Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Omohundro, S.M.
1985-04-04
Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.
Applications of Symmetry Methods to the Theory of Plasma Physics
Giampaolo Cicogna; Francesco Ceccherini; Francesco Pegoraro
2006-01-01
The theory of plasma physics offers a number of nontrivial examples of partial differential equations, which can be successfully treated with symmetry methods. We propose three different examples which may illustrate the reciprocal advantage of this "interaction" between plasma physics and symmetry techniques. The examples include, in particular, the complete symmetry analysis of system of two PDE's, with the determination of some conditional and partial symmetries, the construction of group-...
Applications of Symmetry Methods to the Theory of Plasma Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giampaolo Cicogna
2006-02-01
Full Text Available The theory of plasma physics offers a number of nontrivial examples of partial differential equations, which can be successfully treated with symmetry methods. We propose three different examples which may illustrate the reciprocal advantage of this "interaction" between plasma physics and symmetry techniques. The examples include, in particular, the complete symmetry analysis of system of two PDE's, with the determination of some conditional and partial symmetries, the construction of group-invariant solutions, and the symmetry classification of a nonlinear PDE.
Drummond, James E
2013-01-01
A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa
Cairns, R A
1985-01-01
This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...
Plasma physics an introduction
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2014-01-01
Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.
Stacey, Weston M
2012-01-01
This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
W.M. Tang
2005-01-03
The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources.
Fundamentals of plasma physics
Bittencourt, J A
1986-01-01
A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.
Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research
Gill, Richard D
1981-01-01
Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe
Physics of laser fusion. Vol. I. Theory of the coronal plasma in laser-fusion targets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Max, C.E.
1981-12-01
This monograph deals with the physics of the coronal region in laser fusion targets. The corona consists of hot plasma which has been evaporated from the initially solid target during laser heating. It is in the corona that the laser light is absorbed by the target, and the resulting thermal energy is conducted toward cold high-density regions, where ablation occurs. The topics to be discussed are theoretical mechanisms for laser light absorption and reflection, hot-electron production, and the physics of heat conduction in laser-produced plasmas. An accompanying monograph by H. Ahlstrom (Vol.II) reviews the facilities, diagnostics, and data from recent laser fusion experiments.
Plasma physics and engineering
Fridman, Alexander
2011-01-01
Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl
Boozer, A. H.; Vahala, G. M.
1992-05-01
Work during the past year in the areas of classical and anomalous transport, three-dimensional equilibria, divertor physics, and diagnostic techniques using waves is reported. Although much work was done on classical transport, the validity of the guiding-center drift equations, which are the basis of much of the theory, has received little attention. The limitations of the drift approximation are being studied. Work on three-dimensional equilibria, which shows that quasi-helical symmetry is broken in third order in the inverse aspect ratio, on the modification of the current profile due to tearing modes was completed. This work is relevant to the maintenance of a steady-state tokamak by the bootstrap current. Divertor physics is a primary area that required development for ITER. One of the few methods by which the physics of the divertor can be modified or controlled is magnetic perturbations. The effect of magnetic perturbations on the divertor scrapeoff layer in collaboration with Hampton University is being studied. The evolution of magnetic field embedded in a moving plasma is a dynamics problem of potential importance. Renormalization techniques gave important insights first in the theory of phase transitions. The applications of these techniques has extended to many areas of physics, including turbulence in fluids and plasmas. Essentially no diagnostics for magnetic fluctuations inside a fusion-grade plasma exist. A collaborative program with Old Dominion University and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to develop such a diagnostic based on the conversion of electromagnetic waves from the ordinary to the extraordinary mode is underway.
2008-01-01
"Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)
2008-07-01
Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)
Variational Integrators in Plasma Physics
Kraus, Michael
2013-01-01
Variational integrators are a special kind of geometric discretisation methods applicable to any system of differential equations that obeys a Lagrangian formulation. In this thesis, variational integrators are developed for several important models of plasma physics: guiding centre dynamics (particle dynamics), the Vlasov-Poisson system (kinetic theory), and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (plasma fluid theory). Special attention is given to physical conservation laws like conservation of energy and momentum. Most systems in plasma physics do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended towards nonvariational differential equations by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of integrating factors and adjoint equations. It allows us to find a Lagrangian for all ordinary and partial differential equations and systems thereof. Consequently, the applicability of variational integrators is extended to a much larger family of syst...
Ghosh, Basudev
2014-01-01
Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.
Introduction to Plasma Physics
Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2017-03-01
Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.
Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-10-01
This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.
Kono, Mitsuo
2010-01-01
A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.
Woods, Leslie Colin
2003-01-01
A short, self-sufficient introduction to the physics of plasma for beginners as well as researchers in a number of fields. The author looks at the dynamics and stability of magnetoplasma and discusses wave and transport in this medium. He also looks at such applications as fusion research using magnetic confinement of Deuterium plasma, solar physics with its plasma loops reaching high into the corona, sunspots and solar wind, engineering applications to metallurgy, MHD direct generation of electricity, and railguns, finally touching on the relatively new and difficult subject of dusty plasmas.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.
Solar Physics - Plasma Physics Workshop
Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Sturrock, P. A.; Wentzel, D. G.
1974-01-01
A summary of the proceedings of a conference whose purpose was to explore plasma physics problems which arise in the study of solar physics is provided. Sessions were concerned with specific questions including the following: (1) whether the solar plasma is thermal or non-themal; (2) what spectroscopic data is required; (3) what types of magnetic field structures exist; (4) whether magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (5) whether resistive or non-magnetohydrodynamic instabilities occur; (6) what mechanisms of particle acceleration have been proposed; and (7) what information is available concerning shock waves. Very few questions were answered categorically but, for each question, there was discussion concerning the observational evidence, theoretical analyses, and existing or potential laboratory and numerical experiments.
Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas
Piel, Alexander
2010-01-01
Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...
Plasma physics via computer simulation
Birdsall, CK
2004-01-01
PART 1: PRIMER Why attempting to do plasma physics via computer simulation using particles makes good sense Overall view of a one dimensional electrostatic program A one dimensional electrostatic program ES1 Introduction to the numerical methods used Projects for ES1 A 1d electromagnetic program EM1 Projects for EM1 PART 2: THEORY Effects of the spatial grid Effects of the finitw time ste Energy-conserving simulation models Multipole models Kinetic theory for fluctuations and noise; collisions Kinetic properties: theory, experience and heuristic estimates PART 3: PRACTIC
1980-09-30
William Nevins L439 LLL (422-7032) Lecturers , UCB; Physicists -LLL Dr. William Fawley Guest, UCB; Physicist LLL L321 LLL (422-9272) Yu-Jiuan Chen, Douglas... MHD - Particle Codes." Three abstracts of papers prepared for the APS Division of Plasma Physics Meeting, November 10-14, 1980, at San Diego, follow
Rust, D. M.
1979-01-01
The present paper deals with explosions in a magnetized solar plasma, known as flares, whose effects are seen throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma-rays through the visible and to the radio band. The diverse phenomena associated with flares are discussed, along with the physical mechanisms that have been advanced to explain them. The impact of solar flare research on the development of plasma physics and magnetohydrodynamics is noted. The rapid development of solar flare research during the past 20 years, owing to the availability of high-resolution images, detailed magnetic field measurements, and improved spectral data, is illustrated.
Computations in Plasma Physics.
Cohen, Bruce I.; Killeen, John
1983-01-01
Discusses contributions of computers to research in magnetic and inertial-confinement fusion, charged-particle-beam propogation, and space sciences. Considers use in design/control of laboratory and spacecraft experiments and in data acquisition; and reviews major plasma computational methods and some of the important physics problems they…
Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas
Piel, Alexander
2017-01-01
The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...
Nonthermal plasma chemistry and physics
Meichsner, Jurgen; Schneider, Ralf; Wagner, Hans-Erich
2013-01-01
In addition to introducing the basics of plasma physics, Nonthermal Plasma Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive presentation of recent developments in the rapidly growing field of nonthermal plasma chemistry. The book offers a detailed discussion of the fundamentals of plasma chemical reactions and modeling, nonthermal plasma sources, relevant diagnostic techniques, and selected applications.Elucidating interconnections and trends, the book focuses on basic principles and illustrations across a broad field of applications. Expert contributors address environmental aspects of plasma chemist
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phillips, C.A. (ed.)
1986-01-01
This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.
Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.
von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U
2013-07-01
During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svozil, K. [Univ. of Technology, Vienna (Austria)
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics
Bers, Abraham
2016-01-01
Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...
Variational integrators in plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kraus, Michael
2013-07-01
To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of
Cornwell, J F
1989-01-01
Recent devopments, particularly in high-energy physics, have projected group theory and symmetry consideration into a central position in theoretical physics. These developments have taken physicists increasingly deeper into the fascinating world of pure mathematics. This work presents important mathematical developments of the last fifteen years in a form that is easy to comprehend and appreciate.
Cain, Bruce L.
1990-01-01
The problems of weld quality control and weld process dependability continue to be relevant issues in modern metal welding technology. These become especially important for NASA missions which may require the assembly or repair of larger orbiting platforms using automatic welding techniques. To extend present welding technologies for such applications, NASA/MSFC's Materials and Processes Lab is developing physical models of the arc welding process with the goal of providing both a basis for improved design of weld control systems, and a better understanding of how arc welding variables influence final weld properties. The physics of the plasma arc discharge is reasonably well established in terms of transport processes occurring in the arc column itself, although recourse to sophisticated numerical treatments is normally required to obtain quantitative results. Unfortunately the rigor of these numerical computations often obscures the physics of the underlying model due to its inherent complexity. In contrast, this work has focused on a relatively simple physical model of the arc discharge to describe the gross features observed in welding arcs. Emphasis was placed of deriving analytic expressions for the voltage along the arc axis as a function of known or measurable arc parameters. The model retains the essential physics for a straight polarity, diffusion dominated free burning arc in argon, with major simplifications of collisionless sheaths and simple energy balances at the electrodes.
The Framework of Plasma Physics
Cowley, Steven
There have been relatively few good textbooks on plasma physics. Most become simple reference books that might be titled, “Plasma Physics Recipes.” Despite their utility such books do not make good textbooks. For teaching, one needs a book that shows how the basic results and models are part of a coherent whole. Richard Hazeltine and Francois Waelbroeck have written such a textbook: The Framework of Plasma PhysicsAn this book, plasma physics is developed carefully and logically from basic physics principles. The book is not, however, overly formal; physical arguments are used to reduce mathematical complexity.
Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C B Dwivedi
2000-11-01
Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clariﬁcation of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.
Kinetic Theory of the Inner Magnetospheric Plasma
Khazanov, George V
2011-01-01
This book provides a broad introduction to the kinetic theory of space plasma physics with the major focus on the inner magnetospheric plasma. It is designed to provide a comprehensive description of the different kinds of transport equations for both plasma particles and waves with an emphasis on the applicability and limitations of each set of equations. The major topics are: Kinetic Theory of Superthermal Electrons, Kinetic Foundation of the Hydrodynamic Description of Space Plasmas (including wave-particle interaction processes), and Kinetic Theory of the Terrestrial Ring Current. Distinguishable features of this book are the analytical solutions of simplified transport equations. Approximate analytic solutions of transport phenomena are very useful because they help us gain physical insight into how the system responds to varying sources of mass, momentum and energy and also to various external boundary conditions. They also provide us a convenient method to test the validity of complicated numerical mod...
1973-01-01
Three aspects of barium ion cloud dynamics are discussed. First, the effect of the ratio of ion cloud conductivity to background ionospheric conductivity on the motion of barium ion clouds is investigated and compared with observations of barium ion clouds. This study led to the suggestion that the conjugate ionosphere participates in the dynamics of barium ion clouds. Second, analytic work on the deformation of ion clouds is presented. Third, a linearized stability theory was extended to include the effect of the finite extent of an ion cloud, as well as the effect of the ratio of ion cloud to ionospheric conductivities. The stability properties of a plasma with contra-streaming ion beams parallel to a magnetic field are investigated. The results are interpreted in terms of parameters appropriate for collisionless shock waves. It is found that this particular instability can be operative only if the up-stream Alfven Mach number exceeds 5.5.
Plasma Physics of Extreme Astrophysical Environments
Uzdensky, Dmitri A
2014-01-01
Certain classes of astrophysical objects, namely magnetars and central engines of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), are characterized by extreme physical conditions not encountered elsewhere in the Universe. In particular, they possess magnetic fields that exceed the critical quantum field of 44 teragauss. Figuring out how these complex ultra-magnetized systems work requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD). However, an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying physics to such an extent that many relevant plasma-physical problems call for building QED-based relativistic quantum plasma physics. In this review, after describing the extreme astrophysical systems of interest and identifying the key relevant plasma-physical problems, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We discuss how a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and outline the basic theoretical framework f...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro (University of Pavia)
2010-10-20
The experience from Quantum Information of the last twenty years has lead theorists to look at Quantum Theory and the whole of Physics from a different angle. A new information-theoretic paradigm is emerging, long time ago prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler with his popular coinage 'It from bit'. Theoretical groups are now addressing the problem of deriving Quantum Theory from informational principles, and similar lines are investigated in new approaches to Quantum Gravity. In my talk I will review some recent advances on these lines. The general idea synthesizing the new paradigm is that there is only Quantum Theory (without quantization rules): the whole Physics--including space-time and relativity--is emergent from quantum-information processing. And, since Quantum Theory itself is made with purely informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms. The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant, and how the quantum field emerges; (d) Observational consequences: mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I then conclude with some possible future research lines.
Theory of gas discharge plasma
Smirnov, Boris M
2015-01-01
This book presents the theory of gas discharge plasmas in a didactical way. It explains the processes in gas discharge plasmas. A gas discharge plasma is an ionized gas which is supported by an external electric field. Therefore its parameters are determined by processes in it. The properties of a gas discharge plasma depend on its gas component, types of external fields, their geometry and regimes of gas discharge. Fundamentals of a gas discharge plasma include elementary, radiative and transport processes which are included in its kinetics influence. They are represented in this book together with the analysis of simple gas discharges. These general principles are applied to stationary gas discharge plasmas of helium and argon. The analysis of such plasmas under certain conditions is theoretically determined by numerical plasma parameters for given regimes and conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2013-12-31
Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe
Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2
Barnett, C F
1984-01-01
Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea
Computational Methods in Plasma Physics
Jardin, Stephen
2010-01-01
Assuming no prior knowledge of plasma physics or numerical methods, Computational Methods in Plasma Physics covers the computational mathematics and techniques needed to simulate magnetically confined plasmas in modern magnetic fusion experiments and future magnetic fusion reactors. Largely self-contained, the text presents the basic concepts necessary for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Along with discussing numerical stability and accuracy, the author explores many of the algorithms used today in enough depth so that readers can analyze their stability, efficiency,
PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics
Wilhelmsson, Hans
1982-01-01
Invited Papers: The Physics of Hot Plasmas During the last decade a dramatic evolution of plasma physics has occurred. Not only have gigantic fusion plasma machines been planned, and are now being built, and elaborate spaceships and antenna systems been constructed to explore remote parts of the cosmos; new observations have revealed fascinating structures in space, ranging from pulsar plasmas under extreme conditions in very strong magnetic fields to large-scale magnetic field and electric current systems in cosmic plasmas. X-rays from very distant sources as well as radio-waves from the plasma in the magnetosphere and in the Aurora have recently been studied with new observational techniques. Ingenious laboratory experiments are continuously being carried out to exploit new fundamental processes in plasmas. These are of great interest for the basic understanding of plasmas and also have immediate consequences for applications, like plasma heating and diagnostics. The theoretical description of new plasma phenomena, and of the plasma state in general poses challenging problems, particularly in situations where high concentration of energy is located in the plasmas. Nonlinear wave analysis and turbulence theory have accordingly been extensively developed to describe in particular the collective plasma phenomena. New concepts have been envisaged like plasma solitons, which may be thought of as excitations of local concentrations of longitudinal plasma waves which turn out to be particularly stable. More and more sophisticated structures of nonlinear nature are being revealed by means of high capacity computer facilities. Simulation experiments allow for studies of chaotic behaviour of plasma particles. Related fields of activity form new trends in the development of plasma theory. The programme of the 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics, which was held in Göteborg, Sweden, stressed the role of the Physics of Hot Plasmas. Studies of such plasmas are
Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.
1993-01-01
During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.
1982-12-31
expan- sion of a warm plasma; launching and propagation and decay of very large amplitude waves (8GK, solitons, etc.); thermal barriers (really...25.373.1981. ION-10N TWO-STREAM IN THERMAL BARRIERS : Vincent-lhonal,U.C.Berkeley. We present stu- dies or the eleclroTatic ion-ion two-stream instability as
The plasma physics of shock acceleration
Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.
1991-01-01
The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.
Controlled fusion and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vahala, Linda [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)
2015-05-31
During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.
Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges
Moisan, Michel
2012-01-01
The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...
Controlled fusion and plasma physics
Miyamoto, Kenro
2006-01-01
Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll
Wu, S. T.
2000-01-01
Dr. James L. Horwitz and R. Hugh Comfort's studies with the high altitude TIDE data have been progressing well. We concluded a study on the relationship of polar cap ion properties observed by TIDE near apogee with solar wind and IMF conditions. We found that in general H+ did not correlate as well as O+ with solar wind and IMF parameters. O+ density correlated(sub IMF), and Kp. At lower solar wind speeds, O+ density decreased with increasing latitude, but this trend was not observed at higher solar wind speeds. By comparing these results with results from other studies of O+ in different parts of the magnetosphere, we concluded that O+ ions often leave the ionosphere near the foot point of the cusp/cleft region, pass through the high-altitude polar cap lobes, and eventually arrive in the plasma sheet. We found that H+ outflows are a persistent feature of the polar cap and are not as dependent on the geophysical conditions; even classical polar wind models show H+ ions readily escaping owing to their low mass. Minor correlations with solar wind drivers were found; specifically, H+ density correlated best with IMF By, V(sub sw)B(sub IMF), and ESW(sub sw).
Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids
1986-01-01
The volume contains recommendations for programs in, and government support of, plasma and fluid physics. Four broad areas are covered: the physics of fluids, general plasma physics, fusion, and space and astrophysical plasmas. In the first section, the accomplishments of fluid physics and a detailed review of its sub-fields, such as combustion, non-Newtonian fluids, turbulence, aerodynamics, and geophysical fluid dynamics, are described. The general plasma physics section deals with the wide scope of the theoretical concepts involved in plasma research, and with the machines; intense beam systems, collective and laser-driven accelerators, and the associated diagnostics. The section on the fusion plasma research program examines confinement and heating systems, such as Tokamaks, magnetic mirrors, and inertial-confinement systems, and several others. Finally, theory and experiment in space and astrophysical plasma research is detailed, ranging from the laboratory to the solar system and beyond. A glossary is included.
Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments.
Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Rightley, Shane
2014-03-01
Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)--the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in
Plasma physics of extreme astrophysical environments
Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Rightley, Shane
2014-03-01
Among the incredibly diverse variety of astrophysical objects, there are some that are characterized by very extreme physical conditions not encountered anywhere else in the Universe. Of special interest are ultra-magnetized systems that possess magnetic fields exceeding the critical quantum field of about 44 TG. There are basically only two classes of such objects: magnetars, whose magnetic activity is manifested, e.g., via their very short but intense gamma-ray flares, and central engines of supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)—the most powerful explosions in the modern Universe. Figuring out how these complex systems work necessarily requires understanding various plasma processes, both small-scale kinetic and large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), that govern their behavior. However, the presence of an ultra-strong magnetic field modifies the underlying basic physics to such a great extent that relying on conventional, classical plasma physics is often not justified. Instead, plasma-physical problems relevant to these extreme astrophysical environments call for constructing relativistic quantum plasma (RQP) physics based on quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this review, after briefly describing the astrophysical systems of interest and identifying some of the key plasma-physical problems important to them, we survey the recent progress in the development of such a theory. We first discuss the ways in which the presence of a super-critical field modifies the properties of vacuum and matter and then outline the basic theoretical framework for describing both non-relativistic and RQPs. We then turn to some specific astrophysical applications of relativistic QED plasma physics relevant to magnetar magnetospheres and to central engines of core-collapse SNe and long GRBs. Specifically, we discuss the propagation of light through a magnetar magnetosphere; large-scale MHD processes driving magnetar activity and responsible for jet launching and propagation in
Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion
Chen, Francis F
2016-01-01
The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field. It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly. In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects. For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field. The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...
Plasma physics for controlled fusion
Miyamoto, Kenro
2016-01-01
This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...
Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics
Alfven, H.
1982-01-01
New discoveries in cosmic plasma physics are described, and their applications to solar, interstellar, galactic, and cosmological problems are discussed. The new discoveries include the existence of double layers in magnetized plasmas and in the low magnetosphere, and energy transfer by electric current in the auroral circuit. It is argued that solar flares and the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction should not be interpreted in terms of magnetic merging theories, and that electric current needs to be explicitly taken account of in understanding these phenomena. The filamentary structure of cosmic plasmas may be caused by electric currents in space, and the pinch effect may have a central role to play in the evolutionary history of interstellar clouds, stars, and solar systems. Space may have a cellular structure, with the cell walls formed by thin electric current layers. Annihilation may be the source of energy for quasars and the Hubble expansion, and the big bang cosmology may well be wrong.
The theory of toroidally confined plasmas
White, Roscoe B
2014-01-01
This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...
The Plasma Archipelago: Plasma Physics in the 1960s
Weisel, Gary J.
2017-09-01
With the foundation of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society in April 1959, plasma physics was presented as the general study of ionized gases. This paper investigates the degree to which plasma physics, during its first decade, established a community of interrelated specialties, one that brought together work in gaseous electronics, astrophysics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, space science, and aerospace engineering. It finds that, in some regards, the plasma community was indeed greater than the sum of its parts and that its larger identity was sometimes glimpsed in inter-specialty work and studies of fundamental plasma behaviors. Nevertheless, the plasma specialties usually worked separately for two inter-related reasons: prejudices about what constituted "basic physics," both in the general physics community and within the plasma community itself; and a compartmentalized funding structure, in which each funding agency served different missions.
Physical processes associated with current collection by plasma contactors
Katz, Ira; Davis, Victoria A.
1990-01-01
Recent flight data confirms laboratory observations that the release of neutral gas increases plasma sheath currents. Plasma contactors are devices which release a partially ionized gas in order to enhance the current flow between a spacecraft and the space plasma. Ionization of the expellant gas and the formation of a double layer between the anode plasma and the space plasma are the dominant physical processes. A theory is presented of the interaction between the contactor plasma and the background plasma. The conditions for formation of a double layer between the two plasmas are derived. Double layer formation is shown to be a consequence of the nonlinear response of the plasmas to changes in potential. Numerical calculations based upon this model are compared with laboratory measurements of current collection by hollow cathode-based plasma contactors.
Physics of the plasma universe
Peratt, Anthony L
2015-01-01
Today many scientists recognize plasma as the key element to understanding new observations in near-Earth, interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space; in stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and throughout the observable universe. Physics of the Plasma Universe, 2nd Edition is an update of observations made across the entire cosmic electromagnetic spectrum over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. It addresses paradigm changing discoveries made by telescopes, planetary probes, satellites, and radio and space telescopes. The contents are the result of the author's 37 years research at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This book covers topics such as the large-scale structure and the filamentary universe; the formation of magnetic fields and galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars, the origin and abundance of light elements, star formation and the evolution of solar systems, and cosmic rays. Chapters 8 and 9 are based ...
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare bri...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary....
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abdelhak Djouadi
2012-10-01
The theoretical aspects of the physics of Higgs bosons are reviewed focussing on the elements that are relevant for the production and detection at present hadron colliders. After briefly summarizing the basics of electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model, the Higgs production at the LHC and at the Tevatron is discussed, with some focus on the main production mechanism, the gluon–gluon fusion process, and the main Higgs decay modes and the experimental detection channels are discussed. Then the case of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model is briefly surveyed. In the last section, the prospects for determining the fundamental properties of the Higgs particles are reviewed, once they have been experimentally observed.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion
Miyamoto, Kenro
2005-01-01
The primary objectives of this book are, firstly, to present the essential theoretical background needed to understand recent fusion research and, secondly, to describe the current status of fusion research for graduate students and senior undergraduates. It will also serve as a useful reference for scientists and engineers working in the related fields. In Part I, Plasma Physics, the author explains the basics of magneto-hydrodynamics and kinetic theory in a simple and compact way and, at the same time, covers important new topics for fusion studies such as the ballooning representation, instabilities driven by energetic particles and various plasma models for computer simulations. Part II, Controlled Nuclear Fusion, attempts to review the "big picture" in fusion research. All important phenomena and technologies are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the topics of most concern in current research.
Statistical Physics Experiments Using Dusty Plasmas
Goree, John
2016-10-01
Compared to other areas of physics research, Statistical Physics is heavily dominated by theory, with comparatively little experiment. One reason for the lack of experiments is the impracticality of tracking of individual atoms and molecules within a substance. Thus, there is a need for a different kind of experimental system, one where individual particles not only move stochastically as they collide with one another, but also are large enough to allow tracking. A dusty plasma can meet this need. A dusty plasma is a partially ionized gas containing small particles of solid matter. These micron-size particles gain thousands of electronic charges by collecting more electrons than ions. Their motions are dominated by Coulomb collisions with neighboring particles. In this so-called strongly coupled plasma, the dust particles self-organize in much the same way as atoms in a liquid or solid. Unlike atoms, however, these particles are large and slow, so that they can be tracked easily by video microscopy. Advantages of dusty plasma for experimental statistical physics research include particle tracking, lack of frictional contact with solid surfaces, and avoidance of overdamped motion. Moreover, the motion of a collection of dust particles can mimic an equilibrium system with a Maxwellian velocity distribution, even though the dust particles themselves are not truly in thermal equilibrium. Nonequilibrium statistical physics can be studied by applying gradients, for example by imposing a shear flow. In this talk I will review some of our recent experiments with shear flow. First, we performed the first experimental test to verify the Fluctuation Theorem for a shear flow, showing that brief violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics occur with the predicted probabilities, for a small system. Second, we discovered a skewness of a shear-stress distribution in a shear flow. This skewness is a phenomenon that likely has wide applicability in nonequilibrium steady states
Vocabulary of CPH Theory and Modern Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed
2016-01-01
Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare bri...... of CPH Theory (Creative Particles of Higgs Theory) and modern physics in this vocabulary.......Wherefore CPH theory was presented? There are various theories in physics, but nature is unique. This is not nature's problem that we have various theories; nature obeys simple and unique law. So, we should improve our understanding of physical phenomena and unify theories. There is a compare brief...
Effective Potential Theory: A Practical Way to Extend Plasma Transport Theory to Strong Coupling
Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jerome
2014-01-01
The effective potential theory is a physically motivated method for extending traditional plasma transport theories to stronger coupling. It is practical in the sense that it is easily incorporated within the framework of the Chapman-Enskog or Grad methods that are commonly applied in plasma physics and it is computationally efficient to evaluate. The extension is to treat binary scatterers as interacting through the potential of mean force, rather than the bare Coulomb or Debye-screened Coulomb potential. This allows for aspects of many-body correlations to be included in the transport coefficients. Recent work has shown that this method accurately extends plasma theory to orders of magnitude stronger coupling when applied to the classical one-component plasma model. The present work shows that similar accuracy is realized for the Yukawa one-component plasma model and it provides a comparison with other approaches.
Spacetime in modern physical theories
Klatt, Carrie
In this thesis we examine the relationship between the gravitational field and spacetime in three modern physical theories: general relativity, the field theoretic approach, and geometrodynamics. Our analysis is based on two questions: first, is gravity best understood as a field in a spacetime background or is the gravitational field indistinguishable from spacetime? Here we compare the field theoretic approach to gravity presented by Feynman and Weinberg, where spacetime is at first taken to be a flat background, to general relativity, where we find that the equivalence principle in conjunction with the geodesic hypothesis allows us to consider the gravitational field as being indistinguishable from curved spacetime. Second, what does it mean to say that spacetime (or alternatively, matter) has a privileged status in a theory? That is, is it sensible to say that one object in a theory, such as spacetime, can be derived from another object in the theory, for example, matter? Here we compare general relativity, where matter and spacetime are considered to be primary notions in the theory, to Wheeler's geometrodynamics, where all objects in the universe, including matter, charge and electromagnetism, are to be explained as manifestations of curved spacetime. By considering these issues, it is hoped that we will be able to contribute to the analysis of similar topics in theories of quantum gravity such as string theory.
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.
Report of the Plasma Physics Laboratory
1982-03-01
Theoretical and experimental work in plasma physics is summarized. Technological and engineering aspects of plasma experiments in the SPICA, TORTUR 2, and RINGBOOG 2 reactors are discussed with emphasis on screw pinch, turbulent heating, and gas blankets. The free boundary equilibrium in high beta Tokamak plasma, wave dynamics, and transport problems were investigated.
The physics of non-ideal plasma
Fortov, Vladimir E
2000-01-01
This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi
Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2013-08-26
High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.
Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications
Gurnett, Donald A
2017-01-01
Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...
Theory and simulation of laser plasma coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruer, W.L.
1979-08-09
The theory and simulation of these coupling processes are considered. Particular emphasis is given to their nonlinear evolution. First a brief introduction to computer simulation of plasmas using particle codes is given. Then the absorption of light via the generation of plasma waves is considered, followed by a discussion of stimulated scattering of intense light. Finally these calculations are compared with experimental results.
Some applications of thermal field theory to quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Munshi G Mustafa
2006-04-01
We briefly introduce the thermal field theory within imaginary time formalism, the hard thermal loop perturbation theory and some of its applications to the physics of the quark-gluon plasma, possibly created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions.
Unifying physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma
Seryi, Andrei
2015-01-01
Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma introduces the physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma in tandem with the industrial methodology of inventiveness, a technique that teaches that similar problems and solutions appear again and again in seemingly dissimilar disciplines. This unique approach builds bridges and enhances connections between the three aforementioned areas of physics that are essential for developing the next generation of accelerators.
Effective theories and thresholds in particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaillard, M.K.
1991-06-07
The role of effective theories in probing a more fundamental underlying theory and in indicating new physics thresholds is discussed, with examples from the standard model and more speculative applications to superstring theory. 38 refs.
The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirvijoki, E., E-mail: eero.hirvijoki@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Candy, J.; Belli, E. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Embréus, O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)
2015-10-30
Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker–Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker–Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. - Highlights: • A radically new method to address the velocity space discretization of the non-linear kinetic equation of plasmas. • Elegant and physically intuitive, flexible and mesh-free. • Demonstration of numerical solution of both 2-D and 3-D non-linear Fokker–Planck relaxation problem.
On Plasma Theory and Simulation.
2014-09-26
SHEATH REGION INCLUDING ION REFLECTION Lou Ann Schwager (Prof. C. K. Birdsall, Dr. I. Roth ) A low temperature plasma interacts with a collector plate...Hitchcock. Katz. Lankford. Nelson. Barnes. Borovsky. Forslund. Kwan. Sadowski Lindemuth. Mason . Mostrom. Nielson, Oliphant. Sgro. Thode Department of
Plasma Cathode Electron Sources Physics, Technology, Applications
Oks, Efim
2006-01-01
This book fills the gap for a textbook describing this kind of electron beam source in a systematic and thorough manner: from physical processes of electron emission to examples of real plasma electron sources and their applications.
Space plasma physics: I - Stationary processes
Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tetsuya
1989-01-01
The physics of stationary processes in space plasmas is examined theoretically in an introduction intended for graduate students. The approach involves the extensive use of numerical simulations. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, small-amplitude waves, and the stationary solar plasma system; typical measurement data and simulation results are presented graphically.
Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2015-10-20
Hysteresis, which is the history dependence of physical systems, is one of the most important topics in physics. Interestingly, bi-stability of plasma with a huge hysteresis loop has been observed in inductive plasma discharges. Despite long plasma research, how this plasma hysteresis occurs remains an unresolved question in plasma physics. Here, we report theory, experiment, and modeling of the hysteresis. It was found experimentally and theoretically that evolution of the electron energy distribution (EED) makes a strong plasma hysteresis. In Ramsauer and non-Ramsauer gas experiments, it was revealed that the plasma hysteresis is observed only at high pressure Ramsauer gas where the EED deviates considerably from a Maxwellian shape. This hysteresis was presented in the plasma balance model where the EED is considered. Because electrons in plasmas are usually not in a thermal equilibrium, this EED-effect can be regarded as a universal phenomenon in plasma physics.
Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion
Fisch, N. J.
2010-01-01
Already while making his famous contributions in uncontrolled nuclear fusion for wartime uses, Edward Teller contemplated how the abundant energy release through nuclear fusion might serve peacetime uses as well. His legacy in controlled nuclear fusion, and the associated physics of plasmas, spans both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches. His contributions in plasma physics, both the intellectual and the administrative, continue to impact the field.
Stability theory of Knudsen plasma diodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuznetsov, V. I., E-mail: victor.kuznetsov@mail.ioffe.ru; Ender, A. Ya. [Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
A stability theory is developed for a plasma diode in which an electron beam supplied from the emitter propagates without collisions in the self-consistent electric field against the immobile ion background. An integral equation for the amplitude of the perturbed field is deduced using the Q,G method for the regime without electron reflection from a potential barrier. Analytic solutions to this equation are obtained for a number of important particular cases, and the plasma dispersion properties are examined.
Fusion programs in applied plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-02-01
The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics
Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio
2012-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The next bo...
Report on the solar physics-plasma physics workshop
Sturrock, P. A.; Baum, P. J.; Beckers, J. M.; Newman, C. E.; Priest, E. R.; Rosenberg, H.; Smith, D. F.; Wentzel, D. G.
1976-01-01
The paper summarizes discussions held between solar physicists and plasma physicists on the interface between solar and plasma physics, with emphasis placed on the question of what laboratory experiments, or computer experiments, could be pursued to test proposed mechanisms involved in solar phenomena. Major areas discussed include nonthermal plasma on the sun, spectroscopic data needed in solar plasma diagnostics, types of magnetic field structures in the sun's atmosphere, the possibility of MHD phenomena involved in solar eruptive phenomena, the role of non-MHD instabilities in energy release in solar flares, particle acceleration in solar flares, shock waves in the sun's atmosphere, and mechanisms of radio emission from the sun.
Smilga, A V
1997-01-01
In this lecture, we give a brief review of what theorists now know, understand, or guess about static and kinetic properties of quark--gluon plasma. A particular attention is payed to the problem of physical observability, i.e. the physical meaningfulne ss of various characteristics of QGP discussed in the literature.
A theory of fluctuations in plasmas
Felderhof, B.U.
