WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma physics phenomena

  1. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.

    2001-01-01

    The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self

  2. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A Surjalal

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.

  3. Physical and metallurgical phenomena during simulations of plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossa, F.; Cambini, M.; Quataert, D.; Rigon, G.; Schiller, P.

    1988-01-01

    The metallographic analysis executed on austenitic stainless steel specimens subjected to simulated plasma disruptions allows us to present a complete picture of the most important phenomena. (i) The experiments show that for the calculation of melt layer and evaporation it is necessary to take considerable convection in the melt layer into account. (ii) The rapid solidification of the melt layer leads to a change in the crystalline structure and to the formation of cracks. (iii) Alloying elements with a high vapour pressure evaporate preferentially. (iv) The stresses generated during cooling induce in some case phase changes. (v) During neutron irradiation helium is formed in all first wall materials by (n, α) processes. This helium forms bubbles under disruptions. (orig.)

  4. Chaotic phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1991-08-01

    It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)

  5. Basic physical phenomena, neutron production and scaling of the dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    This paper presents an attempt at establishing a model theory for the dense plasma focus in order to present a consistent interpretation of the basic physical phenomena leading to neutron production from both acceleration and thermal processes. To achieve this, the temporal history of the focus is divided into the compression of the plasma sheath, a qiescent and very dense phase with ensuing expansion, and an instable phase where the focus plasma is disrupted by instabilities. Finally, the decay of density, velocity and thermal fields is considered. Under the assumption that Io 2 /sigmaoRo 2 = const and to/Tc = const, scaling laws for plasma focus devices are derived. It is shown that while generally the neutron yield scales with the fourth power of maximum current, neutron production from thermal processes becomes increasingly important for large devices, while in the small devices neutron production from acceleration processes is by far predominant. (orig.) [de

  6. Physical phenomena in a low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma and in MHD generators with non-equilibrium conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)

  7. Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  8. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  9. Plasma phenomena around comets: interaction with the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.; Szegoe, K.

    1987-08-01

    The most important plasma physical experimental data measured during the cometary missions are summarized. These data do not include tail phenomena. Theoretical considerations are also presented concerning the upstream and bow shock regions. (author) 47 refs.; 15 figs

  10. Echo phenomena in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of echo phenomenon in different plasma media: laboratory and cosmic plasma, metals and semiconductors is analyzed to get a more comprehensive idea on collective processes in a plasma and for practical applications in radiophysics and plasma diagnostics. The echo phenomenon permitted to confirm a reversible nature of the Landau damping, to prove the fact that the information on perturbation is conserved in a plasma (as non-damping oscillations of the distribution function) even after disappearing of the macroscopic field. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the velocity is measured, microturbulences in a plasma are investigated. New ways of the plasma wave conversion are suggested, as well as ''lightning'' of super-critical plasma layers and regions of plasma non-transparency. Prospective advantages of using echo for studying the mechanisms of charged particle interaction with the surface bounding a plasma are revealed

  11. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  12. Atomic phenomena in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1981-03-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) the plasma environment, (2) perturbations of atomic structure, (3) perturbations of atomic collisions, (4) formation of spectral lines, and (5) dielectronic recombination

  13. Maxwell Prize Talk: Scaling Laws for the Dynamical Plasma Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryutov, Livermore, Ca 94550, Usa, D. D.

    2017-10-01

    The scaling and similarity technique is a powerful tool for developing and testing reduced models of complex phenomena, including plasma phenomena. The technique has been successfully used in identifying appropriate simplified models of transport in quasistationary plasmas. In this talk, the similarity and scaling arguments will be applied to highly dynamical systems, in which temporal evolution of the plasma leads to a significant change of plasma dimensions, shapes, densities, and other parameters with respect to initial state. The scaling and similarity techniques for dynamical plasma systems will be presented as a set of case studies of problems from various domains of the plasma physics, beginning with collisonless plasmas, through intermediate collisionalities, to highly collisional plasmas describable by the single-fluid MHD. Basic concepts of the similarity theory will be introduced along the way. Among the results discussed are: self-similarity of Langmuir turbulence driven by a hot electron cloud expanding into a cold background plasma; generation of particle beams in disrupting pinches; interference between collisionless and collisional phenomena in the shock physics; similarity for liner-imploded plasmas; MHD similarities with an emphasis on the effect of small-scale (turbulent) structures on global dynamics. Relations between astrophysical phenomena and scaled laboratory experiments will be discussed.

  14. Plasma boundary phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.

    1989-06-01

    The focus of this review is on processes occurring at the edge, and on the connection between boundary plasma - the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the radiating layer - and central plasma processes. Techniques used for edge diagnosis are reviewed and basic experimental information (n e and T e ) is summarized. Simple models of the SOL are summarized, and the most important effects of the boundary plasma - the influence on the fuel particles, impurities, and energy - on tokamak operation dealt with. Methods of manipulating and controlling edge conditions in tokamaks and the experimental data base for the edge during auxiliary heating of tokamaks are reviewed. Fluctuations and asymmetries at the edge are also covered. (9 tabs., 134 figs., 879 refs.)

  15. Chaotic phenomena in plasma 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.

    1993-10-01

    To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science and ended on March 1993. This is the report on the activity which contains both experimental and theoretical works. (author) 139 refs

  16. Physical domains in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liboff, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Do the plasma in the sun's core and the electron-conduction plasma in a semiconductor behave in the same way? This question is both fundamental and practical, for plasma physics plays a role in a vast area of natural phenomena and in many engineering devices. Understanding the cosmos, or designing a computer chip or a thermonuclear fusion reactor, requires first of all a realization of equations of motion that are appropriate to the particular problem. Similar physical differences occur in engineered structures. The plasmas in most thermonuclear fusion devices are basically like the plasma in the core of the sun: weakly coupled and classical - that is, obeying Newton's laws and Maxwell's equations. The conduction electrons in a semiconductor, on the other hand, obey the laws of quantum mechanics

  17. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  18. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  19. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  20. Implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, T.; Montalvo, E.; Barnes, D.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Tajima, T.

    1986-11-01

    A direct method for the implicit particle simulation of electromagnetic phenomena in magnetized, multi-dimensional plasmas is developed. The method is second-order accurate for ωΔt < 1, with ω a characteristic frequency and time step Δt. Direct time integration of the implicit equations with simplified space differencing allows the consistent inclusion of finite particle size. Decentered time differencing of the Lorentz force permits the efficient simulation of strongly magnetized plasmas. A Fourier-space iterative technique for solving the implicit field corrector equation, based on the separation of plasma responses perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field and longitudinal and transverse to the wavevector, is described. Wave propagation properties in a uniform plasma are in excellent agreement with theoretical expectations. Applications to collisionless tearing and coalescence instabilities further demonstrate the usefulness of the algorithm. (author)

  1. Radiation phenomena of plasma waves, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro.

    1978-06-01

    The fundamental radiation theories on radiation phenomena of plasma waves are presented. As the fundamental concepts of propagating waves, phase, group and ray velocities are explained, and phase velocity surface, group velocity surface, ray velocity surface and refractive index surface are considered. These concepts are important in anisotropic plasma. Fundamental equations for electron plasma waves in a fluid model and fundamental equations for ion plasma waves can be expressed with the above mentioned concepts. Kuehl derived the formulas for general radiation fields of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are radiated from an arbitrary current source. Fundamental equations for kinetic model are the Vlasov equation and Maxwell equations. By investigating electromagnetic radiation in cold anisotropic plasma, Kuehl found the important behavior that the fields radiated from a source become very large in certain directions for some ranges of plasma parameters. The fact is the so-called high frequency resonance cone. A fundamental formula for quasi-static radiation from an oscillating point source in warm anisotropic plasma includes the near field of electromagnetic mode and the field of electrostatic mode, which are radiated from the source. This paper presents the formula in a generalized form. (Kato, T.)

  2. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-10-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .

  3. Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable

  4. Computer simulation of phenomena in plasma via particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, M.V.; Bittencourt, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    The method of plasma computer simulation via particles has become an efficient tool to investigate the time and spatial evolution of various physical phenomena in plasmas. This method is based on the study of the individual plasma particle motions interacting with one another and with the externally applied fields. Although fairly simple, it allows a non-linear analysis of complex plasma physical phenomena and to obtain diagnostics even for regions of the system where experimental measurements would be difficult to make. In this report, a general view of the electrostatic one-dimensional computer code ES1, originally developed by A. Bruce Langdon, is presented. The main mathematical artifice in this code is the use of a spatial grid in which various plasma particles are represented by ''superparticles'', using a given shape function. The principal characteristics of the model, the approximations made and the mathematical methods used to solve the equations involved, are described. The specification of the input parameters which characterize the system, the initial conditions and the graphic diagnostics which can be utilized, are also described. Results are presented illustrating graphically the behavior of the plasma oscillations, the two-stream instability and the beam-plasma instability. (author) [pt

  5. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  6. New phenomena in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we discuss two new concepts in neutrino physics: The neutrino Moessbauer effect and non-standard neutrino interactions. We show that neutrinos emitted and absorbed in recoil-free processes (Moessbauer neutrinos) can oscillate in spite of their near monochromaticity. We support this statement by quantum mechanical wave packet arguments and by a quantum field theoretical (QFT) calculation of the combined rate of Moessbauer neutrino emission, propagation and absorption. The QFT approach does not require any a priori assumptions on the neutrino wave function, and it allows us to include a realistic treatment of the different mechanisms leading to broadening of the emission and absorption lines. In the second part of this work, we study the phenomenology of non-standard neutrino interactions (NSI). We classifying the allowed NSI operators according to their impact on future oscillation experiments and present numerical results for the NSI sensitivities of reactor, superbeam and neutrino factory experiments. We point out that NSI could mimic standard oscillation effects, and might therefore lead to incorrect fit values for the oscillation parameters. For the case of the neutrino factory, we perform a detailed optimisation study to determine the optimum muon energy and detector configuration. (orig.)

  7. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.

    2001-01-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)

  8. Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2000-03-01

    The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)

  9. High frequency parametric wave phenomena and plasma heating: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1975-11-01

    A survey of parametric instabilities in plasma, and associated particle heating, is presented. A brief summary of linear theory is given. The physical mechanism of decay instability, the purely growing mode (oscillating two-stream instability) and soliton and density cavity formation is presented. Effects of density gradients are discussed. Possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms are pointed out. Experimental evidence for the existence of parametric instabilities in both unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas is reviewed in some detail. Experimental observation of plasma heating associated with the presence of parametric instabilities is demonstrated by a number of examples. Possible application of these phenomena to heating of pellets by lasers and heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas by high power microwave sources is discussed

  10. Real time animation of space plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, K.F.; Greenstadt, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In pursuit of real time animation of computer simulated space plasma phenomena, the code was rewritten for the Massively Parallel Processor (MPP). The program creates a dynamic representation of the global bowshock which is based on actual spacecraft data and designed for three dimensional graphic output. This output consists of time slice sequences which make up the frames of the animation. With the MPP, 16384, 512 or 4 frames can be calculated simultaneously depending upon which characteristic is being computed. The run time was greatly reduced which promotes the rapid sequence of images and makes real time animation a foreseeable goal. The addition of more complex phenomenology in the constructed computer images is now possible and work proceeds to generate these images

  11. Understanding the physics of changing mass phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellermeijer, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee

  12. Physical phenomena as sense determinate occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the view of El Naschie's E Infinity theory [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 22 (2004) 495], our physical laws emerge from a chaotic underground, a 'Dirac-sea'. But we have no direct access from our observations to this chaotic world and this implies that the meaning of the correspondence between the phenomena we obtain by our cognition and their causal structures remains hidden to us. The fundamental process which produces our cognition is the 'constitution of sense'. A formal description of this process will be presented. We use Dempster Shafer's belief calculus to define 'belief' and motivate an Anticipation Principle: 'Put the measurements obtained from the world in such an order that the credibility of your forecasts will be maximized.' From this specification of the basic idea of what physical science ideally strives for, we are able to deduce a frame of reference for the formation of phenomena out of arbitrary sets of measurements. Reality is formed by these 'observable phenomena'. In this emerging reality, we recognize characteristic effects and principles of modern physics: Einstein's Postulate of Relativity, Entanglement, and the Quantum Zeno Effect. The presented view of reality is closely related to the ideas that had been presented hundred years ago by Ernst Mach and which recently J. Anandan generalized in his concept of a 'Relational Reality'

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J. W.; Welzel, T.

    2009-05-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  14. Physics and phenomena in pulsed magnetrons: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J W; Welzel, T

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution made to the observation and understanding of the basic physical processes occurring in an important type of magnetized low-pressure plasma discharge, the pulsed magnetron. In industry, these plasma sources are operated typically in reactive mode where a cathode is sputtered in the presence of both chemically reactive and noble gases typically with the power modulated in the mid-frequency (5-350 kHz) range. In this review, we concentrate mostly, however, on physics-based studies carried out on magnetron systems operated in argon. This simplifies the physical-chemical processes occurring and makes interpretation of the observations somewhat easier. Since their first recorded use in 1993 there have been more than 300 peer-reviewed paper publications concerned with pulsed magnetrons, dealing wholly or in part with fundamental observations and basic studies. The fundamentals of these plasmas and the relationship between the plasma parameters and thin film quality regularly have whole sessions at international conferences devoted to them; however, since many different types of magnetron geometries have been used worldwide with different operating parameters the important results are often difficult to tease out. For example, we find the detailed observations of the plasma parameter (particle density and temperature) evolution from experiment to experiment are at best difficult to compare and at worst contradictory. We review in turn five major areas of studies which are addressed in the literature and try to draw out the major results. These areas are: fast electron generation, bulk plasma heating, short and long-term plasma parameter rise and decay rates, plasma potential modulation and transient phenomena. The influence of these phenomena on the ion energy and ion energy flux at the substrate is discussed. This review, although not exhaustive, will serve as a useful guide for more in-depth investigations using the referenced

  15. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  16. 2nd Workshop on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Hora, Heinrich

    1972-01-01

    Paul Harteck Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York When the Maser and the Laser Were discovered, people were speculating if this was the beginning of a new page, or even a new chapter, in the Book of Physics. The Second Workshop on "Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena" held in Hartford made it clear that the perspective had changed, that people now question if the consequences of these discoveries constitute a new chapter, or possibly a new era in Physics. While the papers presented were all stimulating and of out­ standing quality, of special interest were the experiments which demonstrated that triggering of thermonuclear fusion by Laser techniques is indeed in the realm of the possible. Along these lines, I enjoy recalling an anecdote concerning the late F. G. Houtermans. I think that all who knew him will agree that he was an unusual genius and at the same time a very amusing colleague.

  17. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  18. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  19. Physical processes in hot cosmic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, A.G.; Giovannelli, F.

    1990-01-01

    The interpretation of many high energy astrophysical phenomena relies on a detailed knowledge of radiation and transport processes in hot plasmas. The understanding of these plasma properties is one of the aims of terrestrial plasma physics. While the microscopic properties of astrophysical plasmas can hardly be determined experimentally, laboratory plasmas are more easily accessible to experimental techniques, but transient phenomena and the interaction of the plasma with boundaries often make the interpretation of measurements cumbersome. This book contains the talks given at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on astro- and plasma-physics in Vulcano, Sicily, May 29-June 2, 1989. The book focuses on three main areas: radiation transport processes in hot (astrophysical and laboratory) plasmas; magnetic fields; their generation, reconnection and their effects on plasma transport properties; relativistic and ultra-high density plasmas

  20. Electromagnetic induction phenomena in plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovitz, B.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is considered in complex high temperature plasma systems. Thermal energy of such fully ionized plasma is really energy of the magnetic vortex fields surrounding the randomly moving ions and electrons. In an expanding plasma stream, moving across the containing magnetic field, random thermal motion of the ions and electrons is converted into ordered motion and thereby random magnetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy of an ordered field. Consequently, in contrast to simple systems consisting of coils and magnets only, an expanding plasma stream can maintain net outflow of ordered magnetic energy from a closed volume for an indefinite length of time. Conversion of thermal energy of plasma into ordered magnetic energy by the thermodynamic expansion process leads to the expectation of a new induction phenomenon: the generation of a unidirectional induced electromotive force of unlimited duration, measured in a closed loop at rest relative to the magnetic field, by the expansion work of the plasma stream. No change is required in the differential form of Maxwell's equations for the existence of this induction phenomenon, only the definition of the concept of rate of change of magnetic flux needs to be modified in the macroscopic equations to correspond to the rate of flow of magnetic energy across a closed surface. An experimental test of the predicted induction phenomenon is proposed

  1. Mission Concept to Connect Magnetospheric Physical Processes to Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, E. E.; MacDonald, E.; Kepko, L.; Borovsky, J.; Reeves, G. D.; Delzanno, G. L.; Thomsen, M. F.; Sanchez, E. R.; Henderson, M. G.; Nguyen, D. C.; Vaith, H.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Spanswick, E.; Marshall, R. A.; Donovan, E.; Neilson, J.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    On the Earth's nightside the magnetic connections between the ionosphere and the dynamic magnetosphere have a great deal of uncertainty: this uncertainty prevents us from scientifically understanding what physical processes in the magnetosphere are driving the various phenomena in the ionosphere. Since the 1990s, the space plasma physics group at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working on a concept to connect magnetospheric physical processes to auroral phenomena in the ionosphere by firing an electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft and optically imaging the beam spot in the ionosphere. The magnetospheric spacecraft will carry a steerable electron accelerator, a power-storage system, a plasma contactor, and instruments to measure magnetic and electric fields, plasma, and energetic particles. The spacecraft orbit will be coordinated with a ground-based network of cameras to (a) locate the electron beam spot in the upper atmosphere and (b) monitor the aurora. An overview of the mission concept will be presented, including recent enabling advancements based on (1) a new understanding of the dynamic spacecraft charging of the accelerator and plasma-contactor system in the tenuous magnetosphere based on ion emission rather than electron collection, (2) a new understanding of the propagation properties of pulsed MeV-class beams in the magnetosphere, and (3) the design of a compact high-power 1-MeV electron accelerator and power-storage system. This strategy to (a) determine the magnetosphere-to-ionosphere connections and (b) reduce accelerator- platform charging responds to one of the six emerging-technology needs called out in the most-recent National Academies Decadal Survey for Solar and Space Physics. [LA-UR-17-23614

  2. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  3. Vol. 6: Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to plasma physics

  4. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  5. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  6. DEMETER Observations of Equatorial Plasma Depletions and Related Ionospheric Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelier, J.; Malingre, M.; Pfaff, R.; Jasperse, J.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    DEMETER, the first micro-satellite of the CNES MYRIAD program, was launched from Baikonour on June 29, 2004 on a nearly circular, quasi helio-synchronous polar orbit at ~ 715 km altitude. The DEMETER mission focuses primarily on the search for a possible coupling between seismic activity and ionospheric disturbances as well as on the effects of natural phenomena such as tropospheric thunderstorms and man-made activities on the ionosphere. The scientific payload provides fairly complete measurements of the ionospheric plasma, energetic particles above ~ 70 keV, and plasma waves, up to 20 kHz for the magnetic and 3.3 MHz for the electric components. Several studies related to space weather and ionospheric physics have been conducted over the past years. Following a brief description of the payload and the satellite modes of operation, this presentation will focus on a set of results that provide a new insight into the physics of instabilities in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. The observations were performed during the major magnetic storm of November 2004. Deep plasma depletions were observed on several night-time passes at low latitudes characterized by the decrease of the plasma density by nearly 3 orders of magnitude relative to the undisturbed plasma, and a significant abundance of molecular ions. These features can be best interpreted as resulting from the rise of the F-layer above the satellite altitude over an extended region of the ionosphere. In one of the passes, DEMETER was operated in the Burst mode and the corresponding high resolution data allowed for the discovery of two unexpected phenomena. The first one is the existence of high intensity monochromatic wave packets at the LH frequency that develop during the decay phase of intense bursts of broadband LH turbulence. The broadband LH turbulence is triggered by whistlers emitted by lightning from atmospheric thunderstorms beneath the satellite. The second unexpected feature is the detection of a

  7. Computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Killeen, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of computer application in plasma physics is presented. Computer contribution to the investigation of magnetic and inertial confinement of a plasma and charged particle beam propagation is described. Typical utilization of computer for simulation and control of laboratory and cosmic experiments with a plasma and for data accumulation in these experiments is considered. Basic computational methods applied in plasma physics are discussed. Future trends of computer utilization in plasma reseaches are considered in terms of an increasing role of microprocessors and high-speed data plotters and the necessity of more powerful computer application

  8. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  9. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  11. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  12. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  13. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  14. Outlook of multiple time and spatial scale simulation for understanding self-organizing phenomena in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takaya; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the methodology of computer simulation has been recognized in plasma physics since the early era of computer evolution. In particular, the goal of simulation in this research field has been characterized by attempts to treat phenomena in a self-consistent manner as much as possible. Owing to the astonishing progress in recent supercomputer technology, we are now standing on a doorway to open a new stage in the simulation research in this direction, that is, an execution of multi-layer model simulation to understand complex phenomena in plasmas. (author)

  15. The challenge of quantum computer simulations of physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, G.; Knill, E.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems ('physics imitation') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient simulation of physical phenomena. In this Note, we discuss the fundamental concepts behind this paradigm of information processing, such as the connection between models of computation and physical systems. The experimental simulation of a toy quantum many-body problem is described

  16. Ether and interpretation of some physical phenomena and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of existence of an ether representation about time, space, matters and physical field are profound and also the essence of such phenomena, as corpuscular - wave dualism, change of time, scale and mass at movement body's is opened. The opportunity of transition from probability-statistical interpretation of the quantum phenomena to Laplace's determinism is shown

  17. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low-temperature plasma were studied. Hysteresis is found to be due to secondary electron...continued research into plasma sheath physics. Hysteresis effects observed in the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low... Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 119, March 2016, pp. 113305 1-5. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 8 Figure 2

  18. International conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report on the 6th International conference on plasma physics and on the 6th International Congress on plasma waves and plasma instabilities, which have taken place in summer 1984 in Losanne, is presented. Main items of the conference are enlightened, such as the general theory of a plasma, laboratory plasma, thermonuclear plasma, cosmic plasma and astrophysics

  19. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP)

  20. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  1. Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena: 13th International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Hogan, W.J.; Maille-Petersen, C.; Coppedge, H.; Montoya, E.

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena held in Monterey, California in April, 1997. Topics covered in the conference included laser design, alternate concepts in volume ignition and advance fuels, beam/plasma interactions, nuclear-pumped lasers, alternate fast ignitors, heavy ion fusions, laser-ion beam interactions, extreme short-pulse interactions, high-energy-density plasma physics, and hydrodynamic instabilities. The conference was sponsored in part by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the United States Department of Energy. There were 80 papers presented and 23 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  2. Computing in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuehrenberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named conference. These concern numerical methods for astrophysical plasmas, the numerical simulation of reversed-field pinch dynamics, methods for numerical simulation of ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric plasmas, calculations of the resistive internal m=1 mode in tokamaks, parallel computing and multitasking, particle simulation methods in plasma physics, 2-D Lagrangian studies of symmetry and stability of laser fusion targets, computing of rf heating and current drive in tokamaks, three-dimensional free boundary calculations using a spectral Green's function method, as well as the calculation of three-dimensional MHD equilibria with islands and stochastic regions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  3. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z 0 with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R ampersand D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs

  4. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    40 papers are presented at this 21. conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics (JET). Titles are: effects of sawtooth crashes on beams ions and fusion product tritons; beta limits in H-modes and VH-modes; impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas; lost α particle diagnostic for high-yield D-T fusion plasmas; 15-MeV proton emission from ICRF-heated plasmas; pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements; gamma-ray emission profile measurements during ICRH discharges; the new JET phase ICRH array; simulation of triton burn-up; parametric dependencies of JET electron temperature profiles; detached divertor plasmas; excitation of global Alfven Eigenmodes by RF heating; mechanisms of toroidal rotation; effect of shear in the radial electric field on confinement; plasma transport properties at the L-H transition; numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas; the SOL width and the MHD interchange instability; non linear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas; topology and slowing down of high energy ion orbits; sawtooth crashes at high beta; fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas; a stable route to high-beta plasmas with non-monotonic q-profiles; theory of propagation of changes to confinement; spatial distribution of gamma emissivity and fast ions during ICRF heating; multi-camera soft X-ray diagnostic; radiation phenomena and particle fluxes in the X-event; local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities; impurity transport of high performance discharges; negative snakes and negative shear; neural-network charge exchange analysis; ion temperature anisotropy in helium neutral beam fuelling; impurity line emission due to thermal charge exchange in edge plasmas; control of convection by fuelling and pumping; VH mode accessibility and global H-mode properties; ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission; LHCD/ICRH synergy

  5. Modeling of thermalization phenomena in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Panneerchelvam, Premkumar; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2018-05-01

    Coaxial plasma accelerators are electromagnetic acceleration devices that employ a self-induced Lorentz force to produce collimated plasma jets with velocities ~50 km s‑1. The accelerator operation is characterized by the formation of an ionization/thermalization zone near gas inlet of the device that continually processes the incoming neutral gas into a highly ionized thermal plasma. In this paper, we present a 1D non-equilibrium plasma model to resolve the plasma formation and the electron-heavy species thermalization phenomena that take place in the thermalization zone. The non-equilibrium model is based on a self-consistent multi-species continuum description of the plasma with finite-rate chemistry. The thermalization zone is modelled by tracking a 1D gas-bit as it convects down the device with an initial gas pressure of 1 atm. The thermalization process occurs in two stages. The first is a plasma production stage, associated with a rapid increase in the charged species number densities facilitated by cathode surface electron emission and volumetric production processes. The production stage results in the formation of a two-temperature plasma with electron energies of ~2.5 eV in a low temperature background gas of ~300 K. The second, a temperature equilibration stage, is characterized by the energy transfer between the electrons and heavy species. The characteristic length scale for thermalization is found to be comparable to axial length of the accelerator thus putting into question the equilibrium magnetohydrodynamics assumption used in modeling coaxial accelerators.

  6. Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.

  7. Numerical simulation in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarskii, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma physics is not only a field for development of physical theories and mathematical models but also an object of application of the computational experiment comprising analytical and numerical methods adapted for computers. The author considers only MHD plasma physics problems. Examples treated are dissipative structures in plasma; MHD model of solar dynamo; supernova explosion simulation; and plasma compression by a liner. (Auth.)

  8. Computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1975-08-01

    The behavior of a plasma confined by a magnetic field is simulated by a variety of numerical models. Some models used on a short time scale give detailed knowledge of the plasma on a microscopic scale, while other models used on much longer time scales compute macroscopic properties of the plasma dynamics. In the last two years there has been a substantial increase in the numerical modelling of fusion devices. The status of MHD, transport, equilibrium, stability, Vlasov, Fokker-Planck, and Hybrid codes is reviewed. These codes have already been essential in the design and understanding of low and high beta toroidal experiments and mirror systems. The design of the next generation of fusion experiments and fusion test reactors will require continual development of these numerical models in order to include the best available plasma physics description and also to increase the geometric complexity of the model. (auth)

  9. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  10. EDITORIAL: Interrelationship between plasma phenomena in the laboratory and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Mark

    2008-07-01

    special issue serve to synthesise our current understanding of processes related to the coupling and feedback at disparate scales. Categories of topics included here are (1) ionospheric physics and (2) Alfvén-wave physics, both of which are related to the particle acceleration responsible for auroral displays, (3) whistler-mode triggering mechanism, which is relevant to radiation-belt dynamics, (4) plasmoid encountering a barrier, which has applications throughout the realm of space and astrophysical plasmas, and (5) laboratory investigations of the entire magnetosphere or the plasma surrounding the magnetosphere. The papers are ordered from processes that take place nearest the Earth to processes that take place at increasing distances from Earth. Many advances in understanding space plasma phenomena have been linked to insight derived from theoretical modeling and/or laboratory experiments. Observations from space-borne instruments are typically interpreted using theoretical models developed to predict the properties and dynamics of space and astrophysical plasmas. The usefulness of customized laboratory experiments for providing confirmation of theory by identifying, isolating, and studying physical phenomena efficiently, quickly, and economically has been demonstrated in the past. The benefits of laboratory experiments to investigating space-plasma physics are their reproducibility, controllability, diagnosability, reconfigurability, and affordability compared to a satellite mission or rocket campaign. Certainly, the plasma being investigated in a laboratory device is quite different from that being measured by a spaceborne instrument; nevertheless, laboratory experiments discover unexpected phenomena, benchmark theoretical models, develop physical insight, establish observational signatures, and pioneer diagnostic techniques. Explicit reference to such beneficial laboratory contributions is occasionally left out of the citations in the space-physics literature in

  11. Kinetic Modifications to MHD Phenomena in Toroidal Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Fredrickson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Particle kinetic effects involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect MHD phenomena and the long time behavior of plasmas. In particular, kinetic effects such as finite ion gyroradii, trapped particle dynamics, and wave-particle resonances have been shown to greatly modify the stability of MHD modes. Here, the kinetic effects of trapped electron dynamics and finite ion gyroradii are shown to have a large stabilizing effect on kinetic ballooning modes in low aspect ratio toroidal plasmas such as NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment]. We also present the analysis of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) destabilized by fast neutral-beam injected ions in NSTX experiments and TAE stability in ITER due to alpha-particles and MeV negatively charged neutral beam injected ions

  12. Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cargill, P J

    2007-01-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, 'The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  13. Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Moisan, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...

  14. Magnetospheric plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.

    1989-09-01

    The discovery of the earth's radiation belts in 1957 by Van Allen marked the beginning of what is now known as magnetospheric physics. In this study of plasma physics in the magnetosphere, we shall take the magnetosphere to be that part of the earth's ionized atmosphere which is formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's dipole-like magnetic field. It extends from approximately 100km above the earth's surface where the proton-neutral atom collision frequency is equal to the proton gyrofrequency to about ten earth radii (R E ∼ 6380km) in the sunward direction and to several hundred earth radii in the anti-sunward direction. The collision dominated region is called the ionosphere and is sometimes considered separate from the collisionless plasma region. In the ionosphere ion-neutral collisions are dominant and one may think of the ionosphere as a frictional boundary layer ∼ 1000km thick. Other planets are also considered. (author)

  15. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations.

  16. Basic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Sudan, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the chapters in this book are devoted to the theory of small amplitude perturbations which is the most well developed aspect of the subject. The remaining chapters are concerned with weak nonlinear waves, and collapse and self-focusing of Langmuir waves, two topics of widespread interest and application. A chapter on particle simulation has been included, as that numerical technique plays an essential role in the development an understanding of plasma physics

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses progress on experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The projects and areas discussed are: Principal Parameters Achieved in Experimental Devices, Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, Princeton Large Torus, Princeton Beta Experiment, S-1 Spheromak, Current-Drive Experiment, X-ray Laser Studies, Theoretical Division, Tokamak Modeling, Spacecraft Glow Experiment, Compact Ignition Tokamak, Engineering Department, Project Planning and Safety Office, Quality Assurance and Reliability, and Administrative Operations

  18. Non-linear collective phenomena in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V N; Morfill, G E

    2004-01-01

    Dusty plasmas are unusual states of matter where the interactions between the dust grains can be collective and are not a sum of all pair particle interactions. This state of matter is appropriate to form non-linear dissipative collective self-organized structures. It is found that the potential around the grains can be over-screened leading to a new phenomenon-collective attraction of pairs of large charge grains of equal sign. The grain clouds can self-contract and their collapse is terminated at distances where the interaction becomes repulsive. The homogeneous dusty plasma distribution is universally unstable to form structures. The potential of the collective attraction is proportional to the square of the dimensionless parameter P = n d Z d /n i , where n d and n i are the average dust and ion densities, respectively, and Z d is the dust charge in units of electron charge. The collective attraction is determined by finite grain size and by the presence of absorption of plasma flux on grains. The physics of attraction is related to the space charge accumulation caused by collective flux disturbances. The collective attraction operates for systems with size larger than the mean free path for ion-dust absorption, the condition met in many existing low temperature dusty plasma experiments, in edge plasmas of fusion devices and in space dusty plasmas. The collective attraction exceeds the previously known non-collective attraction such as shadow attraction or wake attraction. The collective attraction can be responsible for pairing of dust grains (this process is completely classical in contrast to the known pairing in superconductivity) and can serve as the main process for the formation of more complicated dust complexes up to dust-plasma crystals. The equilibrium structures formed by collective attraction have universal properties and can exist in a limited domain of parameters (similar to the equilibrium balance known for stars). The balance conditions for

  19. Advanced computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Scientific simulation in tandem with theory and experiment is an essential tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. In this paper we review recent progress and future directions for advanced simulations in magnetically confined plasmas with illustrative examples chosen from magnetic confinement research areas such as microturbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, magnetic reconnection, and others. Significant recent progress has been made in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics, giving increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was made possible by innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales together with access to powerful new computational resources. In particular, the fusion energy science community has made excellent progress in developing advanced codes for which computer run-time and problem size scale well with the number of processors on massively parallel machines (MPP's). A good example is the effective usage of the full power of multi-teraflop (multi-trillion floating point computations per second) MPP's to produce three-dimensional, general geometry, nonlinear particle simulations which have accelerated progress in understanding the nature of turbulence self-regulation by zonal flows. It should be emphasized that these calculations, which typically utilized billions of particles for thousands of time-steps, would not have been possible without access to powerful present generation MPP computers and the associated diagnostic and visualization capabilities. In general, results from advanced simulations provide great encouragement for being able to include increasingly realistic dynamics to enable deeper physics insights into plasmas in both natural and laboratory environments. The associated scientific excitement should serve to

  20. Edge plasma physical investigations of tokamak plasmas in CRIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.; Ignacz, P.; Koltai, L.; Paszti, F.; Petravich, G.; Szigeti, J.; Zoletnik, S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the measurements performed in the field of thermonuclear high temperature plasma physics in CRIP (Hungary) are summarized. In the field of the edge plasma physics solid probes were used to test the external zone of plasma edges, and atom beams and balls were used to investigate both the external and internal zones. The plasma density distribution was measured by laser blow-off technics, using Na atoms, which are evaporated by laser pulses. The excitation of Na atom ball by tokamak plasma gives information on the status of the plasma edge. The toroidal asymmetry of particle transport in tokamak plasma was measured by erosion probes. The evaporated and transported impurities were collected on an other part of the plasma edge and were analyzed by SIMS and Rutherford backscattering. The interactions in plasma near the limiter were investigated by a special limiter with implemented probes. Recycling and charge exchange processes were measured. Disruption phenomena of tokamak plasma were analyzed and a special kind of disruptions, 'soft disruptions' and the related preliminary perturbations were discovered. (D.Gy.) 10 figs

  1. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  2. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The activities of the Department in 2007 continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma technology of surface engineering: · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges in the Plasma-Focus (PF) and RPI-IBIS facilities; · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Research on plasma technologies; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modelling. As for the experimental studies particular attention was paid to the analysis of the correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. A collisional-radiative model, taking into account the Stark effect and strong electric fields in the so called '' hot- spot '' regions of a pinch, was applied in those analyses. The main aim of these studies was to identify the physical phenomena responsible for the emission during the PF-type discharges. The emitted protons were also measured with nuclear track detectors. The measurements made it possible to obtain images of the regions, where the D-D fusion reactions occurred, as well as to determine the angular distribution of the emitted protons. Pulsed plasma streams were also investigated by means of time-resolved optical spectroscopy and corpuscular diagnostics. In a frame of the EURATOM program, efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostic methods for tokamak-type facilities. Such studies include the design and construction of the 4-channel Cherenkov-type detection system for the TORE-SUPRA tokamak at CEA-Cadarache. In the meantime in order to collect some experience a new measuring head was especially prepared for experiments within small facilities. Other fusion- oriented efforts are connected with the application of the solid-state nuclear track detectors for investigation of protons from tokamak plasma and high-energy beams emitted from laser produced plasmas

  3. Relativistic plasma turbulence and its application to pulsar phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinata, S.

    1976-01-01

    A turbulent plasma model of pulsars which has the potential of providing a self-regulatory mechanism for producing an electron-positron plasma over the polar caps, as well as the coherency of the radio wave emission, is analyzed. Turbulent plasma properties including the kinetic and electrostatic energy densities, the wavelength of the most unstable mode, and the effective collision frequency due to the excited electric field, are obtained and applied to the pulsar situation. Since these properties depend on the momentum distribution of the plasma particles, model calculations have been carried out with simple momentum distribution functions. The radio luminosity due to turbulence (bunching or otherwise) turned out to be either insufficient or unclear at the moment for these simple momentum distributions. This indicates that a further investigation of turbulence processes with the self-consistently determined momentum distribution is needed. This is left for future analysis, because entirely different processes (e.g. trapping) are likely to dominate the physics as is demonstrated for one of the model distribution functions. In addition to the above mentioned model, we examine some wave propagation properties in a relativistic electron-positron plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field

  4. Renormalization and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields

  5. Renormalization and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1980-02-01

    A review is given of modern theories of statistical dynamics as applied to problems in plasma physics. The derivation of consistent renormalized kinetic equations is discussed, first heuristically, later in terms of powerful functional techniques. The equations are illustrated with models of various degrees of idealization, including the exactly soluble stochastic oscillator, a prototype for several important applications. The direct-interaction approximation is described in detail. Applications discussed include test particle diffusion and the justification of quasilinear theory, convective cells, E vector x B vector turbulence, the renormalized dielectric function, phase space granulation, and stochastic magnetic fields.

  6. Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    The second lecture will explore some of the key physics phenomena which govern the behaviour of magnetic fusion plasmas and which have been the subject of intense research during the past 50 years: plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability and plasma-wall interactions encompass the major areas of plasma physics which must be understood to assemble an overall description of fusion plasma behaviour. In addition, as fusion plasmas approach the “burning plasma” regime, where internal heating due to fusion products dominates other forms of heating, the physics of the interaction between the α-particles produced by D-T fusion reactions and the thermal “background” plasma becomes significant. This lecture will also introduce the basic physics of fusion plasma production, plasma heating and current drive, and plasma measurements (“diagnostics”).

  7. Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plasma Physics Division, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Khanapara, ..... tic wave) to form a random collection of the nonlinear wave grains (like ... [8] M S Sodha and S Guha, in Advances in plasma phyiscs edited by A ...

  8. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  9. Physics education students’ cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, N. D.; Munandar, A.; Redjeki, S.; Tjasyono, B.

    2018-05-01

    Environmental education is become prominent in dealing with natural phenomena that occur nowadays. Studying environmental physics will lead students to have conceptual understanding which are importent in enhancing attitudes toward ecological phenomena that link directry to cognitive and affective domains. This research focused on the the relationship of cognitive and affective domains toward ecological phenomena. Thirty-seven Physics Education students participated in this study and validated sources of data were collected to eksplore students’ conceptual understanding as cognitive domain and to investigate students’ attitudes as affective domain. The percentage of cognitive outcome and affective outcome are explore. The features of such approaches to environmental learning are discussion through analysis of contribution of cognitive to develop the attitude ecological as affective outcome. The result shows that cognitive domains do not contribute significantly to affective domain toward ecological henomena as an issue trend in Central Sulawesi although students had passed Environmental Physics instruction for two semester. In fact, inferior knowledge in a way actually contributes to the attitude domain caused by the prior knowledge that students have as ombo as a Kaili local wisdom.

  10. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the main activities of Department P-5 (until December 1996 known as the Department of Thermonuclear Research) were concentrated on 5 topics: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Studies of phenomena within high-current plasma concentrators, 3. Development of plasma diagnostic methods, 4. Studies in the field of fusion technology, 5. Research on new plasma-ion technologies. Theoretical studies mainly concerned elementary processes occurring within a plasma, and particularly those within near-electrode regions of microwave discharges as well as those within near-wall layers (SOL) of tokamaks. We also developed computational packages for parameter identification and modelling of physical phenomena in pulse plasma coaxial accelerators. Experimental studies were concentrated on the generation of a dense magnetized plasma in different high-current PF (Plasma Focus) facilities and small Z-Pinch devices. We carried out investigations of X-rays, relativistic electron beams (REBs), accelerated primary ions, and fast products of fusion reactions for deuterium discharges. Research on plasma diagnostics comprised the development of methods and equipment for studies of X-ray emission, pulsed electron beams, and fast ions, using special Cherenkov-type detectors of electrons and solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) of ions. New diagnostic techniques were developed. Studies in the field of fusion technology concerned the design, construction, and testing of different high-voltage pulse generators. We also developed special opto-electronic systems for control and data transmission. Research on plasma-ion technology concentrated on the generation of pulsed high-power plasma-ion streams and their applications for the surface modification of semiconductors, pure metals and alloys. The material engineering studies were carried out in close collaboration with our P-9 Department and other domestic and foreign research centers

  11. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  12. HIDENEK: an implicit particle simulation of kinetic-MHD phenomena in three-dimensional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Motohiko.

