previously used techniques. The high sensitivity of ITC allows continuous recording of the heat released during hydrolysis. Both initial rates and kinetics for complete hydrolysis of plasma lipids can be studied. The heat rate was shown to correspond to the release of fatty acids and was linearly related to the amount of added enzyme, either purified LPL or postheparin plasma. Addition of apoC-III reduced the initial rate of hydrolysis by LPL, but the inhibition became less prominent with time when the lipoproteins were triglyceride poor. Addition of angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)3 or ANGPTL4 caused reduction of the activity of LPL via a two-step mechanism. We conclude that ITC can be used for quantitative measurements of LPL activity and interactions under in vivo-like conditions, for comparisons of the properties of plasma samples from patients and control subjects as substrates for LPL, as well as for testing of drug candidates developed with the aim to affect the LPL system. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Acute elevation of plasma PLTP activity strongly increases pre-existing atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Moerland (Matthijs); H.M.E. Samyn (Hannelore); T. van Gent (Teus); M.J. van Haperen (Rien); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); A. van Tol (Arie); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective - A transgenic mouse model was generated that allows conditional expression of human PLTP, based on the tetracycline-responsive gene system, to study the effects of an acute increase in plasma PLTP activity as may occur in inflammation. Methods and Results - The effects of an a

  3. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I: its plasma determinants and relation with cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.

    2004-01-01

    The habitual level of PAI-1 is influenced by many factors, of which obesity and insulin resistance are the most important. It is possible to reduce plasma PAI-1 by changes in life style, e.g. weight reduction and physical activity. Data on potential interactions between environmental and metabolic v

  4. Fibrinogen γ' increases the sensitivity to activated protein C in normal and factor V Leiden plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Farida; Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Simioni, Paolo; Ariëns, Robert A S; Bertina, Rogier M; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2014-08-28

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance, often associated with the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis. We observed increased APC resistance in carriers of fibrinogen γ gene (FGG) haplotype 2, which is associated with reduced levels of the alternatively spliced fibrinogen γ' chain. This finding prompted us to study the effects of fibrinogen and its γ' chain on APC resistance. Fibrinogen, and particularly the γA/γ' isoform, improved the response of plasma to added APC in the thrombin generation-based assay. Similarly, a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the fibrinogen γ' chain, which binds thrombin and inhibits its activities, greatly increased the APC sensitivity of normal and FV Leiden plasma, likely due to its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated activation of FV and FVIII. Although the fibrinogen γ' peptide also inhibited protein C activation by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, it still increased the sensitivity of plasma to endogenously formed APC when thrombin generation was measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin. We conclude that fibrinogen, and particularly fibrinogen γ', increases plasma APC sensitivity. The fibrinogen γ' peptide might form the basis for pharmacologic interventions to counteract APC resistance. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. Effects of Aluminum on ATPase Activity and Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes from Wheat Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Long-fei; LIU You-liang; SHEN Zhen-guo; WANG Ai-qin

    2002-01-01

    The effects of aluminum on ATPase activity and lipid composition of the plasma membranes isolated from root tips of Al-tolerant (Altas 66) or Al-sensitive (Scout 66) cultivar of Triticum aestivum L.was assayed. The results showed that both cultivars had similar changes in H+ -ATPase and Ca2+ -ATPase activities after aluminum treatment. Exposure of both cultivars to 20 and 100 (mol/L aluminum for 5 d significantly decreased the activities of Ca2+ -ATPase of plasma membranes. The activities of H+-ATPasc in plasma membrane increased under 20 μmol/L aluminum and decreased at 100 μmol/L aluminum. With aluminum treatment, the PL content of plasma membrane decreased, but GL content increased. The ratio of PL to GL decreased more distinctly in Scout 66 than that in Altas 66. Treated with 20 and 100 μmol/L aluminum, linolenic acid content and the index of unsaturated fatty acids decreaced greatly in Scout 66, but the index of unsaturated fatty acids in Altas 66 increased slightly.

  6. Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 as biomarkers of ulcerative colitis activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Overexpression of mucosal metalloproteinases (MMP)has been demonstrated recently in inflammatory boweldisease. Their activity can be counterbalanced by the tissueinhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP). The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis (UC) on MMP-1 and TTMP-1 plasma concentrations, as two possiblebiomarkers of the disease activity.METHODS: MMP-1 and TIMP-1 plasma concentrations weremeasured with an enzyme immunoassay in 16 patients withendoscopically confirmed active UC.RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of both MMP-11 (13.7±0.2ng/ml) and TIMP-L (799±140 ng/ml) were significantlyelevated in UC patients in comparison to healthy controls(11.9±0.9 ng/ml and 220±7 ng/ml respectively). There wasno correlation between TIMP-1 and MMP-1 concentrations(r=-0.02). TIMP-1 levels revealed significant positivecorrelations with scored endoscopic degree of mucosai injury,disease activity index and clinical activity index values aswell as C-reactive protein concentration. There was nocorrelation between MMP-1 and laboratory, clinical orendoscopic indices of the disease activity.CONCLUSION: These results confirm the role of both MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.However only TIMP-1 can be useful as a biomarker of thedisease activity, demonstrating association with clinical andendoscopic pictures.

  7. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in contact with liquid and producing a plasma activated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretti, G.; Taglioli, M.; Colonna, G.; Borghi, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a low-temperature plasma source for the generation of plasma activated water (PAW) is developed and characterized. The plasma reactor was operated by means of an atmospheric-pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The plasma generated is in contact with the water surface and is able to chemically activate the liquid medium. Electrodes were supplied by both sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed voltage waveforms. Treatment times were varied from 2 to 12 min to increase the energy dose released to the water by the DBD plasma. The physics of the discharge was studied by means of electrical, spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics. The interaction between the plasma and the liquid was investigated as well. Temperature and composition of the treated water were detected. Images of the discharges showed a filamentary behaviour in the sinusoidal case and a more homogeneous behaviour in the nanosecond-pulsed one. The images and the electrical measurements allowed to evaluate an average electron number density of about 4  ×  1019 and 6  ×  1017 m-3 for the sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed discharges respectively. Electron temperatures in the range of 2.1÷2.6 eV were measured by using spectroscopic diagnostics. Rotational temperatures in the range of 318-475 K were estimated by fitting synthetic spectra with the measured ones. Water temperature and pH level did not change significantly after the exposure to the DBD plasma. The production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide within the water was enhanced by increasing the plasma treatment time and the energy dose. Numerical simulations of the nanosecond-pulsed discharge were performed by using a self-consistent coupling of state-to-state kinetics of the air mixture with the Boltzmann equation of free electron kinetics. Temporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function shows departure from the Maxwellian distribution especially during the afterglow phase of the discharge. When

  8. Activity assays and immunoassays for plasma Renin and prorenin: information provided and precautions necessary for accurate measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Duncan J; Nussberger, Juerg; Stowasser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of plasma renin is important for the clinical assessment of hypertensive patients. The most common methods for measuring plasma renin are the plasma renin activity (PRA) assay and the renin immunoassay. The clinical application of renin inhibitor therapy has thrown...... are susceptible to renin overestimation due to prorenin activation. In addition, activity assays performed with peptidase inhibitors may overestimate the degree of inhibition of PRA by renin inhibitor therapy. Moreover, immunoassays may overestimate the reactive increase in plasma renin concentration in response...

  9. Surgery-induced changes in red blood cell and plasma lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and blood hematology of female rats: protective role of methylene blue and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hamit; Durmus, Ali Said; Simsek, Halil

    2011-03-01

    The aim was to determine the effects on red blood cell (RBC) and plasma lipid peroxidation, antioxidants and blood hematology of intraperitoneally administered vitamin E (VE) and 1% methylene blue (MB) solutions for prevention of adhesions in rats. Thirty-seven female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups. An adhesion model was constituted on the left uterine horn in three of the groups. They were then given intraperitoneally 0.9% saline (C group), 10 mg VE (VE group) and 1% MB (MB group) solutions, respectively. A sham group (Sh group), on which laparotomy was performed, received 2 ml of 0.9% saline solution. In the C group, the adhesion scores were significantly higher than in the VE (pblood lymphocyte count (pblood white blood cell (WBC) counts (pblood WBC counts (p<0.01), plasma paraoxonase (PON1) (p<0.001) and NO (p<0.01), and RBC glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (p<0.05) and MDA levels (p<0.01). Intraperitoneal administration of MB and VE is significantly effective in preventing intraabdominal adhesion formation in a rat model. Further investigations are necessary, however, to better understand the underlying biochemical mechanisms on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants of MB. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  11. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    OpenAIRE

    Berzosa, C.; I. Cebrián; Fuentes-Broto, L.; E. Gómez-Trullén; Piedrafita, E.; Martínez-Ballarín, E.; López-Pingarrón, L.; Reiter, R. J.; García, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS) and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects ( = 3 4 ) performed three cycloergometric tests, including maxi...

  13. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Yuguang Lin; Vermeer, Mario A.; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawtho...

  14. Selective regulation of maize plasma membrane aquaporin trafficking and activity by the SNARE SYP121.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Burnotte, Emeline; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chevalier, Adrien S; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Grefen, Christopher; Blatt, Michael R; Chaumont, François

    2012-08-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are aquaporins facilitating the diffusion of water through the cell membrane. We previously showed that the traffic of the maize (Zea mays) PIP2;5 to the plasma membrane is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum diacidic export motif. Here, we report that the post-Golgi traffic and water channel activity of PIP2;5 are regulated by the SNARE (for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptor) SYP121, a plasma membrane resident syntaxin involved in vesicle traffic, signaling, and regulation of K(+) channels. We demonstrate that the expression of the dominant-negative SYP121-Sp2 fragment in maize mesophyll protoplasts or epidermal cells leads to a decrease in the delivery of PIP2;5 to the plasma membrane. Protoplast and oocyte swelling assays showed that PIP2;5 water channel activity is negatively affected by SYP121-Sp2. A combination of in vitro (copurification assays) and in vivo (bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer, and yeast split-ubiquitin) approaches allowed us to demonstrate that SYP121 and PIP2;5 physically interact. Together with previous data demonstrating the role of SYP121 in regulating K(+) channel trafficking and activity, these results suggest that SYP121 SNARE contributes to the regulation of the cell osmotic homeostasis.

  15. Selective Regulation of Maize Plasma Membrane Aquaporin Trafficking and Activity by the SNARE SYP121[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Burnotte, Emeline; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chevalier, Adrien S.; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Grefen, Christopher; Blatt, Michael R.; Chaumont, François

    2012-01-01

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are aquaporins facilitating the diffusion of water through the cell membrane. We previously showed that the traffic of the maize (Zea mays) PIP2;5 to the plasma membrane is dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum diacidic export motif. Here, we report that the post-Golgi traffic and water channel activity of PIP2;5 are regulated by the SNARE (for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptor) SYP121, a plasma membrane resident syntaxin involved in vesicle traffic, signaling, and regulation of K+ channels. We demonstrate that the expression of the dominant-negative SYP121-Sp2 fragment in maize mesophyll protoplasts or epidermal cells leads to a decrease in the delivery of PIP2;5 to the plasma membrane. Protoplast and oocyte swelling assays showed that PIP2;5 water channel activity is negatively affected by SYP121-Sp2. A combination of in vitro (copurification assays) and in vivo (bimolecular fluorescence complementation, Förster resonance energy transfer, and yeast split-ubiquitin) approaches allowed us to demonstrate that SYP121 and PIP2;5 physically interact. Together with previous data demonstrating the role of SYP121 in regulating K+ channel trafficking and activity, these results suggest that SYP121 SNARE contributes to the regulation of the cell osmotic homeostasis. PMID:22942383

  16. Increased Plasma Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Activities in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Li, Yuzi; Cui, Lan; Jiang, Haiying; Li, Xiang; Jin, Chunzi; Jin, Dehao; Zhao, Guangxian; Jin, Jiyong; Sun, Rui; Piao, Limei; Xu, Wenhu; Fang, Chenghu; Lei, Yanna; Yuan, Kuichang; Xuan, Chunhua; Ding, Dazi

    2016-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) is one of the most potent mammalian serine proteases participated in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis. Here we investigated whether the plasma soluble form of DPP4 is associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted of 496 aged 26–81 years with (n = 362) and without (n = 134) CAD. Plasma DPP4 activity, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein levels were measured. The coronary atherosclerotic plaques were evaluated by coronary angiography. The CAD patients with (n = 84) and without (n = 278) DM had significantly higher DPP4 levels (11.8 ± 3.1 vs. 6.9 ± 3.5 ng/mL, Psyntax scores. A multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that plasma DPP4 activity was independent predictor of CAD (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.19–1.73; P<0.01). Our study shows that increased DPP4 activity levels are associated with the presence of CAD and that the plasma DPP4 level serves as a novel biomarker for CAD even without DM. PMID:27654253

  17. Active screen plasma surface modification of polycaprolactone to improve cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Sammons, Rachel L; Bertóti, Imre; Jenkins, Mike J; Dong, Hanshan

    2012-02-01

    To tailor polycaprolactone (PCL) surface properties for biomedical applications, film samples of PCL were surface modified by the active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) technique. The chemical composition and structure were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The wettability of the surface modified polymers was investigated by contact angle and surface energy methods. Biocompatibility of the prepared PCL samples was evaluated in vitro using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. The degradability was assessed by determining the self-degradation rate (catalyzed by lipase). The results show that ASPN surface modification can effectively improve osteoblast cell adhesion and spreading on the surface of PCL. The main change in chemical composition is the exchange of some carboxyl groups on the surface for hydroxyl groups. The active-screen plasma nitriding technique has been found to be an effective and practical method to effectively improve osteoblast cell adhesion and spreading on the PCL surface. Such changes have been attributed to the increase in wettablity and generation of new hydroxyl groups by plasma treatment. After active-screen plasma treatment, the PCL film is still degradable, but the enzymatic degradation rate is slower compared with untreated PCL film. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Associations among objectively measured physical activity, fasting plasma homocysteine concentration, and MTHFR C677T genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Haruka; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Gando, Yuko; Ohmori, Yumi; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2011-12-01

    Elevated fasting plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level is a vascular disease risk factor. Plasma Hcy is affected by 5,10-methylenetetrahydofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and dietary folate intake. This cross-sectional study in 434 Japanese adults examined the associations among objectively measured physical activity (PA), plasma Hcy adjusting for dietary folate intake, and MTHFR C677T genotype. Daily PA was measured by triaxial accelerometry and all subjects completed a questionnaire about their dietary habits. Plasma Hcy and MTHFR C677T genotype were determined. Plasma Hcy in subjects with the TT genotype was significantly higher than in those with CC or CT genotype (p < 0.001). Plasma Hcy was significantly different between ≥ 200 (7.6 ± 0.2 nmol/mL) and <200 µg/day (8.3 ± 0.3 nmol/mL) folate intake groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in plasma Hcy adjusting for age, sex, and folate intake between groups according to PA category in all subjects. However, there were significant interactions between time spent in light PA (p = 0.003), vigorous PA (p = 0.001), or inactivity (p = 0.004), and MTHFR genotype. In only the TT genotype, shorter time spent in light PA was associated with higher plasma Hcy than a longer time spent in light PA (11.5 ± 3.3 nmol/mL vs. 8.5 ± 3.3 nmol/mL, p < 0.001), and longer time spent in vigorous PA and inactivity were associated with higher plasma Hcy (11.8 ± 3.3 nmol/mL vs. 8.4 ± 3.2 nmol/mL, 11.6 ± 3.3 nmol/mL vs. 8.4 ± 3.3 nmol/mL, respectively, p < 0.001). In conclusion, light and vigorous PA were associated with plasma Hcy only in the TT genotype, but there were no such associations in all genotypes.

  19. Calibration constant of a silver activation counter used with plasma focus devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR Etaati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The silver activation counters are commonly used for pulsed-neutron yield measurements especially in plasma focus devices. The counter normally consists of a Geiger-Muller tube along with silver foils and polyethylene (as a moderator, which is calibrated against an Am-Be radioisotope neutron source. The neutrons, after being slowed-down in the polyethylene, activate the silver foils. By measuring the foil activity with a Geiger-Muller counter, the neutron yield is determined. In the present paper, the activation counter’s calibration constant calculation using the MCNP4C code is explained. The calculated calibration constant is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  1. "Hot" Non-flaring Plasmas in Active Region Cores Heated by Single Nanoflares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Will Thomas; Cargill, Peter; Bradshaw, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    We use hydrodynamic modeling tools, including a two-fluid development of the EBTEL code, to investigate the properties expected of "hot" (i.e. between 106.7 and 107.2 K) non-flaring plasmas due to nanoflare heating in active regions. Here we focus on single nanoflares and show that while simple models predict an emission measure distribution extending well above 10 MK that is consistent with cooling by thermal conduction, many other effects are likely to limit the existence and detectability of such plasmas. These include: differential heating between electrons and ions, ionization non-equilibrium and, for short nanoflares, the time taken for the coronal density to increase. The most useful temperature range to look for this plasma, often called the "smoking gun" of nanoflare heating, lies between 1 MK and 10 MK. Signatures of the actual heating may be detectable in some instances.

  2. The Need for Plasma Astrophysics in Understanding Life Cycles of Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H; Bellan, P; Colgate, S; Forest, C; Fowler, K; Goodman, J; Intrator, T; Kronberg, P; Lyutikov, M; Zweibel, E

    2009-01-01

    In this White Paper, we emphasize the need for and the important role of plasma astrophysics in the studies of formation, evolution of, and feedback by Active Galaxies. We make three specific recommendations: 1) We need to significantly increase the resolution of VLA, perhaps by building an EVLA-II at a modest cost. This will provide the angular resolution to study jets at kpc scales, where, for example, detailed Faraday rotation diagnosis can be done at 1GHz transverse to jets; 2) We need to build coordinated programs among NSF, NASA, and DOE to support laboratory plasma experiments (including liquid metal) that are designed to study key astrophysical processes, such as magneto-rotational instability (origin of angular momentum transport), dynamo (origin of magnetic fields), jet launching and stability. Experiments allowing access to relativistic plasma regime (perhaps by intense lasers and magnetic fields) will be very helpful for understanding the stability and dissipation physics of jets from Supermassive...

  3. Active Detectors for Plasma Soft X-Ray Detection at PALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Granja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work carried out for an experimental study of low-energy nuclear excitation by laser-produced plasma at the PALS Prague laser facility. We describe the adaptation and shielding of single-quantum active radiation detectors developed at IEAP CTU Prague to facilitate their operation inside the laser interaction chamber in the vicinity of the plasma target. The goal of this effort is direct real-time single-quantum detection of plasma soft X-ray radiation with energy above a few keV and subsequent identification of the decay of the excited nuclear states via low-energy gamma rays in a highly radiative environment with strong electromagnetic interference.