1964-01-01
A theory of thermal fluctuations in plasmas is developed based on a probability ensemble for one-particle distribution functions ƒ(r, ν). The probability for a specific ƒ(r, ν) is obtained from the canonical ensemble with the aid of the continuum approximation. Subsequently the probability distribut
Basic Studies in Plasma Physics
2013-01-31
close to a Maxwellian parametrized by a temperature T and mean velocity u which satisfy certain non -linear equations, which are the macroscopic equations...Simulations with Particle-to-Grid Methods 17 E. Microscopic-Shock Profiles: Exact Solution of a Non -Equilibrium System 18 IV. List of Publications...Investigator ABSTRACT An improved understanding of equilibrium and non -equilibrium properties of plasmas is central to many areas of basic science as
New aspects of plasma sheet dynamics - MHD and kinetic theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Wiechen
Full Text Available Magnetic reconnection is a process of fundamental importance for the dynamics of the Earth's plasma sheet. In this context, the development of thin current sheets in the near-Earth plasma sheet is a topic of special interest because they could be a possible cause of microscopic fluctuations acting as collective non-idealness from a macroscopic point of view. Simulations of the near-Earth plasma sheet including boundary perturbations due to localized inflow through the northern (or southern plasma sheet boundary show developing thin current sheets in the near-Earth plasma sheet about 810 R_{E} tailwards of the Earth. This location is largely independent from the localization of the perturbation. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of the macroscopic non-ideal consequences of microscopic fluctuations. A new model is presented that allows the quantitative calculation of macroscopic non-idealness without considering details of microscopic instabilities or turbulence. This model is only based on the assumption of a strongly fluctuating, mixing dynamics on microscopic scales in phase space. The result of this approach is an expression for anomalous non-idealness formally similar to the Krook resistivity but now describing the macroscopic consequences of collective microscopic fluctuations, not of collisions.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma sheet · Space plasma physics (kinetic and MHD theory; magnetic reconnection
APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-12-01
This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation.
Resonance broadening modification of weak plasma turbulence theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanssen, A. (Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (West Germany))
1991-02-01
The author examines the effects on energy spectra of weak Langmuir turbulence when he includes a nonlinear damping due to the perturbation of electron orbits. The physical mechanism under consideration is usually known as a resonance broadening effect. The calculations show that the inclusion of this additional damping reduces the number of cascades predicted from weak turbulence theory for waves detectable with the EISCAT UHF (933 MHz) radar in Tromso, Norway, during RF modification of the ionospheric plasma.
Progress in Anisotropic Plasma Physics
Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael
2004-01-01
In 1959 Weibel demonstrated that when a QED plasma has a temperature anisotropy there exist unstable transverse magnetic excitations which grow exponentially fast. In this paper we will review how to determine the growth rates for these unstable modes in the weak-coupling and ultrarelativistic limits in which the collective behavior is describable in terms are so-called "hard-loops". We will show that in this limit QCD is subject to instabilities which are analogous to the Weibel instability in QED. The presence of such instabilities dominates the early time evolution of a highly anisotropic plasma; however, at longer times it is expected that these instabilities will saturate (condense). I will discuss how the presence of non-linear interactions between the gluons complicates the determination of the saturated state. In order to discuss this I present the generalization of the Braaten-Pisarski isotropic hard-thermal-loop effective action to a system with a temperature anisotropy in the parton distribution fu...
Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2016-09-01
Hysteresis, which is the history dependence of physical systems, indicates that there are more-than-two stable points in a given condition, and it has been considered to one of the most important topics in fundamental physics. Recently, the hysteresis of plasma has become a focus of research because stable plasma operation is very important for fusion reactors, bio-medical plasmas, and industrial plasmas for nano-device fabrication process. Interestingly, the bi-stability characteristics of plasma with a huge hysteresis loop have been observed in inductive discharge plasmas Because hysteresis study in such plasmas can provide a universal understanding of plasma physics, many researchers have attempted experimental and theoretical studies. Despite long plasma research, how this plasma hysteresis occurs remains an unresolved question in plasma physics. Here, we report theory, experiment, and modeling of the hysteresis. It was found experimentally and theoretically that evolution of the electron energy distribution (EED) makes a strong plasma hysteresis. In Ramsauer and non-Ramsauer gas experiments, it was revealed that the plasma hysteresis is observed only at high pressure Ramsauer gas where the EED deviates considerably from a Maxwellian shape. This hysteresis was presented in the plasma balance model where the EED is considered. Because electrons in plasmas are usually not in a thermal equilibrium, this EED-effect can be regarded as a universal phenomenon in plasma physics. This research was partially supported by Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science.
Brief Introduction to the Foundation of CAI Shidong Award for Plasma Physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHENG Zhengming
2010-01-01
@@ The late Academician Professor CAI Shidong was an outstanding plasma physicist who had made seminal contributions in both fundamental plasma theories and controlled thermonuclear fusion energy research.Professor CAI was also one of the pioneers in China's plasma physics research.In 1973,Professor CAI decided to leave U.S.and return to China in order to help pushing forward plasma physics research in China.Professor CAI formed a research group consisting of young scientists and carried out high-level works in this important physics discipline.He worked tirelessly,set examples by his own deeds,and made outstanding contributions in plasma physics research,educating younger generations of plasma physicists,as well as establishing collaborations with plasma scientists in other Asian-African developing nations.In short,Professor CAI devoted the best years of his life to China's plasma physics research.
Holism, Physical Theories and Quantum Mechanics
Seevinck, M P
2004-01-01
Motivated by the question what it is that makes quantum mechanics a holistic theory (if so), I try to define for general physical theories what we mean by `holism'. I propose an operational criterion to decide whether or not a physical theory is holistic, namely: a physical theory is holistic if and only if some determination (measurement) of the global properties in the theory which can be determined by global measurements, can not be implemented by local operations and classical communication. This approach is contrasted with the well known approaches to holism in terms of supervenience. I will argue that the latter have a limited scope and need to be extended using the criterion for holism proposed here in order to satisfactory address the issue for physical theories. I formalize this criterion for classical particle physics and Bohmian mechanics as represented on a Cartesian phase and configuration space, and for quantum mechanics (in the orthodox interpretation) using the formalism of general quantum ope...
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport
Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita
2013-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...
Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles
Tsunoda, Roland T.
1994-01-01
Plasma bubbles are large-scale (10 to 100 km) depletions in plasma density found in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. Their formation has been found to entail the upward transport of plasma over hundreds of kilometers in altitude, suggesting that bubbles play significant roles in the physics of many of the diverse and unique features found in the low-latitude ionosphere. In the simplest scenario, plasma bubbles appear first as perturbations in the bottomside F layer, which is linearly unstable to the gravitationally driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Once initiated, bubbles develop upward through the peak of the F layer into its topside (sometimes to altitudes in excess of 1000 km), a behavior predicted by the nonlinear form of the same instability. While good general agreement has been found between theory and observations, little is known about the detailed physics associated with plasma bubbles. Our research activity centered around two topics: the shape of plasma bubbles and associated electric fields, and the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of plasma bubbles. The first topic was pursued because of a divergence in view regarding the nonlinear physics associated with plasma bubble development. While the development of perturbations in isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer into plasma bubbles is well accepted, some believed bubbles to be cylinder-like closed regions of depleted plasma density that floated upward leaving a turbulent wake behind them (e.g., Woodman and LaHoz, 1976; Ott, 1978; Kelley and Ott, 1978). Our results, summarized in a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, consisted of incoherent scatter radar measurements that showed unambiguously that the depleted region is wedgelike and not cylinderlike, and a case study and modeling of SM-D electric field instrument (EFI) measurements that showed that the absence of electric-field perturbations outside the plasma-depleted region is a distinct signature of wedge
Dusty plasma as a unique object of plasma physics
Norman, G. E.; Timofeev, A. V.
2016-11-01
The self-consistency and basic openness of dusty plasma, charge fluctuations, high dissipation and other features of dusty plasma system lead to the appearance of a number of unusual and unique properties of dusty plasma. “Anomalous” heating of dusty particles, anisotropy of temperatures and other features, parametric resonance, charge fluctuations and interaction potential are among these unique properties. Study is based on analytical approach and numerical simulation. Mechanisms of “anomalous” heating and energy transfer are proposed. Influence of charge fluctuations on the system properties is discussed. The self-consistent, many-particle, fluctuation and anisotropic interparticle interaction potential is studied for a significant range of gas temperature. These properties are interconnected and necessary for a full description of dusty plasmas physics.
Space plasma physics stationary processes
Hasegawa, Akira
1989-01-01
During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...
Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Managan, R. A.
2015-01-08
Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, F_{n}( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e^{ μ/θ} ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for A^{α} (ζ ),A^{β} (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e^{-μ/θ})F_{1/2}(μ/θ), F_{1/2}'/F_{1/2}, F_{c}^{α}, and F_{c}^{β}. In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.
Theory and Simulations of Solar System Plasmas
Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2011-01-01
"Theory and simulations of solar system plasmas" aims to highlight results from microscopic to global scales, achieved by theoretical investigations and numerical simulations of the plasma dynamics in the solar system. The theoretical approach must allow evidencing the universality of the phenomena being considered, whatever the region is where their role is studied; at the Sun, in the solar corona, in the interplanetary space or in planetary magnetospheres. All possible theoretical issues concerning plasma dynamics are welcome, especially those using numerical models and simulations, since these tools are mandatory whenever analytical treatments fail, in particular when complex nonlinear phenomena are at work. Comparative studies for ongoing missions like Cassini, Cluster, Demeter, Stereo, Wind, SDO, Hinode, as well as those preparing future missions and proposals, like, e.g., MMS and Solar Orbiter, are especially encouraged.
Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets
Hsu, S C; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.
2014-01-01
We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$...
Thermal physics kinetic theory and thermodynamics
Singh, Devraj; Yadav, Raja Ram
2016-01-01
THERMAL PHYSICS: Kinetic Theory and Thermodynamics is designed for undergraduate course in Thermal Physics and Thermodynamics. The book provides thorough understanding of the fundamental principles of the concepts in Thermal Physics. The book begins with kinetic theory, then moves on liquefaction, transport phenomena, the zeroth, first, second and third laws, thermodynamics relations and thermal conduction. The book concluded with radiation phenomenon. KEY FEATURES: * Include exercises * Short Answer Type Questions * Long Answer Type Questions * Numerical Problems * Multiple Choice Questions
Modern String Theory and Particle Physics
Cvetic, M.
2015-01-01
String theory, as the prime candidate for quantum uniﬁcation of particle physics and gravity, sheds light on important fundamental questions such as the microscopic structure of black holes and the geometric origin of particle physics. We review these developments such as the introduction of extended objects - Dirichlet branes - and highlight the important geometric role of these objects in deriving particle physics from string theory. We also highlight recent progress made in deriving partic...
Lunar Dust and Dusty Plasma Physics
Wilson, Thomas L.
2009-01-01
In the plasma and radiation environment of space, small dust grains from the Moon s surface can become charged. This has the consequence that their motion is determined by electromagnetic as well as gravitational forces. The result is a plasma-like condition known as "dusty plasmas" with the consequence that lunar dust can migrate and be transported by magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields into places where heavier, neutral debris cannot. Dust on the Moon can exhibit unusual behavior, being accelerated into orbit by electrostatic surface potentials as blow-off dust, or being swept away by moving magnetic fields like the solar wind as pick-up dust. Hence, lunar dust must necessarily be treated as a dusty plasma subject to the physics of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A review of this subject has been given before [1], but a synopsis will be presented here to make it more readily available for lunar scientists.
Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion
Chen, Francis F
1984-01-01
This complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of this subject and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. In a wholly lucid manner the work covers single-particle motions, fluid equations for plasmas, wave motions, diffusion and resistivity, Landau damping, plasma instabilities and nonlinear problems. For students, this outstanding text offers a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly. This revised edition contains new material on kinetic effects, including Bernstein waves and the plasma dispersion function, and on nonlinear wave equations and solitons.
Contributions of plasma physics to chaos and nonlinear dynamics
Escande, D. F.
2016-11-01
This topical review focusses on the contributions of plasma physics to chaos and nonlinear dynamics bringing new methods which are or can be used in other scientific domains. It starts with the development of the theory of Hamiltonian chaos, and then deals with order or quasi order, for instance adiabatic and soliton theories. It ends with a shorter account of dissipative and high dimensional Hamiltonian dynamics, and of quantum chaos. Most of these contributions are a spin-off of the research on thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement, which started in the fifties. Their presentation is both exhaustive and compact. [15 April 2016
Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas
Klimontovich, Yu L
2013-01-01
Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Benincasa, P; Naryshkin, R; Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Naryshkin, Roman
2007-01-01
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Naryshkin, Roman
2007-02-01
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
Theory Advances in BSM Physics
McCullough, Matthew
2016-01-01
Rather than attempting to summarise the full spectrum of recent advances in Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theory, which are many, in this talk I will instead take the opportunity to focus on two frameworks related to the hierarchy problem currently receiving significant attention. They are the `Twin Higgs' and the `Relaxion'. I will summarise the basic underlying structure of these theories at a non-expert level and highlight some interesting phenomenological signatures or outstanding problems.
Theoretical and Experimental Beam Plasma Physics (TEBPP)
Roberts, B.
1986-01-01
The theoretical and experimental beam plasma physics (TEBPP) consists of a package of five instruments to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasma density and temperature, neutral density, photometric emissions, and energetic particle spectra during firings of the particle injector (SEPAC) electron beam. The package is developed on a maneuverable boom (or RMS) and is used to measure beam characteristics and induced perturbations field ( 10 m) and mid field ( 10 m to 100 m) along the electron beam. The TEBPP package will be designed to investigate induced oscillations and induced electromagnetic mode waves, neutral and ion density and temperature effects, and beam characteristics as a function of axial distance.
Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2000-07-01
Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)
PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics
Dendy, Richard
2004-12-01
This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee
BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics
Engelmann, F.
2007-07-01
This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of
15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics
Soto, Leopoldo
2014-05-01
The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics
Fractal structures in nonlinear plasma physics.
Viana, R L; da Silva, E C; Kroetz, T; Caldas, I L; Roberto, M; Sanjuán, M A F
2011-01-28
Fractal structures appear in many situations related to the dynamics of conservative as well as dissipative dynamical systems, being a manifestation of chaotic behaviour. In open area-preserving discrete dynamical systems we can find fractal structures in the form of fractal boundaries, associated to escape basins, and even possessing the more general property of Wada. Such systems appear in certain applications in plasma physics, like the magnetic field line behaviour in tokamaks with ergodic limiters. The main purpose of this paper is to show how such fractal structures have observable consequences in terms of the transport properties in the plasma edge of tokamaks, some of which have been experimentally verified. We emphasize the role of the fractal structures in the understanding of mesoscale phenomena in plasmas, such as electromagnetic turbulence.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics
Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino
2016-01-01
Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...
Estimation Theory and Statistical Physics.
1985-12-01
Guerra, F., L. Rosen and B. Simon (1975): The P(0) 2 Euclidean Quantum Field Theory as Classical Statistical Mechanics, Annals of Mathematics , 101, pp. 111...Scientia Sinica, XXIV, pp. 483-496. 19. Segal, I. (1970): Construction of Nonlinear Local Quantum Processes 1, Annals of Mathematics 92, pp. 462-481. - 20
Physics of Tokamak Plasma Start-up
Mueller, Dennis
2012-10-01
This tutorial describes and reviews the state-of-art in tokamak plasma start-up and its importance to next step devices such as ITER, a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and a Tokamak/ST demo. Tokamak plasma start-up includes breakdown of the initial gas, ramp-up of the plasma current to its final value and the control of plasma parameters during those phases. Tokamaks rely on an inductive component, typically a central solenoid, which has enabled attainment of high performance levels that has enabled the construction of the ITER device. Optimizing the inductive start-up phase continues to be an area of active research, especially in regards to achieving ITER scenarios. A new generation of superconducting tokamaks, EAST and KSTAR, experiments on DIII-D and operation with JET's ITER-like wall are contributing towards this effort. Inductive start-up relies on transformer action to generate a toroidal loop voltage and successful start-up is determined by gas breakdown, avalanche physics and plasma-wall interaction. The goal of achieving steady-sate tokamak operation has motivated interest in other methods for start-up that do not rely on the central solenoid. These include Coaxial Helicity Injection, outer poloidal field coil start-up, and point source helicity injection, which have achieved 200, 150 and 100 kA respectively of toroidal current on closed flux surfaces. Other methods including merging reconnection startup and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) plasma start-up are being studied on various devices. EBW start-up generates a directed electron channel due to wave particle interaction physics while the other methods mentioned rely on magnetic helicity injection and magnetic reconnection which are being modeled and understood using NIMROD code simulations.
Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, H.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1997-10-09
Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, General Vector Analysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.
Symbolic Vector Analysis in Plasma Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qin, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1997-10-01
Many problems in plasma physics involve substantial amounts of analytical vector calculation. The complexity usually originates from both the vector operations themselves and the choice of underlying coordinate system. A computer algebra package for symbolic vector analysis in general coordinate systems, GeneralVectorAnalysis (GVA), is developed using Mathematica. The modern viewpoint for 3D vector calculus, differential forms on 3-manifolds, is adopted to unify and systematize the vector calculus operations in general coordinate systems. This package will benefit physicists and applied mathematicians in their research where complicated vector analysis is required. It will not only save a huge amount of human brain-power and dramatically improve accuracy, but this package will also be an intelligent tool to assist researchers in finding the right approaches to their problems. Several applications of this symbolic vector analysis package to plasma physics are also given.
Physics issues in long pulse plasma confinement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Toda, Shinichiro; Sanuki, Heiji [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I; Yagi, Masatoshi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuyama, Atsushi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)
2000-07-01
Physics in the steady-state or long time discharge are illustrated from the view point of generic toroidal plasmas. Issues include physics process with very long time scale, dynamical phenomena of various time scales, transition nature under very slow temporal variations of parameters, statistical occurrence of transition and life time and identification of minimum circulating power. Nonlinear dependencies of transport properties of density, temperature, current, electric field and poloidal magnetic field cause self-organized dynamics. A picture of stationary oscillatory states is presented from a unified picture of nonlinear limit cycle dynamics. It is emphasized that the long time asymptotics are determined by the structure formation mechanisms. The sustainment needs a circulating power, and the circulating power in steady state plasma is also discussed. (author)
Mathematics for plasma physics; Mathematiques pour la physique des plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sentis, R. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)
2011-01-15
The plasma physics is in the heart of the research of the CEA-DAM. Using mathematics in this domain is necessary, particularly for a precise statement of the partial differential equations systems which are on the basis of the numerical simulations. Examples are given concerning hydrodynamics, models for the thermal conduction and laser-plasma interaction. For the bi-temperature compressible Euler model, the mathematical study of the problem has allowed us to understand why the role of the energy equations dealing with ions on one hand and electrons on the other hand are not identical despite the symmetrical appearance of the system. The mathematical study is also necessary to be sure of the existence and uniqueness of the solution
Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos
2010-12-01
Introduction We are very pleased to present this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion dedicated to another annual EPS Plasma Physics Division Conference. It contains the invited papers of the 37th Conference, which was held at the Helix Arts Centre of the Dublin City University Campus, in Dublin, Ireland, from 21 to 25 June 2010. It was locally organized by a team drawn from different Irish institutions, led by Dublin City University and Queen's University Belfast. This team was coordinated by Professor Miles Turner (DCU), with the help of Dr Deborah O'Connell (QUB) as Scientific Secretary, and Ms Samantha Fahy (DCU) as Submissions Secretary. It attracted a large number of delegates (nearly 750), coming from 37 countries. Our Irish hosts provided an excellent atmosphere for the conference and social programme, very helpful for promoting personal links between conference participants. The Conference hosted three satellite meetings, and two special evening sessions. The satellite meetings were the Third Workshop on Plasma for Environmental Issues, the International Workshop on the Role of Arcing and Hot Spots in Magnetic Fusion Devices, and the Workshop on Electric Fields, Turbulence and Self-Organization in Magnetic Plasmas. The aim of this annual EPS Conference is to bring together the different communities of plasma physicists, in order to stimulate cross-collaboration and to promote in an integrated way this area of science. As in previous Conferences, we tried to attract the more relevant researchers and to present the latest developments in plasma physics and related areas. The Programme Committee was divided into four sub-committees, representing the main areas of plasma science. These four areas were magnetic confinement fusion (MCF), still the dominant area of this Conference with the largest number of participants, beam plasma and inertial fusion (BPIF), low temperature plasmas (LTP), which attracted a significant and growing number of
DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-COORDINATE VOCABULARY, PLASMA PHYSICS.
LERNER, RITA G.
DESCRIBED IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THESAURUS FOR THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS, SIMILAR TO THE ONE PREVIOUSLY DEVELOPED FOR CHEMICAL PHYSICS, FOR USE WITH COMPUTER-ORIENTED RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS. AN EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF PLASMA PHYSICS SELECTED TERMS IMPORTANT TO THE INFORMATION USER FROM THE PLASMA LITERATURE. THE HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION UTILIZES…
Astroparticle physics theory and phenomenology
Sigl, Günter
2017-01-01
This books aims at giving an overview over theoretical and phenomenological aspects of particle astrophysics and particle cosmology. To be of interest for both students and researchers in neighboring fields of physics, it keeps a balance between well established foundations that will not significantly change in the future and a more in-depth treatment of selected subfields in which significant new developments have been taking place recently. These include high energy particle astrophysics, such as cosmic high energy neutrinos, the interplay between detection techniques of dark matter in the laboratory and in high energy cosmic radiation, axion-like particles, and relics of the early Universe such as primordial magnetic fields and gravitational waves. It also contains exercises and thus will be suitable for both introductory and advanced courses in astroparticle physics.
Physical Theories with Average Symmetry
Alamino, Roberto C.
2013-01-01
This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...
Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas
Redmer, Ronald
1997-04-01
Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied within linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). This linear response method is applied to partially ionized systems such as dense, low-temperature plasmas. Here, the conductivity changes from nonmetallic values up to those typical for
Information Theory and Statistical Physics - Lecture Notes
Merhav, Neri
2010-01-01
This document consists of lecture notes for a graduate course, which focuses on the relations between Information Theory and Statistical Physics. The course is aimed at EE graduate students in the area of Communications and Information Theory, as well as to graduate students in Physics who have basic background in Information Theory. Strong emphasis is given to the analogy and parallelism between Information Theory and Statistical Physics, as well as to the insights, the analysis tools and techniques that can be borrowed from Statistical Physics and `imported' to certain problem areas in Information Theory. This is a research trend that has been very active in the last few decades, and the hope is that by exposing the student to the meeting points between these two disciplines, we will enhance his/her background and perspective to carry out research in the field. A short outline of the course is as follows: Introduction; Elementary Statistical Physics and its Relation to Information Theory; Analysis Tools in ...
'Plasma Camp': A Different Approach to Professional Development for Physics Teachers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrew Post-Zwicker and Nicholas R. Guilbert
1998-12-01
The Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Institute ('Plasma Camp') was inaugurated in 1998 as a way to address two areas of concern in the professional development of high-school physics teachers: involving teachers in the theory and methods of a current area of research in physics and connecting the research experience back into the classroom. The Institute, run jointly by a scientist and a teacher, immersed high-school teachers from across the country in laboratory investigations and in pedagogical projects for two weeks at Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory. The goals, structure, and initial outcomes of the Institute are discussed.
A plasma formulary for physics, technology, and astrophysics
Diver, Declan
2011-01-01
Plasma physics has matured rapidly as a discipline, and now touches on many different research areas, including manufacturing processes. This collection of fundamental formulae and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering.Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings.The text treats astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline - a unique approach made pos
Symmetry and group theory throughout physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Villain J.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available As noticed in 1884 by Pierre Curie [1], physical properties of matter are tightly related to the kind of symmetry of the medium. Group theory is a systematic tool, though not always easy to handle, to exploit symmetry properties, for instance to find the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of an operator. Certain properties (optical activity, piezoelectricity are forbidden in molecules or crystals of high symmetry. A few theorems (Noether, Goldstone establish general relations between physical properties and symmetry. Applications of group theory to condensed matter physics, elementary particle physics, quantum mechanics, electromagnetism are reviewed. Group theory is not only a tool, but also a beautiful construction which casts insight into natural phenomena.
Recent progresses in relativistic beam-plasma instability theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bret
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Beam-plasma instabilities are a key physical process in many astrophysical phenomena. Within the fireball model of Gamma ray bursts, they first mediate a relativistic collisionless shock before they produce upstream the turbulence needed for the Fermi acceleration process. While non-relativistic systems are usually governed by flow-aligned unstable modes, relativistic ones are likely to be dominated by normally or even obliquely propagating waves. After reviewing the basis of the theory, results related to the relativistic kinetic regime of the poorly-known oblique unstable modes will be presented. Relevant systems besides the well-known electron beam-plasma interaction are presented, and it is shown how the concept of modes hierarchy yields a criterion to assess the proton to electron mass ratio in Particle in cell simulations.
Quantum kinetic theories in degenerate plasmas
Brodin, Gert; Ekman, Robin; Zamanian, Jens
2017-01-01
In this review we give an overview of the recent work on quantum kinetic theories of plasmas. We focus, in particular, on the case where the electrons are fully degenerate. For such systems, perturbation methods using the distribution function can be problematic. Instead we present a model that considers the dynamics of the Fermi surface. The advantage of this model is that, even though the value of the distribution function can be greatly perturbed outside the equilibrium Fermi surface, deformation of the Fermi surface is small up to very large amplitudes. Next, we investigate the short-scale dynamics for which the Wigner-Moyal equation replaces the Vlasov equation. In particular, we study wave-particle interaction, and deduce that new types of wave damping can occur due to the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple wave quanta. Finally, we consider exchange effects within a quantum kinetic formalism to find a model that is more accurate than those using exchange potentials from density functional theory. We deduce the exchange corrections to the dispersion relations for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves. In comparison to results based on exchange potentials deduced from density functional theory we find that the latter models are reasonably accurate for Langmuir waves, but rather inaccurate for ion acoustic waves.
Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyamoto, Kenro
2016-08-01
This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.
The shear viscosity of gauge theory plasma with chemical potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benincasa, Paolo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada) and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada)]. E-mail: abuchel@perimeterinstitute.ca; Naryshkin, Roman [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Physics Department, Taras Shevchenko Kiev National University, Prosp. Glushkova 6, Kiev 03022 (Ukraine)
2007-02-08
We consider strongly coupled gauge theory plasma with conserved global charges that allow for a dual gravitational description. We study the shear viscosity of the gauge theory plasma in the presence of chemical potentials for these charges. Using gauge theory/string theory correspondence we prove that at large 't Hooft coupling the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density is universal.
Holism, physical theories and quantum mechanics
Seevinck, M. P.
Motivated by the question what it is that makes quantum mechanics a holistic theory (if so), I try to define for general physical theories what we mean by `holism'. For this purpose I propose an epistemological criterion to decide whether or not a physical theory is holistic, namely: a physical theory is holistic if and only if it is impossible in principle to infer the global properties, as assigned in the theory, by local resources available to an agent. I propose that these resources include at least all local operations and classical communication. This approach is contrasted with the well-known approaches to holism in terms of supervenience. The criterion for holism proposed here involves a shift in emphasis from ontology to epistemology. I apply this epistemological criterion to classical physics and Bohmian mechanics as represented on a phase and configuration space respectively, and for quantum mechanics (in the orthodox interpretation) using the formalism of general quantum operations as completely positive trace non-increasing maps. Furthermore, I provide an interesting example from which one can conclude that quantum mechanics is holistic in the above mentioned sense, although, perhaps surprisingly, no entanglement is needed.
Physics of the quark - gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-09-01
This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.
Experimental and theoretical research in applied plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porkolab, M.
1992-01-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas.
Testing Plasma Physics in the Ionosphere
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos
TESTING PLASMA PHYSICS IN THE IONOSPHERE K. Papadopoulos University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742 Ionospheric heaters supplemented by ground and space based diagnostic instruments, such as radars, optical cameras and photometers, HF/VLF/ELF/ULF receivers and magnetometers, radio beacons, riometers and ionosondes have for a long time being used to conduct plasma physics, geophysical and radio science investigations. The latest entry to ionospheric heating, the HF transmitter associated with the High Frequency Active Ionospheric Research Program (HAARP), was completed in February 2007. The transmitter consists of 180 antenna elements spanning 30.6 acres and can radiate 3.6 MW of HF power in the 2.8-10.0 MHz frequency range. With increasing frequency the beam-width varies from 15-5 degrees, corresponding to 20-30 dB gain and resulting in Effective Radiating Power (ERP) between .36 - 4.0 GW. The antenna can point to any direction in a cone of 30 degrees from the vertical, with a reposition time of 15 degrees in 15 microseconds resulting in super-luminous scanning speeds. The transmitter can synthesize essentially any desired waveform within the regulatory allowed bandwidth in linear and circular polarization. These capabilities far exceed those of previous ionospheric heaters and allow for new frontier research in plasma physics, geophysics and radio science. Following a brief discussion of the relationship of the new capabilities of the facility with thresholds of physical processes that could not be achieved previously, the presentation will discuss recent results in the areas of ULF/ELF/VLF generation and propagation and wave-particle interactions in the magnetosphere acquired with the completed facility. The presentation will conclude with a detailed discussion of possible frontier science experiments in the areas of Langmuir turbulence, parametric instabilities, electron acceleration, optical emissions and field aligned striations and duct generation, made
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birdsall, C.K.
1989-12-31
This is a brief progress report, covering our research in general plasma theory and simulation, plasma-wall physics theory and simulation, and code development. Reports written in this period are included with this mailing. A publications list plus abstracts for two major meetings are included.
An introduction to the theory of plasma turbulence
Tsytovich, V N
1972-01-01
An Introduction to the Theory of Plasma Turbulence is a collection of lectures given by the author at Culham laboratory. The book deals with developments on the theory of plasma turbulence. The author describes plasma properties in the turbulent regions as mostly non-linear in nature, and notes that these properties can be regarded as a universal spectrum independent of any type of instability. The text then discusses the general problems of the theory of plasma turbulence. The author also shows that elementary excitation of """"dressed"""" particles have a finite lifetime associated with non
Mathematical and physical theory of turbulence
Cannon, John
2006-01-01
Although the current dynamical system approach offers several important insights into the turbulence problem, issues still remain that present challenges to conventional methodologies and concepts. These challenges call for the advancement and application of new physical concepts, mathematical modeling, and analysis techniques. Bringing together experts from physics, applied mathematics, and engineering, Mathematical and Physical Theory of Turbulence discusses recent progress and some of the major unresolved issues in two- and three-dimensional turbulence as well as scalar compressible turbulence. Containing introductory overviews as well as more specialized sections, this book examines a variety of turbulence-related topics. The authors concentrate on theory, experiments, computational, and mathematical aspects of Navier-Stokes turbulence; geophysical flows; modeling; laboratory experiments; and compressible/magnetohydrodynamic effects. The topics discussed in these areas include finite-time singularities a...
The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics
Kelley, Michael C
2007-01-01
Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
Pfefferlé, D.; Hirvijoki, E.; Lingam, M.
2017-04-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely, the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow, or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to derive collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rates.
Excellence in Physics Education Award: Modeling Theory for Physics Instruction
Hestenes, David
2014-03-01
All humans create mental models to plan and guide their interactions with the physical world. Science has greatly refined and extended this ability by creating and validating formal scientific models of physical things and processes. Research in physics education has found that mental models created from everyday experience are largely incompatible with scientific models. This suggests that the fundamental problem in learning and understanding science is coordinating mental models with scientific models. Modeling Theory has drawn on resources of cognitive science to work out extensive implications of this suggestion and guide development of an approach to science pedagogy and curriculum design called Modeling Instruction. Modeling Instruction has been widely applied to high school physics and, more recently, to chemistry and biology, with noteworthy results.
Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics
Baker, Daniel N.
2016-11-01
The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.
Toward a physical theory of quantum cognition.
Takahashi, Taiki
2014-01-01
Recently, mathematical models based on quantum formalism have been developed in cognitive science. The target articles in this special issue of Topics in Cognitive Science clearly illustrate how quantum theoretical formalism can account for various aspects of human judgment and decision making in a quantitatively and mathematically rigorous manner. In this commentary, we show how future studies in quantum cognition and decision making should be developed to establish theoretical foundations based on physical theory, by introducing Taketani's three-stage theory of the development of science. Also, implications for neuroeconomics (another rapidly evolving approach to human judgment and decision making) are discussed.
Applied group theory selected readings in physics
Cracknell, Arthur P
1968-01-01
Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic
The physical principles of the quantum theory
Heisenberg, Werner
1949-01-01
The contributions of few contemporary scientists have been as far reaching in their effects as those of Nobel Laureate Werner Heisenberg. His matrix theory is one of the bases of modern quantum mechanics, while his ""uncertainty principle"" has altered our whole philosophy of science.In this classic, based on lectures delivered at the University of Chicago, Heisenberg presents a complete physical picture of quantum theory. He covers not only his own contributions, but also those of Bohr, Dirac, Bose, de Broglie, Fermi, Einstein, Pauli, Schrodinger, Somerfield, Rupp, ·Wilson, Germer, and others
Physics Nobel prize 2004: Surprising theory wins physics Nobel
2004-01-01
From left to right: David Politzer, David Gross and Frank Wilczek. For their understanding of counter-intuitive aspects of the strong force, which governs quarks inside protons and neutrons, on 5 October three American physicists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. David J. Gross (Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara), H. David Politzer (California Institute of Technology), and Frank Wilczek (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) made a key theoretical discovery with a surprising result: the closer quarks are together, the weaker the force - opposite to what is seen with electromagnetism and gravity. Rather, the strong force is analogous to a rubber band stretching, where the force increases as the quarks get farther apart. These physicists discovered this property of quarks, known as asymptotic freedom, in 1976. It later became a key part of the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the Standard Model, the current best theory to describe the interac...
Quantum coding theory with realistic physical constraints
Yoshida, Beni
2010-01-01
The following open problems, which concern a fundamental limit on coding properties of quantum codes with realistic physical constraints, are analyzed and partially answered here: (a) the upper bound on code distances of quantum error-correcting codes with geometrically local generators, (b) the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. To investigate these problems, we study stabilizer codes supported by local interaction terms with translation and scale symmetries on a $D$-dimensional lattice. Our analysis uses the notion of topology emerging in geometric shapes of logical operators, which sheds a surprising new light on theory of quantum codes with physical constraints.
Field theories of condensed matter physics
Fradkin, Eduardo
2013-01-01
Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.
A Bayesian Foundation for Physical Theories
Alamino, Roberto C
2010-01-01
Bayesian probability theory is used as a framework to develop a formalism for the scientific method based on principles of inductive reasoning. The formalism allows for precise definitions of the key concepts in theories of physics and also leads to a well-defined procedure to select one or more theories among a family of (well-defined) candidates by ranking them according to their posterior probability distributions, which result from Bayes's theorem by incorporating to an initial prior the information extracted from a dataset, ultimately defined by experimental evidence. Examples with different levels of complexity are given and three main applications to basic cosmological questions are analysed: (i) typicality of human observers, (ii) the multiverse hypothesis and, extremely briefly, some few observations about (iii) the anthropic principle. Finally, it is demonstrated that this formulation can address problems that were out of the scope of scientific research until now by presenting the isolated worlds p...
Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques
Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John
2011-01-01
This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the
Martin, Jeffrey J; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
2004-09-01
The purpose of our investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control. Grounded in self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that program goal importance and hierarchical and barrier self-efficacy would also predict intention. Using a series of hierarchical regression analyses, the theory of planned behavior was supported by accounting for 59% of the variance in intention due to attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. Self-efficacy theory based variables received minimal support.