    1993-05-01

    An advanced 'kinetic-MHD' simulation method and its applications to plasma physics are given in this lecture. This method is quite suitable for studying strong nonlinear, kinetic processes associated with large space-scale, low-frequency electromagnetic phenomena of plasmas. A full set of the Maxwell equations, and the Newton-Lorentz equations of motion for particle ions and guiding-center electrons are adopted. In order to retain only the low-frequency waves and instabilities, implicit particle-field equations are derived. The present implicit-particle method is proved to reproduce the MHD eigenmodes such as Alfven, magnetosonic and kinetic Alfven waves in a thermally near-equilibrium plasma. In the second part of the lecture, several physics applications are shown. These include not only the growth of the instabilities of beam ions against the background plasmas and helical kink of the current, but they also demonstrate nonlinear results such as pitch-angle scattering of the ions. Recent progress in the simulation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is also presented with a special emphasis on the mixing of plasma particles. (author)

  13. Plasma physics studies in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.

    1982-01-01

    We briefly outline the plasma physics research program being conducted in the Department of Physics of the National University of Singapore. The work places particular emphasis on open system end plugging, ion source development, and anomalous transport studies. (author)

  14. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  15. Plasma Physics Applied (New Book)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Crockett

    2007-03-01

    0.5cm Plasma physics applications are one of the most rapidly growing fields in engineering & applied science today. The last decade alone has seen the rapid emergence of new applications such as dusty plasmas in the semiconductor and microchip industries, and plasma TVs. In addition, this last decade saw the achievement of the 50-year Lawson breakeven condition for fusion. With new discoveries in space plasma physics and applications to spacecraft for worldwide communication and space weather, as well as new applications being discovered, this diversity is always expanding. The new book Plasma Physics Applied reviews developments in several of these areas. Chapter 1 reviews the content and its authors, and is followed by a more comprehensive review of plasma physics applications in general in Chapter 2. Plasma applications in combustion and environmental uses are presented in Chapter 3. Lightning effects in planetary magnetospheres and potential application are described in Chapter 4. The area of dusty plasmas in both industrial and space plasmas and their applications are reviewed in Chapter 5. The particular area of Coulomb clusters in dusty plasmas is presented in Chapter 6. The variety of approaches to plasma confinement in magnetic devices for fusion are laid out in Chapter 7. Finally, an overview of plasma accelerator developments and their applications are presented in Chapter 8.

  16. Introduction to dusty plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, PK

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics contains a detailed description of the occurrence of dusty plasmas in our Solar System, the Earth''s mesosphere, and in laboratory discharges. The book illustrates numerous mechanisms for charging dust particles and provides studies of the grain dynamics under the influence of forces that are common in dusty plasma environments.

  17. Theoretical Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, George M. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    Lattice Boltzmann algorithms are a mesoscopic method to solve problems in nonlinear physics which are highly parallelized – unlike the direction solution of the original problem. These methods are applied to both fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. By introducing entropic constraints one can enforce the positive definiteness of the distribution functions and so be able to simulate fluids at high Reynolds numbers without numerical instabilities. By introducing a vector distribution function for the magnetic field one can enforce the divergence free condition on the magnetic field automatically, without the need of divergence cleaning as needed in most direct numerical solutions of the resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. The principal reason for the high parallelization of lattice Boltzmann codes is that they consist of a kinetic collisional relaxation step (which is purely local) followed by a simple shift of the relaxed data to neighboring lattice sites. In large eddy simulations, the closure schemes are highly nonlocal – the most famous of these schemes is that due to Smagorinsky. Under a lattice Boltzmann representation the Smagorinsky closure is purely local – being simply a particular moment on the perturbed distribution fucntions. After nonlocal fluid moment models were discovered to represent Landau damping, it was found possible to model these fluid models using an appropriate lattice Boltzmann algorithm. The close to ideal parallelization of the lattice Boltzmann codes permitted us to be Gordon Bell finalists on using the Earth Simulation in Japan. We have also been involved in the radio frequency propagation of waves into a tokamak and into a spherical overdense tokamak plasma. Initially we investigated the use of a quasi-optical grill for the launching of lower hybrid waves into a tokamak. It was found that the conducting walls do not prevent the rods from being properly irradiated, the overloading of the quasi-optical grill is not severe

  18. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  19. Computational Methods in Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jardin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Assuming no prior knowledge of plasma physics or numerical methods, Computational Methods in Plasma Physics covers the computational mathematics and techniques needed to simulate magnetically confined plasmas in modern magnetic fusion experiments and future magnetic fusion reactors. Largely self-contained, the text presents the basic concepts necessary for the numerical solution of partial differential equations. Along with discussing numerical stability and accuracy, the author explores many of the algorithms used today in enough depth so that readers can analyze their stability, efficiency,

  20. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-07-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  1. Variational integrators in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, Michael

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent, research in plasma physics is concerned with the description and analysis of energy and momentum transfer between different scales and different kinds of waves. In the numerical modelling of such phenomena it appears to be crucial to describe the transfer processes preserving the underlying conservation laws in order to prevent physically spurious solutions. In this work, special numerical methods, so called variational integrators, are developed for several models of plasma physics. Special attention is given to conservation properties like conservation of energy and momentum. By design, variational integrators are applicable to all systems that have a Lagrangian formulation. Usually, equations of motion are derived by Hamilton's action principle and then discretised. In the application of the variational integrator theory, the order of these steps is reversed. At first, the Lagrangian and the accompanying variational principle are discretised, such that discrete equations of motion can be obtained directly by applying the discrete variational principle to the discrete Lagrangian. The advantage of this approach is that the resulting discretisation automatically retains the conservation properties of the continuous system. Following an overview of the geometric formulation of classical mechanics and field theory, which forms the basis of the variational integrator theory, variational integrators are introduced in a framework adapted to problems from plasma physics. The applicability of variational integrators is explored for several important models of plasma physics: particle dynamics (guiding centre dynamics), kinetic theory (the Vlasov-Poisson system) and fluid theory (magnetohydrodynamics). These systems, with the exception of guiding centre dynamics, do not possess a Lagrangian formulation to which the variational integrator methodology is directly applicable. Therefore the theory is extended by linking it to Ibragimov's theory of

  2. Fundamentals of Cryobiology Physical Phenomena and Mathematical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhmakin, Alexander I

    2009-01-01

    The book gives a summary of the state-of-the-art of cryobiology and its applications. The accent is on the underlying physical phenomena, which are common in such opposite applications as cryosurgery and cryoconservation, and the corresponding mathematical models, including numerical ones. The treatment of some more special issues is moved to the appendices. The glossary contains definitions and explanations of the major entities. All the topics considered are well referenced. The book is useful to both biologists and physicits of different level including practioners and graduate students.

  3. Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.

    1993-01-01

    This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref

  4. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu

    1982-01-01

    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  5. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  6. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)

    2015-01-22

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.

  7. Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating

  8. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján

    Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  9. Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fojtlín Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.

  10. Ultrafast phenomena in molecular sciences femtosecond physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bañares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in Femtosecond Chemistry and Physics for the study of ultrafast photo-induced molecular processes. Molecular systems, from the simplest H2 molecule to polymers or biological macromolecules, constitute central objects of interest for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and despite the broad range of phenomena that they exhibit, they share some common behaviors. One of the most significant of those is that many of the processes involving chemical transformation (nuclear reorganization, bond breaking, bond making) take place in an extraordinarily short time, in or around the femtosecond temporal scale (1 fs = 10-15 s). A number of experimental approaches - very particularly the developments in the generation and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses - coupled with theoretical progress, provide the ultrafast scientist with powerful tools to understand matter and its interaction with light, at this spatial and temporal scale. This book is an attempt to reunite some of the ...

  11. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uytdenhouwen, I.; Massaut, V.; Linke, J.; Van Oost, G.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of ∼10-20 MW/m 2 . On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  12. Plasma Wall Interaction Phenomena on Tungsten Armour Materials for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uytdenhouwen, I. [SCK.CEN - The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Massaut, V. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Van Oost, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    One of the most attractive future complements to present energy sources is nuclear fusion. A large progress was made throughout the last decade from both the physical as the technological area leading to the construction of the ITER machine. One of the key issues that recently received a large interest at international level is focused on the Plasma Wall Interaction (PWI). One of the promising Plasma Facing Materials (PFM) are Tungsten (W) and Tungsten alloys. However, despite the worldwide use and industrial availability of W, the database of physical and mechanical properties is very limited. Especially after fusion relevant neutron irradiation and PWI phenomena, most of the properties are still unknown. The plasma fuel consists out of deuterium (D) and tritium (T). Tritium is radio-active and therefore an issue from the safety point of view. During steady-state plasma operation of future fusion power plants, the PFM need to extract a power density of {approx}10-20 MW/m{sup 2}. On top of this heat, transient events will deposit an additional non-negligible amount of energy (Disruptions, Vertical Displacement Events, Edge Localized Modes) during short durations. These severe heat loads cause cracking and even melting of the surface resulting in a reduced lifetime and the creation of dust. A contribution to the understanding of cracking phenomena under the severe thermal loads is described as well as the properties degradation under neutron irradiation. Several W grades were irradiated in the BR2 reactor (SCK.CEN) and the thermal loads were simulated with the electron-beam facility JUDITH (FZJ). Since knowledge should be gained about the Tritium retention in the PFM for safety and licensing reasons, a unique test facility at SCK.CEN is being set-up. The plasmatron VISION-I will simulate steady state plasmas for Tritium retention studies. The formation of surface cracks and dust, the initial porosity, neutron induced traps, re-deposited material - change the Tritium

  13. Physical resuspension and revaporisation phenomena in control rod aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.G.; Browsher, B.R.

    1988-12-01

    Physical resuspension and revaporisation processes could play a significant role in the transport of fission products in a severe reactor accident. The processes involved in physical resuspension and revaporisation of control rod alloy aerosol particles from a stainless steel substrate have been studied at room temperature under laminar and turbulent flow conditions (Reynolds numbers of between 70 and 7000), and at temperatures in the range from 370 K to 870 K under laminar and intermediate flow conditions (Reynolds numbers of between 7 and 1400) in the absence and presence of steam. The phenomena were investigated using bulk analyses to determine the quantity of material remaining on a coupon after each experiment, and standard surface analysis techniques were used to examine the composition and morphology of the particles. The main conclusions of this work are that: (i) physical resuspension is only significant in turbulent flow, (ii) two processes are involved in physical resuspension: the removal of surface layers which are only loosely bound to the substrate, and the removal of a more tightly-bound layer, (iii) the amount of material resuspended decreases exponentially with time, and the data have been correlated with a reverse isotherm model, (iv) the weight loss from the revaporisation experiments can be interpreted in terms of the effective vapour pressure of the deposit, and an equation has been derived to express this vapour pressure as a function of temperature. These studies have demonstrated the importance of a number of resuspension processes in generating a source of radioactive material that could be released after failure of the containment. Efforts are in hand to include these phenomena in the relevant modelling studies. (author)

  14. Plasma Physics. Lectures Presented at the Seminar on Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The International Seminar on Plasma Physics held in Trieste during 5- 1 October 1964 was the first major activity of the International Atomic Energy Agency's new International Centre for Theoretical Physics. In bringing together plasma physicists belonging to three distinct schools, the American, West European and the Soviet schools, the Seminar provided a unique opportunity for extended contacts between physicists in this field. It is hoped that these Proceedings will be of permanent value in the literature of the subject

  15. Plasma Physics. Lectures Presented at the Seminar on Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1965-06-15

    The International Seminar on Plasma Physics held in Trieste during 5- 1 October 1964 was the first major activity of the International Atomic Energy Agency's new International Centre for Theoretical Physics. In bringing together plasma physicists belonging to three distinct schools, the American, West European and the Soviet schools, the Seminar provided a unique opportunity for extended contacts between physicists in this field. It is hoped that these Proceedings will be of permanent value in the literature of the subject.

  16. Origin of ordered and disordered phenomena in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.

    1993-01-01

    Resuming the contents of previously published papers it is shown that ordered and disordered spatial and temporal structures have at their origin a space charge arrangement produced and maintained under conditions in which the excitation and ionization cross-sections increase suddenly in different adjacent regions of a current-carrying gaseous conductor. The appearing double layer structure is the result of a self-organization process which it-self assures the conditions for its existence. Acting as an autonomous body whose genesis implies an energy accumulation mechanism it is possible to explain in a new manner the appearance of ordered and disordered temporal structures in different plasma devices but also the genesis of artificial and natural well-ordered space charge structures such as fireball and ball lightning. Additionally, it is shown that the described double-layer physical scenario can be a tentative model adequate to explain the genesis of prebiotic cellular structures as those appeared under primeval Earth conditions. (Author)

  17. The division of plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Guilhem, D.; Klepper, C.C.

    1990-07-01

    The investigations presented in the 31th meeting on plasma physics were: the main results and observations during the ergodic divertor experiments in Tore Supra tokamak; the modifications of power scrape-off-length and power deposition during various configurations in Tore Supra plasmas; the results of pressure measurements and particle fluxes in the Tore Supra pump limiter

  18. Physical phenomena stipulating nucleus formation, growth and structure films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, L N [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Fiziki Poluprovodnikov

    1975-03-01

    This review is concerned with the physical phenomena responsible for the nucleation, growth and structure of films. Emphasis is placed on the study of films of solid-metal systems, semiconductors (In, As, Cd, Se, CdS), and dielectrics. The following problems are discussed in the paper: general regularities of the thermodynamics and kinetics of film formation, methods of obtaining a solid film, the process of film formation, the rate of growth of individual grains. The critical film thickness and its measurement are also considered. The results of investigating the process of formation of mono- and polycrystalline films are discussed. It is concluded, on the basis of studies into the relaxation processes accompanying the growth of films, that an insight into these processes will permits improving film properties.

  19. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC)

  20. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  1. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  2. Dynacore Final Report , Plasma Physics prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourens, W.

    2000-01-01

    The generation and behaviour of plasma in a fusion device and its interaction with sur-rounding materials is studied by observing several phenomena that will accompany a plasma discharge. These phenomena are recorded by means of so called Diagnostics. These are instruments that comprise complex

  3. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  4. Plasma physics and instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.

    1981-01-01

    These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)

  5. Self-organisation phenomena in the plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Grauf, W.; Herold, H.; Schmidt, H.

    1982-06-01

    The structure of the final minimum-energy state of the focus plasma was studied, using Taylor's relaxation theory. A superposition of the reversed pinch field and the field of eddies was obtained. Similar structures could be observed experimentally. (orig.)

  6. Topics in Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahala, Linda [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2015-05-31

    During the period 1998-2013, research under the auspices of the Department of Energy was performed on RF waves in plasmas. This research was performed in close collaboration with Josef Preinhaelter, Jakub Urban, Vladimir Fuchs, Pavol Pavlo and Frantisek Zacek (Czech Academy of Sciences), Martin Valovic and Vladimir Shevchenko (Culham). This research is detailed and all 38 papers which were published by this team are cited.

  7. Physically vapor deposited coatings on tools: performance and wear phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, W.; Fritsch, R.; Kammermeier, D.

    1991-01-01

    Coatings produced by physical vapor deposition (PVD) enhance the performance of tools for a broad variety of production processes. In addition to TiN, nowadays (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coated tools are available. This gives the opportunity to compare the performance of different coatings under identical machining conditions and to evaluate causes and phenomena of wear. TiN, (Ti,Al)N and Ti(C,N) coatings on high speed steel (HSS) show different performances in milling and turning of heat treated steel. The thermal and frictional properties of the coating materials affect the structure, the thickness and the flow of the chips, the contact area on the rake face and the tool life. Model tests show the influence of internal cooling and the thermal conductivity of coated HSS inserts. TiN and (Ti,Zr)N PVD coatings on cemented carbides were examined in interrupted turning and in milling of heat treated steel. Experimental results show a significant influence of typical time-temperature cycles of PVD and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) coating processes on the physical data and on the performance of the substrates. PVD coatings increase tool life, especially towards lower cutting speeds into ranges which cannot be applied with CVD coatings. The reason for this is the superior toughness of the PVD coated carbide. The combination of tough, micrograin carbide and PVD coating even enables broaching of case hardened sliding gears at a cutting speed of 66 m min -1 . (orig.)

  8. First applications of structural pattern recognition methods to the investigation of specific physical phenomena at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratta, G.A.; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Luna, E. de la; Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H.; Santos, M.; Pajares, G.; Murari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural pattern recognition techniques allow the identification of plasma behaviours. Physical properties are encoded in the morphological structure of signals. Intelligent access methods have been applied to JET databases to retrieve data according to physical criteria. On the one hand, the structural form of signals has been used to develop general purpose data retrieval systems to search for both similar entire waveforms and similar structural shapes inside waveforms. On the other hand, domain dependent knowledge was added to the structural information of signals to create particular data retrieval methods for specific physical phenomena. The inclusion of explicit knowledge assists in data analysis. The latter has been applied in JET to look for first, cut-offs in ECE heterodyne radiometer signals and, second, L-H transitions

  9. First applications of structural pattern recognition methods to the investigation of specific physical phenomena at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratta, G.A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion (Spain)], E-mail: giuseppe.ratta@ciemat.es; Vega, J.; Pereira, A.; Portas, A.; Luna, E. de la [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N.; Vargas, H. [Dpto. Informatica y Automatica-UNED, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, M.; Pajares, G. [Dpto. Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica-UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, Padua (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Structural pattern recognition techniques allow the identification of plasma behaviours. Physical properties are encoded in the morphological structure of signals. Intelligent access methods have been applied to JET databases to retrieve data according to physical criteria. On the one hand, the structural form of signals has been used to develop general purpose data retrieval systems to search for both similar entire waveforms and similar structural shapes inside waveforms. On the other hand, domain dependent knowledge was added to the structural information of signals to create particular data retrieval methods for specific physical phenomena. The inclusion of explicit knowledge assists in data analysis. The latter has been applied in JET to look for first, cut-offs in ECE heterodyne radiometer signals and, second, L-H transitions.

  10. Theoretical plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Vahala, G.

    1989-08-01

    During the past year we have studied stellarator equilibria with quasi-helical symmetry and the relation between the trajectories of the exact and the drift Hamiltonian. The relation between these trajectories is particularly important to issue of α particle confinement in a reactor. Work has also been done on the bootstrap current in the absence of symmetry, the effects of tearing modes on the current profile in a tokamak, and models of plasma turbulence. In addition, considerable time was spent during the year by Allen Boozer chairing the task force on Alternate Transport as part of the DoE transport initiative

  11. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this lecture note is to present the theories and experiments of plasma physics for recent activities of controlled fusion research for graduate and senior undergraduate students. Chapters 1-6 describe the basic knowledge of plasma and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). MHD instabilities limit the beta ratio (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) of confined plasma. Chapters 7-9 provide the kinetic theory of hot plasma and discuss the wave heating and non-inductive current drive. The dispersion relation derived by the kinetic theory are used to discuss plasma waves and perturbed modes. Landau damping is the essential mechanism of plasma heating and the stabilization of perturbation. Landau inverse damping brings the amplification of waves and the destabilization of perturbed modes. Chapter 10 explains the plasma transport due to turbulence, which is the most important and challenging subject for plasma confinement. Theories and simulations including subject of zonal flow are introduced. Chapters 11, 12 and 13 describe the recent activities of tokamak including ITER as well as spherical tokamak, reversed field pinch (RFP) and stellarator including quasi-symmetric configurations. Emphasis has been given to tokamak research since it made the most remarkable progress and the construction phase of 'International Tokamak Experimental Reactor' called ITER has already started. (author)

  12. Dynacore Final Report , Plasma Physics prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Lourens, W.

    2000-01-01

    The generation and behaviour of plasma in a fusion device and its interaction with sur-rounding materials is studied by observing several phenomena that will accompany a plasma discharge. These phenomena are recorded by means of so called Diagnostics. These are instruments that comprise complex electronic equipment, coupled to various sensors. The generation of the plasma is also governed by electronic systems that control different parameters of the fusion device, the Tokamak, and of auxilia...

  13. Frequency upshift via flash ionization phenomena using semiconductor plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated frequency upshift in the terahertz region by flash ionization. The magnitude of upshift frequency is tuned by the laser intensity. A proof of principle experiment has been performed with a plasma creation time scale much shorter than the period of the electromagnetic wave and a plasma length longer than its wavelength. Frequency upshifted from 0.35 to 3.5 THz by irradiating a ZnSe crystal with a ultra-short laser pulse has been observed.

  14. Exploring the limits of cooperative phenomena using complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, M.; Zhdanov, S.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    With the advancing miniaturization of technological applications, processes on the mesoscale become increasingly important. This is the scale where the individual movement of particles transforms into cooperative behavior-behavior that cannot be explained by investigating the motion of individual particles alone.Complex plasmas are ideally suited to study the limits of cooperative behavior. The time scales of the dynamics of the microparticles embedded in the plasma are such that their movement can be fully resolved, and an investigation on the atomistic (kinetic) level is possible. In addition, complex plasmas can be considered a model system for ordinary fluids: The internal microparticle dynamics is basically undamped and is characterized by the similarity parameters matching those of other fluids. This similarity does not break down even at small scales: For instance, in [2], microparticle droplets comprised of only a few 1000-10000 particles were examined. In these experiments, the Weber number (the ratio of inertia to surface tension forces) matches that of falling water drops. As another example, the onset of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a complex plasma can be described by the ordinary dispersion relation, even at scales of only few particle layers. This allows investigating the 'nanoscale' of fluid flows, and, hence, the limits of cooperative behavior.

  15. Toward multi-scale simulation of reconnection phenomena in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den, M.; Horiuchi, R.; Usami, S.; Tanaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ohtani, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is considered to play an important role in space phenomena such as substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. It is well known that magnetic reconnection is controlled by microscopic kinetic mechanism. Frozen-in condition is broken due to particle kinetic effects and collisionless reconnection is triggered when current sheet is compressed as thin as ion kinetic scales under the influence of external driving flow. On the other hand configuration of the magnetic field leading to formation of diffusion region is determined in macroscopic scale and topological change after reconnection is also expressed in macroscopic scale. Thus magnetic reconnection is typical multi-scale phenomenon and microscopic and macroscopic physics are strongly coupled. Recently Horiuchi et al. developed an effective resistivity model based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results obtained in study of collisionless driven reconnection and applied to a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of substorm in the Earth's magnetosphere. They showed reproduction of global behavior in substrom such as dipolarization and flux rope formation by global three dimensional MHD simulation. Usami et al. developed multi-hierarchy simulation model, in which macroscopic and microscopic physics are solved self-consistently and simultaneously. Based on the domain decomposition method, this model consists of three parts: a MHD algorithm for macroscopic global dynamics, a PIC algorithm for microscopic kinetic physics, and an interface algorithm to interlock macro and micro hierarchies. They verified the interface algorithm by simulation of plasma injection flow. In their latest work, this model was applied to collisionless reconnection in an open system and magnetic reconnection was successfully found. In this paper, we describe our approach to clarify multi-scale phenomena and report the current status. Our recent study about extension of the MHD domain to global system is presented. We

  16. Plasma physical aspects of the solar cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raadu, M.A.

    1982-08-01

    Mass motions below the photosphere drive the solar cycle which is association with variations in the magnetic field structure and accompanying phenomena. In addition to semi-empirical models, dynamo theories have been used to explain the solar cycle. The emergence of magnetic field generated by these mechanisms and its expansions into the corona involves many plasma physical processes. Magnetic buoyancy aids the expulsion of magnetic flux. The corona may respond dynamically or by continually adjusting to a quasi-static force-free or pressure-balanced equilibrium. The formation and disruption of current sheets is significant for the overall structure of the coronal magnetic field and the physics of quiescent prominences. The corona has a fine structure consisting of magnetic loops. The structure and stability of these are important as they are one of the underlying elements which make up the corona. (Author)

  17. Spin-transfer phenomena in layered magnetic structures: Physical phenomena and materials aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenberg, P.; Buergler, D.E.; Dassow, H.; Rata, A.D.; Schneider, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years, layered structures consisting of ferromagnetic layers and spacers of various material classes with a thickness of only a few nanometers have revealed a variety of exciting and potentially very useful phenomena not present in bulk material. Representing distinct manifestations of spin-transfer processes, these phenomena may be categorized into interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), and the more recently discovered spin-transfer torque effect leading to current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS) and current-driven magnetization dynamics. These phenomena clearly confer novel material properties on magnetic layered structures with respect to the (magneto-)transport and the magnetostatic as well as magnetodynamic behavior. Here, we will first concentrate on the less well understood aspects of IEC across insulating and semiconducting interlayers and relate the observations to TMR in the corresponding structures. In this context, we will also discuss more recent advances in TMR due to the use of electrodes made from Heusler alloys and the realization of coherent tunneling in epitaxial magnetic tunneling junctions. Finally, we will review our results on CIMS in epitaxial magnetic nanostructures showing that normal and inverse CIMS can occur simultaneously in a single nanopillar device. In all cases discussed, material issues play a major role in the detailed understanding of the spin-transfer effects, in particular in those systems that yield the largest effects and are thus of utmost interest for applications

  18. Collective phenomena with energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Berk, H.L.; Candy, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory of collective modes driven by energetic particles, as well as interpretations of fast particle effects observed in fusion-related experiments, are described. New developments in linear theory include: (a) Alfven-mode frequency gap widening due to energetic trapped ions, (b) interpretation of JET results for plasma pressure effect on TAE modes, and (c) ''counter'' propagation of TAE modes due to trapped fast ion anisotropy. The new nonlinear results are: (a) theoretical explanation for the pitchfork splitting effect observed in TAE experiments on JET, (b) existence of coherent structures with strong frequency chirping due to kinetic instability, (c) self-consistent nonlinear theory for fishbone instabilities, and (d) intermittent quasilinear diffusion model for anomalous fast particle losses. (author)

  19. Collective phenomena with energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Berk, H.L.; Candy, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent progress in the theory of collective modes driven by energetic particles, as well as interpretations of fast particle effects observed in fusion-related experiments, are described. New developments in linear theory include: (a) Alfven-mode frequency gap widening due to energetic trapped ions, (b) interpretation of JET results for plasma pressure effect on TAE modes, and (c) 'counter' propagation of TAE modes due to trapped fast ion anisotropy. The new nonlinear results are: (a) theoretical explanation for the pitchfork splitting effect observed in TAE experiments on JET, (b) existence of coherent structures with strong frequency chirping due to kinetic instability, (c) self-consistent nonlinear theory for fishbone instabilities, and (d) intermittent quasilinear diffusion model for anomalous fast particle losses. (author)

  20. Recent developments in quantum plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P K; Eliasson, B

    2010-01-01

    We present a review of recent developments in nonlinear quantum plasma physics involving quantum hydrodynamics and effective nonlinear Schroedinger equation formalisms, for describing collective phenomena in dense quantum plasmas with degenerate electrons. As examples, we discuss simulation studies of the formation and dynamics of dark solitons and quantum vortices, and of nonlinear interactions between intense circularly polarized electromagnetic (CPEM) waves and electron plasma oscillations (EPOs) in dense quantum-electron plasmas with immobile ions. The electron dynamics of dark solitons and quantum vortices is governed by a pair of equations comprising the nonlinear Schroedinger and Poisson system of equations. Both dark solitons and singly charged electron vortices are robust, and the latter tend to form pairs of oppositely charged vortices. The two-dimensional quantum-electron vortex pairs survive during collisions under the change of partners. The dynamics of the CPEM waves is governed by a nonlinear Schroedinger equation, which is nonlinearly coupled with the Schroedinger equation of the EPOs via the relativistic ponderomotive force, the relativistic electron mass increase in the CPEM field, and the electron density fluctuations. The present governing equations in one-spatial dimension admit stationary solutions in the form of dark solitons. The nonlinear equations also depict trapping of localized CPEM wave envelopes in the electron density holes that are associated with a positive potential profile.

  1. On Process Modelling Using Physical Oriented And Phenomena Based Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Culea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a modelling framework based on phenomena description of the process. The approach is taken to easy understand and construct process model in heterogeneous possible distributed modelling and simulation environments. A simplified case study of a heat exchanger is considered and Modelica modelling language to check the proposed concept. The partial results are promising and the research effort will be extended in a computer aided modelling environment based on phenomena.

  2. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-01-01

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  3. The dynamic current-voltage characteristic as a powerful tool to analyze fast phenomena in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan, L. M.; Mihai-Plugaru, M.; Amarandei, G.; Aflori, M.; Dimitriu, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The static current-voltage characteristic of an electrode immersed in plasma is obtained by slowly increasing and subsequently decreasing the potential on the electrode with respect to the plasma potential or the ground. This characteristic can give us important information about the phenomena that take place in front of the electrode. Current jumps can be evidenced which were often associated with an hysteresis effect, regions with S-type or N-type negative differential resistance, etc. The method is always used when we investigate the appearance of complex space charge configurations (CSCC) in front of an electrode immersed in plasma. However, to investigate the dynamics of such structures or other fast phenomena (like instabilities) which take place in plasma devices with frequencies of tenth, hundred kHz or more, complex investigation techniques must be used. One of the most efficient methods to investigate fast phenomena in plasma devices is the dynamic current-voltage characteristic. This is obtained by recording the time series of the current collected by the electrode when the voltage applied on it is very fast modified (most likely increased) by using a signal generator. In this way, very fast oscillations of the current can be recorded and new phenomena can be evidenced. We used this technique to study the phenomena which take place at the onset of electrostatic instabilities in Q-machine plasma, namely the potential relaxation instability (PRI) and the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability (EICI). The obtained experimental results prove that the negative differential resistance region in the static current-voltage characteristic is the result of a nonlinear dynamics of a CSCC in form of a double layer (DL) which takes place just before the onset of the instabilities. In the case of the PRI we emphasized current jumps related with the DL appearance, which are not present in the static current-voltage characteristic at high plasma density. (authors)

  4. Progress report : Plasma Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1975-08-01

    The activities of the plasma physics section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India over the last five years (1970-75) are reported. The R and D programme of the section has been divided into four cells mainly i.e., (i) Thermal plasma (ii) Relativistic Electron Beam (iii) Energetics and (iv) Electron beam technology. The salient features of the development activities carried out in these cells are outlined. In the Thermal plasma group, considerable research work has been done in (a) fundamental plasma studies, (b) industrial plasma technology and (c) open cycle MHD power generation project. The relativistic electron beam group is engaged in improving the technology to realize high power lasers, and pulsed thermonuclear fusion. The energetics programme is oriented to develop high voltage d.c. generators and pulse generators. The electron beam techniques developed here are routinely used for melting refractory and reactive metals. The technical know-how of the welding machines developed has been transfered to industries. Equipment developed by this section, such as, (1) electron beam furnace, (2) plasma cutting torch, (3) impulse magnet charger etc. are listed. (A.K.)

  5. Introduction to plasma physics with space, laboratory and astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gurnett, Donald A

    2017-01-01

    Introducing basic principles of plasma physics and their applications to space, laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, this new edition provides updated material throughout. Topics covered include single-particle motions, kinetic theory, magnetohydrodynamics, small amplitude waves in hot and cold plasmas, and collisional effects. New additions include the ponderomotive force, tearing instabilities in resistive plasmas and the magnetorotational instability in accretion disks, charged particle acceleration by shocks, and a more in-depth look at nonlinear phenomena. A broad range of applications are explored: planetary magnetospheres and radiation belts, the confinement and stability of plasmas in fusion devices, the propagation of discontinuities and shock waves in the solar wind, and analysis of various types of plasma waves and instabilities that can occur in planetary magnetospheres and laboratory plasma devices. With step-by-step derivations and self-contained introductions to mathematical methods, this book...

  6. Kinetic and spectral descriptions of autoionization phenomena associated with atomic processes in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Verne L.

    2017-06-01

    This investigation has been devoted to the theoretical description and computer modeling of atomic processes giving rise to radiative emission in energetic electron and ion beam interactions and in laboratory plasmas. We are also interested in the effects of directed electron and ion collisions and of anisotropic electric and magnetic fields. In the kinetic-theory description, we treat excitation, de-excitation, ionization, and recombination in electron and ion encounters with partially ionized atomic systems, including the indirect contributions from processes involving autoionizing resonances. These fundamental collisional and electromagnetic interactions also provide particle and photon transport mechanisms. From the spectral perspective, the analysis of atomic radiative emission can reveal detailed information on the physical properties in the plasma environment, such as non-equilibrium electron and charge-state distributions as well as electric and magnetic field distributions. In this investigation, a reduced-density-matrix formulation is developed for the microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic interactions in the presence of environmental (collisional and radiative) relaxation and decoherence processes. Our central objective is a fundamental microscopic description of atomic electromagnetic processes, in which both bound-state and autoionization-resonance phenomena can be treated in a unified and self-consistent manner. The time-domain (equation-of-motion) and frequency-domain (resolvent-operator) formulations of the reduced-density-matrix approach are developed in a unified and self-consistent manner. This is necessary for our ultimate goal of a systematic and self-consistent treatment of non-equilibrium (possibly coherent) atomic-state kinetics and high-resolution (possibly overlapping) spectral-line shapes. We thereby propose the introduction of a generalized collisional-radiative atomic-state kinetics model based on a reduced

  7. The blowdown, refill and reflood phase during a LOCA. Survey of the main physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reocreux, M.

    1980-05-01

    In this paper, the main physical phenomena occuring during a LOCA are reviewed. They are presented in a chronological order. For each phenomena, a detailed physical description is given followed by the review of the general modelling problems. For some of these phenomena, modelling details are given for critical flow, for two-phase flow and heat transfer, for critical heat flux and post critical heat flux heat transfer, for reflood and rewet heat transfer and in the survey on LOCA computation codes

  8. The Framework of Plasma Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    Plasma physics is a necessary part of our understanding of stellar and galactic structure. It determines the magnetospheric environment of the earth and other planets; it forms the research frontier in such areas as nuclear fusion, advanced accelerators, and high power lasers; and its applications to various industrial processes (such as computer chip manufacture) are rapidly increasing. It is thus a subject with a long list of scientific and technological applications. This book provides the scientific background for understanding such applications, but it emphasizes something else: the intrinsic scientific interest of the plasma state. It attempts to develop an understanding of this state, and of plasma behavior, as thoroughly and systematically as possible. The book was written with the graduate student in mind, but most of the material would also fit into an upper-level undergraduate course.

  9. Plasma formulary for physics, astronomy, and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan

    2013-01-01

    This collection of fundamental formulae, up-to-date references and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering. Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings, with extended coverage of fusion plasma, plasma in stellar winds, reaction rates, engineering plasma and many other topics. The text is also unique in treating astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline.

  10. BOOK REVIEW: Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, F.

    2007-07-01

    This new book by Kenro Miyamoto provides an up-to-date overview of the status of fusion research and the important parts of the underlying plasma physics at a moment where, due to the start of ITER construction, an important step in fusion research has been made and many new research workers will enter the field. For them, and also for interested graduate students and physicists in other fields, the book provides a good introduction into fusion physics as, on the whole, the presentation of the material is quite appropriate for getting acquainted with the field on the basis of just general knowledge in physics. There is overlap with Miyamoto's earlier book Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, USA, 1989) but only in a few sections on subjects which have not evolved since. The presentation is subdivided into two parts of about equal length. The first part, following a concise survey of the physics basis of thermonuclear fusion and of plasmas in general, covers the various magnetic configurations studied for plasma confinement (tokamak; reversed field pinch; stellarator; mirror-type geometries) and introduces the specific properties of plasmas in these devices. Plasma confinement in tokamaks is treated in particular detail, in compliance with the importance of this field in fusion research. This includes a review of the ITER concept and of the rationale for the choice of ITER's parameters. In the second part, selected topics in fusion plasma physics (macroscopic instabilities; propagation of waves; kinetic effects such as energy transfer between waves and particles including microscopic instabilities as well as plasma heating and current drive; transport phenomena induced by turbulence) are presented systematically. While the emphasis is on displaying the essential physics, deeper theoretical analysis is also provided here. Every chapter is complemented by a few related problems, but only partial hints for their solution are given. A selection of

  11. Developments in plasma physics and controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some developments in plasma physics over the past twenty years are considered from the theoretical physics standpoint under the headings; oscillations, waves and instabilities, plasma turbulence, basic kinetic theory, and developments in fusion. (UK)

  12. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  13. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In 2003, research activities in Dept. P-V embraced the continuation of previous studies in the field of high - temperature plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion. Some new investigations were developed, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main topics of the research activities were as follows: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory; 2. Investigation of plasma phenomena in pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type; 3. Development of selected methods of plasma diagnostics; 4. Research on experimental facilities for basic studies and industrial applications; 5. Modification of material surfaces by means of pulsed plasma-ion streams. Theoretical studies concerned the numerical modeling of discharges in a coaxial plasma accelerator of the IPD type. The modification of a 2-D model concerned mainly a plasma flow along the current sheath surface, taking into consideration the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Several series of computations were performed and different parameters of the system were determined. As for experimental studies, we studied plasma phenomena which occur in high-current discharges of PF and Z-Pinch type. Measurements of pulsed electron beams, and their correlation with other plasma phenomena, were performed within the MAJA-PF device in Swierk and PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Use was made of Cerenkov-type detectors and magnetic analyzers. It was confirmed that separate e-beams are generated in different hot-spots, and the electron energy spectrum ranges up to several hundreds keV (i.e. above the interelectrode voltage during the radial collapse phase). We also presented papers presenting results of previous research on polarization of X-ray lines emitted from the pinch column. Experimental studies of high-temperature plasma were also carried out within the PF-360 facility in Swierk. Several papers, describing the most important characteristics of this device and results of research

  14. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have ... The biological matter such as the tiniest of life, an amoeba, is alive ..... and black-holes, nature fascinates physicists. It is the ...

  15. Investigation on Plasma Jet Flow Phenomena During DC Air Arc Motion in Bridge-Type Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guofu; Bo, Kai; Chen, Mo; Zhou, Xue; Qiao, Xinlei

    2016-05-01

    Arc plasma jet flow in the air was investigated under a bridge-type contacts in a DC 270 V resistive circuit. We characterized the arc plasma jet flow appearance at different currents by using high-speed photography, and two polished contacts were used to search for the relationship between roughness and plasma jet flow. Then, to make the nature of arc plasma jet flow phenomena clear, a simplified model based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory was established and calculated. The simulated DC arc plasma was presented with the temperature distribution and the current density distribution. Furthermore, the calculated arc flow velocity field showed that the circular vortex was an embodiment of the arc plasma jet flow progress. The combined action of volume force and contact surface was the main reason of the arc jet flow. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51307030, 51277038)

  16. Physics of plasma etching and plasma deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Hoog, de F.J.; Bisschops, T.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the title processes are discussed on the basis of a model in which the plasma-surface system is subdivided into 5 regions: (I) plasma prodn., (II) plasma flow plus radicals, (III) gas adsorbed layer, (IV) modified surface, and (V) undisturbed solid (or liq.) state.

  17. The Plasma Archipelago: Plasma Physics in the 1960s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Gary J.

    2017-09-01

    With the foundation of the Division of Plasma Physics of the American Physical Society in April 1959, plasma physics was presented as the general study of ionized gases. This paper investigates the degree to which plasma physics, during its first decade, established a community of interrelated specialties, one that brought together work in gaseous electronics, astrophysics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, space science, and aerospace engineering. It finds that, in some regards, the plasma community was indeed greater than the sum of its parts and that its larger identity was sometimes glimpsed in inter-specialty work and studies of fundamental plasma behaviors. Nevertheless, the plasma specialties usually worked separately for two inter-related reasons: prejudices about what constituted "basic physics," both in the general physics community and within the plasma community itself; and a compartmentalized funding structure, in which each funding agency served different missions.