  4. The effect of gas plasma modification on platelet and contact phase activation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nicholas P; Wilson, Darren J; Williams, Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Medical-grade polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyetherurethane (PEU) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were plasma treated with O2, Ar, N2 and NH3. Their surface properties were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SSIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis. Platelet adhesion, aggregation, activation and release of microparticles were determined after contact with whole blood in a cone and plate viscometer. Activation of the coagulation system was quantified in a static environment using a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) assay. The chemical compositions of the untreated surfaces were found to be very similar to those of the bulk material except for PEU, whose surface was comprised almost entirely of soft ether segments. For all materials, the different plasma treatments resulted in moderate etching with the incorporation of functional groups and removal of side groups: defluorination, dehydrogenation, cleavage of methyl side groups and soft segments for PTFE, UHMWPE, PDMS and PEU, respectively. Consequently, plasma treatment resulted in increased wettability in all cases. Blood contact with the virgin materials resulted in activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Plasma treatment resulted in a significant reduction in platelet adhesion for all materials and all treatments. In the case of PTFE and PEU, the activation status of these cells was also reduced. Plasma treatment of all materials reduced fluid-phase CD62P expression. Platelet aggregate size correlated well with degree of aggregate formation, but many treatments increased the degree of aggregation, as was the case for microparticle shedding. There was no correlation between CD62P expression, aggregate formation and platelet microparticle (PMP) shedding. It is concluded that despite incorporation of the same chemical groups, the pattern of response to

  5. Trans-activity of plasma membrane-associated ganglioside sialyltransferase in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcaes, Aldo A; Demichelis, Vanina Torres; Daniotti, Jose L

    2011-09-09

    Gangliosides are acidic glycosphingolipids that contain sialic acid residues and are expressed in nearly all vertebrate cells. They are synthesized at the Golgi complex by a combination of glycosyltransferase activities followed by vesicular delivery to the plasma membrane, where they participate in a variety of physiological as well as pathological processes. Recently, a number of enzymes of ganglioside anabolism and catabolism have been shown to be associated with the plasma membrane. In particular, it was observed that CMP-NeuAc:GM3 sialyltransferase (Sial-T2) is able to sialylate GM3 at the plasma membrane (cis-catalytic activity). In this work, we demonstrated that plasma membrane-integrated ecto-Sial-T2 also displays a trans-catalytic activity at the cell surface of epithelial and melanoma cells. By using a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy, we observed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to sialylate hydrophobically or covalently immobilized GM3 onto a solid surface. More interestingly, we observed that ecto-Sial-T2 was able to sialylate GM3 exposed on the membrane of neighboring cells by using both the exogenous and endogenous donor substrate (CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid) available at the extracellular milieu. In addition, the trans-activity of ecto-Sial-T2 was considerably reduced when the expression of the acceptor substrate was inhibited by using a specific inhibitor of biosynthesis of glycolipids, indicating the lipidic nature of the acceptor. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that an ecto-sialyltransferase is able to trans-sialylate substrates exposed in the plasma membrane from mammalian cells, which represents a novel insight into the molecular events that regulate the local glycosphingolipid composition.

  6. X-raying hot plasma in solar active regions with the SphinX spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Miceli, M; Gburek, S; Terzo, S; Barbera, M; Collura, A; Sylwester, J; Kowalinski, M; Podgorski, P; Gryciuk, M

    2012-01-01

    The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. We analyzed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistics and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 x 10^44 cm^-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominat...

  7. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiang-Hong; JIA Shao-Xia; XU Feng; BAI Yan-Qiang; WAN Jun; LIU Hong-Tao; JIANG Rui

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields,Confined Magnetic Field,Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc.for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration.The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far.The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles.One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric.A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz,which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side.The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt,but the mechanism has yet to be understood.A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions,and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power.

  8. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  9. [The measurement of antioxidant activity in human plasma using cumene hydroperoxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, O; Nakano, M; Matsuto, T; Miida, T; Okada, M

    1998-03-01

    We describe a new method using cumene hydroperoxide to determine antioxidant activity (AO) in human plasma. We used a kit (Determiner LPO: Kyowa Medex Co., LTD. Tokyo Japan) for the determination of lipid peroxides in plasma or serum. 30 microliters 1 of sample was mixed with 70 microliters 1 of cumene hydroperoxide (50 nmol/ml) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 120 min before analysis. Samples were mixed with 1.0 ml of reagent-I (Determiner LPO) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 5 min. Then 2.0 ml of reagent-II (Determiner LPO) was added and incubated at 30 degrees C for 10 min, at which time the absorbance at 675 nm was measured. AO were calculated using the following formula: AO nmol/ml = 35 nmol/ml-(Es-Eb)/(Estd-Eb) x 35 nmol/ml (Es = sample abs., Eb = blank abs., Estd = standard abs.). Within-run precision for plasma AO was 2.3%. AO in plasma samples stored for 4 h at 4 degrees C was decreased by 1 nmol/ml. After 3 h at room temperature, AO was decreased by the same amount. Because this method measured ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione peroxidase and quercetin as antioxidant compounds, we were able to measure antioxidant activity in human plasma. Our reference values were calculated from the volunteers group which consisted of 172 students and 82 soldiers. The reference intervals for plasma AO by this procedure were 15.4-20.9 nmol/ml.

  10. Alterations in plasma dipeptidyl peptidase IV enzyme activity in depression and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Meester, I; Scharpe, S; Desnyder, R; Ranjan, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported that the activity of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) was significantly lower in the peripheral blood of major depressed patients than in normal controls. The present study examines plasma DPP IV activity in 43 major depressed and 13 schizophrenic subjects versus 21 normal controls and the effects of antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs on plasma DPP IV activity. DPP IV activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal controls and schizophrenic subjects. There was a trend towards higher DPP IV activity in schizophrenic patients than in normal controls. There were no significant effects of antidepressants or neuroleptics on plasma DPP IV activity in depressed and schizophrenic patients, respectively. There were no significant relationships between plasma DPP IV activity and plasma cortisol or immune-inflammatory markers, such as serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) or soluble IL-2 receptor. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma DPP IV and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) enzyme activity in the study group as a whole and in schizophrenic subjects. The results support the hypothesis that lower and higher plasma DPP IV activities are trait markers of major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. It is concluded that alterations in the enzyme activity of peptidases, such as DPP IV and PEP, play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression and schizophrenia.

  11. Membrane damage and active but nonculturable state in liquid cultures of Escherichia coli treated with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezalova, Eva; Lukes, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Electrical discharge plasmas can efficiently inactivate various microorganisms. Inactivation mechanisms caused by plasma, however, are not fully understood because of the complexity of both the plasma and biological systems. We investigated plasma-induced inactivation of Escherichia coli in water and mechanisms by which plasma affects bacterial cell membrane integrity. Atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet generated at ambient air in direct contact with bacterial suspension was used as a plasma source. We determined significantly lower counts of E. coli after treatment by plasma when they were assayed using a conventional cultivation technique than using a fluorescence-based LIVE/DEAD staining method, which indicated that bacteria may have entered the viable-but-nonculturable state (VBNC). We did not achieve resuscitation of these non-culturable cells, however, we detected their metabolic activity through the analysis of cellular mRNA, which suggests that cells may have been rather in the active-but-nonculturable state (ABNC). We hypothesize that peroxidation of cell membrane lipids by the reactive species produced by plasma was an important pathway of bacterial inactivation. Amount of malondialdehyde and membrane permeability of E. coli to propidium iodide increased with increasing bacterial inactivation by plasma. Membrane damage was also demonstrated by detection of free DNA in plasma-treated water.

  12. Genome-wide investigation of schizophrenia associated plasma Ndel1 enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Ary; Coleman, Jonathan; Breen, Gerome; Mazzoti, Diego Robles; Yonamine, Camila M; Pellegrino, Renata; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Glessner, Joseph; Sleiman, Patrick; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Bressan, Rodrigo A

    2016-04-01

    Ndel1 is a DISC1-interacting oligopeptidase that cleaves in vitro neuropeptides as neurotensin and bradykinin, and which has been associated with both neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth. We previously reported that plasma Ndel1 enzyme activity is lower in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) compared to healthy controls (HCs). To our knowledge, no previous study has investigated the genetic factors associated with the plasma Ndel1 enzyme activity. In the current analyses, samples from 83 SCZ patients and 92 control subjects that were assayed for plasma Ndel1 enzyme activity were genotyped on Illumina Omni Express arrays. A genetic relationship matrix using genome-wide information was then used for ancestry correction, and association statistics were calculated genome-wide. Ndel1 enzyme activity was significantly lower in patients with SCZ (t=4.9; pCAMK1D, MAGI2, CCDC25, and GABGR3, at a level of suggestive significance (p<10(-6)), independent of the clinical status. Then, we performed a model to investigate the observed differences for case/control measures. 2 SNPs at region 1p22.2 reached the p<10(-7) level. ZFPM2 and MAD1L1 were the only two genes with more than one hit at 10(-6) order of p value. Therefore, Ndel1 enzyme activity is a complex trait influenced by many different genetic variants that may contribute to SCZ physiopathology.

  13. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  14. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days. RESULTS: Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  15. A rapid and simple assay for growth hormone-binding protein activity in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, G; Shaw, M A; Amburn, K

    1988-12-01

    The newly discovered circulating growth hormone binding proteins dictate a re-evaluation of the state of GH in plasma in health and disease as the binding proteins are known to affect GH metabolism and action. We describe a rapid and simple GH-binding assay that allows determination of free and complexed plasma GH, as well as GH-binding protein activity as an index of GH-binding protein levels, with relative ease. The method is based on incubation of plasma with 125I-GH and separation of bound from free GH on small DEAE-cellulose columns; it can be used on a large scale for routine determinations. The results obtained by this method are comparable to those obtained with the previously used slow and more cumbersome gel filtration technique. Initial data obtained in normal subjects and certain disease states show that the bound fraction of plasma GH is similar in men, women and children, is unaffected by pregnancy or acute infection, but is marginally decreased in liver cirrhosis. In acromegaly, binding protein activity also appears normal when allowance is made for partial saturation of the binding proteins by the high prevailing GH levels. The technique we describe should facilitate investigations of normal and abnormal regulation of the GH binding proteins.

  16. Autolytic Activity and Plasma Binding Study of Aap, a Novel Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramina Mahboobi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal autolysins are enzymes involved in cell wall turnover and cellular division physiologically. They have been found to be involved in the pneumococcus pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the autolytic activity of Spr1754 as a novel protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, the binding of the recombinant protein to plasma proteins was also determined. The spr1754 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pET21a(+ prokaryotic expression vector. The constructed pET21a(+/spr1754 recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli Origami (DE3 and induced using IPTG. The recombinant protein of Spr1754 was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody. Autolytic activity and the ability of the recombinant protein in binding to plasma proteins were performed using zymogram analysis and western blot, respectively. The spr1754 with expected size was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli Origami (DE3, successfully. After purification of the Spr1754 recombinant protein, the autolytic activity was observed by zymography. Of the four plasma proteins used in this study, binding of lactoferrin to Spr1754 recombinant protein was shown. The Spr1754 recombinant protein has a bifunctional activity, i.e., as being autolysin and lactoferrin binding and designated as Aap (autolytic/ adhesion/ pneumococcus. Nevertheless, characterization of the Aap needs to be followed using gene inactivation and cell wall localization.

  17. Perbedaan Kadar Platelet Activating Factor Plasma antara Penderita Demam Berdarah Dengue dan Demam Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djatnika Setiabudi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus infection can manifest as dengue fever and, more severely, as dengue hemorrhagic fever. Their pathogenesis until now is not fully understood. One of the most favorable theories stated the presence of increasing titer of pro-inflammatory mediator in severe dengue. The aim of this study was to determine the difference of plasma platelet activating factor titer between dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue fever patients. This observational study with cross sectional design was conducted during January–February 2013. Subjects were dengue patients, 1 to 14 years old, hospitalized at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung District Hospital (Ujungberung, and Cimahi District Hospital (Cibabat. Dengue cases were confirmed based on nonstructural-1 antigen and/or immunoglobulin M and G rapid test. Blood samples from febrile, critical and recovery phase were drawn for the examination of platelet activating factor titer using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. There were 26 dengue cases (14 as dengue fever and 12 as dengue hemorrhagic fever. Plasma platelet activating factor titer at the critical phase was significantly higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients [541.45 (239.30–2,449.00] pg/mL compared to dengue fever patients [289.55 (149.50–961.50] pg/mL; p=0.007. In conclusion, plasma platelet activating factor titer at the critical phase is higher in dengue hemorrhagic fever patients than in dengue fever patients.

  18. Relationship between plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity and acrosome reaction in guinea pig sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明文; 陈大元

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained by biochemical measurement demonstrated for the first time that significant decrease of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity occurred during capacitation and acrosome reaction of guinea pig sperm. Ethaorynic acid, one kind of Ca2+-ATPase antagonists, inhibited the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity, but calmodulin (50μg/mL) and trifluoperazine (200- 500μmol/L) did not, suggesting that calmodulin is not involved in ATP-driven Ca2+ efflux from sperm. However, calmodulin is involved in the control of Ca2+ influx. TFP, one kind of calmodulin antagonists, accelerated the acrosome reaction and Ca2+ uptake into sperm cells significantly. Ca2+-ATPase antagonists, quercetin, sodium orthovandate, furosemide and ethacrynic acid promoted the acrosome reaction, but inhibited Ca2+ uptake, which cannot be explained by their inhibitory effects on the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase activity. It is speculated that this phenomenon might be caused by simultaneous inhibitions of the activities of C

  19. [Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes produce extracellular proteinases--protein C activators of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmolovskiĭ, A A; Kreĭer, V G; Kurakov, A V; Baranova, N A; Egorov, N S

    2012-01-01

    Natural isolates of Aspergillus ochraceus myxomycetes from soil and plant remains from various regions have been screened. The isolated strains were characterized by similar cultural and morphological features and an identical nucleotide sequence in the ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 region of rDNA. The ability of the extracellular proteinases of A. ochraceus myxomycetes to activate protein C of blood plasma has been established. Differences are revealed in the accumulation of proteinases activating protein C and proteinases with thrombin- and plasmin-like activities in the growth dynamics of producers.

  20. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-03-31

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy.

  1. Effects of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma and plasma activated nitric oxide water on cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Ho Kang, Min; Sup Uhm, Han; Joon Lee, Geon; Ha Choi, Eun; Han, Ihn

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-thermal bio-compatible plasma is a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles. Previous studies demonstrated that dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma could induce apoptosis of various cancer cells, in particular demonstrating the selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells. Therefore, DBD plasma can be considered as a potential cancer treatment method for clinical applications. We previously developed a microwave jet plasma system, producing nitric oxide called nitric oxide-plasma activated water (NO-PAW). In this study, we explored the effects of NO-PAW on a cervical cancer cell line, in comparison with DBD plasma. The cytotoxicity results showed that the treatment of HeLa cell with DBD for 4 minutes and 7 μM concentration of NO-PAW could reach almost IC60. For the apoptosis assay, 4 minutes treatment of DBD could induce 7% apoptotic effect, whereas 7 μM NO-PAW could induce 18% apoptotic effect. In addition, we assumed that both DBD plasma and NO-PAW could induce HeLa cell apoptosis by facilitating an accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Although further detail on the molecular signal pathway is still needed, DBD and NO-PAW could become promising applications for effective and safe clinical trials for cancer therapy. PMID:28361987

  2. Study of plasma protein binding activity of isometamidium and its impact on anthelmintic activity using trypanosoma induced calf model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprita Sinha

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of present study was to determine Plasma Protein Binding (PPB activity and its effect on clinical efficacy of isometamidium after intramuscular administration in calves. The binding of drugs to plasma proteins is an important factor in controlling the availability and distribution of drugs. In general, PPB reduces the free fraction of drug available for therapeutic activity, since only the non-protein bound drug is pharmacologically active. Materials and Methods: Six calves were used for PPB study and eighteen for clinical efficacy. Isometamidium was administered @ 0.5mg/kg intramuscularly as a single dose for PPB study. Equilibrium dialysis technique was used to determine the PPB activity. For clinical efficacy, infection with Trypanosoma was induced in calves of two groups, untreated control and experimental group. Infection was confirmed after 28 days by mice inoculation test. Isometamidium @ 0.5mg/kg was administered to experimental group. Haematoobiochemical and mice inoculation tests were performed after 7 days of drug administration (Day 35. Result: The percentage of PPB activity of isometamidium was 86.71 ± 0.59 to 93.03 ± 0.63% against the concentration 9.76± 0.84 to 4.39 ± 0.20 g ml-1. Higher percentage of PPB activity (>86% suggests greater duration of safety by this drug. It was found that anthelmintic activity of isometamidium was substantially affected by higher PPB. Conclusion: It was concluded that isometamidium has greater plasma protein binding capacity which did not hamper clinical efficacy of drug. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 444-448

  3. Activating basal-plane catalytic activity of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayer with remote hydrogen plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2016-09-10

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials such as Molybdenum disufide (MoS2) have been recognized as one of the low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The crystal edges that account for a small percentage of the surface area, rather than the basal planes, of MoS2 monolayer have been confirmed as their active catalytic sites. As a result, extensive efforts have been developing in activating the basal planes of MoS2 for enhancing their HER activity. Here, we report a simple and efficient approach-using a remote hydrogen-plasma process-to creating S-vacancies on the basal plane of monolayer crystalline MoS2; this process can generate high density of S-vacancies while mainly maintaining the morphology and structure of MoS2 monolayer. The density of S-vacancies (defects) on MoS2 monolayers resulted from the remote hydrogen-plasma process can be tuned and play a critical role in HER, as evidenced in the results of our spectroscopic and electrical measurements. The H2-plasma treated MoS2 also provides an excellent platform for systematic and fundamental study of defect-property relationships in TMDs, which provides insights for future applications including electrical, optical and magnetic devices. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A plasma biomarker signature of immune activation in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immune activation is a strong predictor of disease progression in HIV infection. Combinatorial plasma biomarker signatures that represent surrogate markers of immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART have not been defined. Here, we identify a plasma inflammatory biomarker signature that distinguishes between both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART and healthy controls and examine relationships of this signature to markers of disease progression. METHODS: Multiplex profiling and ELISA were used to detect 15 cytokines/chemokines, soluble IL-2R (sIL-2R, and soluble CD14 (sCD14 in plasma from 57 HIV patients with CD4 nadir <300 cells/µl and 29 healthy controls. Supervised and unsupervised analyses were used to identify biomarkers explaining variance between groups defined by HIV status or drug abuse. Relationships between biomarkers and disease markers were examined by Spearman correlation. RESULTS: The majority (91% of HIV subjects were on cART, with 38% having undetectable viral loads (VL. Hierarchical clustering identified a biomarker cluster in plasma consisting of two interferon-stimulated gene products (CXCL9 and CXCL10, T cell activation marker (sIL-2R, and monocyte activation marker (sCD14 that distinguished both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on cART from controls (p<0.0001 and were top-ranked in variables important in projection plots. IL-12 and CCL4 were also elevated in viremic and aviremic patients compared to controls (p<0.05. IL-12 correlated with IFNα, IFNγ, CXCL9, and sIL-2R (p<0.05. CXCL10 correlated positively with plasma VL and percentage of CD16+ monocytes, and inversely with CD4 count (p = 0.001, <0.0001, and 0.04, respectively. CONCLUSION: A plasma inflammatory biomarker signature consisting of CXCL9, CXCL10, sIL-2R, and sCD14 may be useful as a surrogate marker to monitor immune activation in both viremic and aviremic HIV patients on c

  5. Auxin-activated NADH oxidase activity of soybean plasma membranes is distinct from the constitutive plasma membrane NADH oxidase and exhibits prion-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.; Ternes, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated and growth-related cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity of etiolated hypocotyls of soybeans oscillates with a period of about 24 min or 60 times per 24-h day. Plasma membranes of soybean hypocotyls contain two such NADH oxidase activities that have been resolved by purification on concanavalin A columns. One in the apparent molecular weight range of 14-17 kDa is stimulated by the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The other is larger and unaffected by 2,4-D. The 2,4-D-stimulated activity absolutely requires 2,4-D for activity and exhibits a period length of about 24 min. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of 2,4-D or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D or IAA addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges at the expense of the constitutive activity. A recruitment process analogous to that exhibited by prions is postulated to explain this behavior.