Measurement theory in local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamura, Kazuya, E-mail: okamura@math.cm.is.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ozawa, Masanao, E-mail: ozawa@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2016-01-15
In this paper, we aim to establish foundations of measurement theory in local quantum physics. For this purpose, we discuss a representation theory of completely positive (CP) instruments on arbitrary von Neumann algebras. We introduce a condition called the normal extension property (NEP) and establish a one-to-one correspondence between CP instruments with the NEP and statistical equivalence classes of measuring processes. We show that every CP instrument on an atomic von Neumann algebra has the NEP, extending the well-known result for type I factors. Moreover, we show that every CP instrument on an injective von Neumann algebra is approximated by CP instruments with the NEP. The concept of posterior states is also discussed to show that the NEP is equivalent to the existence of a strongly measurable family of posterior states for every normal state. Two examples of CP instruments without the NEP are obtained from this result. It is thus concluded that in local quantum physics not every CP instrument represents a measuring process, but in most of physically relevant cases every CP instrument can be realized by a measuring process within arbitrary error limits, as every approximately finite dimensional von Neumann algebra on a separable Hilbert space is injective. To conclude the paper, the concept of local measurement in algebraic quantum field theory is examined in our framework. In the setting of the Doplicher-Haag-Roberts and Doplicher-Roberts theory describing local excitations, we show that an instrument on a local algebra can be extended to a local instrument on the global algebra if and only if it is a CP instrument with the NEP, provided that the split property holds for the net of local algebras.
CONFERENCE DESCRIPTION Theory of Fusion Plasmas: Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop
Garbet, X.; Sauter, O.
2010-12-01
The Joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas takes place every other year in a place particularly favourable for informal and in-depth discussions. Invited and contributed papers present state-of-the-art research in theoretical plasma physics, covering all domains relevant to fusion plasmas. This workshop always welcomes a fruitful mix of experienced researchers and students, to allow a better understanding of the key theoretical physics models and applications. Theoretical issues related to burning plasmas Anomalous Transport (Turbulence, Coherent Structures, Microinstabilities) RF Heating and Current Drive Macroinstabilities Plasma-Edge Physics and Divertors Fast particles instabilities Further details: http://Varenna-Lausanne.epfl.ch The conference is organized by: Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Association EURATOM - Confédération Suisse 'Piero Caldirola' International Centre for the Promotion of Science and International School of Plasma Physics Istituto di Fisica del Plasma del CNR, Milano Editors: X Garbet (CEA, Cadarache, France) and O Sauter (CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland)
Final Report on The Theory of Fusion Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steven C. Cowley
2008-06-17
Report describes theoretical research in the theory of fusion plasmas funded under grant DE-FG02-04ER54737. This includes work on: explosive instabilities, plasma turbulence, Alfven wave cascades, high beta (pressure) tokamaks and magnetic reconnection. These studies have lead to abetter understanding of fusion plasmas and in particular the future behavior of ITER. More than ten young researchers were involved in this research -- some were funded under the grant.
Theory of nonlocal heat transport in fully ionized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maximov, A.V. (Tesla Labs., Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)); Silin, V.P. (P.N. Lebedev Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))
1993-01-25
A new analytic solution of the electron kinetic equation describing the interacting of the electromagnetic heating field with plasma is obtained in the region of plasma parameters where the Spitzer-Harm classical theory is invalid. A novel expression for the nonlocal electron thermal conductivity is derived. (orig.).
Topos models for physics and topos theory
Wolters, Sander
2014-08-01
What is the role of topos theory in the topos models for quantum theory as used by Isham, Butterfield, Döring, Heunen, Landsman, Spitters, and others? In other words, what is the interplay between physical motivation for the models and the mathematical framework used in these models? Concretely, we show that the presheaf topos model of Butterfield, Isham, and Döring resembles classical physics when viewed from the internal language of the presheaf topos, similar to the copresheaf topos model of Heunen, Landsman, and Spitters. Both the presheaf and copresheaf models provide a "quantum logic" in the form of a complete Heyting algebra. Although these algebras are natural from a topos theoretic stance, we seek a physical interpretation for the logical operations. Finally, we investigate dynamics. In particular, we describe how an automorphism on the operator algebra induces a homeomorphism (or isomorphism of locales) on the associated state spaces of the topos models, and how elementary propositions and truth values transform under the action of this homeomorphism. Also with dynamics the focus is on the internal perspective of the topos.
Effective potential kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas
Baalrud, Scott D.; Daligault, Jérôme
2016-11-01
The effective potential theory (EPT) is a recently proposed method for extending traditional plasma kinetic and transport theory into the strongly coupled regime. Validation from experiments and molecular dynamics simulations have shown it to be accurate up to the onset of liquid-like correlation parameters (corresponding to Γ ≃ 10-50 for the one-component plasma, depending on the process of interest). Here, this theory is briefly reviewed along with comparisons between the theory and molecular dynamics simulations for self-diffusivity and viscosity of the one-component plasma. A number of new results are also provided, including calculations of friction coefficients, energy exchange rates, stopping power, and mobility. The theory is also cast in the Landau and Fokker-Planck kinetic forms, which may prove useful for enabling efficient kinetic computations.
Number theory meets high energy physics
Todorov, Ivan
2017-03-01
Feynman amplitudes in perturbative quantum field theory are being expressed in terms of an algebra of functions, extending the familiar logarithms, and associated numbers— periods. The study of these functions (including hyperlogarithms) and numbers (like the multiple zeta values), that dates back to Leibniz and Euler, has attracted anew the interest of algebraic geometers and number theorists during the last decades. The two originally independent developments are recently coming together in an unlikely collaboration between particle physics and what were regarded as the most abstruse branches of mathematics.
Physics of collisionless shocks - theory and simulation
Novo, A Stockem; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O
2015-01-01
Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.
The Gaussian radial basis function method for plasma kinetic theory
Hirvijoki, E.; Candy, J.; Belli, E.; Embréus, O.
2015-10-01
Description of a magnetized plasma involves the Vlasov equation supplemented with the non-linear Fokker-Planck collision operator. For non-Maxwellian distributions, the collision operator, however, is difficult to compute. In this Letter, we introduce Gaussian Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) to discretize the velocity space of the entire kinetic system, and give the corresponding analytical expressions for the Vlasov and collision operator. Outlining the general theory, we also highlight the connection to plasma fluid theories, and give 2D and 3D numerical solutions of the non-linear Fokker-Planck equation. Applications are anticipated in both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Plasma instabilities and turbulence in non-Abelian gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheffler, Sebastian Herwig Juergen
2010-02-17
Several aspects of the thermalisation process in non-Abelian gauge theories are investigated. Both numerical simulations in the classical statistical approximation and analytical computations in the framework of the two-particle-irreducible effective action are carried out and their results are compared to each other. The physical quantities of central importance are the correlation functions of the gauge field in Coulomb and temporal axial gauge as well as the gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor. Following a general introduction, the theoretical framework of the ensuing investigations is outlined. In doing so, the range of validity of the employed approximation schemes is discussed as well. The first main part of the thesis is concerned with the early stage of the thermalisation process where particular emphasis is on the role of plasma instabilities. These investigations are relevant to the phenomenological understanding of present heavy ion collision experiments. First, an ensemble of initial conditions motivated by the ''colour glass condensate'' is developed which captures characteristic properties of the plasma created in heavy ion collisions. Here, the strong anisotropy and the large occupation numbers of low-momentum degrees of freedom are to be highlighted. Numerical calculations demonstrate the occurrence of two kinds of instabilities. Primary instabilities result from the specific initial conditions. Secondary instabilities are caused by nonlinear fluctuation effects of the preceding primary instabilities. The time scale associated with the instabilities is of order 1 fm/c. It is shown that the plasma instabilities isotropize the initially strongly anisotropic ensemble in the domain of low momenta (
Transport Physics in Reversed Shear Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beer, M.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Von Goeler, S.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton University, NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Laboratory; Bush, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1997-12-31
Reversed magnetic shear is considered a good candidate for improving the tokamak concept because it has the potential to stabilize MHD instabilities and reduce particle and energy transport. With reduced transport the high pressure gradient would generate a strong off-axis bootstrap current and could sustain a hollow current density profile. Such a combination of favorable conditions could lead to an attractive steady-state tokamak configuration. Indeed, a new tokamak confinement regime with reversed magnetic shear has been observed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where the particle, momentum, and ion thermal diffusivities drop precipitously, by over an order of magnitude. The particle diffusivity drops to the neoclassical level and the ion thermal diffusivity drops to much less than the neoclassical value in the region with reversed shear. This enhanced reversed shear (ERS) confinement mode is characterized by an abrupt transition with a large rate of rise of the density in the reversed shear region during neutral beam injection, resulting in nearly a factor of three increase in the central density to 1.2 X 10(exp 20) cube m. At the same time the density fluctuation level in the reversed shear region dramatically decreases. The ion and electron temperatures, which are about 20 keV and 7 keV respectively, change little during the ERS mode. The transport and transition into and out of the ERS mode have been studied on TFTR with plasma currents in the range 0.9-2.2 MA, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7-4.6 T, and the radius of the q(r) minimum, q{sub min}, has been varied from r/a = 0.35 to 0.55. Toroidal field and co/counter neutral beam injection toroidal rotation variations have been used to elucidate the underlying physics of the transition mechanism and power threshold of the ERS mode.
Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory
Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John
2016-04-01
The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.
Hydrodynamization and transient modes of expanding plasma in kinetic theory
Heller, Michal P; Spalinski, Michal
2016-01-01
We study the transition to hydrodynamics in a weakly-coupled model of quark-gluon plasma given by kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. Our studies uncover qualitative similarities to the results on hydrodynamization in strongly coupled gauge theories. In particular, we demonstrate that the gradient expansion in this model has vanishing radius of convergence. The asymptotic character of the hydrodynamic gradient expansion is crucial for the recently discovered applicability of hydrodynamics at large gradients. Furthermore, the analysis of the resurgent properties of the series provides, quite remarkably, indication for the existence of a novel transient, damped oscillatory mode of expanding plasmas in kinetic theory.
Dynacore Final Report , Plasma Physics prototype
Lourens, W.
2001-01-01
The generation and behaviour of plasma in a fusion device and its interaction with sur-rounding materials is studied by observing several phenomena that will accompany a plasma discharge. These phenomena are recorded by means of so called Diagnostics. These are instruments that comprise complex elec
Space plasma physics results from Spacelab 1
Burch, J. L.
1985-01-01
The Spacelab 1 payload carried several instrument systems which together investigated a number of space plasma phenomena. These experiments used the Space Shuttle Orbiter as a platform for making controlled particle-beam, plasma and neutral gas inputs to the ionosphere and magnetosphere and for observing the outputs produced. Spacelab 1 space-plasma investigations included the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) and the Low Energy Electron Spectrometer and Magnetometer. Among the major phenomena investigated both singly and jointly by these experiments are vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma and wave-particle interactions, anomalous ionization phenomena produced by neutral-gas and plasma injections and several phenomena induced by modulated particle beam injections.
Group theory and its applications in physics, 1980
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seligman, T.H. (ed.)
1980-01-01
Lectures were presented in representation theory, elementary particle physics, nuclear physics, and modern applications in mathematical physics. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)
The Notion of Substance in Physical Theory
Vanzandt, Joseph David
The thesis explores the philosophical consequences of adopting the view that the principle of non-contradiction, the principle of sufficient reason, and the monistic notion of substance are more closely linked than most modern and contemporary philosophers have supposed. This thesis is then applied to show the connections between the metaphysical views of Spinoza and the view of nature of Albert Einstein. The first chapter is an historical overview of the principles of sufficient reason and non-contradiction, and the notion of substance, followed by a presentation of the reasons that led the author to conclude that the usual treatment of these concepts requires revision. These reasons are based upon substantial cause theory, developed in the 1970s by Richard Cole. The second and third chapters are an interpretation of Book 1 of Spinoza's Ethics from the viewpoint presented in the first chapter. The implicit role of the principles of non-contradiction and sufficient reason in Spinoza's argument is drawn out through an examination of his definitions, axioms and propositions. The third and fourth chapters are an interpretation and criticism of Immanuel Kant. It is first shown that the common dismissal of Kant's philosophy based upon the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries and the denial of strict causality among some physical events is not well founded; ways in which Kant's framework can accommodate these problems are proposed. It is then argued that Kant's criticism of traditional metaphysics is not conclusive. In particular, Kant's arguments against the possibility of an ontological argument are examined and criticisms of his arguments are presented. The sixth and seventh chapters contain an historical account of the development of physics in the 20th century to illustrate the strong tendency toward unification found in science. It is suggested that this natural tendency to seek ever higher levels of unification is evidence that the principle of sufficient reason
Fundamental Neutron Physics: Theory and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gudkov, Vladimir [South Carolina Research Foundation, Columbia, SC (United States)
2016-10-31
The goal of the proposal was to study the possibility of searching for manifestations of new physics beyond the Standard model in fundamental neutron physics experiments. This involves detailed theoretical analyses of parity and time reversal invariance violating processes in neutron induced reactions, properties of neutron β-decay, and the precise description of properties of neutron interactions with nuclei. To describe neutron-nuclear interactions, we use both the effective field theory approach and the theory of nuclear reaction with phenomenological nucleon potentials for the systematic description of parity and time reversal violating effects in the consistent way. A major emphasis of our research during the funding period has been the study of parity violation (PV) and time reversal invariance violation (TRIV) in few-body systems. We studied PV effects in non-elastic processes in three nucleon system using both ”DDH-like” and effective field theory (EFT) approaches. The wave functions were obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space for a number of realistic strong potentials. The observed model dependence for the DDH approach indicates intrinsic difficulty in the description of nuclear PV effects and it could be the reason for the observed discrepancies in the nuclear PV data analysis. It shows that the DDH approach could be a reasonable approach for analysis of PV effects only if exactly the same strong and weak potentials are used in calculating all PV observables in all nuclei. However, the existing calculations of nuclear PV effects were performed using different potentials; therefore, strictly speaking, one cannot compare the existing results of these calculations among themselves.
A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter
2002-01-01
Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.
Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.
Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P
2007-10-01
We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.
Laser Plasma Physics - Forces and Nonlinear Principle
Hora, Heinrich
2014-01-01
This work is an electronic pre-publication of a book manuscript being under consideration in order to provide information to interested researchers about a review of mechanical forces in plasmas by electro-dynamic fields. Beginning with Kelvin's ponderomotive force of 1845 in electrostatics, the hydrodynamic force in a plasma is linked with quadratic force quantities of electric and magnetic fields. Hydrodynamics is interlinked with single particle motion of plasma particles electric field generation and double layers and sheaths due to properties of inhomogeneous plasmas. Consequences relate to laser driven particle acceleration and fusion energy. Beyond the very broad research field of fusion using nanosecond laser pulses based on thermodynamics, the new picosecond pulses of ultrahigh power opened a categorically different non-thermal interaction finally permitting proton-boron fusion with eliminating problems of nuclear radiation.
Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyamoto, Kenro
2000-10-01
The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)
Physics of collapses in toroidal helical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi
1998-12-31
Theoretical model for the collapse events in toroidal helical plasmas with magnetic hill is presented. There exists a turbulent-turbulent transition at a critical pressure gradient, leading to a sudden increase of the anomalous transport. When the magnetic shear is low, the nonlinear excitation of the global mode is possible. This model explains an abrupt growth of the perturbations, i.e., the trigger phenomena. Achievable limit of the plasma beta value is discussed. (author)
Fusion programs in applied plasma physics. Technical progress report, July 11, 1992--May 31, 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-07-01
This report summarizes the progress made in theoretical and experimental research funded by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG03-92ER54150, during the period July 11, 1992 through May 31, 1993. Four main tasks are reported: applied plasma physics theory, alpha particle diagnostic, edge and current density diagnostic, and plasma rotation drive. The report also discusses the research plans for the theory and experimental programs for the next grant year. Reports and publications supported by the grant during this period are listed in the final section.
Recent advances in numerical simulation of space-plasma-physics problems
Birmingham, T. J.
1983-01-01
Computer simulations have become an increasingly popular, important and insightful tool for studying space plasmas. This review describes MHD and particle simulations, both of which treat the plasma and the electromagnetic field in which it moves in a self consistent fashion but on drastically different spatial and temporal scales. The complementary roles of simulation, observations and theory are stressed. Several examples of simulations being carried out in the area of magnetospheric plasma physics are described to illustrate the power, potential and limitations of the approach.
Some problems of pulsar physics. [magnetospheric plasma model
Arons, J.
1979-01-01
The theories of particle acceleration along polar field lines are reviewed, and the total energization of the charge separated plasma is summarized, when pair creation is absent. The application of these theories and plasma supply to pulsars is discussed, with attention given to the total amount of electron-positron plasma created and its momentum distribution. Various aspects of radiation emission and transport are analyzed, based on a polar current flow model with pair creation, and the phenomenon of marching subpulses is considered. The coronation beaming and the relativistically expanding current sheet models for pulsar emission are also outlined, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the relation between the theories of polar flow with pair plasma and the problem of the energization of the Crab Nebula.
Town Meeting on Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation
2015-11-01
We invite you to the Town Meeting on the role of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in supporting basic and applied research in Plasma Physics in the U.S. The overarching goal of NSF is to promote the progress of science and to enable training of the next generation of scientists and engineers at US colleges and universities. In this context, the role of the NSF Physics Division in leading the nearly 20 year old NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering serves as an example of the long history of NSF support for basic plasma physics research. Yet, the NSF interest in maintaining a healthy university research base in plasma sciences extends across the Foundation. A total of five NSF Divisions are participating in the most recent Partnership solicitation, and a host of other multi-disciplinary and core programs provide opportunities for scientists to perform research on applications of plasma physics to Space & Solar Physics, Astrophysics, Accelerator Science, Material Science, Plasma Medicine, and many sub-disciplines within Engineering. This Town Meeting will provide a chance to discuss the full range of relevant NSF funding opportunities, and to begin a conversation on the present and future role of NSF in stewarding basic plasma science and engineering research at US colleges and universities. We would like to particularly encourage early career scientists and graduate students to participate in this Town Meeting, though everyone is invited to join what we hope to be a lively discussion.
Plasma Physics Issues in Gas Discharge Laser Development
1991-12-01
WL-TR-92-2087 PLASMA PHYSICS ISSUES IN GAS DISCHARGE LASER DEVELOPMENT AD-A257 735 ALAN GARSCADDEN MARK J. KUSNER J. GARY EDEN WL/POOC-3 WRIGHT...LASERS INFRARED MOLECULAR jAS LASERS UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED UL Plasma Physics Issues in Gas Discharge Laser Development Alan Garscadden...the close coupling between body of work was not generally useful in laser development . vibrationally excited nitrogen and CO or CO2 . In fact. the First
Hyperfinite and standard unifications for physical theories
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert A. Herrmann
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A set of physical theories is represented by a nonempty subset {SNjV|j∈ℕ} of the lattice of consequence operators defined on a language Λ. It is established that there exists a unifying injection defined on the nonempty set of significant representations for natural systems M⊂Λ. If W∈M, then W is a hyperfinite ultralogic and ⋃{SNjV(W|j∈ℕ}=W(*W∩Λ. A product hyperfinite ultralogic Π is defined on internal subsets of the product set *Λm and is shown to represent the application of to {W1,…,Wm}⊂M. There also exists a standard unifying injection SW such that W(*W⊂*SW(*W.
Physically based rendering from theory to implementation
Pharr, Matt
2010-01-01
"Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.
Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice
Böhm, Christoph
2013-01-01
In Physical Unclonable Functions in Theory and Practice, the authors present an in-depth overview of various topics concerning PUFs, providing theoretical background and application details. This book concentrates on the practical issues of PUF hardware design, focusing on dedicated microelectronic PUF circuits. Additionally, the authors discuss the whole process of circuit design, layout and chip verification. The book also offers coverage of: Different published approaches focusing on dedicated microelectronic PUF circuits Specification of PUF circuits and different error rate reducing pre-selection techniques General design issues and minimizing error rate from the circuit’s perspective Transistor modeling issues of Montecarlo mismatch simulation and solutions Examples of PUF circuits including an accurate description of the circuits and testing/measurement results This monograph gives insight into PUFs in general and provides knowledge in the field of PUF circuit design and implementation. It coul...
PlasmaPy: beginning a community developed Python package for plasma physics
Murphy, Nicholas A.; Huang, Yi-Min; PlasmaPy Collaboration
2016-10-01
In recent years, researchers in several disciplines have collaborated on community-developed open source Python packages such as Astropy, SunPy, and SpacePy. These packages provide core functionality, common frameworks for data analysis and visualization, and educational tools. We propose that our community begins the development of PlasmaPy: a new open source core Python package for plasma physics. PlasmaPy could include commonly used functions in plasma physics, easy-to-use plasma simulation codes, Grad-Shafranov solvers, eigenmode solvers, and tools to analyze both simulations and experiments. The development will include modern programming practices such as version control, embedding documentation in the code, unit tests, and avoiding premature optimization. We will describe early code development on PlasmaPy, and discuss plans moving forward. The success of PlasmaPy depends on active community involvement and a welcoming and inclusive environment, so anyone interested in joining this collaboration should contact the authors.
Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level
Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2016-09-01
Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.
Theory of magnetic reconnection in solar and astrophysical plasmas.
Pontin, David I
2012-07-13
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process in a plasma that facilitates the release of energy stored in the magnetic field by permitting a change in the magnetic topology. In this paper, we present a review of the current state of understanding of magnetic reconnection. We discuss theoretical results regarding the formation of current sheets in complex three-dimensional magnetic fields and describe the fundamental differences between reconnection in two and three dimensions. We go on to outline recent developments in modelling of reconnection with kinetic theory, as well as in the magnetohydrodynamic framework where a number of new three-dimensional reconnection regimes have been identified. We discuss evidence from observations and simulations of Solar System plasmas that support this theory and summarize some prominent locations in which this new reconnection theory is relevant in astrophysical plasmas.
BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion
Brambilla, Marco
1998-04-01
Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The
PREFACE: Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2008
Benova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lebedev, Yu
2010-01-01
The Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'08) organized by St Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from 30 June to 5 July 2008. A Special Session on Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organised by the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal and the Laboratory of Plasmas and Energy Conversion, University of Toulouse, France. That puts the beginning of a series in Workshops on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, now as a satellite meeting of the European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 38 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the
Formation of plasma around a small meteoroid: 1. Kinetic theory
Dimant, Y S
2016-01-01
Every second millions of small meteoroids enter the Earth's atmosphere producing dense plasmas. Radars easily detect these plasmas and researchers use this data to characterize both the meteoroids and the atmosphere. This paper develops a first-principle kinetic theory describing the behavior of particles, ablated from a fast-moving meteoroid, that colliside with the atmospheric molecules. This theory produces analytic expressions describing the spatial structure and velocity distributions of ions and neutrals near the ablating meteoroid. This analytical model will serve as a basis for a more accurate quantitative interpretation of radar measurements and should help calculate meteoroid and atmosphere parameters from radar head-echo observations.
Theory of a beam-driven plasma antenna
Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Annenkov, V. V.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we propose a theory describing generation of electromagnetic waves in a thin beam-plasma system with a characteristic transverse size comparable with the radiation wavelength. In fact, a thin plasma column with a longitudinal density modulation works like a plasma antenna in which an electron beam can excite a superluminal wave of electric current. It has previously been shown that, if the period of this modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, radiation at a frequency slightly below the plasma frequency is emitted transversely to the plasma column and generated in thin boundary layers. For the plasma thickness comparable with the skin-depth, generation of the terahertz radiation can reach high efficiency ( ˜10 % ) in such a scheme, but the absolute power of this radiation cannot be increased by increasing the transverse plasma size. In this paper, we study whether the power of such an antenna can be increased in the regime of oblique emission when the magnetized plasma is transparent to the radiated electromagnetic waves and the whole plasma volume may be involved in their generation.
Physics and Dynamics of Current Sheets in Pulsed Plasma Thrusters
2007-11-02
pulsed plasma thruster. A simple experiment would involve measuring the impulse bit of a coaxial gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster operated in both positive...Princeton, NJ, 2002. [2] J. Marshal. Performance of a hydromagnetic plasma gun . The Physics of Fluids, 3(1):134–135, January-February 1960. [3] R.G. Jahn...Jahn and K.E. Clark. A large dielecteic vacuum facility. AIAA Jour- nal, 1966. [16] L.C. Burkhardt and R.H. Lovberg. Current sheet in a coaxial plasma
PREFACE: First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics
Benova, Evgenia; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Atanassov, Vladimir
2006-07-01
The First International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'05) organized by The Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia and the Foundation `Theoretical and Computational Physics and Astrophysics' was dedicated to the World Year of Physics 2005 and held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 8--12 June 2005. The aim of the workshop was to bring together scientists from various branches of plasma physics in order to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations. Another important task was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for the further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 31 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion research, kinetics and transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, MHD waves and instabilities in the solar atmosphere, dc and microwave discharge modelling, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are Masters or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will stimulate readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at Sofia University, Dr Ivan Bogorov Publishing house, and Artgraph2 Publishing house. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited lecturers who were willing to pay the participation fee. In this way, in addition to the intellectual support they provided by means of their excellent lectures, they also supported the school
A First-Principle Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma Formation
Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers
2015-11-01
Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to observe visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo. Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for more accurate quantitative interpretation of the head echo radar measurements. Work supported by NSF Grant 1244842.
Reaction-diffusion problems in the physics of hot plasmas
Wilhelmsson, H
2000-01-01
The physics of hot plasmas is of great importance for describing many phenomena in the universe and is fundamental for the prospect of future fusion energy production on Earth. Nontrivial results of nonlinear electromagnetic effects in plasmas include the self-organization and self-formation in the plasma of structures compact in time and space. These are the consequences of competing processes of nonlinear interactions and can be best described using reaction-diffusion equations. Reaction-Diffusion Problems in the Physics of Hot Plasmas is focused on paradigmatic problems of a reaction-diffusion type met in many branches of science, concerning in particular the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic fields with plasmas.
Transport phenomena in a plasma quasilinear theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enos D'Ambrogio
1991-05-01
Full Text Available Making use of a recently developed quasi-linear formulation of 1D Vlasov equation, we derive the balance relations for the space-averaged distribution function and spectral power density. The validity-range in the short-time behaviour as well as in the time asymptotic limit is discussed. The formalism is perturbative but non-markovian in character, as it formally generalizes, and in the appropriate limit reproduces, Pocobelli's kinetic theory.
Physics of High Temperature, Dense Plasmas.
1984-01-01
34Investigation of the High-Energy Acceleration Mode in the Coaxial Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S28, (1964). I. 9. Dattner, A. and Eninger J...34Studies of a Coaxial Plasma Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S41, (1964). II. 10. Wilcox, J. M., Pugh, E., Dattner, A. and Eninger , J., "Experimental Study of
Research in Pulsed Power Plasma Physics
1993-11-01
constraints will preclude the use of channels with much with a Tesla coil. Nor is uniformity improved by the use of larger wall radii. a 3 kA prepulse. Driving...Oliphant. 12C. Bruno, J. Delvaux. A. Nicolas . and M. Roche, IEEE Trans. Plasma and P. F. Ottinger. App!. Phys. Lett. 45. 1043 (1984).ISci. PS-IS, 686
Modified Enskog Kinetic Theory for Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Baalrud, Scott D
2015-01-01
Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S.~D.~Baalrud and J.~Daligault, Phys.~Rev.~Lett.~{\\bf 110}, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling ($\\Gamma \\gtrsim 30$). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.
Modified Enskog kinetic theory for strongly coupled plasmas.
Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jérôme
2015-06-01
Concepts underlying the Enskog kinetic theory of hard-spheres are applied to include short-range correlation effects in a model for transport coefficients of strongly coupled plasmas. The approach is based on an extension of the effective potential transport theory [S. D. Baalrud and J. Daligault, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] to include an exclusion radius surrounding individual charged particles that is associated with Coulomb repulsion. This is obtained by analogy with the finite size of hard spheres in Enskog's theory. Predictions for the self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients of the one-component plasma are tested against molecular dynamics simulations. The theory is found to accurately capture the kinetic contributions to the transport coefficients, but not the potential contributions that arise at very strong coupling (Γ≳30). Considerations related to a first-principles generalization of Enskog's kinetic equation to continuous potentials are also discussed.
Physical properties of erupting plasma associated with coronal mass ejections
Lee, J.; Raymond, J. C.; Reeves, K. K.; Moon, Y.; Kim, K.
2013-12-01
We investigate the physical properties (temperature, density, and mass) of erupting plasma observed in X-rays and EUV, which are all associated with coronal mass ejections observed by SOHO/LASCO. The erupting plasmas are observed as absorption or emission features in the low corona. The absorption feature provides a lower limit to the cold mass while the emission feature provides an upper limit to the mass of observed plasma in X-ray and EUV. We compare the mass constraints for each temperature response and find that the mass estimates in EUV and XRT are smaller than the total mass in the coronagraph. Several events were observed by a few passbands in the X-rays, which allows us to determine the temperature of the eruptive plasma using a filter ratio method. The temperature of one event is estimated at about 8.6 MK near the top of the erupting plasma. This measurement is possibly an average temperature for higher temperature plasma because the XRT is more sensitive at higher temperatures. In addition, a few events show that the absorption features of a prominence or a loop change to emission features with the beginning of their eruptions in all EUV wavelengths of SDO/AIA, which indicates the heating of the plasma. By estimating the physical properties of the erupting plasmas, we discuss the heating of the plasmas associated with coronal mass ejections in the low corona.
Hydrodynamic theory for ion structure and stopping power in quantum plasmas.
Shukla, P K; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M
2013-04-01
We present a theory for the dynamical ion structure factor (DISF) and ion stopping power in an unmagnetized collisional quantum plasma with degenerate electron fluids and nondegenerate strongly correlated ion fluids. Our theory is based on the fluctuation dissipation theorem and the quantum plasma dielectric constant that is deduced from a linearized viscoelastic quantum hydrodynamical (LVQHD) model. The latter incorporates the essential physics of quantum forces, which are associated with the quantum statistical pressure, electron-exchange, and electron-correlation effects, the quantum electron recoil effect caused by the dispersion of overlapping electron wave functions that control the dynamics of degenerate electron fluids, and the viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ion fluids. Both degenerate electrons and nondegenerate strongly correlated ions are coupled with each other via the space charge electric force. Thus, our LVQHD theory is valid for a collisional quantum plasma at atomic scales with a wide range of the ion coupling parameter, the plasma composition, and plasma number densities that are relevant for compressed plasmas in laboratories (inertial confinement fusion schemes) and in astrophysical environments (e.g., warm dense matter and the cores of white dwarf stars). It is found that quantum electron effects and viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ions significantly affect the features of the DISF and the ion stopping power (ISP). Unlike previous theories, which have studied ion correlations in terms of the ion coupling parameter, by neglecting the essential physics of collective effects that are competing among each other, we have here developed a method to evaluate the dependence of the plasma static and dynamical features in terms of individual parameters, like the Wigner-Seitz radius, the ion atomic number, and the ion temperature. It is found that due to the complex nature of charge screening in quantum plasmas, the ion
Hydrodynamic theory for ion structure and stopping power in quantum plasmas
Shukla, P. K.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2013-04-01
We present a theory for the dynamical ion structure factor (DISF) and ion stopping power in an unmagnetized collisional quantum plasma with degenerate electron fluids and nondegenerate strongly correlated ion fluids. Our theory is based on the fluctuation dissipation theorem and the quantum plasma dielectric constant that is deduced from a linearized viscoelastic quantum hydrodynamical (LVQHD) model. The latter incorporates the essential physics of quantum forces, which are associated with the quantum statistical pressure, electron-exchange, and electron-correlation effects, the quantum electron recoil effect caused by the dispersion of overlapping electron wave functions that control the dynamics of degenerate electron fluids, and the viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ion fluids. Both degenerate electrons and nondegenerate strongly correlated ions are coupled with each other via the space charge electric force. Thus, our LVQHD theory is valid for a collisional quantum plasma at atomic scales with a wide range of the ion coupling parameter, the plasma composition, and plasma number densities that are relevant for compressed plasmas in laboratories (inertial confinement fusion schemes) and in astrophysical environments (e.g., warm dense matter and the cores of white dwarf stars). It is found that quantum electron effects and viscoelastic properties of strongly correlated ions significantly affect the features of the DISF and the ion stopping power (ISP). Unlike previous theories, which have studied ion correlations in terms of the ion coupling parameter, by neglecting the essential physics of collective effects that are competing among each other, we have here developed a method to evaluate the dependence of the plasma static and dynamical features in terms of individual parameters, like the Wigner-Seitz radius, the ion atomic number, and the ion temperature. It is found that due to the complex nature of charge screening in quantum plasmas, the ion
The mathematical theory of reduced MHD models for fusion plasmas
Guillard, Hervé
2015-01-01
The derivation of reduced MHD models for fusion plasma is here formulated as a special instance of the general theory of singular limit of hyperbolic system of PDEs with large operator. This formulation allows to use the general results of this theory and to prove rigorously that reduced MHD models are valid approximations of the full MHD equations. In particular, it is proven that the solutions of the full MHD system converge to the solutions of an appropriate reduced model.
PREFACE: Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2006
Benova, Evgeniya; Atanassov, Vladimir
2007-04-01
The Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'06) organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Bulgarian Nuclear Society, was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 3-9 July 2006. As with the first of these scientific meetings (IWSSPP'05 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 44 (2006)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 33 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma research, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of these papers were presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing procedure and our referees for their patience and considerable effort to improve the manuscripts. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at the University of Sofia and Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited
F-Theory - From Geometry to Physics and Back
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Compactifications of string theory have the potential to form a bridge between what we believe is a consistent quantum theory of gravity in 10 spacetime dimensions and observed physics in four dimensions. At the same time, beautiful results from mathematics, especially algebraic geometry, are directly linked to some of the key concepts in modern particle and quantum field theory. This theory colloquium will illustrate some of these ideas in the context of F-theory, which provides a non-perturbative formulation of a class of string compactifications in their geometric regime. Recent applications of F-theory range from very concrete suggestions to address known challenges in physics beyond the Standard Model to the 'physicalization of geometry' to the construction and investigations of strongly coupled quantum field theories in various dimensions. After reviewing examples of such applications we will conclude by demonstrating the close links between geometry and physics in F-theory via some new results on the r...
Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary
1973-01-01
Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.
Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma in the Earth's atmosphere: Implications for Radar Head Echo
Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.
2015-12-01
Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to be observed visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma and how it interacts with the Earth's atmosphere. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo often accompanied by a much longer non-specular trail (see the Figure). Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma responsible for the radar head echo. This theory produces analytic expressions describing the ion and neutral velocity distributions along with the detailed 3-D spatial structure of the near-meteoroid plasma. These expressions predict a number of unexpected features such as shell-like velocity distributions. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a strongly non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for a more accurate quantitative interpretation of radar measurements, estimates of the ionization efficiency, and should help calculate meteoroid and atmosphere parameters from radar head-echo observations. This theory could also help clarify the physical nature of electromagnetic pulses observed during recent meteor showers and associated with the passage of fast-moving meteors through the
High Temperature Plasmas Theory and Mathematical Tools for Laser and Fusion Plasmas
Spatschek, Karl-Heinz
2012-01-01
Filling the gap for a treatment of the subject as an advanced course in theoretical physics with a huge potential for future applications, this monograph discusses aspects of these applications and provides theoretical methods and tools for their investigation. Throughout this coherent and up-to-date work the main emphasis is on classical plasmas at high-temperatures, drawing on the experienced author's specialist background. As such, it covers the key areas of magnetic fusion plasma, laser-plasma-interaction and astrophysical plasmas, while also including nonlinear waves and phenomena.