  18. Energetic particle physics with applications in fusion and space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1997-01-01

    Energetic particle physics is the study of the effects of energetic particles on collective electromagnetic (EM) instabilities and energetic particle transport in plasmas. Anomalously large energetic particle transport is often caused by low frequency MHD instabilities, which are driven by these energetic particles in the presence of a much denser background of thermal particles. The theory of collective energetic particle phenomena studies complex wave-particle interactions in which particle kinetic physics involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect the MHD structure and long-time behavior of plasmas. The difficulty of modeling kinetic-MHD multiscale coupling processes stems from the disparate scales which are traditionally analyzed separately: the macroscale MHD phenomena are studied using the fluid MHD framework, while microscale kinetic phenomena are best described by complicated kinetic theories. The authors have developed a kinetic-MHD model that properly incorporates major particle kinetic effects into the MHD fluid description. For tokamak plasmas a nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code, the NOVA-K code, has been successfully developed and applied to study problems such as the excitation of fishbone and Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and the sawtooth stabilization by energetic ions in tokamaks. In space plasmas the authors have employed the kinetic-MHD model to study the energetic particle effects on the ballooning-mirror instability which explains the multisatellite observation of the stability and field-aligned structure of compressional Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma

  19. Physics of the plasma universe

    CERN Document Server

    Peratt, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Today many scientists recognize plasma as the key element to understanding new observations in near-Earth, interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space; in stars, galaxies, and clusters of galaxies, and throughout the observable universe. Physics of the Plasma Universe, 2nd Edition is an update of observations made across the entire cosmic electromagnetic spectrum over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. It addresses paradigm changing discoveries made by telescopes, planetary probes, satellites, and radio and space telescopes. The contents are the result of the author's 37 years research at Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories, and the U.S. Department of Energy. This book covers topics such as the large-scale structure and the filamentary universe; the formation of magnetic fields and galaxies, active galactic nuclei and quasars, the origin and abundance of light elements, star formation and the evolution of solar systems, and cosmic rays. Chapters 8 and 9 are based ...

  20. Transition phenomena and thermal transport properties in LHD plasmas with an electron internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.; Tokuzawa, T.; Morisaki, T.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Ida, K.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Muto, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Notake, T.; Ohkubo, K.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Watari, T.; Komori, A.

    2005-01-01

    Two types of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused electron cyclotron heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by counter (CNTR) and Co neutral beam injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device. The CNTR NBI plasma displayed transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and had a clear electron internal transport barrier, while the Co NBI plasma did not show a clear transition or an ECH power threshold but showed broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient. This indicated that the Co NBI plasma with additional ECH also had an improved core confinement. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated using heat pulse propagation excited by modulated ECH. These effects appear to be related to the m/n = 2/1 rational surface or the island induced by NBI beam-driven current

  1. Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)

    2016-07-15

    This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.

  2. Theoretical plasma physics. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahala, G.; Tracy, E.

    1996-04-01

    During the past year, the authors have concentrated on (1) divertor physics, (2) thermo-lattice Boltzmann (TLBE) approach to turbulence, and (3) phase space techniques in gyro-resonance problems in collaboration with Dieter Sigmar (MIT), Sergei Krasheninnikov (MIT), Linda Vahala (ODU), Joseph Morrison (AS and M/NASA-Langley), Pavol Pavlo and Josef Preinhaelter (institute of Plasma Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences) and Allan Kaufman (LBL/U.C.Berkeley). Using a 2-equation compressible closure model with a 2D mean flow, the authors are investigating the effects of 3D neutral turbulence on reducing the heat load to the divertor plate by various toroidal cavity geometries. These studies are being extended to examine 3D mean flows. Thermal Lattice Boltzmann (TLBE) methods are being investigated to handle 3D turbulent flows in nontrivial geometries. It is planned to couple the TLBE collisional regime to the weakly collisional regime and so be able to tackle divertor physics. In the application of phase space techniques to minority-ion RF heating, resonance heating is treated as a multi-stage process. A generalization of the Case-van Kampen analysis is presented for multi-dimensional non-uniform plasmas. Effects such as particle trapping and the ray propagation dynamics in tokamak geometry can now be handled using Weyl calculus

  3. Frontiers of plasma physics. III. The implications of nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardwell, S.

    1977-01-01

    In the first two articles of this series, Bardwell reviewed the experimental evidence that points to an inherent nonlinear quality in plasmas. Evidence from strongly turbulent plasmas, where the energy in the plasma's collective motions is comparable to the energy in random motion, leads to the speculation that high energy-density plasmas can provide insight into previously inaccessible regimes of physical behavior. Both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas show a marked tendency to generate self-ordered, large-scale structures; islands of self-generated magnetic field, circulation cells, vortices, and filaments are among the most remarkable of these. These self-ordered phenomena, Bardwell reports, challenge in a fundamental way the conceptual tools of physics as they are presently understood. In part two of this series, Bardwell draws on the connection between linearity and entropy, a topic also examined in Levitt's companion piece in the September 1976 FEF Newsletter, to conclude that these difficulties in plasma physics stem from the invalid extension of contemporary physics, which is basically linear, to high-energy density regimes of a plasma; contemporary physics in these cases is inapplicable. Readers without a background in mathematics should not be deterred by the mathematical formalism in the last section of the article; the text can be understood without a detailed mastery of the mathematical formulae

  4. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  5. Effects of peripheral physical phenomena on ECE spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, A.; Ramponi, G.

    1993-01-01

    In large fusion Tokamaks the measurement of the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) from the low field side, perpendicularly viewing chord, is by now a standard way of obtaining the radial electron temperature profile. In high temperature plasmas the condition of large optical thickness for the second harmonic X-mode may be easily satisfied even for frequencies corresponding to the edge plasma region, allowing the temperature profile to be inferred. Recent experimental observations of enhanced emission at frequencies associated with the extreme edge of the profile in H-mode JET plasmas have been interpreted as the effect of a small fraction of suprathermal electrons. It is well known that the ECE spectra are very sensitive to the presence of non-thermal electron components, thus it is important to interpret the ECE signals as an indication of the possible deviation of the electron distribution function from a 'pure' Maxwellian and to discern under which conditions they are a good measure of the plasma thermal energy. (author) 3 refs., 6 figs

  6. Plasma physics an introduction to laboratory, space, and fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The enlarged new edition of this textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The novel fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a concise description of modern plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple a...

  7. Physical processes in relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)

  8. Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P.K.; Siscoe, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

  9. Transition phenomena and thermal transport property in LHD plasmas with an electron internal transport barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.

    2005-01-01

    Two kinds of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by Counter (CNTR) and Co Neutral Beam Injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). One shows transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and has a clear electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) in CNTR NBI plasma. Another has no clear transition and no ECH power threshold, but shows a broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient, which indicates the improved core confinement with additional ECH in Co NBI plasma. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated by using the heat pulse propagation excited by Modulated ECH (MECH). The difference of the features could be caused by the existence of the m/n=2/1 rational surface or island determined by the direction of NBI beam-driven current. (author)

  10. Hierarchical modeling of plasma and transport phenomena in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, N.; Aggelopoulos, C. A.; Skouras, E. D.; Tsakiroglou, C. D.; Burganos, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    A novel dual-time hierarchical approach is developed to link the plasma process to macroscopic transport phenomena in the interior of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor that has been used for soil remediation (Aggelopoulos et al 2016 Chem. Eng. J. 301 353-61). The generation of active species by plasma reactions is simulated at the microseconds (µs) timescale, whereas convection and thermal conduction are simulated at the macroscopic (minutes) timescale. This hierarchical model is implemented in order to investigate the influence of the plasma DBD process on the transport and reaction mechanisms during remediation of polluted soil. In the microscopic model, the variables of interest include the plasma-induced reactive concentrations, while in the macroscopic approach, the temperature distribution, and the velocity field both inside the discharge gap and within the polluted soil material as well. For the latter model, the Navier-Stokes and Darcy Brinkman equations for the transport phenomena in the porous domain are solved numerically using a FEM software. The effective medium theory is employed to provide estimates of the effective time-evolving and three-phase transport properties in the soil sample. Model predictions considering the temporal evolution of the plasma remediation process are presented and compared with corresponding experimental data.

  11. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  12. Learning From Where Students Look While Observing Simulated Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra

    2005-04-01

    The Physics Education Research (PER) Group at the Ohio State University (OSU) has developed Virtual Reality (VR) programs for teaching introductory physics concepts. Winter 2005, the PER group worked with OSU's cognitive science eye-tracking lab to probe what features students look at while using our VR programs. We see distinct differences in the features students fixate on depending upon whether or not they have formally studied the related physics. Students who first make predictions seem to fixate more on the relevant features of the simulation than those who do not, regardless of their level of education. It is known that students sometimes perform an experiment and report results consistent with their misconceptions but inconsistent with the experimental outcome. We see direct evidence of one student holding onto misconceptions despite fixating frequently on the information needed to understand the correct answer. Future studies using these technologies may prove valuable for tackling difficult questions regarding student learning.

  13. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In 2000 the research activity in the Dept. P-V was concentrated upon studies in the field of high-temperature plasma physics, nuclear fusion, and plasma technology. The main topics were as follows: l. Analysis of selected problems of plasma theory, 2. Investigation of phenomena in high-current pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch type, 3. Development of the selected methods and equipment for plasma diagnostics, 4. Research on technology of experimental facilities for basic studies and applications, 5. Studies of the modification of material surfaces by means of pulse plasma-ion streams. In a frame of theoretical studies the numerical modeling was continued for discharges in coaxial plasma accelerators. The second theoretical aim was the description of some elementary atomic processes in the quasi- classical approach. A paper on the electron scattering on the atoms and molecules was published. In the quasi- classical model, the electron spin was taken into account and trajectories of 2 electrons in the helium atom were analyzed. In the frame of experimental studies, various phenomena were investigated in PF and Z-Pinch systems. The emission of pulse electron beams and ions as well as polarized X-rays were investigated in the MAFA-PF facility. New data about polarization of selected X-ray lines were obtained (2 papers at conferences and 2 publications). Ion emission measurements performed in small-scale PF-devices at INFIP and IFAS (Argentina), and in the Micro-Capillary device at Ecole Politechnique (France), were elaborated (5 papers at conferences and 2 publications). New measurements were also performed in the Capillary Z-Pinch device at IPP in Prague. With partial support of a US research contract, studies of the optimization of a neutron yield were performed in the PF-360 facility with special cryogenic targets (made of h eavy ice'' layers) or deuterium-gas targets (10 presentations at conferences, 2 reports for EOARD, and 7 papers

  14. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    On JET results were presented on additional heating power, on a recently discovered regime of enhanced pellet performance (PEP), on low-density H-mode plasma confinement with hot ions, bounds on very high electric currents by material limiters, the first experiments on lower hybrid current drive, on the L-H transition threshold dependence on the direction of the gradient-B drift, and on alpha-particle physics issues. The TFTR presentations focused on transport. Particle loss ramifications of the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes were found to be small, while their threshold of excitation is lower than theoretically predicted. On DIII-D a scaling study of transport with gyroradius as the only variable was reported, with approximately Bohm scaling emerging; but the effective heat diffusivity scaling could not be established due to profile consistency effects. While beta-limit investigations with DIII-D generally confirm the ideal, MHD limit found by Troyon, evidence of a reduction of the accessible range for the internal inductance with the safety factor seems to favour current-density control in a steady-state D-T burner. Onset of strongly sheared poloidal rotation in a thin layer during the L-H mode transition was experimentally shown, while a new, so-called VH (''very high'') confinement mode was discovered by boronization of the wall. The JT-90 tokamak has recently been upgraded to JT-60-U. Presentations by the ASDEX team summarized the lack of agreement with theory of L-mode confinement. With TEXTOR, an improved mode (I-mode) of confinement was found by boronization. Finally, reviews are included on the status of impurity transport and helium removal in tokamaks, on stellarators, alternative magnetic confinement systems, inertial confinement, and non-fusion plasma physics. 2 tabs

  15. [The mission of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses the following about Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory: its mission; requirements and guidance documents for the QA program; architecture; assessment organization; and specific management issues

  16. Dynamic modeling of physical phenomena for PRAs using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Brown, N.N.; Paez, T.L.

    1998-04-01

    In most probabilistic risk assessments, there is a set of accident scenarios that involves the physical responses of a system to environmental challenges. Examples include the effects of earthquakes and fires on the operability of a nuclear reactor safety system, the effects of fires and impacts on the safety integrity of a nuclear weapon, and the effects of human intrusions on the transport of radionuclides from an underground waste facility. The physical responses of the system to these challenges can be quite complex, and their evaluation may require the use of detailed computer codes that are very time consuming to execute. Yet, to perform meaningful probabilistic analyses, it is necessary to evaluate the responses for a large number of variations in the input parameters that describe the initial state of the system, the environments to which it is exposed, and the effects of human interaction. Because the uncertainties of the system response may be very large, it may also be necessary to perform these evaluations for various values of modeling parameters that have high uncertainties, such as material stiffnesses, surface emissivities, and ground permeabilities. The authors have been exploring the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a means for estimating the physical responses of complex systems to phenomenological events such as those cited above. These networks are designed as mathematical constructs with adjustable parameters that can be trained so that the results obtained from the networks will simulate the results obtained from the detailed computer codes. The intent is for the networks to provide an adequate simulation of the detailed codes over a significant range of variables while requiring only a small fraction of the computer processing time required by the detailed codes. This enables the authors to integrate the physical response analyses into the probabilistic models in order to estimate the probabilities of various responses

  17. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  18. SCREENING OF HIGH-Z GRAINS AND RELATED PHENOMENA IN COLLOIDAL PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Bystrenko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent important results are briefly presented concerning the screening of high-Z impurities in colloidal plasmas. The review focuses on the phenomenon of nonlinear screening and its effects on the structure of colloidal plasmas, the role of trapped ions in grain screening, and the effects of strong collisions in the plasma background. It is shown that the above effects may strongly modify the properties of the grain screening giving rise to considerable deviations from the conventional Debye-Huckel theory as dependent on the physical processes in the plasma background.

  19. Effect of electromagnetic waves and higher harmonics in capacitively coupled plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, R R; Sawada, I; Ventzek, P L G; Raja, L L

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution self-consistent numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave phenomena in an axisymmetric capacitively coupled plasma reactor is reported. A prominent centre-peaked plasma density profile is observed for driving frequencies of 60 MHz and is consistent with observations in the literature and accompanying experimental studies. A power spectrum of the simulated wave electric field reveals the presence of well-resolved high frequency harmonic content up to the 20th harmonic of the excitation frequency; an observation that has also been reported in experiments. Importantly, the simulation results reveal that the occurrence of higher harmonics is strongly correlated with the occurrence of a centre-peaked plasma density profile. (fast track communication)

  20. Proceedings of the 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 1. Brazilian Congress on Plasma Physics proceedings presents technical papers on magnetohydrodynamics, plasma diagnostic, plasma waves, plasma impurities, plasma instabilities, and astrophysics plasma. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. The mysteries of leptons. New physics and unexplained phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander

    2009-12-09

    This doctoral thesis deals with the mysteries of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. After giving a short overview about the Standard Model itself, the text starts with introducing the so-called ''GSI anomaly'', the observation of a periodic modulation of the exponential decay law, which is still unexplained and has erroneously been attributed to neutrino oscillations. It is argued why this interpretation is incorrect and several further aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. Afterwards two topics of New Physics beyond the Standard Model are treated, double beta processes and lepton flavour violation. Some important phenomenological aspects of the former are discussed before performing a detailed calculation of the radiative process of neutrino-less double electron capture. In spite of the tiny rates, a detailed understanding of this process is important for setting proper experimental limits. The last part of the thesis starts with very general (and nearly model-independent) constraints for lepton flavour conservation, before discussing the interplay of structure and freedom in the Yukawa sector when a model is confronted with phenomenology. We also comment on a new mechanism that can indeed introduce some realistic structures leading to lepton flavour violating effects. (orig.)

  2. The mysteries of leptons. New physics and unexplained phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This doctoral thesis deals with the mysteries of the leptonic sector of the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics. After giving a short overview about the Standard Model itself, the text starts with introducing the so-called ''GSI anomaly'', the observation of a periodic modulation of the exponential decay law, which is still unexplained and has erroneously been attributed to neutrino oscillations. It is argued why this interpretation is incorrect and several further aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. Afterwards two topics of New Physics beyond the Standard Model are treated, double beta processes and lepton flavour violation. Some important phenomenological aspects of the former are discussed before performing a detailed calculation of the radiative process of neutrino-less double electron capture. In spite of the tiny rates, a detailed understanding of this process is important for setting proper experimental limits. The last part of the thesis starts with very general (and nearly model-independent) constraints for lepton flavour conservation, before discussing the interplay of structure and freedom in the Yukawa sector when a model is confronted with phenomenology. We also comment on a new mechanism that can indeed introduce some realistic structures leading to lepton flavour violating effects. (orig.)

  3. Surface Phenomena During Plasma-Assisted Atomic Layer Etching of SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasvoda, Ryan J; van de Steeg, Alex W; Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Hudson, Eric A; Agarwal, Sumit

    2017-09-13

    Surface phenomena during atomic layer etching (ALE) of SiO 2 were studied during sequential half-cycles of plasma-assisted fluorocarbon (CF x ) film deposition and Ar plasma activation of the CF x film using in situ surface infrared spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Infrared spectra of the surface after the CF x deposition half-cycle from a C 4 F 8 /Ar plasma show that an atomically thin mixing layer is formed between the deposited CF x layer and the underlying SiO 2 film. Etching during the Ar plasma cycle is activated by Ar + bombardment of the CF x layer, which results in the simultaneous removal of surface CF x and the underlying SiO 2 film. The interfacial mixing layer in ALE is atomically thin due to the low ion energy during CF x deposition, which combined with an ultrathin CF x layer ensures an etch rate of a few monolayers per cycle. In situ ellipsometry shows that for a ∼4 Å thick CF x film, ∼3-4 Å of SiO 2 was etched per cycle. However, during the Ar plasma half-cycle, etching proceeds beyond complete removal of the surface CF x layer as F-containing radicals are slowly released into the plasma from the reactor walls. Buildup of CF x on reactor walls leads to a gradual increase in the etch per cycle.

  4. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    1993-05-01

    The report contains the proceedings of a conference on plasma physics. A fraction of topics included MHD instabilities, magnetic confinement and plasma heating in the field of fusion plasmas, in 8 papers falling in the INIS scope have been abstracted and indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  5. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 research activity of the P-V Department was concentrated on the continuation of previous studies in the field of plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion (CNF), but several new topics concerning plasma technology were also investigated. The main tasks of the research activities were as follows: 1. Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges producing dense magnetized plasma; 2. Development of methods and tools for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; 3. Research in the field of plasma technologies. In a frame of the first task particular attention was paid to studies of X-ray pulses and fast electron beams emitted from different Plasma-Focus (PF) facilities. The correlation of X-ray pulses with pulsed electron beams and other corpuscular emissions (i.e. accelerated primary ions and fusion reaction products) was investigated in the PF-360 device in Swierk. The X-ray and corpuscular emission was also studied in a PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Separate efforts were devoted to the investigation of fast electrons escaping from Tokamak-type facilities. Such studies were carried out in a frame of the EURATOM program, using special Cerenkov-type detectors within the CASTOR tokamak, operated at IPP in Prague. Signals from the Cerenkov detector were recorded and interpreted. Other studies concerned the design and construction of a new 4-channel Cerenkov detection system for a TORE-SUPRA facility at CEA-Cadarache. Since thermal loads upon the Cerenkov probe within the TORE SUPRA facility can amount to 1 MW/cm 2 , it was necessary to perform detailed computations of heat transfer in various materials (i.e. diamond-radiators and the probe body). Some efforts were devoted to the calibration of new nuclear track detectors (NTD) and their application for measurements of fusion-produced protons emitted from PF-360 and PF-1000 facilities. In frame of the EURATOM program the calibrated NTD were also applied for measurements of fusion-protons in a TEXTOR

  6. PREFACE: Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Evgeniya; Atanassov, Vladimir

    2007-04-01

    The Second International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'06) organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Bulgarian Nuclear Society, was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea Coast, from 3-9 July 2006. As with the first of these scientific meetings (IWSSPP'05 Journal of Physics: Conference Series 44 (2006)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 33 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma research, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of these papers were presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing procedure and our referees for their patience and considerable effort to improve the manuscripts. We greatly appreciate the financial support from the sponsors: the Department for Language Teaching and International Students at the University of Sofia and Natsionalna Elektricheska Kompania EAD. We would like to express our gratitude to the invited

  7. Experiments on Plasma Physics : Experience is the Mother of Wisdom 5.What We Expect with Nonneutral Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwamoto, Yasuhito

    The present status of nonneutral plasma science is reviewed with a particular interest in the pursuit of a new frontier for plasma physicists engaged in basic researches. The author does not intend to be exhaustive nor well balanced in the description, but tries to discuss where we are positioned and what we might be able to do to fruitfully enjoy plasma physics and extend its field of activity. Leaving most of topics to the cited references, the author describes characteristic features of nonneutral plasmas appearing in distinct confinement properties, equilibria, transport, nonlinear evolution of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and fluid echo phenomena. These examples may convey the significance of nonneutral plasma science as one of newly-rising branches of plasma physics and as a potentially relevant channel through which plasma physics could explore new dimensions.

  8. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  9. Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav

    2017-10-01

    The Town Meeting on Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation will provide an opportunity for Q&A about the variety of NSF programs and solicitations relevant to a broad cross-section of the academic plasma science community, from graduating college seniors to senior leaders in the field, and from plasma astrophysics to basic physics to plasma engineering communities. We will discuss recent NSF-hosted events, research awards, and multi-agency partnerships aimed at enabling the progress of science in plasma science and engineering. Future outlook for plasma physics and broader plasma science support at NSF, with an emphasis on how you can help NSF to help the community, will be speculated upon within the uncertainty of the federal budgeting process.

  10. Sixth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Evgenia Benova et al 2016 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. VV The Sixth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'14) was organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizer PLASMER Foundation. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from June 30 to July 6, 2014. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. The Workshop Plasma for Sustainable Environment was co-organized together with the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal. A special Workshop on Remote GOLEM operation was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague, Czech Republic for the students and interested participants to work remotely with the Czech TOKAMAK GOLEM. As with the previous issues of this scientific meeting, its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 19 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants

  11. Fifth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, Evgenia

    2016-01-01

    The Fifth International Workshop and Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'12) was organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, on the Black Sea coast, from June 25-30, 2012. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology . The 4 th edition of the Workshop Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organized together with the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal. A special Workshop on Remote GOLEM operation was organized by the Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague, Czech Republic for the students and interested participants to work remotely with the Czech TOKAMAK GOLEM. As in the previous issues of this scientific meeting its aim was to stimulate the development of and support a new generation of young scientists to further advance plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as ensuring an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 12 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed

  12. PREFACE: Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lebedev, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'08) organized by St Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from 30 June to 5 July 2008. A Special Session on Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organised by the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal and the Laboratory of Plasmas and Energy Conversion, University of Toulouse, France. That puts the beginning of a series in Workshops on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, now as a satellite meeting of the European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 38 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the

  13. Department of Plasma Physics and Material Engineering - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In 2010 the activities of the Department continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma engineering: · · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges in the Plasma-Focus (PF), RPI-IBIS, and Impulse Plasma Deposition (IPD) facilities; · Research on plasma technologies; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modeling. In the frame of the EURATOM program, efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostics methods for tokamak-type facilities. In 2010 Cherenkov detectors were applied in the ISTTOK and TORE SUPRA facilities to detect energetic electrons (of energy > 60 keV), to determine their spatial and temporal behavior and to estimate their energy spectra. Attention was also paid to measurements of hard X rays emitted from ISTTOK and to their correlations with run-away electrons. The new data on fast electrons, collected within the TORE-SUPRA machine in 2010, confirmed the appearance of intense electron streams (possible ripple-born and runaway ones), which have a similar character to the electron signals recorded by means of other diagnostic techniques. Other fusion-oriented efforts are connected with the application of solid-state nuclear track detectors to detect fast alpha particles in tokamak experiments. As for experimental studies, particular attention was paid to the investigation of fast ion- and electron-beams emitted from high-current plasma discharges in PF and RPI facilities. Ion streams from discharges were studied by means of nuclear track detector, corpuscular diagnostic techniques, and particularly of a miniature Thompson-type mass-spectrometer. A field of research activity was related to plasma technology. Efforts were undertaken to improve the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) deposition of thin superconducting layers, e.g. pure niobium film on the surface of copper resonant cavities

  14. Plasma physics aspects of ETF/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.R.; Schmidt, J.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    In order to achieve their principle technical objectives, the Engineering Test Facility (ETF) and the International Tokomak Reactor (INTOR) will require an ignited (or near ignited) plasma, sustained for pulse lengths of at least 100 secs at a high enough plasma pressure to provide a neutron wall loading of at least 1.3 MW/m 2 . The ignited plasma will have to be substantially free of impurities. Our current understanding of major plasma physics characters is summarized

  15. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D.

    2001-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  16. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  17. Nonlinear parametric phenomena in plasma during radio frequency heating in the ion cyclotron frequency range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, K.N.

    1996-01-01

    Parametric phenomena in plasma which occur due to varying electric fields with the ion cyclotron frequency are reviewed. Beam-like lower hybrid instability emerges in strong pumping fields provided that the transverse relative velocity of particles is larger than the ion thermal speed (υ Ti ). The resulting turbulence and the following numerous manifestations observed experimentally are addressed. The turbulence may prove important for experiments aimed at plasma production or radio frequency (RF) cleaning of metallic surfaces of vacuum chambers in stellarators, tokamaks and helicon devices. In contrast, for a weak field (U Ti ) the kinetic parametric instabilities of ion cyclotron oscillations arise due to electrons. The issues of the turbulence, mathematical modelling, its role in turbulent heating observed on the torsatron Uragan-3M, decay instabilities associated with ion cyclotron oscillations and the triggering of ion quasimodes are considered. (author)

  18. Fluid Physical and Transport Phenomena Studies aboard the International Space Station: Planned Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.

  19. Plasmas: from space to laboratory. 'Introduction to plasma physics' course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoini, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This course addresses the different basic concepts of plasma physics. After an introduction which addresses the plasma state, basic equations, the different theoretical approaches (orbitals, kinetic, multi-fluid, magnetohydrodynamics), and the different characteristic scales, waves are addressed and presented as a disordered electromagnetism: existence of plasma waves, generalities on waves, relationship of formal dispersion of plasmas, plasma without magnetic field (longitudinal, transverse, or low frequency wave), plasma with magnetic field (parallel, perpendicular, or arbitrary propagation). The next parts present various approaches: the particle-based approach (case of constant and uniform magnetic fields, case of non-uniform magnetic fields), the statistical approach (elements of kinetic theory, the collision phenomenon, the equilibrium state), and the fluid approach (fluid equations according to the multi-fluid theory, comparison with the particle-based approach, presentation of magnetohydrodynamics as the single-fluid model, validity of MHD)

  20. Plasma physics via particle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Plasmas are studied by following the motion of many particles in applied and self fields, analytically, experimentally and computationally. Plasmas for magnetic fusion energy devices are very hot, nearly collisionless and magnetized, with scale lengths of many ion gyroradii and Debye lengths. The analytic studies of such plasmas are very difficult as the plasma is nonuniform, anisotropic and nonlinear. The experimental studies have become very expensive in time and money, as the size, density and temperature approach fusion reactor values. Computational studies using many particles and/or fluids have complemented both theories and experiments for many years and have progressed to fully three dimensional electromagnetic models, albeit with hours of running times on the fastest largest computers. Particle simulation methods are presented in some detail, showing particle advance from acceleration to velocity to position, followed by calculation of the fields from charge and current densities and then further particle advance, and so on. Limitations due to the time stepping and use of a spatial grid are given, to avoid inaccuracies and instabilities. Examples are given for an electrostatic program in one dimension of an orbit averaging program, and for a three dimensional electromagnetic program. Applications of particle simulations of plasmas in magnetic and inertial fusion devices continue to grow, as well as to plasmas and beams in peripheral devices, such as sources, accelerators, and converters. (orig.)

  1. Multi-Level iterative methods in computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma physics phenomena occur on a wide range of spatial scales and on a wide range of time scales. When attempting to model plasma physics problems numerically the authors are inevitably faced with the need for both fine spatial resolution (fine grids) and implicit time integration methods. Fine grids can tax the efficiency of iterative methods and large time steps can challenge the robustness of iterative methods. To meet these challenges they are developing a hybrid approach where multigrid methods are used as preconditioners to Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as conjugate gradients or GMRES. For nonlinear problems they apply multigrid preconditioning to a matrix-few Newton-GMRES method. Results are presented for application of these multilevel iterative methods to the field solves in implicit moment method PIC, multidimensional nonlinear Fokker-Planck problems, and their initial efforts in particle MHD

  2. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 research activities in Department P-V were concentrated on the continuation of previous studies in the field of plasma physics and CNF, but new investigations were also undertaken, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main tasks were as follows: 1. Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges producing dense magnetized plasma; 2. Development of methods and tools for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; 3. Research in the field of plasma technologies. As to the first task, particular attention was paid to studies of X-ray pulses and pulsed electron beams, by means of different diagnostic techniques. Measurements of the polarization of the selected X-ray spectral lines and their correlation with pulsed e-beams were performed in the MAJA-PF facility. Taking into account microscopic irreproducibility of so-called 'hot-spots', particular efforts were devoted to the correlation of the X-ray emission from a single hot-spot with corresponding non-thermal electron pulses. Some observations of X-rays were performed also at the PF-1000 facility at IPPLM in Warsaw. Other studies concerned the correlation of fast-neutron pulses with X-rays and other corpuscular emissions. Results of experimental studies carried out in the IPJ-IPPLM collaboration were analyzed and summarized. New measurements, carried out in the MAJA-PF facility, determined the temporal correlation of X-rays pulses, fusion-neutrons, fast electron beams and high-energy ion beams. Other efforts concerned studies of fast (ripple-born) electrons in tokamaks. An analysis of the capability of special Cerenkov-type detectors (based on diamond-crystal radiators) was performed, and measuring heads for the CASTOR and TORE-SUPRA facilities have been designed. Concerning the development of plasma diagnostic techniques, characteristics of PM-355 nuclear track detectors were analyzed and the calibrated detectors (with appropriate absorption filters) were used for measurements of fast (> 3 Me

  3. The EPFL Plasma Physics Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Plasma Physics Research Centre (CRPP) is a non-departmental unit of the EPFL, and currently employs about 130 people, about 105 on the EPFL site and the rest at the Paul Scherrer Institute, PSI, in Villigen, Switzerland. The CRPP is a National Competence Centre in the field of Plasma Physics. In addition to plasma physics teaching, its missions are primarily the pursuit of scientific research in the field of controlled fusion within the framework of the EURATOM-Swiss Confederation Association and the development of its expertise as well as technology transfer in the field of materials research. As the body responsible for all scientific work on controlled fusion in Switzerland, the CRPP plays a national role of international significance. This document of 6 pages presents the explanation of the Plasma Physics Research Centre' activities (CRPP). (author)

  4. Department of Plasma Physics and Material Engineering - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In April 2009 the Department of Materials Studies was united with the Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, This action followed twenty years of close cooperation in the implementation of high-intensity ion-beam pulses for the implantation of materials. In 2009 the activities of the new Department continued previous studies in the following fields of plasma physics, controlled nuclear fusion and plasma engineering: · Development of selected methods for high-temperature plasma diagnostics; · Studies of physical phenomena in pulsed discharges at the Plasma-Focus and RPI-IBIS facilities; · Research on plasma technologies, search for new methods of surface engineering; · Selected problems of plasma theory and computational modelling. In the framework of the EURATOM program. efforts were devoted to the development of diagnostics methods for tokamak-type facilities. Such studies included the elaboration of a special detection system based on a Cherenkov-type detector. Other fusion-oriented efforts were connected with the application of activation methods to the investigation of neutrons from the JET tokamak. Also. solid-state nuclear track detectors of the PM-355 type were used for measurements of energetic protons emitted from ultra-intense laser produced plasmas. In our continuing experimental studies, particular attention was paid to the development and application of optical spectroscopy for diagnostics of high-temperature plasma within the RPI-IBIS device and Plasma-Focus facilities. Fast ions escaping from the plasma were studied with nuclear track detectors, The interaction of plasma-ion streams with different targets was also investigated. A field of research activity was related to plasma technology. Efforts were undertaken to improve the ultra-high vacuum (UHV) deposition of thin superconducting layers. c.g. pure niobium film on the surface of copper resonant cavities of accelerators. The vacuum arc deposition technique was also applied to

  5. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  6. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  7. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutych, I F; Gresillon, D; Sitenko, A G

    1997-12-31

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas.

  8. Abstracts of the 23rd European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutych, I.F.; Gresillon, D.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of the invited and contributed papers presented at 23 EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics. The main contents are: tokamaks, stellarators; alternative magnetic confinement; plasma edge physics; plasma heating and current drive; plasma diagnostics; basic collisionless plasma physics; high intensity laser produced plasmas and inertial confinement; low-temperature plasmas

  9. Role of impurity dynamics in resistivity-gradient-driven turbulence and tokamak edge plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, T.S.; Diamond, P.H.; Terry, P.W.; Garcia, L.; Carreras, B.A.

    1986-03-01

    The role of impurity dynamics in resistivity gradient driven turbulence is investigated in the context of modeling tokamak edge plasma phenomena. The effects of impurity concentration fluctuations and gradients on the linear behavior of rippling instabilities and on the nonlinear evolution and saturation of resistivity gradient driven turbulence are studied both analytically and computationally. At saturation, fluctuation levels and particle and thermal diffusivities are calculated. In particular, the mean-square turbulent radial velocity is given by 2 > = (E 0 L/sub s/B/sub z/) 2 (L/sub/eta/ -1 + L/sub z -1 ) 2 . Thus, edged peaked impurity concentrations tend to enhance the turbulence, while axially peaked concentrations tend to quench it. The theoretical predictions are in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental results from the TEXT, Caltech, and Tosca tokamaks. Finally, a theory of the density clamp observed during CO-NBI on the ISX-B tokamak is proposed

  10. Laboratory space physics: Investigating the physics of space plasmas in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Gregory G.

    2018-05-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a valuable complement to explore the fundamental physics of space plasmas without the limitations inherent to spacecraft measurements. Specifically, experiments overcome the restriction that spacecraft measurements are made at only one (or a few) points in space, enable greater control of the plasma conditions and applied perturbations, can be reproducible, and are orders of magnitude less expensive than launching spacecraft. Here, I highlight key open questions about the physics of space plasmas and identify the aspects of these problems that can potentially be tackled in laboratory experiments. Several past successes in laboratory space physics provide concrete examples of how complementary experiments can contribute to our understanding of physical processes at play in the solar corona, solar wind, planetary magnetospheres, and the outer boundary of the heliosphere. I present developments on the horizon of laboratory space physics, identifying velocity space as a key new frontier, highlighting new and enhanced experimental facilities, and showcasing anticipated developments to produce improved diagnostics and innovative analysis methods. A strategy for future laboratory space physics investigations will be outlined, with explicit connections to specific fundamental plasma phenomena of interest.

  11. Transport, chaos and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, S.; Doveil, F.; Elskens, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop made it possible to gather for the first time plasma physicists, dynamical systems physicists and mathematicians, around a general theme focusing on the characterisation of chaotic transport. The participations have been divided into 4 topics: - dynamical systems and microscopic models of chaotic transport, - magnetic fluctuations and transport in tokamaks, - drift wave turbulence, self-organisation and intermittency, and - Wave-particle interactions

  12. PREFACE: Conference of Theoretical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena (CTPNP) 2014: ''From Universe to String's Scale''

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical physics is the first step for the development of science and technology. For more than 100 years it has delivered new and sophisticated discoveries which have changed human views of their surroundings and universe. Theoretical physics has also revealed that the governing law in our universe is not deterministic, and it is undoubtedly the foundation of our modern civilization. Contrary to its importance, research in theoretical physics is not well advanced in some developing countries such as Indonesia. This workshop provides the formal meeting in Indonesia devoted to the field of theoretical physics and is organized to cover all subjects of theoretical physics as well as nonlinear phenomena in order to create a gathering place for the theorists in Indonesia and surrounding countries, to motivate young physicists to keep doing active researches in the field and to encourage constructive communication among the community members. Following the success of the tenth previous meetings in this conference series, the eleventh conference was held in Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia on 15 February 2014. In addition, the conference was proceeded by School of Advance Physics at Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, on 16-17 February 2014. The conference is expected to provide distinguished experts and students from various research fields of theoretical physics and nonlinear phenomena in Indonesia as well as from other continents the opportunities to present their works and to enhance contacts among them. The introduction to the conference is continued in the pdf.

  13. Predictive modelling of edge transport phenomena in ELMy H-mode tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, J.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a range of work dealing with edge plasma transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by means of predictive transport modelling, a technique in which qualitative predictions and explanations are sought by running transport codes equipped with models for plasma transport and other relevant phenomena. The focus is on high confinement mode (H-mode) tokamak plasmas, which feature improved performance thanks to the formation of an edge transport barrier. H-mode plasmas are generally characterized by the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs), periodic eruptions of particles and energy, which limit confinement and may turn out to be seriously damaging in future tokamaks. The thesis introduces schemes and models for qualitative study of the ELM phenomenon in predictive transport modelling. It aims to shed new light on the dynamics of ELMs using these models. It tries to explain various experimental observations related to the performance and ELM-behaviour of H-mode plasmas. Finally, it also tries to establish more generally the potential effects of ripple-induced thermal ion losses on H-mode plasma performance and ELMs. It is demonstrated that the proposed ELM modelling schemes can qualitatively reproduce the experimental dynamics of a number of ELM regimes. Using a theory-motivated ELM model based on a linear instability model, the dynamics of combined ballooning-peeling mode ELMs is studied. It is shown that the ELMs are most often triggered by a ballooning mode instability, which renders the plasma peeling mode unstable, causing the ELM to continue in a peeling mode phase. Understanding the dynamics of ELMs will be a key issue when it comes to controlling and mitigating the ELMs in future large tokamaks. By means of integrated modelling, it is shown that an experimentally observed increase in the ELM frequency and deterioration of plasma confinement triggered by external neutral gas puffing might be due to a transition from the second to

  14. Contribution to the study of multi-physical phenomena in cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bary, B.

    2010-09-01

    This document is a synthesis of the applied research studies undertaken by the author during ten years, first at the University of Marne-La-Vallee during the period 1999-2002, then at the CEA. These studies concern the modeling and the numerical simulations of the cementitious materials behavior subjected on the one hand to moderate thermomechanical and hydric loadings, and on the other hand to chemical attacks due to the migration of calcium, carbonate and sulfate ions. The developed approaches may be viewed as multi-physical in the sense that the models used for describing the behavior couple various fields and phenomena such as mechanics, thermal, hydric and ionic transfers, and chemistry. In addition, analytical up-scaling techniques are applied to estimate the physical properties associated with these phenomena (mechanical, hydraulic and diffusive parameters) as a function of the microstructure and the hydric state of the material. (author)

  15. Millimetre waves and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, G.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: This talk is a review of the plasma-related presentations at the 23rd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves held at the University of Essex, Colchester, UK 7-11 September 1998. Of most relevance to fusion is the development of high-power sources for electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. The requirements for ITER are a total of 50 MW at 170 GHz. The state of the art is illustrated by (a) high-power gyrotrons that deliver 1 MW for 1 s at 170 GHz, and (b) a free-electron maser that has generated millimetre waves for the first time, 730 kW at 200 GHz. A number of papers describe new technologies that allow high powers to be achieved; internal mode converters to convert the whispering-gallery mode generated in the gyrotron cavity into a gaussian beam, depressed collectors to raise the efficiency from 1/3 to better than 1/2, CVD diamond output windows and coaxial gyrotrons with improved mode purity. Other papers describe transmission lines and steerable mirrors. Several papers deal with millimetre-wave plasma diagnostics for fusion such as electron cyclotron emission measurements and reflectometry. (author)

  16. An introduction to boundary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Takizuka, Tomonori

    2004-01-01

    History of tokamak experiments is briefly reviewed with a special focus on divertors. Two-point divertor model, which calculates plasma parameters up-stream and at the divertor plate for a given condition of particle flux and heat flux, is explained. The model is applied to ITER to discuss the heat flux onto the target plate. The important issues of divertor physics related to recycling, remote radiative cooling, detached plasma and MARFE are also introduced. (author)

  17. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...