  6. Microwave Plasma-Activated Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nitrogen-Doped Diamond. II: CH4/N2/H2 Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, Benjamin S; Kelly, Mark W; Potter, Katie J; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mankelevich, Yuri A

    2016-11-03

    We report a combined experimental and modeling study of microwave-activated dilute CH4/N2/H2 plasmas, as used for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond, under very similar conditions to previous studies of CH4/H2, CH4/H2/Ar, and N2/H2 gas mixtures. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, absolute column densities of CH(X, v = 0), CN(X, v = 0), and NH(X, v = 0) radicals in the hot plasma have been determined as functions of height, z, source gas mixing ratio, total gas pressure, p, and input power, P. Optical emission spectroscopy has been used to investigate, with respect to the same variables, the relative number densities of electronically excited species, namely, H atoms, CH, C2, CN, and NH radicals and triplet N2 molecules. The measurements have been reproduced and rationalized from first-principles by 2-D (r, z) coupled kinetic and transport modeling, and comparison between experiment and simulation has afforded a detailed understanding of C/N/H plasma-chemical reactivity and variations with process conditions and with location within the reactor. The experimentally validated simulations have been extended to much lower N2 input fractions and higher microwave powers than were probed experimentally, providing predictions for the gas-phase chemistry adjacent to the diamond surface and its variation across a wide range of conditions employed in practical diamond-growing CVD processes. The strongly bound N2 molecule is very resistant to dissociation at the input MW powers and pressures prevailing in typical diamond CVD reactors, but its chemical reactivity is boosted through energy pooling in its lowest-lying (metastable) triplet state and subsequent reactions with H atoms. For a CH4 input mole fraction of 4%, with N2 present at 1-6000 ppm, at pressure p = 150 Torr, and with applied microwave power P = 1.5 kW, the near-substrate gas-phase N atom concentration, [N]ns, scales linearly with the N2 input mole fraction and exceeds the concentrations [NH]ns, [NH2]ns

  7. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  8. Complement activation in plasma before and after infliximab treatment in Crohn disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Agnholt, J; Thorlacius-Ussing, O

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn disease is characterized by up-regulated intestinal inflammation mainly caused by increased tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels. However, the complement system (C) may also have a role in maintaining inflammation. METHODS: Plasma from 26 patients with Crohn disease...... complicated by fistulizing ano-rectal disease was collected before and after three Infliximab infusions (5 mg kg(-1)). RESULTS: Before treatment, the C3-activation capacities (C3-AC) in plasma from patients with Crohn disease were comparable with values obtained from healthy controls. The classical C pathway......-mediated C3-AC, mannan-binding lectin C4-AC, leucocyte count, C-reactive protein concentration and Crohn Disease Activity Index decreased significantly 8 weeks after the first infusion of Infliximab (P

  9. Presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma: ultrastructural characteristics, protein profile and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species.

  10. Characterization of alkaline phosphatase activity in seminal plasma and in fresh and frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Diego; Giaretta, Elisa; Spinaci, Marcella; Rizzato, Giovanni; Isani, Gloria; Mislei, Beatrice; Mari, Gaetano; Tamanini, Carlo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2016-01-15

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) has been studied in several situations to elucidate its role in reproductive biology of the male from different mammalian species; at present, its role in horse sperm physiology is not clear. The aim of the present work was to measure AP activity in seminal plasma and sperm extracts from freshly ejaculated as well as in frozen-thawed stallion spermatozoa and to verify whether relationship exists between AP activity and sperm quality parameters. Our data on 40 freshly ejaculated samples from 10 different stallions demonstrate that the main source of AP activity is seminal plasma, whereas sperm extracts contribution is very low. In addition, we found that AP activity at physiological pH (7.0) is significantly lower than that observed at pH 8.0, including the optimal AP pH (pH 10.0). Alkaline phosphatase did not exert any effect on sperm-oocyte interaction assessed by heterologous oocyte binding assay. Additionally, we observed a thermal stability of seminal plasma AP, concluding that it is similar to that of bone isoforms. Positive correlations were found between seminal plasma AP activity and sperm concentration, whereas a negative correlation was present between both spermatozoa extracts and seminal plasma AP activity and seminal plasma protein content. A significant decrease in sperm extract AP activity was found in frozen-thawed samples compared with freshly ejaculated ones (n = 21), concomitantly with the decrease in sperm quality parameters. The positive correlation between seminal plasma AP activity measured at pH 10 and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa suggests that seminal plasma AP activity could be used as an additional predictive parameter for stallion sperm freezability. In conclusion, we provide some insights into AP activity in both seminal plasma and sperm extracts and describe a decrease in AP after freezing and thawing.

  11. Effect of activated NH3 on SO2 removal by pulse coronadischarge plasma in flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    NH3-activated electrode is placed in front of the electrode system of pulse corona discharge plasma. There are nozzles on the electrode. Positive DC high-voltage is applied on the nozzle-plate gap. NH3 is injected into the reactor through nozzles, at the same time, activated and treated. Tbese nozzles were proposed in order to make the additional gas pass through corona discharge regions near the tip of nozzles and increase the mount of radicals. The aim is to improve the De-SO2 efficiency by pulse discharge plasma in flue gas. The following topics are investigated and discussed in the paper: De-SO2 effect of single NH3-activated electrode, De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, the relationship between stoichiometric ratio of NH3 to SO2 and De-SO2 effect of activated NH3, mechanism of activated NH3 De-SO2 effect. The experimental result indicates that the De-SO2 efficiency can be increased 5 %-10 96 by activated NH3 on the original base of De-SO2 efficiency.

  12. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  13. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  14. Evaluation of plasma antioxidant activity in rats given excess EGCg with reference to endogenous antioxidants concentrations and assay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.

  15. The amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells on wound healing process affected by spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Purnama Dewi Iskandar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spirulina which grows abundantly in tropical seas have been investigated to enhance immune system. The administration of spirulina in tooth extraction sockets was expected to optimise the function of immunocompetent cells. Therefore, wound healing process would be improved. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove that administration of spirulina could influence immune system in tooth extraction sockets. Method: There were 28 Cavia cobayas used in this study and were put in group of four. Mandibular left incisive were extracted from each of them. The basis made from mixture of polyethylene glycol (PEG 400 and PEG 4000 was administrated into each socket in control group (TG0. In addition, spirulina 12% was administrated into group TG1, spirulina 24% was administrated into group TG2, and spirulina 48% was administrated into group TG3. All of the Cavia cobaya were decapitated and the jaws were removed in day 5 after tooth extraction. The jaws were decalcified in EDTA solution, formed into paraffin block, processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H & E and immunohistochemistry staining afterwards. Datas were analysed statistically using Anova method. Result: There was an augmentation in the number of macrophages and activated plasma cells after spirulina application. The administration of higher concentrations of Spirulina leads to greater amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells in each groups. Conclusion: In conclusion, spirulina is able to increase the amount of macrophages and activated plasma cells which play important role in healing process.

  16. Aminosilane layers on the plasma activated thermoplastics: influence of solvent on its structure and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    The chemistry and the structure of aminosilane layer on the plasma activated thermoplastic substrates, e.g., polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) were investigated at the molecular level. The nature of the surface functional groups of the silane layers prepared by solution phase deposition in aqueous and anhydrous solvents were studied using various techniques including ellipsometry, goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The XPS analyses revealed the presence of various oxygen functionalities on the plasma activated thermoplastics. Considerable differences were observed for the structure of aminosilane depending on the solvent used for the reaction. Deposition from aqueous solution resulted in relatively flat and smooth surfaces with consistent thickness compared to the anhydrous solution deposition. In the former case, 33% of the total nitrogen accounted for protonated amine and 16% for the free amino groups. In the latter, only 6% accounted for the protonated amine. The point of zero charge (pzc), on the aminosilane modified PC was found to be around 7, indicated that the surface is positively charged below pH 7 and negatively charged above pH 7. The surface analysis data suggested that various interactions are possible between the plasma activated thermoplastic surface and the aminosilane. In general, they are bound to the surface through covalent bond formation between the oxygen functionalities on the thermoplastic surface and the amino or the silanol groups of the aminosilane.

  17. Towards long-lasting antibacterial stainless steel surfaces by combining double glow plasma silvering with active screen plasma nitriding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Li, X; Tian, L; Bell, T; Sammons, R L; Dong, H

    2011-01-01

    Antibacterial surface modification of biomedical materials has evolved as a potentially effective method for preventing bacterial proliferation on the surfaces of devices. However, thin antibacterial coatings or modified layers can be easily worn down when interacting with other surfaces in relative motion, thus leading to a low durability of the antibacterial surface. To this end, novel biomaterial surfaces with antibacterial Ag agents and a wear-resistant S-phase have been generated on stainless steel by duplex plasma silvering-nitriding techniques for application to load-bearing medical devices. The chemical composition, microstructure, surface topography, roughness and wettability of SS surfaces were characterised using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy/wavelength dispersive spectrometry (WDS), X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and a contact angle goniometer. Optimal surface design for high antimicrobial activity and prolonged durability has been achieved, as evidenced by rapid bacterial killing rates (within 6h), an ultra hard matrix (875 ± 25 Hv), high load-bearing capacity (critical load 37 N) and excellent wear resistance (wear rate 4.9 × 10⁻⁶ mm³ m⁻¹). Ag embedded in the hard substrate of fcc compounds M(4)N (M=Fe, Cr, Ag, etc.) and the expanded fcc nitrogen S-phase shows deep infiltration of 6 ± 1 μm, and provides bactericidal activity against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli NCTC 10418 and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047 of over 97% and 90%, respectively, within 6h. The presence of silver in the surface before and after scratching under a progressive load applied up to 60 N using a diamond stylus was confirmed by WDS. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  19. He-like ions as practical astrophysical plasma diagnostics: From stellar coronae to active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Porquet, Delphine; Grosso, Nicolas; 10.1007/s11214-010-9731-2

    2011-01-01

    We review X-ray plasma diagnostics based on the line ratios of He-like ions. Triplet/singlet line intensities can be used to determine electronic temperature and density, and were first developed for the study of the solar corona. Since the launches of the X-ray satellites Chandra and XMM-Newton, these diagnostics have been extended and used (from CV to Si XIII) for a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas such as stellar coronae, supernova remnants, solar system objects, active galactic nuclei, and X-ray binaries. Moreover, the intensities of He-like ions can be used to determine the ionization process(es) at work, as well as the distance between the X-ray plasma and the UV emission source for example in hot stars. In the near future thanks to the next generation of X-ray satellites (e.g., Astro-H and IXO), higher-Z He-like lines (e.g., iron) will be resolved, allowing plasmas with higher temperatures and densities to be probed. Moreover, the so-called satellite lines that are formed closed to parent He-like ...

  20. Energy influx measurements with an active thermal probe in plasma-technological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, Ruben; Kersten, Holger [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Kiel (Germany); Wiese, Georg; Bartsch, Rene [Formerly Institut fuer Plasmaforschung und Technologie, Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    Many plasma-technological applications are based on plasma wall interaction, which can be characterised by calorimetric probes to measure the energy influx from the plasma to the substrate surface. Passive probes are based on the principle of recording the temperature course during heating and cooling of the probe for calculating the energy influx. The disadvantages of these probes are that the energy influx has to be interrupted by switching off the energy source or by using suitable apertures and by the necessity of knowing the exact heat capacity of the probe. A continuously operating active probe is, therefore, developed which does not need to be calibrated and which compensates the environmental effects as well as the heat conduction by the probe holder. By means of controlled electrical heating the probe is set to a given working temperature and then the energy supply supporting the fixed operating temperature is measured. The energy influx by the plasma is compensated by decreasing the heating power and is directly displayed in J/cm{sup 2}s. Some practical measurements are presented. Even, if the probe is designed as double probe the directionality of the energy influx can be determined. (orig.)

  1. Improved confinement region without large magnetohydrodynamic activity in TPE-RX reversed-field pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Hirano, Yoichi; Sakakita, Hajime; Koguchi, Haruhisa [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We found that spontaneous improved confinement was brought about depending on the operating region in the Toroidal Pinch Experiment-Reversed eXperiment (TPE-RX) reversed-field pinch plasma [Y. Yagi et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 45, 421 (1999)]. Gradual decay of the toroidal magnetic field at plasma surface B{sub tw} reversal makes it possible to realize a prolonged discharge, and the poloidal beta value and energy confinement time increase in the latter half of the discharge, where reversal and pinch parameters become shallow and low, respectively. In the latter half of the discharge, the plasma current and volume-averaged toroidal magnetic field 〈B{sub t}〉 increase again, the electron density slowly decays, the electron temperature and soft X-ray radiation intensity increase, and the magnetic fluctuations are markedly reduced. In this period of improved confinement, the value of (〈B{sub t}〉-B{sub tw})/B{sub pw}, where B{sub pw} is the poloidal magnetic field at the plasma surface, stays almost constant, which indicates that the dynamo action occurs without large magnetohydrodynamic activities.

  2. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  3. ISEE 1 observations of thermal plasma in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, J. L.; Baugher, C. R.; Chappell, C. R.; Shelley, E. G.; Young, D. T.; Anderson, R. R.

    1981-11-01

    An investigation of thermal plasma behavior in the vicinity of the plasmasphere during periods of quieting magnetic activity was conducted by combining thermal ion observations made with the plasma composition experiment on ISEE 1 with plasma density profiles obtained from plasma frequency measurements made with the same satellite's plasma wave experiment. During periods in which the magnetic activity quiets, the two regions characterized by H(+):He(+):O(+) (isotropic) and H(+):O(+):He(+) (field-aligned) ion species distributions (in order of dominance) are separated by a new region in which low-energy H(+) and He(+) are found flowing along the magnetic field lines. At other times, following quieting magnetic activity, distributions having peak fluxes at 90 deg pitch angle are observed in this region.

  4. Plasma TF activity predicts cardiovascular mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groha Philip

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives and Background Tissue factor (TF contributes to thrombosis following plaque disruption in acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Aim of the study was to investigate the impact of plasma TF activity on prognosis in patients with ACS. Methods and Results One-hundred seventy-four patients with unstable Angina pectoris (uAP and 112 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI were included with a mean follow up time of 3.26 years. On admission, plasma TF activity was assessed. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: a high-TF activity group with TF >24 pmol/L and low TF activity group with TF ≤ 24 pmol/L. Fifteen cardiovascular deaths occurred in the uAP group and 16 in the AMI group. In AMI TF activity was 24,9 ± 2,78 pmol/l (mean ± SEM in survivors and 40,9 ± 7,96 pmol/l in nonsurvivors (P = 0.024. In uAP no differences were observed (25.0 ± 8.04 pmol/L nonsurvivors vs. 25.7 ± 2.14 pmol/L survivors; P = 0.586. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 3.26 years regarding TF activity in AMI were 81.3% and 92.2% with an hazard ratio of 3.02 (95% CI [1.05–8.79], P = 0.03. The Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for correlates of age and risk factors showed that plasma TF activity was an independent correlate of survival (hazard ratio 9.27, 95% CI [1.24–69.12], P = 0.03. In an additional group of patients with uAP and AMI, we identified circulating microparticles as the prevailing reservoir of plasma TF activity in acute coronary syndromes. Conclusion Systemic TF activity in AMI has an unfavorable prognostic value and as a marker for dysregulated coagulation may add to predict the atherothrombotic risk.

  5. Radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorow, R.G.; Seidler, J.; Schneider, H.H. (Schering A.G., Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-04-01

    A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1mg lormetazepam (Noctamid(R)), 2mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(R)), and 10mg diazepam (Valium(R)), and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154h after treatment. Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r=0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8+-1 ng/ml at 2h after lormetazepam, 7.2+-1.8 ng/ml at 8h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9+-2.7 ng/ml at 15h after diazepam. Plasma elimination halflives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63h, respectively. Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites.

  6. Changes of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase Activities of Glycine max Seeds by PEG Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yong-qing; Wang Xiao-feng

    2005-01-01

    The soybean (Glycine max) Heihe No. 23 is sensitive to imbibitional chilling injury. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)treatment can improve chilling tolerance of soybean seeds to a certain extent. The changes of hydrolytic ATPase in plasma membranes and H+-pumping responses in soybean seeds were investigated during PEG treatments. Effects of exogenous calcium and exogenous ABA on the hydrolytic ATPase were also examined in order to understand the mechanism of chilling resistance. Highly purified plasma membranes were isolated by 6.0% aqueous two-phase partitioning from soybean seeds, as judged by the sensitivity of hydrolytic ATPase to sodium vanadate. PEG treatment resulted in a slight increase of the hydrolytic ATPase activity in 12 h. Then the activity decreased gradually, but still higher than the control. The H+-pumping activity increased steadily during PEG treatment.Exogenous calcium had both activating and inhibiting effects on the hydrolytic ATPase, but the activity was inhibited in soybean seeds treated with exogenous ABA. Results suggested that PEG treatment, not the exogenous calcium and ABA, up-regulated H+-ATPase activities in soybean seeds.

  7. Effects of Calcium on ATPase Activity and Lipid Composition of Plasma Membranes from Wheat Roots Under Aluminum Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Long-fei; SHEN Zhen-guo; LIU You-liang

    2003-01-01

    Effects of calcium on ATPase activities, lipid contents, and fatty acid compositions of plasma membrane from wheat roots were assayed under aluminum stress. The results showed that the increase of calcium concentration in the nutrient solution increased the activity of H+-ATPase and the phospholipid content, decreased the activity of Ca2+-ATPase and the galactolipid of plasma membrane. Owing to the decrease of linolenic acid content, the index of unsaturated fatty acid (IUFA) and index of double bond (DBI) decreased in Altas66. The IUFA and DBI of plasma membrane from Scout66 roots increased because its linolenic acid content increased obviously and its palmitic acid content decreased apparently.

  8. Correlation of hyponatremia with plasma renin activity, antidiuretic hormone and brain natri- uretic peptide in chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富路

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma renin activity, antidiuretic hormone and brain natriuretic peptide in chronic heart failure (CHF) and their correlation with hyponatremia. Methods Plasma levels of PRA, ADH, and BNP were measured by radioimmunology in 76 CHF patients. Forty-one out of 76 CHF patients with hyponatremia and 35 CHF patients without hyponatremia

  9. Solution plasma synthesis of Au nanoparticles for coating titanium dioxide to enhance its photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasugi, Yuki; Saito, Genki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Yamashita, Toru [Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Norihito [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Akiyama, Tomohiro, E-mail: takiyama@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    A convenient method for coating titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) by Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) is demonstrated in solution plasma to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}. AuNPs from a metallic Au electrode were bonded to the surface of a commercial TiO{sub 2} powder, which acted as a catalyst support, with the reaction taking place in an electrolyte solution. The effect of diverse plasma conditions on the size and productivity of the AuNPs was investigated initially to provide a reference in the absence of TiO{sub 2}. At 290 V, “partial plasma” was attained, with only a weak light emission surrounding the Au electrode. Conditions then evolved to “full plasma”, with a strong orange emission at 330 V. Partial or full status was maintained for 1 h at 300 and 400 V, respectively. At the transition to full, the AuNP particle size increased from 3.72 to 6.09 nm and the productivity increased dramatically from 0.025 to 0.87 mg h{sup −1} mm{sup −2}. Stronger plasma very efficiently synthesized AuNPs, and therefore, it was adopted for further study. AuNP-TiO{sub 2} combinations were formed by applying 400 V to a TiO{sub 2}-dispersed solution. In these experiments, TiO{sub 2} coated with AuNPs was synthesized; these combinations of AuNP-TiO{sub 2} had 0.44 mol% of Au. The photocatalytic activity of AuNP-TiO{sub 2} was investigated by measuring the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). Under UV irradiation, the AuNP-TiO{sub 2} particles removed up to 95% of the dye in 70 min. Commercial TiO{sub 2} achieves values closer to 85%. The results thus raise the possibility that solution plasma methods can be generalized as a means for achieving catalysis-enhancing coatings. - Highlights: • Au nanoparticles with a diameter of several nm were synthesized by solution plasma. • The effect of plasma conditions on the Au nanoparticles formation was investigated. • High resolution TEM was conducted to investigate the crystal structure. • Au nanoparticles were coated

  10. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D with physical performance in physically active children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrati, Ikram; Hammami, Raouf; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Martone, Domenico; Padulo, Johnny; Feki, Moncef; Chaouachi, Anis; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2016-11-01

    Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included 125 children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25-OHD D inadequacy may limit exercise performance. Further research should verify whether correction of vitamin D deficiency enhances physical performance.