Plasma physics analysis of SERT-2 operation
Kaufman, H. R.
1980-01-01
An analysis of the major plasma processes involved in the SERT 2 spacecraft experiments was conducted to aid in the interpretation of recent data. A plume penetration model was developed for neutralization electron conduction to the ion beam and showed qualitative agreement with flight data. In the SERT 2 configuration conduction of neutralization electrons between thrusters was experimentally demonstrated in space. The analysis of this configuration suggests that the relative orientation of the two magnetic fields was an important factor in the observed results. Specifically, the opposed field orientation appeared to provide a high conductivity channel between thrusters and a barrier to the ambient low energy electrons in space. The SERT 2 neutralizer currents with negative neutralizer biases were up to about twice the theoretical prediction for electron collection by the ground screen. An explanation for the higher experimental values was a possible conductive path from the neutralizer plume to a nearby part of the ground screen. Plasma probe measurements of SERT 2 gave the clearest indication of plasma electron temperature, with normal operation being near 5 eV and discharge only operation near 2 eV.
Understanding Solar Coronal Heating through Atomic and Plasma Physics Experiments
Savin, Daniel Wolf; Arthanayaka, Thusitha; Bose, Sayak; Hahn, Michael; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory V.; Gekelman, Walter; Vincena, Steve
2017-08-01
Recent solar observations suggest that the Sun's corona is heated by Alfven waves that dissipate at unexpectedly low heights in the corona. These observations raise a number of questions. Among them are the problems of accurately quantifying the energy flux of the waves and that of describing the physical mechanism that leads to the wave damping. We are performing laboratory experiments to address both of these issues.The energy flux depends on the electron density, which can be measured spectroscopically. However, spectroscopic density diagnostics have large uncertainties, because they depend sensitively on atomic collisional excitation, de-excitation, and radiative transition rates for multiple atomic levels. Essentially all of these data come from theory and have not been experimentally validated. We are conducting laboratory experiments using the electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that will provide accurate empirical calibrations for spectroscopic density diagnostics and which will also help to guide theoretical calculations.The observed rapid wave dissipation is likely due to inhomogeneities in the plasma that drive flows and currents at small length scales where energy can be more efficiently dissipated. This may take place through gradients in the Alfvén speed along the magnetic field, which causes wave reflection and generates turbulence. Alternatively, gradients in the Alfvén speed across the field can lead to dissipation through phase-mixing. Using the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at the University of California Los Angeles, we are studying both of these dissipation mechanisms in the laboratory in order to understand their potential roles in coronal heating.
Plasma-Powder Feedstock Interaction During Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition
Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Baopeng
2017-02-01
Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition is a new process developed to produce coatings from the vapor phase. To achieve deposition from the vapor phase, the plasma-feedstock interaction inside the plasma torch, i.e., from the powder injection point to the nozzle exit, is critical. In this work, the plasma characteristics and the momentum and heat transfer between the plasma and powder feedstock at different torch input power levels were investigated theoretically to optimize the net plasma torch power, among other important factors such as the plasma gas composition, powder feed rate, and carrier gas. The plasma characteristics were calculated using the CEA2 code, and the plasma-feedstock interaction was studied inside the torch nozzle at low-pressure (20-25 kPa) conditions. A particle dynamics model was introduced to compute the particle velocity, coupled with Xi Chen's drag model for nonevaporating particles. The results show that the energy transferred to the particles and the coating morphology are greatly influenced by the plasma gas characteristics and the particle dynamics inside the nozzle. The heat transfer between the plasma gas and feedstock material increased with the net torch power up to an optimum at 64 kW, at which a maximum of 3.4% of the available plasma energy was absorbed by the feedstock powder. Experimental results using agglomerated 7-8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder as feedstock material confirmed the theoretical predictions.
Plasma-Powder Feedstock Interaction During Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition
Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Baopeng
2017-01-01
Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition is a new process developed to produce coatings from the vapor phase. To achieve deposition from the vapor phase, the plasma-feedstock interaction inside the plasma torch, i.e., from the powder injection point to the nozzle exit, is critical. In this work, the plasma characteristics and the momentum and heat transfer between the plasma and powder feedstock at different torch input power levels were investigated theoretically to optimize the net plasma torch power, among other important factors such as the plasma gas composition, powder feed rate, and carrier gas. The plasma characteristics were calculated using the CEA2 code, and the plasma-feedstock interaction was studied inside the torch nozzle at low-pressure (20-25 kPa) conditions. A particle dynamics model was introduced to compute the particle velocity, coupled with Xi Chen's drag model for nonevaporating particles. The results show that the energy transferred to the particles and the coating morphology are greatly influenced by the plasma gas characteristics and the particle dynamics inside the nozzle. The heat transfer between the plasma gas and feedstock material increased with the net torch power up to an optimum at 64 kW, at which a maximum of 3.4% of the available plasma energy was absorbed by the feedstock powder. Experimental results using agglomerated 7-8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder as feedstock material confirmed the theoretical predictions.
Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.
2007-05-01
four-page texts of the contributed papers are presented as a CD, `ICPP 2006. Contributed Papers' which was distributed among the delegates. They are also available at the Congress website http://icpp2006.kiev.ua. A major part of the review and topical lectures is published in this special issue which has been sent to the Congress delegates. The papers were refereed to the usual high standard of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. The Guest Editors of the special issue are grateful to the Publishers for their cooperation. Recognizing the role of Professor Alexej Sitenko (12 February 1927 11 February 2002) in the initiation and organization of the International (Kiev) Conferences on Plasma Theory which, after having been combined with the International Congresses on Waves and Instabilities in Plasma in 1980, created the series of International Congresses on Plasma Physics, and taking into account the contribution of Professor Sitenko to the progress of plasma theory, the Program Committee decided to open ICPP 2006 with the Sitenko memorial lecture. This memorial lecture is available as supplementary data (PDF) at stacks.iop.org/PPCF/49/i=5A.
Computerized tomographic imaging for space plasma physics
Zhang, Yuhong; Coplan, Michael A.; Moore, John H.; Berenstein, Carlos A.
1990-01-01
The measurement of plasma electron velocity distribution functions as a problem in imaging and image reconstruction is considered. A model instrument that measures the integral of the distribution function along lines in velocity space is presented. This allows the use of the powerful mathematical and numerical methods that have recently been so successful in other areas of imaging. It is found that this approach leads to classes of instruments that are qualitatively different from contemporary designs. An investigation of different methods of reconstruction of the distribution function from integral measurements reveals that the mathematical tools appropriate to one particular imaging problem may be very different from those required to deal with another.
Plasma physics of accreting neutron stars
Ghosh, Pranab; Lamb, Frederick K.
1991-01-01
Plasma concepts and phenomena that are needed to understand X- and gamma-ray sources are discussed. The capture of material from the wind or from the atmosphere or envelope of a binary companion star is described and the resulting types of accretion flows discussed. The reasons for the formation of a magnetosphere around the neutron star are explained. The qualitative features of the magnetospheres of accreting neutron stars are then described and compared with the qualitative features of the geomagnetosphere. The conditions for stable flow and for angular and linear momentum conservation are explained in the context of accretion by magnetic neutron stars and applied to obtain rough estimates of the scale of the magnetosphere. Accretion from Keplerian disks is then considered in some detail. The radial structure of geometrically thin disk flows, the interaction of disk flows with the neutron star magnetosphere, and models of steady accretion from Keplerian disks are described. Accretion torques and the resulting changes in the spin frequencies of rotating neutron stars are considered. The predicted behavior is then compared with observations of accretion-powered pulsars. Magnetospheric processes that may accelerate particles to very high energies, producing GeV and, perhaps, TeV gamma-rays are discussed. Finally, the mechanisms that decelerate and eventually stop accreting plasma at the surfaces of strongly magnetic neutron stars are described.
Observing the Plasma-Physical Processes of Pulsar Radio Emission with Arecibo
Rankin, Joanna M.
2017-01-01
With their enormous densities and fields, neutron stars entail some of the most exotic physics in the cosmos. Similarly, the physical mechanisms of pulsar radio emission are no less exotic, and we are only now beginning to understand them. The talk will provide an introduction to the phenomenology of radio pulsar emission and focus on those aspects of the exquisite Arecibo observations that bear on their challenging emission physics.The commonalities of the radio beamforms of most slow pulsars (and some millisecond pulsars) argue strongly that their magnetic fields have a nearly dipolar structure at the height of their radio emission regions. These heights can often be determined by aberration/retardation analyses. Similarly, measurement of the orientation of the polarized radio emission with respect to the emitting magnetic field facilitates identification of the physical(X/O) emission modes and study of the plasma coupling to the electromagnetic radiation.While the physics of primary plasma generation above the pulsar polar cap is only beginning to be understood, it is clear that the radio pulsars we see are able to generate copious amounts of electron-positron plasma in their emission regions. Within the nearly dipolar field structure of these emission regions, the plasma density is near to that of the Goldreich-Julian model, and so the physical conditions in these regions can be accurately estimated.These conditions show that the plasma frequencies in the emission regions are much higher than the frequency of the emitted radiation, such that the plasma couples most easily to the extraordinary mode as observed. Therefore, the only surviving emission mechanism is curvature radiation from charged solitons, produced by the two-stream instability. Such soliton emission has probably been observed directly in the Crab pulsar; however, a physical theory of charged soliton radiation does not yet exist.
PREFACE: Theory of Fusion Plasmas, 13th Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop (2012)
Garbet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier
2012-12-01
The 2012 joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas has been very fruitful. A broad variety of topics were addressed, as usual covering turbulence, MHD, edge physic, RF wave heating and a taste of astrophysics. Moreover the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, in particular in the context of ITER construction. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may quote for instance the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of the meeting is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance MHD modes are now currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are more and more included in MHD stability analysis, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is the proof of cross-fertilization and it is certainly a healthy sign in our community. Finally introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent us from respecting the traditions of the meeting. As usual a good deal of the presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne conference, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific production is illustrated by the 26 papers which appear in the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, all refereed. We would also like to mention another set of 20 papers to be published in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue of JPCS and the one to come in PPCF. Xavier Garbet and Olivier Sauter October 26, 2012
Structure and structure-preserving algorithms for plasma physics
Morrison, P. J.
2016-10-01
Conventional simulation studies of plasma physics are based on numerically solving the underpinning differential (or integro-differential) equations. Usual algorithms in general do not preserve known geometric structure of the physical systems, such as the local energy-momentum conservation law, Casimir invariants, and the symplectic structure (Poincaré invariants). As a consequence, numerical errors may accumulate coherently with time and long-term simulation results may be unreliable. Recently, a series of geometric algorithms that preserve the geometric structures resulting from the Hamiltonian and action principle (HAP) form of theoretical models in plasma physics have been developed by several authors. The superiority of these geometric algorithms has been demonstrated with many test cases. For example, symplectic integrators for guiding-center dynamics have been constructed to preserve the noncanonical symplectic structures and bound the energy-momentum errors for all simulation time-steps; variational and symplectic algorithms have been discovered and successfully applied to the Vlasov-Maxwell system, MHD, and other magnetofluid equations as well. Hamiltonian truncations of the full Vlasov-Maxwell system have opened the field of discrete gyrokinetics and led to the GEMPIC algorithm. The vision that future numerical capabilities in plasma physics should be based on structure-preserving geometric algorithms will be presented. It will be argued that the geometric consequences of HAP form and resulting geometric algorithms suitable for plasma physics studies cannot be adapted from existing mathematical literature but, rather, need to be discovered and worked out by theoretical plasma physicists. The talk will review existing HAP structures of plasma physics for a variety of models, and how they have been adapted for numerical implementation. Supported by DOE DE-FG02-04ER-54742.
Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory
Patterson, James D
2007-01-01
Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...
Towards a Grand Unified Theory of Mathematics and Physics
Woit, Peter
2015-01-01
Wigner's "unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics" in physics can be understood as a reflection of a deep and unexpected unity between the fundamental structures of mathematics and of physics. Some of the history of evidence for this is reviewed, emphasizing developments since Wigner's time and still poorly understood analogies between number theory and quantum field theory.
Hydrodynamic theory of diffusion in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramshaw, J.D.; Chang, C.H. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
1995-12-31
Detailed numerical simulations of multicomponent plasmas require tractable expressions for species diffusion fluxes, which must be consistent with the given plasma current density J{sub q} to preserve local charge neutrality. The common situation in which J{sub q} = 0 is referred to as ambipolar diffusion. The use of formal kinetic theory in this context leads to results of formidable complexity. We derive simple tractable approximations for the diffusion fluxes in two-temperature multicomponent plasmas by means of a generalization of the hydrodynamical approach used by Maxwell, Stefan, Furry, and Williams. The resulting diffusion fluxes obey generalized Stefan-Maxwell equations that contain driving forces corresponding to ordinary, forced, pressure, and thermal diffusion. The ordinary diffusion fluxes are driven by gradients in pressure fractions rather than mole fractions. Simplifications due to the small electron mass are systematically exploited and lead to a general expression for the ambipolar electric field in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity. We present a self-consistent effective binary diffusion approximation for the diffusion fluxes. This approximation is well suited to numerical implementation and is currently in use in our LAVA computer code for simulating multicomponent thermal plasmas. Applications to date include a successful simulation of demixing effects in an argon-helium plasma jet, for which selected computational results are presented. Generalizations of the diffusion theory to finite electrical conductivity and nonzero magnetic field are currently in progress.
Magnetic Yang-Mills Theory of the Gluon Plasma
Baker, M
2009-01-01
We propose magnetic SU(N) pure gauge theory as an effective field theory describing the long distance nonperturbative magnetic response of the deconfined phase of Yang-Mills theory. The magnetic non-Abelian Lagrangian, unlike that of electrodynamics where there is exact electromagnetic duality, is not known explicitly, but here we regard the magnetic SU(N) Yang-Mills Lagrangian as the leading term in the long distance effective gauge theory of the plasma phase. In this treatment, which is applicable for a range of temperatures in the interval T_c < T < 3 T_c accessible in heavy ion experiments, formation of the magnetic energy profile around a spatial Wilson loop in the deconfined phase parallels the formation of an electric flux tube in the confined phase. We use the effective theory to calculate spatial Wilson loops and the magnetic charge density induced in the plasma by the corresponding color electric current loops. These calculations suggest that the deconfined phase of Yang-Mills theory has the p...
Kappa distributions: theory and applications in space plasmas
Pierrard, V
2010-01-01
Particle velocity distribution functions (VDF) in space plasmas often show non Maxwellian suprathermal tails decreasing as a power law of the velocity. Such distributions are well fitted by the so-called Kappa distribution. The presence of such distributions in different space plasmas suggests a universal mechanism for the creation of such suprathermal tails. Different theories have been proposed and are recalled in this review paper. The suprathermal particles have important consequences concerning the acceleration and the temperature that are well evidenced by the kinetic approach where no closure requires the distributions to be nearly Maxwellians. Moreover, the presence of the suprathermal particles take an important role in the wave-particle interactions.
Classical Methods of Statistics With Applications in Fusion-Oriented Plasma Physics
Kardaun, Otto J W F
2005-01-01
Classical Methods of Statistics is a blend of theory and practical statistical methods written for graduate students and researchers interested in applications to plasma physics and its experimental aspects. It can also fruitfully be used by students majoring in probability theory and statistics. In the first part, the mathematical framework and some of the history of the subject are described. Many exercises help readers to understand the underlying concepts. In the second part, two case studies are presented exemplifying discriminant analysis and multivariate profile analysis. The introductions of these case studies outline contextual magnetic plasma fusion research. In the third part, an overview of statistical software is given and, in particular, SAS and S-PLUS are discussed. In the last chapter, several datasets with guided exercises, predominantly from the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, are included and their physical background is concisely described. The book concludes with a list of essential keyword transl...
International Conference on Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics
Raikov, Georgi; Aldecoa, Rafael
2016-01-01
The present volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference on Spectral Theory and Mathematical Physics held in Santiago de Chile in November 2014. Main topics are: Ergodic Quantum Hamiltonians, Magnetic Schrödinger Operators, Quantum Field Theory, Quantum Integrable Systems, Scattering Theory, Semiclassical and Microlocal Analysis, Spectral Shift Function and Quantum Resonances. The book presents survey articles as well as original research papers on these topics. It will be of interest to researchers and graduate students in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics.
Plasma Physics Research at an Undergraduate Institution
Padalino, Stephen
2007-11-01
Undergraduate research experiences have motivated many physics majors to continue their studies at the graduate level. The Department of Physics and Astronomy at SUNY Geneseo, a primarily undergraduate institution, recognizes this simple reality and is committed to ensuring research opportunities are available to interested majors beginning as early as their freshman year. Every year for more than a decade, as many as two dozen students and 8 faculty members have worked on projects related to high energy density physics and inertial confinement fusion during the summer months and the academic year. By working with their research sponsors, it has been possible to identify an impressive number of projects suitable for an institution such as Geneseo. These projects tend to be hands-on and require teamwork and innovation to be successful. They also take advantage of in-house capabilities such as the 2 MV tandem pelletron accelerator, a scanning electron microscope, a duoplasmatron ion deposition system and a 64 processor computing cluster. The end products of their efforts are utilized at the sponsoring facilities in support of nationally recognized programs. In this talk, I will discuss a number of these projects and point out what made them attractive and appropriate for an institution like Geneseo, the direct and indirect benefits of the research opportunities for the students and faculty, and how the national programs benefited from the cost-effective use of undergraduate research. In addition, I will discuss the importance of exposure for both students and faculty mentors to the larger scientific community through posters presentations at annual meetings such as the DPP and DNP. Finally, I will address the need for even greater research opportunities for undergraduate students in the future and the importance of establishing longer ``educational pipelines'' to satisfy the ever growing need for top-tier scientists and engineers in industry, academia and the
Physics considerations for laser-plasma linear colliders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim
2010-06-11
Physics considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. The ultra-high accelerating gradient of a laser-plasma accelerator and short laser coupling distance between accelerator stages allows for a compact linac. Two regimes of laser-plasma acceleration are discussed. The highly nonlinear regime has the advantages of higher accelerating fields and uniform focusing forces, whereas the quasi-linear regime has the advantage of symmetric accelerating properties for electrons and positrons. Scaling of various accelerator and collider parameters with respect to plasma density and laser wavelength are derived. Reduction of beamstrahlung effects implies the use of ultra-short bunches of moderate charge. The total linac length scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density, whereas the total power scales proportional to the square root of the density. A 1 TeV center-of-mass collider based on stages using a plasma density of 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} requires tens of J of laser energy per stage (using 1 {micro}m wavelength lasers) with tens of kHz repetition rate. Coulomb scattering and synchrotron radiation are examined and found not to significantly degrade beam quality. A photon collider based on laser-plasma accelerated beams is also considered. The requirements for the scattering laser energy are comparable to those of a single laser-plasma accelerator stage.
Towards a Physical Theory of Subjective Mental States
Lee, Sean
2007-01-01
Any complete theory of physical reality must allow for the ubiquitous phenomenon of subjective experience at some level, or risk being conceptually incoherent. However, as long as the ontological status of subjectivity itself remains unresolved, the topic will be seen as more within the purview of philosophy than of physics. Towards a resolution of this issue within empirically motivated physical theory, this article introduces an operational definition that ultilizes the general consensus that subjective mental states, whatever else is controversial about them, at least correlate in some way to physical states. It is shown here that implementing this underappreciated assumption within the framework of a physical theory in fact leads to wide-ranging consequences. In particular, a correlation requires there exist a well-defined mapping from a space of subjective mental states onto a space of information-bearing elements of some physical theory. Given the peculiar nature of subjective states as inherently priva...
Physics of liquid and crystalline plasmas: Future perspectives
Morfill, G. E.
It has been shown that under certain conditions "complex plasmas" (plasma containing ions, electrons and charged microspheres) may undergo spontaneous phase changes to become liquid and crystalline, without recombination of the charge components. Hence these systems may be regarded as new plasma states "condensed plasmas". The ordering forces are mainly electrostatic, but dipolar effects, anisotropic pressure due shielding, ion flow focussing etc. may all play a role, too. Complex plasmas are of great interest from a fundamental research point of view because the individual particles of one plasma component (the charged microspheres) can be visualised and hence the plasma can be studied at the kinetic level. Also, the relevant time scales (e.g. 1/plasma frequency) are of order 0.1 sec, the plasma processes occur practically in "slow motion". We will discuss some physical processes (e.g. wave propagation, shocks, phase transitions) of these systems and outline the potential of the research for the understanding of strongly coupled systems. Technologically, it is expected that colloidal plasmas will also become very important, because both plasma technology and colloid technology are widely developed already. In this overview first the basic forces between the particles are discussed, then the phase transitions, the lattice structures and results from active experiments will be presented. Finally the future perspectives will be discussed, from the scientific potential point of view and the experimental approaches in the laboratory and in space. Experiments under microgravity conditions are of great importance, because the microspheres are 10's of billions times heavier than the ions.
Physics of High Performance Dueterium-Tritium Plasmas in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGuire, K. M.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Batha, S.; Lamarche, P.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Belov, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Dorland, W.; Phillips, P.; Bretz, N. L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, G. R.; Hosea, J. C.
1996-01-01
During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production,isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high -li) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF-heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-li discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier.It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.
Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGuire, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others
1996-11-01
During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I{sub i}) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I{sub i} discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed.
New Outreach Initiatives at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Zwicker, Andrew; Dominguez, Arturo; Greco, Shannon; Ortiz, Deedee; Delooper, John
2015-11-01
In FY15, PPPL concentrated its efforts on a portfolio of outreach activities centered around plasma science and fusion energy that have the potential to reach a large audience and have a significant and measurable impact. The overall goal of these outreach activities is to expose the public (within New Jersey, the US and the world) to the Department of Energy's scientific endeavors and specifically to PPPL's research regarding fusion and plasma science. The projects include several new activities along with upgrades to existing ones. The new activities include the development of outreach demos for the plasma physics community and the upgrade of the Internet Plasma Physics Experience (IPPEX). Our first plasma demo is a low cost DC glow discharge, suitable for tours as well as for student laboratories (plasma breakdown, spectroscopy, probes). This has been field tested in a variety of classes and events. The upgrade to the IPPEX web site includes a new template and a new interactive virtual tokamak. Future work on IPPEX will provide users limited access to data from NSTX-U. Finally, our Young Women's Conference was expanded and improved. These and other new outreach activities will be presented.
Particle Physics Implications of F-theory
Heckman, Jonathan J
2010-01-01
We review recent progress in realizing Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) in a strongly coupled formulation of type IIB string theory known as F-theory. Our main emphasis is on the expected low-energy phenomenology of a minimal class of F-theory GUTs. We introduce the primary ingredients in such constructions, and then present qualitative features of GUT models in this framework such as GUT breaking, doublet-triplet splitting, and proton decay. Next, we review proposals for realizing flavor hierarchies in the quark and lepton sectors. We discuss possible supersymmetry breaking scenarios, and their consequences for experiment, as well as geometrically minimal realizations of F-theory GUTs which incorporate most of these features.
The kinetic theory of a dilute ionized plasma
García-Colin, L S
2008-01-01
This book results from recent studies aimed at answering questions raised by astrophycists who use values of transport coefficients that are old and often unsatisfactory. The few books dealing with the rigorous kinetic theory of a ionized plasma are based on the so called Landau (Fokker-Planck) equation and they seldom relate the microscopic results with their macroscopic counterpart provided by classical non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this book both issues are thoroughly covered. Starting from the full Boltzmann equation for inert dilute plasmas and using the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method to solve the first two approximations in Knudsen´s parameter, we construct all the transport properties of the system within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. This includes a systematic study of all possible cross effects (which, except for a few cases, were never treated in the literature) as well as the famous H-theorem. The equations of magneto-hydrodynamics for dilute plasmas, including the rathe...
Physics Content and Pedagogical Changes: Ramification of Theory and Practice
Cobbinah, Charles; Bayaga, Anass
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to explore physics teachers' ramification of theory and practices as a result of physics content and pedagogical changes in the Further Education and Training (FET) phase. The researchers adopted the mixed method research approach. The quantitative aspect involved 109 physics teachers and the qualitative approach used ten…
PANDORA, a new facility for interdisciplinary in-plasma physics
Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Romano, F. P.; Galatà, A.; Gammino, S.; Massimi, C.
2017-07-01
PANDORA, Plasmas for Astrophysics, Nuclear Decays Observation and Radiation for Archaeometry, is planned as a new facility based on a state-of-the-art plasma trap confining energetic plasma for performing interdisciplinary research in the fields of Nuclear Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Plasma Physics and Applications in Material Science and Archaeometry: the plasmas become the environment for measuring, for the first time, nuclear decay rates in stellar-like condition (such as 7Be decay and beta-decay involved in s-process nucleosynthesis), especially as a function of the ionization state of the plasma ions. These studies will give important contributions for addressing several astrophysical issues in both stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis environment ( e.g., determination of solar neutrino flux and 7Li Cosmological Problem), moreover the confined energetic plasma will be a unique light source for high-performance stellar spectroscopy measurements in the visible, UV and X-ray domains, offering advancements in observational astronomy. As to magnetic fields, the experimental validation of theoretical first- and second-order Landé factors will drive the layout of next-generation polarimetric units for the high-resolution spectrograph of the future giant telescopes. In PANDORA new plasma heating methods will be explored, that will push forward the ion beam output, in terms of extracted intensity and charge states. More, advanced and optimized injection methods of ions in an ECR plasma will be experimented, with the aim to optimize its capture efficiency. This will be applied to the ECR-based Charge Breeding technique, that will improve the performances of the SPES ISOL-facility at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro-INFN. Finally, PANDORA will be suitable for energy conversion, making the plasma a source of high-intensity electromagnetic radiation, for applications in material science and archaeometry.
High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2016-10-19
Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.
High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
2016-10-19
Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiationhydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of selfheating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.
Geometry, topology and quantum field theory (fundamental theories of physics)
Bandyopadhyay, P.
2013-01-01
This monograph deals with the geometrical and topological aspects related to quantum field theory with special reference to the electroweak theory and skyrmions. This book is unique in its emphasis on the topological aspects of a fermion manifested through chiral anomaly which is responsible for the generation of mass. This has its relevance in electroweak theory where it is observed that weak interaction gauge bosons attain mass topologically. These geometrical and topological features help us to consider a massive fermion as a skyrmion and for a composite state we can realise the internal symmetry of hadrons from reflection group. Also, an overview of noncommutative geometry has been presented and it is observed that the manifold M 4 x Z2 has its relevance in the description of a massive fermion as skyrmion when the discrete space is considered as the internal space and the symmetry breaking gives rise to chiral anomaly leading to topological features.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.
1979-08-27
The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.
Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2012-01-01
To celebrate Professor Robert Dewar's 65th birthday, a Symposium was held on 31 October 2009 in Atlanta, Georgia, just before the 51st Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society. The Symposium was attended by many of Bob's colleagues, friends, postdoctoral colleagues and students (present and former). Boyd Blackwell, Anthony Cooper, Chris Hegna, Stuart Hudson, John Krommes, Alexander Pletzer, Ellen Zweibel, and I gave talks that covered various aspects of Bob's wide-ranging scholarship, and his leadership in the Australian and the US fusion program. At the Symposium, Bob gave an insightful talk, published in this issue as a paper with D Leykam. This paper makes available for the first time unpublished results from Bob's M Sc Thesis on a general method for calculating the potential around a `dressed' test particle in an isotropic and collisionless plasma. The paper is interesting not only because it provides a glimpse of the type of elegant applied mathematics that we have come to associate with Bob, but also because he discusses some leitmotifs in his intellectual evolution since the time he was a graduate student at the University of Melbourne and Princeton University. Through his early encounter with quantum field theory, Bob appreciated the power of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, which he used with great effectiveness in nonlinear dynamics and plasma physics. A question that animates much of his work is one that underlies the `dressed' particle problem: if one is given a Hamiltonian with an unperturbed (or `bare') part and an interaction part, how is one to obtain a canonical transformation to `the oscillation centre' thatwould reduce the interaction part to an irreducible residual part while incorporating the rest in a renormalized zeroth-order Hamiltonian? One summer in Princeton, I worked with Bob on a possible variational formulation for this problem, and failed. I was daunted enough by my failure that I turned
The upgraded Large Plasma Device, a machine for studying frontier basic plasma physics.
Gekelman, W; Pribyl, P; Lucky, Z; Drandell, M; Leneman, D; Maggs, J; Vincena, S; Van Compernolle, B; Tripathi, S K P; Morales, G; Carter, T A; Wang, Y; DeHaas, T
2016-02-01
In 1991 a manuscript describing an instrument for studying magnetized plasmas was published in this journal. The Large Plasma Device (LAPD) was upgraded in 2001 and has become a national user facility for the study of basic plasma physics. The upgrade as well as diagnostics introduced since then has significantly changed the capabilities of the device. All references to the machine still quote the original RSI paper, which at this time is not appropriate. In this work, the properties of the updated LAPD are presented. The strategy of the machine construction, the available diagnostics, the parameters available for experiments, as well as illustrations of several experiments are presented here.
Plasma Theory and Simulation Group Annual Progress Report for 1991
1991-12-31
experimental run. " results in a form to be compared with laboratory experiments. PDCX include the electromagnetics, atomic physics and chemical reactions...beam formation analitically : i) the resistance of the (low-density) to the final, high-density cylindrical wall can be approximated by the regime...related to the presence of sub-micron dust contamination in plasma aided processing. The dust particles are produced by chemical and mechanical means. In
Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B
2016-03-25
Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.
An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.
Barrett, Adam B
2014-01-01
To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.
An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics
Barrett, Adam B.
2014-01-01
To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects. PMID:24550877
Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E.V.
1990-07-01
This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p{sub t} and collective flow, the shape of p{sub t} distribution, strangeness production, J/{psi} suppression and {phi} enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs.
Kinematics, Dynamics, and the Structure of Physical Theory
Curiel, Erik
2016-01-01
Every physical theory has (at least) two different forms of mathematical equations to represent its target systems: the dynamical (equations of motion) and the kinematical (kinematical constraints). Kinematical constraints are differentiated from equations of motion by the fact that their particular form is fixed once and for all, irrespective of the interactions the system enters into. By contrast, the particular form of a system's equations of motion depends essentially on the particular interaction the system enters into. All contemporary accounts of the structure and semantics of physical theory treat dynamics, i.e., the equations of motion, as the most important feature of a theory for the purposes of its philosophical analysis. I argue to the contrary that it is the kinematical constraints that determine the structure and empirical content of a physical theory in the most important ways: they function as necessary preconditions for the appropriate application of the theory; they differentiate types of p...
Methods of quantum field theory in statistical physics
Abrikosov, A A; Gorkov, L P; Silverman, Richard A
1975-01-01
This comprehensive introduction to the many-body theory was written by three renowned physicists and acclaimed by American Scientist as ""a classic text on field theoretic methods in statistical physics."
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P K Karmakar
2007-04-01
Application of inertia-induced acoustic excitation theory offers a new resonant excitation source channel of acoustic turbulence in the transonic domain of plasma flow. In bi-ion plasmas like colloidal plasma, two well-defined transonic points exist corresponding to the parent ion and the dust grain-associated acoustic modes. As usual, the modified ion acoustic mode (also known as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) wave) dynamics associated with parent ion inertia is excitable for both nanoscale- and micronscale-sized dust grains. It is found that the so-called (ion) acoustic mode (also known as dust-acoustic (DA) wave) associated with nanoscale dust grain inertia is indeed resonantly excitable through the active role of weak but finite parent ion inertia. It is interestingly conjectured that the same excitation physics, as in the case of normal plasma sound mode, operates through the active inertial role of plasma thermal species. Details of the nonlinear acoustic mode analyses of current interest in transonic domains of such impure plasmas in hydrodynamic flow are presented.
Protection motivation theory: is this a worthwhile theory for physical activity promotion?
Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Trinh, Linda
2010-04-01
This article reviews the published studies in the physical activity domain, which include novel hypothesis from our laboratory, that have tested Rogers' Protection Motivation Theory. Across the various population groups, the theory's coping appraisal is generally supported; however, there is limited support for the theory's threat components. Implications of these findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Relativistic warm plasma theory of nonlinear laser-driven electron plasma waves.
Schroeder, C B; Esarey, E
2010-05-01
A relativistic, warm fluid model of a nonequilibrium, collisionless plasma is developed and applied to examine nonlinear Langmuir waves excited by relativistically intense, short-pulse lasers. Closure of the covariant fluid theory is obtained via an asymptotic expansion assuming a nonrelativistic plasma temperature. The momentum spread is calculated in the presence of an intense laser field and shown to be intrinsically anisotropic. Coupling between the transverse and longitudinal momentum variances is enabled by the laser field. A generalized dispersion relation is derived for Langmuir waves in a thermal plasma in the presence of an intense laser field. Including thermal fluctuations in three-velocity-space dimensions, the properties of the nonlinear electron plasma wave, such as the plasma temperature evolution and nonlinear wavelength, are examined and the maximum amplitude of the nonlinear oscillation is derived. The presence of a relativistically intense laser pulse is shown to strongly influence the maximum plasma wave amplitude for nonrelativistic phase velocities owing to the coupling between the longitudinal and transverse momentum variances.
Progress in theory of instabilities in a rotating plasma
Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Churikov, A. P.; Pustovitov, V. D.
2009-04-01
A review is given of the basic results of modern theory of instabilities in a rotating plasma. Both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations are considered. Main attention is given to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), discovered earlier by Velikhov, and the rotational-convective instability (RCI) discussed in a number of papers of astrophysical trend. For qualitative explanation of the results, a local approach is used which, with equilibrium plasma pressure gradient and/or nonsymmetry of perturbations, requires operation with nonlocal azimuthal perturbed magnetic field. The gravity and effects of pressure anisotropy are taken into account. In addition to hydrodynamic, the electrodynamic approach is formulated. The drift effects are considered. Analyzed are the ideal instabilities and those depending on the dissipative effects: viscosity and heat conductivity. The MRI is considered at presence of the charged dust particles. Besides the local approach, the nonlocal approach is formulated for the plasma model with a steplike profile of angular rotation frequency. Alongside with perturbations which frequencies are small compared to the ion cyclotron frequency, the perturbations are analyzed with frequencies larger than the ion cyclotron frequency. The latter corresponds to the Hall regime and subregime of nonmagnetized plasma.
Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution
Chan, Ke-Sheng
2005-01-01
This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…
Case Studies of Physics Graduates' Personal Theories of Evolution
Chan, Ke-Sheng
2005-01-01
This paper reports an interview case study with two physics doctoral students designed to explore their conceptions about the theory of evolution. Analysis of interview transcripts reveals that both students mistakenly constructed a "theory of evolution by environmentally driven adaptation" instead of the commonly accepted "theory…
Quasiparticle lifetimes and infrared physics in QED and QCD plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1997-09-22
The perturbative calculation of the lifetime of fermion excitations in a QED plasma at high temperature is plagued with infrared divergences which are not eliminated by the screening corrections. The physical processes responsible for these divergences are the collisions involving the exchange of longwavelength, quasistatic, magnetic photons, which are not screened by plasma effects. The leading divergences can be resummed in a non-perturbative treatment based on a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck model at finite temperature. The resulting expression of the fermion propagator is free of infrared problems, and exhibits a non-exponential damping at large times: S{sub R}(t) {approx} exp(-{alpha}T t ln{omega}{sub p}t), where {omega}{sub p} = eT/3 is the plasma frequency and {alpha} = e{sup 2}/4{pi}.
Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham
2012-02-16
Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.
Physics and Geometry of F-theory 2017
2017-01-01
The goal of this conference is to bring together the experts in the field of F-theory from around the globe, both from the physics and the mathematics community, in order to exchange ideas about recent progress and future endeavours. F-theory is a non-perturbative realisation of string theory that is written in the language of algebraic geometry, and has always benefitted greatly from interdisciplinary interactions such as this conference.
Atomic Structure Theory Lectures on Atomic Physics
Johnson, Walter R
2007-01-01
Atomic Structure Theory is a textbook for students with a background in quantum mechanics. The text is designed to give hands-on experience with atomic structure calculations. Material covered includes angular momentum methods, the central field Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Hartree-Fock equations, multiplet structure, hyperfine structure, the isotope shift, dipole and multipole transitions, basic many-body perturbation theory, configuration interaction, and correlation corrections to matrix elements. Numerical methods for solving the Schrödinger and Dirac eigenvalue problems and the (Dirac)-Hartree-Fock equations are given as well. B-spline basis sets are used to carry out sums arising in higher-order many-body calculations. Illustrative problems are provided, together with solutions. FORTRAN programs implementing the numerical methods in the text are included.
Can Cognitive Theory Help Us Teach Physics?
Gray, Robert L.; Lochhead, Jack
The idea that cognitive science can provide useful guidance to the teaching of physics has been met by some with skepticism. One argument is that the current understanding of cognition is too crude to be helpful; another, that any scientific approach to education stifles the art of teaching. Some feel that art and science need not be incompatible.…
The role of magnetohydrodynamics in heliospheric space plasma physics research
Dryer, Murray; Smith, Zdenka Kopal; Wu, Shi Tsan
1988-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is a fairly recent extension of the field of fluid mechanics. While much remains to be done, it has successfully been applied to the contemporary field of heliospheric space plasma research to evaluate the 'macroscopic picture' of some vital topics via the use of conducting fluid equations and numerical modeling and simulations. Some representative examples from solar and interplanetary physics are described to demonstrate that the continuum approach to global problems (while keeping in mind the assumptions and limitations therein) can be very successful in providing insight and large scale interpretations of otherwise intractable problems in space physics.
Theory of heavy ion collision physics in hadron therapy
2013-01-01
Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.
Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.
Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof
2016-07-01
In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.
Quark-gluon plasma and topological quantum field theory
Luo, M. J.
2017-03-01
Based on an analogy with topologically ordered new state of matter in condensed matter systems, we propose a low energy effective field theory for a parity conserving liquid-like quark-gluon plasma (QGP) around critical temperature in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) system. It shows that below a QCD gap which is expected several times of the critical temperature, the QGP behaves like topological fluid. Many exotic phenomena of QGP near the critical temperature discovered at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collision (RHIC) are more readily understood by the suggestion that QGP is a topologically ordered state.
Utopia Theory: the physics of society
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
Human society is arguably the most complex system we know of – populated by entities that can adapt, learn, self-organize and show completely different responses to apparently identical stimuli. One might reasonably wonder whether society exhibits a qualitatively different kind of complexity from that found in inanimate matter. Yet there is a long history of faith in the notion that parallels do exist, and work in recent decades has confirmed that groups of many interacting social agents show collective modes of behaviour analogous to, and sometimes formally equivalent to, those seen in traditional statistical physics, such as phase transitions, phase separation and power-law fluctuations. I will examine this idea, and ask the question whether the physics of complex systems can truly tell us anything about sociology, history, economics and politics.
Relaunch of the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX)
Dominguez, A.; Rusaitis, L.; Zwicker, A.; Stotler, D. P.
2015-11-01
In the late 1990's PPPL's Science Education Department developed an innovative online site called the Interactive Plasma Physics Educational Experience (IPPEX). It featured (among other modules) two Java based applications which simulated tokamak physics: A steady state tokamak (SST) and a time dependent tokamak (TDT). The physics underlying the SST and the TDT are based on the ASPECT code which is a global power balance code developed to evaluate the performance of fusion reactor designs. We have relaunched the IPPEX site with updated modules and functionalities: The site itself is now dynamic on all platforms. The graphic design of the site has been modified to current standards. The virtual tokamak programming has been redone in Javascript, taking advantage of the speed and compactness of the code. The GUI of the tokamak has been completely redesigned, including more intuitive representations of changes in the plasma, e.g., particles moving along magnetic field lines. The use of GPU accelerated computation provides accurate and smooth visual representations of the plasma. We will present the current version of IPPEX as well near term plans of incorporating real time NSTX-U data into the simulation.
Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D with physical performance in physically active children.
Bezrati, Ikram; Hammami, Raouf; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Martone, Domenico; Padulo, Johnny; Feki, Moncef; Chaouachi, Anis; Kaabachi, Naziha
2016-11-01
Vitamin D is thought to regulate skeletal muscle function and boost physical performance. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between vitamin D and physical performance in physically active children. This cross-sectional study included 125 children who practice football as a leisure activity. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) was assessed using a chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Vitamin D inadequacy was defined as 25-OHD D inadequacy may limit exercise performance. Further research should verify whether correction of vitamin D deficiency enhances physical performance.
New foundations for physical geometry the theory of linear structures
Maudlin, Tim
2014-01-01
Topology is the mathematical study of the most basic geometrical structure of a space. Mathematical physics uses topological spaces as the formal means for describing physical space and time. This book proposes a completely new mathematical structure for describing geometrical notions such as continuity, connectedness, boundaries of sets, and so on, in order to provide a better mathematical tool for understanding space-time. This is the initial volume in a two-volume set, the first of which develops the mathematical structure and the second of which applies it to classical and Relativistic physics. The book begins with a brief historical review of the development of mathematics as it relates to geometry, and an overview of standard topology. The new theory, the Theory of Linear Structures, is presented and compared to standard topology. The Theory of Linear Structures replaces the foundational notion of standard topology, the open set, with the notion of a continuous line. Axioms for the Theory of Linear Stru...
11th Workshop Lie Theory and Its Applications in Physics
LT-11
2016-01-01
This volume presents modern trends in the area of symmetries and their applications based on contributions from the workshop "Lie Theory and Its Applications in Physics", held near Varna, Bulgaria, in June 2015. Traditionally, Lie theory is a tool to build mathematical models for physical systems. Recently, the trend has been towards geometrization of the mathematical description of physical systems and objects. A geometric approach to a system yields in general some notion of symmetry, which is very helpful in understanding its structure. Geometrization and symmetries are employed in their widest sense, embracing representation theory, algebraic geometry, number theory, infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and groups, superalgebras and supergroups, groups and quantum groups, noncommutative geometry, symmetries of linear and nonlinear partial differential operators (PDO), special functions, and others. Furthermore, the necessary tools from functional analysis are included.< This is a large interdisciplinary a...
Brane Physics in Non-Critical Theories
Sturla, Mauricio B
2010-01-01
In this Thesis, we focus on the study of the low energy approximation to non-critical string theories. We present an exhaustive study of their solutions, which are divided in three cases: vacuum, NSNS charged, and RR charged solutions. In the first case, we find all possible solutions, including the previously known ones, which are special cases of ours. In the second case, we present the fundamental non-critical string, doubly localized in Minkowski \\times the cigar vacuum. There are only a few known solutions doubly localized. Also, we completely solve the problem of finding NSNS solutions that fill all the Minkowski space. In the third case, we present new parametric families that contain some of the previously known solutions at particular values of the parameters. For the latter families, we have obtained the gauge duals in the context of the gauge/gravity duality, and we show that, in a particular region of the parameter space, these theories can confine. Finally, we study the obtained YM in D=3 and YM ...
Wigner particle theory and local quantum physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fassarella, Lucio; Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: fassarel@cbpf.br; schroer@cbpf.br
2002-01-01
Wigner's irreducible positive energy representations of the Poincare group are often used to give additional justifications for the Lagrangian quantization formalism of standard QFT. Here we study another more recent aspect. We explain in this paper modular concepts by which we are able to construct the local operator algebras for all standard positive energy representations directly without going through field coordinations. In this way the artificial emphasis on Lagrangian field coordinates is avoided from the very beginning. These new concepts allow to treat also those cases of 'exceptional' Wigner representations associated with anyons and the famous Wigner spin tower which have remained inaccessible to Lagrangian quantization. Together with the d=1+1 factorizing models (whose modular construction has been studied previously), they form an interesting family of theories with a rich vacuum-polarization structure (but no on shell real particle creation) to which the modular methods can be applied for their explicit construction. We explain and illustrate the algebraic strategy of this construction. We also comment on possibilities of formulating the Wigner theory in a setting of a noncommutativity. (author)
Information theory and learning a physical approach
Nemenman, I M
2000-01-01
We try to establish a unified information theoretic approach to learning and to explore some of its applications. First, we define {\\em predictive information} as the mutual information between the past and the future of a time series, discuss its behavior as a function of the length of the series, and explain how other quantities of interest studied previously in learning theory - as well as in dynamical systems and statistical mechanics - emerge from this universally definable concept. We then prove that predictive information provides the {\\em unique measure for the complexity} of dynamics underlying the time series and show that there are classes of models characterized by {\\em power-law growth of the predictive information} that are qualitatively more complex than any of the systems that have been investigated before. Further, we investigate numerically the learning of a nonparametric probability density, which is an example of a problem with power-law complexity, and show that the proper Bayesian formul...
Information Theory - The Bridge Connecting Bounded Rational Game Theory and Statistical Physics
Wolpert, David H.
2005-01-01
A long-running difficulty with conventional game theory has been how to modify it to accommodate the bounded rationality of all red-world players. A recurring issue in statistical physics is how best to approximate joint probability distributions with decoupled (and therefore far more tractable) distributions. This paper shows that the same information theoretic mathematical structure, known as Product Distribution (PD) theory, addresses both issues. In this, PD theory not only provides a principle formulation of bounded rationality and a set of new types of mean field theory in statistical physics; it also shows that those topics are fundamentally one and the same.
Some improvements in the theory of plasma relaxation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hameiri, Eliezer, E-mail: hameiri@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2014-04-15
Taylor's relaxation theory is extended to plasmas with mass flow by using the cross helicity as a conserved quantity, similar to the magnetic helicity. Indeed, it is shown that the conservation of the cross helicity in magnetohydrodynamics is the result of the conservation of two magnetic-like helicities in two-fluid plasmas. In addition, the usually ignored toroidal flux is also held to be conserved. We also view plasma relaxation as attaining a maximum entropy state rather than Taylor's minimum energy state, but prove that maximizing the entropy subject to a given amount of energy is equivalent to minimizing the energy subject to a given amount of entropy. The resulting relaxed state is similar to the one discussed by Finn and Antonsen [Phys. Fluids 26, 3540 (1983)], and involves flow parallel to the magnetic field and constant temperature, but non-constant pressure. We show how to construct an asymptotic solution to the relaxed state based on the smallness of the Alfven Mach number of the flow.
Theoretical physics 4 special theory of relativity
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to special relativity, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, thus developing the relativistic expansion of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. The first part of the book introduces Lorentz transformations, time dilation, length contraction and Minkowski diagrams. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes the four-dimensional covariant formulation for classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including discussion of Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz force and the covariant Lagrangian formulation. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics and electrodynamics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples ...
The physics of plasma injection events. [during magnetospheric substorms
Kivelson, M. G.; Kaye, S. M.; Southwood, D. J.
1980-01-01
In this paper, plasma injection is defined as an increase of particle flux in a detector of finite bandwidth. Injection can result from dynamic processes or from spacecraft penetration of a quasi-static spatial structure produced by a steady magnetospheric convection pattern. ATS-5 particle spectrograms are found to provide examples of plasma injection events of both sorts. Dynamic injection occurs both with and without local magnetic signatures. For events not associated with clear local magnetic signatures, convection theory with a steady or a time-varying uniform electric field can account for the energy dispersion of injected particles with energy less than 50 keV. The paper concludes with a discussion of the way in which the convection boundaries are related to the substorm injection boundary of Mauk and McIlwain. Several alternative expressions for the local time and K(p) dependence of the injection boundary are given.
Physics of Collisionless Shocks Space Plasma Shock Waves
Balogh, André
2013-01-01
The present book provides a contemporary systematic treatment of shock waves in high-temperature collisionless plasmas as are encountered in near Earth space and in Astrophysics. It consists of two parts. Part I develops the complete theory of shocks in dilute hot plasmas under the assumption of absence of collisions among the charged particles when the interaction is mediated solely by the self-consistent electromagnetic fields. Such shocks are naturally magnetised implying that the magnetic field plays an important role in their evolution and dynamics. This part treats both subcritical shocks, which dissipate flow energy by generating anomalous resistance or viscosity, and supercritical shocks. The main emphasis is, however, on super-critical shocks where the anomalous dissipation is insufficient to retard the upstream flow. These shocks, depending on the direction of the upstream magnetic field, are distinguished as quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks which exhibit different behaviours, reflecti...
Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E. [and others
1996-10-01
In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model.
Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics
Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato
2016-06-01
We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.
Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach
Morgan, James
2005-10-01
A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.
Stochastic Theory of Dust-Grain Charging in Low-Pressure Plasmas
Abolmasov, S N; Cabarrocas, P Roca i
2013-01-01
Charging of dust grains in low-pressure plasmas is reviewed critically. A theory based on the Fokker-Planck equation and orbital motion limited approximation is proposed. The theory predicts that dust grains can acquire a positive charge in low-pressure electropositive plasmas having a sufficiently high plasma potential, in agreement with experimental observations. It is also shown that variations in the plasma potential (electron temperature) can lead to spatial regions in which grains have opposite charges.
Programmable physical parameter optimization for particle plasma simulations
Ragan-Kelley, Benjamin; Verboncoeur, John; Lin, Ming-Chieh
2012-10-01
We have developed a scheme for interactive and programmable optimization of physical parameters for plasma simulations. The simulation code Object-Oriented Plasma Device 1-D (OOPD1) has been adapted to a Python interface, allowing sophisticated user or program interaction with simulations, and detailed numerical analysis via numpy. Because the analysis/diagnostic interface is the same as the input mechanism (the Python programming language), it is straightforward to optimize simulation parameters based on analysis of previous runs and automate the optimization process using a user-determined scheme and criteria. An example use case of the Child-Langmuir space charge limit in bipolar flow is demonstrated, where the beam current is iterated upon by measuring the relationship of the measured current and the injected current.
plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry
Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar
2016-09-01
As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.
NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's Contributions to Space Plasma Physics
Adrian, M. L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Since the mid-l970's, the Space Plasma Physics Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has contributed critical instrumentation to numerous satellite and sounding rocket missions exploring the plasmas of near-Earth space. This talk will review major discoveries in Earth's ionosphere, plasmasphere, and magnetosphere directly attributable to the researchers of the Space Plasma Physics Group and the significance of these discoveries to the field of plasma physics.
The physics of positively biased conductors surrounded by dielectrics in contact with a plasma
Hastings, Daniel E.; Chang, Patrick
1989-01-01
The physics of a positively biased conductor surrounded by dielectrics in contact with plasma is investigated. It is shown that because of the presence of secondary emission from the surrounding dielectrics, the voltage of the surfaces near the conductor has three solutions. The high- and low-voltage solutions are stable, while the intermediate-voltage solution is unstable. This theory is applied to explain the snapover effect observed on high-voltage solar arrays that involve the use of highly biased surfaces in contact with the space environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goto, Seiichi; Yoshimura, Satoru [eds.
1999-04-01
The US-Japan Workshop on Physics of High Beta Plasma Confinement in Innovative Fusion System was held jointly with the Satellite Meeting of ITC-9 at National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Toki-city during December 14-15, 1998. This proceedings book includes the papers of the talks given at the workshop. These include: Theoretical analysis on the stability of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas; Theory and Modeling of high {beta} plasmas; Recent progressive experiments in high {beta} systems; Formation of high {beta} plasmas using merging phenomenon; Theory and Modeling of a FRC Fusion Reactor. The 15 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, CA (United States)
1996-07-01
Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R&D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of {approximately}1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of {approximately}1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of {ge}1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement ({tau}{sub E} = 0.85 {times} {tau}{sub ITER93H}), helium exhaust ({tau}*{sub He}/{tau}{sub E} = 10), representative plasma impurities (n{sub Be}/n{sub e} = 2%), and beta limit [{beta}{sub N} = {beta}(%)/(I/aB) {le} 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power ({approximately} 1--1.5 GW) and fluence ({approximately}1 MWa/m{sup 2}) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust ({tau}*{sub He}/{tau}{sub E} {le} 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance.
Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory.
Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E; Ivlev, Alexei V
2016-06-01
In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.
Hyper-resistivity Theory in a Cylindrical Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berk, H L; Fowler, T K; LoDestro, L L; Pearlstein, L D
2001-02-27
A model is presented for determining the hyper-resistivity coefficient that arises due to the presence of magnetic structures that appear in plasma configurations such as the reversed field pinch and spheromak. Emphasis is placed on modeling cases where magnetic islands pass from non-overlap to overlap regimes. Earlier works have shown that a diffusion-based model can give realistic transport scalings when magnetic islands are isolated, and this formalism is extended to apply to the hyper-resistivity problem. In this case electrons may either be in long or short mean-free-path regimes and intuitively-based arguments are presented of how to extend previous theories to incorporate this feature in the presence of magnetic structures that pass from laminar to moderately chaotic regimes.
Wakes in complex plasmas: A self-consistent kinetic theory
Kompaneets, Roman; Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.
2016-06-01
In ground-based experiments with complex (dusty) plasmas, charged microparticles are levitated against gravity by an electric field, which also drives ion flow in the parent gas. Existing analytical approaches to describe the electrostatic interaction between microparticles in such conditions generally ignore the field and ion-neutral collisions, assuming free ion flow with a certain approximation for the ion velocity distribution function (usually a shifted Maxwellian). We provide a comprehensive analysis of our previously proposed self-consistent kinetic theory including the field, ion-neutral collisions, and the corresponding ion velocity distribution. We focus on various limiting cases and demonstrate how the interplay of these factors results in different forms of the shielding potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D
1993-01-01
A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.
EDITORIAL: The Fifth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics
2006-04-01
, Russia, the US, China, South Korea and India (as of March 2006). It will take several years to accomplish this important task. There is no doubt that the success depends not only on funding but also on enthusiastic people willing to contribute with their skills and knowledge. Young scientists and engineers must be enrolled to the programme and trained in various disciplines of fusion science and technology. There are various education schemes and work programmes. Organization of summer schools on fusion-related plasma physics is an important part of the training process. Several schools are organized annually or every second year in Europe. Fusion-related science is so vast that it is impossible to cover all topics during an event lasting for one or two weeks. Therefore, each school has its distinctive features and focuses on a selected group of issues to be addressed in depth. This also applies to the Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics in Kudowa Zdrój (Poland) that, has been organised annually since 2001. It was initiated by Dr Marek Scholz with the help of his colleagues from the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) in Warsaw. The idea was to create a forum for students mainly from Eastern Europe to learn and discuss subjects in general plasma physics and dense magnetized media, predominantly in plasma focus devices. Over the years the school has matured and created a clear profile. A unique feature has always been to accommodate in the programme not only tutorials delivered by invited senior scientists but also presentations prepared by the students. In June 2005 the 5th Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics was held under the heading 'Towards Fusion Energy: Plasma Physics, Diagnostics, Applications'. There were 59 participants, including 44 students, coming from plasma physics and material research laboratories in 17 countries: Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Georgia, Iran, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia
Physics issues associated with low-beta plasma generators
Borovsky, Joseph E.
1992-01-01
Kinetic aspects of MHD generators are explored by examining the propagation of dense, low-beta streams of plasma. Three situations are considered: the basic principles of plasma-stream propagation, the propagation of plasma streams into vacuum, and the propagation of plasma streams into ambient plasmas. These three situations are analogous to plasma generators, plasma generators with vacuum loads, and plasma generators with plasma loads. Kinetic (microphysics) aspects include oscillations of the generator plasma, the effects of diocotron instabilities, the acceleration of particles, the starvation of current systems, and plasma-wave production.
Toward the Theory of Turbulence in Magnetized Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boldyrev, Stanislav [University of Wisconsin - Madison
2013-07-26
The goal of the project was to develop a theory of turbulence in magnetized plasmas at large scales, that is, scales larger than the characteristic plasma microscales (ion gyroscale, ion inertial scale, etc.). Collisions of counter-propagating Alfven packets govern the turbulent cascade of energy toward small scales. It has been established that such an energy cascade is intrinsically anisotropic, in that it predominantly supplies energy to the modes with mostly field-perpendicular wave numbers. The resulting energy spectrum of MHD turbulence, and the structure of the fluctuations were studied both analytically and numerically. A new parallel numerical code was developed for simulating reduced MHD equations driven by an external force. The numerical setting was proposed, where the spectral properties of the force could be varied in order to simulate either strong or weak turbulent regimes. It has been found both analytically and numerically that weak MHD turbulence spontaneously generates a “condensate”, that is, concentration of magnetic and kinetic energy at small k{sub {parallel}}. A related topic that was addressed in the project is turbulent dynamo action, that is, generation of magnetic field in a turbulent flow. We were specifically concentrated on the generation of large-scale magnetic field compared to the scales of the turbulent velocity field. We investigate magnetic field amplification in a turbulent velocity field with nonzero helicity, in the framework of the kinematic Kazantsev-Kraichnan model.
Plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects
Pustovitov, V. D.
2015-12-01
> Plasma stabilization due to a nearby conducting wall can provide access to better performance in some scenarios in tokamaks. This was proved by experiments with an essential gain in and demonstrated as a long-lasting effect at sufficiently fast plasma rotation in the DIII-D tokamak (see, for example, Strait et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 430-440). The rotational stabilization is the central topic of this review, though eventually the mode rotation gains significance. The analysis is based on the first-principle equations describing the energy balance with dissipation in the resistive wall. The method emphasizes derivation of the dispersion relations for the modes which are faster than the conventional resistive wall modes, but slower than the ideal magnetohydrodynamics modes. Both the standard thin wall and ideal-wall approximations are not valid in this range. Here, these are replaced by an approach incorporating the skin effect in the wall. This new element in the stability theory makes the energy sink a nonlinear function of the complex growth rate. An important consequence is that a mode rotating above a critical level can provide a damping effect sufficient for instability suppression. Estimates are given and applications are discussed.
Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction
Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.
2010-05-01
The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.
Proceedings of the second Asian Pacific plasma theory conference APPTC'97
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomita, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Yuji; Hayashi, Takaya [eds.
1998-08-01
This issue is the proceedings of the second Asian Pacific Plasma Theory Conference (APPTC'97), which was held on September 24-26, 1997 at National Institute for Fusion Science (Toki, Japan) under the auspices of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research and the National Institute of Fusion Science. A part of APPTC'97 was a joint session with Japan-Australia fusion theory workshop and US-Japan JIFT workshop on Theoretical Study for Helical Plasmas. The conference covers all plasma theory areas including magnetic confinement, inertial fusion, space plasmas, astrophysical plasma, industrial processing plasmas, and dusty plasma, etc. The 43 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)
Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (1/4)
CERN. Geneva
2011-01-01
In November 2006, ministers representing the world’s major fusion research communities signed the agreement formally establishing the international project ITER. Sited at Cadarache in France, the project involves China, the European Union (including Switzerland), India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER is a critical step in the development of fusion energy: its role is to confirm the feasibility of exploiting magnetic confinement fusion for the production of energy for peaceful purposes by providing an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant. The ITER tokamak is designed to study the “burning plasma” regime in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas by achieving a fusion amplification factor, Q (the ratio of fusion output power to plasma heating input power), of 10 for several hundreds of seconds with a nominal fusion power output of 500MW. It is also intended to allow the study of steady-state plasma operation at Q≥5 by me...
Soft X-ray measurements in magnetic fusion plasma physics
Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Mazon, D.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.
2010-11-01
Soft X-ray diagnostic systems and their successful application in the field of magnetic fusion plasma physics are discussed. Radiation with wavelength in the region of Soft X-Ray (1-30 keV) is largely produced by high temperature plasmas, carrying important information on many processes during a plasma discharge. Soft X-ray diagnostics are largely used in various fusion devices all over the world. These diagnostic systems are able to obtain information on electron temperature, electron density, impurity transport, Magneto Hydro Dynamic instabilities. We will discuss the SXR diagnostic installed on FTU in Frascati (Italy) and on Tore Supra in Cadarache (France), with special emphasis on diagnostic performances. Moreover, we will discuss the two different inversion methods for tomographic reconstruction used in Frascati and in Cadarache, the first one is relied on a guessed topology of iso-emissivity surfaces, the second one on regularization techniques, like minimum Fisher or maximum entropy. Finally, a new and very fast 2D imaging system with energy discrimination and high time resolution will be summarized as an alternative approach of SXR detection system.
Physics of Laser Materials Processing Theory and Experiment
Gladush, Gennady G
2011-01-01
This book describes the basic mechanisms, theory, simulations and technological aspects of Laser processing techniques. It covers the principles of laser quenching, welding, cutting, alloying, selective sintering, ablation, etc. The main attention is paid to the quantitative description. The diversity and complexity of technological and physical processes is discussed using a unitary approach. The book aims on understanding the cause-and-effect relations in physical processes in Laser technologies. It will help researchers and engineers to improve the existing and develop new Laser machining techniques. The book addresses readers with a certain background in general physics and mathematical analysis: graduate students, researchers and engineers practicing laser applications.
Models of Particle Physics from Type IIB String Theory and F-theory: A Review
Maharana, Anshuman
2012-01-01
We review particle physics model building in type IIB string theory and F-theory. This is a region in the landscape where in principle many of the key ingredients required for a realistic model of particle physics can be combined successfully. We begin by reviewing moduli stabilisation within this framework and its implications for supersymmetry breaking. We then review model building tools and developments in the weakly coupled type IIB limit, for both local D3-branes at singularities and global models of intersecting D7-branes. Much of recent model building work has been in the strongly coupled regime of F-theory due to the presence of exceptional symmetries which allow for the construction of phenomenologically appealing Grand Unified Theories. We review both local and global F-theory model building starting from the fundamental concepts and tools regarding how the gauge group, matter sector and operators arise, and ranging to detailed phenomenological properties explored in the literature.
Earth's magnetosphere - Global problems in magnetospheric plasma physics
Roederer, J. G.
1979-01-01
Magnetospheric physics is presently in a transition from the exploratory stage to one in which satellite missions and ground-based observations are planned with the specific object of achieving a global understanding and self-consistent quantitative description of the cause-and-effect relationship among the principal dynamic processes involved. Measurements turn to lower and lower energies and to higher ion mass species, in order to encompass the entire particle population, and to a broader range of the frequency spectrum of magnetic and electric field variations. In the present paper, the current status of our knowledge on magnetospheric plasma physics is reviewed, with particular reference of such fundamental advances as the discovery of layers of streaming plasma in the magnetosphere beneath its boundary surface, the identification of the terrestrial magnetosphere as a celestial source of kilometric radiation and relativistic particles, the identification of parallel electric field regions within the magnetosphere and their role in auroral particle acceleration, and the discovery of large fluxes of energetic heavy ions trapped in the magnetosphere.
Resource Letter SP-2: Symmetry and Group Theory in Physics.
Rosen, Joe
1981-01-01
Presents listings of selected reference materials relevant to symmetry and group theory in college physics and chemistry. Entries are classified according to a scheme involving 34 subject areas divided into four major groups. Comments on these materials and suggestions for future topics will be welcomed. (Author/SK)
Role Socialization Theory: The Sociopolitical Realities of Teaching Physical Education
Richards, K. Andrew R.
2015-01-01
Much has been learned about the socialization of physical education (PE) teachers using occupational socialization theory (OST). However, important to understanding any socialization process is explaining how the roles that individuals play are socially constructed and contextually bound. OST falls short of providing a comprehensive overview of…
Theory and measurements of emittance preservation in plasma wakefield acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frederico, Joel
2016-12-01
In this dissertation, we examine the preservation and measurement of emittance in the plasma wakefield acceleration blowout regime. Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) is a revolutionary approach to accelerating charged particles that has been demonstrated to have the potential for gradients orders of magnitude greater than traditional approaches. The application of PWFA to the design of a linear collider will make new high energy physics research possible, but the design parameters must first be shown to be competitive with traditional methods. Emittance preservation is necessary in the design of a linear collider in order to maximize luminosity. We examine the conditions necessary for circular symmetry in the PWFA blowout regime, and demonstrate that current proposals meet these bounds. We also present an application of beam lamentation which describes the process of beam parameter and emittance matching. We show that the emittance growth saturates as a consequence of energy spread in the beam. The initial beam parameters determine the amount of emittance growth, while the contribution of energy spread is negligible. We also present a model for ion motion in the presence of a beam that is much more dense than the plasma. By combining the model of ion motion and emittance growth, we find the emittance growth due to ion motion is minimal in the case of marginal ion motion. In addition, we present a simulation that validates the ion motion model, which is under further development to examine emittance growth of both marginal and pronounced ion motion. Finally, we present a proof-of-concept of an emittance measurement which may enable the analysis of emittance preservation in future PWFA experiments.
On extended analytic theory of 2D ballooning modes in tokamak plasmas
Abdoul, Peshwaz; Dickinson, David; Roach, Colin; Wilson, Howard
2016-10-01
We have extended the leading order ballooning theory which typically yields more unstable isolated mode (IM) that usually sit on the outboard mid-plane, to higher order where less unstable general mode (GM) sits at a different poloidal location. Our analytic theory has revealed that any poloidal shift of the mode with respect to the outboard mid-plane - arising from the effect of profile variations, for example - is always accompanied by an asymmetry of the radial eigenmode structure. Hence, GMs have radial asymmetry. Our theory can have important consequences, especially for calculations that invoke quasilinear theory to model intrinsic rotation arising from Reynolds stress. This is very important in ITER for which external torques are small. In such theories it is the radial asymmetry in the global GM mode which can generate a Reynolds stress that could in principle contribute to the poloidal flow during the low to high (L-H) mode transition in tokamaks. I am also an associate member at the York Plasma Institute, University of York and teaching at the Physics Department, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-12-01
The long-range goal of the Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) is the reliable prediction of tokamak performance using physics-based numerical tools describing tokamak physics. The NTP is accomplishing the development of the most advanced particle and extended fluid model`s on massively parallel processing (MPP) environments as part of a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary numerical study of tokamak core fluctuations. The NTP is a continuing focus of the Office of Fusion Energy`s theory and computation program. Near-term HPCC work concentrates on developing a predictive numerical description of the core plasma transport in tokamaks driven by low-frequency collective fluctuations. This work addresses one of the greatest intellectual challenges to our understanding of the physics of tokamak performance and needs the most advanced computational resources to progress. We are conducting detailed comparisons of kinetic and fluid numerical models of tokamak turbulence. These comparisons are stimulating the improvement of each and the development of hybrid models which embody aspects of both. The combination of emerging massively parallel processing hardware and algorithmic improvements will result in an estimated 10**2--10**6 performance increase. Development of information processing and visualization tools is accelerating our comparison of computational models to one another, to experimental data, and to analytical theory, providing a bootstrap effect in our understanding of the target physics. The measure of success is the degree to which the experimentally observed scaling of fluctuation-driven transport may be predicted numerically. The NTP is advancing the HPCC Initiative through its state-of-the-art computational work. We are pushing the capability of high performance computing through our efforts which are strongly leveraged by OFE support.
Space plasma physics at the Applied Physics Laboratory over the past half-century
Potemra, Thomas A.
1992-01-01
An overview is given of space-plasma experiments conducted at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) at Johns Hopkins University including observational campaigns and the instrumentation developed. Specific space-plasma experiments discussed include the study of the radiation environment in the Van Allen radiation belt with solid-state proton detectors. Also described are the 5E-1 satellites which acquired particle and magnetic-field data from earth orbit. The Triad satellite and its magnetometer system were developed for high-resolution studies of the earth's magnetic field, and APL contributions to NASA's Interplanetary Monitoring Platforms are listed. The review mentions the International Ultraviolet Explorer, the Atmosphere Explorer mission, and the Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorers mission. Other recent programs reviewed include a high-latitude satellite, contributions to the Voyager mission, and radar studies of space plasmas.
Theory of self-sustained turbulence in confined plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi
1996-02-01
This article overviews some aspect of the recent theoretical activities in Japan on the problem of turbulent transport in confined plasmas. The method of self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The process of the renormalization is shown and the turbulent Prandtl number is introduced. Nonlinear destabilization by the electron momentum diffusion is explained. The nonlinear eigenmode equation is derived for the dressed-test-mode for the inhomogeneous plasma in the shear magnetic field. The eigenvalue equation is solved, and the least stable mode determines the anomalous transport coefficient. Formula of thermal conductivity is presented for the system of bad average magnetic curvature (current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) turbulence) and that for the average good magnetic curvature (current diffusive ballooning mode (CDBM) turbulence). The transport coefficient, scale length of fluctuations and fluctuation level are shown to be the increasing function of the pressure gradient. Verification by use of the nonlinear simulation is shown. The bifurcation of the electric field and improved confinement is addressed, in order to explain the H-mode physics. Improved confinement and the dynamics such as ELMs are explained. Application to the transport analysis of tokamaks is also presented, including the explanations of the L-mode confinement, internal transport barrier as well as the role of current profile control. (author). 102 refs.
James Clerk Maxwell Prize for Plasma Physics Talk: On Nonlinear Physics of Shear Alfv'en Waves
Chen, Liu
2012-10-01
Shear Alfv'en Waves (SAW) are electromagnetic oscillations prevalent in laboratory and nature magnetized plasmas. Due to its anisotropic propagation property, it is well known that the linear wave propagation and dispersiveness of SAW are fundamentally affected by plasma nonuniformities and magnetic field geometries; for example, the existence of continuous spectrum, spectral gaps, and discrete eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas. This talk will discuss the crucial roles that nonuniformity and geometry could also play in the physics of nonlinear SAW interactions. More specifically, the focus will be on the Alfv'enic state and its breaking up by finite compressibility, non-ideal kinetic effects, and geometry. In the case of compressibility, finite ion-Larmor-radius effects are shown to qualitatively and quantitatively modify the three-wave parametric decays via the ion-sound perturbations. In the case of geometry, the spontaneous excitation of zonal structures by toroidal Alfv'en eigenmodes is investigated; demonstrating that, for realistic tokamak geometries, zonal current dominates over zonal flow. [4pt] Present address: Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
A New Finslerian Unified Field Theory of Physical Interactions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suhendro I.