  18. Nonlinear aspects of quantum plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Padma K; Eliasson, B

    2010-01-01

    Dense quantum plasmas are ubiquitous in planetary interiors and in compact astrophysical objects (e.g., the interior of white dwarf stars, in magnetars, etc.), in semiconductors and micromechanical systems, as well as in the next-generation intense laser-solid density plasma interaction experiments and in quantum X-ray free-electron lasers. In contrast to classical plasmas, quantum plasmas have extremely high plasma number densities and low temperatures. Quantum plasmas are composed of electrons, positrons and holes, which are degenerate. Positrons (holes) have the same (slightly different) mass as electrons, but opposite charge. The degenerate charged particles (electrons, positrons, and holes) obey the Fermi-Dirac statistics. In quantum plasmas, there are new forces associated with (i) quantum statistical electron and positron pressures, (ii) electron and positron tunneling through the Bohm potential, and (iii) electron and positron angular momentum spin. Inclusion of these quantum forces allows the existence of very high-frequency dispersive electrostatic and electromagnetic waves (e.g., in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray regimes) with extremely short wavelengths. In this review paper, we present theoretical backgrounds for some important nonlinear aspects of wave-wave and wave-electron interactions in dense quantum plasmas. Specifically, we focus on nonlinear electrostatic electron and ion plasma waves, novel aspects of three-dimensional quantum electron fluid turbulence, as well as nonlinearly coupled intense electromagnetic waves and localized plasma wave structures. Also discussed are the phase-space kinetic structures and mechanisms that can generate quasistationary magnetic fields in dense quantum plasmas. The influence of the external magnetic field and the electron angular momentum spin on the electromagnetic wave dynamics is discussed. Finally, future perspectives of the nonlinear quantum plasma physics are highlighted. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter contains a report on the First South-North International Workshop on Fusion Theory, Tipaza, Algeria, 17-20 September, 1990; a report in the issuance of the ''Buenos Aires Memorandum'' generated during the IV Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, Argentina, July 1990, and containing a proposal that the IFRC establish a ''Steering Committee on North-South Collaboration in Controlled Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Physics Research''; the announcement that the 14th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion will be held in Wuerzburg, Germany, September 30 - October 7, 1992; a list of IAEA technical committee meetings for 1991; an item on ITER news; an article ''Long-Term Physics R and D Planning (for ITER)'' by F. Engelmann; in the planned sequence of ''Reports on National Fusion Programmes'' contributions on the Chinese and Yugoslav programmes; finally, the titles and contacts for two other newsletters of potential interest, i.e., the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training) Newsletter, and the IPG (International Physics Group-a sub-unit of the American Physical Society) Newsletter

  20. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter, no. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The fifth Plasma Physics Network Newsletter (IAEA, Vienna, Aug. 1992) includes the following topics: (1) the availability of a list of the members of the Third World Plasma Research Network (TWPRN); (2) the announcement of the fourteenth IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research to be held in Wuerzburg, Germany, from 30 Sep. to 7 Oct. 1992; (3) the announcement of a Technical Committee Meeting on research using small tokamaks, organized by the IAEA as a satellite meeting to the aforementioned fusion conference; (4) IAEA Fellowships and Scientific Visits for the use of workers in developing member states, and for which plasma researchers are encouraged to apply through Dr. D. Banner, Head, Physics Section, IAEA, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria; (5) the initiation in 1993 of a new Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on 'Development of Software for Numerical Simulation and Data Processing in Fusion Energy Research', as well as a proposed CRP on 'Fusion Research in Developing Countries using Middle- and Small-Scale Plasma Devices'; (6) support from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) for meetings held in Third World countries; (7) a report by W. Usada on Fusion Research in Indonesia; (8) News on ITER; (9) the Technical Committee Meeting planned 8-12 Sep. 1992, Canada, on Tokamak Plasma Biasing; (10) software made available for the study of tokamak transport; (11) the electronic mail address of the TWPRN; (12) the FAX, e-mail, and postal address for contributions to this plasma physics network newsletter.

  1. Plasma physics network newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The fifth Plasma Physics Network Newsletter (IAEA, Vienna, August 1992) includes the following topics: (i) the availability of a list of the members of the Third World Plasma Research Network (TWPRN); (ii) the announcement of the fourteenth IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research to be held in Wuerzburg, Germany, from September 30 to October 7, 1992; (iii) the announcement of a Technical Committee Meeting on research using small tokamaks, organized by the IAEA as a satellite meeting to the aforementioned fusion conference; (iv) IAEA Fellowships and Scientific Visits for the use of workers in developing member states, and for which plasma researchers are encouraged to apply through Dr. D. Banner, Head, Physics Section, IAEA, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria; (v) the initiation in 1993 of a new Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Development of Software for Numerical Simulation and Data Processing in Fusion Energy Research'', as well as a proposed CRP on ''Fusion Research in Developing Countries using Middle- and Small-Scale Plasma Devices''; (vi) support from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) for meetings held in Third World countries; (vii) a report by W. Usada on Fusion Research in Indonesia; (viii) News on ITER; (ix) the Technical Committee Meeting planned September 8-12, 1992, Canada, on Tokamak Plasma Biasing; (x) software made available for the study of tokamak transport; (xi) the electronic mail address of the TWPRN; (xii) and the FAX, e-mail and postal address for contributions to this plasma physics network newsletter (FAX: (43-1)-234564)

  2. Computational plasma physics and supercomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; McNamara, B.

    1984-09-01

    The Supercomputers of the 80's are introduced. They are 10 to 100 times more powerful than today's machines. The range of physics modeling in the fusion program is outlined. New machine architecture will influence particular codes, but parallel processing poses new coding difficulties. Increasing realism in simulations will require better numerics and more elaborate mathematics

  3. Fusion programs in Applied Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The Applied Plasma Physics (APP) program at General Atomics (GA) described here includes four major elements: (a) Applied Plasma Physics Theory Program, (b) Alpha Particle Diagnostic, (c) Edge and Current Density Diagnostic, and (d) Fusion User Service Center (USC). The objective of the APP theoretical plasma physics research at GA is to support the DIII-D and other tokamak experiments and to significantly advance our ability to design a commercially-attractive fusion reactor. We categorize our efforts in three areas: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria and stability; plasma transport with emphasis on H-mode, divertor, and boundary physics; and radio frequency (rf). The objective of the APP alpha particle diagnostic is to develop diagnostics of fast confined alpha particles using the interactions with the ablation cloud surrounding injected pellets and to develop diagnostic systems for reacting and ignited plasmas. The objective of the APP edge and current density diagnostic is to first develop a lithium beam diagnostic system for edge fluctuation studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). The objective of the Fusion USC is to continue to provide maintenance and programming support to computer users in the GA fusion community. The detailed progress of each separate program covered in this report period is described in the following sections

  4. EURATOM-CEA Association contributions to the 15. I.A.E.A. conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Recent results of plasma physics at TORE SUPRA TOKAMAK device are reported. The topics covered are plasma confinement, plasma heating, current drive, radiating layers, transport phenomena and steady-state plasma. 9 papers have been separately indexed for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  5. Space plasma physics stationary processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1989-01-01

    During the 30 years of space exploration, important discoveries in the near-earth environment such as the Van Allen belts, the plasmapause, the magnetotail and the bow shock, to name a few, have been made. Coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere and energy transfer processes between them are being identified. Space physics is clearly approaching a new era, where the emphasis is being shifted from discoveries to understanding. One way of identifying the new direction may be found in the recent contribution of atmospheric science and oceanography to the development of fluid dynamics. Hydrodynamics is a branch of classical physics in which important discoveries have been made in the era of Rayleigh, Taylor, Kelvin and Helmholtz. However, recent progress in global measurements using man-made satellites and in large scale computer simulations carried out by scientists in the fields of atmospheric science and oceanography have created new activities in hydrodynamics and produced important new discover...

  6. A survey of dusty plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Two omnipresent ingredients of the Universe are plasmas and charged dust. The interplay between these two has opened up a new and fascinating research area, that of dusty plasmas, which are ubiquitous in different parts of our solar system, namely planetary rings, circumsolar dust rings, the interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, as well as in interstellar molecular clouds, etc. Dusty plasmas also occur in noctilucent clouds in the arctic troposphere and mesosphere, cloud-to-ground lightening in thunderstorms containing smoke-contaminated air over the United States, in the flame of a humble candle, as well as in microelectronic processing devices, in low-temperature laboratory discharges, and in tokamaks. Dusty plasma physics has appeared as one of the most rapidly growing fields of science, besides the field of the Bose-Einstein condensate, as demonstrated by the number of published papers in scientific journals and conference proceedings. In fact, it is a truly interdisciplinary science because it has many potential applications in astrophysics (viz. in understanding the formation of dust clusters and structures, instabilities of interstellar molecular clouds and star formation, decoupling of magnetic fields from plasmas, etc.) as well as in the planetary magnetospheres of our solar system [viz. Saturn (particularly, the physics of spokes and braids in the B and F rings), Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Mars] and in strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasmas. Since a dusty plasma system involves the charging and dynamics of massive charged dust grains, it can be characterized as a complex plasma system providing new physics insights. In this paper, the basic physics of dusty plasmas as well as numerous collective processes are discussed. The focus will be on theoretical and experimental observations of charging processes, waves and instabilities, associated forces, the dynamics of rotating and elongated dust grains, and some nonlinear structures (such as

  7. ICPP: Introduction to Dusty Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Padma

    2000-10-01

    Two omnipresent ingredients of the Universe are plasmas and charged dust. The interplay between these two has opened up a new and fascinating research area, that of dusty plasmas, which are ubiquitous in in different parts of our solar system, namely planetary rings, circumsolar dust rings, interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, interstellar molecular clouds, etc. Dusty plasmas also occur in noctilucent clouds in the arctic troposphere and mesosphere, cloud-to-ground lightening in thunderstorms containing smoke-contaminated air over the US, in the flame of humble candle, as well as in microelectronics and in low-temperature laboratory discharges. In the latter, charged dust grains are strongly correlated. Dusty plasma physics has appeared as one of the most rapidly growing field of science, besides the field of the Bose-Einstein condensate, as demonstrated by the number of published papers in scientific journals and conference proceedings. In fact, it is a truly interdisciplinary science because it has many potential applications in astrophysics (viz. in understanding the formation of dust clusters and structures, instabilities of interstellar molecular clouds and star formation, decoupling of magnetic fields from plasmas, etc.) as well as in the planetary magnetospheres of our solar system [viz. the Saturn (particularly, the physics of spokes and braids in B and F rings), Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Mars] and in strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasmas. Since dusty plasma system involves the charging and the dynamics of extremely massive charged dust particulates, it can be characterized as a complex plasma system with new physics insights. In this talk, I shall describe the basic physics of dusty plasmas and present the status of numerous collective processes that are relevant to space research and laboratory experiments. The focus will be on theoretical and experimental observations of novel waves and instabilities, various forces, and some

  8. A survey of dusty plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.

    2001-05-01

    Two omnipresent ingredients of the Universe are plasmas and charged dust. The interplay between these two has opened up a new and fascinating research area, that of dusty plasmas, which are ubiquitous in different parts of our solar system, namely planetary rings, circumsolar dust rings, the interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, as well as in interstellar molecular clouds, etc. Dusty plasmas also occur in noctilucent clouds in the arctic troposphere and mesosphere, cloud-to-ground lightening in thunderstorms containing smoke-contaminated air over the United States, in the flame of a humble candle, as well as in microelectronic processing devices, in low-temperature laboratory discharges, and in tokamaks. Dusty plasma physics has appeared as one of the most rapidly growing fields of science, besides the field of the Bose-Einstein condensate, as demonstrated by the number of published papers in scientific journals and conference proceedings. In fact, it is a truly interdisciplinary science because it has many potential applications in astrophysics (viz. in understanding the formation of dust clusters and structures, instabilities of interstellar molecular clouds and star formation, decoupling of magnetic fields from plasmas, etc.) as well as in the planetary magnetospheres of our solar system [viz. Saturn (particularly, the physics of spokes and braids in the B and F rings), Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Mars] and in strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasmas. Since a dusty plasma system involves the charging and dynamics of massive charged dust grains, it can be characterized as a complex plasma system providing new physics insights. In this paper, the basic physics of dusty plasmas as well as numerous collective processes are discussed. The focus will be on theoretical and experimental observations of charging processes, waves and instabilities, associated forces, the dynamics of rotating and elongated dust grains, and some nonlinear structures (such as

  9. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This is the first issue of a quarterly newsletter published by the International Atomic Energy Agency in order to provide news of potential interest of fusion scientists in developing countries. According to the foreword to this first issue, the purpose of the newsletter, as well as the organization called ''Third World Network'', is to ''start the process of unifying the developing country fusion community into some type of cohesive entity and to bring the efforts of the developing countries in the plasma physics research area to the attention of the world fusion community at large''. Furthermore, this first issue contains information about (i) Nuclear Fusion Research in Argentina, (ii) Chinese Fusion Efforts, (iii) Plasma and Fusion Physics in Egypt, (iv) Fusion Research in India, (v) Fusion Research in the Republic of Korea, (vi) Fusion Programmes in Malaysia, (vi) the Agency's Fusion Programme, (vii) a proposal for a workshop on computational plasma physics, sponsored by the Third World Plasma Research Network, (viii) the announcement of the formation of the ''Asian African Association for Plasma Training'', - for the promotion of the initiation/strengthening of plasma research, especially experimental, in developing countries in Asia and Africa, as well as the cooperation and sharing of technology among plasma physicists in the developing countries in the region; (ix) a communication entitled ''Fusion Research in ''Small'' Countries'', I.R. Jones, School of Physical Sciences, The Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, Australia, on the desirability of the pursuit of fusion research in ''small'' countries, i.e., those countries that do not have a national fusion research programme; (x) and, finally, a newsletter on the ITER project

  10. High-Latitude Space Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Nobel Symposium No. 54 on High Latitude Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Plasma Physics. The main purpose of the symposium was to prepare for the European research effort in space plasma physics in the mid-1980's, in which two major constituents are the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) facilities and the Swedish satellite Viking. The physics of the high-latitude ionosphere and how this part of near space is affected by the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field are explored. A detailed discussion is provided on high-latitude magnetospheric physics at altitudes of 1-2 earth radii, the main focus of the Viking project. Specific topics considered include the role of the auroral ionosphere in magnetospheric substorms, the low altitude cleft, ionospheric modification and stimulated emissions, plasma physics on auroral field lines, solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling, cold plasma distribution above a few thousand kilometers at high latitudes, hot electrons in and above the auroral ionosphere, the correlation of auroral kilometric radiation with visual auroras and with Birkeland currents, electrostatic waves in the topside ionosphere, solitary waves and double layers, and an Alfven wave model of auroral arcs

  11. Rethinking earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena: towards a physics-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous electromagnetic changes possibly related with earthquakes have been independently reported and have even been attempted to apply to short-term prediction of earthquakes. However, there are active debates on the above issue because the seismogenic process is rather complicated and the studies have been mainly empirical (i.e. a kind of experience-based approach. Thus, a physics-based study would be helpful for understanding earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena and strengthening their applications. As a potential physics-based approach, I present an integrated research scheme, taking into account the interaction among observation, methodology, and physical model. For simplicity, this work focuses only on the earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena. The main approach includes the following key problems: (1 how to perform a reliable and appropriate observation with some clear physical quantities; (2 how to develop a robust methodology to reveal weak earthquake-related electromagnetic signals from noisy background; and (3 how to develop plausible physical models based on theoretical analyses and/or laboratory experiments for the explanation of the earthquake-related electromagnetic signals observed in the field conditions.

  12. Plasma physics in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; McClements, K. G.

    2009-01-01

    Equations describing the nonrelativistic motion of a charged particle in an arbitrary noninertial reference frame are derived from the relativistically invariant form of the particle action. It is shown that the equations of motion can be written in the same form in inertial and noninertial frames, with the effective electric and magnetic fields in the latter modified by inertial effects associated with centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. These modifications depend on the particle charge-to-mass ratio, and also the vorticity, specific kinetic energy, and compressibility of the frame flow. The Newton-Lorentz, Vlasov, and Fokker-Planck equations in such a frame are derived. Reduced models such as gyrokinetic, drift-kinetic, and fluid equations are then derivable from these equations in the appropriate limits, using standard averaging procedures. The results are applied to tokamak plasmas rotating about the machine symmetry axis with a nonrelativistic but otherwise arbitrary toroidal flow velocity. Astrophysical applications of the analysis are also possible since the power of the action principle is such that it can be used to describe relativistic flows in curved spacetime.

  13. Plasma Physics Approximations in Ares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managan, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Lee & More derived analytic forms for the transport properties of a plasma. Many hydro-codes use their formulae for electrical and thermal conductivity. The coefficients are complex functions of Fermi-Dirac integrals, Fn( μ/θ ), the chemical potential, μ or ζ = ln(1+e μ/θ ), and the temperature, θ = kT. Since these formulae are expensive to compute, rational function approximations were fit to them. Approximations are also used to find the chemical potential, either μ or ζ . The fits use ζ as the independent variable instead of μ/θ . New fits are provided for A α (ζ ),A β (ζ ), ζ, f(ζ ) = (1 + e -μ/θ )F 1/2 (μ/θ), F 1/2 '/F 1/2 , F c α , and F c β . In each case the relative error of the fit is minimized since the functions can vary by many orders of magnitude. The new fits are designed to exactly preserve the limiting values in the non-degenerate and highly degenerate limits or as ζ→ 0 or ∞. The original fits due to Lee & More and George Zimmerman are presented for comparison.

  14. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  15. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano, E-mail: dsierras@eafit.edu.co, E-mail: langel@eafit.edu.co [Grupo de Optica Aplicada, Universidad EAFIT, 1 Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  16. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Ángel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB® software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  17. VOA: a 2-d plasma physics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltgroth, P.G.

    1975-12-01

    A 2-dimensional relativistic plasma physics code was written and tested. The non-thermal components of the particle distribution functions are represented by expansion into moments in momentum space. These moments are computed directly from numerical equations. Currently three species are included - electrons, ions and ''beam electrons''. The computer code runs on either the 7600 or STAR machines at LLL. Both the physics and the operation of the code are discussed

  18. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    1984-01-01

    This complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of this subject and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. In a wholly lucid manner the work covers single-particle motions, fluid equations for plasmas, wave motions, diffusion and resistivity, Landau damping, plasma instabilities and nonlinear problems. For students, this outstanding text offers a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly. This revised edition contains new material on kinetic effects, including Bernstein waves and the plasma dispersion function, and on nonlinear wave equations and solitons.

  19. Introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Francis F

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this classic text presents a complete introduction to plasma physics and controlled fusion, written by one of the pioneering scientists in this expanding field.  It offers both a simple and intuitive discussion of the basic concepts of the subject matter and an insight into the challenging problems of current research. This outstanding text offers students a painless introduction to this important field; for teachers, a large collection of problems; and for researchers, a concise review of the fundamentals as well as original treatments of a number of topics never before explained so clearly.  In a wholly lucid manner the second edition covered charged-particle motions, plasmas as fluids, kinetic theory, and nonlinear effects.  For the third edition, two new chapters have been added to incorporate discussion of more recent advances in the field.  The new chapter 9 on Special Plasmas covers non-neutral plasmas, pure electron plasmas, solid and ultra-cold plasmas, pair-ion plasmas, d...

  20. Extended standard vector analysis for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-02-01

    Standard vector analysis in 3-dimensional space, as found in most tables and textbooks, is complemented by a number of basic formulas that seem to be largely unknown, but are important in themselves and for some plasma physics applications, as is shown by several examples. (orig.)

  1. Simulations of phenomena related to edge transport in tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konzett, S.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates turbulence in a tokamak fusion plasma using numerical simulations. The fluid turbulence code ATTEMPT, which computes the drift dynamics of ions and electrons in electromagnetic fields, is applied to investigate three physical effects which are motivated by recent experimental findings. The first part shows that the statistics of drift fluid turbulence are largely unaffected by the presence of rational magnetic surfaces for typical edge parameter regimes. The second part contains an analysis of the dependence of correlation lengths on various physical parameters. A systematic approach reveals the impact of plasma parameters - which change in the transition from L to H-mode - on parallel, radial and perpendicular correlation lengths. In the last part of the thesis a new flux surface geometry is implemented in the ATTEMPT code. The modified geometry models the onset of the change in magnetic topology near a magnetic X-point. Computations show that turbulent fluctuations are reduced in an X-point distorted flux surface geometry, and the spectral structure of turbulence is altered substantially. (author) [de

  2. Neoclassical Physics for Current Drive in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthoit, F.X.

    2012-03-01

    The Lie transform formalism is applied to charged particle dynamics in tokamak magnetic topologies, in order to build a Fokker-Planck type operator for Coulomb collisions usable for current drive. This approach makes it possible to reduce the problem to three dimensions (two in velocity space, one in real space) while keeping the wealth of phase-space cross-term coupling effects resulting from conservation of the toroidal canonical momentum (axisymmetry). This kinetic approach makes it possible to describe physical phenomena related to the presence of strong pressure gradients in plasmas of an unspecified form, like the bootstrap current which role will be paramount for the future ITER machine. The choice of coordinates and the method used are particularly adapted to the numerical resolution of the drift kinetic equation making it possible to calculate the particle distributions, which may present a strong variation with respect to the Maxwellian under the effect of an electric field (static or produced by a radio-frequency wave). This work, mainly dedicated to plasma physics of tokamaks, was extended to those of space plasmas with a magnetic dipole configuration. (author)

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, P. J.

    2007-02-01

    The widespread importance of plasmas in many areas of contemporary physics makes good textbooks in the field that are both introductory and comprehensive invaluable. This new book by Paul Bellen from CalTech by and large meets these goals. It covers the traditional textbook topics such as particle orbits, the derivation of the MHD equations from Vlasov theory, cold and warm plasma waves, Landau damping, as well as in the later chapters less common subjects such as magnetic helicity, nonlinear processes and dusty plasmas. The book is clearly written, neatly presented, and each chapter has a number of exercises or problems at their end. The author has also thankfully steered clear of the pitfall of filling the book with his own research results. The preface notes that the book is designed to provide an introduction to plasma physics for final year undergraduate and post-graduate students. However, it is difficult to see many physics undergraduates now at UK universities getting to grips with much of the content since their mathematics is not of a high enough standard. Students in Applied Mathematics departments would certainly fare better. An additional problem for the beginner is that some of the chapters do not lead the reader gently into a subject, but begin with quite advanced concepts. Being a multi-disciplinary subject, beginners tend to find plasma physics quite hard enough even when done simply. For postgraduate students these criticisms fade away and this book provides an excellent introduction. More senior researchers should also enjoy the book, especially Chapters 11-17 where more advanced topics are discussed. I found myself continually comparing the book with my favourite text for many years, `The Physics of Plasmas' by T J M Boyd and J J Sanderson, reissued by Cambridge University Press in 2003. Researchers would want both books on their shelves, both for the different ways basic plasma physics is covered, and the diversity of more advanced topics. For

  4. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  5. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  6. Spring meeting of the scientific associations for atomic physics, high speed physics, mass spectrometry, molecular physics, plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains the abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting in Rostock with aspects of atomic physics, molecular physics, high speed physics, plasma physics and mass spectrometry. (MM)

  7. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The IAEA Fellowship Programme providing for in general up to two years of training at a host laboratory or university is accessible for Member State scientists (contact the editor); so are IAEA research contracts (up to $ 5000 per year for up to 3 years). An overview of meetings on fusion or fusion-related topics is given for June-October 1990. It is announced that the full IFCR status report on fusion is due to be published in the September issues of Nuclear Fusion, and that the ''Third World Plasma Research Network'' (TWPRN) has been set up to ''provide an international forum for plasma research centres of the Third World countries'' to promote ''closer interactions among them'' and to strengthen their scientific programmes. The network also ''envisages active participation of small scale research programmes from developed countries that pursue basic plasma studies and development objectives''. Furthermore, this newsletter contains (1) the minutes of the steering committee meeting of the TWPRN, New Delhi, November 1989; (2) a contribution from A. Rodrigo, Argentina, entitled ''Collaboration and Scientific Exchange in Latin American Plasma Physics Laboratories'', listing for each country (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela) (i) key contact persons, (ii) main areas for collaboration/scientific exchange, and (iii) list of foreign laboratories having close contacts; (3) ''Plasma Research at the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology of Bangladesh'', by U.A. Mofiz, giving an overview of plasma research activities there; (4) A summary by P.K. Kaw and A. Sen of the 1989 International Conference on Plasma Physics held in New Delhi; (5) the announcement of the first South-North International Workshop on Fusion Theory, Tipaza, Algeria, September 16-23, 1990

  8. Mathematical and physical modeling of thermal stratification phenomena in steel ladles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putan, V.; Vilceanu, L.; Socalici, A.; Putan, A.

    2018-01-01

    By means of CFD numerical modeling, a systematic analysis of the similarity between steel ladles and hot-water model regarding natural convection phenomena was studied. The key similarity criteria we found to be dependent on the dimensionless numbers Fr and βΔT. These similarity criteria suggested that hot-water models with scale in the range between 1/5 and 1/3 and using hot water with temperature of 45 °C or higher are appropriate for simulating natural convection in steel ladles. With this physical model, thermal stratification phenomena due to natural convection in steel ladles were investigated. By controlling the cooling intensity of water model to correspond to the heat loss rate of steel ladles, which is governed by Fr and βΔT, the temperature profiles measured in the water bath of the model were to deduce the extent of thermal stratification in liquid steel bath in the ladles. Comparisons between mathematically simulated temperature profiles in the prototype steel ladles and those physically simulated by scaling-up the measured temperatures profiles in the water model showed good agreement. This proved that it is feasible to use a 1/5 scale water model with 45 °C hot water to simulate natural convection in steel ladles. Therefore, besides mathematical CFD models, the physical hot-water model provided an additional means of studying fluid flow and heat transfer in steel ladles.

  9. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in theoretical and experimental research funded by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG03-92ER54150, during the period July 11, 1992 through May 31, 1993. Four main tasks are reported: applied plasma physics theory, alpha particle diagnostic, edge and current density diagnostic, and plasma rotation drive. The report also discusses the research plans for the theory and experimental programs for the next grant year. Reports and publications supported by the grant during this period are listed in the final section

  10. [Research programs in plasma physics]: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the work done in 1987 at New York University in plasma physics. Topics discussed in this report are: reduction and interpretation of experimental tokamak data, turbulent transport in tokamaks and RFP's, laminar flow transport, wave propagation in different frequency regimes, stability of flows, plasma fueling, magnetic reconnection problems, development of new numerical techniques for Fokker-Planck-like equations, and stability of shock waves. Outside of fusion there has been work in free electron lasers, heating of solar coronal loops and renormalized theory of fluid turbulence

  11. Fourier fringe analysis and its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena: a review [Invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    The paper reviews a technique for fringe analysis referred to as Fourier fringe analysis (FFA) or the Fourier transform method, with a particular focus on its application to metrology of extreme physical phenomena. Examples include the measurement of extremely small magnetic fields with subfluxon sensitivity by electron wave interferometry, subnanometer wavefront evaluation of projection optics for extreme UV lithography, the detection of sub-Ångstrom distortion of a crystal lattice, and the measurement of ultrashort optical pulses in the femotsecond to attosecond range, which show how the advantages of FFA are exploited in these cutting edge applications.

  12. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  13. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics

  14. PREFACE: 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendy, Richard

    2004-12-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion comprises refereed papers contributed by invited speakers at the 31st European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. The conference was jointly hosted by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association and by Imperial College London, where it took place from 28 June to 2 July 2004. The overall agenda for this conference was set by the Board of the Plasma Physics Division of the European Physical Society, chaired by Friedrich Wagner (MPIPP, Garching) and his successor Jo Lister (CRPP, Lausanne). It built on developments in recent years, by further increasing the scientific diversity of the conference programme, whilst maintaining its depth and quality. A correspondingly diverse Programme Committee was set up, whose members are listed below. The final task of the Programme Committee has been the preparation of this special issue. In carrying out this work, as in preparing the scientific programme of the conference, the Programme Committee formed specialist subcommittees representing the different fields of plasma science. The chairmen of these subcommittees, in particular, accepted a very heavy workload on behalf of their respective research communities. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to thank: Emilia R Solano (CIEMAT, Madrid), magnetic confinement fusion; Jürgen Meyer-ter-Vehn (MPQ, Garching), laser-plasma interaction and beam plasma physics; and Jean-Luc Dorier (CRPP, Lausanne), dusty plasmas. The relatively few papers in astrophysical and basic plasma physics were co-ordinated by a small subcommittee which I led. Together with Peter Norreys (RAL, Chilton), we five constitute the editorial team for this special issue. The extensive refereeing load, compressed into a short time interval, was borne by the Programme Committee members and by many other experts, to whom this special issue owes much. We are also grateful to the Local Organizing Committee

  15. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  16. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  17. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  18. International Conference on Plasma Physics ICPP 1994. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanaka, P.H.; Tendler, M.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent the papers presented at the 1994 International Conference on Plasma Physics held in Foz do Iguacu, Brazil. The scope of the conference was broad and covered all aspects of plasma physics. Some of the topics discussed include space and astrophysical plasmas,fusion plasmas, small and large Tokamak plasmas, non-Tokamak plasmas, inertial confinement fusion plasmas, plasma based neutron sources and plasma applications. There are 60 papers in these proceedings and out of these, 35 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  19. University Physics Students' Use of Models in Explanations of Phenomena Involving Interaction between Metals and Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfors, Andreas; Ryder, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Examines third year university physics students' use of models when explaining familiar phenomena involving interaction between metals and electromagnetic radiation. Concludes that few students use a single model consistently. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

  20. Mathematics for plasma physics; Mathematiques pour la physique des plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sentis, R. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2011-01-15

    The plasma physics is in the heart of the research of the CEA-DAM. Using mathematics in this domain is necessary, particularly for a precise statement of the partial differential equations systems which are on the basis of the numerical simulations. Examples are given concerning hydrodynamics, models for the thermal conduction and laser-plasma interaction. For the bi-temperature compressible Euler model, the mathematical study of the problem has allowed us to understand why the role of the energy equations dealing with ions on one hand and electrons on the other hand are not identical despite the symmetrical appearance of the system. The mathematical study is also necessary to be sure of the existence and uniqueness of the solution

  1. Brazilian programme for plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Reusch, M.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Pantuso-Sudano, J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposal for a National Programme of Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in Brazil is presented, aimimg the dissemination of the researchers thought in plasma physics for the national authorities and the scientific community. (E.O.)

  2. Plasma Physics Department annual report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main fields in which researches have been carried out during 1990 at the Wills Plasma Physics Department are briefly discussed. These include investigations of shear Alfven waves at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency; the use of submillimetre lasers to detect by far forward scattering density fluctuation associated with waves in Tortus during Alfven wave heating experiments; basic physics of laser induced fluorescence in plasma and in particular the process which determine the population of excited states, as well as magnetron discharge studies and application of the vacuum arc as ion sources for accelerators and as sputtering device for producing thin film coating. A list of publications and papers presented at various conferences by the members of the Department is given in the Appendix

  3. Proceedings of the Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim S. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provided the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program and research opportunities and plans for the near future. Consistent with the conference theme "Microgravity Research an Agency-Wide Asset" the conference focused not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. The conference included 14 invited plenary talks, 61 technical paper presentations, 61 poster presentations, exhibits and a forum on emerging research themes focusing on nanotechnology and biofluid mechanics. This web-based proceeding includes the presentation and poster charts provided by the presenters of technical papers and posters that were scanned at the conference site. Abstracts of all the papers and posters are included and linked to the presentations charts. The invited and plenary speakers were not required to provide their charts and are generally not available for scanning and hence not posted. The conference program is also included.

  4. Physical processes in spin polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.J.; Cowley, S.

    1984-05-01

    If the plasma in a nuclear fusion reactor is polarized, the nuclear reactions are modified in such a way as to enhance the reactor performance. We calculate in detail the modification of these nuclear reactions by different modes of polarization of the nuclear fuel. We also consider in detail the various physical processes that can lead to depolarization and show that they are by and large slow enough that a high degree of polarization can be maintained

  5. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In 2002 research activities in Dept. P-V were concentrated upon the continuation of high-temperature plasma investigations. Some new studies were initiated, particularly in the field of plasma technology. The main topics were as follows: 1. Selected problems of plasma theory; 2. Investigation of plasma phenomena in pulse discharges of the Plasma-Focus (PF) and Z-Pinch; 3. Development of the selected methods of plasma diagnostics; 4. Research on experimental facilities for basic studies and industrial applications; 5. Modification of material surfaces by means of pulse plasma-ion streams. Within theoretical studies we continued the numerical modeling of discharges in a coaxial plasma accelerator of the IPD type. An analysis of results, as obtained during several small IPD experiments, was also performed. The second theoretical task was the modeling of ion motion within a pinch column formed during PF-type discharges. As for experimental studies, some phenomena occurring in high-current discharges of the PF and Z-Pinch type were investigated. In particular, the correlation of X-rays with pulsed electron- and ion-beams, emitted from micro-regions (hot spots) formed inside a PF pinch column, was studied. It was shown that the polarization of important X-ray lines depends considerably on the observation direction, also in the case when a single hot-spot is observed. It confirmed a thesis that there appear groups of fast electrons moving in the radial direction. It was also shown that X-ray pulses are strongly correlated with fast electron beams, which are emitted mostly in the upstream direction. Some electron beams were also detected at different angles to the z-axis. Experimental studies of high-temperature plasma were also carried out within a large PF-1000 facility operated at IFPiLM in Warsaw. Some new experiments with wire-type liners were performed within the collaboration with IFPiLM and CVUT in Prague (Czech Republic). Other experimental

  6. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z[sup 0] with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  7. Physics options in the plasma code VOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltgroth, P.G.

    1976-06-01

    A two dimensional relativistic plasma physics code has been modified to accomodate general electromagnetic boundary conditions and various approximations of basic physics. The code can treat internal conductors and insulators, imposed electromagnetic fields, the effects of external circuitry and non-equilibrium starting conditions. Particle dynamics options include a full microscopic treatment, fully relaxed electrons, a low frequency electron approximation and a combination of approximations for specified zones. Electromagnetic options include the full wave treatment, an electrostatic approximation and two varieties of magnetohydrodynamic approximations in specified zones

  8. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.; Tang, X.Z.; Strauss, H.R.; Sugiyama, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of δf particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Studies on laser–plasma interaction physics for shock ignition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maheut, Y.; Batani, D.; Nicolai, Ph.; Antonelli, L.; Krouský, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 4 (2015), s. 325-336 ISSN 1042-0150 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : shock ignition * plasma * hot electrons * shocks * fusion Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2015

  10. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998 research activities were mostly continuations of previous studies, but we also undertook some new research aims. Theoretical studies comprised a development of the model of processes occurring at electrodes within a plasma system with magnetron discharges. Also developed was an improved model of phenomena within coaxial plasma injectors. Within a framework of the collaboration with the Warsaw Technical University we analyzed plasma dynamics in the coaxial gun used for the IPD process. We also carried out theoretical studies of proton-atom collisions, different atomic experiments, and X-ray spectra. It was shown that some effects, interpreted so far on the basis of quantum mechanics, could be explained by the interaction of electrons moving along ''rosette-type'' trajectories. Experimental studies of phenomena within PF-type discharges were concentrated on measurements of particle emission and polarization effects within the MAJA-PF device in Swierk (in cooperation with the Kurchatov Institute). Also performed were studies of ions, neutrons, fast electrons and X-rays within the PF-360 facility in Swierk, an analysis of low-energy deuterons within PF-II device at INFIP in Buenos Aires, as well as studies of ion beams with the PACO-PF device at IFAS in Tandil. Within the framework of studies within the large PF-1000 facility at IFPiLM in Warsaw, we continued experiments with a thin liner compressed by a collapsing current sheath, optimization tests of PF discharges and measurements of emission characteristics. We performed measurements of VR with high-speed cameras, studies of X-rays with pinhole cameras and crystal spectrometers, as well as high-energy ion measurements with nuclear track-detectors (NTDs). In collaboration with the CVUT and IPP CzAS in Prague we initiated new Filamentary Z-Pinch experiments within the large PF-1000 facility. Studies connected with the development of plasma diagnostic methods concerned the calibration of new types of NTDs with

  11. EDITORIAL 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics 37th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Tito; Hidalgo, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Introduction We are very pleased to present this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion dedicated to another annual EPS Plasma Physics Division Conference. It contains the invited papers of the 37th Conference, which was held at the Helix Arts Centre of the Dublin City University Campus, in Dublin, Ireland, from 21 to 25 June 2010. It was locally organized by a team drawn from different Irish institutions, led by Dublin City University and Queen's University Belfast. This team was coordinated by Professor Miles Turner (DCU), with the help of Dr Deborah O'Connell (QUB) as Scientific Secretary, and Ms Samantha Fahy (DCU) as Submissions Secretary. It attracted a large number of delegates (nearly 750), coming from 37 countries. Our Irish hosts provided an excellent atmosphere for the conference and social programme, very helpful for promoting personal links between conference participants. The Conference hosted three satellite meetings, and two special evening sessions. The satellite meetings were the Third Workshop on Plasma for Environmental Issues, the International Workshop on the Role of Arcing and Hot Spots in Magnetic Fusion Devices, and the Workshop on Electric Fields, Turbulence and Self-Organization in Magnetic Plasmas. The aim of this annual EPS Conference is to bring together the different communities of plasma physicists, in order to stimulate cross-collaboration and to promote in an integrated way this area of science. As in previous Conferences, we tried to attract the more relevant researchers and to present the latest developments in plasma physics and related areas. The Programme Committee was divided into four sub-committees, representing the main areas of plasma science. These four areas were magnetic confinement fusion (MCF), still the dominant area of this Conference with the largest number of participants, beam plasma and inertial fusion (BPIF), low temperature plasmas (LTP), which attracted a significant and growing number of

  12. A plasma formulary for physics, technology, and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Diver, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Plasma physics has matured rapidly as a discipline, and now touches on many different research areas, including manufacturing processes. This collection of fundamental formulae and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering.Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings.The text treats astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline - a unique approach made pos

  13. Plasma simulation studies using multilevel physics models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The question of how to proceed toward ever more realistic plasma simulation studies using ever increasing computing power is addressed. The answer presented here is the M3D (Multilevel 3D) project, which has developed a code package with a hierarchy of physics levels that resolve increasingly complete subsets of phase-spaces and are thus increasingly more realistic. The rationale for the multilevel physics models is given. Each physics level is described and examples of its application are given. The existing physics levels are fluid models (3D configuration space), namely magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and two-fluids; and hybrid models, namely gyrokinetic-energetic-particle/MHD (5D energetic particle phase-space), gyrokinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron (5D ion phase-space), and full-kinetic-particle-ion/fluid-electron level (6D ion phase-space). Resolving electron phase-space (5D or 6D) remains a future project. Phase-space-fluid models are not used in favor of delta f particle models. A practical and accurate nonlinear fluid closure for noncollisional plasmas seems not likely in the near future

  14. Physics of plasma-wall interactions in controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Behrisch, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the areas of plasma physics, atomic physics, surface physics, bulk material properties and fusion experiments and theory, the following topics are presented: the plasma sheath; plasma flow in the sheath and presheath of a scrape-off layer; probes for plasma edge diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion devices; atomic and molecular collisions in the plasma boundary; physical sputtering of solids at ion bombardment; chemical sputtering and radiation enhanced sublimation of carbon; ion backscattering from solid surfaces; implantation, retention and release of hydrogen isotopes; surface erosion by electrical arcs; electron emission from solid surfaces;l properties of materials; plasma transport near material boundaries; plasma models for impurity control experiments; neutral particle transport; particle confinement and control in existing tokamaks; limiters and divertor plates; advanced limiters; divertor tokamak experiments; plasma wall interactions in heated plasmas; plasma-wall interactions in tandem mirror machines; and impurity control systems for reactor experiments

  15. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-01-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere); thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure; current produced filaments (e.g., in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar system. Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of, e.g., the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Auth.)