  11. Gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in plasma: statistical distributions, individual variations, and reference intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, F; Guilmin, A M; Detienne, H; Siest, G

    1977-06-01

    Measurement of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity in plasma provides a useful index to liver function. Using as our study population those persons coming to the Center for Preventive Medicine, we described and measured the significance and importance of physiological and environmental variations. We established a classification for the variation factors. The three most important factors affecting this activity were drug intake, alcohol consumption, and excessive weight, followed by sex and age. We suggest a preliminary group of reference intervals for healthy subjects to be used in interpreting a laboratory test.

  12. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  13. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  14. Dusty space plasma diagnosis using temporal behavior of polar mesospheric summer echoes during active modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Rietveld, M.

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effect of different plasma and dust parameters on Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) temporal behavior after turn-on and turn-off of radio wave heating and to use these responses to diagnose the properties of the dust layer. The threshold radar frequency and dust parameters for the enhancement or suppression of radar echoes after radio wave heating turn-on are investigated for measured mesospheric plasma parameters. The effect of parameters such as the electron temperature enhancement during heating, dust density, dust charge polarity, ion-neutral collision frequency, electron density and dust radius on the temporal evolution of electron irregularities associated with PMSE are investigated. The possible diagnostic information for various charged dust and background plasma quantities using the temporal behavior of backscattered radar power in active experiments is discussed. The computational results are used to make predictions for PMSE active modification experiments at 7.9, 56, 139, 224 and 930 MHz corresponding to existing radar facilities. Data from a 2009 VHF (224 MHz) experiment at EISCAT is compared with the computational model to obtain dust parameters in the PMSE.

  15. Increase in plasma platelet-activating factor levels in enterally fed preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, W; Hill, N; Hsueh, W; Caplan, M

    1993-01-01

    Because platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we designed a prospective study to examine plasma PAF levels during the first 14 days of feeding in a population of neonates of less than 32 weeks gestation. We found that significantly more patients had detectable plasma PAF levels on days 3 and 14 of feeding when compared to their prefeeding levels (7% on day 0 vs. 26% at day 3, p = 0.04; none on day 0 vs. 18.5% at day 14, p = 0.01). This finding could not be explained by decreased plasma activity of acetylhydrolase, the PAF breakdown enzyme, spontaneous endotoxinemia or a maturational effect. None of the infants who developed detectable PAF levels after feedings were begun went on to develop NEC. We conclude that our findings may reflect increased intestinal PAF production with the provision of feedings to some premature infants. However, this phenomenon by itself does not appear to be a sufficient condition for the subsequent development of NEC.

  16. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-12-30

    Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  17. Three dimensional MHD Modeling of Vertical Kink Oscillations in an Active Region Plasma Curtain

    CERN Document Server

    Ofman, Leon; Srivastava, Abhishek K

    2015-01-01

    Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in EUV coronal lines. The damped oscillations with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min were detected and analyzed recently. Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the MHD oscillations in the plasma curtain taking into account realistic 3D magnetic and density structure of the curtain. We also aim at testing and improving coronal seismology for more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with standard method. We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain based on Differential Emission Measure (DEM) analysis to initialize a 3D MHD model of its vertical and transverse oscillations by implementing the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimick...

  18. Dusty space plasma diagnosis using temporal behavior of polar mesospheric summer echoes during active modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudian

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effect of different plasma and dust parameters on Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE temporal behavior after turn-on and turn-off of radio wave heating and to use these responses to diagnose the properties of the dust layer. The threshold radar frequency and dust parameters for the enhancement or suppression of radar echoes after radio wave heating turn-on are investigated for measured mesospheric plasma parameters. The effect of parameters such as the electron temperature enhancement during heating, dust density, dust charge polarity, ion-neutral collision frequency, electron density and dust radius on the temporal evolution of electron irregularities associated with PMSE are investigated. The possible diagnostic information for various charged dust and background plasma quantities using the temporal behavior of backscattered radar power in active experiments is discussed. The computational results are used to make predictions for PMSE active modification experiments at 7.9, 56, 139, 224 and 930 MHz corresponding to existing radar facilities. Data from a 2009 VHF (224 MHz experiment at EISCAT is compared with the computational model to obtain dust parameters in the PMSE.

  19. Active but inoperable thrombin is accumulated in a plasma protein layer surrounding Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Hurley, Sinead M; Malmström, Erik; Plug, Tom; Shannon, Oonagh; Meijers, Joost C M; Mörgelin, Matthias; Björck, Lars; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-10-01

    Activation of thrombin is a critical determinant in many physiological and pathological processes including haemostasis and inflammation. Under physiological conditions many of these functions are involved in wound healing or eradication of an invading pathogen. However, when activated systemically, thrombin can contribute to severe and life-threatening conditions by causing complications such as multiple multi-organ failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In the present study we investigated how the activity of thrombin is modulated when it is bound to the surface of Streptococcus pyogenes. Our data show that S. pyogenes bacteria become covered with a proteinaceous layer when incubated with human plasma, and that thrombin is a constituent of this layer. Though the coagulation factor is found attached to the bacteria with a functional active site, thrombin has lost its capacity to interact with its natural substrates and inhibitors. Thus, the interaction of bacteria with human plasma renders thrombin completely inoperable at the streptococcal surface. This could represent a host defense mechanism to avoid systemic activation of coagulation which could be otherwise induced when bacteria enter the circulation and cause systemic infection.

  20. The modulation of platelet adhesion and activation by chitosan through plasma and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Megan S; Cheng, Bill; McCarthy, Simon J; Jung, MoonSun; Whitelock, John M

    2011-10-01

    Chitosan has been shown to promote initial wound closure events to prevent blood loss. Platelet adhesion and activation are crucial early events in these processes after traumatic bleeding leading to thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion to chitosan was found to be enhanced in the presence of adsorbed plasma and extracellular matrix proteins and was found to be primarily mediated by α(IIb)β(3) integrins, while α(2)β(1) integrins were found to be involved in platelet adhesion to collagen and perlecan. Platelets were found to be activated by chitosan, as shown by an increase in the expression of α(IIb)β(3) integrins and P-selectin, while the extent of activation was modulated by the presence of proteins including perlecan and fibrinogen. Collagen-coated chitosan was found to activate platelets to the same extent as either chitosan or collagen alone. These data support the role of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins in promoting chitosan mediated platelet adhesion and activation supporting the hypothesis that chitosan promotes wound healing via these interactions.

  1. Decreased plasma ADAMTS-13 activity as a predictor of postoperative bleeding in cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela P.S. Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity. The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years. The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001. An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081, was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029 and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004. Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group, preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79, 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183, and 37.43 (95% CI 1.79 to 782.73. CONCLUSION: Low plasma ADAMTS-13

  2. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Pérez-Milicua, Myrna Barjau; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal-Vertiz, Jaime A; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. PNP metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas XO catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. In humans, PNP activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and XO activity to be low in plasma; however, XO activity increases after ischemic events. XO activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and voluntary associated apneas. The objective of this study was to analyze circulating PNP and XO activities in marine mammals adapted to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving (bottlenose dolphin, northern elephant seal) in comparison with semiaquatic (river otter) and terrestrial mammals (human, pig). PNP activities in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as XO activity in plasma, from all species were quantified by spectrophotometry. No clear relationship in circulating PNP or XO activity could be established between marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Erythrocytes from bottlenose dolphins and humans are highly permeable to nucleosides and glucose, intraerythrocyte PNP activity may be related to a release of purine nucleotides from the liver. High-energy costs will probably mean a higher ATP degradation rate in river otters, as compared to northern elephant seals or dolphins. Lower erythrocyte PNP activity and elevated plasma XO activity in northern elephant seal could be associated with fasting and/or sleep- and dive-associated apneas.

  3. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Baseline plasma level of sCD206 in treatment naïve RA patients was 0.33 mg/L (CI: 0.33-0.38 mg/L) corresponding to the upper part of the reference interval for healthy controls (0.10-0.43 mg/L). In the PLA group, sCD206 levels decreased after 3 months, but did not differ...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved...... this decrease throughout the study period....

  4. Active probing of space plasmas. Final report, 25 October 1985-30 September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, C.; Silevitch, M.B.; Villalon, E.

    1989-09-01

    During the course of the research period our efforts were focused on the following areas: (1) An examination of stochastic acceleration mechanisms in the ionosphere; (2) A study of nonequilibrium dynamics of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system; and (3) Laboratory studies of active space experiments. Reprints include: Dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body -- Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation; Laboratory study of the electron temperature in the near wake of a conducting body; New model for auroral breakup during substorms; Substorm breakup on closed field lines; New model for substorm on sets -- The pre-breakup and triggering regimes; Model of the westward traveling surge and the generation of Pi 2 pulsations; Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances; Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields; Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas.

  5. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.

  6. Age dependence of the levels of plasma norepinephrine, aldosterone, renin activity and urinary vanillylmandelic acid in normal and essential hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Allah, Nadia M; Hassan, Fayeza H; Esmat, Amr Y; Hammad, Somaya A

    2004-01-01

    In the present study the upper reference limits (URLs) for resting plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, aldosterone/renin activity ratio, as well as urinary vanillylmandelic acid in healthy Egyptian normotensive subjects over a range of ages (5-60 yr) were established. There was a significant age effect on plasma norepinephrine, UVMA, serum aldosterone and PRA, whereas a single URL for plasma epinephrine level is satisfactory. In uncomplicated untreated essential hypertensive subjects (5-60 yr), the average prevalence of elevation in the plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine and urinary vanillylmandelic acid above their corresponding URLs was 85.10, 62.15 and 83.20%, respectively. This suggests that elevation in plasma catecholamine concentrations is more likely a common consequence than playing a possible role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, supported by insignificant correlation coefficients between the plasma catecholamine levels and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (SBP & DBP) in all hypertensive age groups. Primary hyperaldosteronism was not detected among the normokalemic essential hypertensives at any age using aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio as a primary screening method. In the present study, 7 statistically significant positive coefficient correlations are reported for SBP or DBP values with UVMA levels in hypertensive children and adolescents, serum aldosterone in old hypertensives, and PRA in adult hypertensives.

  7. Objectively measured sedentary behavior, physical activity, and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Burrows, Tracy L; Jones, Rachel A; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Baur, Louise A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 126 children aged 5.5-9.9 years. Sedentary behavior, LPA, and MVPA were assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC], and triglycerides [TG]). MVPA was not related to plasma lipids (P > 0.05). Independent of age, sex, energy intake, and waist circumference z-score, sedentary behavior and LPA were associated with HDL-C (β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.04, P = 0.020; β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.39, P = 0.036, respectively). The strength of the associations remained after additionally adjusting for MVPA (sedentary behavior: β = -0.22, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.006, P = 0.056; LPA: β = 0.19, 95% CI -0.005 to 0.38, P = 0.056, respectively). Substituting at least LPA for sedentary time may contribute to the development of healthy HDL-C levels among overweight and obese children, independent of their adiposity. Comprehensive prevention and treatment strategies to improve plasma HDL-C among overweight and obese children should target reductions in total sedentary time and promote the benefits of LPA, in addition to promoting healthy levels of adiposity, healthy dietary behaviors, and MVPA. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. 血清对氧磷酯酶-1及氧化低密度脂蛋白在缺血性脑卒中的临床意义%The clinical significance of serum paraoxonase-1 activity, oxidized low-density lipoprotein level in ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱卫香; 刘彦敏; 张砚卿; 杜国辉; 张琳琳

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨急性缺血性脑卒中患者血清对氧磷酯酶-1(PON-1)活性和氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)水平的变化及其临床意义。方法:选择急性缺血性脑卒中患者96例及正常对照组72名,采用对硝基苯酚为底物的速率法和酶联免疫吸附法分别测定血清PON-1、ox-LDL,同时检测2组的总胆固醇、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇等生化指标并进行对比;探讨PON-1、ox-LDL与急性缺血性脑卒中的关系。结果:缺血性脑卒中组血清PON-1和高密度脂蛋白胆固醇均明显低于对照组,ox-LDL和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇明显高于对照组(P<0.01);大梗死组血清PON-1活性均低于中梗死组和小梗死组(P<0.05和P<0.01);而大梗死组ox-LDL水平均明显高于中梗死组和小梗死组(P<0.01);神经功能重度损伤组患者血清PON-1活性均明显低于轻、中度损伤组(P<0.01),而血清ox-LDL水平均显著高于轻、中度损伤组(P<0.01)。相关分析显示:PON-1与ox-LDL呈负相关关系(P<0.01)。结论:急性缺血性脑卒中患者PON-1活性降低,导致抗氧化能力减弱,使血清ox-LDL水平增加,这种改变可能是缺血性脑卒中重要的危险因素,对预测脑卒中风险有重要意义。%Objective:To investigate the changes of serum paraoxonase-1(PON-1) activity,oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL) level in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze the clinical significance. Methods:Ninety-six acute ischemic stroke cases and 72 health subjects were selected. Serum PON-1 activity was measured using paroxon as substrate and ox-LDL level was detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay method. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were all measured in the two groups. The relationships of serum PON-1 activity,ox-LDL level and acute ischemic stroke were explored. Results:In ischemic stroke group

  9. Plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with oral necrobacillosis (lumpy jaw disease) using an automated handheld testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotohira, Yukari; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Haruka; Sano, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Masakazu; Suzuki, Yohko; Shimamori, Toshio; Tsukano, Kenji; Sato, Ayano; Yokota, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability and effectiveness of directly determining endotoxin activity in plasma samples from kangaroos with lumpy jaw disease (LJD, n=15) and healthy controls (n=12). Prior to the present study, the ability of the commercially available automated handheld portable test system (PTS(TM)) to detect endotoxin activity in kangaroo plasma was compared with that of the traditional LAL-kinetic turbidimetric (KT) assay. Plasma samples, which were obtained from endotoxin-challenged cattle, were diluted 1:20 in endotoxin-free water and heated to 80°C for 10 min. The performance of the PTS(TM) was not significantly different from that of the traditional LAL-based assay. The data obtained using PTS(TM) correlated with those using KT (r(2)=0.963, PPTS(TM) is applicable as a simplified system to assess endotoxin activity in macropods. In the present study, we demonstrated the diagnostic value of plasma endotoxin activity in kangaroos with systemic inflammation caused by oral necrobacillosis and identified plasma endotoxin activity as a sensitive marker of systemic inflammation in kangaroos with LJD. Based on ROC curves, we proposed a diagnostic cut-off point for endotoxin activity of >0.22 EU/ml for the identification of LJD. Our results indicate that the assessment of plasma endotoxin activity is a promising diagnostic tool for determining the outcome of LJD in captive macropods.

  10. Elevated plasma free fatty acids increase cardiovascular risk by inducing plasma biomarkers of endothelial activation, myeloperoxidase and PAI-1 in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cusi Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CVD in obesity and T2DM are associated with endothelial activation, elevated plasma vascular inflammation markers and a prothrombotic state. We examined the contribution of FFA to these abnormalities following a 48-hour physiological increase in plasma FFA to levels of obesity and diabetes in a group of healthy subjects. Methods 40 non-diabetic subjects (age = 38 ± 3 yr, BMI = 28 ± 1 kg/m2, FPG = 95 ± 1 mg/dl, HbA1c = 5.3 ± 0.1% were admitted twice and received a 48-hour infusion of normal saline or low-dose lipid. Plasma was drawn for intracellular (ICAM-1 and vascular (VCAM-1 adhesion molecules-1, E-selectin (sE-S, myeloperoxidase (MPO and total plasminogen inhibitor-1 (tPAI-1. Insulin sensitivity was measured by a hyperglycemic clamp (M/I. Results Lipid infusion increased plasma FFA to levels observed in obesity and T2DM and reduced insulin sensitivity by 27% (p = 0.01. Elevated plasma FFA increased plasma markers of endothelial activation ICAM-1 (138 ± 10 vs. 186 ± 25 ng/ml, VCAM-1 (1066 ± 67 vs. 1204 ± 65 ng/ml and sE-S (20 ± 1 vs. 24 ± 1 ng/ml between 13-35% and by ≥ 2-fold plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (7.5 ± 0.9 to 15 ± 25 ng/ml, an inflammatory marker of future CVD, and tPAI-1 (9.7 ± 0.6 to 22.5 ± 1.5 ng/ml, an indicator of a prothrombotic state (all p ≤ 0.01. The FFA-induced increase was independent from the degree of adiposity, being of similar magnitude in lean, overweight and obese subjects. Conclusions An increase in plasma FFA within the physiological range observed in obesity and T2DM induces markers of endothelial activation, vascular inflammation and thrombosis in healthy subjects. This suggests that even transient (48-hour and modest increases in plasma FFA may initiate early vascular abnormalities that promote atherosclerosis and CVD.

  11. Toxicity challenges in environmental chemicals: Prediction of human plasma protein binding through quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to construct a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for prediction of the fraction of a chemical unbound to plasma protein (Fub) in environmentally relevant compounds. Independent model...

  12. High active nitrogen flux growth of GaN by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSkimming, Brian M., E-mail: mcskimming@engineering.ucsb.edu; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-5050 (United States); Chaix, Catherine [RIBER S.A., 3a Rue Casimir Périer, BP 70083, 95873 Bezons Cedex (France)

    2015-09-15

    In the present study, the authors report on a modified Riber radio frequency (RF) nitrogen plasma source that provides active nitrogen fluxes more than 30 times higher than those commonly used for plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) growth of gallium nitride (GaN) and thus a significantly higher growth rate than has been previously reported. GaN films were grown using N{sub 2} gas flow rates between 5 and 25 sccm while varying the plasma source's RF forward power from 200 to 600 W. The highest growth rate, and therefore the highest active nitrogen flux, achieved was ∼7.6 μm/h. For optimized growth conditions, the surfaces displayed a clear step-terrace structure with an average RMS roughness (3 × 3 μm) on the order of 1 nm. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy impurity analysis demonstrates oxygen and hydrogen incorporation of 1 × 10{sup 16} and ∼5 × 10{sup 17}, respectively. In addition, the authors have achieved PAMBE growth of GaN at a substrate temperature more than 150 °C greater than our standard Ga rich GaN growth regime and ∼100 °C greater than any previously reported PAMBE growth of GaN. This growth temperature corresponds to GaN decomposition in vacuum of more than 20 nm/min; a regime previously unattainable with conventional nitrogen plasma sources. Arrhenius analysis of the decomposition rate shows that samples with a flux ratio below stoichiometry have an activation energy greater than decomposition of GaN in vacuum while samples grown at or above stoichiometry have decreased activation energy. The activation energy of decomposition for GaN in vacuum was previously determined to be ∼3.1 eV. For a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼1.5, this activation energy was found to be ∼2.8 eV, while for a Ga/N flux ratio of ∼0.5, it was found to be ∼7.9 eV.