2009-10-01
Full Text Available In this work, we shall present the foundational structure of a new unified field theory of physical interactions in a geometric world-space endowed with a new kind of Finslerian metric. The intrinsic non-metricity in the structure of our world-geometry may have direct, genuine connection with quantum mechanics, which is yet to be fully explored at present. Building upon some of the previous works of the Author, our ultimate aim here is yet another quantum theory of gravity (in just four space-time dimensions. Our resulting new theory appears to present us with a novel Eulerian (intrinsically motion-dependent world-geometry in which the physical fields originate.
Index Theory with Applications to Mathematics and Physics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Bleecker, David
Index Theory with Applications to Mathematics and Physics describes, explains, and explores the Index Theorem of Atiyah and Singer, one of the truly great accomplishments of twentieth-century mathematics whose influence continues to grow, fifty years after its discovery. The Index Theorem has giv...... birth to many mathematical research areas and exposed profound connections between analysis, geometry, topology, algebra, and mathematical physics. Hardly any topic of modern mathematics stands independent of its influence.......Index Theory with Applications to Mathematics and Physics describes, explains, and explores the Index Theorem of Atiyah and Singer, one of the truly great accomplishments of twentieth-century mathematics whose influence continues to grow, fifty years after its discovery. The Index Theorem has given...
Abstraction/Representation Theory for heterotic physical computing.
Horsman, D C
2015-07-28
We give a rigorous framework for the interaction of physical computing devices with abstract computation. Device and program are mediated by the non-logical representation relation; we give the conditions under which representation and device theory give rise to commuting diagrams between logical and physical domains, and the conditions for computation to occur. We give the interface of this new framework with currently existing formal methods, showing in particular its close relationship to refinement theory, and the implications for questions of meaning and reference in theoretical computer science. The case of hybrid computing is considered in detail, addressing in particular the example of an Internet-mediated social machine, and the abstraction/representation framework used to provide a formal distinction between heterotic and hybrid computing. This forms the basis for future use of the framework in formal treatments of non-standard physical computers.
On the physical basis of a theory of human thermoregulation.
Iberall, A. S.; Schindler, A. M.
1973-01-01
Theoretical study of the physical factors which are responsible for thermoregulation in nude resting humans in a physical steady state. The behavior of oxidative metabolism, evaporative and convective thermal fluxes, fluid heat transfer, internal and surface temperatures, and evaporative phase transitions is studied by physiological/physical modeling techniques. The modeling is based on the theories that the body has a vital core with autothermoregulation, that the vital core contracts longitudinally, that the temperature of peripheral regions and extremities decreases towards the ambient, and that a significant portion of the evaporative heat may be lost underneath the skin. A theoretical basis is derived for a consistent modeling of steady-state thermoregulation on the basis of these theories.
Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.
1983-01-01
In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.
Planetary plasma data analysis and 3D visualisation at the French Plasma Physics Data Centre
Gangloff, Michel; Génot, Vincent; Cecconi, Baptiste; Andre, Nicolas; Budnik, Elena; Bouchemit, Myriam; Jourdane, Nathanaël; Dufourg, Nicolas; Beigbeider, Laurent; Toniutti, Jean-Philippe; Durand, Joelle
2016-10-01
The CDPP (the French plasma physics data center http://cdpp.eu/) is engaged for nearly two decades in the archiving and dissemination of plasma data products from space missions and ground-based observatories. Besides these activities, the CDPP developed services like AMDA (http://amda.cdpp.eu/) and 3DView (http://3dview.cdpp.eu/). AMDA enables in depth analysis of a large amount of data through dedicated functionalities such as: visualisation, data mining, cataloguing. 3DView provides immersive visualisations in planetary environments: spacecraft position and attitude, ephemerides. Magnetic field models (Cain, Tsyganenko), visualisation of cubes, 2D cuts as well as spectra or time series along spacecraft trajectories are possible in 3Dview. Both tools provide a joint access to outputs of simulations (MHD or Hybrid models) in planetary sciences as well as planetary plasma observational data (from AMDA, CDAWeb, Cluster Science Archive, ...). Some of these developments were funded by the EU IMPEx project, and some of the more recent ones are done in the frame of Europlanet 2020 RI project. The role of CDPP in the analysis and visualisation of planetary data and mission support increased after a collaboration with the NASA/PDS which resulted in the access in AMDA to several planetary datasets like those of GALILEO, MESSENGER, MAVEN, etc. In 2014, AMDA was chosen as the quicklook visualisation tool for the Rosetta Plasma Consortium through a collaboration with Imperial College, London. This presentation will include several use cases demonstrating recent and new capabilities of the tools.
A Topos Foundation for Theories of Physics: II. Daseinisation and the Liberation of Quantum Theory
Doering, A
2007-01-01
This paper is the second in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper, we study in depth the topos representation of the propositional language, PL(S), for the case of quantum theory. In doing so, we make a direct link with, and clarify, the earlier work on applying topos theory to quantum physics. The key step is a process we term `daseinisation' by which a projection operator is mapped to a sub-object of the spectral presheaf--the topos quantum analogue of a classical state space. In the second part of the paper we change gear w...
The applications of Complexity Theory and Tsallis Non-extensive Statistics at Solar Plasma Dynamics
Pavlos, George
2015-04-01
As the solar plasma lives far from equilibrium it is an excellent laboratory for testing complexity theory and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this study, we present the highlights of complexity theory and Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics as concerns their applications at solar plasma dynamics, especially at sunspot, solar flare and solar wind phenomena. Generally, when a physical system is driven far from equilibrium states some novel characteristics can be observed related to the nonlinear character of dynamics. Generally, the nonlinearity in space plasma dynamics can generate intermittent turbulence with the typical characteristics of the anomalous diffusion process and strange topologies of stochastic space plasma fields (velocity and magnetic fields) caused by the strange dynamics and strange kinetics (Zaslavsky, 2002). In addition, according to Zelenyi and Milovanov (2004) the complex character of the space plasma system includes the existence of non-equilibrium (quasi)-stationary states (NESS) having the topology of a percolating fractal set. The stabilization of a system near the NESS is perceived as a transition into a turbulent state determined by self-organization processes. The long-range correlation effects manifest themselves as a strange non-Gaussian behavior of kinetic processes near the NESS plasma state. The complex character of space plasma can also be described by the non-extensive statistical thermodynamics pioneered by Tsallis, which offers a consistent and effective theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Boltzmann - Gibbs (BG) entropy, to describe far from equilibrium nonlinear complex dynamics (Tsallis, 2009). In a series of recent papers, the hypothesis of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in magnetosphere, sunspot dynamics, solar flares, solar wind and space plasma in general, was tested and verified (Karakatsanis et al., 2013; Pavlos et al., 2014; 2015). Our study includes the analysis of solar plasma time
A prospect at 11th international Toki conference. Plasma physics, quo vadis?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka
2001-01-01
A prospect of plasma physics at the turn of next century is discussed. The theme of this conference identifies the future direction of the research related with plasmas. Main issue is the potential and structure formation in plasmas; More specifically, structures which are realized through the interaction of electromagnetic fields, in particular that with electric fields, in non-equilibrium state. An emphasis is made to clarify the fundamental physics aspects of the plasma physics in fusion research as well as that in the basic research of plasmas. The plasma physics will give an important contribution to the solution of the historical enigma, i.e., all things flow. Having an impact on human recognition of nature and showing a beauty in a law, the plasma physics/science will demonstrate to be a leading science in the 21st century. (author)
A theory of two-beam acceleration of charged particles in a plasma waveguide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ostrovsky, A.O. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)
1993-11-01
The progress made in recent years in the field of high-current relativistic electron beam (REB) generation has aroused a considerable interest in studying REB potentialities for charged particle acceleration with a high acceleration rate T = 100MeV/m. It was proposed, in particular, to employ high-current REB in two-beam acceleration schemes (TBA). In these schemes high current REB (driving beam) excites intense electromagnetic waves in the electrodynamic structure which, in their turn, accelerate particles of the other beam (driven beam). The TBA schemes can be divided into two groups. The first group includes the schemes, where the two beams (driving and driven) propagate in different electrodynamic structures coupled with each other through the waveguides which ensure the microwave power transmission to accelerate driven beam particles. The second group includes the TBA schemes, where the driving and driven beams propagate in one electrodynamic structure. The main aim of this work is to demonstrate by theory the possibility of realizing effectively the TBA scheme in the plasma waveguide. The physical model of the TBA scheme under study is formulated. A set of equations describing the excitation of RF fields by a high-current REB and the acceleration of driven beam electrons is also derived. Results are presented on the the linear theory of plasma wave amplification by the driving beam. The range of system parameters, at which the plasma-beam instability develops, is defined. Results of numerical simulation of the TBA scheme under study are also presented. The same section gives the description of the dynamics of accelerated particle bunching in the high-current REB-excited field. Estimates are given for the accelerating field intensities in the plasma and electron acceleration rates.
Physical Theory of Vaccine Design for Influenza and Dengue Fever
Deem, Michael
2009-03-01
The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. I will introduce a physical theory of the evolutionary dynamics that occurs in the antibody-mediated and T cell-mediated immune responses. The theory will be used to provide a mechanism for original antigenic sin, wherein an initial exposure to antigen can degrade the response of the immune system upon subsequent exposure to related, but different, antigens. A new order parameter to characterize antigenic distance will be introduced from the theory. This order parameter predicts effectiveness of the influenza vaccine more reliably than do results from animal model studies currently used by world health authorities. I will discuss how this order parameter might be a valuable new tool for making vaccine-related public health policy decisions. Next, I will briefly discuss dengue fever. Infection with, or vaccination against, one of the four serotypes of dengue fever typically increases susceptibility to dengue hemorrhagic fever from one of the other three serotypes. I will present a physical theory of this immunodominance and use this theory to quantify the predicted mitigation of immunodominance in a novel formulation of the dengue vaccine.
[Investigations in dynamics of gauge theories in theoretical particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-02-01
The major theme of the theoretical physics research conducted under DOE support over the past several years has been within the rubric of the standard model, and concerned the interplay between symmetries and dynamics. The research was thus carried out mostly in the context of gauge field theories, and usually in the presence of chiral fermions. Dynamical symmetry breaking was examined both from the point of view of perturbation theory, as well as from non-perturbative techniques associated with certain characteristic features of specific theories. Among the topics of research were: the implications of abelian and non-abelian anomalies on the spectrum and possible dynamical symmetry breaking in any theory, topological and conformal properties of quantum fields in two and higher dimensions, the breaking of global chiral symmetries by vector-like gauge theories such as QCD, the phenomenological implications of a strongly interacting Higgs sector in the standard model, and the application of soliton ideas to the physics to be explored at the SSC.
Roberts, W. T.; Kropp, J.; Taylor, W. W. L.
1986-01-01
This paper outlines the currently planned utilization of the Space Station to perform investigations in solar physics, solar terrestrial physics, and plasma physics. The investigations and instrumentation planned for the Solar Terrestrial Observatory (STO) and its associated Space Station accommodation requirements are discussed as well as the planned placement of the STO instruments and typical operational scenarios. In the area of plasma physics, some preliminary plans for scientific investigations and for the accommodation of a plasma physics facility attached to the Space Station are outlined. These preliminary experiment concepts use the space environment around the Space Station as an unconfined plasma laboratory. In solar physics, the initial instrument complement and associated accommodation requirements of the Advanced Solar Observatory are described. The planned evolutionary development of this observatory is outlined, making use of the Space Station capabilities for servicing and instrument reconfiguration.
Principles of physics from quantum field theory to classical mechanics
Jun, Ni
2014-01-01
This book starts from a set of common basic principles to establish the formalisms in all areas of fundamental physics, including quantum field theory, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, general relativity, electromagnetic field, and classical mechanics. Instead of the traditional pedagogic way, the author arranges the subjects and formalisms in a logical-sequential way, i.e. all the formulas are derived from the formulas before them. The formalisms are also kept self-contained. Most of the required mathematical tools are also given in the appendices. Although this book covers all the disciplines of fundamental physics, the book is concise and can be treated as an integrated entity. This is consistent with the aphorism that simplicity is beauty, unification is beauty, and thus physics is beauty. The book may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students. It is also suitable for physicists who wish to have an overview of fundamental physics. Readership: This is an advanced gradua...
JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papenbrock, Thomas
2014-05-16
The grant “JUSTIPEN: Japan US Theory Institute for Physics with Exotic Nuclei ” (DOE DE-FG02-06ER41407) ran from 02/01/2006 thru 12/31/2013. JUSTIPEN is a venue for international collaboration between U.S.-based and Japanese scientists who share an interest in theory of rare isotopes. Since its inception JUSTIPEN has supported many visitors, fostered collaborations between physicists in the U.S. and Japan, and enabled them to deepen our understanding of exotic nuclei and their role in cosmos.
Thirty years that shook physics the story of quantum theory
Gamow, George A
1966-01-01
""Dr. Gamow, physicist and gifted writer, has sketched an intriguing portrait of the scientists and clashing ideas that made the quantum revolution."" - Christian Science MonitorIn 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of scien
Thirty years that shook physics the story of quantum theory
Gamow, George
1985-01-01
""Dr. Gamow, physicist and gifted writer, has sketched an intriguing portrait of the scientists and clashing ideas that made the quantum revolution."" - Christian Science MonitorIn 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of scien
Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehnert, Bo
2001-06-01
A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.
The technology of Plasma Spray Physical Vapour Deposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Góral
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The deposition of thermal barrier coatings is currently the most effective means of protecting the surface of aircraft engine turbine blades from the impact of aggressive environment of combustion gases. The new technologies of TBC depositions are required.Design/methodology/approach: The essential properties of the PS-PVD process have been outlined, as well as recent literature references. In addition, the influence of a set process condition on the properties of the deposited coatings has been described.Findings: The new plasma-spraying PS-PVD method is a promising technology for the deposition of modern thermal barrier coatings on aircraft engine turbine blades.Research limitations/implications: The constant progress of engine operating temperatures and increasing pollution restrictions determine the intensive development of heat-resistant coatings, which is directed to new deposition technologies and coating materials.Practical implications: The article presents a new technology of thermal barrier coating deposition - LPPS Thin Film and Plasma Spray - Physical Vapour Deposition.Originality/value: The completely new technologies was described in article.
Gabet, Xavier; Sauter, Olivier
2013-07-01
The 2012 Joint Varenna-Lausanne International Workshop on the theory of fusion plasmas was very fruitful. A broad variety of topics was addressed, covering turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), edge physics, and radio frequency (RF) wave heating. Moreover, the scope of the meeting was extended this year to include the physics of materials and diagnostics for burning plasmas. This evolution reflects the complexity of problems at hand in fusion, some of them triggered by the construction of ITER and JT-60SA. Long-standing problems without immediate consequences have sometimes become an urgent matter in that context. One may refer to, for instance, the choice of plasma facing components or the design of control systems. Another characteristic of these workshops is the interplay between various domains of plasma physics. For instance, MHD modes are currently investigated with gyrokinetic codes, kinetic effects are included in MHD stability analysis more and more, and turbulence is now accounted for in wave propagation problems. This is proof of cross-fertilization and is certainly a healthy sign for our community. Finally, introducing some novelty in the programme does not prevent from us respecting old traditions. As usual, many presentations were dedicated to numerical simulations. Combining advanced numerical techniques with elaborated analytical theory is certainly a trademark of the Varenna-Lausanne Workshop, which was respected again this year. The quality and size of the scientific output from this workshop is shown in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion; a further 26 papers have already appeared in Journal of Physics: Conference Series in December 2012. We hope the readers will enjoy this special issue, and find therein knowledge and inspiration.
Theory of safety needs (about the theory of arise of physical education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muntian V.S.
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Existing theories of physical education are examinated. Material : the analysis and synthesis of more than 20 literary sources and Internet information, reflecting the general patterns of occurrence and development of physical education during birth civilization. Results : Informed that early humans lived in a permanent state of the struggle for existence, associated with the satisfaction of primary needs. Ascertain in the process of obtaining food and ensuring their own safety, people began to use the means of physical education, resulting in a conscious understanding of the phenomenon and the importance effectiveness (the result of doing (perform the exercises preparation. Conclusions : First put forward and substantiated the theory safety needs as one of the top priorities and the likely causes of physical education and sport, as this needs arose almost simultaneously with the appearance of a person.
Physical Disability and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide.
Khazem, Lauren R; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Anestis, Michael D
2015-01-01
Interpersonal Theory of Suicide constructs were examined in individuals with physical disabilities, a population identified as having heightened suicidal ideation. Students (N = 184) answered online-based self-report questionnaires. Students with physical disabilities (n = 49) were expected to endorse higher levels of constructs relative to other students (n = 133). Analyses of covariance indicated that those with disabilities reported higher perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death, or suicidal ideation. Suicide prevention efforts, particularly in university settings, may benefit from focusing on reducing perceived burdensomeness in this population, as these individuals may be at heightened risk.
Group theory in particle, nuclear, and hadron physics
Abbas, Syed Afsar
2016-01-01
This user-friendly book on group theory introduces topics in as simple a manner as possible and then gradually develops those topics into more advanced ones, eventually building up to the current state-of-the-art. By using simple examples from physics and mathematics, the advanced topics become logical extensions of ideas already introduced. In addition to being used as a textbook, this book would also be useful as a reference guide for graduates and researchers in particle, nuclear and hadron physics.
The foundation of Piaget's theories: mental and physical action.
Beilin, H; Fireman, G
1999-01-01
Piaget's late theory of action and action implication was the realization of a long history of development. A review of that history shows the central place of action in all of his theoretical assertions, despite the waxing and waning of other important features of his theories. Action was said to be the primary source of knowledge with perception and language in secondary roles. Action is for the most part not only organized but there is logic in action. Action, which is at first physical, becomes internalized and transformed into mental action and mental representation, largely in the development of the symbolic or semiotic function in the sensorimotor period. A number of alternative theories of cognitive development place primary emphasis on mental representation. Piaget provided it with an important place as well, but subordinated it to mental action in the form of operations. In this, as Russell claims, he paralleled Schopenhauer's distinction between representation and will. Piaget's theory of action was intimately related to the gradual development of intentionality in childhood. Intentions were tied to actions by way of the conscious awareness of goals and the means to achieve them. Mental action, following the sensorimotor period, was limited in its logical form to semilogical or one-way functions. These forms were said by Piaget to lack logical reversibility, which was achieved only in the sixth or seventh year, in concrete operations. Mental action was not to be fully realized until the development of formal operations, with hypothetical reasoning, in adolescence, according to the classical Piagetian formulation. This view of the child's logical development, which relied heavily on truth-table (extensional) logic, underwent a number of changes. First from the addition of other logics: category theory and the theory of functions among them. In his last theory, however, an even more radical change occurred. With the collaboration of R. Garcia, he proposed
Statistical theory of subcritically-excited strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. III
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2000-02-01
A statistical theory of nonlinear-nonequilibrium plasma state with strongly developed turbulence and with strong inhomogeneity of the system has been developed. A unified theory for both the thermally excited fluctuations and the strongly turbulent fluctuations is presented. With respect to the turbulent fluctuations, the coherent part to a certain test mode is renormalized as the drag to the test mode, and the rest, the incoherent part, is considered to be a random noise. The renormalized operator includes the effect of nonlinear destabilization as well as the decorrelation by turbulent fluctuations. Formulation is presented by deriving an Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function. Equilibrium distribution function of fluctuations is obtained. Transition from the thermal fluctuations, that is governed by the Boltzmann distribution, to the turbulent fluctuation is clarified. The distribution function for the turbulent fluctuation has tail component and the width of which is in the same order as the mean fluctuation level itself. The Lyapunov function is constructed for the strongly turbulent plasma, and it is shown that an approach to a certain equilibrium distribution is assured. The result for the most probable state is expressed in terms of 'minimum renormalized dissipation rate', which is given by the ratio of the nonlinear decorrelation rate of fluctuation energy and the random excitation rate which includes both the thermal noise and turbulent self-noise effects. Application is made for example to the current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. The applicability of this method covers plasma turbulences in much wider circumstance as well as neutral fluid turbulence. This method of analyzing strong turbulence has successfully extended the principles of statistical physics, i.e., Kubo-formula, Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production rate. The condition for the turbulence transition is
M theory: a possible unification of physics laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandes, Alexandre da Silva; Silva, Diego Oliveira Nolasco da; Sousa, Claudio Manoel Gomes de [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia (UCB), DF (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: Physics has two pillars which are mutually incompatible: quantum field theory and general relativity theory. Throughout its history, various unifications have been made, and in attempts to have a better understanding of the birth and formation of the Universe is also necessary to unify these pillars. This unification may require 11 dimensions, and 6 of them are compressed so that it cannot be seen with existing instruments. These dimensions are the spaces in which the strings vibrate, and each mode of vibration corresponds to a particle. The last dimension shows that the universe is a brane, it is in full motion in the multiverse and the collision of two branes can answer the biggest problem of cosmology: what was the Big Bang? Black holes can be explained using a theory that contains gravity and quantum mechanics. The theory is still being developed, some problems are being solved and the main one is the experimental problem, because it requires energy levels that are not yet achieved by current particle accelerators. This work presents M theory as a possibility of unification between the micro and macro, which maybe leading us to the theory of everything. (author)
Gauge theories in particle physics a practical introduction
Aitchison, Ian J R
2013-01-01
The fourth edition of this well-established, highly regarded two-volume set continues to provide a fundamental introduction to advanced particle physics while incorporating substantial new experimental results, especially in the areas of CP violation and neutrino oscillations. It offers an accessible and practical introduction to the three gauge theories included in the Standard Model of particle physics: quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum chromodynamics (QCD), and the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg (GSW) electroweak theory. In the first volume, a new chapter on Lorentz transformations and discrete symmetries presents a simple treatment of Lorentz transformations of Dirac spinors. Along with updating experimental results, this edition also introduces Majorana fermions at an early stage, making the material suitable for a first course in relativistic quantum mechanics. Covering much of the experimental progress made in the last ten years, the second volume remains focused on the two non-Abelian quantum gauge field...
A Topos Foundation for Theories of Physics: I. Formal Languages for Physics
Doering, A
2007-01-01
This paper is the first in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of constructing theories of physics. The motivation comes from a desire to address certain deep issues that arise when contemplating quantum theories of space and time. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. Classical physics arises when the topos is the category of sets. Other types of theory employ a different topos. In this paper we discuss two different types of language that can be attached to a system, S. The first is a propositional language, PL(S); the second is a higher-order, typed language L(S). Both languages provide deductive systems with an intuitionistic logic. The reason for introducing PL(S) is that, as shown in paper II of the series, it is the easiest way of understanding, and expanding on, the earlier work on topos theory and quantum physics. However, the main thrust of o...
Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.
2009-09-03
Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating
The physics of forgetting: Landauer's erasure principle and information theory
Plenio, MB; Vitelli, V
2001-01-01
This article discusses the concept of information and its intimate relationship with physics. After an introduction of all the necessary quantum mechanical and information theoretical concepts we analyze Landauer's principle that states that the erasure of information is inevitably accompanied by the generation of heat. We employ this principle to rederive a number of results in classical and quantum information theory whose rigorous mathematical derivations are difficult. This demonstrates t...
EDITORIAL: The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics
Pecseli, Hans; Trulsen, Jan
2006-02-01
The Third Nordic Symposium on Plasma Physics was organized at Lysebu, Oslo, Norway on 4 7 October 2004, under the auspices of the Norwegian Centre for Advanced Study (CAS). The arrangement was preceded by two similar meetings organized at the Risø National Laboratory in Denmark by one of us (HP): Nonlinear Waves in Plasmas, 13 16 August 1985, and The Second Nordic Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in Plasmas and Related Topics, 8 12 August 1988. The proceedings from these two previous meetings were published as Physica Scripta Reprint Series No. 2, and RS 16 (with a few copies still being available). The idea of `Nordic' in the title of this latest meeting was interpreted somewhat liberally, by including also scientific organizations in northern Germany, where a collaboration facing Nordic countries comes naturally, and indeed has solid historical roots pointing also to ongoing activities. We hope that this series of meetings can continue, suggesting that the interval should be kept to a minimum of three years to ensure that all participants present new results. (We hope not to have to wait 16 years until next time, though!) The aim of our meetings is to stimulate collaboration among plasma physicists by creating a forum where the participants can exchange ideas and seek inspiration under relaxed conditions. We have the distinct impression that the meeting was very successful in this respect. Many Nordic institutes have widespread international collaborations, and we were happy to welcome also foreign representatives for some of these activities. Altogether 28 contributed talks were presented by 30 participants. The abstracts of all talks were distributed at the meeting. The present proceedings cover a selection of the contributions. One participant had to cancel, but the contribution is included in these proceedings. All the papers have been refereed according to the usual standards of the journal We, the organizers, thank CAS for the generous financial support
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokio, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 87, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2001-03-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is placed on understanding of effects on turbulence characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Rare Decays Probing Physics Beyond the Standard Theory
Teubert, Frederic
2016-10-01
In the last 50 years we have seen how an initially ad hoc and not widely accepted theory of the strong and electroweak interactions (Standard Theory: ST) has correctly predicted the entire accelerator based experimental observations with incredible accuracy. Decays of the ST particles (quarks and leptons), which are rare due to some symmetry of the theory, have played an important role in the making of the ST. These rare decays have been powerful tools to search for interactions of the ST particles with new particles which not necessarily have the same symmetries. In this article, I will describe the indirect search for evidence of new physics (NP) using quark and lepton flavour changing neutral decays, which are highly suppressed within the ST and constitute strong probes of potential new flavour structures.
Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter
Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A
2007-01-01
Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...
String theory and the crisis in particle physics
Schrör, B
2006-01-01
In the first section the history of string theory starting from its S-matrix bootstrap predecessor up to Susskind's recent book is critically reviewed. The aim is to understand its amazing popularity which starkly constrasts its fleeting physical content. A partial answer can be obtained from the hegemonic ideological stance which some of its defenders use to present and defend it. The second section presents many arguments showing that the main tenet of string theory which culminated in the phrase that it represents ``the only game in town'' is untenable. It is based on a wrong view about QFT being a mature theory which (apart from some missing details) already reached its closure.
Lee, Clarissa Ai Ling
2014-01-01
The dissertation brings together approaches across the fields of physics, critical theory, literary studies, philosophy of physics, sociology of science, and history of science to synthesize a hybrid approach for instigating more rigorous and intense cross-disciplinary interrogations between the sciences and the humanities. There are two levels of conversations going on in the dissertation; at the first level, the discussion is centered on a critical historiography and philosophical implications of the discovery Higgs boson in relation to its position at the intersection of old (current) and the potential for new possibilities in quantum physics; I then position my findings on the Higgs boson in connection to the double-slit experiment that represents foundational inquiries into quantum physics, to demonstrate the bridge between fundamental physics and high energy particle physics. The conceptualization of the variants of the double-slit experiment informs the aforementioned critical comparisons. At the secon...
Fermion masses and Higgs physics in grand unified theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhatti, Abdul Aziz
2010-03-12
The Standard model of particle physics is a very successful theory of strong weak and electromagnetic interactions. This theory is perturbative at sufficiently high energies and renormalizable thus it describes these interactions at quantum level. However it has a number of limitations, one being the fact that it has 28 free parameters assuming massive neutrinos. Within the Standard model these parameters can not be explained, however they can be accommodated in the standard theory. Particularly the masses of the fermions are not predicted by the theory. The existence of the neutrino masses can be regarded as the first glimpse of the physics beyond the standard model. In this thesis we have described the quark and lepton masses and mixings in context of non-SUSY SO(10) and four zero texture (FZT). In the four zero texture case the fermion masses and mixing can be related. We have made some predictions using tribimaximal mixing, the near tribimaximal (TBM) mixing and the triminimal parameterization. Our results show that under the TBM the neutrinos have normal, but weak hierarchy. Under near tribimaximal mixing and the triminimal parameterization we find that the neutrino masses in general increase, if the value of solar angle increases from its TBM value and vice versa. It appears that the neutrinos become more and more degenerate for solar angle values higher than TBM value and hierarchical for lower values of solar angle. We also briefly discuss neutrino parameters in the SUSY SO(10) theories. An overview of SUSY SO(10) theories and proton decay is also presented. (orig.)
Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Navarro, Roberto E., E-mail: roberto.navarro@ug.uchile.cl; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 20064 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados en Complejidad, CEIBA complejidad, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-09-15
Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.
Roth, Laura M.; O'Fallon, Nancy M.
This booklet presents information about career opportunities for women in physics. Included are summaries of research areas in physics (optical physics, solid-state physics, materials science, nuclear physics, high-energy physics, astrophysics, cryogenics, plasma physics, biophysics, atmospheric physics) and differences between theory and…
Study of Local Reconnection Physics in a Laboratory Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hantao Ji; Troy Carter; Scott Hsu; Masaaki Yamada
2001-06-11
A short review of physics results obtained in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) is given with an emphasis on the local features of magnetic reconnection in a controlled environment. Stable two-dimensional current sheets are formed and sustained by induction using two internal coils. The observed reconnection rates are found to be quantitatively consistent with a generalized Sweet-Parker model which incorporates compressibility, unbalanced upstream-downstream pressure, and the effective resistivity. The latter is significantly enhanced over its classical values in the low collisionality regime. Strong local ion heating is measured by an optical probe during the reconnection process, and at least half of the increased ion energy must be due to nonclassical processes, consistent with the resistivity enhancement. Characteristics of high-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations detected in the current sheet suggest presence of the lower-hybrid-drift-like waves with significant magnetic components. The detailed structures of the current sheet are measured and compared with Harris theory and two-fluid theory.
Kang, Teyoun; Kim, Young-Kuk; Hur, Min Sup
2016-10-01
Owing to the rapid development of laser technologies, relativistically-induced transmittance (RT) of ultra-intense laser pulses in overdense plasmas is now a practically important matter. RT could give either deleterious or positive effects depending on the kinds of laser-plasma interactions. In radiation-pressure-acceleration (RPA), enhanced transmittance lowers the momentum transfer from the pulse to the ions. Meanwhile, in collisionless-electrostatic-shock, the acceleration efficiency can be increased owing to the effective heating of upstream electrons by transmitted laser fields. Previous theories mostly have handled RT in ideal plasmas, such as an infinitely long uniform plasma or a delta-function-like slab. In the actual applications, however, RT is generally combined with other dynamics, such as plasma density compression, leading to RT under a plasma in other cases. We developed one-dimensional RT theories for circularly polarized laser pulses, which would be used for such realistic plasma profiles. According to our theory, optimal thickness condition should be modified in RPA. Furthermore we developed our theory so that RT in the common two-step density plasma can be modeled. In this poster, we present the derivation and the comparison of the improved theory with PIC simulation results. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program (Grant Number NRF-2013R1A1A2006353).
Quasiclassical Theory and Simulations of Strongly Coupled Plasmas
Ebeling, W.; Ortner, J.
1999-01-01
A survey on the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of plasmas with strong Coulomb interactions in the quasi-classical density-temperature region is given. First the basic theoretical concepts describing nonideality are discussed. The chemical picture is introduced. It is shown that the nonideal plasma subsystem of the free charges has a rather large quasi-classical regime, where the quantum effects yield only corrections to the merely classical dynamics. The plasma of free charges may b...
Symmetry, Group Theory, and the Physical Properties of Crystals
Powell, Richard C.
The intent of this book is to demonstrate the importance of symmetry in determining the properties of solids and the power of using group theory and tensor algebra to elucidate these properties. It is not meant to be a comprehensive text on solid state physics, so many important aspects of condensed matter physics not related to symmetry are not covered here. The book begins by discussing the concepts of symmetry relevant to crystal structures. This is followed by a summary of the basics of group theory and how it is applied to quantum mechanics. Next is a discussion of the description of the macroscopic properties of crystals by tensors and how symmetry determines the form of these tensors. The basic concepts covered in these early chapters are then applied to a series of different examples. There is a discussion of the use of point symmetry in the crystal field theory treatment of point defects in solids. Next is a discussion of crystal symmetry in determining the optical properties of solids, followed by a chapter on the nonlinear optical properties of solids. Then the role of symmetry in treating lattice vibrations is described. The last chapter discusses the effects of translational symmetry on electronic energy bands in solids.
Statistical theory of subcritically-excited strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas. IV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I.; Itoh, Kimitaka [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)
2000-02-01
A statistical theory of nonlinear-nonequilibrium plasma state with strongly developed turbulence and with strong inhomogeneity of the system has been developed. A Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution function of the magnitude of turbulence is deduced. In the statistical description, both the contributions of thermal excitation and turbulence are kept. From the Fokker-Planck equation, the transition probability between the thermal fluctuation and turbulent fluctuation is derived. With respect to the turbulent fluctuations, the coherent part to a certain test mode is renormalized as the drag to the test mode, and the rest, the incoherent part, is considered to be a random noise. The renormalized operator includes the effect of nonlinear destabilization as well as the decorrelation by turbulent fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution function describes the thermal fluctuation, self-sustained turbulence and the hysteresis between them as a function of the plasma gradient. The plasma inhomogeneity is the controlling parameter that governs time turbulence. The formula of transition probability recovers the Arrhenius law in the thermodynamical equilibrium limit. In the presence of self-noise, the transition probability deviates form the exponential law and provides a power law. Application is made to the submarginal interchange mode turbulence, being induced by the turbulent current-diffusivity, in inhomogeneous plasmas. The power law dependence of the transition probability is obtained on the distance between the pressure gradient and the critical gradient for linear instability. Thus a new type of critical exponent is explicitly deduced in the phenomena of subcritical excitation of turbulence. The method provides an extension of the nonequilibrium statistical physics to the far-nonequilibrium states. (author)
Asymptotic-Preserving methods and multiscale models for plasma physics
Degond, Pierre
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of Asymptotic-Preserving methods for multiscale plasma simulations by addressing three singular perturbation problems. First, the quasi-neutral limit of fluid and kinetic models is investigated in the framework of non magnetized as well as magnetized plasmas. Second, the drift limit for fluid descriptions of thermal plasmas under large magnetic fields is addressed. Finally efficient numerical resolutions of anisotropic elliptic or diffusion equations arising in magnetized plasma simulation are reviewed.
Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics
Ismail, Mourad
2001-01-01
These are the proceedings of the conference "Symbolic Computation, Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics" held at the Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville, from November 11 to 13, 1999. The main emphasis of the conference was Com puter Algebra (i. e. symbolic computation) and how it related to the fields of Number Theory, Special Functions, Physics and Combinatorics. A subject that is common to all of these fields is q-series. We brought together those who do symbolic computation with q-series and those who need q-series in cluding workers in Physics and Combinatorics. The goal of the conference was to inform mathematicians and physicists who use q-series of the latest developments in the field of q-series and especially how symbolic computa tion has aided these developments. Over 60 people were invited to participate in the conference. We ended up having 45 participants at the conference, including six one hour plenary speakers and 28 half hour speakers. T...
Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary
Plasma physics abstracts, 1 January - 31 December, 1986
Gurnett, D. A.; Dangelo, N.; Goertz, C. K.