  16. Paradigm transition in cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1982-06-01

    In situ measurements in the magnetospheres together with general advancement in plasma physics are now necessitating introduction of a number of effects that have been recently discovered or earlier neglected. Examples are: 1) Electric double layers (like in the lower magnetosphere) 2) Thin current layer (like in the magnetopause) giving space a cellular structure. 3) Current produced filaments (e.g. in prominences, solar corona and interstellar clouds). 4) Further it is important to use the electric current (particle) description and to study the whole circuit in which the current flows. 5) The pinch effect cannot be neglected as is now usually done. 6) The critical velocity phenomenon is essential, for example for the band structure of solar systems. 7) Theory of dusty plasmas is important. The result is a change in so many theories in cosmic plasma physics that it is appropriate to speak of an introduction of a new paradigm. This should be based on empirical knowledge from magnetospheric and laboratory investigations. Its application to astrophysics in general, including cosmology, will necessarily lead to a revision of e.g. the present theories of the formation of stars, planets and satellites. It is doubtful whether the big bang cosmology will survive. (Author)

  17. Dynamic modeling of physical phenomena for probabilistic assessment of spent fuel accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    If there should be an accident involving drainage of all the water from a spent fuel pool, the fuel elements will heat up until the heat produced by radioactive decay is balanced by that removed by natural convection to air, thermal radiation, and other means. If the temperatures become high enough for the cladding or other materials to ignite due to rapid oxidation, then some of the fuel might melt, leading to an undesirable release of radioactive materials. The amount of melting is dependent upon the fuel loading configuration and its age, the oxidation and melting characteristics of the materials, and the potential effectiveness of recovery actions. The authors have developed methods for modeling the pertinent physical phenomena and integrating the results with a probabilistic treatment of the uncertainty distributions. The net result is a set of complementary cumulative distribution functions for the amount of fuel melted

  18. On a Formalization of Cantor Set Theory for Natural Models of the Physical Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudel'man A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a set theory which is an extension of ZFC . In contrast to ZFC , a new theory admits absolutely non-denumerable sets. It is feasible that a symbiosis of the proposed theory and Vdovin set theory will permit to formulate a (presumably non- contradictory axiomatic set theory which will represent the core of Cantor set theory in a maximally full manner as to the essence and the contents of the latter. This is possible due to the fact that the generalized principle of choice and the generalized continuum hypothesis are proved in Vdovin theory. The theory, being more complete than ZF and more natural according to Cantor, will allow to construct and study (in its framework only natural models of the real physical phenomena.

  19. On a Formalization of Cantor Set Theory for Natural Models of the Physical Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudel'man A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a set theory which is an extension of $ZFC$. In contrast to $ZFC$, a new theory admits absolutely non-denumerable sets. It is feasible that a symbiosis of the proposed theory and Vdovin set theory will permit to formulate a (presumably non-contradictory axiomatic set theory which will represent the core of Cantor set theory in a maximally full manner as to the essence and the contents of the latter. This is possible due to the fact that the generalized principle of choice and the generalized continuum hypothesis are proved in Vdovin theory. The theory, being more complete than $ZF$ and more natural according to Cantor, will allow to construct and study (in its framework only natural models of the real physical phenomena.

  20. Plasma generated in culture medium induces damages of HeLa cells due to flow phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Sato, Takehiko; Yoshino, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Plasma in a liquid has been anticipated as an effective tool for medical applications, however, few reports have described cellular responses to plasma generated in a liquid similar to biological fluids. Herein we report the effects of plasma generated in a culture medium on HeLa cells. The plasma in the culture medium produced not only heat, shock waves, and reactive chemical species but also a jet flow with sub millimeter-sized bubbles. Cells exposed to the plasma exhibited detachment, morphological changes, and changes in the actin cytoskeletal structure. The experimental results suggest that wall shear stress over 160 Pa was generated on the surface of the cells by the plasma. It is one of the main factors that cause those cellular responses. We believe that our findings would provide valuable insight into advancements in medical applications of plasma in a liquid.

  1. Double radio sources and the new approach to cosmical plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1978-01-01

    The methodology of cosmic plasma physics is discussed. It is hazardous to try to describe plasma phenomena by theories which have not been carefully tested experimentally. One present approach is to rely on laboratory measurements and in situ measurements in the magnetosphere and heliosphere, and to approach galactic phenomena by scaling up the wellknown phenomena to galactic dimensions. A summary is given of laboratory investigations of electric double layers, a phenomenon which is known to be very important in laboratory discharges. A summary is also given of the in situ measurements in the magnetosphere by which the importance of electric double layers in the Earth's surrounding is established. The scaling laws between laboratory and magnetospheric double layers are studied. The successful scaling between laboratory and magnetospheric phenomena encourages an extrapolation to heliospheric phenomena. A further extrapolation to galactic phenomena leads to a theory of double radio sources. In analogy with the Sun which, acting as a homopolar inductor, energizes the heliospheric current system, a rotating magnetized galaxy should produce a similar current system. From analogy with laboratory and magnetospheric current systems it is argued that the galactic current might produce double layers where a large energy dissipation takes place. This leads to a theory of the double radio sources which, within the necessary wide limits of uncertainty, is quantitatively reconcilable with observations. (Auth.)

  2. Frontier of plasma physics. 'Research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae-I.; Fujisawa, Akihide; Kodama, Ryosuke; Sato, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Kazuo A.; Hatakeyama, Rikizo; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2011-01-01

    Plasma physics and fusion science have been applied to a wide variety of plasmas such as nuclear fusion plasmas, high-energy-density plasmas, processing plasmas and nanobio- plasmas. They are pioneering science and technology frontiers such as new energy sources and new functional materials. A large project 'research network on non-equilibrium and extreme state plasmas' is being proposed to reassess individual plasma researches from a common view of the non-equilibrium extreme plasma and to promote collaboration among plasma researchers all over the country. In the present review, recent collaborative works related to this project are being introduced. (T.I.)

  3. Department of Plasma Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1998-01-01

    (full text) In 1997, theoretical studies mainly concerned the verification of physical models on the basis of experimental data, an analysis of plasma behaviour within regions close to electrode surfaces during quasi-continuous discharges induced by microwaves , as well as modelling of a discharge development within coaxial plasma injectors. Another direction of theoretical studies concerned elementary processes of importance for plasma research, and in particular those taking into consideration the role of spin within a classical model of proton - hydrogen atom collisions. Experimental studies comprised measurements of pulsed electron beams and effects of the polarization of X-rays emitted from Plasma Focus (PF) facilities, research on emission characteristics of different PF devices, as well as measurements of pulsed electron and ion-beams emitted from various devices of the PF and Z-Pinch type. An important direction of experimental studies concerned X-ray and ion measurements at a large PF-1000 facility. In the field of plasma diagnostics, efforts were devoted to an analysis of the results obtained from time-resolved measurements of nitrogen ions and deuterons within PF-type devices. Within a frame of diagnostics, a substantial achievement was also the design and construction of a new measuring equipment for studies of plasma dynamics and X-ray emissions. Particular attention was also paid to studies connected with the calibration of various solid-state nuclear track detectors (NTDs), particularly modern plastic detectors of the CR-39, PM-355 and PM-500 type. Studies in the field of fusion technology concerned the design and construction of a special pulse generator for the simulation of electromagnetic interference, as well as other efforts connected with research on electromagnetic compatibility of electronic and electrotechnical devices. Research on new types of HV pulse generators were carried out partially under contracts with industrial laboratories. In

  4. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the collaborative researches carried out during the 1989 at the Wills Plasma Physics Department is given. The main activities included the study of hydromagnetic surface waves and RF heating using the Tortus tokamak; the development of diagnostic techniques, particularly those based on submillimetre lasers and tunable gyrotrons; gas discharge studies and investigations of apparent cold nuclear fusion in deuterated palladium. The small research tokamak Tortus was upgraded during the year, thus enabling the machine to be routinely and reliably operated at toroidal currents around 40 kA. A list of papers published or presented at various conferences during the year is included in the Appendix

  5. Frontiers of Physics and Plasma Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prerana

    2017-01-01

    Preface to the conference proceedingsWe are very pleased to introduce the proceeding of FPPS-2016; the international conference “Frontiers of Physics and Plasma Science” that took place on 7 and 8 November, 2016 in the campus of Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain (India). The goal of the meeting was to provide a broad prospective to the plasma science emphasizing physics with a new plasma technologies. The scientific program of the conference focused on the advancement of the all branches of physics in achieving all applications of the plasma science. The conference spans a wide range of topics, reporting experiments, techniques and ideas that advance the plasma science worldwide.There were 20 invited lectures and 04 oral presentations covering the different area of the conference. The keynote lecture was delivered by Dr. Rajdeep Singh Rawat (NTU, Singapore) on “Density plasma focus: novel high energy density plasma device”. Prof. Y.C. Saxena (IPR, Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad), Prof. R. P. Sharma (IIT, New Delhi), Prof. Fernando Haas (Brazil), Prof. Davoud Dorranian (Tehran, Iran), Dr. Raju Khanal (Tribhuwan University, Nepal), Prof. Avinash Khare (IIT, New Delhi), Dr. Navin Dwivedi (Israel), Prof. V.K. Tripathi (IIT New Delhi), Dr. J. Ghosh (IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), Dr. Devendra Sharma (IPR, Gandhinagar, Gujarat), Prof. R.K. Thareja (IIT Kanpur), Dr. Vipul Arora (RRCAT, Indore), Prof. M. P. Bora (Gauhati University, Guwahati) and many more have delivered their lecture in the field of plasma science and its applications. The program was chaired in a professional and efficient way by the session chairmen who were selected for their international standing in the subject.The 165 abstracts that were presented in two days (during parallel poster session) formed a heart of the conference and provided ample opportunity for the discussion. The 170 participants, 110 of whom were students had many fruitful discussions and exchange that contributed to the success of the

  6. Time domain phenomena of wave propagation in rapidly created plasma of periodic distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P

    2007-01-01

    Theories, experiments and numerical simulations on the interaction of electromagnetic waves with rapidly created unmagnetized plasmas are presented. In the case that plasma is created uniformly, the frequency of a propagating electromagnetic wave is upshifted. An opposite propagation wave of the same frequency is also generated. In addition, a static current supporting a wiggler magnetic field is also produced in the plasma. When a spatially periodic structure is introduced to the rapidly created plasma, the theory and numerical simulation results show that both frequency-upshifted and downshifted waves are generated. If the plasma has a large but finite dimension in the incident wave propagation direction and is created rapidly rather than instantaneously, the frequency downshifted waves are found to be trapped by the plasma when the plasma frequency is larger than the wave frequency. The wave trapping results in accumulating the frequency-downshifted waves during the finite transient period of plasma creation. Indeed, in the experimental observations the frequency downshifted signals were detected repetitively with considerably enhanced spectral intensities, confirming the results of the numerical simulations. The missing of frequency upshifted signals in the experimental observations is explained by the modal field distributions in the periodic structure, indicating that the frequency upshifted modes experience heavier collisional damping of the plasma than the frequency downshifted modes

  7. Physics of the quark - gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p T physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B → J/Ψ production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation

  8. Physics of the quark - gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document gathers 31 contributions to the workshop on the physics of quark-gluon plasma that took place in Palaiseau in september 2001: 1) gamma production in heavy collisions, 2) BRAHMS, 3) experimental conference summary, 4) modelling relativistic nuclear collisions, 5) microscopic reaction dynamics at SPS and RHIC, 6) direct gamma and hard scattering at SPS, 7) soft physics at RHIC, 8) results from the STAR experiment, 9) quarkonia: experimental possibilities, 10) elliptic flow measurements with PHENIX, 11) charmonium production in p-A collisions, 12) anisotropic flow at the SPS and RHIC, 13) deciphering the space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions with correlation measurements, 14) 2-particle correlation at RHIC, 15) particle spectra at AGS, SPS and RHIC, 16) strangeness production in STAR, 17) strangeness production in Pb-Pb collisions at SPS, 18) heavy ion physics at CERN after 2000 and before LHC, 19) NEXUS guideline and theoretical consistency, 20) introduction to high p{sub T} physics at RHIC, 21) a novel quasiparticle description of the quark-gluon plasma, 22) dissociation of excited quarkonia states, 23) high-mass dimuon and B {yields} J/{psi} production in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, 24) strange hyperon production in p + p and p + Pb interactions from NA49, 25) heavy quarkonium hadron cross-section, 26) a new method of flow analysis, 27) low mass dilepton production and chiral symmetry restoration, 28) classical initial conditions for nucleus-nucleus collisions, 29) numerical calculation of quenching weights, 30) strangeness enhancement energy dependence, and 31) heavy quarkonium dissociation.

  9. Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L

    2017-07-12

    The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10 20  W/cm 2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.

  10. Plasma Physics Network Newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This, fourth, issue of the Newsletter contains a (i) contribution in the series of reports on national fusion programmes from Algeria; (ii) a letter from Dr J.A.M. de Villiers, manager: fusion studies, at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, informing about the close-down of the small tokamak project there, and soliciting ways to use some manpower and supportive sources to salvage the wealth of information still left behind in the project, and offering, in the possible absence of such manpower and supportive sources, the entire facility for sale (specifications of the Tokoloshe Tokamak plus diagnostic systems are enclosed); (iii) the e-mail address of the Third World Plasma Research Network (TWPRN), namely: ''PLASNET.NERUS.PFC.MIT.EDU''; (iv) minutes of the TWPRN Steering Committee Meeting held in May 1991, at the I.C.T.P., Trieste, Italy; (v) a news item on the ITER Tokamak project; (vi) a reiteration of the announcement of the 14th IAEA International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, to be held in Wuerzburg, Germany, September 30 - October 7, 1992; (vii) a list of IAEA Technical Committee Meetings during 1991; (viii) the First Announcement of the V Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, to be held in Mexico City, July 21-30, 1992, accompanied with a call for papers; all correspondence on this conference should be addressed to: Dr. Julio Herrera, V LAWPP, ICN-UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-543, Delegacion Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico, D.F. Mexico (e-mail: ''HERRE.UNAMVM1.BITNET''); (ix) the announcement for the Second South North International Workshop on Fusion Theory, Lisbon, Portugal, March 1993 (contact: Pr. Tito Mendonca, Centro de Electrodinamica, Instituto Superio Tecnico, 1096 Lisbon Codex, Portugal)

  11. First steps in eukaryogenesis: Physical phenomena in the origin and evolution of chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1995-01-01

    Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of the cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular, we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes (platypus and echidna.) When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes. (author). Abstract only

  12. First steps in eukaryogenesis: Physical phenomena in the origin and evolution of chromosome structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.

    1995-08-01

    Our present understanding of the origin and evolution of chromosomes differs considerably from current understanding of the origin and evolution of the cell itself. Chromosome origins have been less prominent in research, as the emphasis has not shifted so far appreciably from the phenomenon of primeval nucleic acid encapsulation to that of the origin of gene organization, expression, and regulation. In this work we discuss some reasons why preliminary steps in this direction are being taken. We have been led to examine properties that have contributed to raise the ancestral prokaryotic programmes to a level where we can appreciate in eukaryotes a clear departure from earlier themes in the evolution of cell from the last common ancestor. We shift our point of view from evolution of cell morphology to the point of view of the genes. In particular we focus attention on possible physical bases for the way transmission of information has evolved in eukaryotes, namely, the inactivation of whole chromosomes. The special case of the inactivation of the X chromosome in mammals is discussed, paying particular attention to the physical process of the spread of X inactivation in monotremes (platypus and echidna). When experimental data is unavailable some theoretical analysis is possible based on the idea that in certain cases collective phenomena in genetics, rather than chemical detail, are better correlates of complex chemical processes. (author). 65 refs

  13. Observation of non-uniform erosion and deposition phenomena on graphite after plasma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, D.; Grote, H.; Schneider, W.; Wienhold, P.; Seggern, J. von

    1999-01-01

    The modifications of fine grain isotropic graphite surfaces after plasma exposure have been investigated using surface analysis techniques with high spatial resolution in area and depth. The samples are graphite target tiles of ASDEX-upgrade and coated graphite collector samples exposed for special erosion/deposition experiments in the divertor plasma of ASDEX-upgrade or in the scrape-off plasma of TEXTOR-94. In addition, a graphite sample was exposed to a low temperature, clean deuterium plasma to study the modifications of the surface morphology during plasma exposure. The results give clear indications of non-uniform erosion and deposition processes. The change of the surface morphology during these processes is discussed. (orig.)

  14. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  15. Nonlinear phenomena in the interaction of microwaves with the low-temperature argon plasma flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, N.A.; Lisitskaya, A.A.; Rogashkov, S.A.; Rogashkova, A.I.; Chmil', A.I.; Shustin, E.G.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of nonlinear effects arising during the passing of SHF waves across an argon plasma jet flowing from an arc plasmatron have been carried on. It is shown that under conditions of the radiowave propagation through low temperature plasma moving across the direction of the wave propagation modes of both the wave self-focusing and its nonlinear asymmetrical refaction can be accomplished. The effect of the formation and propagation of the additional ionization region in a microwave flow initiated with plasma independently produced in the region of the maximum amplitude of the SHF field has been experimentally discovered [ru

  16. About relaxation phenomena and transport processing in a fully ionized non-ideal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baimbetov, F.B.; Iztleuov, N.T.

    1999-01-01

    In this report correlation effects for non-ideal plasma are accounted in the so called pseudopotentials. The accounting of high order correlation influences in the pseudopotential lead to the strongly screened potential. Kinetic equation with pseudopotential is cited. The equations which describe the relaxation of the difference of directed velocities of plasma particles, and frequency of particle collision which determines relaxation of temperature for non-ideal plasma are obtained. On basis of mentioned kinetic equation the transport equation is obtained as well

  17. The calculation of turbulence phenomena in plasma focus dynamics using REDUCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayd, A.; Maurer, M.; Meinke, P.; Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1982-05-01

    Based on previous calculations of the development of highly turbulent plasma states resulting from m=0 instabilities and the application to the turbulent development in the late stage of a plasma focus experiment, using REDUE, the treatment of plasma focus dynamics is extended to the compression stage and 'intermediate' stage between maximum density and m = o onset. For this, a two-fluid model of the magneto-fluid dynamic equations is employed. The non-linear development is again treated in ω, k-space and transformed back into r, t-space to obtain local dynamic variables as functions of time. The calculation is applied to the Stuttgart plasma focus experiment POSEIDON. It is shown that for relatively high pinch currents, neutron production also appears in the 'intermediate' phase, the life-time of which increases with increasing pinch current. (orig.)

  18. Experimental investigation of thermal conduction and related phenomena in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal conduction in plasmas is of major importance especially in controlled nuclear fusion studies. Direct measurements are rare. When the temperature gradient in a plasma becomes large enough classical thermal conduction (Heat flux q = -kΔT) no longer applies and it is thought that q is limited to some fraction of the free streaming limit qsub(m). The main experiment is the heating of a z-pinch plasma by a fast rising, intense carbon dioxide laser pulse. Electron temperature and density in time and space are diagnosed by ruby laser scattering. The profiles obtained were consistent with a flux limited to approximately 3% of the free streaming limit. Ion acoustic turbulence is observed along the temperature gradient. It is shown that the observed turbulence level is consistent with the heat flux limitation. At electron densities > 10 17 cm -3 backscattered light is observed from the plasma whose growth rate implies that it is Brillouin scattered. (author)

  19. Status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt is reviewed. There are nine institutes with plasma research activities. The largest is the Atomic energy Authority (AEA), which has activities in fundamental plasma studies, fusion technology, plasma and laser applications, and plasma simulation. The experiments include Theta Pinches, a Z Pinch, a coaxial discharge, a glow discharge, a CO 2 laser, and the EGYPTOR tokamak. (author)

  20. Physics and technology of large plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herold, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the plasma focus (PF) which produces a high temperature (0,5 to 1 keV), high density (5 · 10 18 cm -3 ), short living (up to 500 ns) fusion plasma in a very simple and cheap device. In the focus plasma, fusion processes take place with an energy efficiency which is not surpassed even by large Tokamak or Inertial Confinement Fusion devices. But this fusion efficiency and the high fusion neutron yield are not the only impetus to PF research. Due to the high energy density in the focus plasma (j ≥ 10 6 A/cm 2 exclamation point), many very interesting, mostly nonlinear phenomena take place which led to high intensity electron, ion and radiation emission. Micro- and macro instabilities, turbulence and selforganization processes develop. Most of these phenomena are not or only poorly understood

  1. The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.

  2. On performance of cylindrical dipole antenna in diagnostics of wave phenomena in space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraga, A.

    Tubular and wire antennas have been employed since an advent of in situ measurements in space. It is generally accepted that they are well suited to recipe electromagnetic radiation from remote sources as well as divers local plasma emissions. Quasi thermal noise spectroscopy provides an example of well documented, both experimentally and theoretically, technique to study solar wind plasma. In many data sets of wave spectra, recorded with use of tubular or wire antennas at all altitudes inside a plasma sphere, there is pronounced, permanent, variable frequency spectral structure, routinely assigned to upper hybrid band (UHR) emissions. On the other hand, spectral structure, which could be assigned to upper hybrid band, is less pronounced and infrequent, in sets of wave spectra recorded in polar region with the use of spherical double probes. These apparently inconsistent observations have not drawn much attention of wave community. Assignment to UHR emission have been bolstered by theoretical plausibility, permanency in data sets, frequency verification with independent techniques and conviction that measurements were performed with good voltmeter with well known properties. It has been recognized that stray capacitance acts as a voltage divider and underestimates real voltage imposed on antenna. But in sufficiently dense and cold main plasma component, even short antenna is inductive in some frequency band below upper hybrid frequency. Stray capacitance and antenna inductance result in circuit resonance, which is very pronounced, if antenna resistance is low and input resistance is high. In such circumstances, a good voltmeter concept is very misleading. In this report we show that good voltmeter concept is not sufficient for interpretation of passive mode spectra recorded with tubular antenna on IK -19, APEX and CORONAS satellites. With orbit inclination of ~80deg and altitude range of 500-3000km, very divers plasmas were encountered, but distinct plasma emission

  3. New fluctuation phenomena in the H-mode regime of PDX tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slusher, R.E.; Surko, C.M.; Valley, J.F.; Crowley, T.; Mazzucato, E.; McGuire, K.

    1984-05-01

    A new kind of quasi-coherent fluctuation is observed near the edge of plasmas in the PDX tokamak during H-mode operation. (The H-mode occurs in neutral beam heated divertor plasmas and is characterized by improved energy containment as well as large density and temperature gradients near the plasma edge.) These fluctuations are evidenced as VUV and density fluctuation bursts at well-defined frequencies (Δω/ω less than or equal to 0.1) in the frequency range between 50 and 180 kHz. They affect the edge temperature-density product, and therefore they may be important for understanding the relationship between the large edge density and temperature gradients and the improved energy confinement

  4. On resonance phenomena in a stellarator with longitudinal current in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksin, V.F.; Pyatov, V.N.; Sebko, V.P.; Tyupa, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    A magnetic configuration structure of a stellarator with a current plasma has been considered in the presence of small disturbances. Structures of magnetic fields of a real stellarator configuration with a longitudinal current in a plasma have been obtained by means of averaged coordinates with the subsequent transition to real coordinates. The development of a socket structure and destruction of an integral configuration with an increase of the disturbance amplitude are demonstrated, its range of variation is within the limits of 0.1+-0.01%. Deformations of sockets in different cross sections of the magnetic system along the toroidal axis have been investigated. The results of calculations agree with experimental data obtained at stellarators with a current plasma

  5. Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-08-01

    Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)

  6. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: During the last decade, growing efforts have been devoted to studying the possible forms an electricity-producing thermonuclear reactor might take and the various technical problems that will have to be overcome. Previous IAEA Conferences took place in Salzburg (1961), Culham (1965), Novosibirsk (1968), Madison (1971), Tokyo (1974), Berchtesgaden (1976) and Innsbruck (1978) The exchange of information that has characterized this series of meetings is an important example of international co-operation and has contributed substantially to progress in controlled fusion research. The results of experiments in major research establishments, as well as the growing scientific insights in the field of plasma physics, give hope that the realization of nuclear fusion will be made possible on a larger scale and beyond the laboratory stage by the end of this century. The increase of the duration of existing tokamak discharges requires solution of the impurity control problem. First results from the new big machines equipped with the poloidal divertor recently came into operation. PDX (USA) and ASDEX (F.R. of Germany) show that various divertor configurations can be established and maintained and that the divertors function in the predicted manner. The reduction of high-Z impurities on these machines by a factor 10 was achieved. As a result of extensive research on radio-frequency (RF) plasma heating on tokamaks: PLT (USA), TFR (France), JFT-2 (Japan), the efficiency of this attractive method of plasma heating comparable to neutral beam heating was demonstrated. It was shown that the density of the input power of about 5-10 kW/cm 2 is achievable and this limit is high enough for application to reactor-like machines. One of the inspiring results reported at the conference was the achievement of value (the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) of ∼ 3% on tokamaks T-11 (USSR) and ISX-B (USA). It is important to note that this value exceeds the

  7. Non-perturbative phenomena in QCD vacuum, hadrons, and quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    These lectures provide a brief review of recent progress in non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). They are intended for non specialists, mainly experimentalists. The main object of discussion, the QCD vacuum, is a rather complicated medium. It may be studied either by infinitesimal probes producing microscopic excitations (=hadrons), or by finite excitations (say, heating some volume to a given temperature T). In the latter case, some qualitative changes (phase transitions) should take place. A summary is given of the extent to which such phenomena can be observed in the laboratory by proton-proton, proton-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus collisions. (orig.)

  8. Primary Teachers' Particle Ideas and Explanations of Physical Phenomena: Effect of an In-Service Training Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Johnson, Phil Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study concerning Greek primary school teachers' (n = 162) ideas about the particulate nature of matter and their explanations of physical phenomena. The study took place during an in-service training course where the effectiveness of a specially designed intervention was tested. A key feature was an approach based on the…

  9. Fusion programs in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of the theoretical science program are: To support the interpretation of present experiments and predict the outcome of future planned experiments; to improve on existing models and codes and validate against experimental results; and to conduct theoretical physics development of advanced concepts with applications for DIII-D and future devices. Major accomplishments in FY91 include the corroboration between theory and experiment on MHD behavior in the second stable regime of operation on DIII-D, and the frequency and mode structure of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in high beta, shaped plasmas. We have made significant advances in the development of the gyro-Landau fluid approach to turbulence simulation which more accurately models kinetic drive and damping mechanisms. Several theoretical models to explain the bifurcation phenomenon in L- to H-mode transition were proposed providing the theoretical basis for future experimental verification. The capabilities of new rf codes have been upgraded in response to the expanding needs of the rf experiments. Codes are being employed to plan for a fully non-inductive current drive experiment in a high beta, enhanced confinement regime. GA's experimental effort in Applied Physics encompasses two advanced diagnostics essential for the operation of future fusion experiments: Alpha particle diagnostic, and current and density profile diagnostics. This paper discusses research in all these topics

  10. Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This survey of plasma physics and fluid physics briefly describes present activities and recent major accomplishments. It also identifies research areas that are likely to lead to advances during the next decade. Plasma physics is divided into three major areas: general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, and space and astrophysical plasmas. Fluid physics is treated as one topic, although it is an extremely diverse research field ranging from biological fluid dynamics to ship and aircraft performance to geological fluid dynamics. Subpanels, chosen for their technical expertise and scientific breadth, reviewed each of the four areas. The entire survey was coordinated and supervised by an Executive Committee, which is also responsible for the Executive Summary of this volume. Wherever possible, input from recent Advisory Committees was used, e.g., from the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee, the Space Science Board, and the Astronomy Survey Committee. This volume is organized as follows: An Introduction and Executive Summary that outlines (1) major findings and recommendations; (2) significant research accomplishments during the past decade and likely areas of future research emphasis; and (3) a brief summary of present funding levels, manpower resources, and institutional involvement; and the subpanel reports constitute Fluid Physics, General Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasma Confinement and Heating, and Space and Astrophysical Plasmas. An important conclusion of this survey is that both plasma physics and fluid physics are scientifically and intellectually well developed, and both ares are broad subdisciplines of physics. We therefore recommend that future physics surveys have separate volumes on the physics of plasmas and the physics of fluids

  11. Physical model of lean suppression pressure oscillation phenomena: steam condensation in the light water reactor pressure suppression system (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using the results of large scale multivent tests conducted by GKSS, a physical model of chugging is developed. The unique combination of accurate digital data and cinematic data has provided the derivation of a detailed, quantified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring during lean suppression (chugging) phases of the loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

  12. Twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igitkhanov, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The twentyseventh European physical society conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics was held in Budapest, 12-16 June 2000. About 10 invited papers were presented, covering a wide range of problems in plasma physics, including confinement and transport issues in fusion devices, astrophysics and industrial application of plasmas. More than 100 papers were presented on plasma theory and experiments from tokamaks and stellarators. Some of the ITER-relevant issues covered are described in this newsletter

  13. The physics of the low-temperature plasma in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracik, J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey is given of low-temperature plasma research in Czechoslovakia since 1954 and its main results are pointed out. In the first years, various processes in electric discharges and electromagnetic acceleration of plasma clusters were studied at Czechoslovak universities and in the Institute of Physics. In the study of ionization waves, Czechoslovak physicists achieved world priority. Later on, low-temperature plasma investigation began in the Institute of Plasma Physics, founded in 1959. The issues of plasma interaction with the solid state and plasma applications in plasma chemistry were studied mainly by its Department of Applied Plasma Physics. The main effort of this group, transferred recently to the Institute of Physics, is aimed at thin film production and plasma-surface interactions; similar experimental studies are also carried out at universities in Brno and Bratislava. Last but not least, arc spraying of powder materials using water-cooled plasmatrons is being developed by the Department of Plasma Technology of the Institute of Plasma Physics. (J.U.)

  14. MHD description of plasma: handbook of plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1980-10-01

    The basic sets of MHD equations for the description of a plasma in various limits are derived and their usefulness and limits of validity are discussed. These limits are: the one fluid collisional plasma, the two fluid collisional plasma, the Chew-Goldberger Low formulation of the guiding center limit of a collisionless plasma and the double-adiabatic limit. Conservation relations are derived from these sets and the mathematics of the concept of flux freezing is given. An example is given illustrating the differences between guiding center theory and double adiabatic theory

  15. Unraveling the physics of nanofluidic phenomena at the single-molecule level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Despite groundbreaking potential in a broad application space, several nanofluidic phenomena remain poorly understood. Toward advancing the understanding of fluid behavior under nanoscale confinement, we developed a novel, ideal platform for fundamental molecular transport studies, in which the fluidic channel is a single carbon nanotube (CNT). CNTs offer the advantage of simple chemistry and structure, which can be synthetically tuned with nanometer precision and accurately modeled. With combined experimental and computational approaches, we demonstrated that CNT pores with 1-5 nm diameters conduct giant ionic currents that follow an unusual sublinear electrolyte concentration dependence. The large magnitude of the ionic conductance appears to originate from a strong electro-osmotic flow in smooth CNT pores. First-principle simulations suggest that electro-osmotic flow arises from localized negative polarization charges on carbon atoms near a potassium (K+) ion and from the strong cation-graphitic wall interactions, which drive K+ ions much closer to the wall than chlorides (Cl-). Single-molecule translocation studies reveal that charged molecules may be distinguished from neutral species on the basis of the sign of the transient current change during their passage through the nanopore. Together with shedding light on a few controversial questions in the CNT nanofluidics area, these results may benefit LLNL’s Security Mission by providing the foundation for the development of advanced single-molecule detection system for bio/chem/explosive analytes. In addition, these experimental and computational platforms can be applied to advance fundamental knowledge in other fields, from energy storage and membrane separation to superfluid physics.

  16. Phenomena accompanying gradient-B drift injection of energetic ions into Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Jassby, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The application of vertically asymmetric toroidal-field ripple, in order to permit the gradient B-drift injection and subsequent capture of energetic ions, results in a new radial diffusion of banana orbits. The nearly mono-kinetic velocity distribution of gradient B-drifting ions in the outer plasma region represents a large source of free energy; and the nonambipolar inward drift of these ions modifies the radial electric field

  17. Functional-integral formulations for plasma instabilities and turbulence; analogies with phase-transition phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1977-06-01

    The formalism of Martin, Siggia and Rose is utilized to write a functional-integral representation for generating functionals in plasma transport theory, following Nakayama and Dawson. Parallel treatments of Navier-Stokes turbulence (attempted by Rosen) and of critical dynamics, by Kawasaki, are compared to illustrate the application of common field-theory techniques, such as the effective action. Quasi-classical methods for functional integrals are discussed

  18. Electron transport phenomena and dense plasmas produced by ultra-short pulse laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experiments with femtosecond lasers provide a test bed for theoretical ideas about electron processes in hot dense plasmas. We briefly review aspects of electron conduction theory likely to prove relevant to femtosecond laser absorption. We show that the Mott-Ioffe-Regel limit implies a maximum inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of about 50% at temperatures near the Fermi temperature. We also propose that sheath inverse bremsstrahlung leads to a minimum absorption of 7-10% at high laser intensity

  19. Collective phenomena in the non-equilibrium quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenke, Bjoern Peter

    2008-07-03

    In this work we study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quark-gluon plasma, as created in heavy-ion collisions. We investigate how big of a role plasma instabilities can play in the isotropization and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma. In particular, we determine, among other things, how much collisions between the particles can reduce the growth rate of unstable modes. This is done both in a model calculation using the hard-loop approximation, as well as in a real-time lattice simulation combining both classical Yang-Mills-fields as well as inter-particle collisions. The new extended version of the simulation is also used to investigate jet transport in isotropic media, leading to a cutoff-independent result for the transport coefficient q. The precise determination of such transport coefficients is essential, since they can provide important information about the medium created in heavy ion collisions. In anisotropic media, the effect of instabilities on jet transport is studied, leading to a possible explanation for the experimental observation that high-energy jets traversing the plasma perpendicular to the beam axis experience much stronger broadening in rapidity than in azimuth. The investigation of collective modes in the hard-loop limit is extended to fermionic modes, which are shown to be all stable. Finally, we study the possibility of using high energy photon production as a tool to experimentally determine the anisotropy of the created system. Knowledge of the degree of local momentum-space anisotropy reached in a heavy-ion collision is essential for the study of instabilities and their role for isotropization and thermalization, because their growth rate depends strongly on the anisotropy. (orig.)

  20. The Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell (DADIPIC) method for simulation of low frequency plasma phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, M.R.; Hewett, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm for simulating low frequency, kinetic phenomena in plasma. Darwin direct implicit particle-in-cell (DADIPIC), as its name implies, is a combination of the Darwin and direct implicit methods. Through the Darwin method the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations are reformulated into a set of elliptic equations. Propagating light waves do not exist in the formulation so the Courant constraint on the time step is eliminated. The direct implicit method is applied only to the electrostatic field with the result that electrostatic plasma oscillations do not have to be resolved for stability. With the elimination of these constraints spatial and temporal discretization can be much larger than that possible with explicit, electrodynamic PIC. We discuss the algorithms for pushing the particles and solving the fields in 2D cartesian geometry. We also detail boundary conditions for conductors and dielectrics. Finally, we present two test cases, electron cyclotron waves and collisionless heating in inductively coupled plasmas. For these test cases DADIPIC shows agreement with analytic kinetic theory and good energy conservation characteristics. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. The physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Silva, L.O.; Dawson, J.M.; Bethe, H.; Bingham, R.; Stenflo, L.; Mendonca, J.T.; Dalhed, S.

    1999-01-01

    A review of recent work on collective neutrino-plasma interactions is presented. The basic physical concepts of this new field as well as some possible astrophysical problems where the physics of collective neutrino-plasma interactions can have a radical impact, are discussed. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the 1984 international conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, M.Q.; Verbeek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 ICPP, held in Lausanne, Switzerland, is the third biennial conference of the series ''International conferences on plasma physics''. A complete spectrum of current plasma physics from fusion devices to interstellar space was presented, even if most of the papers were of direct interest for fusion. This is the second part of the conference

  3. Material Abrasive Water Jet Cutting Investigation by Means Accompanying Physical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Kinik, D.; Gánovská, B.; Hloch, S. (Sergej); Cárach, J.; Lehocká, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with the indirect ways of on-line monitoring of technological processes of cutting. The objective of the study is a design of on-line monitoring system for the cutting technology through an abrasive water jet. In cutting by the abrasive water jet two parallel phenomena are formed. The phenomena are represented by generated surface and vibrations. For the purpose of proving of the hypothetical assumptions on dependence of generated surface quality on vibrations the ex...

  4. Edge Plasma Physics and Relevant Diagnostics on the CASTOR tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stöckel, Jan; Devynck, P.; Gunn, J.; Martines, E.; Bonhomme, G.; Van Oost, G.; Hron, Martin; Ďuran, Ivan; Pánek, Radomír; Stejskal, Pavel; Adámek, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 1433-5581. [First Cairo Conference on Plasma Physics & Applications. Cairo, 11.10.2003-15.10.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0786; GA ČR GP202/03/P062 Keywords : tokamak * edge plasma * probe diagnostics * biasing * turbulence * polarization Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  5. Fourth Latin-American workshop on plasma physics. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of this series of Workshops is to provide a periodic meeting place for Latin-American researchers in plasma physics together with colleagues from other countries around the world. This volume includes the contributed papers presented at the Workshop on Plasma Physics held in Buenos Aires in 1990. The scope of the Workshop can be synthesized in the following main subjects: Tokamak experiments and theory; alternative confinement systems and basic experiments; technology and applications; general theory; astrophysical and space plasmas

  6. Astronomy in the Middle of the World: a physical analysis of the astronomic phenomena at Latitude Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. N.; Voelzke, M. R.; Araújo, M. S. T.

    2018-03-01

    Although Astronomy is part of everyday life of the people, peculiarities are little-known for an observer on the equator, as residents in Macapá-AP, located at Latitude Zero. So, this work aims to support physics teaching focusing on the correct diffusion of some physical phenomena which have an intrinsic relationship with Astronomy from the sight of an observer at latitude zero, highlighting the celestial sphere visualization and emphasizing which constellations are visible during an earth year, being proposed the elaboration of a planisphere to this latitude. It's also discussed about the Solstices and, more specifically, about the Equinoxes and their particularities for an observer in latitude zero. The offered approach can help teachers of Physics and Science who work in regular education schools to explore these important astronomical phenomena.

  7. Plasma physics: innovation in energy and industrial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Plasmas-ionised gases-are truly ubiquitous. More than 99% of the matter in the universe is in the plasma state. All of the matter that comprises the Earth, and all of the energy that powers it, has been processed through plasma fusion reactions in stars. Plasmas also play a crucial role in the Earth's atmosphere, which screens out harmful radiation, and make long distance radio propagation possible. While the study of plasma physics was originally motivated by astrophysics, the discipline has grown to address terrestrial concerns. These include lighting, welding, the switching of large electrical currents, the processing of materials such as semiconductors, and the quest to build fusion power reactors artificial stars for low-emissions generation of electricity from hydrogen isotopes. Plasma physics is fundamentally multi-disciplinary. It requires understanding not only of the complex collective behaviour of ionised gases in unusual conditions, but also knowledge of the atomic and nuclear physics that determines how plasmas are formed and maintained, and the specialised engineering and instrumentation of the mechanical and electromagnetic containers needed to confine plasmas on Earth. These characteristics make plasma physics a fertile breeding ground for imagination and innovation. This paper draws together examples of innovation stimulated by plasma physics research in the areas of energy, materials, communications, and computation

  8. Short- and long-term plasma phenomena in a HiPIMS discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poolcharuansin, P; Bradley, J W

    2010-01-01

    Using a time-resolved Langmuir probe the temporal evolution of the bulk plasma parameters in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge was investigated for a number of different discharge conditions. The magnetron was operated in argon between 0.5 and 1.6 Pa with a titanium target and with peak target power densities up to 1000 W cm -2 . The pulse width and repetition rate were held constant at 100 μs and 100 Hz, respectively. Using an OML analysis as well as a Druyvesteyn formulation, the electron densities, effective temperatures and energy distribution functions were obtained throughout the pulse period (0-9 ms), including a detailed study of the first 10 μs, which was achieved with a temporal resolution better than 0.5 μs. In the initial phase of the voltage pulse (t ∼ 1-4 μs), three distinct groups of electrons (indistinguishable from Maxwellian electrons) were observed, namely 'super-thermal', 'hot' and 'cold' populations with effective temperatures of 70-100 eV, 5-7 eV and 0.8-1 eV, respectively. After 4 μs these groups become energetically indistinguishable from each other to form a single distribution with an electron temperature that decays from about 5 to 3 eV during the rest of the pulse on-time. The presence of the 'super-thermal' electron group pushes the probe floating potential to a very negative value (significantly deeper than -95 V) during the initial period of the pulse. In the off-time, the electron density decays with two-fold characteristic times, revealing initially short-term (30-40 μs) and ultimately long-term (3-4 ms) decay rates. These long decay times lead to a relative high density remnant plasma (2 x 10 9 cm -3 ) at the end of the off-time, which serves to seed the next voltage pulse. The electron temperature and plasma potential also exhibit two-fold decay in the off-time, but with typically somewhat faster decays, particularly for the long-term decay (100-500 μs) up to the end of the off-time. The time

  9. Nonlinear phenomena in collisionless plasmas. Progress report, September 1, 1974--August 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of unstable collective modes common to conventional mirror machines is being analyzed in order to evaluate measurable saturation amplitudes, spectrum properties, and concomitant particle loss rates. The nonlinear dispersion relation for the classic drift-cone mode, including nonlinear E x B VECTOR convective cells is presently being evaluated to find its self-saturation properties. Large amplitude rf heating mechanisms, localized mode nonlinearities, and propagation and amplification of transverse modes in collisionless inhomogeneous plasmas have also been partially evaluated. (U.S.)