  13. Increasing in activity and plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 March, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase are a family of proteolytic enzymes that have specific functions in digestion of cells cohesive extra cellular matrix and also, increasing metastasis behavior of acute human tumors. It has been reported that MMPs in two forms, namely proenzyme and active enzyme in biological samples. It is distinguished that among this family, (MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 has function in both initiation and invasion steps of breast cancer. In our previous study, we reported a correlation between C/T polymorphism at promoter region of this gene and metastasis step of breast cancer.Considering few findings regarding the relationship between the active form of this enzyme and occurrence of cancer, and also the correlation between active form and allelic genotype of persons, in this study we decided to do a parallel study on measurement of active plasma MMP-9 and its relationship with allelic genotype of breast cancer patients.Materials and methods: After analysis of data, we found that concentration of active MMP-9 has a significant difference in breast cancer patients in comparison with control group, as the concentration of active form of this enzyme was less in control group than the breast cancer patients group (0.7 ng and 1.7 ng respectively. Thus, the level of active MMP-9 showed a significant increase in persons with CT and TT genotypes in comparison with CC genotype (1.5 folds.Results: The present data suggest the concentration of active MMP-9 in breast cancer patients has significantly increased in comparison with the control group and the increased in plasma level of this enzyme is related with the existence of T allele at this gene promoter and also in progression of breast cancer in these patients. We can use the active plasma level of this enzyme or the existence of T allele as a diagnostic tool for discriminating subgroups of breast cancer

  14. Different activation patterns in the plasma kallikrein-kinin and complement systems during coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsgaard, U E; Smith-Erichsen, N; Geiran, O; Amundsen, E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    1989-07-01

    Components of the plasma kallikrein-kinin and complement systems were determined in patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Spontaneous kallikrein activity (KK), plasma prekallikrein (PKK), functional kallikrein inhibition capacity (KKI), C3 activation products (C3-act), and the terminal complement complex (TCC) were measured. A marked, transitory increase in KK and a decrease in PKK were found prior to cardiopulmonary bypass just after heparin injection. An additional decline in PKK and KKI during bypass with a return to near control levels in the postoperative period was observed. C3-act increased in all patients during bypass, reaching a peak value at wound closure. The TCC concentration also increased significantly during cardiopulmonary bypass, returned to control levels in the early postoperative period, and then increased again in the late postoperative period. It is concluded that activation of the kallikrein-kinin system started after injection of heparin, prior to cardiopulmonary bypass. Activation of both the initial and the terminal complement cascade, however, started only after onset of cardiopulmonary bypass.

  15. Active region plasma outflows as sources of slow/intermediate solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia M.

    2015-08-01

    L. van Driel-Gesztelyi (1,2,3), D. Baker (1), P. Démoulin (2), Culhane, J.L. (1), M.L. DeRosa (4) C.H. Mandrini (5,6), D.H. Brooks (7), A.N. Fazakerley (1), L.K. Harra (1), L. Zhao (7), T.H. Zurbuchen (7), F.A. Nuevo (5,6), A.M. Vásquez (5,6), G.D. Cristiani (5,6) M. Pick (2)1) UCL/MSSL, UK, (2) Paris Observatory, LESIA, CNRS, France, (3) Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, (4) Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, USA, (5) IAFE, CONICET-UBA, Argentina (6) FCEN, UBA, Argentina (7) Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, USAWe analyse plasma upflows of tens of km/s from the edges of solar active regions discovered by Hinode/EIS and investigate whether or not they become outflows, i.e. find their way into the solar wind. We analyse two magnetic configurations: bipolar and quadrupolar and find that the active region plasma may be directly channeled into the solar wind via interchange reconnection at a high-altitude null point above the active region especially when active regions are located besides coronal holes or in a more complex way via multiple reconnections even from under a closed helmet streamer. We relate the solar observations to in-situ slow/intermediate solar wind streams.

  16. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20µg (n=158), 30µg (n=284), 35µg (n=79) or 50µg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  17. The relationship between the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity/anti-dopamine D₂ activity ratio and drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2012-03-01

     Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic that was developed in Japan. We investigated the relationships between plasma concentration, the plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity/anti-D₂ activity (S/D) ratio and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in blonanserin dosing.  The subjects were 29 outpatients with schizophrenia. We assessed EPS using the Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). The plasma concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography, and the plasma anti-D₂ and anti-5-HT(2A) activities were measured by [³H]-spiperone and [³H]-ketanserin radioreceptor assays. The results revealed that there were significant correlations between both the plasma concentration and the DIEPSS total score (Pblonanserin is mainly determined by plasma concentration, but the incidence of EPS may be inhibited when anti-5HT(2A) activity is predominant over anti-D₂ activity. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Midtail plasma flows and the relationship to near-Earth substorm activity: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R. E.; Goodrich, C. C.; Reeves, G. D.; Belian, R. D.; Taktakishvili, A.

    1994-12-01

    Recent simulations of magnetotail reconnection have pointed to a link between plasma flows, dipolarization, and the substorm current wedge. In particular, Hesse and Birn (1991) have proposed that earthward jetting of plasma from the reconnection region transports flux into the near-Earth region. At the inner edge of the plasma sheet this flux piles up, producing a dipolarization of the magnetic field. The vorticity produced by the east-west deflection of the flow at the inner edge of the plasma sheet gives rise to field-aligned currents that have region 1 polarity. Thus in this scenario the earthward flow from the reconnection region produces the dipolarization and the current wedge in a self-consistent fashion. In this study we examine observations made on April 8, 1985 by the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers/Ion Release Module (IRM), the geosynchronous satellites 1979-053, 1983-019, and 1984-037, and Syowa station, as well as AE. This event is unique because IRM was located near the neutral sheet in the midnight sector for an extended period of time. Ground data show that there was ongoing activity in the IRM local time sector for several hours, beginning at 1800 UT and reaching a crescendo at 2300 UT. This activity was also accompanied by energetic particle variations, including injections, at geosynchronous orbit in the nighttime sector. Significantly, there were no fast flows at the neutral sheet until the great intensification of activity at 2300 UT. At that time, IRM recorded fast earthward flow simultaneous with a dipolarization of the magnetic field. We conclude that while the aforementioned scenario for the creation of the current wedge encounters serious problems explaining the earlier activity, the observations at 2300 UT are consistent with the scenario of Hesse and Birn (1991). On that basis it is argued that the physics of substorms is not exclusively rooted in the development of a global tearing mode. Processes at the inner edge of

  19. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  20. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. Aims To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. Methods PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. Results PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the

  1. Genotype-independent decrease in plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase activity in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapic, Maja; Presecki, Paola; Pivac, Nela; Mimica, Ninoslav; Hof, Patrick R.; Simic, Goran; Folnegovic-Smalc, Vera; Muck-Seler, Dorotea

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic system is involved in the etiology and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but its role is still unclear. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) as a catecholamine-synthesizing enzyme plays a central role in noradrenaline (NA) synthesis and turnover. Plasma DBH (pDBH) activity shows wide inheritable interindividual variability that is under genetic control. The aim of this study was to determine pDBH activity, DBH (C-970T; rs1611115) and DBH (C1603T; rs6271) gene polymorphisms in 207 patients with AD and in 90 healthy age-matched controls. Plasma DBH activity was lower, particularly in the early stage of AD, compared to values in middle and late stages of the disease, as well as to control values. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant effect of both diagnosis and DBH (C-970T) or DBH (C1603T) genotypes on pDBH activity, but without significant diagnosis×genotype interaction. No association was found between AD and DBH C-970T (OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.13–4.37; p=0.779) and C1603T (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.36–2.20; p=0.814) genotypes controlled for age, gender, and ApoE4 allele. The decrease in pDBH activity, found in early phase of AD suggests that alterations in DBH activity represent a compensatory mechanism for the loss of noradrenergic neurons, and that treatment with selective NA reuptake inhibitors may be indicated in early stages of AD to compensate for loss of noradrenergic activity in the locus coeruleus. PMID:23416088

  2. Elevated plasma cryofibrinogen in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease is morbigenous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Sawada; Ryouki Takahashi; Abbi R Saniabadi; Maiko Ohdo; Takashi Shimoyama

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of cryofibrinogen (CF) in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: CF was assayed in 284 subjects: 61 with active and 63 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 45 who had proctocolectomy, 35 with active and 20 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), 40 with other diseases and 20 healthy controls. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) and TI antibody (TI-Ab) were measured in plasma and CF complex by ELISA.RESULTS: CF in active UC was strikingly high compared with all other groups (χ2<0.001). Similarly, CF was significantly higher in active CD than in inactive CD or in controls (χ2<0.01). In UC, high CF and TI-Ab were associated with the need for operations. Further, high CF, CF/fibrinogen ratio, low TI and high TI-Ab in plasma were associated with disease activity or refractoriness to medication. Elevated CF was not associated with acute reactants like C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts except for erythrocyte sedimentation rate,suggesting that elevated CF was not a consequence of acute inflammation.CONCLUSION: Elevated CF in active IBD appears to be morbigenous. CF promotes IBD via two main mechanisms, quenching of TI (an anti-inflammatory substance)and impairing microvascular perfusion by forming protein aggregates. CF may also serve as a biomarker of chronic IBD. Additional studies are warranted to fully evaluate the role of CF in IBD and the outcome should contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD.

  3. Effect of magnetic activity on plasma bubbles over equatorial and low-latitude regions in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of plasma bubble occurrence in the eveningside ionosphere, with magnetic activity during the period years 2001–2004, is studied here based on the TEC observations gathered by ground-based GPS receivers which are located in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in East Asia. The observed plasma bubbles consist of the plasma-bubble events in the equatorial (stations GUAM, PIMO and KAYT, and low-latitude regions (stations WUHN, DAEJ and SHAO. It is shown that most equatorial plasma-bubble events commence at 20:00 LT, and may last for >60 min. The magnetic activity appears to suppress the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles with a time delay of more than 3 h (4–9 h. While in the low-latitude regions, most plasma-bubble events commence at about 23:00 LT and last for <45 min. The best correlation between Kp and low-latitude plasma-bubble occurrence is found with an 8–9 h delay, a weak correlation exists for time delays of 6–7 h. This probably indicates that over 3 h delayed disturbance dynamo electric fields obviously inhibit the development of plasma bubbles in the pre-midnight sector.

  4. An Overview of Science Education and Outreach Activities at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DeLooper; A. DeMeo; P. Lucas; A. Post-Zwicker; C. Phillips; C. Ritter; J. Morgan; P. Wieser; A. Percival; E. Starkman; G. Czechowicz

    2000-11-07

    The U. S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) has an energetic science education program and outreach effort. This overview describes the components of the programs and evaluates the changes that have occurred in this effort during the last several years. Efforts have been expanded to reach more students, as well as the public in general. The primary goal is to inform the public regarding the fusion and plasma research at PPPL and to excite students so that they can appreciate science and technology. A student's interest in science can be raised by tours, summer research experiences, in-classroom presentations, plasma expos, teacher workshops and web-based materials. The ultimate result of this effort is a better-informed public, as well as an increase in the number of women and minorities who choose science as a vocation. Measuring the results is difficult, but current metrics are reviewed. The science education and outreach programs are supported by a de dicated core group of individuals and supplemented by other members of the PPPL staff and consultants who perform various outreach and educational activities.

  5. Improvement of photocatalytic activity of silver nanoparticles by radio frequency oxygen plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yingcui; Zhang, Bing; Hong, Liu; Yao, Damao; Xie, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Photocatalytic activity (PA) of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced by radio frequency (RF) oxygen plasma irradiation (OPI) is investigated in this paper. An improvement in PA by 365% and 181% has been achieved when 15 nm AgNPs irradiated by oxygen plasma for 2 s were used to degrade 10-5 M Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) under ultraviolet (UV) and visible lights, respectively. The PA caused by OPI is better than that induced by the localized surface plasma resonance (LSPR) of AgNPs. The mechanism for the improvement was explored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectra. The OPI-induced formation of AgO/AgNP and Ag2O/AgNP-heterogeneous photocatalysts and electrophilic oxygen are considered to be responsible for the PA improvement. This investigation deepens our understanding of oxygen-assisted photocatalysis of AgNPs and provides a practical approach using solar light for broad spectra photocatalysis with high efficiency.

  6. Biocidal Activity of Plasma Modified Electrospun Polysulfone Mats Functionalized with Polyethyleneimine-Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Schiffman, Jessica D.

    2011-11-01

    The incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into polymeric nanofibers has attracted a great deal of attention due to the strong antimicrobial activity that the resulting fibers exhibit. However, bactericidal efficacy of AgNP-coated electrospun fibrous mats has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, polysulfone (PSf) fibers were electrospun and surface-modified using an oxygen plasma treatment, which allowed for facile irreversible deposition of cationically charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)-AgNPs via electrostatic interactions. The PSf-AgNP mats were characterized for relative silver concentration as a function of plasma treatment time using ICP-MS and changes in contact angle. Plasma treatment of 60 s was the shortest time required for maximum loss of bacteria (Escherichia coli) viability. Time-dependent bacterial cytotoxicity studies indicate that the optimized PSf-AgNP mats exhibit a high level of inactivation against both Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, Pwomen than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  8. Plasma-activated multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite substrates for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Cesar; Orozco, Jahir; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Lechuga, Laura M; Mendoza, Ernest, E-mail: cesar.fernandez@imb-cnm.csic.e [Nanobiosensors and Molecular Nanobiophysics Group, Research Center on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CIN2) CSIC-ICN, ETSE, Campus UAB-Edificio Q, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-08-19

    Carbon nanotube-polymer composites have shown to be suitable materials for the fabrication of electrochemical transducers. The exposed surface of these materials is commonly passivated by a very thin layer of the polymer component that buries the conductive carbon particles. Working with multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene (MWCNT-PS) composite structures, it was previously described how a simple low power oxygen plasma process produced an effective etching of the composite surface, thereby exposing the conductive surface of CNTs. This work shows how this plasma process not only gave rise to a suitable composite conductive surface for electrochemical sensing but simultaneously exposed and created a high density of oxygen-containing functional groups at both the CNT and the PS components, without affecting the material's mechanical stability. These chemical groups could be effectively modified for the stable immobilization of biological receptors. A detailed chemical characterization of the plasma-activated composite surface was possible using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material reactivity towards the tethering of a protein was studied and protein-protein interactions were then evaluated on the modified composite transducers by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, an amperometric immunosensor approach for the detection of rabbit Immunoglobulin G target analyte was described and a minimum concentration of 3 ng ml{sup -1} was easily measured.

  9. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, S; Loarer, T; Pocheau, C; Roche, H; Gauthier, E; Aumeunier, M-H; Le Niliot, C; Rigollet, F; Courtois, X; Jouve, M; Balorin, C; Moncada, V

    2014-10-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ɛ ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ɛ ∼ 0.1-0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity.

  10. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  11. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  12. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989; Relatorio de atividades do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma do INPE no bienio 88/89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM.

  14. Serum arylesterase and paraoxonase activity in patients with chronic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suleyman Sirri Kilic; Suleyman Aydin; Nermin Kilic; Fazilet Erman; Suna Aydin; (I)lhami Celik

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between serum paraoxonase (PON1), AST, ALT, GGT, and arylesterase (AE) activity alterations and the degree of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis.METHODS: We studied 34 chronic hepatitis patients and 32 control subjects, aged between 35 and 65 years,in the Department of Infection and Clinical Microbiology at the Firat University School of Medicine. Blood samples were collected from subjects between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m. following a 12-h fast. Baseline and salt-stimulated PON1 activities were measured by the hydrolysis of paraoxon. Phenyl acetate was used as the substrate and formed phenol was measured spectrophotometrically at 270 nm after the addition of a 10-fold diluted serum sample in AE activity measurements.RESULTS: The results of this investigation revealed that the levels of AE activity decreased from 132±52 to 94±36 (29%), baseline PON1 activity from 452±112 to 164±67 (64%), salt-stimulated PON1 activity from 746±394 to 294±220 (61%), HDL from 58.4±5.1 to 47.2±5.6(20%), triglyceride from 133±51.2 to 86±34.0 (35%),while a slight increase in the level of LDL (from 163±54.1 to 177.3±56.0; 9%) and significant increases in the levels of AST (from 29±9.3 to 98±44), ALP (from 57.2±13.1 to 91±38.1), ALT (from 27.9±3.32 to 89±19.1), GGT (from 24.3±2.10 to 94±48.2), total bilirubin (from 0.74±0.02 to 1.36±0.06; 84%) and direct bilirubin (from 0.18±0.01 to 0.42±0.04; 133%) were detected.However, the levels of albumin, total protein, cholesterol,and uric acid were almost the same in chronic hepatitis and the control subjects.CONCLUSION: Low PON1 and AE activity may contribute to the increased liver dysfunction in chronic hepatitis patients by reducing the ability of HDL to retard LDL oxidation and might be clinically useful for monitoring the disease of chronic hepatitis.

  15. High Complement Factor I Activity in the Plasma of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Momeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental and behavioural syndromes affecting social orientation, behaviour, and communication that can be classified as developmental disorders. ASD is also associated with immune system abnormality. Immune system abnormalities may be caused partly by complement system factor I deficiency. Complement factor I is a serine protease present in human plasma that is involved in the degradation of complement protein C3b, which is a major opsonin of the complement system. Deficiency in factor I activity is associated with an increased incidence of infections in humans. In this paper, we show that the mean level of factor I activity in the ASD group is significantly higher than in the control group of typically developed and healthy children, suggesting that high activity of complement factor I might have an impact on the development of ASD.

  16. Hemolytic plate assay for quantification of active human complement component C3 using methylamine-treated plasma as complement source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jessen, T E; Welinder, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    A hemolytic plate assay specific for active human complement component C3 is described. The method is well suited for tracing active C3 during preparative purification or for screening of plasma samples. The assay is based on activation of the alternative pathway of complement by unmodified rabbi...

  17. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  18. Cytoprotective effects of mild plasma-activated medium against oxidative stress in human skin fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Minori; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) has recently been applied to living cells and tissues and has emerged as a novel technology for medical applications. NTAPP affects cells not only directly, but also indirectly with previously prepared plasma-activated medium (PAM). The objective of this study was to demonstrate the preconditioning effects of “mild PAM” which was prepared under relatively mild conditions, on fibroblasts against cellular injury generated by a high dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We observed the preconditioning effects of mild PAM containing approximately 50 μM H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide needs to be the main active species in mild PAM for it to exert preconditioning effects because the addition of catalase to mild PAM eliminated these effects. The nuclear translocation and recruitment of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to antioxidant response elements (ARE) in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) promoters and the up-regulation of HO-1 were detected in fibroblasts treated with mild PAM. The addition of ZnPP, a HO-1-specific inhibitor, or the knockdown of Nrf2 completely abrogated the preconditioning effects. Our results demonstrate that mild PAM protects fibroblasts from oxidative stress by up-regulating HO-1, and the H2O2-induced activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway needs to be involved in this reaction. PMID:28169359

  19. Activation of μ-opioid receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 by plasma from morphine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nan; Gomes, Fabio P; Deora, Vandana; Gregory, Kye; Vithanage, Tharindu; Nassar, Zeyad D; Cabot, Peter J; Sturgess, David; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we quantified the ability of opioids present in biological samples to activate the μ-opioid receptor and TLR4 using cell-based assays. Each assay was standardised, in the presence of plasma, using morphine, its μ receptor-active metabolite morphine-6 glucuronide (M6G) and its μ receptor-inactive, but TLR4-active metabolite morphine-3 glucuronide (M3G). Specificity was verified using antagonists. Morphine- and M6G-spiked plasma samples exhibited μ receptor activation, which M3G-spiked plasma lacked. In contrast, M3G showed moderate but consistent activation of TLR-4. Plasma samples were collected at a number of time points from mice administered morphine (1 or 10mg/kg every 12h for 3days) or saline. Morphine administration led to intermittent μ receptor activation, reversed by μ receptor antagonists, and to TRL4 activation at time points where M3G is measured in plasma. Interestingly, this protocol of morphine administration also led to TLR4-independent NF-κB activation, at time points where M3G was not detected, presumably via elevation of circulating cytokines including, but not limited to, TNFα. Circulating TNFα was increased after three days of morphine administration, and TNFα mRNA elevated in the spleen of morphine-treated mice.