1987-01-01
Topics addressed include: ion-cyclotron waves; plasma waves; solar wind lithium releases; bow shock; Pi2 wave bursts; auroral kilometric radiation; ion energization; magnetic field corrections; electric fields; magnetospheric processes; electron acceleration; inner heliosphere; nightside auroral zone; computerized simulation; plasma wave turbulence; and magnetohydrodynamic waves in plasma sheets.
Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, S. C.
2016-05-01
In the present manuscript enough observations and interpretations of three issues of Plasma Physics are presented. The first issue is linked to the common experimental confirmation of plasma waves which appear to be repeated in a standard way while there are also cases where plasma waves change to an unstable state or even to chaotic state. The second issue is associated with a mathematical analysis of the movement of a charged particle using the perturbation theory; which could be used as a guide for new researchers on similar issues. Finally, the suitability and applicability of the perturbation theory or the chaotic theory is presented. Although this study could be conducted on many plasma phenomena (e.g. plasma diffusion) or plasma quantities (e.g. plasma conductivity), here it was decided this study to be conducted on plasma waves and particularly on drift waves. This was because of the significance of waves on the plasmatic state and especially their negative impact on the thermonuclear fusion, but also due to the long-time experience of the plasma laboratory of Demokritos on drift waves.
Extreme Scale Computing for First-Principles Plasma Physics Research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Choogn-Seock [Princeton University
2011-10-12
World superpowers are in the middle of the “Computnik” race. US Department of Energy (and National Nuclear Security Administration) wishes to launch exascale computer systems into the scientific (and national security) world by 2018. The objective is to solve important scientific problems and to predict the outcomes using the most fundamental scientific laws, which would not be possible otherwise. Being chosen into the next “frontier” group can be of great benefit to a scientific discipline. An extreme scale computer system requires different types of algorithms and programming philosophy from those we have been accustomed to. Only a handful of scientific codes are blessed to be capable of scalable usage of today’s largest computers in operation at petascale (using more than 100,000 cores concurrently). Fortunately, a few magnetic fusion codes are competing well in this race using the “first principles” gyrokinetic equations.These codes are beginning to study the fusion plasma dynamics in full-scale realistic diverted device geometry in natural nonlinear multiscale, including the large scale neoclassical and small scale turbulence physics, but excluding some ultra fast dynamics. In this talk, most of the above mentioned topics will be introduced at executive level. Representative properties of the extreme scale computers, modern programming exercises to take advantage of them, and different philosophies in the data flows and analyses will be presented. Examples of the multi-scale multi-physics scientific discoveries made possible by solving the gyrokinetic equations on extreme scale computers will be described. Future directions into “virtual tokamak experiments” will also be discussed.
A situation-specific theory of Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity (MAPA).
Im, Eun-Ok; Stuifbergen, Alexa K; Walker, Lorraine
2010-01-01
This paper presents a situation specific theory-the Midlife Women's Attitudes Toward Physical Activity (MAPA) theory-that explains how women's attitudes toward physical activity influence their participation in physical activity. Using the integrative approach of Im, the theory was developed based on the Attitude, Social Influence, and Self Efficacy Model; a review of the related literature; and a study of women's attitudes toward physical activity. As a situation-specific theory, the MAPA theory can be linked easily to nursing practice and research projects related to physical activity in midlife women, especially interventions aimed at increasing midlife women's participation in physical activity.
Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.
2007-06-01
from many different standpoints. A special case of non-equilibrium is that of non-neutral plasmas, i.e. plasmas devoid of ions, as described in the lecture and paper by J Marler (Appleton, USA). Physics of swarms (the low space charge limit of ionized gases) is similar to the previous study in the fact that we may have only one group of charged particles electrons (or ions). But the difference is that the latter has a much higher pressure and therefore number of collisions. In the lecture on one aspect of the application of swarm data (transport coefficients) to determine the electron scattering cross sections R White (Townsville, Australia) addresses a long standing controversy in the vibrational excitation of H2 of an unacceptable discrepancy between swarm results and binary collision experiments and theories, (a problem that has been of particular importance to the host Laboratory). The lecture of N Dyatko (Troitsk, Russian Federation) tackles one of the most interesting recent problems in the transport theory of ionized gases, that of the negative absolute conductivity and attempts to translate it to solid state physics where the stakes are much higher. The swarm studies were always based on excellent experimental data and the leading experimental group today is that of J de Urquijo (Cuernavaca, Mexico) who presents a review of a wide range of transport data that his group obtained in fluorinated gases. The gas breakdown in dc and high frequency fields was addressed by M Radmilović-Rađenović (Belgrade, Serbia) by applying a detailed secondary electron production model in Particle in Cell (PIC) code and comparing the results to a broad range of experimental data. The hybrid (fluid-Monte Carlo) model has been applied in the study by Z Donko and K Kutasi (Budapest, Hungary) of low pressure obstructed glow discharges to decribe the effect of fast neutrals on gas discharges. A study of kinetics of negative ions of hydrogen in glow discharges with positive column and
Physical-Chemical Characterization of Nanodispersed Powders Produced by a Plasma-Chemical Technique
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
M. GEORGIEVA; G. VISSOKOV; Iv. GRANCHAROV
2007-01-01
This article presents a review on the physical-chemical properties and characteristics of plasma-chemically produced nanodispersed powders (NDP), such as metals, oxides, nitrides, carbides, and catalysts. The plasma-chemical preparation of the powders was carried out in thermal plasma (TP) created by means of high-current electric arcs, plasma jets, high-frequency (HF) discharges, etc. We also discuss certain properties and characteristics of the NDPs, which are determined largely by the conditions of preparation.
Physics and optimization of plasma startup in the RFP
Mao, W.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Ko, J.; Kumar, S. T. A.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Brower, D. L.; Liu, W.
2015-05-01
In the tokamak and reversed-field pinch (RFP), inductively driven toroidal plasma current provides the confining poloidal magnetic field and ohmic heating power, but the magnitude and/or duration of this current is limited by the available flux swing in the poloidal field transformer. A portion of this flux is consumed during startup as the current is initiated and ramped to its final target value, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding startup and minimizing the amount of flux consumed. Flux consumption can be reduced during startup in the RFP by increasing the toroidal magnetic field, Bti, applied to initiate the discharge, but the underlying physics is not yet entirely understood. Toward increasing this understanding, we have for the first time in the RFP employed advanced, non-invasive diagnostics on the Madison Symmetric Torus to measure the evolution of current, magnetic field, and kinetic profiles during startup. Flux consumption during startup is dominantly inductive, but we find that the inductive flux consumption drops as Bti increases. The resistive consumption of flux, while relatively small, apparently increases with Bti due to a smaller electron temperature. However, the ion temperature increases with Bti, exceeding the electron temperature and thus reflecting non-collisional heating. Magnetic fluctuations also increase with Bti, corresponding primarily to low-n modes that emerge sequentially as the safety factor profile evolves from tokamak-like to that of the RFP.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Editors: Carol A. Phillips; Anthony R. DeMeo
2004-08-23
The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights report provides a summary of the activities at the Laboratory for the fiscal year--1 October 2002 through 30 September 2003. The report includes the Laboratory's Mission and Vision Statements, a message ''From the Director,'' summaries of the research and engineering activities by project, and sections on Technology Transfer, the Graduate and Science Education Programs, Awards and Honors garnered by the Laboratory and the employees, and the Year in Pictures. There is also a listing of the Laboratory's publications for the year and a section of the abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols used throughout the report. In the PDF document, links have been created from the Table of Contents to each section. You can also return to the Table of Contents from the beginning page of each section. The PPPL Highlights for fiscal year 2003 is also available in hardcopy format. To obtain a copy e-mail Publications and Reports at: pub-reports@pppl.gov. Be sure to include your complete mailing address
Theory of sheath in a collisional multi-component plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M K Mahanta; K S Goswami
2001-04-01
The aim of this brief report is to study the behaviour of sheath structure in a multicomponent plasma with dust-neutral collisions. The plasma consists of electrons, ions, micron size negatively charged dust particles and neutrals. The sheath-edge potential and sheath width are calculated for collisionally dominated sheath. Comparison of collisionless and collisionally dominated sheath are made.
Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.
2017-07-01
Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.
A New Look at the Landau's Theory of Spreading and Damping of Waves in Collisionless Plasmas
Soshnikov, V N
2008-01-01
The theory of plasma waves and Landau damping in Maxwellian plasmas, Landau's ``rule of pass around poles'' include doubtful statements, particularly related to an artificial ``constructing'' of the dispersion equation, what should allow the possibility of its solution otherwise not existing at all, and the possibility of analytical continuations of corresponding very specific ruptured functions in the one-dimensional Laplace transformation, used by Landau, what is the base of his theory. We represent, as an accessible variant, a more general alternative theory based on a two-dimensional Laplace transformation, leading to an asymptotical in time and space solution as a complicated superposition of coupled damping and {\\em non-damping \\/} plane waves and oscillations with different dispersion laws for every constituent mode. This theory naturally and very simply explains paradoxes of the phenomenon of plasma echo. We propose for discussion a new ideology of plasma waves (both electron and ion-acoustic waves) q...
Distribution theory with applications in engineering and physics
Teodorescu, Petre P; Toma, Antonela
2013-01-01
In this comprehensive monograph, the authors apply modern mathematical methods to the study of mechanical and physical phenomena or techniques in acoustics, optics, and electrostatics, where classical mathematical tools fail.They present a general method of approaching problems, pointing out different aspects and difficulties that may occur. With respect to the theory of distributions, only the results and the principle theorems are given as well as some mathematical results. The book also systematically deals with a large number of applications to problems of general Newtonian mechanics,
On the Theory and Physics of the Aether
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rughede O. D.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Physical Space is identified as the universal Aether Space. An Aether Equation is deduced, predicting the Temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation T(CMBR, and indicating that G and c are universal dependent variables. The strong nuclear force is found to be a strong gravitational force at extreme energy densities of the neutron, indicating a Grand Unified Theory, when gravity is a process of enduring exchange of radiant energy between all astrophysical objects. The big bang hypothesis is refuted by interpretation of the Hubble redshift as evidence of gravitational work. Conditions for application of STR and GTR in the scientific cosmological research are deduced.
Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?
Sk., Nayem
2016-01-01
Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.
Perspectives on theory at the interface of physics and biology
Bialek, William
2015-01-01
Theoretical physics is the search for simple and universal mathematical descriptions of the natural world. In contrast, much of modern biology is an exploration of the complexity and diversity of life. For many, this contrast is prima facie evidence that theory, in the sense that physicists use the word, is impossible in a biological context. For others, this contrast serves to highlight a grand challenge. I'm an optimist, and believe (along with many colleagues) that the time is ripe for the emergence of a more unified theoretical physics of biological systems, building on successes in thinking about particular phenomena. In this essay I try to explain the reasons for my optimism, through a combination of historical and modern examples.
Basic microscopic plasma physics unified and simplified by N-body classical mechanics
Escande, Dominique; Elskens, Yves
2012-01-01
Debye shielding, collisional transport, Landau damping of Langmuir waves, and spontaneous emission of these waves are introduced, in typical plasma physics textbooks, in different chapters. This paper provides a compact unified introduction to these phenomena without appealing to fluid or kinetic models, but by using Newton's second law for a system of $N$ electrons in a periodic box with a neutralizing ionic background. A rigorous equation is derived for the electrostatic potential. Its linearization and a first smoothing reveal this potential to be the sum of the shielded Coulomb potentials of the individual particles. Smoothing this sum yields the classical Vlasovian expression including initial conditions in Landau contour calculations of Langmuir wave growth or damping. The theory is extended to accommodate a correct description of trapping or chaos due to Langmuir waves. In the linear regime, the amplitude of such a wave is found to be ruled by Landau growth or damping and by spontaneous emission. Using...
Mohamed-Benkadda, M. S.
The renormalization-group theory of Wilson (1975), as developed by Escande and Doveil (1981) is applied to characterize the transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom; the threshold of large-scale stochasticity and the degree of universality of these systems are obtained; and applications to problems in plasma physics are investigated. The problems considered include the movement of a charged particle in a packet of longitudinal waves, the movement of a charged particle in a magnetic bottle (as modeled by Chirikov, 1979, or by Cohen, 1979), and the response of nonlinear array of oscillators to simultaneous perturbation by two isolated resonances (as studied by Walker and Ford, 1969). Diagrams and graphs are provided.
Decision theory and information propagation in quantum physics
Forrester, Alan
In recent papers, Zurek [(2005). Probabilities from entanglement, Born's rule p k =| ψ k | 2 from entanglement. Physical Review A, 71, 052105] has objected to the decision-theoretic approach of Deutsch [(1999) Quantum theory of probability and decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A, 455, 3129-3137] and Wallace [(2003). Everettian rationality: defending Deutsch's approach to probability in the Everett interpretation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics, 34, 415-438] to deriving the Born rule for quantum probabilities on the grounds that it courts circularity. Deutsch and Wallace assume that the many worlds theory is true and that decoherence gives rise to a preferred basis. However, decoherence arguments use the reduced density matrix, which relies upon the partial trace and hence upon the Born rule for its validity. Using the Heisenberg picture and quantum Darwinism-the notion that classical information is quantum information that can proliferate in the environment pioneered in Ollivier et al. [(2004). Objective properties from subjective quantum states: Environment as a witness. Physical Review Letters, 93, 220401 and (2005). Environment as a witness: Selective proliferation of information and emergence of objectivity in a quantum universe. Physical Review A, 72, 042113]-I show that measurement interactions between two systems only create correlations between a specific set of commuting observables of system 1 and a specific set of commuting observables of system 2. This argument picks out a unique basis in which information flows in the correlations between those sets of commuting observables. I then derive the Born rule for both pure and mixed states and answer some other criticisms of the decision theoretic approach to quantum probability.
Kinetic theory of self-diffusion in a moderately dense one-component plasma
Suttorp, L.G.
1980-01-01
A microscopic description of self-diffusion in a moderately dense classical one-component plasma is given on the basis of renormalized kinetic theory. The effects of close binary collisions and of collective interactions in the plasma are taken into account through the use of a composite memory kern
2005-01-01
Tech-X Corporation releases simulation code for solving complex problems in plasma physics : VORPAL code provides a robust environment for simulating plasma processes in high-energy physics, IC fabrications and material processing applications
Physics-Based Computational Algorithm for the Multi-Fluid Plasma Model
2014-06-30
Riemann solver for the two-fluid plasma model. Journal of Computational Physics , 187(2):620–638, 2003. [23] Jeffrey P. Freidberg. Ideal...Computational Physics , 141(2):199–224, 1998. [52] P. L. Roe. Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors and difference schemes. Journal of...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0310 PHYSICS -BASED COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHM FOR THE MULTIFLUID PLASMA MODEL Uri Shumlak UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final Report 10
A course in mathematical physics 2 classical field theory
Thirring, Walter
1978-01-01
In the past decade the language and methods ofmodern differential geometry have been increasingly used in theoretical physics. What seemed extravagant when this book first appeared 12 years ago, as lecture notes, is now a commonplace. This fact has strengthened my belief that today students of theoretical physics have to learn that language-and the sooner the better. Afterall, they willbe the professors ofthe twenty-first century and it would be absurd if they were to teach then the mathematics of the nineteenth century. Thus for this new edition I did not change the mathematical language. Apart from correcting some mistakes I have only added a section on gauge theories. In the last decade it has become evident that these theories describe fundamental interactions, and on the classical level their structure is suffi cientlyclear to qualify them for the minimum amount ofknowledge required by a theoretician. It is with much regret that I had to refrain from in corporating the interesting developments in Kal...
Mathematical analogies in physics. Thin-layer wave theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José M. Carcione
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Field theory applies to elastodynamics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, gravitation and other similar fields of physics, where the basic equations describing the phenomenon are based on constitutive relations and balance equations. For instance, in elastodynamics, these are the stress-strain relations and the equations of momentum conservation (Euler-Newton law. In these cases, the same mathematical theory can be used, by establishing appropriate mathematical equivalences (or analogies between material properties and field variables. For instance, the wave equation and the related mathematical developments can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, and are extensively used in quantum mechanics. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of a thin layer embedded between dissimilar media, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation/viscosity in the viscoelastic case, conductivity in the electromagnetic case and a potential barrier in quantum physics (the tunnel effect. The analogy is mainly illustrated with geophysical examples of propagation of S (shear, P (compressional, TM (transverse-magnetic and TE (transverse-electric waves. The tunnel effect is obtained as a special case of viscoelastic waves at normal incidence.
String theory and the crisis of particle physics II
Schroer, Bert
2008-01-01
This is a completely reformulated presentation of a previous paper hep-th/0611132 with the same title; this time with a much stronger emphasis on conceptual aspects of string theory and a detailed review of its already more than four decades lasting history within a broader context, including some little-known details. Although there have been several books and essays on the sociological impact and its philosophical implications, there is yet no serious attempt to scrutinize its claims about particle physics using the powerful conceptual arsenal of contemporary local quantum physics. I decided to leave the previous first version on the arXiv because it may be interesting to the reader to notice the change of viewpoint and the reason behind it. Other reasons for preventing my fist version to go into print and to rewite it in such a way that its content complies with my different actual viewpoint can be found at the end of the article. The central message, contained in sections 5 and 6, is that string theory is...
Compactified String Theories -- Generic Predictions for Particle Physics
Acharya, Bobby Samir; Kumar, Piyush
2012-01-01
In recent years it has been realized that in string/$M$ theories compactified to four dimensions which satisfy cosmological constraints, it is possible to make some generic predictions for particle physics and dark matter: a non-thermal cosmological history before primordial nucleosynthesis, a scale of supersymmetry breaking which is "high" as in gravity mediation, scalar superpartners too heavy to be produced at the LHC (although gluino production is expected in many cases), and a significant fraction of dark matter in the form of axions. When the matter and gauge spectrum below the compactification scale is that of the MSSM, a robust prediction of about 125 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, predictions for various aspects of dark matter physics, as well as predictions for future precision measurements, can be made. As a prototypical example, $M$ theory compactified on a manifold of $G_2$ holonomy leads to a good candidate for our "string vacuum", with the TeV scale emerging from the Planck scale, a de Sitter va...
Role of magnetospheric plasma physics for understanding cosmic phenomena
Das, Indra M. L.
Cosmic phenomena occur in the remote regions of space where in situ observations are not possible. For a proper understanding of these phenomena, laboratory experiments are essential, but in situ observations of magnetospheric plasma provide an even better background to test various hypothesis of cosmic interest. This is because the ionospheric-magnetospheric plasma and the solar wind are the only cosmic plasmas accessible to extensive in situ observations and experiments.
Physical limitations in ferromagnetic inductively coupled plasma sources
Bliokh, Yury P; Slutsker, Yakov Z
2012-01-01
The Ferromagnetic Inductively Coupled Plasma (FICP) source, which is a version of the common inductively coupled plasma sources, has a number of well known advantages such as high efficiency, high level of ionization, low minimal gas pressure, very low required driver frequency, and even a possibility to be driven by single current pulses. We present an experimental study of such an FICP source which showed that above a certain value of the driving pulse power the properties of this device changed rather drastically. Namely, the plasma became non-stationary and non-uniform contrary to the stationary and uniform plasmas typical for this kind of plasma sources. In this case the plasma appeared as a narrow dense spike which was short compared to the driving pulse. The local plasma density could exceed the neutral atoms density by a few orders of magnitude. When that happened, the afterglow plasma decay time after the end of the pulse was long compared to an ordinary case with no plasma spike. Experiments were pe...
Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1989-01-01
This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).
Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1989-12-31
This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1990-12-31
This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.
60th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics: 6th Laser-plasma interactions
Cairns, R A; Jaroszinski, D A
2009-01-01
Presents diagnostic methods, experimental techniques, and simulation tools used to study and model laser-plasma interactions. This book discusses the basic theory of the interaction of intense electromagnetic radiation fields with matter.
A Grounded Theory Approach to Physical Activity and Advanced Cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonya S. Lowe
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing
Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings
Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo
2017-09-01
Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.
The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, R; Yao, J Q; Xu, D G; Wang, J L; Wang, P, E-mail: wangran19861014@163.com [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Institute of Laser and Opto-electronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)
2011-02-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.
The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation
Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.
2011-02-01
Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.
Orbital-motion-limited theory of dust charging and plasma response
Tang, Xian-Zhu
2015-01-01
The foundational theory for dusty plasmas is the dust charging theory that provides the dust potential and charge arising from the dust interaction with a plasma. The most widely used dust charging theory for negatively charged dust particles is the so-called orbital motion limited (OML) theory, which predicts the dust potential and heat collection accurately for a variety of applications, but was previously found to be incapable of evaluating the dust charge and plasma response in any situation. Here we report a revised OML formulation that is able to predict the plasma response and hence the dust charge. Numerical solutions of the new OML model show that the widely-used Whipple approximation of dust charge-potential relationship agrees with OML theory in the limit of small dust radius compared with plasma Debye length, but incurs large (order-unity) deviation from the OML prediction when the dust size becomes comparable with or larger than plasma Debye length. This latter case is expected for the important ...
Physical investigation of a quad confinement plasma source
Knoll, Aaron; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark
2016-10-01
Quad magnetic confinement plasma sources are novel magnetized DC discharges suitable for applications in a broad range of fields, particularly space propulsion, plasma etching and deposition. These sources contain a square discharge channel with magnetic cusps at the four lateral walls, enhancing plasma confinement and electron residence time inside the device. The magnetic field topology is manipulated using four independent electromagnets on each edge of the channel, tuning the properties of the generated plasma. We characterize the plasma ejected from the quad confinement sources using a combination of traditional electrostatic probes and non-intrusive laser-based diagnostics. Measurements show a strong ion acceleration layer located 8 cm downstream of the exit plane, beyond the extent of the magnetic field. The ion velocity field is investigated with different magnetic configurations, demonstrating how ion trajectories may be manipulated. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.
Bibliography of Documents Related to the Theory, Operation and Performance of Coaxial Plasma Guns
1988-09-01
J. and Rodriguez- Trelles , "Recent Plasma Focus Research," in Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled...pp. 512-525, Howard, R. (editor), Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 1971. 29 Bostick, W. H., Nardi, V., Prior, W. J. and Rodriguez- Trelles , F., "On the...Physics, Vol. 8, Part 1, August 1972, pp. 7-20. Bostick, W. H., Nardi, V., Prior, W. and Rodriquez- Trelles , F., "Intensity Anisotropy and Fine Structure
Lagrangian formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation. [in plasma physics
Lewak, G. J.
1974-01-01
A new formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation is derived which is analogous to the Kalman-transformed cold-plasma equations. The equations are shown to yield nonsecular, nonlinear approximations to a source or boundary-value problem. It is suggested that the formulation may have other applications in nonlinear plasma theory.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1991-12-31
This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters of experimental devices; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; Burning Plasma Experiment; Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification; Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; International Collaboration; X-Ray Laser Studies; Hyperthermal Atomic Beam Source; Pure Electron Plasma Experiments; Plasma Processing: Deposition and Etching of Thin Films; Theoretical Studies; Tokamak Modeling; Engineering Department; Environment, Safety, and Health and Quality Assurance; Technology Transfer; Office of Human Resources and Administration; PPPL Patent Invention Disclosures; Office of Resource Management; Graduate Education: Plasma Physics; Graduate Education: Program in Plasma Science and Technology; and Science Education Program.
Transport formulas for multi-component plasmas within the effective potential theory framework
Kagan, Grigory
2016-01-01
The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] allows evaluating transport in coupled plasmas with the well-developed formalisms for systems with binary collisions. To facilitate practical implementation of this concept in fluid models of multi-component plasmas, compact expressions for the transport coefficients in terms the generalized Coulomb logarithms are summarized from existing prescriptions. For weakly coupled plasmas, characterized by Debye-shielded Coulomb interaction potential, expressions become fully analytical. In coupled plasmas the generalized Coulomb logarithms need to be evaluated numerically. Routines implementing the described formalisms are included as supplemental material.
Validating Laser-Induced Birefringence Theory with Plasma Interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
2015-09-02
Intense laser beams crossing paths in plasma is theorized to induce birefringence in the medium, resulting from density and refractive index modulations that affect the polarization of incoming light. The goal of the associated experiment, conducted on Janus at Lawrence Livermore’s Jupiter Laser Facility, was to create a tunable laser-plasma waveplate to verify the relationship between dephasing angle and beam intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature, and interaction length. Interferometry analysis of the plasma channel was performed to obtain a density map and to constrain temperature measured from Thomson scattering. Various analysis techniques, including Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and two variations of fringe-counting, were tried because interferograms captured in this experiment contained unusual features such as fringe discontinuity at channel edges, saddle points, and islands. The chosen method is flexible, semi-automated, and uses a fringe tracking algorithm on a reduced image of pre-traced synthetic fringes. Ultimately, a maximum dephasing angle of 49.6° was achieved using a 1200 μm interaction length, and the experimental results appear to agree with predictions.
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Starinets, Andrei O.
2006-01-01
Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.
Gyrokinetic stability theory of electron-positron plasmas
Helander, Per
2016-01-01
The linear gyrokinetic stability properties of magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are investigated in the parameter regime most likely to be relevant for the first laboratory experiments involving such plasmas, where the density is small enough that collisions can be ignored and the Debye length substantially exceeds the gyroradius. Although the plasma beta is very small, electromagnetic effects are retained, but magnetic compressibility can be neglected. The work of a previous publication (Helander, 2014) is thus extended to include electromagnetic instabilities, which are of importance in closed-field-line configurations, where such instabilities can occur at arbitrarily low pressure. It is found that gyrokinetic instabilities are completely absent if the magnetic field is homogeneous: any instability must involve magnetic curvature or shear. Furthermore, in dipole magnetic fields, the stability threshold for interchange modes with wavelengths exceeding the Debye radius coincides with that in i...
Investigation of physical processes limiting plasma density in H-mode on DIII-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jernigan, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others
1996-12-01
A series of experiments was conducted on the DIII-D tokamak to investigate the physical processes which limit density in high confinement mode (H-mode) discharges. The typical H-mode to low confinement mode (L-mode) transition limit at high density near the empirical Greenwald density limit was avoided by divertor pumping, which reduced divertor neutral pressure and prevented formation of a high density, intense radiation zone (MARFE) near the X-point. It was determined that the density decay time after pellet injection was independent of density relative to the Greenwald limit and increased non-linearly with the plasma current. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity in pellet-fueled plasmas was observed at all power levels, and often caused unacceptable confinement degradation, except when the neutral beam injected (NBI) power was {le} 3 MW. Formation of MARFEs on closed field lines was avoided with low safety factor (q) operation but was observed at high q, qualitatively consistent with theory. By using pellet fueling and optimizing discharge parameters to avoid each of these limits, an operational space was accessed in which density {approximately} 1.5 {times} Greenwald limit was achieved for 600 ms, and good H-mode confinement was maintained for 300 ms of the density flattop. More significantly, the density was successfully increased to the limit where a central radiative collapse was observed, the most fundamental density limit in tokamaks.
Set Matrix Theory as a Physically Motivated Generalization of Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory
Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F
2012-01-01
Recently, the Elementary Process Theory (EPT) has been developed as a set of fundamental principles that might underlie a gravitational repulsion of matter and antimatter. This paper presents set matrix theory (SMT) as the foundation of the mathematical-logical framework in which the EPT has been formalized: Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory (ZF), namely, cannot be used as such. SMT is a generalization of ZF: whereas ZF uses only sets as primitive objects, in the framework of SMT finite matrices with set-valued entries are objects sui generis, with a 1\\times1 set matrix [x] being identical to the set x. It is proved that every set that can be constructed in ZF can also be constructed in SMT: as a mathematical foundation, SMT is thus not weaker than ZF. In addition, it is shown that SMT is more suitable han ZF for the intended application to physics. The conclusion is that SMT, contrary to ZF, is acceptable as the mathematical-logical foundation of the framework for physics that is determined by the EPT.
Electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetized plasmas. I. The rigorous relativistic kinetic theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
Using the system of the Klimontovich and Maxwell equations, the general linear fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is developed. General expressions for the electromagnetic fluctuation spectra (electric and magnetic fields) from uncorrelated plasma particles in plasmas with a uniform magnetic field are derived, which are covariantly correct within the theory of special relativity. The general fluctuation spectra hold for plasmas of arbitrary composition, arbitrary momentum dependences of the plasma particle distribution functions, and arbitrary orientations of the wave vector with respect to the uniform magnetic field. Moreover, no restrictions on the values of the real and the imaginary parts of the frequency are made. The derived fluctuation spectra apply to both non-collective fluctuations and collective plasma eigenmodes in magnetized plasmas. In the latter case, kinetic equations for the components of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in magnetized plasmas are derived that include the effect of spontaneous emission and absorption. In the limiting case of an unmagnetized plasmas, the general fluctuation spectra correctly reduce to the unmagnetized fluctuation spectra derived before.
Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.
2016-02-01
Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudhir, Dass, E-mail: dass.sudhir@iter-india.org; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29 GIDC, Sec-25, Gandhinagar, 382016 Gujarat (India)
2016-02-15
Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.
Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A
2016-02-01
Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.
New applications of neutron noise theory in power reactor physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arzhanov, Vasiliy
2000-04-01
The present thesis deals with neutron noise theory as applied to three comparatively different topics (or problems) in power reactor physics. Namely they are: theoretical investigation of the possibility to use a newly proposed current-flux (C/F) detector in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) for the localisation of anomalies; both definition and studies on the point kinetic and adiabatic approximations for the relatively recently proposed Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS); development of the general theory of linear reactor kinetics and neutron noise in systems with varying size. One important practical problem is to detect and localise a vibrating control rod pin. The significance comes from the operational experience which indicates that individual pins can execute excessive mechanical vibrations that may lead to damage. Such mechanical vibrations induce neutron noise that can be detected. While the detection is relatively easy, the localisation of a vibrating control rod is much more complicated because only one measuring position is available and one needs to have at least three measured quantities. Therefore it has currently been proposed that the fluctuations of the neutron current vector, called the current noise, can be used in addition to the scalar noise in reactor diagnostic problems. The thesis investigates the possibility of the localization of a vibrating control rod pin in a PWR control assembly by using the scalar neutron noise and the 2-D radial current noise as measured at one central point in the control assembly. An explicit localisation technique is elaborated in which the searched position is determined as the absolute minimum of a minimisation function. The technique is investigated in numerical simulations. The results of the simulation tests show the potential applicability of the method. By design accelerator-driven systems would operate in a subcritical mode with a strong external source. This calls for a revision of many concepts and
The Clifford algebra of physical space and Dirac theory
Vaz, Jayme, Jr.
2016-09-01
The claim found in many textbooks that the Dirac equation cannot be written solely in terms of Pauli matrices is shown to not be completely true. It is only true as long as the term β \\psi in the usual Dirac factorization of the Klein-Gordon equation is assumed to be the product of a square matrix β and a column matrix ψ. In this paper we show that there is another possibility besides this matrix product, in fact a possibility involving a matrix operation, and show that it leads to another possible expression for the Dirac equation. We show that, behind this other possible factorization is the formalism of the Clifford algebra of physical space. We exploit this fact, and discuss several different aspects of Dirac theory using this formalism. In particular, we show that there are four different possible sets of definitions for the parity, time reversal, and charge conjugation operations for the Dirac equation.
179th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Laser-Plasma Acceleration
Gizzi, L A; Faccini, R
2012-01-01
Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: "Laser-Plasma Acceleration" , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The object...
Collisional-radiative model: a plasma spectroscopy theory for experimentalists
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Sawada, Keiji
1997-01-01
The rate equation describing the population n(p) of an excited (and the ground state) level p of ions immersed in plasma is shown. In 1962, the method of quasi-steady state solution (collisional-radiative model) was proposed. Its idea is explained. The coupled differential equations reduce to a set of coupled linear equations for excited levels. The solution of these coupled equations is presented. The equations giving the ionization and recombination of this system of ions under consideration are described in terms of the effective rate coefficients. The collisional-radiative ionization and recombination rate coefficients are expressed in terms of the population coefficients for p > 1. As for ionizing plasma, the excited level populations, the populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, two regimes of the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons among the levels and so on are shown. As for recombining plasma, the excited level populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons and so on are shown. Ionization balance plasma may be considered. (K.I.)
Simulations for plasma spectroscopy based on UTA theory
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
The unresolved transition array(UTA) simulation with configurationaverage approximation is used to calculate the spectral properties ofplasmas involving complex ions. This method is used to simulate thetransmission of X-rays through aluminum plasma and niobium plasmarespectively. The results are compared with experiments and other results ofadvanced models and good agreements are obtained.
Theory of the M = 1 Kink Mode in Toroidal Plasma
de Blank, H. J.; Schep, T. J.
1991-01-01
The energy principle of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is used to study the ideal MHD stability of the m = 1 internal kink mode in a toroidal plasma. The equilibrium configurations that are considered allow for a broad region where the safety factor q is close to unity. This region may extend to t
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Preeti Vyas; Arti Gokhale; Y Choyal; K P Maheshwari
2001-05-01
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-09-01
In this report eight invited and contributed papers of the theory group are included which were presented at joint Varenna-Lausanne international workshop on `theory of fusion plasmas`. (author) figs., tabs., refs.
Exact kinetic theory for the instability of an electron beam in a hot magnetized plasma
Timofeev, I V
2013-01-01
Efficiency of collective beam-plasma interaction strongly depends on the growth rates of dominant instabilities excited in the system. Nevertheless, exact calculations of the full unstable spectrum in the framework of relativistic kinetic theory for arbitrary magnetic fields and particle distributions were unknown until now. In this paper we give an example of such a calculation answering the question whether the finite thermal spreads of plasma electrons are able to suppress the fastest growing modes in the beam-plasma system. It is shown that nonrelativistic temperatures of Maxwellian plasmas can stabilize only the oblique instabilities of relativistic beam. On the contrary, non-Maxwellian tails typically found in laboratory beam-plasma experiments are able to substantially reduce the growth rate of the dominant longitudinal modes affecting the efficiency of turbulent plasma heating.
Exact kinetic theory for the instability of an electron beam in a hot magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2013-09-15
Efficiency of collective beam-plasma interaction strongly depends on the growth rates of dominant instabilities excited in the system. Nevertheless, exact calculations of the full unstable spectrum in the framework of relativistic kinetic theory for arbitrary magnetic fields and particle distributions were unknown until now. In this paper, we give an example of such a calculation answering the question whether the finite thermal spreads of plasma electrons are able to suppress the fastest growing modes in the beam-plasma system. It is shown that nonrelativistic temperatures of Maxwellian plasmas can stabilize only the oblique instabilities of relativistic beam. On the contrary, non-Maxwellian tails typically found in laboratory beam-plasma experiments are able to substantially reduce the growth rate of the dominant longitudinal modes affecting the efficiency of turbulent plasma heating.