  10. Space research and cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1983-08-01

    Scientific progress depends on the development of new instruments. The change from Ptolemaic to Copernican cosmology was to a large extent caused by the introduction of telescopes. Similarly, space research has changed our possibilities to explore our large scale environment so drastically that a thorough revision of cosmic physics is now taking place. A list is given of a large number of fields in which this revision is in progress or is just starting. The new view are based on in situ measurements in the magnetospheres. By extrapolating these measurments to more distant regions, also plasma astrophysics in general has to be reconsidered. In certain important fields the basic approach has to be changed. This applies to cosmogony (origin and evolution of the solar system) and to cosmology. New results from laboratory and magnetospheric measurements extrapolated to cosmogonic conditions give an increased reliability to our treatment of the origin and evolution of the Solar system. Especially the Voyager observations of the saturnian rings give us the hope that we may transfer cosmogony from a playground for more or less crazy ideas into a respectable science. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo δf simulations of neoclassical phenomena in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, A.

    2002-01-01

    Some important neoclassical phenomena are studied with drift-kinetic simulations of the ions: the current which drives neoclassical tearing modes, the bootstrap current at a steep gradient, the energy transport near the axis. The δ f code HAGIS is used with pitch angle collisions modelled by a Monte Carlo procedure. An equilibrium with circular cross section and (for the island modelling) a single helical perturbation is considered, ITER- and AUG-like parameter are used. We find that the bootstrap current in small islands does not vanish, the full current is observed if the island half-width is smaller than the orbit width. The results can explain the scaling of the normalized beta at the onset of the NTMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The polarization current due to the island rotation is studied as well and found to be small. In the banana regime the bootstrap current at a steep pressure profile is reduced if the orbit width exceeds the gradient length. The near axis energy transport is neither reduced nor much enhanced in plateau regime, contrary to the banana regime. (author)

  12. Over-relaxation phenomena during the set-up of RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, P.; Mazur, S.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments on the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch have shown that the formation of the RFP configuration is quite sensitive to the relative programming of the toroidal field and ohmic heating circuits. In this paper, new measurements of the evolution of the current density profile and of the spectral structure of the fluctuations during the set-up phase of RFP plasmas in the T1 experiment are presented. These measurements improve the understanding of the role of different spectral components in the dynamics of RFP formation. Under unfavourable (slow) set-up conditions, comparatively high energy is accumulated in m = 1 internal kinks prior to reversal of the edge toroidal fields. At reversal, nonlinearly driven m = 0 modes trigger a rapid broadening of the m = 1 spectrum. This behaviour is associated with a violent suppression of the current density in the core leading to an over-relaxation of the discharge involving a hollowing of the parallel current density profile. The over-relaxation phenomenon increases the volt-second consumption and plasma/wall interaction during RFP set-up, and degrades the flat-top discharge performance. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  13. Over-relaxation phenomena during the set-up of RFP plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlund, P.; Mazur, S.

    1995-03-01

    Experiments on the Extrap T1 reversed field pinch have shown that the formation of the RFP configuration is quite sensitive to the relative programming of the toroidal field and ohmic heating circuits. In this paper, new measurements of the evolution of the current density profile and of the spectral structure of the fluctuations during the set-up phase of RFP plasmas in the T1 experiment are presented. These measurements improve the understanding of the role of different spectral components in the dynamics of RFP formation. Under unfavourable (slow) set-up conditions, comparatively high energy is accumulated in m = 1 internal kinks prior to reversal of the edge toroidal fields. At reversal, nonlinearly driven m = 0 modes trigger a rapid broadening of the m = 1 spectrum. This behaviour is associated with a violent suppression of the current density in the core leading to an over-relaxation of the discharge involving a hollowing of the parallel current density profile. The over-relaxation phenomenon increases the volt-second consumption and plasma/wall interaction during RFP set-up, and degrades the flat-top discharge performance. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  14. An introduction to the atomic and radiation physics of plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tallents, G J

    2018-01-01

    Plasmas comprise more than 99% of the observable universe. They are important in many technologies and are key potential sources for fusion power. Atomic and radiation physics is critical for the diagnosis, observation and simulation of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, and plasma physicists working in a range of areas from astrophysics, magnetic fusion, and inertial fusion utilise atomic and radiation physics to interpret measurements. This text develops the physics of emission, absorption and interaction of light in astrophysics and in laboratory plasmas from first principles using the physics of various fields of study including quantum mechanics, electricity and magnetism, and statistical physics. Linking undergraduate level atomic and radiation physics with the advanced material required for postgraduate study and research, this text adopts a highly pedagogical approach and includes numerous exercises within each chapter for students to reinforce their understanding of the key concepts.

  15. Transport phenomena in the edge of Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L.; Basse, N.P.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; LaBombard, B.; Edlund, E.M.; Hughes, J.W.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Veto, B.; Wukitch, S.J.; Grulke, O.; Zweben, S.J.; Sampsell, M.

    2005-01-01

    Two aspects of edge turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod are explored. The quasi-coherent mode, an edge fluctuation present in Enhanced Da H-mode plasmas, is examined with regard to its role in the enhanced particle transport found in these plasmas, its in/out asymmetry, its poloidal wave number, and its radial width and location. It is shown to play a dominant role in the perpendicular particle transport. The QCM is not observed at the inboard midplane, indicating that its amplitude there is significantly smaller than on the outboard side. The peak amplitude of the QCM is found just inside the separatrix, with a radial width ≥5 mm, leading to a non-zero amplitude outside the separatrix and qualitatively consistent with its transport enhancement. Also examined are the characteristics of the intermittent convective transport, associated with 'blobs' and typically occurring in the scrape-off-layer. The blobs are qualitatively similar in L- and H-mode. When their sizes, occurrence frequencies, and magnitudes are compared, it is found that the blob size may be somewhat smaller in ELMfree H-Mode, and blob frequency is similar. A clear difference is seen in the blob magnitude in the far SOL, with ELMfree H-mode showing a smaller perturbation there than L-mode. As the Greenwald density limit is approached (n/n GW ≥0.7), blobs are seen inside the separatrix, consistent with the observation that the high cross-field transport region, normally found in the far scrape-off, penetrates the closed flux surfaces at high n/n GW . (author)

  16. 10. LAWPP: Latin American workshop on plasma physics; 7. EBFP: Brazilian meeting on plasma physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on plasma and fusion covering the following subjects: plasma production, confinement, plasma waves, diagnostics, heating, tokamak, impurities, astrophysics plasma and technological applications

  17. PREFACE: 4th International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2010 The Fourth International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'10) is organized by St. Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. It was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from July 5 to July 10, 2010. The scientific programme covers the topics Fusion Plasma and Materials; Plasma Modeling and Fundamentals; Plasma Sources, Diagnostics and Technology. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007), IWSSPP'08, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 207 (2010), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 34 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the participants who sent their manuscripts and passed through the (sometimes heavy and troublesome) refereeing and editing

  18. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  19. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  20. Industrial applications of low-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1995-01-01

    The application of plasma physics to the manufacturing and processing of materials may be the new frontier of our discipline. Already partially ionized discharges are used in industry, and the performance of plasmas has a large commercial and technological impact. However, the science of low-temperature plasmas is not as well developed as that of high-temperature, collisionless plasmas. In this paper several major areas of application are described and examples of forefront problems in each are given. The underlying thesis is that gas discharges have evolved beyond a black art, and that intellectually challenging problems with elegant solutions can be found. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters of experimental devices; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; Burning Plasma Experiment; Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification; Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; International Collaboration; X-Ray Laser Studies; Hyperthermal Atomic Beam Source; Pure Electron Plasma Experiments; Plasma Processing: Deposition and Etching of Thin Films; Theoretical Studies; Tokamak Modeling; Engineering Department; Environment, Safety, and Health and Quality Assurance; Technology Transfer; Office of Human Resources and Administration; PPPL Patent Invention Disclosures; Office of Resource Management; Graduate Education: Plasma Physics; Graduate Education: Program in Plasma Science and Technology; and Science Education Program

  2. Identification and optimization problems in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.C.

    1986-06-01

    Parameter identification of the current in a tokamak plasma is studied. Plasma equilibrium in a vacuum container with a diaphragm is analyzed. A variable metric method with reduced optimization with nonlinear equality constraints; and a quasi-Newton reduced optimization method with constraints giving priority to restoration are presented [fr

  3. Modeling of polarization phenomena due to RF sheaths and electron beams in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faudot, E.

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the problematic of hot spots induced by accelerated particle fluxes in tokamaks. It is shown that the polarization due to sheaths in the edge plasma in which an electron beam at a high level of energy is injected, can reach several hundreds volts and thus extend the deposition area. The notion of obstructed sheath is introduced and explains the acceleration of energy deposition by the decreasing of the sheath potential. Then, a 2-dimensional fluid modeling of flux tubes in front of ICRF antennae allows us to calculate the rectified potentials taking into account RF polarization currents transverse to magnetic field lines. The 2-dimensional fluid code designed validates the analytical results which show that the DC rectified potential is 50% greater with polarization currents than without. Finally, the simultaneous application of an electron beam and a RF potential reveals that the potentials due to each phenomenon are additives when RF potential is much greater than beam polarization. The density depletion of polarized flux tubes in 2-dimensional PIC (particles in cells) simulations is characterized but not yet explained. (author)

  4. Uncovering noisy social signals : Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Maurits; Van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  5. Uncovering noisy social signals: Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Emden, R. van; Iannuzzi, D.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out

  6. Thermonuclear plasma physic: inertial confinement fusion; Physique des plasmas thermonucleaires: la fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, Ch.; Juraszek, D

    2001-07-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an approach to thermonuclear fusion in which the fuel contained in a spherical capsule is strongly compressed and heated to achieve ignition and burn. The released thermonuclear energy can be much higher than the driver energy, making energetic applications attractive. Many complex physical phenomena are involved by the compression process, but it is possible to use simple analytical models to analyze the main critical points. We first determine the conditions to obtain fuel ignition. High thermonuclear gains are achieved if only a small fraction of the fuel called hot spot is used to trigger burn in the main fuel compressed on a low isentrope. A simple hot spot model will be described. The high pressure needed to drive the capsule compression are obtained by the ablation process. A simple Rocket model describe the main features of the implosion phase. Several parameters have to be controlled during the compression: irradiation symmetry, hydrodynamical stability and when the driver is a laser, the problems arising from interaction of the EM wave with the plasma. Two different schemes are examined: Indirect Drive which uses X-ray generated in a cavity to drive the implosion and the Fast Ignitor concept using a ultra intense laser beam to create the hot spot. At the end we present the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. LMJ is scaled to a thermonuclear gain of the order of ten. (authors)

  7. The physics of megajoule, large-scale, and ultrafast short-scale laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in laser science and technology have opened new possibilities for the study of high energy density plasma physics. The advances include techniques to control the laser spatial and temporal coherence, and the development of laser architectures and optical materials that have led to the demonstration of compact, short pulse (τ≤10 -12 sec) high brightness lasers, capable of irradiating plasmas with intensities ≥10 18 W/cm 2 . Experiments with reduced laser coherence have shown a substantial decrease in laser-driven parametric instabilities and have extended the parameter range where inverse bremsstrahlung absorption is the dominant coupling process. Beam smoothing with short wavelength lasers should result in inverse bremsstrahlung dominated coupling in the irradiance parameter regimes of the millimeter scale-length plasmas envisioned for the megajoule class lasers for ignition and gain in inertial fusion. In addition new regimes of laser--plasma coupling will become experimentally accessible when plasmas are irradiated with I≥10 18 W/cm 2 . Relativistic effects, extreme profile modification, and electrons heated to energies exceeding 1 MeV are several of the phenomena that are expected. Numerous applications in basic and applied plasma physics will result from these new capabilities

  8. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  9. Abstracts of 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Published in 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This report contains the presentation on the 13-th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Five main topics are covered: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas

  10. Abstracts of 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Published in 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2006-07-01

    This report contains the presentation on the 13-th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Five main topics are covered: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas.

  11. Evaluation of spectroscopic modeling for iron ions and study on non-equilibrium ionization phenomena for solar and LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Murakami, Izumi

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of EUV emission lines in the transition region (TR) and the corona provide unique information on physical conditions in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. The EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board the Hinode satellite is capable of observing, for the first time in EUV, spectra and monochromatic images of plasmas in the solar TR and corona; these plasmas could possibly be in non-ionization-equilibrium conditions. EIS observes over two-wavelength bands of 170 - 210 Å and 250 - 290 Å, with typical time-resolutions of 1 - 10 seconds. Iron line emissions emerging from these wavelengths reveal that dynamic plasma accelerations and heating take place in the solar atmosphere. On the other hand, the tracer-encapsulated-pellet (TESPEL) experiments provide spectral information of EUV emission lines from iron ions produced in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Relatively cool plasmas with electron temperatures similar to those of the solar corona can be generated by controlling the neutral beam injector (NBI) system. A time-dependent collisional radiative (CR) model for elemental iron is developed as a common tool to diagnose temperatures and densities of those plasmas in the Sun and in LHD; no systematic model yet exists for iron ions in the L- and M-shell ionization stages, which are very important for coronal plasma diagnostics. Adopting the best available theoretical calculations, as well as generating the experimental data, we improve the atomic parameters of highly charged iron ions, and these results are used to extract more accurate diagnostic information out of the EIS spectra. (author)

  12. Abstracts of 7th Ukrainian conference on controlled nuclear fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This conference discussed the main directions of plasma physics development in Ukraine. The experimental and theoretical research on stellarators and theoretical results of physical processes in tokamak plasma studied. The investigation of spherical tokamaks were plasma physics began

  13. Cosmic Plasmas, Physics 418 Lecture 1: Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.

    2002-01-01

    Definition of a plasma; distinction from neutral gas. Debye length, plasma parameter; concept of shielding and quasi neutrality. Two types of description: particle kinetic vs continuum. Self-consistent field concept. Continuum equations for a neutral (ideal) gas. Continuum equations of motion for an ideal, quasi neutral plasma. These Lecture Notes are intended to provide a self-contained account of the material. Some topics are included for completeness and may be omitted on a first reading. They are so indicated, where appropriate. (author)

  14. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2000-10-01

    The present lecture note was written to fill a gap between text books for undergraduates and specific review articles written by specialists for their young colleagues. The note may be divided in three parts. The first part is on basic characteristics of a plasma in a magnetic field. The second part describes plasma confinement and heating with an emphasis on magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. In addition, propagation of plasma waves, plasma heating by electromagnetic waves are given. The third part is devoted to various specific concepts of nuclear fusion. Emphases are placed on toroidal devices, especially on tokamak devices and stellarators. One might feel heavy mathematics glimpsing the present note, especially in the part treating magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. (author)

  15. Plasma Physics of the Subauroral Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-20

    or convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for...irregular subauroral regions create strong scintillations of UHF and GPS L1 band signals. Irregular structures in the plasmasphere guide VLF whistler waves ...drifts, substorm-injected plasma jets, SAID/SAPS-related plasma waves , plasmaspheric boundary layer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  16. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Connectivity: a primer in phase transitions and critical phenomena for students of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    This introduction to the phase transitions and critical phenomena focuses on the theme of connectivity, and illustrates concepts with a paradigm of connectivity, such as the percolation problem. The phenomenon of bond percolation, where a finite section of ''fence'' has both conducting and insulating links, is described. Three approaches to the study of connectivity phenomena are described: exact enumeration procedures, Monte Carlo simulation, and renormalization groups. Exact enumeration probabilities are calculated. Lattice animals are discussed. Computer simulation is described as simple: assign random numbers, then design algorithms that recognize clusters. The Monte Carlo simulations have not lead to higher accuracy in predicting critical exponents, but have given a graphic illustration of what a million-site cluster looks like. The incipient infinite cluster can also be described. In this case, the magnetic correlations of a dilute magnetic system will spread along the ''backbone bonds'' rather than by ''dangling ends.'' Renormalization group approaches are also treated. Finally, relations between connectivity and models of critical thermal phenomena such as the Ising Model, the Potts model, and polychromatic generalization of the Potts Model, are discussed

  18. Remote operation of the vertical plasma stabilization @ the GOLEM tokamak for the plasma physics education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, V., E-mail: svoboda@fjfi.cvut.cz [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Kocman, J.; Grover, O. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Krbec, J.; Stöckel, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering CTU Prague, CZ-115 19 (Czech Republic); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, CZ-182 21 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: * Understandable remote operation of a vertical plasma position control system in the tokamak GOLEM for educational purposes.* Two combinable modes of real-time plasma position control: position based feedback and a pre-defined waveform.* More than 20% plasma life prolongation with plasma position control in feedback mode. - Highlights: • Understandable remote operation of a vertical plasma position control system in the tokamak GOLEM for educational purposes. • Two combinable modes of real-time plasma position control: position based feedback and a pre-defined waveform. • More than 20% plasma life prolongation with plasma position control in feedback mode. - Abstract: The GOLEM tokamak at the Czech Technical University has been established as an educational tokamak device for domestic and foreign students. Remote participation in the scope of several laboratory practices, plasma physics schools and workshops has been successfully performed from abroad. A new enhancement allowing understandable remote control of vertical plasma position in two modes (i) predefined and (ii) feedback control is presented. It allows to drive the current in the stabilization coils in any time-dependent scenario, which can include as a parameter the actual plasma position measured by magnetic diagnostics. Arbitrary movement of the plasma column in a vertical direction, stabilization of the plasma column in the center of the tokamak vessel as well as prolongation/shortening of plasma life according to the remotely defined request are demonstrated.

  19. Investigation of Physical Phenomena and Cutting Efficiency for Laser Cutting on Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than other secondary batteries. Among the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process, electrode cutting is one of the most important processes since poor cut quality leads to performance degradation, separator protrusion, and local electric stress concentration. This may, eventually, lead to malfunction of lithium-ion batteries or explosion. The current mechanical cutting technology uses a contact process and this may lead to process instability. Furthermore, there are additional costs if the tools and cell design are changed. To solve these issues, laser cutting has been used. Conventional dependent parameters have limitations in investigating and explaining many physical phenomena during the laser cutting of electrodes. Therefore, this study proposes specific widths such as melting, top, and kerf width. Moreover, the relationship between laser parameters and multiphysical phenomena with the proposed widths are investigated. Five types of classification with regard to physical phenomena are presented and explained with SEM images. Cutting efficiency is estimated with the proposed widths. The proposed specific cutting widths, five types of geometrical classification, and cutting efficiency can be used as standardized parameters to evaluate the cutting quality.

  20. Nicolas Lémery (1645-1715 and his Physical-chemical Theory about Different Phenomena for Earth Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cándido Manuel GARCÍA CRUZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unabridged translation of a work of Nicolas Lémery (1645–1715 is presented for the first time in Spanish, wherein this French chemist and apothecary attempts an explanation on physical and chemical basis of several significant phenomena in Earth Sciences, such as earthquakes, subterranean fires, hurricanes, lightning and thunder. This explanation had a common cause for all the aforementioned phenomena: the processes of mineral fermentation, in this case of sulfur and iron, as a heat source, within the corpuscular theory of matter and mechanistic philosophy, and likewise it represents an interesting contribution of the influence of chemistry on the incipient development of experimental geology at the dawn of the 18th Century. 

  1. Chemical and physical reactions under thermal plasmas conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.; Coudert, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Basic understanding of the involved phenomena lags far behind industrial development that requires now a better knowledge of the phenomena to achieve a better control of the process allowing to improve the quality of the products. Thus the authors try to precise what is their actual knowledge in the fields of: plasma generators design; plasma flow models with the following key points: laminar or turbulent flow, heat transfer to walls, 2D or 3D models, non equilibrium effects, mixing problems when chemical reactions are to be taken into account with very fast kinetics, electrode regions, data for transport properties and kinetic rates; nucleation problems; plasma flow characteristics measurements: temperature or temperatures and population of excited states (automatized emission spectroscopy, LIF, CARS) as well as flow velocity (LDA with small particles, Doppler effects...); plasma and particles momentum and heat transfer either with models taking into account particles size and injection velocity distributions, heat propagation, vaporization, Kundsen effect, turbulences ... or with measurements: particles velocity and flux distributions (Laser Anemometry) as well as surface temperature distributions (two colour pyrometry in flight statistical or not)

  2. Enhanced confinement phenomenology in magnetic fusion plasmas: Is it unique in physics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    There is substantial experimental evidence that simple diffusive models for turbulent transport are insufficient to produce all the confinement phenomena observed in tokamaks. This paper reports on the emerging linkage between rapid, nonlocal, nondiffusive transport and overall confinement phenomenology including edge pedestals, enhanced confinement, ELMs, and internal transport barriers. Modern statistical physics techniques are used to construct simple models that generate many of the distinctive elements of global tokamak confinement phenomenology. The similarities are deep and are quantified. These results imply that current observations of avalanching transport in tokamaks may be deeply linked to the fundamental global features of tokamak plasma confinement. (author)

  3. Monte Carlo simulations for plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.X.

    2000-07-01

    Plasma behaviours are very complicated and the analyses are generally difficult. However, when the collisional processes play an important role in the plasma behaviour, the Monte Carlo method is often employed as a useful tool. For examples, in neutral particle injection heating (NBI heating), electron or ion cyclotron heating, and alpha heating, Coulomb collisions slow down high energetic particles and pitch angle scatter them. These processes are often studied by the Monte Carlo technique and good agreements can be obtained with the experimental results. Recently, Monte Carlo Method has been developed to study fast particle transports associated with heating and generating the radial electric field. Further it is applied to investigating the neoclassical transport in the plasma with steep gradients of density and temperatures which is beyong the conventional neoclassical theory. In this report, we briefly summarize the researches done by the present authors utilizing the Monte Carlo method. (author)

  4. Hybrid computer modelling in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromadka, J; Ibehej, T; Hrach, R

    2016-01-01

    Our contribution is devoted to development of hybrid modelling techniques. We investigate sheath structures in the vicinity of solids immersed in low temperature argon plasma of different pressures by means of particle and fluid computer models. We discuss the differences in results obtained by these methods and try to propose a way to improve the results of fluid models in the low pressure area. There is a possibility to employ Chapman-Enskog method to find appropriate closure relations of fluid equations in a case when particle distribution function is not Maxwellian. We try to follow this way to enhance fluid model and to use it in hybrid plasma model further. (paper)

  5. Atomic physics in dense plasmas. Recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher-Dalimier, E.; Angelo, P.; Ceccotti, T.; Derfoul, H.; Poquerusse, A.; Sauvan, P.; Oks, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents observations and simulations of novel density-dependent spectroscopic features in hot and dense plasmas. Both time-integrated and time-resolved results using ultra-high resolutions spectrometers are presented; they are justified within the standard spectral line shape theory or the quasi-molecular alternative treatment. A particular attention is paid to the impact of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma on the experimental spectra. Satellite-like features and molecular lines in the cases of Flyβ, Heβ are discussed emphasizing their importance for the density diagnostics when ion-ion correlations are significant. (authors)

  6. 10th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2004-01-01

    About 240 abstracts by Ukrainian and foreign authors submitted to 10-th International Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled fusion have been considered by Conference Program Committee members. All the abstracts have been divided into 8 groups: magnetic confinement systems: stellarators, tokamaks, alternative conceptions; ITER and Fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics

  7. Efficient particle-in-cell simulation of auroral plasma phenomena using a CUDA enabled graphics processing unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Stephen

    This thesis introduces a software framework that effectively utilizes low-cost commercially available Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) to simulate complex scientific plasma phenomena that are modeled using the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) paradigm. The software framework that was developed conforms to the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA), a standard for general purpose graphic processing that was introduced by NVIDIA Corporation. This framework has been verified for correctness and applied to advance the state of understanding of the electromagnetic aspects of the development of the Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis. For each phase of the PIC methodology, this research has identified one or more methods to exploit the problem's natural parallelism and effectively map it for execution on the graphic processing unit and its host processor. The sources of overhead that can reduce the effectiveness of parallelization for each of these methods have also been identified. One of the novel aspects of this research was the utilization of particle sorting during the grid interpolation phase. The final representation resulted in simulations that executed about 38 times faster than simulations that were run on a single-core general-purpose processing system. The scalability of this framework to larger problem sizes and future generation systems has also been investigated.

  8. Review of plasma physics research in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1982-01-01

    The energy trends of Malaysia projected for the next few decades are briefly discussed as a background to the rationale for Malaysian research into new forms of energy including plasma fusion. The planning of this research started nearly two decades ago. Today research facilities at PLUM centre on two capacitor banks, one rated at 40 kV, 48 kJ, 2 MA short circuit current and the other at 60 kV, 40 kJ, 2 MA. Other equipment includes several smaller capacitor banks, vacuum systems, oscilloscopes, diagnostic systems, a screened room, a transient digitizer, an Imacon camera and a 100 MW pulsed ruby laser for discharge initiation and diagnostics. The research devices include two plasma focus machines, one vacuum fusion spark, a shock tube and minor experiments like the glow discharge. The main focus facility, the UMDPF1, was designed and built entirely by indigenous effort, using 40 kV capacitors donated by Britain under the Colombo Plan. Difficulties were encountered especially in the need to adapt what is locally available or readily importable to all phases of the design, construction, testing and measurement. Nevertheless, the focus group has achieved the following results: measurement, in 1973, of neutrons produced in the deuterium focus; current, voltage, magnetic field and pressure measurements to interpret plasma dynamics and focus mechanism and to compare with computer simulation of plasma trajectory and configuration; soft X-ray measurements to determine electron temperature; study of the effect on the focus of rotation and multiple ionization up to Argon XVIII; and optimization of focus performance as judged from neutron yield. In 1977 PLUM acquired the Juelich DPF1 which was reassembled as a fast focus, the UMDPF2. This device has been converted to operate as a vacuum spark with the aim of demonstrating the spark as a neutron source when using a deuterided anode. We have measured temperatures of 8 keV in the dense plasma spots. Plasma research work here has

  9. Polarization plasma spectroscopy (PPS) viewed from plasma physics and fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Recently the measurements of poloidal magnetic field become important in plasma physics and nuclear fusion research, since an improved confinement mode associating with a negative magnetic shear has been found. The polarization plasma spectroscopy is recognized to be a useful tool to measure poloidal magnetic field and pitch angle of magnetic field. (author)

  10. Alushta-2012. International Conference-School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and the Adjoint Workshop 'Nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas'. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to a new valuable information about the present status of plasma physics and controlled fusion research. The main topics was : magnetic confinement systems; plasma heating and current drive; ITER and fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics; formation of nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas; properties of plasmas with nano- and micro- objects

  11. Statistical issues in searches for new phenomena in High Energy Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Louis; Wardle, Nicholas

    2018-03-01

    Many analyses of data in High Energy Physics are concerned with searches for New Physics. We review the statistical issues that arise in such searches, and then illustrate these using the specific example of the recent successful search for the Higgs boson, produced in collisions between high energy protons at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

  12. Nonlinear diffusion problem arising in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.; Holland, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    In earlier studies of plasma diffusion with Okuda-Dawson scaling (D approx. n/sup -1/2/), perturbation theory indicated that arbitrary initial data should evolve rapidly toward the separation solution of the relevant nonlinear diffusion equation. Now a Lyapunov functional has been found which is strictly decreasing in time and bounded below. The rigorous proof that arbitrary initial data evolve toeard the separable solution is summarized. Rigorous bounds on the decay time are also presented

  13. Guest investigator program study: Physics of equatorial plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma bubbles are large-scale (10 to 100 km) depletions in plasma density found in the night-time equatorial ionosphere. Their formation has been found to entail the upward transport of plasma over hundreds of kilometers in altitude, suggesting that bubbles play significant roles in the physics of many of the diverse and unique features found in the low-latitude ionosphere. In the simplest scenario, plasma bubbles appear first as perturbations in the bottomside F layer, which is linearly unstable to the gravitationally driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Once initiated, bubbles develop upward through the peak of the F layer into its topside (sometimes to altitudes in excess of 1000 km), a behavior predicted by the nonlinear form of the same instability. While good general agreement has been found between theory and observations, little is known about the detailed physics associated with plasma bubbles. Our research activity centered around two topics: the shape of plasma bubbles and associated electric fields, and the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of plasma bubbles. The first topic was pursued because of a divergence in view regarding the nonlinear physics associated with plasma bubble development. While the development of perturbations in isodensity contours in the bottomside F layer into plasma bubbles is well accepted, some believed bubbles to be cylinder-like closed regions of depleted plasma density that floated upward leaving a turbulent wake behind them (e.g., Woodman and LaHoz, 1976; Ott, 1978; Kelley and Ott, 1978). Our results, summarized in a paper submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research, consisted of incoherent scatter radar measurements that showed unambiguously that the depleted region is wedgelike and not cylinderlike, and a case study and modeling of SM-D electric field instrument (EFI) measurements that showed that the absence of electric-field perturbations outside the plasma-depleted region is a distinct signature of wedge

  14. Plasma edge physics in an actively cooled tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Adamek, A.; Boucher, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tore Supra is a large tokamak with a plasma of circular cross section (major radius 2.4 m and minor radius 0.72 m) lying on a toroidal limiter. Tore Supra's main mission is the development of technology to inject up to 25 MW of microwave heating power and extract it continuously for up to 1000 s in steady state without uncontrolled overheating of, or outgassing from, plasma-facing components. The entire first wall of the tokamak is actively cooled by a high pressure water loop and special carbon fiber composite materials have been designed to handle power fluxes up to 10 MW/m 2 . The edge plasma on open magnetic flux surfaces that intersect solid objects plays an important role in the overall behaviour of the plasma. The transport of sputtered impurity ions and the fueling of the core plasma are largely governed by edge plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles. Measurements of these quantities are becoming more reliable and frequent in many tokamaks, and it has become clear that we do not understand them very well. Classical two-dimensional fluid modelling fails to reproduce many aspects of the experimental observations such as the significant thickness of the edge plasma, and the near-sonic flows that occur where none should be expected. It is suspected that plasma turbulence is responsible for these anomalies. In the Tore Supra tokamak, various kinds of Langmuir probes are used to characterize the edge plasma. We will present original measurements that demonstrate the universality of many phenomena that have been observed in X-point divertor tokamaks, especially concerning the ion flows. As in the JET tokamak, surprisingly large values of parallel Mach number are measured midway between the two strike zones, where one would expect to find nearly stagnant plasma if the particle source were poloidally uniform. We will present results of a novel experiment that provides evidence for a poloidally localized particle and energy source on the outboard midplane of

  15. Inference of physical phenomena from FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.; Damiano, B.; Campbell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The source of features observed in noise spectra collected by an automated data collection system operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) can be identified using a methodology based on careful data observation and intuition. When a large collection of data is available, as in this case, automatic pattern recognition and parameter storage and retrieval using a data base can be used to extract useful information. However, results can be limited to empirical signature comparison monitoring unless an effort is made to determine the noise sources. This paper describes the identification of several FFTF noise data phenomena and suggests how this understanding may lead to new or enhanced monitoring. 13 refs., 4 figs

  16. Gaseous material capacity of open plasma jet in plasma spray-physical vapor deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Jun; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2018-01-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) process, emerging as a highly efficient hybrid approach, is based on two powerful technologies of both plasma spray and physical vapor deposition. The maximum production rate is affected by the material feed rate apparently, but it is determined by the material vapor capacity of transporting plasma actually and essentially. In order to realize high production rate, the gaseous material capacity of plasma jet must be fundamentally understood. In this study, the thermal characteristics of plasma were measured by optical emission spectrometry. The results show that the open plasma jet is in the local thermal equilibrium due to a typical electron number density from 2.1 × 1015 to 3.1 × 1015 cm-3. In this condition, the temperature of gaseous zirconia can be equal to the plasma temperature. A model was developed to obtain the vapor pressure of gaseous ZrO2 molecules as a two dimensional map of jet axis and radial position corresponding to different average plasma temperatures. The overall gaseous material capacity of open plasma jet, take zirconia for example, was further established. This approach on evaluating material capacity in plasma jet would shed light on the process optimization towards both depositing columnar coating and a high production rate of PS-PVD.

  17. Radiation damages of material surfaces by plasma emission in thermonuclear devices. Methods of study of surface phenomena and simulation effect of thermonuclear plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybalko, V.F.

    1978-01-01

    Phenomena that can introduce a controlling contribution into the erosion of the first wall surface in thermonuclear reactor are reviewed. Considered are the main characteristics of the physical disintegration: dependence of the disintegration coefficient upon the energy and the incidence angle of the bombarding particles, upon the atomic number of the material of the target and the type of bombarding particles. Stressed is the lack of reliable data on the disintegration of materials by light ions, which are of a maximum interest in relation to the controlled thermonuclear synthesis. The chemical disintegration and some regularities of it for the carbon-hydrogen and carbon-oxygen systems are discussed briefly. Listed are the main properties of blistering and its contribution to the erosion of crystalline surfaces

  18. Studies of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction to the plasma physics of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) and a review of the results obtained by the author and co-workers including discussion of related work by others. The thesis begins with a theoretical discussion dealing with plasma physics relevant for the production of highly charged ions in ECR ion source plasmas. This is followed by an overview of different techniques, such as gas mixing and double frequency heating, that can be used to improve the performance of this type of ion source. The experimental part of the work consists of studies related to ECRIS plasma physics. The effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of different ion beams was studied with both gaseous and solid materials. It was observed that gas mixing improves the confinement of the heavier element while the confinement of the lighter element is reduced. When the effect of gas mixing on MIVOC-plasmas was studied with several mixing gases it was observed that applying this technique can reduce the inevitable carbon contamination by a significant factor. In order to understand the different plasma processes taking place in ECRIS plasmas, a series of plasma potential and emittance measurements was carried out. An instrument, which can be used to measure the plasma potential in a single measurement without disturbing the plasma, was developed for this work. Studying the plasma potential of ECR ion sources is important not only because it helps to understand different plasma processes, but also because the information can be used as an input parameter for beam transport simulations and ion source extraction design. The experiments performed have revealed clear dependencies of the plasma potential on certain source parameters such as the amount of carbon contamination accumulated on the walls of the plasma chamber during a MIVOC-run. It was also observed that gas mixing affects not only the production efficiency

  19. Superconductivity and superfluidity as universal emergent phenomena in diverse physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Superconductivity and superfluidity are observed across a strikingly broad range of physical systems. This universality seems unlikely to be coincidental but a unified understanding of superconductivity and superfluidity across these highly disparate fields seems impossible in traditional microscopic terms. I give an overview of superconductivity and superfluidity found in various fermionic condensed matter, nuclear physics, and neutron star systems, and propose that all result from generic algebraic structures for the emergent effective Hamiltonian, with the role of underlying microscopic physics largely relegated to influence on parameter values

  20. Exploring a Theory Describing the Physics of Information Systems, Characterizing the Phenomena of Complex Information Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This project accomplished all of its objectives: document a theory of information physics, conduct a workshop on planing experiments to test this theory, and design experiments that validate this theory...

  1. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; de Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    This report discusses the following research in high energy physics: the properties of the z neutral boson with the SLD detector; the research and development program for the SDC muon detector; the fixed-target k-decay experiments; the Rocky Mountain Consortium for HEP; high energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; and electron-positron physics with the CLEO II and Mark II detectors. (LSP).

  2. APS presents prizes in fluid dynamics and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the presentation of the American Physical Society awards in fluid dynamics and plasma physics. The recipient of the plasma physics James Clerk Maxwell Prize was John M. Green for contributions to the theory of magnetohydrodynamics equilibria and ideal and resistive instabilities, for discovering the inverse scattering transform leading to soliton solutions of many nonlinear partial differential equations and for inventing the residue method of determining the transition to global chaos. The excellence in Plasma Physics Research Award was presented to Nathaniel A. Fisch for theoretical investigations of noninductive current generation in toroidally confined plasma. Wim Pieter Leemans received the Simon Ramo Award for experimental and simulational contributions to laser-plasma physics. William R. Sears was given the 1992 Fuid Dynamics Prize for contributions to the study of steady and unsteady aerodynamics, aeroacoustics, magnetoaerodynamics,and wind tunnel design. William C. Reynolds received the Otto Laporte Award for experimental, theoretical, and computational work in turbulence modeling and control and leadership in direct numerical simulation and large eddy simulation

  3. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  4. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Physics Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas

  5. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The experimental program on the research tokamak TORTUS has concentrated on fundamental studies of hydromagnetic waves in toroidal geometry, on preliminary experiments for an Alfven wave heating program, and on further development of diagnostics and data acquisition equipment. Highlights of the work were the observation of magnetically guided Alfven wave packets in toroidal geometry and of strong toroidal effects in the loading of a half-turn loop antenna in the low frequency Alfven wave regime. In work on the linear SUPPER IV machine magnetically guided Alfven and acoustic waves were observed. Theoretical work on plasma waves supported the experimental studies. The development of laser diagnostic techniques is also reported

  6. MTX [Microwave Tokamak Experiment] diagnostic and auxiliary systems for confinement, transport, and plasma physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1989-01-01

    This note describes the diagnostics and auxiliary systems on the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) for confinement, transport, and other plasma physics studies. It is intended as a reference on the installed and planned hardware on the machine for those who need more familiarity with this equipment. Combined with the tokamak itself, these systems define the opportunities and capabilities for experiments in the MTX facility. We also illustrate how these instruments and equipment are to be used in carrying out the MTX Operations Plan. Near term goals for MTX are focussed on the absorption and heating by the microwave beam from the FEL, but the Plan also includes using the facility to study fundamental phenomena in the plasma, to control MHD activity, and to drive current noninductively

  7. Plasma physics group progress report for 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the continuing experimental programme on the Lt-3 tokamak, the completion of the new LT-4 tokamak and newly developed diagnostic techniques. Experimental work on LT-3 was generally aimed at invest-igating aspects of the disruptive instability. Magnetic probe measurements were made to obtain radial profiles of the toroidal electric field and an electrostatic probe was used to identify high frequency fluctuations in the plasma at the time of the disruption. Further measurements were also made of local variations in the poloidal magnetic field due to the development of tearing MHD modes. Some preliminary work was done in an investigation of the development of the plasma current profile as operating parameters were varied. During the initial operation of LT-4 (I) diagnostics were limited to standard electrical measurements, spectroscopic and magnetic field observations. Thomson scattering measurements are included in the longer term programme and a ruby laser system has been ordered. New diagnostic techniques used with LT-3 include a variation of the swept Langmuir probe and a method for abelisation of spectroscopic observations in toroidal geometry. (J.R.)

  8. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1999-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCs) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called high energy interaction with general heterogeneous target systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed. (orig.)