  20. Bactericidal Effects against S. aureus and Physicochemical Properties of Plasma Activated Water stored at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin; Tian, Ying; Li, Yinglong; Ma, Ruonan; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Water activated by non-thermal plasma creates an acidified solution containing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, known as plasma-activated water (PAW). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different storage temperatures (25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C, ‑80 °C) on bactericidal activities against S. aureus and physicochemical properties of PAW up to 30 days. Interestingly, PAW stored at ‑80 °C yielded the best antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, 3~4 log reduction over a 30-day period after PAW generation; meanwhile, PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, and ‑20 °C, respectively, yielded 0.2~2 log decrease in cell viability after the same exposure and storage time. These results were verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of PAW stored at different temperatures were evaluated, including pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), and hydrogen peroxide, nitrate, nitrite anion and NO radical levels. These findings suggested that bacterial activity of PAW stored at 25 °C, 4 °C, ‑20 °C decreased over time, and depended on three germicidal factors, specifically ORP, H2O2, and NO3‑. Moreover, PAW stored at ‑80 °C retained bactericidal activity, with NO2‑ contributing to bactericidal ability in association with H2O2. Our findings provide a basis for PAW storage and practical applications in disinfection and food preservation.

  1. Intrinsic Kinetics of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Plasma Activation of CO2 Hydrogenation over Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tongming; Zhou, Xinhui; Qin, Zuzeng; Ji, Hongbing

    2017-02-02

    CO2 is activated in a plasma reactor followed by hydrogenation over a Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 catalyst, and the intrinsic kinetics of the plasma catalytic process are studied. Compared with CO2 hydrogenation using Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 alone, the CO2 conversion and the dimethyl ether selectivity for the plasma catalytic process are increased by 16.3 %, and 10.1 %, respectively, indicating that the CO2 was activated by the plasma to promote hydrogenation. A study of the intrinsic kinetics shows that the activation energies of methanol formation, the reverse water-gas shift reaction, and methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether are 149.34, 75.47, and 73.18 kJ mol(-1) , respectively, which are lower than if Cu-Fe-Ce/HZSM-5 is used without plasma, indicating that the activation of CO2 in the plasma reduces the activation energy of the hydrogenation reaction and improves the yield of dimethyl ether.

  2. Cross-sectional associations of food consumption with plasma fatty acid composition and estimated desaturase activities in Finnish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venäläinen, Taisa; Schwab, Ursula; Ågren, Jyrki; de Mello, Vanessa; Lindi, Virpi; Eloranta, Aino-Maija; Kiiskinen, Sanna; Laaksonen, David; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-05-01

    Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6–8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60–80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children.

  3. 对氧磷酶1与多囊卵巢综合征的相关性研究%The Relationship between PON1 and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石溪

    2011-01-01

    对氧磷酶(PON)是一类能催化水解磷酸酯键的芳香酯酶,能够水解高密度脂蛋白和低密度脂蛋白分子中的氧化型磷脂,具有抗氧化作用.PON 活性异常与动脉粥样硬化发生密切相关,PON日益受到重视.随着临床和分子生物学的进展发现,PON的活性与多囊卵巢综合征及其并发症密切相关,但在国内尚未见报道.现就此研究进展作一综述.%Paraoxonase( PON )is a kind of aromatic esterase that can catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate ester bond in high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein with antioxidant activity. Since a close relationship between PON activity and atherosclerosis was found,PON is receiving increasing attention. With the progress of clinical and molecular biology in recent years, foreign scholars have found that PON activity is closely related to polycystic ovary syndrome and its complications. However,no such report has been found in China. Here is to review related progress in this regard.

  4. Catalytic Effect of Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber in Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Based Water Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanzong; ZHENG Jingtang; QU Xianfeng; YU Weizhao; CHEN nonggang

    2008-01-01

    Catalysis and regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC) and acti-vated carbon fiber (ACF) were investigated in a non-equilibrium plasma water treatment reactor with a combination of pulsed streamer discharge and GAC or ACF. The experimental results show that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) by the combined treatment can increase 22% (for GAC) and 24% (for ACF) respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone, indicating that the combined treatment has a synergetic effect. The MO degradation efficiency by the combined treatment with pulsed discharge and saturated GAC or ACF can increase 12% and 17% respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone. Both GAC and ACF show catalysis and the catalysis of ACF is prominent. Meanwhile, the regeneration of GAC and ACF are realized in this process. When H2O2 is introduced into the system, the utilization efficiency of ozone and ultraviolet light is improved and the regeneration efficiency of GAC and ACF is also increased.

  5. Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma experiment: a part of the Plasma Wave Investigation consortium aboard the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotignon, Jean Gabriel; Trotignon, Jean Gabriel; Lagoutte, Dominique; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hiro; Blomberg, Lars; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    The Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma experiment, AM2 P, is designed to measure the thermal electron density and temperature in the environment of planet Mercury from the solar wind down to the inner magnetosphere. Detailed analyses of the returned data should also give more information on the electron distribution function itself. AM2 P as part of the Plasma Wave Investigation consortium, PWI, shall then contribute to the study of the intricate and poorly known interaction between the solar wind and the Mercury's magnetosphere, exosphere, and surface. AM2 P shall indeed give another insight into the thermal coupling between neutral and charged particles, the characterization of the spectral distribution of natural waves, the detection of plasma boundaries, and the identification of the plasma regimes inside the Hermean magnetosphere. The AM2 P basic mode is to measure the self-impedance of the MEFISTO (Mercury Electric Field In Situ TOol) double-sphere antenna in a frequency range comprising the plasma frequency which is expected to lie in the various regions encountered by the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO. In this mode, different operations are possible, giving complementary plasma parameter information, mainly in the vicinity of the plasma resonance: normal dipole, monopole, and mutual impedance, according to the antenna elements that are used for the transmitting and receiving functions. In the secondary MEFISTO double-wire antenna mode, the external shield of the wire-boom is used as a 2 x 15 m long dipole antenna. As the dependence upon plasma parameters of the double-wire antenna impedance differs significantly from the double-sphere one, both modes may be of great benefit for achieving reliable and complementary plasma diagnoses. This is actually very useful in the Mercury's dilute media. As a bonus, AM2 P will contribute to the onboard calibrations of the WPT wire electric-antenna and the SC-DB and SC-LF search coils (calibration signal

  6. Three-dimensional MHD modeling of vertical kink oscillations in an active region plasma curtain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Parisi, M.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X 6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in extreme UV coronal lines with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min. Aims: Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in the plasma curtain taking the realistic 3D magnetic and the density structure of the curtain into account. We also aim to test and improve coronal seismology for a more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with the standard method. Methods: We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain, to initialize a 3D MHD model of the observed vertical and transverse oscillations. To accomplish this, we implemented the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimicking the flare-generated nonlinear fast magnetosonic propagating disturbance interacting obliquely with the curtain. The model is simplified by utilizing an initial dipole magnetic field, isothermal energy equation, and gravitationally stratified density guided by observational parameters. Results: Using the 3D MHD model, we are able to reproduce the details of the vertical oscillations and study the process of their excitation by a nonlinear fast magnetosonic pulse, propagation, and damping, finding agreement with the observations. Conclusions: We estimate the accuracy of simplified slab-based coronal seismology by comparing the determined magnetic field strength to actual values from the 3D MHD modeling results, and demonstrate the importance of taking more realistic magnetic geometry and density for improving coronal seismology into account. A movie associated to Fig. 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  8. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  9. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham, Abingdon, Oxon, 0X14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vann, Roddy G. L. [York Plasma Institute, Dept. of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-21

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  10. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K.; Vann, Roddy G. L.

    2014-08-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  11. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects' body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly lower plasma MDA concentrations than the control group. In addition, the exercise group had significantly higher plasma SOD activity than the control group. [Conclusions] Hatha yoga exercise improves flexibility, muscle tone and strength, balance, and joint function. Our findings indicate that regular and continuous yoga exercise effectively improved body composition, decrease plasma MDA concentration, and increase plasma SOD activity in female patients with shoulder pain.

  12. Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Goossens, F; Scharpé, S; Calabrese, J; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-10-16

    The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

  13. A Modified Porous Titanium Sheet Prepared by Plasma-Activated Sintering for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimichi Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a contamination-free porous titanium scaffold by a plasma-activated sintering within an originally developed TiN-coated graphite mold. The surface of porous titanium sheet with or without a coated graphite mold was characterized. The cell adhesion property of porous titanium sheet was also evaluated in this study. The peak of TiC was detected on the titanium sheet processed with the graphite mold without a TiN coating. Since the titanium fiber elements were directly in contact with the carbon graphite mold during processing, surface contamination was unavoidable event in this condition. The TiC peak was not detectable on the titanium sheet processed within the TiN-coated carbon graphite mold. This modified plasma-activated sintering with the TiN-coated graphite mold would be useful to fabricate a contamination-free titanium sheet. The number of adherent cells on the modified titanium sheet was greater than that of the bare titanium plate. Stress fiber formation and the extension of the cells were observed on the titanium sheets. This modified titanium sheet is expected to be a new tissue engineering material in orthopedic bone repair.

  14. The plasma concentration of the B cell activating factor is increased in children with acute malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduati, Eunice; Gwela, Agnes; Karanja, Henry; Mugyenyi, Cleopatra; Langhorne, Jean; Marsh, Kevin; Urban, Britta C

    2011-09-15

    Malaria-specific antibody responses in children often appear to be short-lived but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and its receptors expressed on B cells with antibody responses during and after acute malaria in children. Our results demonstrate that BAFF plasma levels increased during acute malarial disease and reflected disease severity. The expression profiles for BAFF receptors on B cells agreed with rapid activation and differentiation of a proportion of B cells to plasma cells. However, BAFF receptor (BAFF-R) expression was reduced on all peripheral blood B cells during acute infection, but those children with the highest level of BAFF-R expression on B cells maintained schizont-specific immunoglobin G (IgG) over a period of 4 months, indicating that dysregulation of BAFF-R expression on B cells may contribute to short-lived antibody responses to malarial antigens in children. In summary, this study suggests a potential role for BAFF during malaria disease, both as a marker for disease severity and in shaping the differentiation pattern of antigen-specific B cells.

  15. Modulation of plasma antioxidant activity in weaned piglets by plant polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai J. Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of plant polyphenols (PP on antioxidant activity in weaned piglets. First, a uniform design, one optimising an experimental technique that can rationally arrange the concentrations of mixture components, was used to obtain the best PP mixture of apple, grape seed, green tea and olive leaf polyphenols based on in vitro antioxidant capacity and inhibitory action on bacterial growth. Second, the optimised PP mixture was tested in vivo with an efficacy trial on piglets. The optimal effects of the mix were observed in vitro when apple, grape seed, green tea, olive leaf polyphenols and a carrier (silicon dioxide accounted for 16.5, 27.5, 30, 2.5 and 23.5%, respectively, of the mixture. Forty-eight weaned piglets were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments (6 replicates of 4 piglets each per treatment and fed a control diet (CTR or CTR supplemented with 0.1% of the optimised PP mixture. Dietary PP did not affect growth performance compared to the CTR group. Plasma total protein, urea nitrogen and lysozyme content were not affected by dietary treatment. No differences of E. coli or Clostridia counts in the faeces and caecum content between the CTR and PP groups were observed. A reduced malondialdehyde concentration in the PP group was observed on day 21 compared to the CTR group (P=0.02. In conclusion, the prepared PP mixture has the potential to improve plasma antioxidant activity.

  16. Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avarseji Hassan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolyl Endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, a cytosolic endopeptidase, hydrolyses peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of proline residue in proteins with a relatively small molecular weight. It has been shown that altered PEP activity is associated with various psychological diseases such as schizophrenia, mania and depression. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neuropsychiatric and behavioural syndromes affecting social behaviours and communication development. They are classified as developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that PEP activity is also associated with ASDs. Methods Fluorometric assay was used to measure PEP activity in EDTA plasma in children with ASD (n = 18 aged 4–12 years (mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 2.5. These results were then compared to PEP activity in a control group of non-ASD children (n = 15 aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.2. Results An alteration in PEP activity was found in the children with ASD compared to the control group. There was much greater variation of PEP activity in the group of ASD children when compared to the controls (SD= 39.9 and SD 9.6, respectively. This variation was significant (p Conclusion Our preliminary finding suggests a role for PEP enzyme in the pathophysiology of autism but further research should be conducted to establish its role in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and related spectrum disorders.

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  18. Decrease in platelet activating factor stimulated phosphoinositide turnover during storage of human platelets in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.G.; Shukla, S.D. (Univ. of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1987-05-01

    Human platelet concentrate from the American Red Cross Blood Center was stored at 24{degree}C in a shaker and aliquots were taken out at time intervals aseptically. Platelet activating factor (PAF) stimulated turnover of phosphoinositide (PPI) was monitored by assaying {sup 32}P incorporation into phosphoinositides using platelet rich plasma (PRP). Platelets in PRP were incubated with 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} M PAF at 37{degree}C with gentle shaking and after 5 min their lipids were extracted and analysed by TLC for {sup 32}P-phosphoinositides. The percent stimulation of {sup 32}P incorporation by PAF (over control) into PPI was approximately 250, 100, 60, 25 and 20 on days 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6, respectively. This indicated a dramatic decrease in PAF responsive turnover of platelet PPI during storage. These findings have important implications in relation to PAF receptor activity and viability of platelets at different periods of storage.

  19. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite by solution plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiulan; Xu, QiuCheng; Ge, Chao; Su, Nan; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Huihong; Zhu, Shoufeng; Xu, Yanqiu; Cheng, Jiexu

    2017-01-27

    In this paper, Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by solution plasma technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) were used to verify their chemical composition. The size and morphology of the Pt-ZnO hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These results indicate that about 2-3 nm Pt nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and dispersed on the pyramid-like ZnO (20-60 nm) surface. Photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) demonstrates that the Pt (5 wt%)-ZnO hybrid nanocomposite has better photocatalytic activity than commercial P25 because Pt NPs restrain the photogenerated electron/hole recombination and increase the catalyst activity.

  20. Formation of radical and active chemical species in electrical discharge plasma in the presence of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, B.R.; Shih, K.Y.; Burlica, R. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the interactions of plasma with liquid water using a combination of emission spectroscopy of radical and atomic species and direct measurements of more stable chemical compounds. The study focused on electrical discharge plasma formed directly in liquid water and on discharges formed in the gas phase above liquid water, in bubbles in liquid water, and in the gas phase with water droplet spray that result in a variety of active chemical species that can be used for pollution control as well as other applications in biomedical and materials engineering. The purpose was to improve the design and operation of plasma reactors for a variety of applications. This presentation also reviewed the mechanisms for the formation of active chemical species such as hydroxyl and other radicals, hydrogen peroxide and molecular hydrogen, in electrical discharge plasma formed in the presence of water.

  1. Activation of electroplated-Cu surface via plasma pretreatment for low temperature Cu-Sn bonding in 3D interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junqiang; Wang, Qian; Liu, Ziyu; Wu, Zijian; Cai, Jian; Wang, Dejun

    2016-10-01

    The pretreatment with Ar mixed 5% H2 plasma was applied to improve surface properties of electroplated Cu for low temperature Cu-Sn bonding in 3D interconnection. Measurement results revealed that the Ar(5% H2) plasma effectively increased the surface activity by reducing oxygen content of the Cu surface. Lower surface roughness obtained by optimizing the pretreatment condition could help to suppress oxygen adsorption. Relationships between surface energy and surface oxygen content, surface oxygen content and surface roughness were also established. Evaluation of low temperature (200 °C) Cu-Sn bonding with optimal plasma pretreatment exhibited a defect-free interface and high shear strength.

  2. CHBPR: ANGIOTENSIN II, INDEPENDENT OF PLASMA RENIN ACTIVITY, CONTRIBUTES TO THE HYPERTENSION OF AUTONOMIC FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Amy C.; Okamoto, Luis E.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Shibao, Cyndya; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2013-01-01

    At least half of primary autonomic failure patients exhibit supine hypertension, despite profound impairments in sympathetic activity. While the mechanisms underlying this hypertension are unknown, plasma renin activity is often undetectable suggesting renin-angiotensin pathways are not involved. However, because aldosterone levels are preserved, we tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II is intact and contributes to the hypertension of autonomic failure. Indeed, circulating angiotensin II was paradoxically increased in hypertensive autonomic failure patients (52±5 pg/ml, n=11) compared to matched healthy controls (27±4 pg/ml, n=10; p=0.002), despite similarly low renin activity (0.19±0.06 versus 0.34±0.13 ng/ml/hr, respectively; p=0.449). To determine the contribution of angiotensin II to supine hypertension in these patients, we administered the AT1 receptor blocker losartan (50 mg) at bedtime in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study (n=11). Losartan maximally reduced systolic blood pressure by 32±11 mmHg at 6 hours after administration (p<0.05), decreased nocturnal urinary sodium excretion (p=0.0461), and did not worsen morning orthostatic tolerance. In contrast, there was no effect of the captopril on supine blood pressure in a subset of these patients. These findings suggest that angiotensin II formation in autonomic failure is independent of plasma renin activity, and perhaps angiotensin converting enzyme. Furthermore, these studies suggest that elevations in angiotensin II contribute to the hypertension of autonomic failure, and provide rationale for the use of AT1 receptor blockers for treatment of these patients. PMID:23266540

  3. Low temperature alters plasma membrane lipid composition and ATPase activity of pineapple fruit during blackheart development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchan; Pan, Xiaoping; Qu, Hongxia; Underhill, Steven J R

    2014-02-01

    Plasma membrane (PM) plays central role in triggering primary responses to chilling injury and sustaining cellular homeostasis. Characterising response of membrane lipids to low temperature can provide important information for identifying early causal factors contributing to chilling injury. To this end, PM lipid composition and ATPase activity were assessed in pineapple fruit (Ananas comosus) in relation to the effect of low temperature on the development of blackheart, a form of chilling injury. Chilling temperature at 10 °C induced blackheart development in concurrence with increase in electrolyte leakage. PM ATPase activity was decreased after 1 week at low temperature, followed by a further decrease after 2 weeks. The enzyme activity was not changed during 25 °C storage. Loss of total PM phospholipids was found during postharvest senescence, but more reduction was shown from storage at 10 °C. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the predominant PM phospholipid species. Low temperature increased the level of phosphatidic acid but decreased the level of phosphatidylinositol. Both phospholipid species were not changed during storage at 25 °C. Postharvest storage at both temperatures decreased the levels of C18:3 and C16:1, and increased level of C18:1. Low temperature decreased the level of C18:2 and increased the level of C14:0. Exogenous application of phosphatidic acid was found to inhibit the PM ATPase activity of pineapple fruit in vitro. Modification of membrane lipid composition and its effect on the functional property of plasma membrane at low temperature were discussed in correlation with their roles in blackheart development of pineapple fruit.