New Spin Physics in the Hamiltonian Theory of Composite Fermions
Murthy, Ganpathy
2001-03-01
The Hamiltonian theory of Composite Fermions, developed by R. Shankar and myself three years ago, has been successful in calculating a variety of physical properties in the gapped and gapless fractional quantum Hall states. In this talk, results will be presented on finite temperature magnetization, focusing on the ferromagnetic 1/3 state. A combination of Hartree-Fock (in terms of Composite Fermion variables) and a mapping to the Continuum Quantum Ferromagnet (solved in the large-N approximation) leads to theoretical predictions in very good agreement with experiments. Theoretical results will also be presented on a novel partialy polarized charge/spin density wave state at 2/5 which only occurs near the transition between the singlet and fully polarized states. The possible relevance of this state to recent experiments will be discussed. R. Shankar and G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4437 (1997): "Towards a Field Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States" G. Murthy, to appear in Jour. Phys. Cond. Mat, cond-mat/0008259; "Finite Temperature Magnetism in Fractional Quantum Hall Systems: Composite Fermion Hartree-Fock and Beyond" G. Murthy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 350 (2000): "Composite Fermion Hofstadter Problem: Partially Polarized Density Wave States in the 2/5 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect"
Plasma and Ion Assistance in Physical Vapor Deposition: AHistorical Perspective
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anders, Andre
2007-02-28
Deposition of films using plasma or plasma-assist can betraced back surprisingly far, namely to the 18th century for arcs and tothe 19th century for sputtering. However, only since the 1960s thecoatings community considered other processes than evaporation for largescale commercial use. Ion Plating was perhaps the first importantprocess, introducing vapor ionization and substrate bias to generate abeam of ions arriving on the surface of the growing film. Ratherindependently, cathodic arc deposition was established as an energeticcondensation process, first in the former Soviet Union in the 1970s, andin the 1980s in the Western Hemisphere. About a dozen various ion-basedcoating technologies evolved in the last decades, all characterized byspecific plasma or ion generation processes. Gridded and gridless ionsources were taken from space propulsion and applied to thin filmdeposition. Modeling and simulation have helped to make plasma and ionseffects to be reasonably well understood. Yet--due to the complex, oftennon-linear and non-equilibrium nature of plasma and surfaceinteractions--there is still a place for the experience plasma"sourcerer."
Causal Fermion Systems as a Candidate for a Unified Physical Theory
Finster, Felix; Kleiner, Johannes
2015-01-01
The theory of causal fermion systems is an approach to describe fundamental physics. Giving quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases, it is a candidate for a unified physical theory. We here give a non-technical introduction.
The Quest for a Fundamental Theory of Physics - Rise and Demise of the Field Paradigm
Holman, M.
2014-01-01
Quite remarkably, the two physical theories that describe extremely well physical phenomena on the largest and smallest distance scales in our universe, viz. general relativity and quantum theory, respectively, are radically disparate. Both theories are now almost a century old and have passed with
Soto, Leopoldo
2011-07-01
The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included
Working group report: Heavy-ion physics and quark-gluon plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Munshi G Mustafa; Sudhir Raniwala; T Awes; B Rai; R S Bhalerao; J G Contreras; R V Gavai; S K Ghosh; P Jaikumar; G C Mishra; A P Mishra; H Mishra; B Mohanty; J Nayak; J-Y Ollitrault; S C Phatak; L Ramello; R Ray; P K Sahu; A M Srivastava; D K Srivastava; V K Tiwari
2006-11-01
This is the report of Heavy Ion Physics and Quark-Gluon Plasma at WHEPP-09 which was part of Working Group-4. Discussion and work on some aspects of quark-gluon plasma believed to have created in heavy-ion collisions and in early Universe are reported.
Contributed papers presented at the 24. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-06-01
In the report thirteen papers are compiled which were presented by members of the Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasma, Lausanne, at the 24th EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. They mainly deal with problems of the confinement and are based on studies performed in the TCV tokamak. figs., tabs., refs.
Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.
Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo
2014-04-01
Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Torsor Theory of Physical Quantities and their Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domotor Zoltan
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The principal objective of this paper is to provide a torsor theory of physical quantities and basic operations thereon. Torsors are introduced in a bottom-up fashion as actions of scale transformation groups on spaces of unitized quantities. In contrast, the shortcomings of other accounts of quantities that proceed in a top-down axiomatic manner are also discussed. In this paper, quantities are presented as dual counterparts of physical states. States serve as truth-makers of metrological statements about quantity values and are crucial in specifying alternative measurement units for base quantities. For illustration and ease of presentation, the classical notions of length, time, and instantaneous velocity are used as primordial examples. It is shown how torsors provide an effective description of the structure of quantities, systems of quantities, and transformations between them. Using the torsor framework, time-dependent quantities and their unitized derivatives are also investigated. Lastly, the torsor apparatus is applied to deterministic measurement of quantities.
Beckley, L. E.
1977-01-01
Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include: infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed.
Microscopic theory of electron absorption by plasma-facing surfaces
Bronold, F. X.; Fehske, H.
2017-01-01
We describe a method for calculating the probability with which the wall of a plasma absorbs an electron at low energy. The method, based on an invariant embedding principle, expresses the electron absorption probability as the probability for transmission through the wall’s long-range surface potential times the probability to stay inside the wall despite of internal backscattering. To illustrate the approach we apply it to a SiO2 surface. Besides emission of optical phonons inside the wall we take elastic scattering at imperfections of the plasma-wall interface into account and obtain absorption probabilities significantly less than unity in accordance with available electron-beam scattering data but in disagreement with the widely used perfect absorber model.
Microscopic theory of electron absorption by plasma-facing surfaces
Bronold, Franz X
2016-01-01
We describe a method for calculating the probability with which the wall of a plasma absorbs an electron at low energy. The method, based on an invariant embedding principle, expresses the electron absorption probability as the probability for transmission through the wall's long-range surface potential times the probability to stay inside the wall despite of internal backscattering. To illustrate the approach we apply it to a \\SiOTwo\\ surface. Besides emission of optical phonons inside the wall we take elastic scattering at imperfections of the plasma-wall interface into account and obtain absorption probabilities significantly less than unity in accordance with available electron-beam scattering data but in disagreement with the widely used perfect absorber model.
String/M-theories About Our World Are Testable in the traditional Physics Way
Kane, Gordon L
2016-01-01
Some physicists hope to use string/M-theory to construct a comprehensive underlying theory of our physical world a "final theory". Can such a theory be tested? A quantum theory of gravity must be formulated in 10 dimensions, so obviously testing it experimentally requires projecting it onto our 4D world (called "compactification"). Most string theorists study theories, including aspects such as AdS/CFT, not phenomena, and are not much interested in testing theories beyond the Standard Model about our world. Compactified theories generically have many realistic features whose necessary presence provides some tests, such as gravity, Yang-Mills forces like the Standard Model ones, chiral fermions that lead to parity violation, softly broken supersymmetry, Higgs physics, families, hierarchical fermion masses and more. All tests of theories in physics have always depended on assumptions and approximate calculations, and tests of compactified string/M-theories do too. String phenomenologists have also formulated so...
Fusion programs in applied plasma physics. Final report, fiscal years 1989--1991
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-02-01
The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA`s experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics.
Theory of density fluctuations in strongly radiative plasmas
Cross, J. E.; Mabey, P.; Gericke, D. O.; Gregori, G.
2016-03-01
Derivation of the dynamic structure factor, an important parameter linking experimental and theoretical work in dense plasmas, is possible starting from hydrodynamic equations. Here we obtain, by modifying the governing hydrodynamic equations, a new form of the dynamic structure factor which includes radiative terms. The inclusion of such terms has an effect on the structure factor at high temperatures, which suggests that its effect must be taken into consideration in such regimes.
The plasma physics of thermal conduction in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters
Reynolds, Christopher
Most of the baryons in a galaxy cluster reside in a hot (10-100 million K) and tenuous gaseous atmosphere confined by the gravitational potential of the cluster's dark matter halo. Understanding the microphysics of this intracluster medium (ICM), particularly the transport processes such as thermal conduction and viscosity, is important to any understanding of the thermodynamic state of ICM atmospheres. For example, the current paradigm is that radiative losses in the ICM core are offset by energy from a central jetted active galactic nucleus (AGN), preventing a cooling catastrophe in the cluster core. However, the mechanism by which the jet-injected energy is thermalized in the ICM is highly uncertain - the dissipation of waves or turbulence by thermal conduction or plasma viscosity is a leading contender. A knowledge of thermal conduction in the ICM is also important for any attempts to understand the global temperature profiles of clusters, with consequences for e.g. cosmological studies based on observations of the SunyaevZeldovich (SZ) effect. The basic physics of thermal conduction in the ICM is very poorly understood, however, leading to a huge uncertainty in the relevant coefficients. The ICM resides in a poorly studied regime of plasma physics - it is a highly magnetized (gyroradii path), high-beta (thermal pressure >> magnetic pressure), and weakly collisional (mean-free path only moderately less than global scale lengths) plasma. Thermal conduction will be strongly suppressed perpendicular to magnetic fields lines. But even along field lines, the growth of small scale and fast kinetic instabilities may strongly suppress thermal conduction. Hence the usual assumption, that conduction along the field has its classical Spitzer value, has a shaky theoretical basis and may well be wildly inaccurate. In this proposal, we use analytical theory and computer models to explore thermal conduction in ICM-like plasmas. Recently, we have found that a strong heat
Laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goyon C.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In the shock ignition scheme, the ICF target is first compressed with a long (nanosecond pulse before creating a convergent shock with a short (∼100 ps pulse to ignite thermonuclear reactions. This short pulse is typically (∼2.1015–1016 W/cm2 above LPI (Laser Plasma Instabilities thresholds. The plasma is in a regime where the electron temperature is expected to be very high (2–4 keV and the laser coupling to the plasma is not well understood. Emulating LPI in the corona requires large and hot plasmas produced by high-energy lasers. We conducted experiments on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser, 10 kJ at 3ω and the LULI2000 (0.4 kJ at 2ω facilities, to approach these conditions and study absorption and LPI produced by a high intensity beam in preformed plasmas. After introducing the main risks associated with the short pulse propagation, we present the latest experiment we conducted on LPI in relevant conditions for shock ignition.
Physics on all scales. Scalar-tensor theories of quantum gravity in particle physics and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henz, Tobias
2016-05-10
In this thesis, we investigate dilaton quantum gravity using a functional renormalization group approach. We derive and discuss flow equations both in the background field approximation and using a vertex expansion as well as solve the fixed point equations globally to show how realistic gravity, connecting ultraviolet and infrared physics, can be realized on a pure fixed point trajectory by virtue of spontaneous breaking of scale invariance. The emerging physical system features a dynamically generated moving Planck scale resembling the Newton coupling as well as slow roll inflation with an exponentially decreasing effective cosmological constant that vanishes completely in the infrared. The moving Planck scale might make quantum gravity experimentally accessible at a different energy scale than previously believed. We therefore not only provide further evidence for the existence of a consistent quantum theory of gravity based on general relativity, but also offer potential solutions towards the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems, thereby opening up exciting opportunities for further research.
JINA Workshop Nuclear Physics in Hot Dense Dynamic Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kritcher, A L; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Libby, S; Chen, M; Wilson, B; Knauer, J; Mcnabb, D; Caggiano, J; Bleauel, D; Weideking, M; Kozhuharov, C; Brandau, C; Stoehlker, T; Meot, V; Gosselin, G; Morel, P; Schneider, D; Bernstein, L A
2011-03-07
Measuring NEET and NEEC is relevant for probing stellar cross-sections and testing atomic models in hot plasmas. Using NEEC and NEET we can excite nuclear levels in laboratory plasmas: (1) NIF: Measure effect of excited nuclear levels on (n,{gamma}) cross-sections, 60% and never been measured; (2) Omega, Test cross-sections for creating these excited levels via NEEC and NEET. Will allow us to test models that estimate resonance overlap of atomic states with the nucleus: (1) Average Atom model (AA) (CEA&LLNL), single average wave-function potential; (2) Super Transition Array (STA) model (LLNL), More realistic individual configuration potentials NEET experimental data is scarce and not in a plasma environment, NEEC has not yet been observed.
Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis
2015-01-01
Quantum theory is one of the most successful theories in physics. Because of its abstract, mathematical, and counter-intuitive nature, many students have problems learning the theory, just as teachers experience difficulty in teaching it. Pedagogical research on quantum theory has mainly focused on cognitive issues. However, affective issues about…
Chen, James
2017-09-01
Solar eruptions, observed as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), are the most energetic visible plasma phenomena in the solar system. CMEs are the central component of solar eruptions and are detected as coherent magnetized plasma structures expanding in the solar wind (SW). If they reach the Earth, their magnetic fields can drive strong disturbances in the ionosphere, causing deleterious effects on terrestrial technological systems. The scientific and practical importance of CMEs has led to numerous satellite missions observing the Sun and SW. This has culminated in the ability to continuously observe CMEs expanding from the Sun to 1 AU, where the magnetic fields and plasma parameters of the evolved structures ("ejecta") can be measured in situ. Until recently, the physical mechanisms responsible for eruptions were major unanswered questions in solar and by extension stellar physics. New observations of CME dynamics and associated eruptive phenomena are now providing more stringent constraints on models, and quantitative theory-data comparisons are helping to establish the correct mechanism of solar eruptions, particularly the driving force of CMEs and the evolution of their magnetic fields in three dimensions. Recent work has demonstrated that theoretical results can simultaneously replicate the observed CME position-time data, temporal profiles of associated solar flare soft X-ray emissions, and the magnetic field and plasma parameters of CME ejecta measured at 1 AU. Thus, a new theoretical framework with testable predictions is emerging to model eruptions and the coupling of CME ejecta to geomagnetic disturbances. The key physics in CME dynamics is the Lorentz hoop force acting on toroidal "flux ropes," scalable from tokamaks and similar laboratory plasma structures. The present paper reviews the latest advances in observational and theoretical understanding of CMEs with the emphasis on quantitative comparisons of theory and observation.
Interaction physics of multipicosecond Petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma.
Kemp, A J; Divol, L
2012-11-09
We study the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with overdense plasma over several picoseconds, using two- and three-dimensional kinetic particle simulations. Sustained irradiation with non-diffraction-limited pulses at relativistic intensities yields conditions that differ qualitatively from what is experimentally available today. Nonlinear saturation of laser-driven density perturbations at the target surface causes recurrent emissions of plasma, which stabilize the surface and keep absorption continuously high. This dynamics leads to the acceleration of three distinct groups of electrons up to energies many times the laser ponderomotive potential. We discuss their energy distribution for applications like the fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion.
TEBPP: Theoretical and Experimental study of Beam-Plasma-Physics
Anderson, H. R.; Bernstein, W.; Linson, L. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Hallinan, T. J.; Leinbach, H.
1980-01-01
The interaction of an electron beam (0 to 10 keV, 0 to 1.5 Amp) with the plasma and neutral atmospheres at 200 to 400 km altitude is studied with emphasis on applications to near Earth and cosmical plasmas. The interaction occurs in four space time regions: (1) near electron gun, beam coming into equilibrium with medium; (2) equilibrium propagation in ionosphere; (3) ahead of beam pulse, temporal and spatial precursors; (4) behind a beam pulse. While region 2 is of the greatest interest, it is essential to study Region 1 because it determines the characteristics of the beam as it enters 2 through 4.
Analysis of Physics Processes in the AC Plasma Torch Discharge under High Pressure
Safronov, A. A.; Vasilieva, O. B.; Dudnik, J. D.; E Kuznetsov, V.; Kuchina, J. A.; Shiryaev, V. N.; Pavlov, A. V.
2017-04-01
The paper is devoted to investigation of electrophysical processes in the electric discharge generated by a three-phase AC plasma torch when using a high pressure inert working gas. AC plasma torch design with end electrodes intended for work on inert gases at pressures up to 81 bar is studied. Current-voltage characteristics for different gas flow rates and pressures are presented. Physical processes characteristics of the arising voltage ripples which depend on various working parameters of the plasma torch have been investigated. Arc burning processes in the electric discharge chamber of the three-phase AC plasma torch at various working parameters were photographed.
Theory of current-free double layers in plasmas
Goswami, K. S.; Saharia, K.; Schamel, H.
2008-06-01
The existence of current-free double layers in unmagnetized plasma is studied by means of the quasipotential method applied to the Vlasov-Poisson system. Crucial for its existence are trapped particle populations that are characterized by notches (dips) in the velocity distribution functions at resonant velocity becoming flat at large amplitude limit. The potential drop across the double layer, or its amplitude ψ, can be arbitrarily strong covering the whole range 0pressures. It is, hence, the effective electron (ion) temperature increase (decrease) with increasing potential, caused by the trapped particles, which is responsible for the existence of this two-parameter family of solutions.
Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-06-01
The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)
Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-length turbulence in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)
2001-08-01
The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for the micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but at a suppressed level. A new type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp-type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. The influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of the internal transport barrier. Finally, the non-local heat transport due to the long-wavelength fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wavelength fluctuations, is analysed and its impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)
Analysis of modern optimal control theory applied to plasma position and current control in TFTR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firestone, M.A.
1981-09-01
The strong compression TFTR discharge has been segmented into regions where linear dynamics can approximate the plasma's interaction with the OH and EF power supply systems. The dynamic equations for these regions are utilized within the linear optimal control theory framework to provide active feedback gains to control the plasma position and current. Methods are developed to analyze and quantitatively evaluate the quality of control in a nonlinear, more realistic simulation. Tests are made of optimal control theory's assumptions and requirements, and the feasibility of this method for TFTR is assessed.
Theory of the Jitter radiation in a magnetized plasma accompanying temperature gradient
Hattori, Makoto
2016-01-01
The linear stability of a magnetized plasma accompanying temperature gradient was reexamined by using plasma kinetic theory. The anisotropic velocity distribution function was decomposed into two components. One is proportional to the temperature gradient parallel to and the other is proportional to the temperature gradient perpendicular to the back ground magnetic field. Since the amplitude of the anisotropic velocity distribution function is proportional to the heat conductivity and the heat conductivities perpendicular to the magnetic field is strongly reduced, the first component of the anisotropic velocity distribution function is predominant. The anisotropic velocity distribution function induced by the temperature gradient along the back ground magnetic field drives plasma kinetic instability and the circular polarized magnetic plasma waves are excited. The instability is almost identical to Weibel instability in weakly magnetized plasma. However, depending on whether wave vectors of modes are parallel...
Plasma-based accelerator structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1999-12-01
Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porkolab, M.
1992-06-01
This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas.
Examining the Effects of Oxygen Plasma on Physical and Dyeing Properties of Some Cellulose Fibers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dilara KOCAK
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Cotton, Agava Americana and artichoke fibers were treated with plasma with oxygen gas in Diener Vacuum Plasma for 1, 3 and 5 minutes, with 40 kHz low frequency and at 0.3 mbar pressure. After the plasma treatment, fibers' weight loss %, tensile strength, elongation, fiber diameter, surface topography (SEM, colour changes, and light and washing fastness properties were investigated. A positive increase was observed for mechanical and fastness properties after 5 min plasma treatment. The effects of plasma treatments on dyeing properties of fibers were studied. Dyeing properties of plasma treated fibers were improved after 3 min. treatment. SEM results were also proved the improved physical properties and colour changes due to the rough surface structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9368
[Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].
Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L
2001-01-01
For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an
General theory of regular biorthogonal pairs and its physical operators
Inoue, H.
2016-08-01
In this paper, we introduce a general theory of regular biorthogonal sequences and its physical operators. Biorthogonal sequences {ϕn} and {ψn} in a Hilbert space H are said to be regular if Span {ϕn} and Span {ψn} are dense in H . The first purpose is to show that there exists a non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf in H defined by an orthonormal basis (ONB) f ≡ {fn} in H such that ϕn = Tffn and ψ n = Tf - 1 f n , n = 0, 1, …, and such an ONB f is unique. The second purpose is to define and study the lowering operators Af and Bf † , the raising operators Bf and Af † , and the number operators Nf and Nf † determined by the non-singular positive self-adjoint operator Tf. These operators connect with quasi-Hermitian quantum mechanics and its relatives. This paper clarifies and simplifies the mathematical structure of this framework and minimizes the required assumptions.
Bender, Carl
2017-01-01
The theory of complex variables is extremely useful because it helps to explain the mathematical behavior of functions of a real variable. Complex variable theory also provides insight into the nature of physical theories. For example, it provides a simple and beautiful picture of quantization and it explains the underlying reason for the divergence of perturbation theory. By using complex-variable methods one can generalize conventional Hermitian quantum theories into the complex domain. The result is a new class of parity-time-symmetric (PT-symmetric) theories whose remarkable physical properties have been studied and verified in many recent laboratory experiments.
The Gaussian Radial Basis Function Method for Plasma Kinetic Theory
Hirvijoki, Eero; Belli, Emily; Embréus, Ola
2015-01-01
A fundamental macroscopic description of a magnetized plasma is the Vlasov equation supplemented by the nonlinear inverse-square force Fokker-Planck collision operator [Rosenbluth et al., Phys. Rev., 107, 1957]. The Vlasov part describes advection in a six-dimensional phase space whereas the collision operator involves friction and diffusion coefficients that are weighted velocity-space integrals of the particle distribution function. The Fokker-Planck collision operator is an integro-differential, bilinear operator, and numerical discretization of the operator is far from trivial. In this letter, we describe a new approach to discretize the entire kinetic system based on an expansion in Gaussian Radial Basis functions (RBFs). This approach is particularly well-suited to treat the collision operator because the friction and diffusion coefficients can be analytically calculated. Although the RBF method is known to be a powerful scheme for the interpolation of scattered multidimensional data, Gaussian RBFs also...
Theory of self-organized critical transport in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; LeBrun, M.J.; Kim, J.Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1995-07-01
A theoretical and computational study of the ion temperature gradient and {eta}{sub i} instabilities in tokamak plasmas has been carried out. In toroidal geometry the modes have a radially extended structure and their eigenfrequencies are constant over many rational surfaces that are coupled through toroidicity. These nonlocal properties of the ITG modes impose strong constraint on the drift mode fluctuations and the amciated transport, showing a self-organized characteristic. As any significant deviation away from marginal stability causes rapid temperature relaxation and intermittent bursts, the modes hover near marginality and exhibit strong kinetic characteristics. As a result, the temperature relaxation is self-semilar and nonlocal, leading to a radially increasing heat diffusivity. The nonlocal transport leads to the Bohm-like diffusion scaling. The heat input regulates the deviation of the temperature gradient away from marginality. The obtained transport scalings and properties are globally consistent with experimental observations of L-mode charges.
Drift waves and chaos in a LAPTAG plasma physics experiment
Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Birge-Lee, Henry; Wise, Joe; Katz, Cami; Wolman, Ben; Baker, Bob; Marmie, Ken; Patankar, Vedang; Bridges, Gabriel; Buckley-Bonanno, Samuel; Buckley, Susan; Ge, Andrew; Thomas, Sam
2016-02-01
In a project involving an alliance between universities and high schools, a magnetized plasma column with a steep pressure gradient was established in an experimental device. A two-dimensional probe measured fluctuations in the plasma column in a plane transverse to the background magnetic field. Correlation techniques determined that the fluctuations were that of electrostatic drift waves. The time series data were used to generate the Bandt-Pompe entropy and Jensen-Shannon complexity for the data. These quantities, when plotted against one another, revealed that a combination of drift waves and other background fluctuations were a deterministically chaotic system. Our analysis can be used to tell the difference between deterministic chaos and random noise, making it a potentially useful technique in nonlinear dynamics.
Energy Efficient Transient: Plasma Ignition: Physics and Technology
2007-08-30
Wang from the University of Southern California on modeling the TPI-assisted combustion. The ethylene data taken on the PDE is intended to assist this...production of said species will assist in the development of a model for transient plasma ignition greatly. The plan for a two week experiment is to...Back-Lighted Thyratron ," 27th International Power Modulator Conference 2006, Washington, D.C., 14-18 May 2006. P.I. - Martin A. Gundersen "Energy
Innovative research of plasma physics for life sciences
Boonyawan, D.
2017-06-01
In medicine, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for the medical treatment is a new field in plasma application, called plasma medicine. CAP contains mix of excited atoms and molecules, UV photons, charged particles as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Typical species in air-CAPs are O3, OH, NxOx, and HNOx. The current developments in this field have fuelled the hope that CAP could be an interesting new therapeutic approach in the treatment of cancer. CAP apparently demonstrated effect on cancer cell apoptosis which did not induce cell necrosis or disruption. Moreover, CAP seemed to be selective for cancer cells since it was more effective in tumor cells than in normal non-neoplastic cells. In bioscience, dentistry and veterinary medicine : Since CAP, is delivered at room temperature, which results in less damaging effects on living tissue, while still has the efficiency in disinfection and sterilization. Recent studies proved that it is able to inactivate gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, fungi, virus, spore, various parasites, and foreign organisms or pathogens without harming tissue. Moreover, cold plasma has been used effectively in medical field such as dental use, inducing apoptosis of malignant cells, stopping bleeding, promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration. Sericin hydrolysates, originating from silkworm is found support cell proliferation, expand cell adhesion and increase cell yield. The covalent linkage between a bioactive protein molecule and polystyrene dish surface via a carbon intermediate layer can slow down the release rate of protein compound into the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. We found that a-C films and a-C:N2 films show good attachment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). All of carbon modified-Polystyrene(PS) dishes revealed the less release rate of sericin molecules into PBS solution than PS control.
The contribution of Nikola Tesla to plasma physics and current status of plasmas that he studied
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petrović Zoran Lj.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available One of the main Interests in science of Nikola Tesla were gas discharges plasmas, their application in lighting and in production of ozone as well as their role in conduction of electricity through the atmosphere. In particular Tesla is well known as the first person to produce rf plasmas. Such plasmas in the present day constitute the main technology required to produce integrated circuits (IC and have been essential in the revolution that resulted from IC technologies. In addition Tesla participated in studies of arcs especially arcs used as a source of light, corona discharges required to induce plasma chemical reactions and produce ozone and was involved in various aspects of gas breakdown and gaseous dielectrics. His ideas, level of his understanding and current status of these fields are discussed in this review.
PREFACE: 4th International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010
2014-06-01
Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010 The Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'10) is organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from July 5 to July 10, 2010. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007), IWSSPP'08, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 207 (2010), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 34 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing
Redox Stimulation of Human THP-1 Monocytes in Response to Cold Physical Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sander Bekeschus
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In plasma medicine, cold physical plasma delivers a delicate mixture of reactive components to cells and tissues. Recent studies suggested a beneficial role of cold plasma in wound healing. Yet, the biological processes related to the redox modulation via plasma are not fully understood. We here used the monocytic cell line THP-1 as a model to test their response to cold plasma in vitro. Intriguingly, short term plasma treatment stimulated cell growth. Longer exposure only modestly compromised cell viability but apparently supported the growth of cells that were enlarged in size and that showed enhanced metabolic activity. A significantly increased mitochondrial content in plasma treated cells supported this notion. On THP-1 cell proteome level, we identified an increase of protein translation with key regulatory proteins being involved in redox regulation (hypoxia inducible factor 2α, differentiation (retinoic acid signaling and interferon inducible factors, and cell growth (Yin Yang 1. Regulation of inflammation is a key element in many chronic diseases, and we found a significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and of the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8. Together, these results foster the view that cold physical plasma modulates the redox balance and inflammatory processes in wound related cells.
Cremaschini, Claudio; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír
2013-01-01
The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal MHD theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modelling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion discs. However, accretion disc coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can be determined also in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution functio...
Quantum theory of the dielectric constant of a magnetized plasma and astrophysical applications. I.
Canuto, V.; Ventura, J.
1972-01-01
A quantum mechanical treatment of an electron plasma in a constant and homogeneous magnetic field is considered, with the aim of (1) defining the range of validity of the magnetoionic theory (2) studying the deviations from this theory, in applications involving high densities, and intense magnetic field. While treating the magnetic field exactly, a perturbation approach in the photon field is used to derive general expressions for the dielectric tensor. Numerical estimates on the range of applicability of the magnetoionic theory are given for the case of the 'one-dimensional' electron gas, where only the lowest Landau level is occupied.
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Benincasa, Paolo
2005-01-01
Gauge/string correspondence provides an efficient method to investigate gauge theories. In this talk we discuss the results of the paper (to appear) by P. Benincasa, A. Buchel and A. O. Starinets, where the propagation of sound waves is studied in a strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. In particular, a prediction for the speed of sound as well as for the bulk viscosity is made for the N=2* gauge theory in the high temperature limit. As expected, the results achieved show a devi...
Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter
Henning, Brian Quinn
The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark
Theorems on Estimating Perturbative Coefficients in Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samuel, Mark
2003-06-25
The authors present rigorous proofs for several theorems on using Pade approximants to estimate coefficients in Perturbative Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics. As a result, they find new trigonometric and other identities where the estimates based on this approach are exact. They discuss hypergeometric functions, as well as series from both Perturbative Quantum Field Theory and Statistical Physics.
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1992-12-31
This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters achieved in experimental devices for fiscal year 1992; tokamak fusion test reactor; princeton beta experiment-modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; tokamak physics experiment/steady-state advanced tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; plasma processing: Deposition and etching of thin films; pure electron plasma experiments; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; high-field magnet project; engineering department; environment, safety, and health and quality assurance; technology transfer; office of human resources and administration; PPPL invention disclosures for fiscal year 1992; office of resource management; graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: program in plasma science and technology; and science education program.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. A. Treumann
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped
Physics and chemistry of plasma-assisted combustion.
Starikovskiy, Andrey
2015-08-13
There are several mechanisms that affect a gas when using discharge plasma to initiate combustion or to stabilize a flame. There are two thermal mechanisms-the homogeneous and inhomogeneous heating of the gas due to 'hot' atom thermalization and vibrational and electronic energy relaxation. The homogeneous heating causes the acceleration of the chemical reactions. The inhomogeneous heating generates flow perturbations, which promote increased turbulence and mixing. Non-thermal mechanisms include the ionic wind effect (the momentum transfer from an electric field to the gas due to the space charge), ion and electron drift (which can lead to additional fluxes of active radicals in the gradient flows in the electric field) and the excitation, dissociation and ionization of the gas by e-impact, which leads to non-equilibrium radical production and changes the kinetic mechanisms of ignition and combustion. These mechanisms, either together or separately, can provide additional combustion control which is necessary for ultra-lean flames, high-speed flows, cold low-pressure conditions of high-altitude gas turbine engine relight, detonation initiation in pulsed detonation engines and distributed ignition control in homogeneous charge-compression ignition engines, among others. Despite the lack of knowledge in mechanism details, non-equilibrium plasma demonstrates great potential for controlling ultra-lean, ultra-fast, low-temperature flames and is extremely promising technology for a very wide range of applications.
Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1
Howard, Stephen
2012-10-01
Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.
Study of Anti-Hydrogen and Plasma Physics 4.Observation of Antiproton Beams and Nonneutral Plasmas
Hori, Masaki; Fujiwara, Makoto; Kuroda, Naofumi
2004-01-01
Diagnostics of antiproton beams and nonneutral plasmas are described in this chapter. Parallel plate secondary electron emission detectors are used to non-destructively observe the beam position and intensity without loss. Plastic scintillation tracking detectors are useful in determining the position of annihilations of antiprotons in the trap. Three-dimensional imaging of antiprotons in a Penning trap is discussed. The unique capability of antimatter particle imaging has allowed the observation of the spatial distribution of particle loss in a trap. Radial loss is localized to small spots, strongly breaking the azimuthal symmetry expected for an ideal trap. By observing electrostatic eigen-modes of nonneutral plasmas trapped in the Multi-ring electrode trap, the non-destructive measurement of plasma parameters is performed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
The LHD experimental group has presented nineteen papers at the 28th European Physical Society Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics (Madeira Tecnopolo, Funchal, Portugal, 18-22 June 2001). The contributed papers are collected in this report. (author)
Paradigm Changes in High Temperature Plasma Physics Research and Implications for ITER
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hyeon K. Park
2008-02-22
Significant high temperature plasma research in both the magnetic and inertial confinement regimes led to the official launching of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project which is aimed at challenging controlled fusion power for human kind. In particular, such an endeavor originated from the fruitful research outcomes from the world wide magnetic confinement devices (primarily based on the Tokamak approach) mainly in advanced countries (US, EU, and Japan). In recent years, all new steady state capable Tokamak devices are operated and/or constructed in Asian countries and incidentally, the majority of the ITER consortium consists of Asian countries. This provides an opportunity to revisit the unresolved essential physics issues and/or extend the understanding of the transient physics to the required steady state operation so that ITER can benefit from these efforts. The core physics of a magnetically confined hot plasma has two essential components; plasma stability and cross-field energy transport physics. Complete understanding of these two areas is critical for the successful operation of ITER and perhaps, Demo reactor construction. In order to have stable high beta plasmas with a sufficiently long confinement time, the physics of an abrupt disruption and sudden deterioration of the energy transport must be understood and conquered. Physics issues associated with transient harmful MHD behavior and turbulence based energy transport are extremely complicated and theoretical understanding needs a clear validation and verification with a new research approach such as a multi-dimensional visualization.
Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory
Patterson, James
2010-01-01
Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-01
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Chitambar, Eric; Gour, Gilad
2016-07-15
Considerable work has recently been directed toward developing resource theories of quantum coherence. In this Letter, we establish a criterion of physical consistency for any resource theory. This criterion requires that all free operations in a given resource theory be implementable by a unitary evolution and projective measurement that are both free operations in an extended resource theory. We show that all currently proposed basis-dependent theories of coherence fail to satisfy this criterion. We further characterize the physically consistent resource theory of coherence and find its operational power to be quite limited. After relaxing the condition of physical consistency, we introduce the class of dephasing-covariant incoherent operations as a natural generalization of the physically consistent operations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the convertibility of qubit states using dephasing-covariant operations, and we show that these conditions also hold for other well-known classes of incoherent operations.
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Benincasa, P; Starinets, A O; Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Starinets, Andrei O.
2005-01-01
Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2^* supersymmetric SU(N_c) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N_c and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benincasa, Paolo [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada); Starinets, Andrei O. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2J 2W9 (Canada)]. E-mail: starina@perimeterinstitute.ca
2006-01-16
Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2* supersymmetric SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N{sub c} and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.
The physical Church-Turing thesis and the principles of quantum theory
Arrighi, Pablo
2011-01-01
Notoriously, quantum computation shatters complexity theory, but is innocuous to computability theory. Yet several works have shown how quantum theory as it stands could breach the physical Church-Turing thesis. We draw a clear line as to when this is the case, in a way that is inspired by Gandy. Gandy formulates postulates about physics, such as homogeneity of space and time, bounded density and velocity of information --- and proves that the physical Church-Turing thesis is a consequence of these postulates. We provide a quantum version of the theorem. Thus this approach exhibits a formal non-trivial interplay between theoretical physics symmetries and computability assumptions.
1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas. Proceedings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichimaru, S. [ed.] [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tajima, T. [ed.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1991-10-01
The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.
1991 US-Japan workshop on Nuclear Fusion in Dense Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ichimaru, S. (ed.) (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Tajima, T. (ed.) (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies)
1991-10-01
The scientific areas covered at the Workshop may be classified into the following subfields: (1) basic theory of dense plasma physics and its interface with atomic physics and nuclear physics; (2) physics of dense z-pinches, ICF plasmas etc; (3) stellar interior plasmas; (4) cold fusion; and (5) other dense plasmas.