  9. Comprehensive physical models and simulation package for plasma/material interactions during plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1998-01-01

    Damage to plasma-facing components (PFCS) from plasma instabilities remains a major obstacle to a successful tokamak concept. The extent of the damage depends on the detailed physics of the disrupting plasma, as well as on the physics of plasma-material interactions. A comprehensive computer package called High Energy Interaction with General Heterogeneous Target Systems (HEIGHTS) has been developed and consists of several integrated computer models that follow the beginning of a plasma disruption at the scrape-off layer (SOL) through the transport of the eroded debris and splashed target materials to nearby locations as a result of the deposited energy. The package can study, for the first time, plasma-turbulent behavior in the SOL and predict the plasma parameters and conditions at the divertor plate. Full two-dimensional (2-D) comprehensive radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models are coupled with target thermodynamics and liquid hydrodynamics to evaluate the integrated response of plasma-facing materials. Factors that influence the lifetime of plasma-facing and nearby components, such as loss of vapor-cloud confinement and vapor removal due to MHD effects, damage to nearby components due to intense vapor radiation, melt splashing, and brittle destruction of target materials, are also modeled and discussed

  10. Physics and application of plasmas based on pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki; Ozaki, Tetsuo

    2012-04-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Application of Plasmas Based on Pulsed Power Technology' held on December 21-22, 2010 at National Institute of Fusion Science are collected. The papers in this proceeding reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical researches on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. (author)

  11. 1984 Review of the Applied Plasma Physics Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report describes the present and planned programs of the Division of Applied Plasma Physics (APP), Office of Fusion Energy. The major activities of the division include fusion theory, experimental plasma research, advanced fusion concepts, and the magnetic fusion energy computer network. The planned APP program is consistent with the recently issued Comprehensive Program Management Plan for Magnetic Fusion Energy, which describes the overall objectives and strategy for the development of fusion energy

  12. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Rossby vortices, spiral structures, solitons astrophysics and plasma physics in shallow water experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nezlin, Mikhail V

    1993-01-01

    This book can be looked upon in more ways than one. On the one hand, it describes strikingly interesting and lucid hydrodynamic experiments done in the style of the "good old days" when the physicist needed little more than a piece of string and some sealing wax. On the other hand, it demonstrates how a profound physical analogy can help to get a synoptic view on a broad range of nonlinear phenomena involving self-organization of vortical structures in planetary atmo­ spheres and oceans, in galaxies and in plasmas. In particular, this approach has elucidated the nature and the mechanism of such grand phenomena as the Great of galaxies. A number of our Red Spot vortex on Jupiter and the spiral arms predictions concerning the dynamics of spiral galaxies are now being confirmed by astronomical observations stimulated by our experiments. This book is based on the material most of which was accumulated during 1981-88 in close cooperation with our colleagues, experimenters from the Plasma Physics Department of the...

  14. Phenomena-based Uncertainty Quantification in Predictive Coupled- Physics Reactor Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Marvin [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-06-12

    This project has sought to develop methodologies, tailored to phenomena that govern nuclearreactor behavior, to produce predictions (including uncertainties) for quantities of interest (QOIs) in the simulation of steady-state and transient reactor behavior. Examples of such predictions include, for each QOI, an expected value as well as a distribution around this value and an assessment of how much of the distribution stems from each major source of uncertainty. The project has sought to test its methodologies by comparing against measured experimental outcomes. The main experimental platform has been a 1-MW TRIGA reactor. This is a flexible platform for a wide range of experiments, including steady state with and without temperature feedback, slow transients with and without feedback, and rapid transients with strong feedback. The original plan was for the primary experimental data to come from in-core neutron detectors. We made considerable progress toward this goal but did not get as far along as we had planned. We have designed, developed, installed, and tested vertical guide tubes, each able to accept a detector or stack of detectors that can be moved axially inside the tube, and we have tested several new detector designs. One of these shows considerable promise.

  15. Phenomena-based Uncertainty Quantification in Predictive Coupled- Physics Reactor Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Marvin

    2017-01-01

    This project has sought to develop methodologies, tailored to phenomena that govern nuclearreactor behavior, to produce predictions (including uncertainties) for quantities of interest (QOIs) in the simulation of steady-state and transient reactor behavior. Examples of such predictions include, for each QOI, an expected value as well as a distribution around this value and an assessment of how much of the distribution stems from each major source of uncertainty. The project has sought to test its methodologies by comparing against measured experimental outcomes. The main experimental platform has been a 1-MW TRIGA reactor. This is a flexible platform for a wide range of experiments, including steady state with and without temperature feedback, slow transients with and without feedback, and rapid transients with strong feedback. The original plan was for the primary experimental data to come from in-core neutron detectors. We made considerable progress toward this goal but did not get as far along as we had planned. We have designed, developed, installed, and tested vertical guide tubes, each able to accept a detector or stack of detectors that can be moved axially inside the tube, and we have tested several new detector designs. One of these shows considerable promise.

  16. On the physics of electron beams in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the main physical processes related to the injection, the propagation and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the physical linear and nonlinear mechanisms involved in the generation, the stabilization and the saturation of the electromagnetic waves excited by the beams in wide frequency ranges. and the radiation of electron beams in space plasmas as the Earth's ionosphere. The physical mechanisms are shortly explained and illustrated with several examples of experimental results provided by various space missions. In a first part, we discuss important physical processes connected with the response of the ambient space plasma to the beam injection, and in particular, with the mechanisms of electric charge neutralization of the electron beam and of the payload carrying the injector, with the widely studied phenomenon of beam-plasma discharge as well as with the physical features of the spatio-temporal evolution and the dynamic structure of the beam in its interaction with the plasma and the emitted waves. In a second part, the main processes governing the wave emission by electron beams in space are examined; in particular, we focus on the

  17. CSSP implementation plan for space plasma physics programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.N.; Williams, D.J.; Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD)

    1985-01-01

    The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) has provided NASA with guidance in the areas of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric, and upper atmospheric research. The budgetary sitation confronted by NASA has called for a prioritized plane for the implementation of solar and space plasma physics programs. CSSP has developed the following recommendations: (1) continue implementation of both the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and Solar Optical Telescope programs; (2) initiate the International Solar Terrestrial Physics program; (3) plan for later major free-flying missions and carry out the technology development they require; (4) launch an average of one solar and space physics Explorer per yr beginning in 1990; (5) enhance current Shuttle/Spacelab programs; (6) develop facility-class instrumentation; (7) augment the solar terrestrial theory program by FY 1990; (8) support a compute modeling program; (9) strengthen the research and analysis program; and (10) maintain a stable suborbital program for flexible science objectives in upper atmosphere and space plasma physics

  18. Elementary particle physics and high energy phenomena. Progress report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, A.R.; Cumalat, J.P.; De Alwis, S.P.; DeGrand, T.A.; Ford, W.T.; Mahanthappa, K.T.; Nauenberg, U.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics programs at the University of Colorado are reported. Areas of concentration include the following: study of the properties of the Z{sup 0} with the SLD detector; fixed-target K-decay experiments; the R&D program for the muon system: the SDC detector; high-energy photoproduction of states containing heavy quarks; electron--positron physics with the CLEO II detector at CESR; lattice QCD; and spin models and dynamically triangulated random surfaces. 24 figs., 2 tabs., 117 refs.

  19. Proceedings of the 1984 International Conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, M.Q.; Verbeek, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1984 ICPP, held in Lausanne, Switzerland, is the third biennial conference of the series ''International conferences on plasma physics''. A complete spectrum of current plasma physics from fusion devices to interstellar space was presented, even if most of the papers were of direct interest for fusion. The conference stressed the important role that ''basic plasma physics'' must play in fusion research. Recent theoretical and experimental developments in tokamaks, stellarators, mirrors, reversed field pinches, and other fusion devices were reported. The successful operation of two newly-built large tokamak devices, JET and TFTR, holds the promise that a host of new results of decisive importance for fusion research will become available in the next few years. This is the first part of the conference

  20. Computational plasma physics and supercomputers. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; McNamara, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Supercomputers of the 80's are introduced. They are 10 to 100 times more powerful than today's machines. The range of physics modeling in the fusion program is outlined. New machine architecture will influence particular models, but parallel processing poses new programming difficulties. Increasing realism in simulations will require better numerics and more elaborate mathematical models

  1. Plasma physics program at TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samm, U.

    1995-01-01

    After upgrading the transformer of the tokamak TEXTOR in order to obtain an enhanced magnetic flux swing, the experimental potential of the device, now called TEXTOR-94, increased significantly and, together with other measures and achievements, opens now a wide field of research. For the physics program coherent concepts for energy- and particle exhaust provide a guideline

  2. Parallel computing in plasma physics: Nonlinear instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohn, E.; Kamelander, G.; Shoucri, M.

    2000-01-01

    A Vlasov-Poisson-system is used for studying the time evolution of the charge-separation at a spatial one- as well as a two-dimensional plasma-edge. Ions are advanced in time using the Vlasov-equation. The whole three-dimensional velocity-space is considered leading to very time-consuming four-resp. five-dimensional fully kinetic simulations. In the 1D simulations electrons are assumed to behave adiabatic, i.e. they are Boltzmann-distributed, leading to a nonlinear Poisson-equation. In the 2D simulations a gyro-kinetic approximation is used for the electrons. The plasma is assumed to be initially neutral. The simulations are performed at an equidistant grid. A constant time-step is used for advancing the density-distribution function in time. The time-evolution of the distribution function is performed using a splitting scheme. Each dimension (x, y, υ x , υ y , υ z ) of the phase-space is advanced in time separately. The value of the distribution function for the next time is calculated from the value of an - in general - interstitial point at the present time (fractional shift). One-dimensional cubic-spline interpolation is used for calculating the interstitial function values. After the fractional shifts are performed for each dimension of the phase-space, a whole time-step for advancing the distribution function is finished. Afterwards the charge density is calculated, the Poisson-equation is solved and the electric field is calculated before the next time-step is performed. The fractional shift method sketched above was parallelized for p processors as follows. Considering first the shifts in y-direction, a proper parallelization strategy is to split the grid into p disjoint υ z -slices, which are sub-grids, each containing a different 1/p-th part of the υ z range but the whole range of all other dimensions. Each processor is responsible for performing the y-shifts on a different slice, which can be done in parallel without any communication between

  3. Mechanical reliability of structures subjected to time-variant physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Celine

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with two-phase critical flows in order to improve the way to dimension safety systems. It brings a numerical, physical and experimental contribution. We emphasized the importance to validate separately the numerical method and the physical model. Reference numerical solutions, assimilated to quasi-analytical solutions, were elaborated for a stationary one-dimensional restriction. They allowed to validate in space non stationary numerical schemes converged in time and constitute space convergence indicator (2 schemes validated). With this reliable numerical solution, we studied the physical model. The potential of a particular existing dispersed flow model has been validated thanks to experimental data. The validity domain of such a model is inevitably reduced. During this study, particular behaviors have been exhibited like the pseudo-critical nature of flow with a relaxation process, the non characteristic properties/nature of critical parameters where disequilibrium is largely reduced or the predominance of pressure due to interfacial transfers. The multidimensional aspect has been studied. A data base included local parameters corresponding to a simplify geometry has been constituted. The flow impact on the disk has been characterized and multidimensional effects identified. These effects form an additional step to the validation of multidimensional physical models. (author) [fr

  4. On the significance of modeling nuclear fuel behavior with the right representation of physical phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahan, Aydin, E-mail: karahan@mit.ed [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-204, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazimi, Mujid S. [Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, Nuclear Science and Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-204, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: Essence of more physics based modeling approaches to the fuel behavior problem is emphasized. Demonstrations on modeling of metallic and oxide fuel dimensional changes and fission gas behavior with more physics based and semi-empirical approaches are given. Essence of fuel clad chemical interaction modeling of the metallic fuel in an appropriate way and implications during short and long term transients for sodium fast reactor applications are discussed. - Abstract: This work emphasizes the relevance of representation of appropriate mechanisms for understanding the actual physical behavior of the fuel pin under irradiation. Replacing fully empirical simplified treatments with more rigorous semi-empirical models which include the important pieces of physics, would open the path to more accurately capture the sensitivity to various parameters such as operating conditions, geometry, composition, and enhance the uncertainty quantification process. Steady state and transient fuel behavior demonstration examples and implications are given for sodium fast reactor metallic fuels by using FEAST-METAL. The essence of appropriate modeling of the fuel clad mechanical interaction and fuel clad chemical interaction of the metallic fuels are emphasized. Furthermore, validation efforts for oxide fuel pellet swelling behavior at high temperature and high burnup LWR conditions and comparison with FRAPCON-EP and FRAPCON-3.4 codes will be given. The value of discriminating the oxide fuel swelling modes, instead of applying a linear line, is pointed out. Future directions on fuel performance modeling will be addressed.

  5. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p t and collective flow, the shape of p t distribution, strangeness production, J/ψ suppression and φ enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ''ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs

  6. Applications of Symmetry Methods to the Theory of Plasma Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Cicogna

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The theory of plasma physics offers a number of nontrivial examples of partial differential equations, which can be successfully treated with symmetry methods. We propose three different examples which may illustrate the reciprocal advantage of this "interaction" between plasma physics and symmetry techniques. The examples include, in particular, the complete symmetry analysis of system of two PDE's, with the determination of some conditional and partial symmetries, the construction of group-invariant solutions, and the symmetry classification of a nonlinear PDE.

  7. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  8. Esoteric elementary particle phenomena in undergraduate physics: spontaneous symmetry breaking and scale invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    We take two rather abstract concepts from elementary particle physics, and show that there actually exist analogs to both of them in undergraduate physics. In the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we provide an example where the most symmetrical state of a simple system suddenly becomes unstable, while a less symmetrical state develops lower energy and becomes stable. In the case of scale invariance, we consider an example with no natural scale determined, and show that a straightforward dimensional analysis of the problem leads to incorrect results, because of the occurrence of infinities, even though they would appear to be irrelevant infinities that might not be expected to affect the dimensions of the answer. We then show how a simple use of the scale invariance of the problem leads to the correct answer

  9. Anomaly! collider physics and the quest for new phenomena at Fermilab

    CERN Document Server

    Dorigo, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    From the mid-1980s, an international collaboration of 600 physicists embarked on the investigation of subnuclear physics at the high-energy frontier. As well as discovering the top quark, the heaviest elementary particle ever observed, the physicists analyzed their data to seek signals of new physics which could revolutionize our understanding of nature. Anomaly! tells the story of that quest, and focuses specifically on the finding of several unexplained effects which were unearthed in the process. These anomalies proved highly controversial within the large team: to some collaborators they called for immediate publication, while to others their divulgation threatened to jeopardize the reputation of the experiment. Written in a confidential, narrative style, this book looks at the sociology of a large scientific collaboration, providing insight in the relationships between top physicists at the turn of the millennium. The stories offer an insider's view of the life cycle of the "failed" discoveries that un...

  10. Applications of the Local Algebras of Vector Fields to the Modelling of Physical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Bayak, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the local algebras of linear vector fields that can be used in the mathematical modelling of physical space by building the dynamical flows of vector fields on eight-dimensional cylindrical or toroidal manifolds. It is shown that the topological features of the vector fields obey the Dirac equation when moving freely within the surface of a pseudo-sphere in the eight-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space.

  11. PlasmaPy: initial development of a Python package for plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas; Leonard, Andrew J.; Stańczak, Dominik; Haggerty, Colby C.; Parashar, Tulasi N.; Huang, Yu-Min; PlasmaPy Community

    2017-10-01

    We report on initial development of PlasmaPy: an open source community-driven Python package for plasma physics. PlasmaPy seeks to provide core functionality that is needed for the formation of a fully open source Python ecosystem for plasma physics. PlasmaPy prioritizes code readability, consistency, and maintainability while using best practices for scientific computing such as version control, continuous integration testing, embedding documentation in code, and code review. We discuss our current and planned capabilities, including features presently under development. The development roadmap includes features such as fluid and particle simulation capabilities, a Grad-Shafranov solver, a dispersion relation solver, atomic data retrieval methods, and tools to analyze simulations and experiments. We describe several ways to contribute to PlasmaPy. PlasmaPy has a code of conduct and is being developed under a BSD license, with a version 0.1 release planned for 2018. The success of PlasmaPy depends on active community involvement, so anyone interested in contributing to this project should contact the authors. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  12. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.M.; Batha, S.

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I i ) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I i discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed

  13. Physics in Brazil in the next decade: atomic, molecular and optical physics, biological, chemical and medical physics, physics teaching and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is an overview of physics in Brazil in the next decade. It is specially concerned with atomic, molecular and optical physics, biological chemical and medical physics, and also teaching of physics and plasma physics. It presents the main research groups in Brazil in the above mentioned areas. It talks as well, about financing new projects and the costs involved to improve these areas. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. Study of surface phenomena in biomaterials: The influence of physical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachelarie, Liliana, E-mail: lisachero@yahoo.com; Vasiliu, Mihaela Papusa; Ciobanu, Catalina

    2015-10-15

    This study's purpose is pointing out the phenomenon that occurs at time of interaction between the tissue with implant. The materials used are Ti and its alloys. The oral tissue must be compatible with the materials used in surgical implant to human body. The bio-materials surface behavior is influenced by physical characteristics. The methods we use show a number of bio-compatibility aspects. The success of an implant in a hard tissue depends not only on the initial attachment and the osteogenic cells consecutive proliferation, but also on their capacity to create a new bone.

  15. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory, and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure in five different ways. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle-group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a long-standing question posed by Kruskal about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no adhoc elements, which is then applied to gyromotion. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A theory motivated by free electron lasers gives new restrictions on the change of area of projected parallelepipeds under canonical transformations

  16. PANDORA, a new facility for interdisciplinary in-plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Romano, F. P.; Galatà, A.; Gammino, S.; Massimi, C.

    2017-07-01

    PANDORA, Plasmas for Astrophysics, Nuclear Decays Observation and Radiation for Archaeometry, is planned as a new facility based on a state-of-the-art plasma trap confining energetic plasma for performing interdisciplinary research in the fields of Nuclear Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Plasma Physics and Applications in Material Science and Archaeometry: the plasmas become the environment for measuring, for the first time, nuclear decay rates in stellar-like condition (such as 7Be decay and beta-decay involved in s-process nucleosynthesis), especially as a function of the ionization state of the plasma ions. These studies will give important contributions for addressing several astrophysical issues in both stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis environment ( e.g., determination of solar neutrino flux and 7Li Cosmological Problem), moreover the confined energetic plasma will be a unique light source for high-performance stellar spectroscopy measurements in the visible, UV and X-ray domains, offering advancements in observational astronomy. As to magnetic fields, the experimental validation of theoretical first- and second-order Landé factors will drive the layout of next-generation polarimetric units for the high-resolution spectrograph of the future giant telescopes. In PANDORA new plasma heating methods will be explored, that will push forward the ion beam output, in terms of extracted intensity and charge states. More, advanced and optimized injection methods of ions in an ECR plasma will be experimented, with the aim to optimize its capture efficiency. This will be applied to the ECR-based Charge Breeding technique, that will improve the performances of the SPES ISOL-facility at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro-INFN. Finally, PANDORA will be suitable for energy conversion, making the plasma a source of high-intensity electromagnetic radiation, for applications in material science and archaeometry.

  17. PANDORA, a new facility for interdisciplinary in-plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, D.; Gammino, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catania (Italy); Leone, F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catania (Italy); INAF-OACT, Catania (Italy); Romano, F.P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); CNR-IBAM, Catania (Italy); Galata, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Massimi, C. [University of Bologna, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bologna (Italy); INFN-Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    PANDORA, Plasmas for Astrophysics, Nuclear Decays Observation and Radiation for Archaeometry, is planned as a new facility based on a state-of-the-art plasma trap confining energetic plasma for performing interdisciplinary research in the fields of Nuclear Astrophysics, Astrophysics, Plasma Physics and Applications in Material Science and Archaeometry: the plasmas become the environment for measuring, for the first time, nuclear decay rates in stellar-like condition (such as {sup 7}Be decay and beta-decay involved in s-process nucleosynthesis), especially as a function of the ionization state of the plasma ions. These studies will give important contributions for addressing several astrophysical issues in both stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis environment (e.g., determination of solar neutrino flux and {sup 7}Li Cosmological Problem), moreover the confined energetic plasma will be a unique light source for high-performance stellar spectroscopy measurements in the visible, UV and X-ray domains, offering advancements in observational astronomy. As to magnetic fields, the experimental validation of theoretical first- and second-order Lande factors will drive the layout of next-generation polarimetric units for the high-resolution spectrograph of the future giant telescopes. In PANDORA new plasma heating methods will be explored, that will push forward the ion beam output, in terms of extracted intensity and charge states. More, advanced and optimized injection methods of ions in an ECR plasma will be experimented, with the aim to optimize its capture efficiency. This will be applied to the ECR-based Charge Breeding technique, that will improve the performances of the SPES ISOL-facility at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro-INFN. Finally, PANDORA will be suitable for energy conversion, making the plasma a source of high-intensity electromagnetic radiation, for applications in material science and archaeometry. (orig.)

  18. 28. Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theses of reports, presented at the 28th Conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 19-23 February 2001) are published. 246 reports were heard at the following sections: magnetic confinement, theory and experiments; inertial thermonuclear synthesis; plasma processes and physics of gas-discharge plasma; physical bases of plasma technologies. 17 reports had the summarizing character [ru

  19. A physical model of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    A physical model is proposed which accounts for the general behaviour of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions in tokamak devices. The model also accounts for the stability of those devices which operate with edge safety factors less than 1.5. The model is based on the propagation of localized torsional Alfven and ion acoustic wavepackets. These packets remain phase coherent for considerable distances and are guided along helical field lines in toroidal plasmas, leading to the formation of standing waves on those field lines which close on themselves after one or more toroidal revolutions. Standing waves are driven resonantly on the rational surfaces by fluctuations in the poloidal field, causing localized heating and hence filamentation of the plasma current. This model indicates that Mirnov oscillations are produced by standing acoustic waves, while plasma disruptions occur as a result of the formation of MHD unstable current filaments

  20. Physics and chemistry of plasma pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J S

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NO x , SO x , etc), volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substances, etc have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges are becoming significant due to advantages such as lower costs, higher removal efficiency and smaller space volume. In order to commercialize this new technology, the pollution gas removal rate, energy efficiency of removal, pressure drop of reactors and useable by-product production rates must be improved and identification of major fundamental processes and optimizations of reactor and power supply for an integrated system must be investigated. In this work, the chemistry and physics of plasma pollution control are discussed and the limitation of this type of plasma is outlined based on the plasma parameters.

  1. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  2. Toward the automated analysis of plasma physics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-04-01

    A program (CALC) is described, which carries out nontrivial plasma physics calculations, in a manner intended to emulate the approach of a human theorist. This includes the initial process of gathering the relevant equations from a plasma knowledge base, and then determining how to solve them. Solution of the sets of equations governing physics problems, which in general have a nonuniform,irregular structure, not amenable to solution by standardized algorithmic procedures, is facilitated by an analysis of the structure of the equations and the relations among them. This often permits decompositions of the full problem into subproblems, and other simplifications in form, which renders the resultant subsystems soluble by more standardized tools. CALC's operation is illustrated by a detailed description of its treatment of a sample plasma calculation. 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-04-04

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism.

  4. Geometric perturbation theory and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omohundro, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Modern differential geometric techniques are used to unify the physical asymptotics underlying mechanics, wave theory and statistical mechanics. The approach gives new insights into the structure of physical theories and is suited to the needs of modern large-scale computer simulation and symbol manipulation systems. A coordinate-free formulation of non-singular perturbation theory is given, from which a new Hamiltonian perturbation structure is derived and related to the unperturbed structure. The theory of perturbations in the presence of symmetry is developed, and the method of averaging is related to reduction by a circle group action. The pseudo-forces and magnetic Poisson bracket terms due to reduction are given a natural asymptotic interpretation. Similar terms due to changing reference frames are related to the method of variation of parameters, which is also given a Hamiltonian formulation. These methods are used to answer a question about nearly periodic systems. The answer leads to a new secular perturbation theory that contains no ad hoc elements. Eikonal wave theory is given a Hamiltonian formulation that generalizes Whitham's Lagrangian approach. The evolution of wave action density on ray phase space is given a Hamiltonian structure using a Lie-Poisson bracket. The relationship between dissipative and Hamiltonian systems is discussed. A new type of attractor is defined which attracts both forward and backward in time and is shown to occur in infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with dissipative behavior. The theory of Smale horseshoes is applied to gyromotion in the neighborhood of a magnetic field reversal and the phenomenon of reinsertion in area-preserving horseshoes is introduced. The central limit theorem is proved by renormalization group techniques. A natural symplectic structure for thermodynamics is shown to arise asymptotically from the maximum entropy formalism

  5. An entropic approach to magnetized nonlocal transport and other kinetic phenomena in high-energy-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del-Sorbo, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations in high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion require a detailed description of energy fluxes. The leading mechanism is the electron transport, which can be a nonlocal phenomenon that needs to be described with quasistationary and simplified Fokker-Planck models in large scale hydrodynamic codes. My thesis is dedicated to the development of a new nonlocal transport model based on a fast-moving-particles collision operator and on a first moment Fokker-Planck equation, simplified with an entropic closure relation. Such a closure enables a better description of the electron distribution function in the limit of high anisotropies, where small scale electrostatic instabilities could be excited. This new model, so called M1, is successfully compared with the well known nonlocal electron transport model proposed by Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, using different collision operators, and with the reduced Fokker-Planck model, based on a small-anisotropies polynomial closure relation (P1). Several typical configurations of heat transport are considered. We show that the M1 entropic model may operate in two and three dimensions and is able to account for electron transport modifications in external magnetic fields. Moreover, our model enables to compute realistic electron distribution functions, which can be used for kinetic studies, as for the plasma stability in the transport zone. It is demonstrated that the electron energy transport may strongly modify damping of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, while the simplified nonlocal transport models are not able to describe accurately the modifications of the distribution function and plasma wave damping. The structure of the M1 model allows to naturally take into account self-generated magnetic fields, which play a crucial role in multidimensional simulations. Moreover, magnetic fields could also be used for the focusing of energetic particles in alternative ignition schemes. The M1 model

  6. IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma of Physics at Garching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The cost accounting system of the IPP Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics at Garching is described with all details as there are cost class accounting, cost centers, cost units and resulting overall cost summary. Detailed instructions are given about the implementation of this cost accounting system into the organisational structure of the IPP. (A.N.)

  7. TELEMATICS APPLICATIONS REMOT: Description of the intended plasma physics demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmerling, G.; van der Meer, E.; Ephraïm, M.; Balke, C.; Lourens, W.; Korten, M.

    2012-01-01

    This document presents the intended plasma physics demonstator in the REMOT Project. Due to the complexity of the system the demonstrator should be kept as simple as possible without sacrificing flexibility. The demonstrator should be made in such a way that it can easily be modified and expanded.

  8. Dynamic modeling of physical phenomena for probabilistic risk assessments using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Paez, T.L.; Brown, N.N.

    1998-01-01

    In most probabilistic risk assessments, there is a subset of accident scenarios that involves physical challenges to the system, such as high heat rates and/or accelerations. The system's responses to these challenges may be complicated, and their prediction may require the use of long-running computer codes. To deal with the many scenarios demanded by a risk assessment, the authors have been investigating the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a fast-running estimation tool. They have developed a multivariate linear spline algorithm by extending previous ANN methods that use radial basis functions. They have applied the algorithm to problems involving fires, shocks, and vibrations. They have found that within the parameter range for which it is trained, the algorithm can simulate the nonlinear responses of complex systems with high accuracy. Running times per case are less than one second

  9. Physical interpretation of geysering phenomena and periodic boiling instability at low flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    Over 30 years ago, Griffith showed that unstable and periodic initial boiling occurred in stagnant liquids in heated pipes coupled to a cooler or condensing plenum volume. This was called ''geysering'', and is a similar phenomenon to the rapid nucleation and voiding observed in tubes filled with superheated liquid. It is also called ''bumping'' when non-uniformly heated water or a chemical suddenly boils in laboratory glassware. In engineering, the stability and predictability has importance to the onset of bulk boiling in a natural and forced circulation loops. The latest available data show the observed stability and periodicity of the onset of boiling flow when there is a plenum, multiple heated channels, and a sustained subcooling in a circulating loop. We examine the available data, both old and new, and develop a new theory to illustrate the simple physics causing the observed periodicity of the flow. We examine the validity of the theory by comparison to all the geysering data, and develop a useful and simple correlation. We illustrate the equivalence of the onset of geysering to the onset of static instability in subcooled boiling. We also derive the stability boundary for geysering, utilizing turbulent transport analysis to determine the effects of pressure and other key parameters. This new result explains the greater stability region observed at higher pressures. The paper builds on the 30 years of quite independent thermal hydraulic work that is still fresh and useful today. We discuss the physical interpretation of geysering onset with a consistent theory, and show where refinements would be useful to the data correlations

  10. How would photons describe natural phenomena based upon their physical experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2013-10-01

    The question posed in the title represents an impossible approach to scientific investigation, but the approach is like a subjectivist. Obviously, photons cannot express their views; neither can we ask directly any scientific questions to the photons. The purpose is to draw the attention of the reader that even our strongly mathematically driven scientific enterprise is full of subjectivism when we start dissecting our thinking process. First, we frame questions in our mind to understand a natural phenomenon we have been observing. Let us not forget that framing the question determine the answer. The answers guide us to frame the foundational hypotheses to build a theory to "explain" the phenomenon under study. Our mind is a product of biological evolutionary requirements; which is further re-programmed by strong human social cultures. In other words, human constructed theories cannot spontaneously become rigorously objective, unless we consciously make them so. We need to develop a methodology of scientific thinking that will automatically force us to make repeated iterative corrections in generating questions as objectively as possible. Those questions will then guide us to re-construct the foundational hypotheses and re-frame the working theories. We are proposing that we add Interaction Process Mapping Epistemology (IPM-E) as a necessary extra thinking tool; which will complement the prevailing Measurable Data Modeling Epistemology (MDM-E). We believe that ongoing interaction processes in nature represent reality ontology. So the iterative application of IPM-E, along with MDM-E, will keep us along the route of ontological reality. We apply this prescription to reveal the universal property, Non-Interaction of Waves, which we have been neglecting for centuries. Using this property, we demonstrate that a large number of ad hoc hypotheses from Classical-, QM-, Relativity- and Astro-Physics can be easily modified to make physics more causal and understandable

  11. Non-equilibrium phenomena in confined soft matter irreversible adsorption, physical aging and glass transition at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge experimental and computational results and provides comprehensive coverage on the impact of non-equilibrium structure and dynamics on the properties of soft matter confined to the nanoscale. The book is organized into three main sections: ·         Equilibration and physical aging: by treating non-equilibrium phenomena with the formal methodology of statistical physics in bulk, the analysis of the kinetics of equilibration sheds new light on the physical origin of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films. Both the impact of sample preparation and that of interfacial interactions are analyzed using a large set of experiments. A historical overview of the investigation of the non-equilibrium character of thin polymer films is also presented. Furthermore, the discussion focuses on how interfaces and geometrical confinement perturb the pathways and kinetics of equilibrations of soft glasses (a process of tremendous technological interest). ·         Irr...

  12. Studies of anomalous phenomena in Nd and CO2 lasers produced plasma at average reduced power densities: 1012Wcm-2μm2 LλL2 14Wcm-2μm2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolowski, J.

    1990-01-01

    The methodics and instrumentation use for plasma diagnostics are described. The results of carried out experiments are presented and discussed taking into account classical models of laser-produced plasma. Phenomenological analysis, quantitative assessments and the synthetic description of collisional processes and anomalous phenomena in studied plasma are given. 273 refs. (A.S.)

  13. Comparative study of two- and three-dimensional modeling on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keun Su; Park, Jin Myung; Choi, Sooseok; Kim, Jongin; Hong, Sang Hee

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study between two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) modeling is carried out on arc discharge phenomena inside a thermal plasma torch with hollow electrodes, in order to evaluate the effects of arc root configuration characterized by either 2D annular or 3D highly localized attachment on the electrode surface. For this purpose, a more precise 3D transient model has been developed by taking account of 3D arc current distribution and arc root rotation. The 3D simulation results apparently reveal that the 3D arc root attachment brings about the inherent 3D and turbulence nature of plasma fields inside the torch. It is also found that the constricted arc column near the vortex chamber plays an important role in heating and acceleration of injected arc gases by concentrating arc currents on the axis of the hollow electrodes. The inherent 3D nature of arc discharge is well preserved inside the cathode region, while these 3D features slowly diminish behind the vortex chamber where the turbulent flow begins to be developed in the anode region. Based on the present simulation results, it is noted that the mixing effects of the strong turbulent flow on the heat and mass transfer are mainly responsible for the gradual relaxation of the 3D structures of plasma fields into the 2D axisymmetric ones that eventually appear in the anode region near the torch exit. From a detailed comparison of the 3D results with the 2D ones, the arc root configuration seems to have a significant effect on the heat transfer to the electrode surfaces interacting with the turbulent plasma flow. That is, in the 2D simulation based on an axisymmetric stationary model, the turbulence phenomena are fairly underestimated and the amount of heat transferred to the cold anode wall is calculated to be smaller than that obtained in the 3D simulation. For the validation of the numerical simulations, calculated plasma temperatures and axial velocities are compared with experimentally measured ones

  14. Cavitation phenomena in mechanical heart valves: studied by using a physical impinging rod system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chi-Wen; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien

    2010-10-01

    When studying mechanical heart valve cavitation, a physical model allows direct flow field and pressure measurements that are difficult to perform with actual valves, as well as separate testing of water hammer and squeeze flow effects. Movable rods of 5 and 10 mm diameter impinged same-sized stationary rods to simulate squeeze flow. A 24 mm piston within a tube simulated water hammer. Adding a 5 mm stationary rod within the tube generated both effects simultaneously. Charged-coupled device (CCD) laser displacement sensors, strobe lighting technique, laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high fidelity piezoelectric pressure transducers measured impact velocities, cavitation images, squeeze flow velocities, vortices, and pressure changes at impact, respectively. The movable rods created cavitation at critical impact velocities of 1.6 and 1.2 m/s; squeeze flow velocities were 2.8 and 4.64 m/s. The isolated water hammer created cavitation at 1.3 m/s piston speed. The combined piston and stationary rod created cavitation at an impact speed of 0.9 m/s and squeeze flow of 3.2 m/s. These results show squeeze flow alone caused cavitation, notably at lower impact velocity as contact area increased. Water hammer alone also caused cavitation with faster displacement. Both effects together were additive. The pressure change at the vortex center was only 150 mmHg, which cannot generate the magnitude of pressure drop required for cavitation bubble formation. Cavitation occurred at 3-5 m/s squeeze flow, significantly different from the 14 m/s derived by Bernoulli's equation; the temporal acceleration of unsteady flow requires further study.

  15. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  16. Physics and applications of plasmas produced by pulsed power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Tetsuo; Katsuki, Sunao

    2013-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'Physics and Applications of Plasmas Produced by Pulsed Power Technology' held on March 27-28, 2012 at the National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in these proceedings. The papers in these proceedings reflect the current status and progress in the experimental and theoretical research on high power particle beams and high energy density plasmas produced by pulsed power technology. This issue is the collection of 22 papers presented at the entitled meeting. Ten of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  17. Paranormal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    1996-08-01

    Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.

  18. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  19. Space plasma physics at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Edwards, T.; Hall, D.S.; Ward, A.K.

    1984-03-01

    The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) is contributing instruments and a spacecraft to several imminent and excitingly new explorations of the plasma phenomena arising from the interaction between the solar wind and the Earth, and the solar wind and a comet. The projects in which the Laboratory is engaged, in collaboration with university and other research groups in the UK and abroad, include the AMPTE mission, which will trace the flow of particles injected into the solar wind, the GIOTTO encounter with comet Halley, the VIKING exploration of the generation of the aurora, and the CRRES and ISTP missions to clarify the structure and dynamics of the Earth's magnetosphere. These projects are outlined, together with the results of recent studies of particle acceleration and pulsations in the aurora. (author)

  20. Fundamentals of plasma physics and controlled fusion. The third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2011-06-01

    Primary objective of this lecture note is to provide a basic text for the students to study plasma physics and controlled fusion researches. Secondary objective is to offer a reference book describing analytical methods of plasma physics for the researchers. This was written based on lecture notes for a graduate course and an advanced undergraduate course those have been offered at Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. In ch.1 and 2, basic concept of plasma and its characteristics are explained. In ch.3, orbits of ion and electron are described in several magnetic field configurations. Chapter 4 formulates Boltzmann equation of velocity space distribution function, which is the basic relation of plasma physics. From ch.5 to ch.9, plasmas are described as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluid. MHD equation of motion (ch.5), equilibrium (ch.6) and diffusion and confinement time of plasma (ch.7) are described by the fluid model. Chapters 8 and 9 discuss problems of MHD instabilities whether a small perturbation will grow to disrupt the plasma or will damp to a stable state. The basic MHD equation of motion can be derived by taking an appropriate average of Boltzmann equation. This mathematical process is described in appendix A. The derivation of useful energy integral formula of axisymmetric toroidal system and the analysis of high n ballooning mode are described in app. B. From ch.10 to ch.14, plasmas are treated by kinetic theory. This medium, in which waves and perturbations propagate, is generally inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It may absorb or even amplify the wave. Cold plasma model described in ch.10 is applicable when the thermal velocity of plasma particles is much smaller than the phase velocity of wave. Because of its simplicity, the dielectric tensor of cold plasma can be easily derived and the properties of various wave can be discussed in the case of cold plasma. If the refractive index becomes large and the phase velocity of the

  1. Abstracts of the 6. Brazilian meeting on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications are presented on the following subjects: plasma, ionized gases, plasma waves and instability, plasma diagnostic and heating, probes, magnetic confinements and plasma instability

  2. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: Bridging Laboratory and Space Plasma Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava [University New Hampshire- Durham

    2012-02-16

    Recent developments in experimental and theoretical studies of magnetic reconnection hold promise for providing solutions to outstanding problems in laboratory and space plasma physics. Examples include sawtooth crashes in tokamaks, substorms in the Earth’s Magnetosphere, eruptive solar flares, and more recently, fast reconnection in laser-produced high energy density plasmas. In each of these examples, a common and long-standing challenge has been to explain why fast reconnection proceeds rapidly from a relatively quiescent state. In this talk, we demonstrate the advantages of viewing these problems and their solutions from a common perspective. We focus on some recent, surprising discoveries regarding the role of secondary plasmoid instabilities of thin current sheets. Nonlinearly, these instabilities lead to fast reconnection rates that are very weakly dependent on the Lundquist number of the plasma.

  3. Quasiparticle lifetimes and infrared physics in QED and QCD plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, J.P. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1997-09-22

    The perturbative calculation of the lifetime of fermion excitations in a QED plasma at high temperature is plagued with infrared divergences which are not eliminated by the screening corrections. The physical processes responsible for these divergences are the collisions involving the exchange of longwavelength, quasistatic, magnetic photons, which are not screened by plasma effects. The leading divergences can be resummed in a non-perturbative treatment based on a generalization of the Bloch-Nordsieck model at finite temperature. The resulting expression of the fermion propagator is free of infrared problems, and exhibits a non-exponential damping at large times: S{sub R}(t) {approx} exp(-{alpha}T t ln{omega}{sub p}t), where {omega}{sub p} = eT/3 is the plasma frequency and {alpha} = e{sup 2}/4{pi}.