  4. Changes in plasma IL-6, plasma VEGF and serum YKL-40 during Treatment with Etanercept and Methotrexate or Etanercept alone in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Despite Methotrexate Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lene Surland; Hetland, Merete Lund; Johansen, Julia Sidenius

    2009-01-01

    Changes in plasma IL-6, plasma VEGF and serum YKL-40 were determined in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients during treatment with etanercept alone or in combination with methotrexate. Twenty-five patients with active RA (DAS28 >/= 3.2) were randomized to receive etanercept (25 mg sc. biweekly) plus...... methotrexate (n = 12) or etanercept alone (n = 13). Plasma IL-6, plasma VEGF and serum YKL-40 were determined by ELISA. The 3 biomarkers and DAS28 scores were evaluated at baseline and after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of treatment. At inclusion all patients had significantly (p plasma IL-6, plasma...... VEGF and serum YKL-40 compared to healthy subjects. Eighteen patients responded to treatment (pooled data from both treatment groups), and they had significant (p plasma IL-6, plasma VEGF, serum YKL-40, ESR and DAS28 after 4 weeks of treatment and throughout the study...

  5. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and s...

  6. Acute phase response of selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood plasma before and after total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defi, Irma Ruslina; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakazawa, Minato; Shinya, Yanagisawa; Sato, Naoki; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Several studies show the consistent results of the decrease in plasma or serum selenium (Se) after surgery, and the change is suggested to be a negative acute phase response of Se to the surgical inflammation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is included in the acute phase response proteins, is a selenoenzyme. However, previous studies failed to show any changes in GPx activity before and after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the Se- and selenoenzyme responses that accompany the acute inflammatory reactions during and following major surgery. Patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty surgery due to knee osteoarthritis at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Gunma University Hospital in Japan were studied. The plasma Se concentration was determined, and the activity of plasma GPx was measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and white blood cell (WBC) count were also analysed. Increases in the inflammatory biomarkers of CRP and WBC showed inflammatory reactions with the surgery. A significant increase in plasma GPx activity (p production of other series of acute phase proteins, the present results suggest that there is a redistribution of plasma Se to GPx that occurs as an acute phase response, and the source of Se for GPx could be, at least partly, from albumin.

  7. Scintigraphic evaluation of early osteoblastic activity in extraction sockets treated with platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüzer, Bahadir; Pikdöken, Levent; Urhan, Muammer; Süer, B Tolga; Narin, Yavuz

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the early effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on osteoblastic activity during the healing process of soft tissue impacted mandibular third molar extraction sockets by means of bone scintigraphy. Twelve patients with bilaterally soft tissue impacted mandibular third molars were included in the study. The impacted right and left mandibular third molars were surgically extracted in the same session. PRP was administered randomly into the extraction sockets in the study (S) group whereas the extraction sockets in the control (C) group were left without PRP treatment. Scintigrams were obtained in the first and fourth weeks after surgery to evaluate the osteoblastic activity within extraction sockets in both groups. Scintigraphic findings of postoperative first and fourth weeks did not show significantly increased osteoblastic activity between S group and C group (P > .05). However, the osteoblastic activity in both groups significantly increased in postoperative week 4 in comparison to week 1 (P third molar extraction sockets failed to increase the osteoblastic activity in postsurgical weeks 1 and 4 in comparison to non-PRP-treated sockets.

  8. Receptor-like activity evoked by extracellular ADP in Arabidopsis root epidermal plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidchik, Vadim; Shang, Zhonglin; Shin, Ryoung; Colaço, Renato; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shabala, Sergey; Davies, Julia M

    2011-07-01

    Extracellular purine nucleotides are implicated in the control of plant development and stress responses. While extracellular ATP is known to activate transcriptional pathways via plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase and calcium channel activation, very little is known about signal transduction by extracellular ADP. Here, extracellular ADP was found to activate net Ca(2+) influx in roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and transiently elevate cytosolic free Ca(2+) in root epidermal protoplasts. An inward Ca(2+)-permeable conductance in root epidermal PM was activated within 1 s of ADP application and repeated application evoked a smaller current. Such response speed and densitization are consistent with operation of equivalents to animal ionotropic purine receptors, although to date no equivalent genes for such receptors have been identified in higher plants. In contrast to ATP, extracellular ADP did not evoke accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. While high concentrations of ATP caused net Ca(2+) efflux from roots, equivalent concentrations of ADP caused net influx. Overall the results point to a discrete ADP signaling pathway, reliant on receptor-like activity at the PM.

  9. Receptor-Like Activity Evoked by Extracellular ADP in Arabidopsis Root Epidermal Plasma Membrane1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidchik, Vadim; Shang, Zhonglin; Shin, Ryoung; Colaço, Renato; Laohavisit, Anuphon; Shabala, Sergey; Davies, Julia M.

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular purine nucleotides are implicated in the control of plant development and stress responses. While extracellular ATP is known to activate transcriptional pathways via plasma membrane (PM) NADPH oxidase and calcium channel activation, very little is known about signal transduction by extracellular ADP. Here, extracellular ADP was found to activate net Ca2+ influx in roots of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and transiently elevate cytosolic free Ca2+ in root epidermal protoplasts. An inward Ca2+-permeable conductance in root epidermal PM was activated within 1 s of ADP application and repeated application evoked a smaller current. Such response speed and densitization are consistent with operation of equivalents to animal ionotropic purine receptors, although to date no equivalent genes for such receptors have been identified in higher plants. In contrast to ATP, extracellular ADP did not evoke accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. While high concentrations of ATP caused net Ca2+ efflux from roots, equivalent concentrations of ADP caused net influx. Overall the results point to a discrete ADP signaling pathway, reliant on receptor-like activity at the PM. PMID:21562328

  10. Changes in blood plasma of professional football players during the continuous training-emulative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any physical activity is accompanied by speed changing of metabolic processes in the organism, peculiar changing of their directivities and accordingly, the emergence of biochemical changes in the muscles that perform work, in the internal organs, as well as in blood system. Aim. To determine the changes that occur in blood plasma of professional footballers during continuous physical activity, 84 professional players were examined. Methods and results. We have determined the direction and peculiarity of the cumulative effect of the impact of physical activity on changes in the blood of sportsmen during continuous period of an educational-training session (ETS. It was established that under the conditions of intensive or continuous physical load a steady prevalence of catabolic processes in the organism wes observed. The given changes, specified by the fact that during ETS sportsmen’s tension of adaptation processes is gradually increasing. Moderate hyper-thrombotonin background in blood of the most sportsmen were observed in the beginning of ETS. Increase of permittivity membrane erythrocytes that reflected sorption capacity growth of the red blood cells was detected in individual sportsmen. Cell membrane structures damage of during intensive or continuous training is of generalized character and takes place almost in all organs and tissues. Also serum AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine transaminase and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase activity was studied in footballers during the ETS. Conclusions. The specified level of activity of certain enzymes indicates hypoxic / ischemic state due to the training load during ETS.

  11. The Relationship between Plasma Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Sex Hormones during the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavilani, H. (PhD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There is increasing evidence for the role of oxidative stress in female reproductive tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes during menstrual cycle. In addition, the relationship between activity of antioxidant enzyme and sex hormones was evaluated. Material and Methods: In this study the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in twenty women with regular menstrual cycle were studied. Furthermore, the correlation between activity of antioxidant enzymes and estradiol, progesterone, LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference between activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity during the menses, follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle (P>0.05. We found significant correlation, in luteal phase, between superoxide dismutase and FSH (P<0.05، r=0.44 and LH P<0.05،r=0.54. Also it is observed between LH and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05، r=0.44. Conclusion: Based on the results, there is no significant difference between antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma during menstrual cycle. In other words, physiologic system of women with regular menstrual cycle can protect body against oxidative stress and this is probably performed due to action of FSH and LH hormones. Keywords: Antioxidants; Menstrual cycle; Sex hormones

  12. FCCP depolarizes plasma membrane potential by activating proton and Na+ currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu-Sang; Jo, Inho; Pak, Kim; Bae, Sung-Won; Rhim, Hyewhon; Suh, Suk-Hyo; Park, Jin; Zhu, Hong; So, Insuk; Kim, Ki Whan

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of carbonylcyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP), a protonophore and uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, on plasma membrane potential and ionic currents in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). The membrane potential and ionic currents of BAECs were recorded using the patch-clamp technique in current-clamp and voltage-clamp modes, respectively. FCCP activated ionic currents and depolarized the plasma membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Neither the removal of extracellular Ca2+ nor pretreatment with BAPTA/AM affected the FCCP-induced currents, implying that the currents are not associated with the FCCP-induced intracellular [Ca2+]i increase. FCCP-induced currents were significantly influenced by the changes in extracellular or intracellular pH; the increased proton gradient produced by lowering the extracellular pH or intracellular alkalinization augmented the changes in membrane potential and ionic currents caused by FCCP. FCCP-induced currents were significantly reduced under extracellular Na+-free conditions. The reversal potentials of FCCP-induced currents under Na+-free conditions were well fitted to the calculated equilibrium potential for protons. Interestingly, FCCP-induced Na+ transport (subtracted currents, I(control)- I(Na+-free) was closely dependent on extracellular pH, whereas FCCP-induced H+transport was not significantly affected by the absence of Na+. These results suggest that the FCCP-induced ionic currents and depolarization, which are strongly dependent on the plasmalemmal proton gradient, are likely to be mediated by both H+ and Na+ currents across the plasma membrane. The relationship between H+ and Na+ transport still needs to be determined.

  13. [New approaches to the measurement of the concentration and peroxidase activity of myeloperoxidase in human blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, I V; Cherkalina, O S; Sokolov, A V; Pulina, M O; Zakharova, E T; Vasil'ev, V B; Cherenkevich, S N; Panasenko, O M

    2009-01-01

    A novel method for spectrometrical measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in plasma with o-dianisidine (DA) as a substrate is proposed. We have determined the optimal conditions, including the pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration, under which MPO is the main contributor to DA oxidation in plasma. Specific MPO inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid or (4-aminobenzoyl)hydrazide, are added to measure the activity of other heme-containing peroxidases (mainly hemoglobin and its derivatives) and subtract their contribution from the total plasma peroxidase activity. Plasma MPO concentrations are quantified by a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by us and based on the use of antibodies raised in rats and rabbits. The sensitivity of this ELISA is high: 0.2-250 ng/ml. A direct and significant (P < 0.0001) correlation was observed between the MPO activities measured spectrometrically and by ELISA in blood samples from 38 healthy donors. The proposed approaches to MPO measurement in plasma can be used to evaluate the enzyme activity and concentration, as well as the efficacy of mechanisms by which MPO is regulated under physiological conditions and against the background of various inflammatory diseases.

  14. Effect of pubertal development and physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Tillmann, V; Lätt, E; Haljaste, K; Purge, P; Pomerants, T; Jürimäe, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in pre-pubertal and pubertal boys. In addition, the impact of ghrelin concentration on bone mineral density (BMD) was examined. In total, 56 healthy schoolboys aged between 10 and 16 yr were divided into the swimming (no.=28) and the control (no.=28) groups. The subjects were matched by age and body mass index (BMI), generating 9 matched pairs in pubertal group I (Tanner stage 1), 11 pairs in group II (Tanner stages 2 and 3), and 8 pairs in group III (Tanner stages 4 and 5). Swimmers in pubertal groups II and III had significantly (both pghrelin levels than the controls (group II: 1126.8+/-406.0 vs 868.3+/-411.2 pg/ml; group III: 1105.5+/-337.5 vs 850.8+/-306.0 pg/ml, respectively), whereas no difference was seen in the pubertal group I (1230.8+/-386.0 vs 1272.7+/-424.4 pg/ml). Ghrelin was the most important hormonal determinant for total BMD and lumbar apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (R2=27.2% and R2=19.8%, respectively) in swimmers, whereas in control boys, plasma IGF-I was the most important hormonal predictor accounting for 41.8% of the variability of total BMD and 20.4% of the variability of lumbar BMAD. In conclusion, ghrelin concentration decreased during puberty in physically inactive boys, while in regularly physically active boys it remained relatively unchanged. Ghrelin appears to be an important hormonal predictor for BMD in physically active boys, while BMD is mostly determined by IGF-I in physically inactive boys.

  15. CRF01_AE-specific neutralizing activity observed in plasma derived from HIV-1-infected Thai patients residing in northern Thailand: comparison of neutralizing breadth and potency between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sapsutthipas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of a protective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is an important subject in the field of medical sciences; however, it has not yet been achieved. Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies are found in the plasma of some HIV-1-infected patients, whereas such antibody responses have failed to be induced by currently used vaccine antigens. In order to develop effective vaccine antigens, it is important to reveal the molecular mechanism of how strong humoral immune responses are induced in infected patients. As part of such studies, we examined the correlation between the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody response and disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activity of plasma derived from 33 rapid and 34 slow progressors residing in northern Thailand. The level of neutralizing activity varied considerably among plasmas, and no statistically significant differences in the potency and breadth of neutralizing activities were observed overall between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors; however, plasma of 4 slow progressors showed neutralizing activity against all target viruses, whereas none of the plasma of rapid progressors showed such neutralizing activity. In addition, 21% and 9% of plasmas derived from slow and rapid progressors inhibited the replication of more than 80% of CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses tested, respectively. Neutralization of subtype B and C Env-recombinant viruses by the selected plasma was also examined; however, these plasma samples inhibited the replication of only a few viruses tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although no statistically significant differences were observed in the potency and breadth of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing activities between plasma derived from rapid and slow progressors, several plasma samples derived from slow progressors neutralized CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses more frequently than

  16. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin organic films on PTFE activated by cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An air diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge is used to activate the surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE samples, which are subsequently coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and tannic acid (TAN single, bi- and multilayers, respectively, using the dip-coating method. The surfaces are characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Attenuated Total Reflection – Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The XPS measurements show that with plasma treatment the F/C atomic ratio in the PTFE surface decreases, due to the diminution of the concentration of CF2 moieties, and also oxygen incorporation through formation of new C–O, C=O and O=C–O bonds can be observed. In the case of coated samples, the new bonds indicated by XPS show the bonding between the organic layer and the surface, and thus the stability of layers, while the gradual decrease of the concentration of F atoms with the number of deposited layers proves the creation of PVP/TAN bi- and multi-layers. According to the ATR-FTIR spectra, in the case of PVP/TAN multilayer hydrogen bonding develops between the PVP and TAN, which assures the stability of the multilayer. The AFM lateral friction measurements show that the macromolecular layers homogeneously coat the plasma treated PTFE surface.

  17. Wettability of modified silica layers deposited on glass support activated by plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpiłowski, Konrad, E-mail: terpil@umcs.pl [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Rymuszka, Diana [Department of Physical Chemistry – Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Goncharuk, Olena V.; Sulym, Iryna Ya.; Gun’ko, Vladimir M. [Chuiko Institute of Surface Chemistry, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • New modified silica materials synthesis. • Support surface plasma activation. • Apparent surface free energy determination. • Equilibrium contact angle calculation. - Abstract: Fumed silica modified by hexamethyldisilazane [HDMS] and polydimethylsiloxane [PDMS] was dispersed in a polystyrene/chloroform solution. To increase adhesion between deposited silica layers and a glass surface, the latter was pretreated with air plasma for 30 s. The silica/polystyrene dispersion was deposited on the glass support using a spin coater. After deposition, the plates were dried in a desiccator for 24 h. Water advancing and receding contact angles were measured using the tilted plate method. The apparent surface free energy (γ{sub S}) was evaluated using the contact angle hysteresis approach. The surface topography was determined using the optical profilometry method. Contact angles changed from 59.7° ± 4.4 (at surface coverage with trimethylsilyl groups Θ = 0.14) to 155° ± 3.1 at Θ = 1. The value of γ{sub S} decreased from 51.3 ± 2.8 mJ/m{sup 2} (for the sample at the lowest value of Θ) to 1.0 ± 0.4 mJ/m{sup 2} for the most hydrophobic sample. Thus, some systems with a high degree of modification by HDMS showed superhydrophobicity, and the sliding angle amounted to about 16° ± 2.1.

  18. Anti-amyloidogenic Activity of IgGs Contained in Normal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela D.; McWilliams-Koeppen, Helen P.; Acero, Luis; Weber, Alfred; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans P.; Solomon, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We have previously shown that a subpopulation of naturally occurring human IgGs has therapeutic potential for the amyloid-associated disorders. These molecules cross-react with conformational epitopes on amyloidogenic assemblies, including amyloid beta (Aβ) protein fibrils that are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Materials and Methods Using our europium-linked immunosorbant assay, we established that ∼95% of 260 screened donor plasma samples had amyloid fibril-reactive IgGs and Aβ conformer-reactive IgGs with minimal binding to Aβ monomers. Anti-amyloidogenic reactivity was diverse and attributed to Aβ targeting multiple fibril-related binding sites and/or variations in multidentate binding. Results and Discussion There was no correlation between anti-fibril and anti-oligomer reactivity and donor age (19 to 60 years old) or gender. These findings demonstrate the inherent but diverse anti-amyloidogenic activity of natural IgGs contained in normal plasma. Conclusion Our studies provide support for investigating the clinical significance and physiological function of this novel class of antibodies. PMID:20405179

  19. X-ray measurements of MHD activity in shaped TCV plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furno, I.; Weisen, H.; Moret, J.M.; Blanchard, P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Anton, M. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1997-06-01

    The ability of TCV to produce a wide variety of plasma shapes has allowed an investigation of MHD behaviour in a large number of limited ohmic L-mode discharges in which the elongation {kappa} and the triangularity {delta} have been varied over a wide range: {kappa} = 1.1 {yields} 2.5, {delta} = -0.3 {yields} 0.7. A 200 channel soft X-ray tomography system in conjunction with toroidal spaced soft X-ray diodes has been used to study the structure of internal disruptions and MHD modes. A strong reduction of sawtooth amplitude is observed as the plasma triangularity is decreased together with an increase in mode activity. The reduced sawtooth amplitudes are not correlated with any significant changes of the inversion radius and hence are not simply due to changes in current profiles; the inversion radius however is strongly correlated with the Spitzer conductivity profile and with the edge safety factor. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Serum and Plasma Cholinesterase Activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture (Gyps coprotheres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Vinny; Wolter, Kerri

    2016-04-28

    Vulture (Accipitridae) poisonings are a concern in South Africa, with hundreds of birds dying annually. Although some of these poisonings are accidental, there has been an increase in the number of intentional baiting of poached rhinoceros (Rhinocerotidae) and elephant (Elephantidae) carcasses to kill vultures that alert officials to poaching sites by circling overhead. The primary chemicals implicated are the organophosphorous and carbamate compounds. Although most poisoning events can be identified by dead vultures surrounding the scavenged carcass, weak birds are occasionally found and brought to rehabilitation centers for treatment. The treating veterinarian needs to make an informed decision on the cause of illness or poisoning prior to treatment. We established the reference interval for serum and plasma cholinesterase activity in the Cape Griffon Vulture ( Gyps coprotheres ) as 591.58-1,528.26 U/L, providing a clinical assay for determining potential exposure to cholinesterase-depressing pesticides. Both manual and automated samplers were used with the butyrylthiocholine method. Species reference intervals for both serum and plasma cholinesterase showed good correlation and manual and automated measurements yielded similar results.

  1. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  2. Activation of gastric afferents increases noradrenaline release in the paraventricular nucleus and plasma oxytocin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Y; Kannan, H; Higuchi, T; Negoro, H; Yamaguchi, K; Yamashita, H

    2000-01-14

    Effects of electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves on plasma levels of oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were examined in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves increased the plasma levels of OXT, but not AVP. The concentrations of extracellular noradrenaline (NA) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were measured by in vivo microdialysis in rats anesthetized with urethane. Electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves evoked an increase followed by a slight decrease in the concentrations of NA. The responses of spontaneous firing magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in the PVN to both electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal nerves and intravenous (i.v.) administration of CCK-8 were examined. Most of the putative OXT-secreting cells recorded were excited by both electrical stimulation of gastric vagal nerves and i.v. administration of CCK-8. These results suggest that gastric vagal afferents activate the central noradrenergic system from the brainstem to the PVN and secretion of OXT.

  3. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(l-lactide-co-d,l-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA - improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds - is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Johansen, Christopher T; Anand, Sonia S; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Yusuf, Salim; Hegele, Robert A

    2010-09-23

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways.

  5. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F; Freethy, Simon J; Huang, Billy K

    2012-01-01

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 preprogrammed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a passive imaging of plasma emission and also an active imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structur...

  6. Catalytic stimulation by restrained active-site floppiness--the case of high density lipoprotein-bound serum paraoxonase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Moshe; Sussman, Joel L; Maxwell, Christopher I; Szeler, Klaudia; Kamerlin, Shina C L; Tawfik, Dan S

    2015-03-27

    Despite the abundance of membrane-associated enzymes, the mechanism by which membrane binding stabilizes these enzymes and stimulates their catalysis remains largely unknown. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a lipophilic lactonase whose stability and enzymatic activity are dramatically stimulated when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Our mutational and structural analyses, combined with empirical valence bond simulations, reveal a network of hydrogen bonds that connect HDL binding residues with Asn168--a key catalytic residue residing >15Å from the HDL contacting interface. This network ensures precise alignment of N168, which, in turn, ligates PON1's catalytic calcium and aligns the lactone substrate for catalysis. HDL binding restrains the overall motion of the active site and particularly of N168, thus reducing the catalytic activation energy barrier. We demonstrate herein that disturbance of this network, even at its most far-reaching periphery, undermines PON1's activity. Membrane binding thus immobilizes long-range interactions via second- and third-shell residues that reduce the active site's floppiness and pre-organize the catalytic residues. Although this network is critical for efficient catalysis, as demonstrated here, unraveling these long-rage interaction networks is challenging, let alone their implementation in artificial enzyme design.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mai-Prochnow

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med, with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Response and Resistance to Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Is Linked to the Redox-Active Molecule Phenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Bradbury, Mark; Ostrikov, Kostya; Murphy, Anthony B

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen displaying high antibiotic resistance. Its resistance is in part due to its outstanding ability to form biofilms on a range of biotic and abiotic surfaces leading to difficult-to-treat, often long-term infections. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a new, promising antibacterial treatment to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Plasma is ionized gas that has antibacterial properties through the generation of a mix of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), excited molecules, charged particles and UV photons. Our results show the efficient removal of P. aeruginosa biofilms using a plasma jet (kINPen med), with no viable cells detected after 5 min treatment and no attached biofilm cells visible with confocal microscopy after 10 min plasma treatment. Because of its multi-factorial action, it is widely presumed that the development of bacterial resistance to plasma is unlikely. However, our results indicate that a short plasma treatment (3 min) may lead to the emergence of a small number of surviving cells exhibiting enhanced resistance to subsequent plasma exposure. Interestingly, these cells also exhibited a higher degree of resistance to hydrogen peroxide. Whole genome comparison between surviving cells and control cells revealed 10 distinct polymorphic regions, including four belonging to the redox active, antibiotic pigment phenazine. Subsequently, the interaction between phenazine production and CAP resistance was demonstrated in biofilms of transposon mutants disrupted in different phenazine pathway genes which exhibited significantly altered sensitivity to CAP.

  9. Lowering of plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanTol, A; Ligtenberg, JJM; Riemens, SC; vanHaeften, TW; Dullaart, RPF

    1997-01-01

    Human plasma contains two lipid transfer proteins involved in the remodelling of plasma lipoproteins: cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). CETP mediates the transfer/exchange of cholesterylesters, triglycerides and phospholipids between high-density lip

  10. Validity of “sputtering and re-condensation” model in active screen cage plasma nitriding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, A., E-mail: phyadi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gomal University, 29050 D.I. Khan (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khan, A.W. [Department of Physics, Gomal University, 29050 D.I. Khan (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Jan, F. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Abrar, M. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, 25120 Peshawar (Pakistan); Khalid, M. [Department of Physics, Gomal University, 29050 D.I. Khan (Pakistan); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2013-05-15

    The validity of “sputtering and re-condensation” model in active screen plasma nitriding for nitrogen mass transfer mechanism is investigated. The dominant species including NH, Fe-I, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N-I and N{sub 2} along with H{sub α} and H{sub β} lines are observed in the optical emission spectroscopy (OES) analysis. Active screen cage and dc plasma nitriding of AISI 316 stainless steel as function of treatment time is also investigated. The structure and phases composition of the nitrided layer is studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and hardness profile is obtained by Vicker's microhardness tester. Increasing trend in microhardness is observed in both cases but the increase in active screen plasma nitriding is about 3 times greater than that achieved by dc plasma nitriding. On the basis of metallurgical and OES observations the use of “sputtering and re-condensation” model in active screen plasma nitriding is tested.

  11. Development of Fe-deficiency responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) roots: involvement of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Orto, M; Santi, S; De Nisi, P; Cesco, S; Varanini, Z; Zocchi, G; Pinton, R

    2000-04-01

    One of the mechanisms through which some strategy I plants respond to Fe-deficiency is an enhanced acidification of the rhizosphere due to proton extrusion. It was previously demonstrated that under Fe-deficiency, a strong increase in the H(+)-ATPase activity of plasma membrane (PM) vesicles isolated from cucumber roots occurred. This result was confirmed in the present work and supported by measurement of ATP-dependent proton pumping in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. There was also an attempt to clarify the regulatory mechanism(s) which lead to the activation of the H(+)-ATPase under Fe-deficiency conditions. Plasma membrane proteins from Fe-deficient roots submitted to immunoblotting using polyclonal antibodies showed an increased level in the 100 kDa polypeptide. When the plasma membrane proteins were treated with trypsin a 90 kDa band appeared. This effect was accompanied by an increase in the enzyme activity, both in the Fe-deficient and in the Fe-sufficient extracts. These results suggest that the increase in the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity seen under Fe-deficiency is due, at least in part, to an increased steady-state level of the 100 kDa polypeptide.

  12. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20μg (n=158), 30μg (n=284), 35μg (n=79) or 50μg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  13. Plasma androgenic activity in women with acne vulgaris and in healthy girls before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlind, V; Carlström, K; Michaëlsson, G; Vahlqvist, A; Victor, A; Mellbin, T

    1982-03-01

    The possible relationship between plasma androgenic activity and acne vulgaris was investigated. Plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were determined in healthy girls during different stages of puberty, in healthy adult women and in women with acne vulgaris. Testosterone increase during puberty, whereas SHBG decreased during the early stages before it increased and stabilized plasma concentrations of testosterone and SHBG. Women with severe acne vulgaris had testosterone levels in the same range but the SHBG levels were significantly lower than those of healthy women and women with mild acne. These results show a high androgenic activity in the intermediate stages of puberty, when acne vulgaris is a common complaint and an increased androgenic activity in adult women with severe acne vulgaris.

  14. [Emoxipin in reperfusion of ischemic myocardium in dogs: effects on infarct size and plasma creatine kinase activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorev, E A; Polumiskov, V Iu; Avilova, O A; Golikova, A P

    1990-09-01

    The effects of synthetic antioxidant emoxypine on infarct size and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was studied on open-chest anesthetized dogs with 180-min myocardial ischemia followed by reperfusion. Emoxypine (10 and 40 mg/kg) was injected intravenously, beginning since 120th min of coronary artery occlusion. Emoxypine (10 mg/kg) resulted in infarct size limitation and reduction in plasma CK activity. An increase in dose of emoxypine to 40 mg/kg largely attenuated its protective effect on infarct size. CK activity during post-ischemic reperfusion was even higher in emoxypine (40 mg/kg) group compared with control. Augmented CK leakage from irreversibly injured myocardium to plasma under these experimental conditions may be owing to preservation of microvascular integrity and improving of drainage of infarcted tissue exerted by emoxypine.

  15. Carbon Nanofibers Functionalized with Active Screen Plasma-Deposited Metal Nanoparticles for Electrical Energy Storage Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corujeira Gallo, Santiago; Li, Xiaoying; Fütterer, Klaus; Charitidis, Constantinos A; Dong, Hanshan

    2017-07-12

    Supercapacitors are energy storage devices with higher energy densities than conventional capacitors but lower than batteries or fuel cells. There is a strong interest in increasing the volumetric and gravimetric capacitance of these devices to meet the growing demands of the electrical and electronic sectors. The capacitance depends largely on the electrode material, and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted much attention because of their relatively low cost, large surface area, and good electrical conductivity as well as chemical and thermal stability. The deposition of metal nanoparticles on CNFs is a promising way to increase their surface properties and, ultimately, the capacitance of the devices. In this study, nickel and silver nanoparticles were deposited on CNFs using the active screen plasma technology. The CNFs were characterized, and their electrochemical performance was assessed in a three-electrode cell. The results show significant improvements over the untreated CNFs, particularly after functionalization with silver nanoparticles.

  16. Center for Multiscale Plasma Dynamics: Report on Activities (UCLA/MIT), 2009-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Troy Alan [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-10-03

    The final “phaseout” year of the CMPD ended July 2010; a no cost extension was requested until May 2011 in order to enable the MIT subcontract funds to be fully utilized. Research progress over this time included verification and validation activities for the BOUT and BOUT++ code, studies of spontaneous reconnection in the VTF facility at MIT, and studies of the interaction between Alfv´en waves and drift waves in LAPD. The CMPD also hosted the 6th plasma physics winter school in 2010 (jointly with the NSF frontier center the Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, significant funding came from NSF for this most recent iteration of theWinter School).

  17. Active flow control over a backward-facing step using plasma actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisi, R.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.; Erfani, R.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the more stringent aviation regulations on fuel consumption and noise reduction, the interest for smaller and mechanically less complex devices for flow separation control has increased. Plasma actuators are currently among the most studied typology of devices for active flow control purposes due to their small size and lightweight. In this study, a single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) actuator is used on a backward-facing step to assess its effects on the separated turbulent shear layer and its reattachment location. A range of actuating modulation frequencies, related to the natural frequencies of shear layer instability (flapping) and vortex shedding instability, are examined. The particle image velocimetry technique is used to analyse the flow over the step and the reattachment location. The bulk-flow experiments show negligible effects both on the shear layer and on the reattachment location for every frequency considered, and the actuator is not able to induce a sufficient velocity increase at the step separation point.

  18. Cluster spacecraft observations of a ULF wave enhanced by Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Badman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar (SPEAR is a high-latitude ionospheric heating facility capable of exciting ULF waves on local magnetic field lines. We examine an interval from 1 February 2006 when SPEAR was transmitting a 1 Hz modulation signal with a 10 min on-off cycle. Ground magnetometer data indicated that SPEAR modulated currents in the local ionosphere at 1 Hz, and enhanced a natural field line resonance with a 10 min period. During this interval the Cluster spacecraft passed over the heater site. Signatures of the SPEAR-enhanced field line resonance were present in the magnetic field data measured by the magnetometer on-board Cluster-2. These are the first joint ground- and space-based detections of field line tagging by SPEAR.

  19. Plasma membrane overgrowth causes fibrotic collagen accumulation and immune activation in Drosophila adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yiran; Wan, Ming; Liu, Min; Ke, Hongmei; Ma, Shuangchun; Liu, Lu-Ping; Ni, Jian-Quan; Carlos Pastor-Pareja, José

    2015-01-01

    Many chronic diseases are associated with fibrotic deposition of Collagen and other matrix proteins. Little is known about the factors that determine preferential onset of fibrosis in particular tissues. Here we show that plasma membrane (PM) overgrowth causes pericellular Collagen accumulation in Drosophila adipocytes. We found that loss of Dynamin and other endocytic components causes pericellular trapping of outgoing Collagen IV due to dramatic cortex expansion when endocytic removal of PM is prevented. Deposits also form in the absence of negative Toll immune regulator Cactus, excess PM being caused in this case by increased secretion. Finally, we show that trimeric Collagen accumulation, downstream of Toll or endocytic defects, activates a tissue damage response. Our work indicates that traffic imbalances and PM topology may contribute to fibrosis. It also places fibrotic deposits both downstream and upstream of immune signaling, consistent with the chronic character of fibrotic diseases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07187.001 PMID:26090908

  20. Measurement of Plasma Density Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Active Aerodynamic Control with Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; ZHANG Yi; XU Yan-Ji; LIN Bin; LI Yu-Tong; ZHU Jun-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an interferometer to investigate the changes of the refractive index caused by dielectric barrier discharge plasma.The electronic density of the plasma produced is measured and analyzed tentatively.The results show that density of the plasma increases linearly with exciting voltages.

  1. Comprehensive investigation of sequential plasma activated Si/Si bonded interfaces for nano-integration on the wafer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, M G; Zhang, F; Lee, T H; Kim, M J; Howlader, M M R

    2010-04-02

    The sequentially plasma activated bonding of silicon wafers has been investigated to facilitate the development of chemical free, room temperature and spontaneous bonding required for nanostructure integration on the wafer scale. The contact angle of the surface and the electrical and nanostructural behavior of the interface have been studied. The contact angle measurements show that the sequentially plasma (reactive ion etching plasma followed by microwave radicals) treated surfaces offer highly reactive and hydrophilic surfaces. These highly reactive surfaces allow spontaneous integration at the nanometer scale without any chemicals, external pressure or heating. Electrical characteristics show that the current transportation across the nanobonded interface is dependent on the plasma parameters. High resolution transmission electron microscopy results confirm nanometer scale bonding which is needed for the integration of nanostructures. The findings can be applied in spontaneous integration of nanostructures such as nanowires/nanotubes/quantum dots on the wafer scale.

  2. Soluble urokinase receptor levels in plasma during 5 years of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Katzenstein, Terese L; Piironen, Timo;

    2004-01-01

    High blood levels of the soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) strongly predict increased mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. This study investigated the plasma concentration of suPAR in 29 treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients during 5 years treatment with highly...... active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Plasma suPAR decreased after introducing HAART, most pronounced during the first treatment year. The change in plasma suPAR was independent of changes in viral replication and CD4+ cells but it was strongly correlated with plasma levels of the soluble TNF receptor...... is linked to inflammation in untreated as well as HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients....

  3. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  4. Danger signal-dependent activation of human dendritic cells by plasma-derived factor VIII products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Weissmüller, S; Ringler, E; Crauwels, P; van Zandbergen, G; Seitz, R; Waibler, Z

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A by infusions of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII) results in the development of inhibitors/anti-drug antibodies in up to 25 % of patients. Mechanisms leading to immunogenicity of FVIII products are not yet fully understood. Amongst other factors, danger signals as elicited upon infection or surgery have been proposed to play a role. In the present study, we focused on effects of danger signals on maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the context of FVIII application. Human monocyte-derived DC were treated with FVIII alone, with a danger signal alone or a combination of both. By testing more than 60 different healthy donors, we show that FVIII and the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide synergise in increasing DC activation, as characterised by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The degree and frequency of this synergistic activation correlate with CD86 expression levels on immature DC prior to stimulation. In our assay system, plasma-derived but not recombinant FVIII products activate human DC in a danger signal-dependent manner. Further tested danger signals, such as R848 also induced DC activation in combination with FVIII, albeit not in every tested donor. In our hands, human DC but not human B cells or macrophages could be activated by FVIII in a danger signal-dependent manner. Our results suggest that immunogenicity of FVIII is a result of multiple factors including the presence of danger, predisposition of the patient, and the choice of a FVIII product for treatment.

  5. Relationship of plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and platelet activation markers with transient ischemic attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship of plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and platelet activation markers with transient ischemic attack(TIA).Methods:A total of 87 cases with TIA were collected, and all patients were treated with ozagrel (120mg/times/day for 2 weeks). Fasting blood were collected in 24 h after attack and 7d, 14 days after treatment respectively, then flow cytometry was used to detect indicators of platelet activation, such as CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb /Ⅲa, and the plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA. The dynamic changes of the such indexes and the differences between different populations were analyzed.Results:The plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and the platelet activation indexes including CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb/Ⅲa of patients with TIA were all significantly higher than control group (allP<0.05). One day after treatment of sodium Ozagrel, the plasma levels of LP-PLA2, GMP, LPA and the platelet activation indexes such as CD63, PAC-1, GPⅡb/Ⅲa of patients with TIA began to decline, and returned to normal in the treatment of 7 d or 14 d.Conclusions:Platelet activation plays an important role in the occurrence of TIA, and antiplatelet therapy can effectively inhibit platelet activation, which has positive significance in the treatment of TIA.

  6. Decreased material-activation of the complement system using low-energy plasma polymerized poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kolmos, H.J.; Palarasah, Yaseelan

    2011-01-01

    surface. The ppVP surface is furthermore characterized physically and chemically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), which indicates preservation of chemical functionality by the applied plasma process. Overall, the pp......In the current study we investigate the activation of blood complement on medical device silicone rubber and present a plasma polymerized vinyl pyrrolidone (ppVP) coating which strongly decreases surface-activation of the blood complement system. We show that uncoated silicone and polystyrene...

  7. Phenylarsine Oxide Inhibits the Fusicoccin-Induced Activation of Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Claudio; Albumi, Cristina; Pugliarello, Maria Chiara; De Michelis, Maria Ida

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, we used phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a known inhibitor of protein tyrosine-phosphatases. PAO was supplied in vivo in the absence or presence of FC to radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings and cultured Arabidopsis cells prior to PM extraction. Treatment with PAO alone caused a slight decrease of PM H+-ATPase activity and, in radish, a decrease of PM-associated 14-3-3 proteins. When supplied prior to FC, PAO drastically inhibited FC-induced activation of PM H+-ATPase, FC binding to the PM, and the FC-induced increase of the amount of 14-3-3 associated with the PM. On the contrary, PAO was completely ineffective on all of the above-mentioned parameters when supplied after FC. The H+-ATPase isolated from PAO-treated Arabidopsis cells maintained the ability to respond to FC if supplied with exogenous, nonphosphorylated 14-3-3 proteins. Altogether, these results are consistent with a model in which the dephosphorylated state of tyrosine residues of a protein(s), such as 14-3-3 protein, is required to permit FC-induced association between the 14-3-3 protein and the PM H+-ATPase. PMID:10677439

  8. Control of plasma renin activity in heat-stressed baboons on varied salt intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, D W

    1987-04-01

    The characteristics and control of the increase in plasma renin activity (PRA) during environmental heating (EH) were determined in 12 unanesthetized, chronically catheterized baboons. Each EH experiment consisted of a 1.5- to 4-h exposure to an ambient temperature of 39-44 degrees C until core temperature (Tc) reached 39.5-40.0 degrees C. These EH experiments were done on the baboon in an unblocked state and during beta-adrenergic receptor blockade produced by propranolol when on normal-to-high salt intake (NHSI) and on low-salt intake (LSI). PRA rose linearly with Tc during EH, but the increase in PRA was considerably larger when the baboon was on LSI. The PRA-Tc linear regression coefficients were 2.32 and 5.98 ng angiotensin I X ml-1 X h-1 X degrees C-1 in NHSI and LSI states