  4. High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...

  5. Physical properties of dense, low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Plasmas occur in a wide range of the density-temperature plane. The physical quantities can be expressed by Green's functions which are evaluated by means of standard quantum statistical methods. The influences of many-particle effects such as dynamic screening and self-energy, structure factor and local-field corrections, formation and decay of bound states, degeneracy and Pauli exclusion principle are studied. As a basic concept for partially ionized plasmas, a cluster decomposition is performed for the self-energy as well as for the polarization function. The general model of a partially ionized plasma interpolates between low-density, nonmetallic systems such as atomic vapors and high-density, conducting systems such as metals or fully ionized plasmas. The equations of state, including the location of the critical point and the shape of the coexistence curve, are determined for expanded alkali-atom and mercury fluids. The occurrence of a metal-nonmetal transition near the critical point of the liquid-vapor phase transition leads in these materials to characteristic deviations from the behavior of nonconducting fluids such as the inert gases. Therefore, a unified approach is needed to describe the drastic changes of the electronic properties as well as the variation of the physical properties with the density. Similar results are obtained for the hypothetical plasma phase transition in hydrogen plasma. The transport coefficients (electrical and thermal conductivity, thermopower) are studied wthin linear response theory given here in the formulation of Zubarev which is valid for arbitrary degeneracy and yields the transport coefficients for the limiting cases of nondegenerate, weakly coupled plasmas (Spitzer theory) as well as degenerate, strongly coupled plasmas (Ziman theory). mercury within the MHNC scheme via effective ion-ion potentials which are derived from the polarization function within an extended RPA. The optical properties of dense plasmas, the shift

  6. Using analog instruments in Tracker video-based experiments to understand the phenomena of electricity and magnetism in physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Marín, Pablo; Chavez-Bacilio, Mario; Jáuregui-Rosas, Segundo

    2018-05-01

    Tracker is a piece of freeware software, designed to use video recorded images of the motion of objects as input data, and has been mostly applied in physics education to analyse and simulate physical phenomena in mechanics. In this work we report the application of Tracker to the study of experiments in electricity and magnetism using analog instruments for electrical signal measurements. As we are unable to directly video-track the motion of electrons in electric circuits, the angular deflections of the instruments’ pointers were video captured instead. The kinematic variables (angular position as a function of time) had to be related to the electrical ones (voltages and currents as a function of time). Two well-known experiments in physics teaching, the RC circuit for charging and discharging a capacitor and Faraday electromagnetic induction, were chosen to illustrate the procedures. The third experiment analysed and modeled with Tracker was the rather well-known electromagnetic retardation of disk- or cylinder-shaped magnets falling inside non-magnetic metallic pipes. Instead of metallic pipes we used an aluminum plate with an arrangement of a couple of parallelepiped-shaped magnets falling parallel to the plate. In the three cases studied, the experimental and the Tracker simulation results were in very good agreement. These outcomes show that it is possible to exploit the potential of Tracker software in areas other than mechanics, in areas where electrical signals are involved. The experiments are inexpensive and simple to perform, and are suitable for high school and introductory undergraduate courses in electricity, magnetism and electronics. We propose the use of Tracker combined with analog measuring devices to explore further its applications in electricity, magnetism, electronics and in other experimental sciences where electrical signals are involved.

  7. High-order Two-Fluid Plasma Solver for Direct Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Flows with Realistic Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The two-fluid plasma equations with full transport terms, including temperature and magnetic field dependent ion and electron viscous stresses and heat fluxes, frictional drag force, and ohmic heating term have been solved by using the sixth-order non-dissipative compact scheme for plasma flows in several different regimes. In order to be able to fully resolve all the dynamically relevant time and length scales while maintaining computational feasibility, the assumptions of infinite speed of light and negligible electron inertia have been made. The accuracy and robustness of this two-fluid plasma solver in handling plasma flows have been tested against a series of canonical problems, such as Alfven-Whistler dispersion relation, electromagnetic plasma shock, magnetic reconnection, etc. For all test cases, grid convergence tests have been conducted to achieve fully resolved results. The roles of heat flux, viscosity, resistivity, Hall and Biermann battery effects, are investigated for the canonical flows studied.

  8. Fusion plasma physics research on the H-1 national facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Australia has a highly leveraged fusion plasma research program centred on the H-1 National Facility device at the ANU. H-1 is a heliac, a novel helical axis stellarator that was experimentally pioneered in Australia, but has a close correlation with the worldwide research program on toroidal confinement of fusion grade plasma. Experiments are conducted on H-1 by university researchers from the Australian Fusion Research Group (comprising groups from the ANU, the Universities of Sydney, Western Sydney, Canberra, New England, and Central Queensland University) under the aegis of AINSE; the scientists also collaborate with fusion researchers from Japan and the US. Recent experiments on H-1 have focused on improved confinement modes that can be accessed at very low powers in H-1, but allow the study of fundamental physics effects seen on much larger machines at higher powers. H-1 is now being upgraded in magnetic field and heating power, and will be able to confine hotter plasmas beginning in 1999, offering greatly enhanced research opportunities for Australian plasma scientists and engineers, with substantial spillover of ideas from fusion research into other areas of applied physics and engineering

  9. Exploring extreme plasma physics in the laboratory and in astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L. O.; Grismayer, T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Cruz, F.; Gaudio, F. D.; Martins, J. L.; Vieira, J.; Vranic, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction of ultra intense fields with plasmas is at the confluence of several sub-fields ranging from QED, and nuclear physics to high energy astrophysics, and fundamental plasma processes. It requires novel theoretical tools, highly optimised numerical codes and algorithms tailored to these complex scenarios, where physical mechanisms at very disparate temporal and spatial scales are self-consistently coupled in multidimensional geometries. The key developments implemented in Osiris will be presented along with some examples of problems, relevant for laboratory or astrophysical scenarios, that are being addressed resorting to the combination of massively parallel simulations with theoretical models. The relevance for near future experimental facilities such as ELI will also be presented. Work supported by the European Research Council (ERC-AdG-2015 InPairs Grant No. 695088).

  10. Introduction to Plasma Physics: With Space and Laboratory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, P K

    2005-01-01

    A new textbook on plasma physics must be very welcome, as this will encourage the teaching of courses on the subject. This book is written by two experts in their fields, and is aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate courses. There are of course many other plasma physics textbooks available. The niche which this particular book fills is really defined by its subtitle: that is, 'with space and laboratory applications'. This differs from most other books which tend to emphasise either space or fusion applications (but not both) or to concentrate only on general theory. Essentially, the emphasis here is on fundamental plasma physics theory, but applications are given from time to time. For example, after developing Alfven wave theory, observations of Alfven waves in the solar wind and in the Jovian magnetosphere are presented; whilst ion acoustic cylcotron waves are illustrated by data from a laboratory Q machine. It is fair to say that examples from space seem to predominate. Nevertheless, the approach of including a broad range of applications is very good from an educational point of view, and this should help to train a generation of students with a grasp of fundamental plasma physics who can work in a variety of research fields. The subject coverage of the book is fairly conventional and there are no great surprises. It begins, inevitably, with a discussion of plasma parameters (Debye length etc) and of single particle motions. Both kinetic theory and magnetohydrodynamics are introduced. Waves are quite extensively discussed in several chapters, including both cold and hot plasmas, magnetised and unmagnetised. Nonlinear effects - a large subject! - are briefly discussed. A final chapter deals with collisions in fully ionised plasmas. The choice of contents of a textbook is always something of a matter of personal choice. It is easy to complain about what has been left out, and everyone has their own favourite topics. With that caveat, I would question

  11. PREFACE: First International Workshop on Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasma Physics and Studies of Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Z. Lj; Malović, G.; Tasić, M.; Nikitović, Ž.

    2007-06-01

    This volume is a collection of papers associated with a series of invited lectures presented at the First Workshop on Nonequilibrium processes in Plasma Physics and studies of Environment that was held at Mt Kopaonik in August 2006. The workshop originated as a part of the FP6 COE 026328 which had the basic aim of promoting centers of excellence in Western Balkan countries, to facilitate dissemination of their results and to help them establish themselves in the broader arena of European and international science. So the best way to achieve all those goals was to prepare a workshop associated with the local conference SPIG (Symposium on Physics of Ionized Gases) where the participants could attend sessions in which the host Laboratory presented progress reports and papers and thereby gain a full perspective of our results. At the same time this allowed participants in the COE the opportunity to compare their results with the results of external speakers and to gain new perspectives and knowledge. The program of the workshop was augmented by inviting some of our colleagues who visited the COE in recent years or have an active collaboration with a participating member. In that respect this volume is not only a proceedings of the workshop but a collection of papers related to the topic of the workshop: Non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas and in the science of our environment. The idea is to offer review articles either summarizing a broader area of published or about to be published work or to give overviews showing preliminary results of the works in progress. The refereeing of the papers consisted of two parts, first in selection of the invitees and second in checking the submitted manuscripts. The papers were refereed to the standard of the Journal. As the program of the COE covers a wide area of topics from application of plasmas in nano- electronics to monitoring and removal of pollutants in the atmosphere, so the program of the workshop covered an even broader

  12. Structure-preserving geometric algorithms for plasma physics and beam physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Standard algorithms in the plasma physics and beam physics do not possess the long-term accuracy and fidelity required in the study of multi-scale dynamics, because they do not preserve the geometric structures of the physical systems, such as the local energy-momentum conservation, symplectic structure and gauge symmetry. As a result, numerical errors accumulate coherently with time and long-term simulation results are not reliable. To overcome this difficulty, since 2008 structure-preserving geometric algorithms have been developed. This new generation of algorithms utilizes advanced techniques, such as interpolating differential forms, canonical and non-canonical symplectic integrators, and finite element exterior calculus to guarantee gauge symmetry and charge conservation, and the conservation of energy-momentum and symplectic structure. It is our vision that future numerical capabilities in plasma physics and beam physics will be based on the structure-preserving geometric algorithms.

  13. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  14. Plasma physics modeling and the Cray-2 multiprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of computer modeling in the magnetic fusion energy research program is discussed. The need for the most advanced supercomputers is described. To meet the demand for more powerful scientific computers to solve larger and more complicated problems, the computer industry is developing multiprocessors. The role of the Cray-2 in plasma physics modeling is discussed with some examples. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Technology and Plasma Physics Developments needed for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackner, K.

    2006-01-01

    Although no universally agreed definition of the next step after ITER exists at present it is commonly accepted that significant progress beyond the ITER base-line operating physics modes and the technologies employed in it are needed. We first review the role of DEMO in the different proposed fusion road maps and derive from them the corresponding performance requirements. A fast track to commercial fusion implies that DEMO is already close to a first of a kind power plant in all aspects except average availability. Existing power plant studies give therefore also a good approximation to the needs of DEMO. We outline the options for achieving the needed physics progress in the different characteristic parameters, and the implications for the experimental programme of ITER and accompanying satellite devices. On the time scale of the operation of ITER and of the planning DEMO, ab-initio modelling of fusion plasmas is also expected to assume a qualitatively new role. Besides the mapping of the reactor regime of plasma physics and the integration of a burning plasma with the principal reactor technologies on ITER, the development of functional and structural materials capable of handling the high power fluxes and neutron fluences, respectively is also on the critical path to DEMO. Finally we discuss the potential contributions of other confinement concepts (stellarators and spherical tokamaks) to the design of DEMO. (author)

  16. Physics and astrophysics of quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    The quark gluon plasma - matter too hot or dense for quarks to crystallize into particles - played a vital role in the formation of the Universe. Efforts to recreate and understand this type of matter are forefront physics and astrophysics, and progress was highlighted in the Second International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPA-QGP 93), held in Calcutta from 19-23 January. (The first conference in the series was held in Bombay in February 1988). Although primarily motivated towards enlightening the Indian physics community in this new and rapidly evolving area, in which India now plays an important role, the conference also catered for an international audience. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of quark gluon plasma in astrophysics and cosmology. While Charles Alcock of Lawrence Livermore looked at a less conventional picture giving inhomogeneous ('clumpy') nucleosynthesis, David Schramm (Chicago) covered standard big bang nucleosynthesis. The abundances of very light elements do not differ appreciably for these contrasting scenarios; the crucial difference between them shows up for heavier elements like lithium-7 and -8 and boron-11. Richard Boyd (Ohio State) highlighted the importance of accurate measurements of the primordial abundances of these elements for clues to the cosmic quark hadron phase transition. B. Banerjee (Bombay) argued, on the basis of lattice calculations, for only slight supercooling in the cosmic quark phase transition - an assertion which runs counter to the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario.

  17. Physics and astrophysics of quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The quark gluon plasma - matter too hot or dense for quarks to crystallize into particles - played a vital role in the formation of the Universe. Efforts to recreate and understand this type of matter are forefront physics and astrophysics, and progress was highlighted in the Second International Conference on Physics and Astrophysics of Quark Gluon Plasma (ICPA-QGP 93), held in Calcutta from 19-23 January. (The first conference in the series was held in Bombay in February 1988). Although primarily motivated towards enlightening the Indian physics community in this new and rapidly evolving area, in which India now plays an important role, the conference also catered for an international audience. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of quark gluon plasma in astrophysics and cosmology. While Charles Alcock of Lawrence Livermore looked at a less conventional picture giving inhomogeneous ('clumpy') nucleosynthesis, David Schramm (Chicago) covered standard big bang nucleosynthesis. The abundances of very light elements do not differ appreciably for these contrasting scenarios; the crucial difference between them shows up for heavier elements like lithium-7 and -8 and boron-11. Richard Boyd (Ohio State) highlighted the importance of accurate measurements of the primordial abundances of these elements for clues to the cosmic quark hadron phase transition. B. Banerjee (Bombay) argued, on the basis of lattice calculations, for only slight supercooling in the cosmic quark phase transition - an assertion which runs counter to the inhomogeneous nucleosynthesis scenario

  18. Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung, GSI-Darmstadt, Plasmaphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D. [DarmstadtTechnische Univ., Institut fur Kernphysik (Germany); Jacoby, J. [Frankfurt Univ., Institut fur Angewandte Physik (Germany); Zioutas, K. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneve (Switzerland); Patras Univ., Dept. of Physics (Greece); Sharkov, B.Y. [Institut for Theoretical and Experimental Physics ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)

  19. Advances of dense plasma physics with particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Blazevic, A.; Rosmej, O.N.; Spiller, P.; Tahir, N.A.; Weyrich, K.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Dafni, T.; Kuster, M.; Roth, M.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Jacoby, J.; Zioutas, K.; Sharkov, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    High intensity particle beams from accelerators induce high energy density states in bulk matter. The SIS-18 heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) now routinely delivers intense Uranium beams that deposit about 1 kJ/g of specific energy in solid matter, e.g. solid lead. Due to the specific nature of the ion-matter interaction a volume of matter is heated uniformly with low gradients of temperature and pressure in the initial phase, depending on the pulse structure of the beam with respect to space and time. The new accelerator complex FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and ion Research) at GSI as well as beams from the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) will vastly extend the accessible parameter range for high energy density states. One special piece of accelerator equipment a superconducting high field dipole magnet, developed for the LHC at CERN is now serving as a key instrument to diagnose the dense plasma of the sun interior plasma, thus providing an extremely interesting combination of accelerator physics, plasma physics and particle physics. (authors)

  20. Double radio sources and the new approach to cosmic plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1977-08-01

    The methodology of cosmic plasma physics is discussed. A summary is given of laboratory investigations of electric double layers, a phenomenon which is known to be very important in laboratory discharges. The importance of electric double layers in the Earth's surrounding is established. The scaling laws between laboratory and magnetospheric double layers are studied. A further extrapolation to galactic phenomena leads to a theory of double radio sources. From analogy with laboratory and magnetospheric current systems it is argued that the galactic current might produce double layers where a large energy dissipation takes place. This leads to a theory of the double radio sources which within the necessary wide limits of uncertainty is quantitatively reconcilable with observations. (author)

  1. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  2. The Challenge of Incorporating Charged Dust in the Physics of Flowing Plasma Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Ma, Y.; Lai, H.; Jian, L.; Toth, G.

    2013-12-01

    The presence of two oppositely charged species with very different mass ratios leads to interesting physical processes and difficult numerical simulations. The reconnection problem is a classic example of this principle with a proton-electron mass ratio of 1836, but it is not the only example. Increasingly we are discovering situations in which heavy, electrically charged dust particles are major players in a plasma interaction. The mass of a 1mm dust particle is about 2000 proton masses and of a 10 mm dust particle about 2 million proton masses. One example comes from planetary magnetospheres. Charged dust pervades Enceladus' southern plume. The saturnian magnetospheric plasma flows through this dusty plume interacting with the charged dust and ionized plume gas. Multiple wakes are seen downstream. The flow is diverted in one direction. The field aligned-current systems are elsewhere. How can these two wake features be understood? Next we have an example from the solar wind. When asteroids collide in a disruptive collision, the solar wind strips the nano-scale charged dust from the debris forming a dusty plasma cloud that may be over 106km in extent and containing over 100 million kg of dust accelerated to the solar wind speed. How does this occur, especially as rapidly as it appears to happen? In this paper we illustrate a start on understanding these phenomena using multifluid MHD simulations but these simulations are only part of the answer to this complex problem that needs attention from a broader range of the community.

  3. Determination of composition and physical properties of partially ionized plasmas in the function of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaporowski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The investigations of various kinds of partially ionized plasma were conducted for the pressure of 0.1 MPa and in the range of temperature of 298.15 K to 24000 K. The physical properties of various kinds of partially ionized plasma depend mainly of their composition and temperature. The composition of particular kinds of partially ionized plasmas varies also in the function of temperature. Simultaneous going on of physical and chemical processes in plasma is the reason of difficulties in the calculations of plasma's physical properties. The use of the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics for the calculations of physical properties of partially ionized plasma is impossible. There are enough exact methods for measuring of physical properties of partially ionized plasma. For these reasons the theoretical method using the base of statistic physics was used to calculate the composition and physical properties of various kinds of partially ionized plasma. (author) 2 refs., 2 figs

  4. Introduction to Gyrokinetic Theory with Applications in Magnetic Confinement Research in Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present lecture provides an introduction to the subject of gyrokinetic theory with applications in the area of magnetic confinement research in plasma physics--the research arena from which this formalism was originally developed. It was presented as a component of the ''Short Course in Kinetic Theory within the Thematic Program in Partial Differential Equations'' held at the Fields Institute for Research in Mathematical Science (24 March 2004). This lecture also discusses the connection between the gyrokinetic formalism and powerful modern numerical simulations. Indeed, simulation, which provides a natural bridge between theory and experiment, is an essential modern tool for understanding complex plasma behavior. Progress has been stimulated in particular by the exponential growth of computer speed along with significant improvements in computer technology. The advances in both particle and fluid simulations of fine-scale turbulence and large-scale dynamics have produced increasingly good agreement between experimental observations and computational modeling. This was enabled by two key factors: (i) innovative advances in analytic and computational methods for developing reduced descriptions of physics phenomena spanning widely disparate temporal and spatial scales and (ii) access to powerful new computational resources

  5. International school of plasma physics course on instabilities and confinement in toroidal plasmas. Varenna (Italy), September 27-October 9, 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-11-01

    The lectures of a Varenna Summer School about the theme Instabilities and Confinement in toroidal Plasmas are given. The topics included are: high-beta toroidal pinches, non-MHD instabilities and anomalous transport, analogy between turbulent transfer in velocity space and plasma collisioned transport in real space, the magnetohydrodynamic approach of plasma confinement in closed magnetic configurations, properties of isodynamical equilibrium configurations and their generalization, transport theory for toroidal plasmas, plasma physics, low-β toroidal machines, the neoclassical theory of transit time magnetic pumping, radio frequency heating of toroidal plasmas, plasma heating at lower hybrid frequency, RF-plasma heating with L-structures, numerical simulation, dynamical stabilization of low frequency waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, dynamic and feedback stabilization of plasmas and problems with nuclear fusion reactors

  6. 12th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The 12th Czechoslovak seminar on plasma physics and technology was oriented mainly to the problems of high-temperature plasmas and controlled thermonuclear fusion. The proceedings contain 27 invited papers and communications presented in three sections: 1) Inertial controlled fusion, 2) Tokamaks, 3) Theory and miscellaneous topics. The first group of papers deals with various problems of electron-beam, ion-beam, and laser fusion, including physical processes in fusion targets. The tokamak section discusses the latest experimental results achieved in the Russian tokamaks FT-2, Tuman 2-a, T-7 and T-10, in the Czechoslovak tokamak TM-1-MH, and in the Hungarian tokamak MT-1. A detailed survey is presented of work on neutral atom injectors in Novosibirsk. In the third section several papers on theoretical studies of nonlinear and turbulent processes in a hot plasma are presented together with a simulation study of a hybrid tokamak reactor. Several contributions on special diagnostic methods are presented. (J.U.)

  7. Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model

  8. Real-time control of Tokamak plasmas: from control of physics to physics-based control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felici, F. A. A.

    2011-11-01

    Stable, high-performance operation of a tokamak requires several plasma control problems to be handled simultaneously. Moreover, the complex physics which governs the tokamak plasma evolution must be studied and understood to make correct choices in controller design. In this thesis, the two subjects have been merged, using control solutions as experimental tool for physics studies, and using physics knowledge for developing new advanced control solutions. The TCV tokamak at CRPP-EPFL is ideally placed to explore issues at the interface between plasma physics and plasma control, by combining a digital realtime control system with a flexible and powerful set of actuators, in particular the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD). This experimental platform has been used to develop and test new control strategies for three plasma physics instabilities: sawtooth, edge localized mode (ELM) and neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The period of the sawtooth crash, a periodic MHD instability in the core of a tokamak plasma, can be varied by localized deposition of ECRH/ECCD near the q = 1 surface (q: safety factor). A sawtooth pacing controller was developed which is able to control the time of appearance of the next sawtooth crash. Each individual sawtooth period can be controlled in real-time. A similar scheme is applied to H-mode plasmas with type-I ELMs, where it is shown that pacing regularizes the ELM period. The regular, reproducible and therefore predictable sawtooth crashes have been used to study the relationship between sawteeth and NTMs. Postcrash MHD activity can provide the ‘seed’ island for an NTM, which then grows under its neoclassical bootstrap drive. The seeding of 3/2 NTMs by long sawtooth crashes can be avoided by preemptive, crash-synchronized EC power injection pulses at the q = 3/2 rational surface location. NTM stabilization experiments in which the ECRH deposition location is moved in real-time with steerable mirrors have

  9. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  10. Science and Paranormal Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1999-06-03

    In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.

  11. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  12. Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James

    2005-10-01

    A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.

  13. XXX Zvenigorod conference on plasma physics and CTS. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Summaries of reports made at the 30th Zvenigorod conference on plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis are presented. The conference took place February 24-28, 2003. The recent results of investigations on plasma physics in tokamak devices are considered. The problems of the magnetic confinement of high-temperature plasma in thermonuclear devices and inertial thermonuclear synthesis are discussed. The particular attention is given to physical essentials of plasma and beam technologies [ru

  14. XXXII Zvenigorod conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis. Theses of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Theses of the reports, presented at the XXXII International conference on the plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear synthesis (Zvenigorod, 14-18 February 2005) are published. The total number of reports is 322, including 16 summarizing ones. The other reports are distributed by the following sections: magnetic confinement of high-temperature plasma (88 reports), inertial thermonuclear fusion (65), physical processes in low-temperature plasma (99) and physical bases of the plasma and beam technologies (54) [ru

  15. Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics about intrinsic gyrokinetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillebon de Resnes, L. de

    2013-01-01

    Gyrokinetic is a key model for plasma micro-turbulence, commonly used for fusion plasmas or small-scale astrophysical turbulence, for instance. The model still suffers from several issues, which could imply to reconsider the equations. This thesis dissertation clarifies three of them. First, one of the coordinates caused questions, both from a physical and from a mathematical point of view; a suitable constrained coordinate is introduced, which removes the issues from the theory and explains the intrinsic structures underlying the questions. Second, the perturbative coordinate transformation for gyrokinetic was computed only at lowest orders; explicit induction relations are obtained to go arbitrary order in the expansion. Third, the introduction of the coupling between the plasma and the electromagnetic field was not completely satisfactory; using the Hamiltonian structure of the dynamics, it is implemented in a more appropriate way, with strong consequences on the gyrokinetic equations, especially about their Hamiltonian structure. In order to address these three main points, several other results are obtained, for instance about the origin of the guiding-center adiabatic invariant, about a very efficient minimal guiding center transformation, or about an intermediate Hamiltonian model between Vlasov-Maxwell and gyrokinetic, where the characteristics include both the slow guiding-center dynamics and the fast gyro-angle dynamics. In addition, various reduction methods are used, introduced or developed, e.g. a Lie-transform of the equations of motion, a lifting method to transfer particle reductions to the corresponding Hamiltonian field dynamics, or a truncation method related both to Dirac's theory of constraints and to a projection onto a Lie-subalgebra. Besides gyrokinetic, this is useful to clarify other Hamiltonian reductions in plasma physics, for instance for incompressible or electrostatic dynamics, for magnetohydrodynamics, or for fluid closures including

  16. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  17. Simulation study of wave phenomena from the sheath region in single frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharges; field reversals and ion reflection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.; Turner, M. M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-07-15

    Capacitively coupled radio-frequency (RF) discharges have great significance for industrial applications. Collisionless electron heating in such discharges is important, and sometimes is the dominant mechanism. This heating is usually understood to originate in a stochastic interaction between electrons and the electric fields. However, other mechanisms may also be important. There is evidence of wave emission with a frequency near the electron plasma frequency, i.e., ω{sub pe}, from the sheath region in collisionless capacitive RF discharges. This is the result of a progressive breakdown of quasi-neutrality close to the electron sheath edge. These waves are damped in a few centimeters during their propagation from the sheath towards the bulk plasma. The damping occurs because of the Landau damping or some related mechanism. This research work reports that the emission of waves is associated with a field reversal during the expanding phase of the sheath. Trapping of electrons near to this field reversal region is observed. The amplitude of the wave increases with increasing RF current density amplitude J(tilde sign){sub 0} until some maximum is reached, beyond which the wave diminishes and a new regime appears. In this new regime, the density of the bulk plasma suddenly increases because of ion reflection, which occurs due to the presence of strong field reversal near sheath region. Our calculation shows that these waves are electron plasma waves. These phenomena occur under extreme conditions (i.e., higher J(tilde sign){sub 0} than in typical experiments) for sinusoidal current waveforms, but similar effects may occur with non-sinusoidal pulsed waveforms for conditions of experimental interest, because the rate of change of current is a relevant parameter. The effect of electron elastic collisions on plasma waves is also investigated.

  18. Physics of zinc vaporization and plasma absorption during CO2 laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, A. K.; Mazumder, J.; Li, P.

    2007-01-01

    A number of mathematical models have been developed earlier for single-material laser welding processes considering one-, two-, and three-dimensional heat and mass transfers. However, modeling of laser welding of materials with multiple compositions has been a difficult problem. This paper addresses a specific case of this problem where CO 2 laser welding of zinc-coated steel, commonly used in automobile body manufacturing, is mathematically modeled. The physics of a low boiling point material, zinc, is combined with a single-material (steel) welding model, considering multiple physical phenomena such as keyhole formation, capillary and thermocapillary forces, recoil and vapor pressures, etc. The physics of laser beam-plasma interaction is modeled to understand the effect on the quality of laser processing. Also, an adaptive meshing scheme is incorporated in the model for improving the overall computational efficiency. The model, whose results are found to be in close agreement with the experimental observations, can be easily extended for studying zinc-coated steel welding using other high power, continuous wave lasers such as Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG

  19. An arc facility for investigating non-LTE thermodynamic and transport phenomena in low and high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedghinisab, A.; Eddy, T.L.; Murray, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a high pressure arc facility modified for computerized control and data acquisition to simplify measurements of non-LTE plasmas. The non-LTE methods have shown that numerous spectral lines and continuum must be accurately, precisely and quickly measured.The instrumentation uses a 1-m monochrometer with programmed wavelength slews and scans; oplasma scans; and monitoring of chamber pressure, current, voltages, and location. Multiple flows of various gases can be provided simultaneously. Plasma self absorption is determined via a concave back mirror and shutter with final alignment via computer plots. The raw data is corrected for absorption, zeroed, centered and smoothed. The net line intensity is then determined and Abeled prior to feeding into LTE or non-LTE analysis methods. Sample results are presented at 0.1,1 and 10 atm

  20. Maxima and minima of the orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p+-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Jung-Sik; Jung Young-Dae

    1999-01-01

    Orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p +-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasma are investigated using the semiclassical trajectory method including the close-encounter effects. In weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion interaction potential is given by the classical nonspherical Debye-Hueckel model. The semiclassical screened hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method is applied to describe the motion of the projectile electron in order to investigate the variation of the orientation parameter as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and Debye length. A comparison is also given for the hyperbolic-orbit and straight-line trajectory methods. The results show that the orientation parameters obtained by the hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method have maxima and minima for small impact parameter regions. In other words, there are complete 1s→2p +1 (maxima) and complete 1s→2p -1 (minima) transitions for certain impact parameters. These maxima cannot be found using the straight-line trajectory method. The variation of the propensity of the 1s→2p -1 transitions due to the plasma screening effects on the atomic wave functions is also discussed

  1. Nonequilibrium phenomena and determination of plasma parameters in the hot core of the cathode region in free-burning arc discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Gerrit; Kock, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma parameters (electron density n e , electron temperature T e , gas temperature T g , underpopulation factor b) in the hot-core region in front of the cathode of a low-current, free-burning arc discharge in argon under atmospheric pressure. The discharge is operated in the hot-core mode, creating a hot cathode region with plasma parameters similar to high-current arcs in spite of the fact that we use comparatively low currents (less than 20 A). We use continuum emission and (optically thin) line emission to determine n e and T e . We apply relaxation measurements based on a power-interruption technique to investigate deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). These measurements let us determine the gas temperature T g . All measurements are performed side-on with charge-coupled-device cameras as detectors, so that all measured plasma parameters are spatially resolved after an Abel inversion. This yields the first ever spatially resolved observation of the non-LTE phenomena of the hot core in the near-cathode region of free-burning arcs. The results only partly coincide with previously published predictions and measurements in the literature

  2. Fusion Plasma Physics and ITER - An Introduction (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In November 2006, ministers representing the world’s major fusion research communities signed the agreement formally establishing the international project ITER. Sited at Cadarache in France, the project involves China, the European Union (including Switzerland), India, Japan, the Russian Federation, South Korea and the United States. ITER is a critical step in the development of fusion energy: its role is to confirm the feasibility of exploiting magnetic confinement fusion for the production of energy for peaceful purposes by providing an integrated demonstration of the physics and technology required for a fusion power plant. The ITER tokamak is designed to study the “burning plasma” regime in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas by achieving a fusion amplification factor, Q (the ratio of fusion output power to plasma heating input power), of 10 for several hundreds of seconds with a nominal fusion power output of 500MW. It is also intended to allow the study of steady-state plasma operation at Q≥5 by me...

  3. PREFACE: Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications 2013 Conference (PPLA2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassisi, V.; Giulietti, D.; Torrisi, L.; Delle Side, D.

    2014-04-01

    The ''Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications'' Conference (PPLA 2013) is a biennial meeting in which the National teams involved in Laser-Plasma Interaction at high intensities communicate their late results comparing with the colleagues from the most important European Laser Facilities. The sixth appointment has been organized in Lecce, Italy, from 2 to 4 October 2013 at the Rector Palace of the University of Salento. Surprising results obtained by laser-matter interaction at high intensities, as well as, non-equilibrium plasma generation, laser-plasma acceleration and related secondary sources, diagnostic methodologies and applications based on lasers and plasma pulses have transferred to researchers the enthusiasm to perform experiments ad maiora. The plasma generated by powerful laser pulses produces high kinetic particles and energetic photons that may be employed in different fields, from medicine to microelectronics, from engineering to nuclear fusion, from chemistry to environment. A relevant interest concerns the understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, the employed lasers, plasma diagnostics and their consequent applications. For this reason we need continuous updates, meetings and expertise exchanges in this field in order to follow the evolution and disclose information, that has been done this year in Lecce, discussing and comparing the experiences gained in various international laboratories. The conference duration, although limited to just 3 days, permitted to highlight important aspects of the research in the aforementioned fields, giving discussion opportunities about the activities of researchers of high international prestige. The program consisted of 10 invited talks, 17 oral talks and 17 poster contributions for a total of 44 communications. The presented themes covered different areas and, far from being exhaustive gave updates, stimulating useful scientific discussions. The Organizers belong to three Italian Universities

  4. Investigating plasma-rotation methods for the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign at UCLA's BAPSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnegan, S. M.; Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.

    2006-10-01

    In D'Angelo et al., JGR 79, 4747 (1974), rigid-body ExB plasma flow was inferred from parabolic floating-potential profiles produced by a spiral ionizing surface. Here, taking a different approach, we report effects on barium-ion azimuthal-flow profiles using either a non-emissive or emissive spiral end-electrode in the WVU Q-machine. Neither electrode produced a radially-parabolic space-potential profile. The emissive spiral, however, generated controllable, radially-parabolic structure in the floating potential, consistent with a second population of electrons having a radially-parabolic parallel-energy profile. Laser-induced-fluorescence measurements of spatially resolved, azimuthal-velocity distribution functions show that, for a given flow profile, the diamagnetic drift of hot (>>0.2eV) ions overwhelms the ExB-drift contribution. Our experiments constitute a first attempt at producing controllable, rigid-body, ExB plasma flow for future experiments on the LArge-Plasma-Device (LAPD), as part of the Space-Plasma Physics Campaign (at UCLA's BAPSF).

  5. Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

    2015-09-01

    The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility (DPPF) is an instrument planned for the International Space Station (ISS). If approved by NASA, JPL will build and operate the facility, and NASA will issue calls for proposals allowing investigators outside JPL to carry out research, public education, and outreach. Microgravity conditions on the ISS will be useful for eliminating two unwanted effects of gravity: sedimentation of dust particles to the bottom of a plasma chamber, and masking weak forces such as the ion drag force that act on dust particles. The DPPF facility is expected to support multiple scientific users. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will use a parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge, polymer microspheres, and high-speed video cameras. This first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other purposes, such as engineering applications, and experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

  6. Plasma physics and the 2013-2022 decadal survey in solar and space physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.

    2016-11-01

    The U.S. National Academies established in 2011 a steering committee to develop a comprehensive strategy for solar and space physics research. This updated and extended the first (2003) solar and space physics decadal survey. The latest decadal study implemented a 2008 Congressional directive to NASA for the fields of solar and space physics, but also addressed research in other federal agencies. The new survey broadly canvassed the fields of research to determine the current state of the discipline, identified the most important open scientific questions, and proposed the measurements and means to obtain them so as to advance the state of knowledge during the years 2013-2022. Research in this field has sought to understand: dynamical behaviour of the Sun and its heliosphere; properties of the space environments of the Earth and other solar system bodies; multiscale interaction between solar system plasmas and the interstellar medium; and energy transport throughout the solar system and its impact on the Earth and other solar system bodies. Research in solar and space plasma processes using observation, theory, laboratory studies, and numerical models has offered the prospect of understanding this interconnected system well enough to develop a predictive capability for operational support of civil and military space systems. We here describe the recommendations and strategic plans laid out in the 2013-2022 decadal survey as they relate to measurement capabilities and plasma physical research. We assess progress to date. We also identify further steps to achieve the Survey goals with an emphasis on plasma physical aspects of the program.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  8. Contributions to the 20. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-15

    The Conference covers research on different aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology, like technical aspects of Tokamak devices; plasma instabilities and impurities, development and testing of materials for fusion reactors etc.

  9. Invited and contributed papers presented at the 22. EPS conference on controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    In this report one invited and fifteen contributed papers by researchers of the `Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasmas`, Lausanne, to the 22. EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics are assembled. figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Analysis of Smut Formation Phenomena on MIG and Plasma-MIG Hybrid Weld of Cryogenic Al-Mg Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee-keun [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering, Geoje (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae-jin; Kang, Chung-yun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Black deposits (smut) are created on MIG welds in cryogenic Al alloys. The smut should be removed because it ruins the appearance of the end product and affects surface treatments such as painting. It was recently reported that plasma–MIG hybrid (PMH) welding controls the formation of smut during welding. In order to determine the reason for this, smut formation using both MIG and PMH welding was investigated through metallurgy and arc phenomena analysis. Smut on MIG welds is a Mg–Al–O amorphous layer that includes nano-sized MgO particles less than 100 nm in diameter and MgO particles 1–2 µm in diameter. Smut on MIG welds is created by large amounts of metal vapor from the arc explosion generated between the welding wire and the weld pool after a short circuit transfer. However, smut on PMH welds is not created owing to the small amount of metal vapor produced from a stable globular transfer rather than a short circuit transfer and arc explosion.

  11. Analysis of Smut Formation Phenomena on MIG and Plasma-MIG Hybrid Weld of Cryogenic Al-Mg Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-keun; Yoon, Tae-jin; Kang, Chung-yun

    2016-01-01

    Black deposits (smut) are created on MIG welds in cryogenic Al alloys. The smut should be removed because it ruins the appearance of the end product and affects surface treatments such as painting. It was recently reported that plasma–MIG hybrid (PMH) welding controls the formation of smut during welding. In order to determine the reason for this, smut formation using both MIG and PMH welding was investigated through metallurgy and arc phenomena analysis. Smut on MIG welds is a Mg–Al–O amorphous layer that includes nano-sized MgO particles less than 100 nm in diameter and MgO particles 1–2 µm in diameter. Smut on MIG welds is created by large amounts of metal vapor from the arc explosion generated between the welding wire and the weld pool after a short circuit transfer. However, smut on PMH welds is not created owing to the small amount of metal vapor produced from a stable globular transfer rather than a short circuit transfer and arc explosion.

  12. Interpenetration and deflection phenomena in collisions between supersonic, magnetized, tungsten plasma flows diagnosed using high resolution optical Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Burdiak, G.; Suttle, L.; Patankar, S.; Smith, R. A.; Bennett, M.; Hall, G. N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Bland, S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Harvey-Thompson, A. J. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1193 (United States); Rozmus, W. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Yuan, J. [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAE, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-07-15

    An optical Thomson scattering diagnostic has been used to investigate collisions between supersonic, magnetized plasma flows, in particular the transition from collisionless to collisional interaction dynamics. These flows were produced using tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4 MA 240 ns Magpie generator at Imperial College London. Measurements of the collective-mode Thomson scattering ion-feature clearly indicate that the ablation flows are interpenetrating at 100 ns (after current start), and this interpenetration continues until at least 140 ns. The Thomson spectrum at 150 ns shows a clear change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams near the axis. The Thomson scattering data also provide indirect evidence of the presence of a significant toroidal magnetic field embedded in the “precursor” plasma near the axis of the array over the period 100–140 ns; these observations are in agreement with previous measurements [Swadling et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 035003 (2014)]. The Thomson scattering measurements at 150 ns suggest that this magnetic field must collapse at around the time the dense precursor column begins to form.

  13. A prospect at 11th international Toki conference. Plasma physics, quo vadis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka

    2001-01-01

    A prospect of plasma physics at the turn of next century is discussed. The theme of this conference identifies the future direction of the research related with plasmas. Main issue is the potential and structure formation in plasmas; More specifically, structures which are realized through the interaction of electromagnetic fields, in particular that with electric fields, in non-equilibrium state. An emphasis is made to clarify the fundamental physics aspects of the plasma physics in fusion research as well as that in the basic research of plasmas. The plasma physics will give an important contribution to the solution of the historical enigma, i.e., all things flow. Having an impact on human recognition of nature and showing a beauty in a law, the plasma physics/science will demonstrate to be a leading science in the 21st century. (author)

  14. Physics of high performance JET plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB ''Gas Box'' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling ''Wind Tunnel'' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in

  15. Physics of high performance jet plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB 'Gas Box' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling 'Wind Tunnel' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in such

  16. Contribution to the study of multi-physical phenomena in cementitious materials; Contribution a l'etude de phenomenes multi-physiques dans les materiaux cimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bary, B.

    2010-09-15

    This document is a synthesis of the applied research studies undertaken by the author during ten years, first at the University of Marne-La-Vallee during the period 1999-2002, then at the CEA. These studies concern the modeling and the numerical simulations of the cementitious materials behavior subjected on the one hand to moderate thermomechanical and hydric loadings, and on the other hand to chemical attacks due to the migration of calcium, carbonate and sulfate ions. The developed approaches may be viewed as multi-physical in the sense that the models used for describing the behavior couple various fields and phenomena such as mechanics, thermal, hydric and ionic transfers, and chemistry. In addition, analytical up-scaling techniques are applied to estimate the physical properties associated with these phenomena (mechanical, hydraulic and diffusive parameters) as a function of the microstructure and the hydric state of the material. (author)

  17. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indekeu, J.O.

    1995-01-01

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  18. Modeling of physical processes in radio-frequency plasma thrusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This Thesis presents an investigation of the plasma-wave interaction in Helicon Plasma Thrusters (HPT). The HPT is a new concept of electric space propulsion, which generates plasmas with RF heating and provides thrust by the electrodeless acceleration of plasmas in a magnetic nozzle. An in-depth and extensive literature review of the state of the art of the models and experiments of plasma-wave interaction in helicon plasma sources and thrusters is carried out. Then, a theoret...

  19. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  20. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas