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Sample records for plasma phys rep

  1. Comment on Weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation (J. Plasma Phys. 82, 905820104, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, I.; Elkamash, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    In a recent article (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 82, 2009, 905820104), weakly dissipative dust-ion acoustic wave modulation in dusty plasmas was considered. It is shown in this Comment that the analysis therein involved severe fallacies, and is in fact based on an erroneous plasma fluid model, which fails to satisfy an equilibrium condition, among other shortcomings. The subsequent analysis therefore is dubious and of limited scientific value.

  2. Comment on "Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma" [Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    In a recent article [Niknam et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)], Niknam et al. investigated the propagation of TM surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma in the Faraday configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the both of the plasma surface and direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and show that TM surface waves cannot propagate on surface of the present system. We find in the Faraday configuration the surface waves acquire both TM and TE components due to the cyclotron motion of electrons. Therefore, the main result of the work by Niknam et al. is incorrect.

  3. Comment on “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Uday Narayan, E-mail: unghosh1@rediffmail.com; Chatterjee, Prasanta; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2015-07-15

    Recently Gun Li et al. discussed “Effects of damping solitary wave in a viscosity bounded plasma” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 022118 (2014)]. The paper contains some serious errors which have been pointed out in this Comment.

  4. Comment on "Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma" [Phys. Plasmas 21, 072114 (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    In a recent article [C. Li et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 072114 (2014)], Li et al. studied the propagation of surface waves on a magnetized quantum plasma half-space in the Voigt configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the surface but is perpendicular to the direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and obtain a new form of dispersion relation of surface waves of the system. We find that our new dispersion relation does not agree with the result obtained by Li et al.

  5. Comment on "Ion distribution function in a plasma with uniform electric field" [Phys. Plasmas 19, 113703 (2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Alex; Sukhomlinov, Vladimir; Timofeev, Nikolay

    2016-08-01

    The comparison between experimental data of ion distribution function at the parent gas plasma obtained by the authors and results of calculations presented by Lampe et al. are considered. It is shown that the experimental and calculated angular distributions of ions in the case at least of argon differ considerably. The analysis of Lampe et al. assumptions showed that the main reasons of these discrepancies were the assumptions of ion distribution function independence on field orientation and independence of charge exchange cross-section on the relative velocity of ion and atom.

  6. On the theory of MHD modes driven by strong ExB velocity shear in tokamaks. Addendum. 2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Sharapov, S.E.; Timofeev, A.V. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The theory of MHD modes driven by strong ExB velocity shear in tokamaks given by Mikhailovskii and Sharapov (2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 57) is revised. It is suggested that, in the approximations taken by these authors, there are no MHD eigenmodes if the cross-field velocity shear is larger then the Alfven frequency shear. (author)

  7. Response to Comment on "On Higher-Order Corrections to Gyrokinetic Vlasov-Poisson Equations in the Long Wavelength Limit [Phys. Plasmas 16, 044506 (2009)]"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. W. Lee, and R. A. Kolesnikov

    2009-11-20

    We show in this Response that the nonlinear Poisson's equation in our original paper derived from the drift kinetic approach can be verified by using the nonlinear gyrokinetic Poisson's equation of Dubin et al. [Phys. Fluids 26, 3524 (1983)]. This nonlinear contribution in φ2 is indeed of the order of k4⊥ in the long wavelength limit and remains finite for zero ion temperature, in contrast to the nonlinear term by Parra and Catto [Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 065014 (2008)], which is of the order of k2⊥ and diverges for Ti → 0. For comparison, the leading term for the gyrokinetic Poisson's equation in this limit is of the order of k2⊥φ,

  8. Comment on “Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 113503 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidova, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Division of NLP Technology, INTEPH Technology LLC, Dayton, Ohio 45066 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A. [Division of NLP Technology, INTEPH Technology LLC, Dayton, Ohio 45066 (United States); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Optics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Saifutdinov, A. I.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Zobnin et al. have published a paper [Phys. Plasmas, 21, 113503 (2014)] on a topic of discharge physics in the presence of a sharp change in cylindrical discharge geometry. In the comment it is pointed out that for untrapped electrons a full kinetic equation, which includes dependences on spatial coordinates and energies, has to be used for the electron velocity distribution function determination. It is also unclear what probe theories Zobnin et al. have used in their paper for the calculation of electron current to the discharge tube wall.

  9. Comment on “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L. [Università di Milano-INFN, Via Celoria, 16 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

  10. Comment on ``Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser'' [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2013-12-01

    We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: "Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser" by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

  11. Widespread inaccuracies in quantum plasma literature and a comment on article "Interaction of two solitary waves in quantum electron-positron-ion plasma" [Phys. Plasmas \\textbf{18}, 052301 (2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Yan-Xia Xu, et al. in the article Ref. [Phys. Plasmas \\textbf{18}, 052301 (2011)] have studied the effects of various plasma parameters on interaction of two ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized three-dimensional electron-positron-ion quantum plasma. They have used the extended reductive perturbation technique, the so-called, extended Poincare'-Lighthill-Kuo (PLK) technique, to deduce from the model governing the quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) differential equations leading to the soliton dynamical properties, namely, Korteweg-de Vries evolution equations (one for each wave) and coupled differential equations describing the phase-shift in trajectories of solitons due to the two dimensional collision. The variation of the calculated collision phase-shifts are then numerically inspected in terms of numerous plasma fractional parameters. In this comment we give some notes specific to the validity of the results of above-mentioned article and refer to important misconceptions about the use of the...

  12. República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2008-01-01

    El sistema de gobierno en la Argentina adopta la forma representativa, republicana y federal (Constitución Nacional, art. 1º).Por su extensión -que corresponden al Continente Americano; al Continente Antártico (incluyendo las Islas Orcadas del Sur) y las islas australes (Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur)- ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los países americanos (después de Canadá, Estados Unidos de América y la República Federativa del Brasil) y el séptimo a nivel mundial. Con una población de má...

  13. República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos (CENSUD)

    2008-01-01

    El sistema de gobierno en la Argentina adopta la forma representativa, republicana y federal (Constitución Nacional, art. 1º).Por su extensión -que corresponden al Continente Americano; al Continente Antártico (incluyendo las Islas Orcadas del Sur) y las islas australes (Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur)- ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los países americanos (después de Canadá, Estados Unidos de América y la República Federativa del Brasil) y el séptimo a nivel mundial. Con una población de má...

  14. Electron Acoustic Waves and the Search for a Truly Self-Consistent Large-Amplitude Plasma Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Tudor; Afeyan, Bedros

    2003-10-01

    We examine some theoretical nonlinear Vlasov work invoked in connection with recent laser-plasma experiments [1] on Electron Acoustic Waves and their stimulated scatter (SEAS). Earlier work discussed [2-5] is then related to more recent theory [6] used to interpret [1]. All this [2-6] is then related the recent Vlasov-Poisson findings of Afeyan et al. [7] on Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) waves. (Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG03-NA00059.) [1] D.S. Montgomery et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 155001 (2001), Phys. Plasmas 9, 2311(2002). [2] I.B. Bernstein et al., Phys.Rev. 108, 546 (1957). [3] W.P. Allis, paper no. 3 pp. 21-42, in In Honor of Philip M. Morse, ed. H. Feshbach and K. Ingard, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, (1969). (Source for V.B. Krapchev and A.K. Ram, Phys. Rev. A, 22, 1229 (1980)). [4] H. Schamel, Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979), Phys. Rep. 140, 161 (1986), Phys. Plasmas 7, 4831 (2000). [5] J.P. Holloway and J.J. Dorning, Phys. Lett. A 138, 279 (1989) and Phys. Rev. A 44, 3856 (1991). [6] H. A. Rose and D. A. Russell, Phys. Plasmas 8, 4784 (2001). [7] B. B. Afeyan et al., "Optical Mixing Generated Kinetic Electrostatic Electron Nonlinear (KEEN) Waves", manuscript in preparation and poster at this conference.

  15. RepA and RepB exert plasmid incompatibility repressing the transcription of the repABC operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Cevallos, Miguel A

    2013-11-01

    Rhizobium etli CFN42 has a multipartite genome composed of one chromosome and six large plasmids with low copy numbers, all belonging to the repABC plasmid family. All elements essential for replication and segregation of these plasmids are encoded within the repABC operon. RepA and RepB direct plasmid segregation and are involved in the transcriptional regulation of the operon, and RepC is the initiator protein of the plasmid. Here we show that in addition to RepA (repressor) and RepB (corepressor), full transcriptional repression of the operon located in the symbiotic plasmid (pRetCFN42d) of this strain requires parS, the centromere-like sequence, and the operator sequence. However, the co-expression of RepA and RepB is sufficient to induce the displacement of the parental plasmid. RepA is a Walker-type ATPase that self associates in vivo and in vitro and binds specifically to the operator region in its RepA-ADP form. In contrast, RepA-ATP is capable of binding to non-specific DNA. RepA and RepB form high molecular weight DNA-protein complexes in the presence of ATP and ADP. RepA carrying ATP-pocket motif mutations induce full repression of the repABC operon without the participation of RepB and parS. These mutants specifically bind the operator sequence in their ATP or ADP bound forms. In addition, their expression in trans exerts plasmid incompatibility against the parental plasmid. RepA and RepB expressed in trans induce plasmid incompatibility because of their ability to repress the repABC operon and not only by their capacity to distort the plasmid segregation process.

  16. Expanding the PhysTEC Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Fredrick

    2003-04-01

    The Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC) is a community of physics departments representing scientists and educators at institutions dedicated to improving the science preparation of future K-12 teachers. Now in its second year, PhysTEC requires physics and education faculty to work together to provide an education for future teachers that emphasizes interactive engagement and a student-centered approach to learning science. The first six Coalition members are the physics departments at Ball State University, Oregon State University, University of Arizona, University of Arkansas, Western Michigan University, and Xavier University of Louisiana. PhysTEC is creating a broad, active Coalition of physics departments that have implemented or are interested in implementing one or more of the PhysTEC Program Components. · A long-term, active collaboration among the physics department, the department of education, and the local schools. · A Teacher-in-Residence (TIR) program that provides for a full-time participant in assisting faculty in course revisions. · The redesign of physics courses based on results from physics education research. · The redesign of elementary and secondary science methods courses with an emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and learning. · The establishment of a mentoring program to provide a valuable induction experience for novice science teachers. · The participation of physics faculty in the improvement and expansion of school experiences. www.phystec.org

  17. Utshitsja drug u druga / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps uuendustest koolide õppekavades, õpetajate täienduskoolituse tähtsusest, kutsehariduse arengust, tasuta toitlustamisest põhi- ja kutsekoolides, õpetajate palkadest

  18. Utshitsja drug u druga / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps uuendustest koolide õppekavades, õpetajate täienduskoolituse tähtsusest, kutsehariduse arengust, tasuta toitlustamisest põhi- ja kutsekoolides, õpetajate palkadest

  19. República del Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2008-01-01

    La República del Paraguay adopta para su gobierno la democracia representativa, participativa y pluralista, fundada en el reconocimiento de la dignidad humana. Está ubicado en el corazón de América del Sur, dividido por el Río Paraguay en dos regiones, Oriental y Occidental o Chaco. Es un país mediterráneo, ya que no posee costas marítimas, así como lo es su vecino Bolivia, pero riegan sus costas dos ríos importantes, el Paraguay y el Paraná que desembocan en el Río de la Plata y que son util...

  20. Minister Reps valetas kantslerit vallandades / Urmo Soonvald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soonvald, Urmo, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps ütles juulikuus, et ta loodab ministeeriumi kantsleri Jaan Kallasega kokkuleppele jõuda, oli tal selleks ajaks juba uus kantsler välja valitud, väidab autor

  1. República Federativa de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2007-01-01

    Brasil, es un Estado organizado como una república federal, con una forma de gobierno democrática representativa y participativa. La república está organizada en 27 estados (26 más el Distrito Federal donde está ubicada la capital nacional, Brasilia). (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen) Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)

  2. Correction to the paper “a simple model to determine the interrelation between the integral characteristics of hall thrusters” [Plasma Physics Reports 40, 229 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumilin, V. P. [All-Russian Electrotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Shumilin, A. V.; Shumilin, N. V., E-mail: vladimirshumilin@yahoo.com [Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The paper is devoted to comparison of experimental data with theoretical predictions concerning the dependence of the current of accelerated ions on the operating voltage of a Hall thruster with an anode layer. The error made in the paper published by the authors in Plasma Phys. Rep. 40, 229 (2014) occurred because of a misprint in the Encyclopedia of Low-Temperature Plasma. In the present paper, this error is corrected. It is shown that the simple model proposed in the above-mentioned paper is in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental results.

  3. A short pulse, high rep-rate microdischarge VUV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jacob; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; CenterPulsed Power; Power Electronics Team

    2013-09-01

    A MOSFET based high voltage pulser is utilized to excite a microdischarge (MD), or microdischarge array (MDA) with pulsed voltages of up to 1 kV, with risetime and FWHM on the order of 10 ns and 30 ns, respectively. Additionally, the pulser is capable of pulsing at rep-rates in excess of 35 MHz. However, for these experiments the rep-rate was set on the order of 1 MHz, so as to limit excess energy deposition into the background gas and optimize the energy efficiency of VUV generation. Using VUV capable spectral diagnostics, the VUV emission of the MDs for various pressures (50-800 + Torr) and gases, focused on argon, argon-hydrogen mixtures, and neon-hydrogen mixtures (all of which provide strong emission at λ VUV emission is characterized and compared to results from transient fluid modeling of the MDA. For instance, the MDA turn-on time is recorded to be about 15 ns, which matches the full plasma development time in the model, and the MDA self- capacitance largely determines the turn-off behavior. This research was supported by an AFOSR grant on the Physics of Distributed Plasma Discharges and fellowships from the National Physical Sciences Consortium, supported by Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. República del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2006-01-01

    La República del Perú es un Estado organizado como una república unitaria, con una forma de gobierno democrática representativa y participativa. La población es de 25.662 millones de habitantes, siendo el 47% de origen indígena. La población urbana representa el 72,3% y la rural el 27,7% de la población total. Las mayores concentraciones de población se encuentran en la franja costera y en algunos núcleos urbanos de la sierra andina. La densidad poblacional es de 19 habitantes por k...

  5. The replication origin of a repABC plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevallos Miguel A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background repABC operons are present on large, low copy-number plasmids and on some secondary chromosomes in at least 19 α-proteobacterial genera, and are responsible for the replication and segregation properties of these replicons. These operons consist, with some variations, of three genes: repA, repB, and repC. RepA and RepB are involved in plasmid partitioning and in the negative regulation of their own transcription, and RepC is the limiting factor for replication. An antisense RNA encoded between the repB-repC genes modulates repC expression. Results To identify the minimal region of the Rhizobium etli p42d plasmid that is capable of autonomous replication, we amplified different regions of the repABC operon using PCR and cloned the regions into a suicide vector. The resulting vectors were then introduced into R. etli strains that did or did not contain p42d. The minimal replicon consisted of a repC open reading frame under the control of a constitutive promoter with a Shine-Dalgarno sequence that we designed. A sequence analysis of repC revealed the presence of a large A+T-rich region but no iterons or DnaA boxes. Silent mutations that modified the A+T content of this region eliminated the replication capability of the plasmid. The minimal replicon could not be introduced into R. etli strain containing p42d, but similar constructs that carried repC from Sinorhizobium meliloti pSymA or the linear chromosome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens replicated in the presence or absence of p42d, indicating that RepC is an incompatibility factor. A hybrid gene construct expressing a RepC protein with the first 362 amino acid residues from p42d RepC and the last 39 amino acid residues of RepC from SymA was able to replicate in the presence of p42d. Conclusions RepC is the only element encoded in the repABC operon of the R. etli p42d plasmid that is necessary and sufficient for plasmid replication and is probably the initiator protein. The ori

  6. RepA-WH1 prionoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espina, Susana Moreno-Díaz; Fernández-Tresguerres, M Elena; Gasset-Rosa, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    The intricate complexity at the molecular and cellular levels of the processes leading to the development of amyloid proteinopathies is somehow counterbalanced by their common, universal structural basis. The later has fueled the quest for suitable model systems to study protein amyloidosis under quasi-physiological conditions in vitro and in simpler organisms in vivo. Yeast prions have provided several of such model systems, yielding invaluable insights on amyloid structure, dynamics and transmission. However, yeast prions, unlike mammalian PrP, do not elicit any proteinopathy. We have recently reported that engineering RepA-WH1, a bacterial DNA-toggled protein conformational switch (dWH1→mWH1) sharing some analogies with nucleic acid-promoted PrPC→PrPSc replication, enables control on protein amyloidogenesis in vitro. Furthermore, RepA-WH1 gives way to a non-infectious, vertically-transmissible (from mother to daughter cells) amyloid proteinopathy in Escherichia coli. RepA-WH1 amyloid aggregates efficiently promote aging in bacteria, which exhibit a drastic lengthening in generation time, a limited number of division cycles and reduced fitness. The RepA-WH1 prionoid opens a direct means to untangle the general pathway(s) for protein amyloidosis in a host with reduced genome and proteome. PMID:21293179

  7. de la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ponce de León Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un esbozo de las estrategias a seguir para la inserción de la información edafológica en la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de la República de Cuba, a partir de un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo de la cartografía digital edafológica de Cuba y del desarrollo de bases de datos de la información de perfiles de suelo asociada. Se proponen una serie de tareas para lograr estos fines

  8. Mailis Reips : Prezhde vsego neobhodimo natshat / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Haridusminister Mailis Reps kakskeelse hariduse vajalikkusest vene õppekeelega koolides, noorte keeleoskusest, eesti keele õpetamise kvaliteedist, õpetajate eesti keele oskusest, õppetöö kvaliteedist

  9. A dimeric Rep protein initiates replication of a linear archaeal virus genome: implications for the Rep mechanism and viral replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oke, Muse; Kerou, Melina; Liu, Huanting

    2011-01-01

    that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. We show that SIRV Rep nicks the viral hairpin terminus, forming a covalent adduct between...... positioned active sites, each with a single tyrosine residue, work in tandem to catalyze DNA nicking and joining. We propose a novel mechanism for rudivirus DNA replication, incorporating the first known example of a Rep protein that is not linked to RCR. The implications for Rep protein function and viral...

  10. Civismo, República e manuais escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Santos Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa aspectos do civismo no alvorecer da República brasileira, com ênfase na pesquisa sobre dois livros escolares: História do Brasil ensinada pela biografia de seus heróis, de Silvio Romero (1890; e A História de São Paulo pela biografia de seus nomes mais notáveis (1895, publicado por Tancredo Amaral. Por um lado, trata-se de apresentar nuances da Historia Magistra Vitae presentes nestes objetos da cultura material. Por outro, de destacar em que medida suas histórias foram pontuadas por divergências em torno da questão educação ou instrução cívica pela afirmação de um civismo de coloração regional, bem como palco de conflitos entre protagonistas do republicanismo paulista.

  11. Research-based resources on PhysPort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    PhysPort (http://physport.org) is a website that supports physics faculty in implementing research-based teaching practices in their classrooms. We provide expert recommendations and practical information about teaching methods and assessment. The PhysPort Data Explorer is an intuitive online tool for physics faculty to analyze their assessment data. Faculty upload their students' responses using our secure interface. The Data Explorer matches their pre/post data, scores it, compares it to national data, and graphs it in an interactive and intuitive manner. The Periscope collection on Physport brings together classroom video of students working groups with professional development materials for faculty, pre-service teachers, and learning assistants. To support PhysPort's development efforts, we conduct research on faculty needs around teaching and assessment, secondary analysis of published PER studies, and primary analysis of assessment data. In this talk, I'll introduce some of PhysPort's research-based resources and the research results which support them.

  12. Pensar la república : revolución y positivismo en los orígenes de la tercera república francesa

    OpenAIRE

    López Alcañiz, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    El artículo reflexiona entorno la idea de república durante la tercera república francesa. El artículo incluye una bibliografía comentada referente al legado de la Revolución y los orígenes de la República. L’article reflexiona entorn la idea de república durant la tercera república francesa. L’article inclou una bibliografia comentada referent al llegat de la Revolució i els orígens de la República. The article focus on republic thought during the third french republic. It includes a b...

  13. PepGMV Rep-Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Oliver, Angela María; Mejía-Teniente, Laura; García-Gasca, Teresa; Guevara-Gonzalez, Ramon Gerardo; Torres-Pacheco, Irineo

    2012-01-01

    The Geminiviruses genome is a small, single strand DNA that replicates in the plant cell nucleus. Analogous to animal DNA viruses, Geminiviruses depend on the host replication machinery to amplify their genomes and only supply the factors required to initiate their replication. Consequently, Geminiviruses remove the cell-cycle arrest and induce the host replication machinery using an endocycle process. They encode proteins, such as the conserved replication-associated proteins (Rep) that interact with retinoblastoma-like proteins in plants and alter the cell division cycle in yeasts. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the impact of Pepper Golden Mosaic Virus (PepGMV) Rep protein in mammalian cells. Results indicate that the pTracer-SV40:Rep construction obtained in this work can be used to analyze the Rep protein effect in mammalian cells in order to compare the cell cycle regulation mechanisms in plants and animals. PMID:23170183

  14. República Saharaui: una nación cerca del olvido

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez Ugalde, María Cristina

    2010-01-01

    1. Párrafo de Inicio 2. Desarrollo a. República Saharaui o Sahara Occidental b. El gobierno de la República Saharaui c. La gente en la República Saharaui d. La ONU y la República Saharaui 3. Párrafo de Cierre 4. Referencias 5. Notas de enseñanza

  15. The PhysTEC Teacher Education Program at FIU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laird

    2010-10-01

    The FIU PhysTEC Project is an integral component of the Physics Department's educational transformation that has led to more than a ten-fold increase in majors. The transformation seeks to increase the quality and quantity of physics majors and future physics teachers, including those from historically underrepresented groups. Elements of the efforts include transformed introductory physics courses, establishment of a physics research and learning community, engagement of stakeholders spanning high school through the university administration, and advocacy by a physics education research group. The PhysTEC Project supports future physics teachers through a Learning Assistant program coupled to newly revised secondary education programs. The Learning Assistant program is an experiential program that recruits new students into teaching careers while providing a mechanism for transforming courses - undergraduates experience the rewards and intellectual challenges of teaching through providing interactive engagement learning experiences for their peers in introductory physics courses. Students that continue in the program enroll in a multidisciplinary teacher preparation program and may receive significant financial support. FIU is a minority-serving urban public research institution in Miami, Florida serving over 39,000 students, of which 64% are Hispanic, 13% are Black, and 56% are women. Programmatic strategies and impacts of the program will be provided.

  16. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep' proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep', in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replica...

  17. A República Mundial de Otfried Höffe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlos Zanella

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse texto tem por objetivo apresentar em linhas gerais a proposta de Otfried Höffe sobre a república mundial. Para tanto, iniciar-se-á com o ponto de partida de Höffe, a saber, o fenômeno da globalização, de onde são apontadas as principais atividades e problemas da república mundial. Em seguida, passa-se a analisar os dois níveis da proposta, o nível nacional e o nível internacional ou global da república mundial. Por fim, concluir-se-á com uma tentativa de comparação da proposta de Höffe com a ideia de uma federação de Estados livres apresentada por Immanuel Kant em À paz perpétua.

  18. 3D printing with RepRap cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salinas, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A systematic guide consisting of over 100 recipes which focus on helping you understand the process of 3D printing using RepRap machines. The book aims at providing professionals with a series of working recipes to help make their fuzzy notions into real, saleable projects/objects using 3D printing technology. This book is for novice designers and artists who own a RepRap-based 3D printer, have fundamental knowledge of its working, and who desire to gain better mastery of the printing process. For the more experienced user, it will provide a handy visual resource, with side-by-side comparisons

  19. Images en mouvement stockage, repérage, indexation

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    L'avènement puis la fusion des nouveaux modes de communication que sont l'informatique, les télécommunications et l'audiovisuel ont mis à la portée de tous une grande quantité d'images fixes et en mouvement dont la conservation et le repérage risquent de prendre des proportions démesurées. Le présent ouvrage veut offrir aux responsables de collection des repères pour aborder la problématique de l'indexation des images et faciliter l'accès des usagers à ces images.

  20. Las Garrapatas de la República de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorno Mesa Ernesto

    1942-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio comprende las especies de garrapatas colombianas conocidas, como también las de la República de Panamá. En las claves incluyo las especies descritas y halladas en Colombia. Las referencias fueron tomadas de las descripciones originales y de todas las publicaciones sobre garrapatas de los dos países.

  1. El movimiento no parlamentario en la Segunda República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor ALBA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cuando se escribe sobre la Segunda República española se hace frecuente referencia a las derechas, los partidos republicanos y los socialistas. Menos frecuentes son las alusiones al movimiento narcosindicalista y casi nulas las que se relacionan con los partidos marxistas menores.

  2. Rehabilitation Education Program for Stroke (REPS): Learning and Practice Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Sara; Szurek, Kristina; Polatajko, Helene J.; Rappolt, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: New research knowledge acquired from Web-based sources may have a better chance of being translated into practice when accompanied by additional educational strategies. This study was undertaken to investigate that hypothesis. Methods: The Rehabilitation Education Program for Stroke (REPS) combines a self-directed online learning…

  3. Las garrapatas de la república de colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Osorno Mesa Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio comprende las especies de garrapatas colombianas conocidas, como también las de la República de Panamá. En las claves incluyo las especies descritas y halladas en Colombia. Las referencias fueron tomadas de las descripciones originales y de todas las publicaciones sobre garrapatas de los dos países.

  4. Overview of RepLab 2013: Evaluating online reputation monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amigó, E.; Carrillo de Albornoz, J.; Chugur, I.; Corujo, A.; Gonzalo, J.; Martín, T.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Spina, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the goals, organization, and results of the second RepLab competitive evaluation campaign for Online Reputation Management Systems (RepLab 2013). RepLab focused on the process of monitoring the reputation of companies and individuals, and asked participant systems to annotate

  5. Overview of RepLab 2012: Evaluating Online Reputation Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amigó, E.; Corujo, A.; Gonzalo, J.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the goals, organization and results of the first RepLab competitive evaluation campaign for Online Reputation Management Systems (RepLab 2012). RepLab focused on the reputation of companies, and asked participant systems to annotate different types of information on tweets

  6. Specific functions of the Rep and Rep׳ proteins of porcine circovirus during copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Andrew K

    2015-07-01

    The roles of two porcine circovirus replication initiator proteins, Rep and Rep׳, in generating copy-release and rolling-circle DNA replication intermediates were determined. Rep uses the supercoiled closed-circular genome (ccc) to initiate leading-strand synthesis (identical to copy-release replication) and generates the single-stranded circular (ssc) genome from the displaced DNA strand. In the process, a minus-genome primer (MGP) necessary for complementary-strand synthesis, from ssc to ccc, is synthesized. Rep׳ cleaves the growing nascent-strand to regenerate the parent ccc molecule. In the process, a Rep׳-DNA hybrid containing the right palindromic sequence (at the origin of DNA replication) is generated. Analysis of the virus particle showed that it is composed of four components: ssc, MGP, capsid protein and a novel Rep-related protein (designated Protein-3).

  7. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Louise; Kriegenburg, Franziska; Lages Lino Vala, Andrea;

    2011-01-01

    protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8...

  8. A república paraense em festa (1890-1911)

    OpenAIRE

    MOURA, Daniella de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    A proposta desta dissertação é discutir a formação do poder simbólico da República Paraense nos seus primeiros anos (1890-1911), observando eventos como a mudança dos nomes de algumas ruas em homenagem ao novo regime, assim como a formulação do calendário republicano, com destaque para os festejos republicanos de 15 e 16 de novembro, datas da Proclamação da República e sua Aclamação no Pará, com o objetivo de analisar seus significados, organização e, principalmente, o entendimento da idéia d...

  9. Identification of Tilletia species using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Župunski Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing 167 non-processed seed samples of wheat, it was found that 145 samples (86.8 % were contaminated with Tilletia species, while 22 (13.2 % samples were not contaminated. By using rep-PCR fingerprinting technique, it was found that DNA isolates of T. tritici originated from Serbian wheat samples had 80 % similarity with positive control for T. tritici. One isolate shared similarity of 60% with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. It was supposed that this isolate belongs to T. bromi. Isolate of T. laevis shared a similarity of 70 % with isolates of T. tritici and T. controversa, while T. walkeri was more than 10 % similar with T. tritici, T. controversa and T. laevis. Although T. controversa and T. tritici had high percent of genetic similarity, they were clustered separately. Our results suggest that rep-PCR fingerprinting could be a useful tool for monitoring presence of morphologically similar Tilletia species in wheat production areas.

  10. Arduino & RepRap - Creating Wealth by Giving it Away

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    , growth in wealth is longevity and prosperity. Is it possible to grow wealth independently of money? This talk will be from Adrian Bowyer - creator of RepRap, the open-source replicating 3D printer - and from David Cuartielles - creator of Arduino, the open-source microcontroller. Both projects have...... founded significant and growing industries - and hence significant and growing wealth - by giving away all the data required to build RepRaps and Arduinos completely free. They have also short-circuited most conventional industrial infrastructure by placing the ability to create wealth directly...... in the hands of private individuals. The presenters contend that this is the way of the future: companies, and - more importantly - those private individuals will be giving away their primary products and making a living on the sideline activities that such donations attract. Software has been heading...

  11. Preface: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Wolfgang; Stutzmann, Martin; Hildebrandt, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    The present special issue contains a collection of Original Papers dedicated to Professor Johannes Heydenreich on the occasion of his 75th birthday.Johannes Heydenreich, born on 20 June 1930 in Plauen/Vogtland near Dresden, studied physics at the Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam, where he obtained his first academic degree Dipl. Phys. in 1958. He received his doctoral degree at the Martin Luther University in Halle in 1961 and the Habilitation degree in 1969. Already during his studies in Potsdam, he showed an interest in electron microscopy due to the influence of his teacher and supervisor Prof. Picht, one of the pioneers in electron optics. His interests were strengthened when Johannes Heydenreich did the experimental work for his Diploma degree at the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Halle, where he met Prof. Heinz Bethge for the first time. This was the beginning of a fruitful and longstanding collaboration. In 1962 Johannes Heydenreich joined the team of the later Institute for Solid State Physics and Electron Microscopy of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, in Halle, for which the basis was laid by Prof. Bethge in 1960.Heydenreich has been working as Assistant Director for many years and played a decisive role in introducing and organising the various techniques of electron microscopy in the institute.The research activities of Prof. Heydenreich covered a broad spectrum over the years. At the beginning of his career he made significant contributions in the field of electron mirror microscopy. After that, his main interests were focused on transmission electron microscopy, ranging from diffraction contrast analysis of crystal defects to high-resolution electron microscopy and image processing. His favourite field was studies of defect-induced phenomena in advanced materials. The so-called Bethge-Heydenreich, the book Electron Microscopy in Solid State Physics, published at first in a German edition in 1982 and later in a revised

  12. Novel Mutant AAV2 Rep Proteins Support AAV2 Replication without Blocking HSV-1 Helpervirus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyffert, Michael; Glauser, Daniel L.; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; de Oliveira, Anna-Paula; Mansilla-Soto, Jorge; Vogt, Bernd; Büning, Hildegard; Linden, R. Michael; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    As their names imply, parvoviruses of the genus Dependovirus rely for their efficient replication on the concurrent presence of a helpervirus, such as herpesvirus, adenovirus, or papilloma virus. Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is such an example, which in turn can efficiently inhibit the replication of each helpervirus by distinct mechanisms. In a previous study we have shown that expression of the AAV2 rep gene is not compatible with efficient replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In particular, the combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities of the Rep68/78 proteins have been shown to exert opposite effects on the replication of AAV2 and HSV-1. While essential for AAV2 DNA replication these protein activities account for the Rep-mediated inhibition of HSV-1 replication. Here, we describe a novel Rep mutant (Rep-D371Y), which displayed an unexpected phenotype. Rep-D371Y did not block HSV-1 replication, but still supported efficient AAV2 replication, at least when a double-stranded AAV2 genome template was used. We also found that the capacity of Rep-D371Y to induce apoptosis and a Rep-specific DNA damage response was significantly reduced compared to wild-type Rep. These findings suggest that AAV2 Rep-helicase subdomains exert diverging activities, which contribute to distinct steps of the AAV2 life cycle. More important, the novel AAV2 mutant Rep-D371Y may allow deciphering yet unsolved activities of the AAV2 Rep proteins such as DNA second-strand synthesis, genomic integration or packaging, which all involve the Rep-helicase activity. PMID:28125695

  13. Effects of resistivity on linear plasma responses to resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyung; Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun

    2016-09-01

    Numerical studies are made of the effects of resistivity on linear plasma responses to resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in tokamaks based on a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. From a local two-field model, it is suggested that the ratio of the poloidal electron advection to the resistivity diffusion rate α m can be a figure of merit parameter in linear RMP penetration physics. The shielding efficiency is governed by α m , and when α m ≳ 1 , RMPs are effectively shielded. Global simulations using a four-field model [Hazeltine and Meiss, Phys. Rep. 121, 1 (1985)] show that there exists an effective threshold of the perpendicular electron flow ( Ve , ⊥ c ) beyond which RMPs cannot penetrate. Resistivity is found to determine Ve , ⊥ c which increases as resistivity becomes higher, making RMP penetration easier. At low resistivity, small Ve , ⊥ c renders the RMP penetration sensitive to ion collisionality and the change in q95. The kink response is observed to be closely related to the residual level of RMPs at rational surfaces and can be also strongly affected by resistivity.

  14. Rep rated long life capacitor development: Phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.; Haskell, K.; Ennis, J.

    1984-09-01

    Polypropylene and polyolefin resins were characterized and processed into capacitor films. New capacitor films were developed--a post oriented processed, two layer polypropylene film and upgraded polyolefin film. Criteria for judging film quality were developed. Field life data were verified with paper/polypropylene capacitors on the Maxwell rep rate facility. A11 polypropylene film capacitors were developed with lifetimes in excess of 10 to the 7th power discharges at energy densities for the finished capacitor of 18.3 J/lb and projected to more than 20 J/lb.

  15. República: gobierno gerencial vs política

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Sánchez Ramos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito revisar el modelo en el que se basó el Partido Acción Nacional (PAN, al gobernar en la presidencia de la República, con Vicente Fox como presidente, demostrando que descuidó la política al preferir los elementos organizacionales por encima de ésta y no reconociéndola como un mecanismo necesario para la disminución de las contradicciones en una sociedad con alta diferenciación social.

  16. A Economia da República Velha,1889-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo H. B. Franco; Luiz Aranha Correa do Lago

    2011-01-01

    1. Preâmbulo: transição, legado e desafios 2. Do Encilhamento ao Funding Loan 3. O Convênio de Taubaté: a defesa do café e do câmbio 4. O desempenho da economia de 1889 a 1913 em perspectiva 5. A primeira Guerra Mundial, e os “choques adversos” 6. A reconstrução da normalidade nos anos 1920 7. A economia brasileira ao final da República Velha 8. Bibliografia

  17. Stress Monitoring of Mulberry Plants by Finding Rep Using Hyperspectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosle, K.; Musande, V.

    2017-05-01

    Stressed on crop can be monitored using different indices. Red Edge position is good estimator for stress monitoring. The red edge position (REP) is strongly correlated with foliar chlorophyll content. Strong chlorophyll absorption causes the abrupt change in the 680-800 nm region of reflectance spectra of green vegetation. The red edge consist the point of maximum slope between red and near-infrared wavelengths. REP can be used to recognize green zone of the observation area. The REP is present in spectra for vegetation recorded by remote sensing methods. REP is clearer and significant in hyper spectral data as hyper spectral consist of more and continuous bands data. In this paper experiments were carried out for mulberry crop using USGS EO-1 Hyperion data. Atmospheric corrected data is used for classification. Classification is carried out on small cluster of 14 field samples. Ground truth is verified and classified by comparing with Hyperion data. REP is different for different stressed condition of crops and shows healthy and diseased crop condition. Nutritional stresses, diseases, drought of plants are detected using REP. Stressed and healthy field of mulberry are estimated by calculating REP using maximum first derivative, linear interpolation, linear extrapolation method. Finally REP is compared using above methods. It is noticeable difference of REP for healthy and stressed crop. The research indicates that overall accuracy using maximum first derivative was 92.85 % and it was more compared to other methods. Linear extrapolation gives less accuracy compared to linear interpolation method.

  18. Mis saab sinu andekast lapsest? / Tõnis Lukas, Mailis Reps, Peeter Kreitzberg...[jt.] ; intervjueerinud Urve Eslas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Haridusteemalistele küsimustele vastavad haidusminister Tõnis Lukas (IRL), reformierakondlane Paul-Eerik Rummo, sotsiaaldemokraat Peeter Kreitzberg, keskerakondlane Mailis Reps ja Raivo Juurak roheliste nimekirjast

  19. Mycoplasma pneumoniae large DNA repetitive elements RepMP1 show type specific organization among strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Musatovova

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the smallest self-replicating bacterium with a streamlined genome of 0.81 Mb. Complete genome analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of four large repetitive elements (designated RepMP1, RepMP2/3, RepMP4 and RepMP5 that are implicated in creating sequence variations among individual strains. Recently, we described RepMP1-associated sequence variations between reference strain M129 and clinical isolate S1 that involved three RepMP1-genes (i.e. mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138. Using PCR and sequencing we analyze 28 additional M. pneumoniae strains and demonstrate the existence of S1-like sequence variants in nine strains and M129-like variants in the remaining nineteen strains. We propose a series of recombination steps that facilitates transition from M129- to S1-like sequence variants. Next we examined the remaining RepMP1-genes and observed no other rearrangements related to the repeat element. The only other detected difference was varying numbers of the 21-nucleotide tandem repeats within mpn127, mpn137, mpn501 and mpn524. Furthermore, typing of strains through analysis of large RepMPs localized within the adhesin P1 operon revealed that sequence divergence involving RepMP1-genes mpn130, mpn137 and mpn138 is strictly type-specific. Once more our analysis confirmed existence of two highly conserved groups of M. pneumoniae strains.

  20. Structure and function of REP34 implicates carboxypeptidase activity in Francisella tularensis host cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Geoffrey K; El-Etr, Sahar; Corzett, Michele H; Hunter, Mark S; Belhocine, Kamila; Monack, Denise M; Frank, Matthias; Segelke, Brent W; Rasley, Amy

    2014-10-31

    Francisella tularensis is the etiological agent of tularemia, or rabbit fever. Although F. tularensis is a recognized biothreat agent with broad and expanding geographical range, its mechanism of infection and environmental persistence remain poorly understood. Previously, we identified seven F. tularensis proteins that induce a rapid encystment phenotype (REP) in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Encystment is essential to the pathogen's long term intracellular survival in the amoeba. Here, we characterize the cellular and molecular function of REP34, a REP protein with a mass of 34 kDa. A REP34 knock-out strain of F. tularensis has a reduced ability to both induce encystment in A. castellanii and invade human macrophages. We determined the crystal structure of REP34 to 2.05-Å resolution and demonstrate robust carboxypeptidase B-like activity for the enzyme. REP34 is a zinc-containing monomeric protein with close structural homology to the metallocarboxypeptidase family of peptidases. REP34 possesses a novel topology and substrate binding pocket that deviates from the canonical funnelin structure of carboxypeptidases, putatively resulting in a catalytic role for a conserved tyrosine and distinct S1' recognition site. Taken together, these results identify REP34 as an active carboxypeptidase, implicate the enzyme as a potential key F. tularensis effector protein, and may help elucidate a mechanistic understanding of F. tularensis infection of phagocytic cells.

  1. Seis nuevas bibliotecas del Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available En febrero de 2000, el Banco de la República anunció la decisión de suspender el servicio de tesorería en algunas sucursales y reforzar las áreas culturales, convirtiendo estas últimas en bibliotecas. A partir del 1 de septiembre de 2000 se inicia la adecuación de espacios en las sucursales de Santa Marta, Sincelejo, Valledupar, Florencia y Popayán para albergar en cada una de ellas una biblioteca pública con servicios de lectura para niños y adultos; y en las bibliotecas de Girardot, Honda, Ipiales y Tunja, sucursales que contaban con servicios bibliotecarios a cargo del Banco, se amplían los espacios destinados al servicio de consulta

  2. Madison e Dahl: da república a poliarquia

    OpenAIRE

    José Alexandre Silva Junior; Dalson Britto Figueiredo Filho; Ranulfo Paranhos; Gabriel Augusto Miranda Setti; Willber Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2014v11n2p42 Qual é a relação entre as teorias política clássica e contemporânea? O principal objetivo desse trabalho é responder a referida questão. Em termos metodológicos, examinam-se alguns conceitos analisados por James Madison e Robert Dahl em perspectiva comparada. Em particular, o foco repousa sobre as noções madisonianas de facção, separação de poderes e república e sobre o conceito de poliarquia proposto por Dahl. Dessa maneira, descrevemos a ...

  3. Automated Production of High Rep Rate Foam Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, F.; Spindloe, C.; Haddock, D.; Tolley, M.; Nazarov, W.

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing low density targets in the numbers needed for high rep rate experiments is highly challenging. This report summarises advances from manual production to semiautomated and the improvements that follow both in terms of production time and target uniformity. The production process is described and shown to be improved by the integration of an xyz robot with dispensing capabilities. Results are obtained from manual and semiautomated production runs and compared. The variance in the foam thickness is reduced significantly which should decrease experimental variation due to target parameters and could allow for whole batches to be characterised by the measurement of a few samples. The work applies to both foil backed and free standing foam targets.

  4. Integral objects and Deligne's category Rep(S_t)

    CERN Document Server

    Del Padrone, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    We give negative answers to certain questions on abelian semisimple tensor categories raised by Bruno Kahn and Charles A. Weibel in connection with the preprint of Kahn "On the multiplicities of a motive" (arXiv:math/0610446), now published as Parts I and IV of "Zeta functions and motives", Pure Appl. Math. Q. 5 (2009), no. 1, part 2, 507-570. For the most interesting examples we used Deligne's category Rep(S_t,F) of representations of the "symmetric group S_t with t not an integer" with F any algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. This is an interesting family of tensor categories, "new" in some sense, interpolating the representations of the symmetric groups. Among other things we give two proofs that this category is not Schur-finite, showing hence explicitly that it is not tensor equivalent to a category of superepresentations of a supergroup.

  5. 3D Image Synthesis for B—Reps Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正东; 彭群生; 等

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for generating 3D images of B-reps objects with trimmed surface boundaries.The 3D image is a discrete voxel-map representation within a Cubic Frame Buffer (CFB).The definition of 3D images for curve,surface and solid object are introduced which imply the connectivity and fidelity requirements.Adaptive Forward Differencing matrix (AFD-matrix) for 1D-3D manifolds in 3D space is developed.By setting rules to update the AFD-matrix,the forward difference direction and stepwise can be adjusted.Finally,an efficient algorithm is presented based on the AFD-matrix concept for converting the object in 3D space to 3D image in 3D discrete space.

  6. 75 FR 27840 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ...: 2010-11842] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2010-0080] NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3...: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General... the existing guidance contained in Supplement 3 to NUREG- 0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, ``Criteria...

  7. 75 FR 10524 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for... document entitled: ``NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action...-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, Supplement 3,...

  8. STRESS MONITORING OF MULBERRY PLANTS BY FINDING REP USING HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhosle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stressed on crop can be monitored using different indices. Red Edge position is good estimator for stress monitoring. The red edge position (REP is strongly correlated with foliar chlorophyll content. Strong chlorophyll absorption causes the abrupt change in the 680–800 nm region of reflectance spectra of green vegetation. The red edge consist the point of maximum slope between red and near-infrared wavelengths. REP can be used to recognize green zone of the observation area. The REP is present in spectra for vegetation recorded by remote sensing methods. REP is clearer and significant in hyper spectral data as hyper spectral consist of more and continuous bands data. In this paper experiments were carried out for mulberry crop using USGS EO-1 Hyperion data. Atmospheric corrected data is used for classification. Classification is carried out on small cluster of 14 field samples. Ground truth is verified and classified by comparing with Hyperion data. REP is different for different stressed condition of crops and shows healthy and diseased crop condition. Nutritional stresses, diseases, drought of plants are detected using REP. Stressed and healthy field of mulberry are estimated by calculating REP using maximum first derivative, linear interpolation, linear extrapolation method. Finally REP is compared using above methods. It is noticeable difference of REP for healthy and stressed crop. The research indicates that overall accuracy using maximum first derivative was 92.85 % and it was more compared to other methods. Linear extrapolation gives less accuracy compared to linear interpolation method.

  9. Two families of rep-like genes that probably originated by interspecies recombination are represented in viral, plasmid, bacterial, and parasitic protozoan genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Mark J; Smeianov, Vladimir V; Steele, James L; Upcroft, Peter; Efimov, Boris A

    2006-06-01

    Two families of genes related to, and including, rolling circle replication initiator protein (Rep) genes were defined by sequence similarity and by evidence of intergene family recombination. The Rep genes of circoviruses were the best characterized members of the "RecRep1 family." Other members of the RecRep1 family were Rep-like genes found in the genomes of the Canarypox virus, Entamoeba histolytica, and Giardia duodenalis and in a plasmid, p4M, from the Gram-positive bacterium, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The "RecRep2 family" comprised some previously identified Rep-like genes from plasmids of phytoplasmas and similar Rep-like genes from the genomes of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcus lactis, and Phytoplasma asteris. Both RecRep1 and RecRep2 proteins have a nucleotide-binding domain significantly similar to the helicases (2C proteins) of picorna-like viruses. On the N-terminal side of the nucleotide binding domain, RecRep1 proteins have a domain significantly similar to one found in nanovirus Reps, whereas RecRep2 proteins have a domain significantly similar to one in the Reps of pLS1 plasmids. We speculate that RecRep genes have been transferred from viruses or plasmids to parasitic protozoan and bacterial genomes and that Rep proteins were themselves involved in the original recombination events that generated the ancestral RecRep genes.

  10. DNA structure modulates the oligomerization properties of the AAV initiator protein Rep68.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mansilla-Soto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Rep68 is a multifunctional protein of the adeno-associated virus (AAV, a parvovirus that is mostly known for its promise as a gene therapy vector. In addition to its role as initiator in viral DNA replication, Rep68 is essential for site-specific integration of the AAV genome into human chromosome 19. Rep68 is a member of the superfamily 3 (SF3 helicases, along with the well-studied initiator proteins simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40-LTag and bovine papillomavirus (BPV E1. Structurally, SF3 helicases share two domains, a DNA origin interaction domain (OID and an AAA(+ motor domain. The AAA(+ motor domain is also a structural feature of cellular initiators and it functions as a platform for initiator oligomerization. Here, we studied Rep68 oligomerization in vitro in the presence of different DNA substrates using a variety of biophysical techniques and cryo-EM. We found that a dsDNA region of the AAV origin promotes the formation of a complex containing five Rep68 subunits. Interestingly, non-specific ssDNA promotes the formation of a double-ring Rep68, a known structure formed by the LTag and E1 initiator proteins. The Rep68 ring symmetry is 8-fold, thus differing from the hexameric rings formed by the other SF3 helicases. However, similiar to LTag and E1, Rep68 rings are oriented head-to-head, suggesting that DNA unwinding by the complex proceeds bidirectionally. This novel Rep68 quaternary structure requires both the DNA binding and AAA(+ domains, indicating cooperativity between these regions during oligomerization in vitro. Our study clearly demonstrates that Rep68 can oligomerize through two distinct oligomerization pathways, which depend on both the DNA structure and cooperativity of Rep68 domains. These findings provide insight into the dynamics and oligomeric adaptability of Rep68 and serve as a step towards understanding the role of this multifunctional protein during AAV DNA replication and site-specific integration.

  11. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compant La Fontaine, A.; Pashkovsky, V. G.

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Separation Phenomena in Liquids and Gases, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Saclay and Cité Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 19, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number kz is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the kz spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge-Kutta method. The influence of ion-ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field B0, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope 44Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer.

  12. Study of selective heating at ion cyclotron resonance for the plasma separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compant La Fontaine, A. [Direction du Cycle du Combustible/Departement des Procedes d` Enrichissement, Service de Physique, d` Experimentation et d` Analyse, Commissariat a l` Energie Atomique, Centre d` Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pashkovsky, V.G. [Molecular Physics Institute, RRC Kurchatov Institute 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    The plasma separation process by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is studied both theoretically and experimentally on two devices: the first one called ERIC (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Experiment) at Saclay (France) [P. Louvet, {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} 2{ital nd} {ital Workshop} {ital on} {ital Separation} {ital Phenomena} {ital in} {ital Liquids} {ital and} {ital Gases}, Versailles, France, 1989, edited by P. Louvet, P. Noe, and Soubbaramayer (Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay and Cite Scientifique Parcs et Technopoles, Ile de France Sud, France, 1989), Vol. 1, p. 5] and the other one named SIRENA at the Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia [A. I. Karchevskii {ital et} {ital al}., Plasma Phys. Rep. {bold 19}, 214 (1993)]. The radio frequency (RF) transversal magnetic field is measured by a magnetic probe both in plasma and vacuum and its Fourier spectrum versus the axial wave number {ital k}{sub {ital z}} is obtained. These results are in agreement with the electromagnetic (EM) field calculation model based on resolution of Maxwell equations by a time-harmonic scheme studied here. Various axial boundary conditions models used to compute the EM field are considered. The RF magnetic field is weakly influenced by the plasma while the electric field components are strongly disturbed due to space-charge effects. In the plasma the transversal electric field is enhanced and the {ital k}{sub {ital z}} spectrum is narrower than in vacuum. The calculation of the resonant isotope heating is made by the Runge--Kutta method. The influence of ion--ion collisions, inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field {ital B}{sub 0}, and the RF transversal magnetic field component on the ion acceleration is examined. These results are successfully compared with experiments of a minor isotope {sup 44}Ca heating measurements, made with an energy analyzer. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  13. Madison e Dahl: da república a poliarquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre Silva Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1806-5023.2014v11n2p42 Qual é a relação entre as teorias política clássica e contemporânea? O principal objetivo desse trabalho é responder a referida questão. Em termos metodológicos, examinam-se alguns conceitos analisados por James Madison e Robert Dahl em perspectiva comparada. Em particular, o foco repousa sobre as noções madisonianas de facção, separação de poderes e república e sobre o conceito de poliarquia proposto por Dahl. Dessa maneira, descrevemos a continua influência de certos aspectos próprios da teoria política clássica no modo como a teoria contemporânea lida com o tema. Concluímos que a contribuição dos autores clássicos permite que a teoria política contemporânea seja capaz de tentar oferecer explicações mais robustas aos “novos” problemas enfrentados pela disciplina.

  14. Paradoxo e natureza no livro V da República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a primeira onda do livro V da República de Platão, levando em conta a oposição entre opinião (dóxa e ciência (epistéme, só formulada ao final da terceira onda. Sócrates problematiza a opinião corrente que aceita a diferença de natureza entre homens e mulheres para avançar a ideia de uma natureza humana comum. É essa tese paradoxal que justifica que possam ter uma mesma educação e que, assim, possam desempenhar as mesmas funções, vindo a ser guardiões e governantes da cidade.The paper analyses the first wave in Plato´s Republic V, taking into account the opposition between opinion (doxa and science (episteme, formulated at the end of the third wave. Socrates questions the current opinion which accepts the difference in nature between men and women in order to propose the idea of a common human nature. It is this paradoxical thesis that justifies the proposal that all should have the same education, thus allowing them to fulfill the same functions and, eventually, to become guardians and rulers in the city.

  15. China - 60 anos de República Popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Pomar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Em dezembro de 1949, após mais de 23 anos de guerras, tanto civis, quanto de resistência contra a agressão japonesa, a China assistiu à fundação da República Popular, com a vitória do Exército Popular de Libertação, tendo à frente o Partido Comunista, sobre os exércitos comandados pelo Guomindang.

  16. Euclides da Cunha e a República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ventura

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A revisão da República é central na obra de Euclides da Cunha, presente em seus artigos de jornal e na maior parte de seus livros. Analisou o regime republicano não só em Os sertões (1902, em que tratou da guerra de Canudos, como em Contrastes e confrontos (1907 e em Á margem da história (1909. Foi testemunha e intérprete dos rumos do novo regime, que ajudara a fundar com artigos de propaganda política no jornal A Província de S. Paulo.The revision of the Republic is a central concern in the works of Euclides da Cunha. It appears in his newspaper articles and in most of his books. He analysed the republican regime not only in Os sertões (Rebellion in the backlands, 1902, in which he deals with the Canudos War, but also in Contrastes e confrontos (1907 and in À margem da história (1909. He both witnessed and interpreted the trends of the new regime which he had helped to set up with his political articles in the newspaper A Província de S. Paulo.

  17. Hariduspoliitikas ilmnevad üksmeele märgid / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 7. juuni lk. 2, Nädaline 10. juuni lk. 2. Haridusminister Mailis Reps Res Publica ja Isamaaliidu ühisest haridusprogrammist ning juba teostumas hariduspoliitilistest eesmärkidest

  18. Reps sai Narvas tõrjuva vastuvõtu osaliseks / Tanel Mazur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mazur, Tanel, 1971-

    2005-01-01

    Selle aasta koolirahu kuulutati välja Narva linnuses, rongkäigus osalesid Narva koolide õpilaste hulgas ka üle 1300 teistest piirkondadest saabunud õpilase. Tervituskõnega esines haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps

  19. Magnetized Plasma Experiments Using Thermionic- Thermoelectronic Plasma Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Cheng, C. Z.; Fujikawa, Nobuko; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Peng, Albert

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a magnetic mirror device, which is the first magnetized plasma device in Taiwan, to explore basic plasma sciences relevant to fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas. Our research subjects include electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), Alfven wave physics, and plasma turbulence. A large diameter (> 200 mm) plasma emitter1, which utilizes thermionic- thermoelectronic emission from a mixture of LaB6 (Lanthanum-hexaboride) and beta-eucryptite (lithium type aluminosylicate) powders, is employed as a plasma source because of its production ability of fully ionized plasma and controllability of plasma emission rate. The plasma emitter has been installed recently and investigation of its characteristics will be started. The employment of beta-eucryptite in plasma emitter is the first experimental test because such investigation of beta-eucryptite has previously been used only for Li+-ion source2. Our plan for magnetized plasma experiments and results of the plasma emitter investigation will be presented. 1. K. Saeki, S. Iizuka, N. Sato, and Y. Hatta, Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 1980, pp. 37-38. 2. M. Ueda, R. R. Silva, R. M. Oliveira, H. Iguchi, J. Fujita and K. Kadota, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1997, pp. 2711--2716.

  20. The Filament-specific Rep1-1 Repellent of the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis Forms Functional Surface-active Amyloid-like Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; van der Velden, Gisela J.; de Jong, Jan F.; Kruijtzer, John A. W.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Muller, Wally H.; Gebbink, Martijn F. B. G.; Wosten, Han A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Repellents of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis are involved in formation of hydrophobic aerial hyphae and in cellular attachment. These peptides, called Rep1-1 to Rep1-11, are encoded by the rep1 gene and result from cleavage of the precursor protein Rep1 during passage of the secretion pathway. U

  1. The Filament-specific Rep1-1 Repellent of the Phytopathogen Ustilago maydis Forms Functional Surface-active Amyloid-like Fibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; van der Velden, Gisela J.; de Jong, Jan F.; Kruijtzer, John A. W.; Liskamp, Rob M. J.; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M. J.; Muller, Wally H.; Gebbink, Martijn F. B. G.; Wosten, Han A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Repellents of the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis are involved in formation of hydrophobic aerial hyphae and in cellular attachment. These peptides, called Rep1-1 to Rep1-11, are encoded by the rep1 gene and result from cleavage of the precursor protein Rep1 during passage of the secretion pathway. U

  2. Marshall N. Rosenbluth Outstanding Doctoral Thesis Award Talk: The Ultrafast Nonlinear Response of Air Molecules and its Effect on Femtosecond Laser Plasma Filaments in Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    When exceeding the critical power Pcr, an intense laser pulse propagating in a gas collapses into one or multiple ``filaments,'' which can extend meters in length with weakly ionized plasma and local intensity ˜ 10^13 W/cm^2 radially confined in a diameter of < 100 μm [1]. While it has been generally accepted the nonlinear self-focusing of the laser pulse leading to beam collapse is stabilized by plasma generation [2], neither the field-induced nonlinearity nor the plasma generation had been directly measured. This uncertainty has given rise to recent controversy about whether plasma generation does indeed counteract the positive nonlinearity [3, 4]. For even a basic understanding of femtosecond filamentation and for applications, the focusing and defocusing mechanisms---nonlinear self-focusing and ionization---must be understood. By employing a single-shot, time-resolved technique based on spectral interferometry [5] to study the constituents of air, it is found that the rotational responses in O2 and N2 are the dominant nonlinear effect in filamentary propagation when the laser pulse duration is longer than ˜ 100fs. Furthermore, we find that the instantaneous nonlinearity scales linearly up to the ionization threshold [6], eliminating any possibility of an ionization-free negative stabilization [3] of filamentation. This is confirmed by space-resolved electron density measurements in meter-long filaments produced with different pulse durations, using optical interferometry with a grazing-incidence, ps-delayed probe [7].[4pt] [1] A. Braun et al., Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).[0pt] [2] A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).[0pt] [3] V. Loriot et al., Opt. Express 17, 13429 (2009).[0pt] [4] P. B'ejot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103903 (2010).[0pt] [5] Y.-H. Chen et al., Opt. Express 15, 7458 (2007); Opt. Express 15, 11341 (2007).[0pt] [6] J. K. Wahlstrand et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 103901 (2011).[0pt] [7] Y.-H. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett

  3. Physics of High Temperature, Dense Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    34Investigation of the High-Energy Acceleration Mode in the Coaxial Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S28, (1964). I. 9. Dattner, A. and Eninger J...34Studies of a Coaxial Plasma Gun," Phys. Fluids, Suppl., S41, (1964). II. 10. Wilcox, J. M., Pugh, E., Dattner, A. and Eninger , J., "Experimental Study of

  4. Comparison of a commercially available rep-PCR system (Diversilab(R)) with PCR-ribotyping for typing of Clostridium difficile strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Eckert, C.; van Broeck, Johan; Spigaglia, P.; Burghoffer, B; Delmée, Michel; Mastrantonio, P; Barbut, F

    2011-01-01

    This study compared a rep-PCR method (DiversiLab® system) to PCR-ribotyping. The discriminatory power of rep-PCR was 0.997. Among the PCR-ribotype 027, different rep-types could be distinguished. Rep-PCR showed a higher discriminatory power than PCR-ribotyping. Nevertheless, this method requires technical skill and visual interpretation of rep-PCR fingerprint patterns may be difficult.

  5. Metal-Induced Stabilization and Activation of Plasmid Replication Initiator RepB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Masó, José A.; Bordanaba-Ruiseco, Lorena; Sanz, Marta; Menéndez, Margarita; del Solar, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Initiation of plasmid rolling circle replication (RCR) is catalyzed by a plasmid-encoded Rep protein that performs a Tyr- and metal-dependent site-specific cleavage of one DNA strand within the double-strand origin (dso) of replication. The crystal structure of RepB, the initiator protein of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158, constitutes the first example of a Rep protein structure from RCR plasmids. It forms a toroidal homohexameric ring where each RepB protomer consists of two domains: the C-terminal domain involved in oligomerization and the N-terminal domain containing the DNA-binding and endonuclease activities. Binding of Mn2+ to the active site is essential for the catalytic activity of RepB. In this work, we have studied the effects of metal binding on the structure and thermostability of full-length hexameric RepB and each of its separate domains by using different biophysical approaches. The analysis of the temperature-induced changes in RepB shows that the first thermal transition, which occurs at a range of temperatures physiologically relevant for the pMV158 pneumococcal host, represents an irreversible conformational change that affects the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein, which becomes prone to self-associate. This transition, which is also shown to result in loss of DNA binding capacity and catalytic activity of RepB, is confined to its N-terminal domain. Mn2+ protects the protein from undergoing this detrimental conformational change and the observed protection correlates well with the high-affinity binding of the cation to the active site, as substituting one of the metal-ligands at this site impairs both the protein affinity for Mn2+and the Mn2+-driven thermostabilization effect. The level of catalytic activity of the protein, especially in the case of full-length RepB, cannot be explained based only on the high-affinity binding of Mn2+ at the active site and suggests the existence of additional, lower-affinity metal binding site

  6. A Dimeric Rep Protein Initiates Replication of a Linear Archaeal Virus Genome: Implications for the Rep Mechanism and Viral Replication ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Muse; Kerou, Melina; Liu, Huanting; Peng, Xu; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David; Naismith, James H.; White, Malcolm F.

    2011-01-01

    The Rudiviridae are a family of rod-shaped archaeal viruses with covalently closed, linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes. Their replication mechanisms remain obscure, although parallels have been drawn to the Poxviridae and other large cytoplasmic eukaryotic viruses. Here we report that a protein encoded in the 34-kbp genome of the rudivirus SIRV1 is a member of the replication initiator (Rep) superfamily of proteins, which initiate rolling-circle replication (RCR) of diverse viruses and plasmids. We show that SIRV Rep nicks the viral hairpin terminus, forming a covalent adduct between an active-site tyrosine and the 5′ end of the DNA, releasing a 3′ DNA end as a primer for DNA synthesis. The enzyme can also catalyze the joining reaction that is necessary to reseal the DNA hairpin and terminate replication. The dimeric structure points to a simple mechanism through which two closely positioned active sites, each with a single tyrosine residue, work in tandem to catalyze DNA nicking and joining. We propose a novel mechanism for rudivirus DNA replication, incorporating the first known example of a Rep protein that is not linked to RCR. The implications for Rep protein function and viral replication are discussed. PMID:21068244

  7. Rep-PCR--a variant to RAPD or an independent technique of bacteria genotyping? A comparison of the typing properties of rep-PCR with other recognised methods of genotyping of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy-Chudzik, K

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents technical aspects of rep-PCR fingerprinting technique and compares its typing abilities, differentiation power and reproducibility with other recognised and recommended genotyping methods. Although rep-PCR fingerprinting is similar to MAAP techniques, it demonstrates some essentially different elements. The data presented in this review, indicate a rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting technique as a highly discriminating, independent screening method for determining the taxonomical diversity of bacterial population.

  8. Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition: Extending the PhysTEC Model to Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Mary

    2012-02-01

    The American Association of Employment in Education reports that chemistry, like physics, faces ``some shortage'' of educators. Inspired by the success of the Physics Teacher Education Coalition (PhysTEC), the American Chemical Society (ACS) is developing the Chemistry Teacher Education Coalition (CTEC) to actively engage chemistry departments in the preparation of future chemistry teachers. Engaging chemistry departments in teacher preparation would increase the number and diversity of well-prepared high school chemistry teachers while catalyzing cultural change within chemistry departments. Many features of PhysTEC, such as a grant competition to create model teacher preparation programs and regular conferences, are directly applicable to chemistry. This presentation will provide an overview of ACS efforts to launch a successful CTEC initiative.

  9. provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alberto Cervini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio que se informa se investigaron las relaciones entre progreso de aprendizaje (valor agregado, motivación y autoconcepto académico del alumno en Matemática, en el marco de los efectos de las características socioeconómicas y académicas del alumno y de su escuela. Para la medición del valor agregado se utilizaron los resultados de dos pruebas estandarizadas de Matemática aplicadas a una cohorte de alumnos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (República Argentina en dos momentos diferentes (séptimo y noveno años de Educación General Bási ca - EGB. Las mediciones de motivación y de autoconcepto se basaron en respuestas a ítemes binarios de actitudes con respecto a Ma temática y fueron definidas utilizando el análisis de la componente prin - cipal, a partir de la matriz de correlación tetracórica (método heurístico. Para el análisis de las correlaciones se utilizó la téc nica estadística de modelos multinivel. El presente estudio relaciona los resultados empíricos con la teoría del habitus de Bourdieu. Inicialmente, el autoconcepto resulta significativa y positivamente asociado con el puntaje en la prueba y con el progreso de aprendizaje posterior. Este efecto continúa siendo significati vo aun cuando se controlan los efectos del nivel socioeconómi - co y del género del alumno. Sin embargo, su capacidad ex plicativa es muy tenue desde el punto de vista práctico. Si bien este resultado confirmaría la hipótesis central de la teoría de la reproducción, indica un sendero a través del cual podrían producirse transformaciones. Uno de los desafíos del sistema educativo es promover el habitus escolar cultivado (autoconcepto más allá de las determinaciones sociales, culturales y económicas.

  10. Fundamental Study of Interactions Between High-Density Pulsed Plasmas and Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    interactions studies (plasma too cold and too “dirty.”) We have built and tested a new, gas -fed, non- ablative, rep-rated capillary plasma source for our...those encountered in space propulsion devices including Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT), Magneto-Plasma Dynamic (MPD) thrusters and capillary plasma...based thrusters . The ongoing research work brings together a team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin (UT) and the University of

  11. rep-PCR-Mediated Genomic Fingerprinting: A Rapid and Effective Method to Identify Clavibacter michiganensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, F J; Bell, J; Medina-Mora, C M; Smart, C D; Opgenorth, D; Ishimaru, C A; Hausbeck, M K; de Bruijn, F J; Fulbright, D W

    1998-08-01

    ABSTRACT The genomic DNA fingerprinting technique known as repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) was evaluated as a tool to differentiate subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis, with special emphasis on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the pathogen responsible for bacterial canker of tomato. DNA primers (REP, ERIC, and BOX), corresponding to conserved repetitive element motifs in the genomes of diverse bacterial species, were used to generate genomic fingerprints of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, C. michiganensis subsp. tessellarius, and C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosum. The rep-PCR-generated patterns of DNA fragments observed after agarose gel electrophoresis support the current division of C. michiganensis into five subspecies. In addition, the rep-PCR fingerprints identified at least four types (A, B, C, and D) within C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis based on limited DNA polymorphisms; the ability to differentiate individual strains may be of potential use in studies on the epidemiology and host-pathogen interactions of this organism. In addition, we have recovered from diseased tomato plants a relatively large number of naturally occurring avirulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains with rep-PCR fingerprints identical to those of virulent C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains.

  12. The oligomeric Rep protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a likely replicative helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Nirupam Roy; Malik, Punjab Singh; Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Islam, Mohammad Nurul; Kaliappan, Kosalai; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Geminiviruses replicate by rolling circle mode of replication (RCR) and the viral Rep protein initiates RCR by the site-specific nicking at a conserved nonamer (TAATATT downward arrow AC) sequence. The mechanism of subsequent steps of the replication process, e.g. helicase activity to drive fork-elongation, etc. has largely remained obscure. Here we show that Rep of a geminivirus, namely, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), acts as a replicative helicase. The Rep-helicase, requiring > or =6 nt space for its efficient activity, translocates in the 3'-->5' direction, and the presence of forked junction in the substrate does not influence the activity to any great extent. Rep forms a large oligomeric complex and the helicase activity is dependent on the oligomeric conformation ( approximately 24mer). The role of Rep as a replicative helicase has been demonstrated through ex vivo studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in planta analyses in Nicotiana tabacum. We also establish that such helicase activity is not confined to the MYMIV system alone, but is also true with at least two other begomoviruses, viz., Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV).

  13. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.

  14. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  15. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  16. DIMENSION VARIATION OF FEATURE-BASED MODEL BY OPERATING DIRECTLY ON B-REP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    A new algorithm for dimension variation of feature-based models is developed.The algorithm is based on B-Rep/CSG hybrid scheme and operates directly on B-Rep.Product information (including the features locating dimensions and other data for manufacture) will not lose after model variation and modification.Furthermore, the definition and solution of features constraints are also supported.The scheme of directly operating on B-Rep overcomes many drawbacks of other proposed methods, most of which need to redo all of the previous work to implement dimension variation, so the computational cost is expensive and product information will lose.What is presented in this paper makes a new way in the area of parametric design.

  17. Recuperar la història de la Segona República Espanyola

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Josep, 1931-

    2003-01-01

    L'article recull un discurs de Josep Fontana pronunciat l'octubre de 2002 a la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona on reflexiona entorn la necessitat de formular una nova lectura història de la Segona República espanyola, de la guerra civil i del franquisme. El artículo recoge un discurso de Josep Fontana pronunciado en octubre del 2002 en la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona donde reflexiona acerca de la necesidad de formular una nueva lectura de la historia de la Segunda República española...

  18. Design of a Battery Intermediate Storage System for Rep-Rated Pulsed Power Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Abstract—The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing a battery-powered, rep-rate charger for a 60-kJ capacitor bank . The capacitor ...developing a rapid charger for a 60-kJ capacitor bank capable of charging a 4800- µF capacitor to 5-kV in roughly five seconds. This system needs to...U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing a battery-powered, rep-rate charger for a 60-kJ capacitor bank . The capacitor will be charged with

  19. El derecho del trabajo democrático en la República de Weimar

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Albuerquerque, Román de la Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    La tesis "El Derecho del Trabajo democrático en la República de Weimar" es, de una parte, una introducción contextualizadora a la historia político-social, sindical, del Derecho del Trabajo y de la obra de significados juristas demócratas comprometidos con el nacimiento de la nueva disciplina jurídica (y en parte responsables de su constitucionalización) y con su desarrollo en la República de Weimar, así como una consideración transversal y comparativa de varias instituciones fundamentales p...

  20. El derecho del trabajo democrático en la República de Weimar

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Albuerquerque, Román de la Trinidad

    2016-01-01

    La tesis "El Derecho del Trabajo democrático en la República de Weimar" es, de una parte, una introducción contextualizadora a la historia político-social, sindical, del Derecho del Trabajo y de la obra de significados juristas demócratas comprometidos con el nacimiento de la nueva disciplina jurídica (y en parte responsables de su constitucionalización) y con su desarrollo en la República de Weimar, así como una consideración transversal y comparativa de varias instituciones fundamentales p...

  1. Determination of genetic differences between fluid and nonfluid variants of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus using rep-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousek, J; Mráz, I

    2003-01-01

    Testing of 23 isolates of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus for analysis by rep-PCR (using BOX, ERIC, REP primer sets) was used for the purpose of localization of genetic markers for fluid and/or nonfluid strains. None of the primer sets was successful in detecting genetic differences between the isolates and no polymorphism was generated.

  2. 75 FR 32493 - NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-, Rev. 1, Supplement 3, Guidance for... be held to discuss the proposed Supplement 3 to NUREG-0654/FEMA-REP-1, Rev.1, Guidance for Protective Action Recommendations for General Emergencies (NUREG Supp 3). NUREG Supp 3 addresses onsite and...

  3. Response to "Comment on `The ion-kinetic D'Angelo mode'" [Phys. Plasmas 22, 044703 (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, D. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    A response to "Comment on `The ion-kinetic D'Angelo mode'" by Aman-ur-Rehman, Shaukat Ali Shan, and Hamid Saleem is given. We find that all Comments are grounded on the misinterpretations of the results of our paper "The ion-kinetic D'Angelo mode" and are erroneous.

  4. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies are required to be in control of the security of their IT assets. This is especially challenging in the presence of limited budgets and conflicting requirements. Here, we present Risk-Based Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization (RiskREP), a method for managing IT security

  5. Overview of RepLab 2014: Author Profiling and Reputation Dimensions for Online Reputation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amigó, E.; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, J.; Chugur, I.; Corujo, A.; Gonzalo, J.; Meij, E.; de Rijke, M.; Spina, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the organisation and results of RepLab 2014, the third competitive evaluation campaign for Online Reputation Management systems. This year the focus lied on two new tasks: reputation dimensions classification and author profiling, which complement the aspects of reputation

  6. Romanos e Partos: atividades bélicas na República e no Principado

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Teresa Marques Gonçalves

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é analisar algumas das várias batalhas travadas entre romanos e partos ao longo da República e do Principado, utilizando para tanto as obras de Plutarco, Dion Cássio, Herodiano, Polieno, Eutrópio, Aurélio Victor e Zózimo.

  7. RePS: a sequence assembler that masks exact repeats identified from the shotgun data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ni, Peixiang;

    2002-01-01

    We describe a sequence assembler, RePS (repeat-masked Phrap with scaffolding), that explicitly identifies exact 20mer repeats from the shotgun data and removes them prior to the assembly. The established software is used to compute meaningful error probabilities for each base. Clone-end-pairing i...

  8. Simulace dynamiky vozidla využitím software V-REP

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá modelováním dynamiky a vizualizací experimentálního vozidla CAR4 v programu V-REP. V první části se práce zabývá představením a možnostmi programu V-REP. V další části je realizováno modelování vozidla CAR4 s následným řízením. K řízení je využit program V-REP a Matlab. V poslední fázi proběhlo testování modelu v simulaci. This theasis deals with modeling dynamics and visualization of experimental vehicle CAR4 in software V-REP. The first part shows introduction with V...

  9. Dictadura, democracia, república: Un análisis conceptual

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Conferencia magistral sobre los conceptos de democracia, dictadura y república. "Memoria del Primer Encuentro Internacional sobre el poder en el pasado y el presente de América Latina" coord. por Francisco Lizcano y Guadalupe Zamudio Toluca: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, 2009 pp. 29-60. ISBN 978-607-422-069-8.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Evidence for Transmission of Streptococcus mutans by DiversiLab rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Whiddon, Jennifer; Cheon, Kyounga; Ghazal, Tariq; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2016-09-01

    This two-part study investigated the genetic diversity and transmission of Streptococcus mutans using the DiversiLab repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) approach. For children with S. mutans and participating household members, analysis for evidence of unrelated child-to-child as well as intra-familial transmission was evaluated based on commonality of genotypes. A total of 169 index children and 425 household family members from Uniontown, Alabama were evaluated for genetic diversity using rep-PCR. Thirty-four unique rep-PCR genotypes were observed for 13,906 S. mutans isolates. For transmission, 117 child and household isolates were evaluated for shared genotype (by child and by genotype cases, multiple matches possible for each child). Overall, children had 1-9 genotypes and those with multiple genotypes were 2.3 times more likely to have caries experience (decayed, missing and filled teeth/surfaces>0). Only 28% of children shared all genotypes within the household, while 72% had at least 1 genotype not shared with anyone in the household. Children had genotype(s) not shared with any household members in 157 cases. In 158 cases children and household members shared a genotype in which 55% (87/158 cases) were shared with more than one family member. Children most frequently shared genotypes with their mothers (54%; 85/158), siblings (46%; 72/158) and cousins (23%; 37/158). A reference library for S. mutans for epidemiological surveillance using the DiversiLab rep-PCR approach is detailed. The genetic diversity of S. mutans in this population demonstrated frequent commonality of genotypes. Evidence for both child-to-child and intra-familial transmission of S. mutans was observed by rep-PCR.

  11. Comment on ``Minimum free-energy pathway of nucleation'' [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134508 (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Abyzov, Alexander S.

    2012-03-01

    In their recent paper [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134508 (2011)], Philippe and Blavette, 10.1063/1.3644935 claimed to have found for the first time—based on minimum free energy considerations—that the nucleation pathway in solid solutions involves a universal two-step behavior: nuclei sharply enrich up to near equilibrium values of the concentration and then grow. This claim of priority is not correct. The same scenario was proposed by us long ago [J. W. P. Schmelzer, A. R. Gokhman, and V. M. Fokin, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 272, 109 (2004)], 10.1016/j.jcis.2003.08.038 and then applied and further developed. In particular, it was shown by us that only the account of both thermodynamic and kinetic factors allows one to determine correctly the most probable path of evolution in nucleation-growth processes. The two-step scenario is retained, however, also in these generalizations of our original approach.

  12. Comment on "Deterministic six states protocol for quantum communication" [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85

    CERN Document Server

    El-Orany, Faisal A A

    2011-01-01

    In [J.S. Shaari, M. Lucamarini, M.R.B. Wahiddin, Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85-90] the deterministic six states protocol (6DP) for quantum communication has been developed. This protocol is based on three mutually unbiased bases and four encoding operators. Information is transmitted between the users via two qubits from different bases. Three attacks have been studied; namely intercept-resend attack (IRA), double-CNOT attack (2CNOTA) and quantum man-in-the-middle attack. In this Letter, we show that the IRA and 2CNOTA are not properly addressed. For instance, we show that the probability of detecting Eve in the control mode of the IRA is 70% instead of 50% in the previous study. Moreover, in the 2CNOTA, Eve can only obtain 50% of the data not all of it as argued earlier.

  13. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  14. Pre-amyloid oligomers of the proteotoxic RepA-WH1 prionoid assemble at the bacterial nucleoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-del Álamo, María; de la Espina, Susana Moreno-Díaz; Fernández-Tresguerres, M. Elena; Giraldo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Upon binding to short specific dsDNA sequences in vitro, the N-terminal WH1 domain of the plasmid DNA replication initiator RepA assembles as amyloid fibres. These are bundles of single or double twisted tubular filaments in which distorted RepA-WH1 monomers are the building blocks. When expressed in Escherichia coli, RepA-WH1 triggers the first synthetic amyloid proteinopathy in bacteria, recapitulating some of the features of mammalian prion diseases: it is vertically transmissible, albeit non-infectious, showing up in at least two phenotypically distinct and interconvertible strains. Here we report B3h7, a monoclonal antibody specific for oligomers of RepA-WH1, but which does not recognize the mature amyloid fibres. Unlike a control polyclonal antibody generated against the soluble protein, B3h7 interferes in vitro with DNA-promoted or amyloid-seeded assembly of RepA-WH1 fibres, thus the targeted oligomers are on-pathway amyloidogenic intermediates. Immuno-electron microscopy with B3h7 on thin sections of E. coli cells expressing RepA-WH1 consistently labels the bacterial nucleoid, but not the large cytoplasmic aggregates of the protein. This observation points to the nucleoid as the place where oligomeric amyloid precursors of RepA-WH1 are generated, and suggests that, once nucleated by DNA, further growth must continue in the cytoplasm due to entropic exclusion. PMID:26423724

  15. RepSeq – A database of amino acid repeats present in lower eukaryotic pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Deborah F

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amino acid repeat-containing proteins have a broad range of functions and their identification is of relevance to many experimental biologists. In human-infective protozoan parasites (such as the Kinetoplastid and Plasmodium species, they are implicated in immune evasion and have been shown to influence virulence and pathogenicity. RepSeq http://repseq.gugbe.com is a new database of amino acid repeat-containing proteins found in lower eukaryotic pathogens. The RepSeq database is accessed via a web-based application which also provides links to related online tools and databases for further analyses. Results The RepSeq algorithm typically identifies more than 98% of repeat-containing proteins and is capable of identifying both perfect and mismatch repeats. The proportion of proteins that contain repeat elements varies greatly between different families and even species (3–35% of the total protein content. The most common motif type is the Sequence Repeat Region (SRR – a repeated motif containing multiple different amino acid types. Proteins containing Single Amino Acid Repeats (SAARs and Di-Peptide Repeats (DPRs typically account for 0.5–1.0% of the total protein number. Notable exceptions are P. falciparum and D. discoideum, in which 33.67% and 34.28% respectively of the predicted proteomes consist of repeat-containing proteins. These numbers are due to large insertions of low complexity single and multi-codon repeat regions. Conclusion The RepSeq database provides a repository for repeat-containing proteins found in parasitic protozoa. The database allows for both individual and cross-species proteome analyses and also allows users to upload sequences of interest for analysis by the RepSeq algorithm. Identification of repeat-containing proteins provides researchers with a defined subset of proteins which can be analysed by expression profiling and functional characterisation, thereby facilitating study of pathogenicity

  16. ReRep: Computational detection of repetitive sequences in genome survey sequences (GSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves-Ferreira Marcelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome survey sequences (GSS offer a preliminary global view of a genome since, unlike ESTs, they cover coding as well as non-coding DNA and include repetitive regions of the genome. A more precise estimation of the nature, quantity and variability of repetitive sequences very early in a genome sequencing project is of considerable importance, as such data strongly influence the estimation of genome coverage, library quality and progress in scaffold construction. Also, the elimination of repetitive sequences from the initial assembly process is important to avoid errors and unnecessary complexity. Repetitive sequences are also of interest in a variety of other studies, for instance as molecular markers. Results We designed and implemented a straightforward pipeline called ReRep, which combines bioinformatics tools for identifying repetitive structures in a GSS dataset. In a case study, we first applied the pipeline to a set of 970 GSSs, sequenced in our laboratory from the human pathogen Leishmania braziliensis, the causative agent of leishmaniosis, an important public health problem in Brazil. We also verified the applicability of ReRep to new sequencing technologies using a set of 454-reads of an Escheria coli. The behaviour of several parameters in the algorithm is evaluated and suggestions are made for tuning of the analysis. Conclusion The ReRep approach for identification of repetitive elements in GSS datasets proved to be straightforward and efficient. Several potential repetitive sequences were found in a L. braziliensis GSS dataset generated in our laboratory, and further validated by the analysis of a more complete genomic dataset from the EMBL and Sanger Centre databases. ReRep also identified most of the E. coli K12 repeats prior to assembly in an example dataset obtained by automated sequencing using 454 technology. The parameters controlling the algorithm behaved consistently and may be tuned to the properties

  17. Stability of hybrid modes of a single-component electron plasma containing an admixture of background gas ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeliseyev, Yu. N.

    2014-05-01

    The spectrum of eigenmodes of a waveguide completely filled with a cold electron plasma containing a small admixture of ions produced due to electron-impact ionization of background gas atoms is calculated numerically. The calculations were performed within the entire range of allowable values of the radial electric and longitudinal magnetic fields for both magnetized and unmagnetized ions by using the earlier derived nonlocal dispersion relation [Plasma Phys. Rep. 36, 563 (2010)]. The spectrum consists of three families of electron modes with frequencies equal to the Doppler-shifted upper and lower hybrid frequencies and modified ion cyclotron (MIC) modes. When the Doppler shift caused by electron rotation in the crossed electric and magnetic fields compensates for the hybrid frequency, the electron modes become low-frequency modes and interact with the ion modes. For m = 1, only the lower hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones, whereas at m ≥ 2, both lower and upper hybrid modes can be low-frequency ones. The spectrum of modes having the azimuthal number m = 2 is thoroughly analyzed. It is shown that, in this case, the lower hybrid modes behave similar to the m = 1 modes. The dispersion curves of the upper hybrid modes intersect with all harmonics of the MIC frequency (positive, negative, and zero) and are unstable in the vicinities of the intersections. The maximum value of the instability growth rate is several times higher than the ion plasma frequency. The MIC modes are unstable within a wide range of the field strengths, and their growth rates are two orders of magnitude slower. Instabilities are caused by the relative motion of electrons and ions (the transverse current) and the anisotropy of the ion distribution function.

  18. PREFACE: International Symposium "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics 2011" (nanoPHYS'11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Susumu; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masaaki

    2011-07-01

    Quantum physics has developed modern views of nature for more than a century. In addition to this traditional role, quantum physics has acquired new significance in the 21st century as the field responsible for driving and supporting nanoscience research, which will have even greater importance in the future because nanoscience will be the academic foundation for new technologies. The Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, are now conducting a "Nanoscience and Quantum Physics" project (Physics G-COE project) supported by the Global Center of Excellence Program of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT) in order to promote research and education in these important academic fields. The International Symposium on Nanoscience and Quantum Physics, held in Tokyo, Japan, 26-28 January 2011 (nanoPHYS'11) was organized by the Physics G-COE project of the Tokyo Institute of Technology to provide an international forum for the open exchange of topical information and for stimulating discussion on novel concepts and future prospects of nanoscience and quantum physics. There were a total of 118 papers including 34 invited papers. This nanoPHYS'11 is the fourth symposium of this kind organized by the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Topics focused on in the symposium included: Category 1: Novel nanostructure (Nanowires, Nanotubes, Spin-related structure, etc) Category 2: Novel transport and electronic properties (Graphene, Topological insulators, Coherent control, etc) Category 3: Electronic and optical properties of nanostructure Category 4: Fundamental physics and new concept in quantum physics Category 5: Quantum Physics - Quantum information Category 6: Quantum Physics - Nuclear and Hadron Physics Category 7: Quantum Physics - Astrophysics, etc All the papers submitted to this issue have been reviewed under a stringent refereeing process, according to the normal rules of this Journal. The editors are grateful to all the

  19. PyDecay/GraphPhys: A Unified Language and Storage System for Particle Decay Process Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunietz, Jesse N.; /MIT /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    To ease the tasks of Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and event reconstruction (i.e. inferring particle-decay events from experimental data) for long-term BaBar data preservation and analysis, the following software components have been designed: a language ('GraphPhys') for specifying decay processes, common to both simulation and data analysis, allowing arbitrary parameters on particles, decays, and entire processes; an automated visualization tool to show graphically what decays have been specified; and a searchable database storage mechanism for decay specifications. Unlike HepML, a proposed XML standard for HEP metadata, the specification language is designed not for data interchange between computer systems, but rather for direct manipulation by human beings as well as computers. The components are interoperable: the information parsed from files in the specification language can easily be rendered as an image by the visualization package, and conversion between decay representations was implemented. Several proof-of-concept command-line tools were built based on this framework. Applications include building easier and more efficient interfaces to existing analysis tools for current projects (e.g. BaBar/BESII), providing a framework for analyses in future experimental settings (e.g. LHC/SuperB), and outreach programs that involve giving students access to BaBar data and analysis tools to give them a hands-on feel for scientific analysis.

  20. práctica del turismo rural en la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Alejandra Camargo Toribio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incluye parte de los resultados que se obtuvieron en la tesis doctoral “Aportaciones metodológicas para la implementación del turismo rural en la República de Cuba. Estudio de caso: zona turística de Viñales” (Camargo, 2003. El objetivo principal de este artículo es conocer las preferencias de los clientes internacionales para la práctica del turismo rural, modalidad que no está establecida de forma consciente en la República de Cuba y que, de acuerdo con el potencial naturalcultural existente, tiene amplias posibilidades para su introducción. Con este fin se aplica una encuesta donde los viajeros evalúan, en una escala ascendente, la importancia que le conceden a un conjunto de elementos para la práctica de la modalidad rural

  1. [Stain hybridization method with pRepHind probe for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moleón Borodowsky, I

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on the parasitemia detection level and the specificity of the pRepHind DNA probe for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum by the stain hybridization method. The parasitemia detection level was studied by using dilutions of a P. falciparum in vitro culture, adjusted by direct microscopic examination to 1; 0.1; 0.01; 0.001; 0.0001 and 0.00001% of parasited red cells. Specificity was increased by using DNA extractions from P. Yoelii, P. berghei and human leucocytes. The results showed that the method was able to detect 0.0001% of parasitemia starting from DNA extractions of 100 L infected red cells. The pRepHind probe only detected specifically DNA from P. falciparum. It is concluded that the method is suitable for being used in the diagnosis of infection due to P. falciparum.

  2. A república e o sonho The republic and its dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Chaves de Mello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O desencanto com a República brasileira tem sido tema de reflexões desde os seus momentos iniciais. Buscando os conteúdos concretos dos sonhos republicanos na década de 1880 e na Primeira República vamos achar uma importante defasagem entre eles não exatamente em função do marco cronológico, mas do grupo social que, respectivamente, os acalentou.The disillusion with the Brazilian Republic since its first days has been a topic of academician reflexions. Examinating the concrete contents of the 1880`s and the First Republic republican dreams we will find a substantive difference between them. To be exact, this difference must not be related to the chronological demarcation but to the social group that embraced each of them.

  3. Plasma Assisted Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-28

    pressure hydrogen is given in Fig. 2.14. The regions typical for “common” glow discharges (negative glow, Faraday dark space, and positive column) are...Hollenstein Ch. Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, 42 (2000) 93. [107] M.A. Heald and C.B. Wahrton, Plasma diagnostics with microwaves, John Wi- ley &Sons, New York...Nitrous Oxide J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 69 352 [194] Albers E A, Hoyermann K, Schacke H, Schmatjko K J, Wagner H Gg, Wolfrum J 1975 Absolute Rate

  4. Tratamiento tributario actual del comercio electrónico en la República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Giribone, María Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Tratamiento tributario actual del comercio electrónico en la República Argentina. PROBLEMA: ¿Constituye la legislación tributaria argentina aplicada a operaciones comerciales tradicionales un marco legal acorde para gravar operaciones de comercio electrónico? OBJETIVOS DE LA INVESTIGACION OBJETIVO GENERAL Analizar la aplicación de la legislación tributaria argentina para operaciones de comercio tradicionales en el comercio electrónico. OBJETIVOS ESPECIFICOS Ana...

  5. Vanguardismo y problemática del film alemán de la República de Weimar

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    1985-01-01

    El presente artículo trata de examinar las aproximaciones historiográficas realizadas al cine producido en la República de Weimar, desde el llamado expresionismo hasta las corrientes realistas, pasando por el Kammerspielfilm.

  6. A Comparison of Molecular Typing Methods Applied to Enterobacter cloacae complex: hsp60 Sequencing, Rep-PCR, and MLST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viau

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular typing using repetitive sequenced-based PCR (rep-PCR and hsp60 sequencing were applied to a collection of diverse Enterobacter cloacae complex isolates. To determine the most practical method for reference laboratories, we analyzed 71 E. cloacae complex isolates from sporadic and outbreak occurrences originating from 4 geographic areas. While rep-PCR was more discriminating, hsp60 sequencing provided a broader and a more objective geographical tracking method similar to multilocus sequence typing (MLST. In addition, we suggest that MLST may have higher discriminative power compared to hsp60 sequencing, although rep-PCR remains the most discriminative method for local outbreak investigations. In addition, rep-PCR can be an effective and inexpensive method for local outbreak investigation.

  7. Reps võib kõrvale heita kümme miljonit maksnud õppekava / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2005-01-01

    TÜ õppekavade arenduskeskus ja AS Bit koostavad mõlemad riikliku õppekava, lähtudes erinevatest põhimõttest. Haridus- ja teadusminister Mailis Reps ei ole avaldanud, kumba õppekava varianti ta eelistab

  8. The PhysTEC project: A perspective on what it takes to recruit and educate more physics teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisch, Monica

    2012-03-01

    The PhysTEC project has more than doubled the number of physics teachers educated at supported sites. These institutions were selected for their potential to implement change primarily in physics departments and build model teacher education programs. Key components of PhysTEC programs include active recruiting, early teaching experiences, pedagogical content knowledge, Learning Assistants, and induction and mentoring. Important structural elements include a program champion, a Teacher in Residence, assessment, collaboration, and institutional commitment. The PhysTEC project has supported about 20 institutions to date. In order to more fully address the national need for qualified physics teachers, the effort would need to be scaled up substantially. There is evidence of growing interest among physics departments in taking on this issue, and a national coalition committed to improving the education of future physics teachers has expanded to include more than 250 member institutions. The project is experimenting with targeted sites, funded at a lower level, to implement focused programs. In addition, PhysTEC is partnering with aligned efforts to magnify its impact. PhysTEC is a project led by APS with AAPT, and supported by the NSF and the APS Campaign for the 21st Century.

  9. RepPop: a database for repetitive elements in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populus trichocarpa is the first tree genome to be completed, and its whole genome is currently being assembled. No functional annotation about the repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome is currently available. Results We predicted 9,623 repetitive elements in the Populus trichocarpa genome, and assigned functions to 3,075 of them (31.95%. The 9,623 repetitive elements cover ~40% of the current (partially assembled genome. Among the 9,623 repetitive elements, 668 have copies only in the contigs that have not been assigned to one of the 19 chromosome while the rest all have copies in the partially assembled chromosomes. Conclusion All the predicted data are organized into an easy-to-use web-browsable database, RepPop. Various search capabilities are provided against the RepPop database. A Wiki system has been set up to facilitate functional annotation and curation of the repetitive elements by a community rather than just the database developer. The database RepPop will facilitate the assembling and functional characterization of the Populus trichocarpa genome.

  10. RepARK--de novo creation of repeat libraries from whole-genome NGS reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Philipp; Platzer, Matthias; Downie, Bryan R

    2014-05-01

    Generation of repeat libraries is a critical step for analysis of complex genomes. In the era of next-generation sequencing (NGS), such libraries are usually produced using a whole-genome shotgun (WGS) derived reference sequence whose completeness greatly influences the quality of derived repeat libraries. We describe here a de novo repeat assembly method--RepARK (Repetitive motif detection by Assembly of Repetitive K-mers)--which avoids potential biases by using abundant k-mers of NGS WGS reads without requiring a reference genome. For validation, repeat consensuses derived from simulated and real Drosophila melanogaster NGS WGS reads were compared to repeat libraries generated by four established methods. RepARK is orders of magnitude faster than the other methods and generates libraries that are: (i) composed almost entirely of repetitive motifs, (ii) more comprehensive and (iii) almost completely annotated by TEclass. Additionally, we show that the RepARK method is applicable to complex genomes like human and can even serve as a diagnostic tool to identify repetitive sequences contaminating NGS datasets.

  11. A method mediated AAVS1 recombination with Rep mRNA and homologous arms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiantong Xiang; Linian Huang; Sijia Guo; Fang Chen; Xiaojun Zha; Bing Chen; Liangdan Sun; Haisheng Zhou; Depei Liu

    2012-01-01

    The adeno-associated virus (AAV) genome can be stably integrated into the AAVS1 region of human chromosome 19 (19q13.4-qter) with the assistance of Rep68/78 protein.In the current models of AAV integration in a locusspecific manner,the foreign genes were randomly inserted into the AAVS1 region,which contains several functional genes.As random integration in this region may lead to insertion mutations and disrupt normal gene expression or critical signaling pathways of the host cells,it is necessary to find a precise insertion site in the AAVS1 region.Homologous recombination is the most accurate and versatile mechanism for such site-specific integration.To investigate site-specific integration in the AAVS1 region,a targeted vector containing two homologous arms derived from AAVS1 and a reporter gene was transfected into HeLa cells with or without Rep68/78 mRNA.The results indicated that transient expression of Rep68/78 in HeLa cells improved integration of the gene of interest at the AAVS1 locus in a site-specific manner.Compared with locus-specific integration reported in previous studies,sitespecific integration may minimize the risk associated with random DNA integration in the AAVS1 region,which might be helpful for gene therapy.

  12. Design and Implementation of Reconfigurable Embedded Processor (REP for AUV using FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Rizal Arshad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The superscalar pipeline is something that the REP architecture resembles. The features that are similar in both architectures include rename, decode, fetch as well as in-order front-ends parts as substituted by dispatch units. The physical register file, execute unit, dynamic scheduler and task queue are contained by the out of-order execution core. The architecture also contains the REP that beholds an integrated system of shared-memory. A number of experiments with realistic benchmarks and an FPGA environment are used to synthesize design. The experiments conducted yielded in results that prove that the new architecture of the REP leads to higher performance of applications because of decreased processing time. And the core reason for the deduction of processing time is the simplified complexity of the frequency and area of the architecture. The results show that the least error tolerance is 1m by particle filter. Also, the optimum iteration level is 20 to get enhanceable navigation data for AUV.

  13. Realizace 3D tiskárny typu RepRap

    OpenAIRE

    Sochor, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce bude sestavení a ověření funkčnosti 3D tiskárny typu RepRap. Tiskárna bude sestavena z běžně dostupných dílů a pro zachování myšlenky RepRap také z dílů tisknutých. Po ověření funkčnosti 3D tiskárny bude vytisknuta identická součást na dvou typech tiskáren (3D tiskárna typu RepRap vs. profesionální tiskárna uPrint) za účelem zhodnocení a celkové analýzy, jak po stránce finanční, tak po stránce fyzické. Práce bude ukončena zhodnocením použitelnosti a konkurenceschopnosti...

  14. Reply to “Comment on ‘Gauge invariance and k-factorization of exclusive processes’ [Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 176]” [Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, F.; Ma, J. P.; Wang, Q.

    2009-06-01

    A new method is proposed to calculate wave functions in kT-factorization in [H.-n. Li, S. Mishima, Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 182, arXiv:0808.1526] as a comment about our paper [F. Feng, J.P. Ma, Q. Wang, Phys. Lett. B 674 (2009) 176, arXiv:0807.0296]. We point out that the results obtained with the method are in conflict with the translation invariance and depend on the chosen contours for loop-integrals. Therefore, the method is in principle unacceptable and the results with the method cannot be correct.

  15. Optical diagnostics of femtosecond laser plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yutong

    2001-01-01

    [1]Benattar, R., Popovics, C., Sigel, R., Polarized light interferometer for laser fusion studies, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 979, 50(2): 583.[2]Young, P. E., Hammer, J. H., Wilks, S. C. et al., Laser beam propagation and channel formation in underdense plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 995, 2(7): 2825.[3]Zhang, P., He, J.T., Chen, D.B. et al., Effects of a prepulse on γ-ray radiation produced by a femtosecond laser with only mJ energy, Phys. Rev. E., 998, 57: R3746.[4]Stamper, J. A., Review on spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas: phenomena and measurements, Laser and Particle Beams, 99, 9(4): 84.[5]Stamper, J. A., McLean, E. A., Ripin, B. H., Studies of spontaneous magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas by Faraday rotation, Phys. Rev. Lett., 978, 40(8): 77.[6]Raven, A., Willi, O., Rumsby, P. T., Megagauss magnetic field profiles in laser-produced plasmas, Phys. Rev. Lett., 978, 4(8): 554.[7]Burgess, M. D. J., Luther-Davis, B., Nugent, K. A., An experimental study of magnetic fields in plasmas created by high intensity one micron laser radiation, Phys. Fluids, 985, 28(7): 2286.[8]Borghesi, M., Mackinnon, A. J., Bell, A. R. et al., Megagauss magnetic field generation and plasma jet formation on solid targets irradiated by an ultraintense picosecond laser pulse, Phys. Rev. Lett., 998, 8(): 2.

  16. Modulation of pPS10 Host Range by Plasmid-Encoded RepA Initiator Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, Beatriz; Sanz, Jesús M.; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón; Fernández-Tresguerres, Elena

    2003-01-01

    We report here the isolation and analysis of novel repA host range mutants of pPS10, a plasmid originally found in Pseudomonas savastanoi. Upon hydroxylamine treatment, five plasmid mutants were selected for their establishment in Escherichia coli at 37°C, a temperature at which the wild-type form cannot be established. The mutations were located in different functional regions of the plasmid RepA initiation protein, and the mutants differ in their stable maintenance, copy number, and ability to interact with sequences of the basic replicon. Four of them have broadened their host range, and one of them, unable to replicate in Pseudomonas, has therefore changed its host range. Moreover, the mutants also have increased their replication efficiency in strains other than E. coli such as Pseudomonas putida and Alcaligenes faecalis. None of these mutations drastically changed the structure or thermal stability of the wild-type RepA protein, but in all cases an enhanced interaction with host-encoded DnaA protein was detected by gel filtration chromatography. The effects of the mutations on the functionality of RepA protein are discussed in the framework of a three-dimensional model of the protein. We propose possible explanations for the host range effect of the different repA mutants, including the enhancement of limiting interactions of RepA with specific host replication factors such as DnaA. PMID:12562807

  17. PhysTrack’: a Matlab based environment for video tracking of kinematics in the physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Hassan, Muhammad; Sabieh Anwar, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    In the past two decades, several computer software tools have been developed to investigate the motion of moving bodies in physics laboratories. In this article we report a Matlab based video tracking library, PhysTrack, primarily designed to investigate kinematics. We compare PhysTrack with other commonly available video tracking tools and outline its salient features. The general methodology of the whole video tracking process is described with a step by step explanation of several functionalities. Furthermore, results of some real physics experiments are also provided to demonstrate the working of the automated video tracking, data extraction, data analysis and presentation tools that come with this development environment. We believe that PhysTrack will be valuable for the large community of physics teachers and students already employing Matlab.

  18. Alternative Interpretation of Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 410 (1998) 357 (H. Dewa et al.)

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, D; Leemans, W P; Esarey, E; Joshi, C

    1999-01-01

    We consider a recent publication [H. Dewa et al., NIM A 410, 357 (1998)] of an experiment on ultra-high energy laser wakefield acceleration of electrons, involving channeling of the laser pulse in the plasma. We find that in these experiments, channeling of the laser pulse may not have occurred and the detected electron signal may be background noise resulting from multiple electron scattering.

  19. Comments on Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 097101 "Reevaluation of the parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon"

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, M

    2014-01-01

    The HERMES collaboration in Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 097101 extracted information about the strange quark density in the nucleon. One of the main results is an observation that the shape of the extracted density is very different from the shapes of the strange quark density from global QCD fits and also from that of the light antiquarks. In this paper systematic studies on the HERMES published multiplicity of pion and kaon data are presented. It is shown that the conclusions concerning the strange quark distribution in the nucleon reached in Phys. Rev. D89 (2014) 097101 are at the moment premature.

  20. Comment on “Temperature dependence of atomic vibrations in mono-layer graphene” [J. Appl. Phys. 118, 074302 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susi, T., E-mail: toma.susi@univie.ac.at; Kotakoski, J. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-02-14

    In an interesting recent study [Allen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 118, 074302 (2015)] (see also their Erratum [Allen et al., J. Appl. Phys. 118, 159902 (2015)]), Allen and co-workers measured the mean square amplitudes of graphene lattice vibrations between 100 and 1300 K and used a simplified theoretical approximation for the acoustic phonon modes to evaluate the maximum phonon wavelengths supported by the lattice. By fitting their data using the smallest wave-vector as the fitting parameter, they found this to be significantly smaller than the physical size of the graphene crystallites.

  1. Translation initiation of the replication initiator repB gene of promiscuous plasmid pMV158 is led by an extended non-SD sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguilar, Celeste; Ruiz-Masó, José A; Rubio-Lepe, Tania Samir; Sanz, Marta; del Solar, Gloria

    2013-07-01

    RepB is the pMV158-encoded protein that initiates rolling-circle replication of this promiscuous plasmid. Availability of RepB is rate-limiting for the plasmid replication process, and therefore the repB gene encoding the protein is subjected to strict control. Two trans-acting plasmid elements, CopG and the antisense RNAII, are involved in controlling the synthesis of the initiator at the transcriptional and translational level, respectively. In addition to this dual control of repB expression that senses and corrects fluctuations in plasmid copy number, proper availability of RepB also relies on the adequate functionality of the transcription and translation initiation regulatory signals. Translation of repB has been postulated to depend on an atypical ribosome binding site that precedes its start codon, although such a hypothesis has never been proved. To define sequences involved in translation of repB, several mutations in the translation initiation region of the repB mRNA have been characterized by using an Escherichia coli in vitro expression system wherein the synthesis of RepB was detected and quantified. We showed that translation of repB is not coupled to that of copG and depends only on its own initiation signals. The atypical ribosome binding site, as it was defined, is not involved in translation initiation. However, the sequence just upstream of the repB start codon, encompassing the proximal box of the atypical ribosome binding site and the four bases immediately downstream of it, is indeed important for efficient translation of repB. The high degree of conservation of this sequence among the rep genes of plasmids of the same pMV158 family supports its relevancy as a translation initiation signal in mRNAs without a recognizable Shine-Dalgarno sequence.

  2. Laser Plasmas : Optical guiding of laser beam in nonuniform plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarsem Singh Gill

    2000-11-01

    A plasma channel produced by a short ionising laser pulse is axially nonuniform resulting from the self-defocusing. Through such preformed plasma channel, when a delayed pulse propagates, the phenomena of diffraction, refraction and self-phase modulation come into play. We have solved the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the propagation characteristics for an approximate analytical solution using variational approach. Results are compared with the theoretical model of Liu and Tripathi (Phys. Plasmas 1, 3100 (1994)) based on paraxial ray approximation. Particular emphasis is on both beam width and longitudinal phase delay which are crucial to many applications.

  3. Comment on : "A novel approach for solving the Fisher equation using Exp-function method" [Phys. Lett. A 372 3836

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kudryashov, Nikolai A.

    2009-01-01

    Using Exp-function method Ozis and Koroglu [T. Ozis, C. Koroglu, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 3836] have found exact "solutions" of the Fisher equation. In this comment we demonstrate that all these solutions do not satisfy the Fisher equation. The efficiency of application of Exp-function method to sea

  4. Comment on "Soret motion in non-ionic binary molecular mixtures" [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 054102 (2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Semen N; Schimpf, Martin E

    2012-09-28

    The material transport equations derived in the article by Leroyer and Würger [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 054102 (2011)] do not adequately provide a description of material transport in liquid binary systems. An alternate approach based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics is presented.

  5. Comment on "Structure and properties of reduced LaCoO3" [J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5553 (1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    A hexagonal crystal lattice with the perovskite structure can be treated as rhombohedral or pseudocubic structure. The publication by Sis and Wirtz [J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5553 (1973)] presented a schematic diagram to explain these relationships, but made a mistake in the hexagonal lattice, which is corrected here.

  6. Impact of capsid conformation and Rep-capsid interactions on adeno-associated virus type 2 genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, Svenja; Pawlita, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are packaged into preformed capsids. It has been proposed that packaging is initiated by interaction of genome-bound Rep proteins to the capsid, thereby targeting the genome to the portal of encapsidation. Here we describe a panel of mutants with amino acid exchanges in the pores at the fivefold axes of symmetry on AAV2 capsids with reduced packaging and reduced Rep-capsid interaction. Mutation of two threonines at the rim of the fivefold pore nearly completely abolished Rep-capsid interaction and packaging. This suggests a Rep-binding site at the highly conserved amino acids at or close to the pores formed by the capsid protein pentamers. A different mutant (P. Wu, W. Xiao, T. Conlon, J. Hughes, M. Agbandje-McKenna, T. Ferkol, T. Flotte, and N. Muzyczka, J. Virol. 74:8635-8647, 2000) with an amino acid exchange at the interface of capsid protein pentamers led to a complete block of DNA encapsidation. Analysis of the capsid conformation of this mutant revealed that the pores at the fivefold axes were occupied by VP1/VP2 N termini, thereby preventing DNA introduction into the capsid. Nevertheless, the corresponding capsids had more Rep proteins bound than wild-type AAV, showing that correct Rep interaction with the capsid depends on a defined capsid conformation. Both mutant types together support the conclusion that the pores at the fivefold symmetry axes are involved in genome packaging and that capsid conformation-dependent Rep-capsid interactions play an essential role in the packaging process.

  7. Transcriptomics of tomato plants infected with TYLCSV or expressing the central TYLCSV Rep protein domain uncover changes impacting pathogen response and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioli, Alessandra; Perla, Carlo; Berardi, Alessandra; Gatti, Francesca; Spanò, Laura; Tavazza, Mario

    2016-06-01

    To establish a successful infection viruses need to overcome plant innate immune responses and redirect host gene expression for their multiplication and diffusion. Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV) is a geminivirus, which causes significant economic losses in tomato. The multifunctional replication associated geminivirus protein (Rep) has an important role during viral infection. In particular, the Rep central domain spanning from aa 120 to 180 is known to interact with viral and host factors. In this study, we used long serial analysis of gene expression to analyse the transcriptional profiles of transgenic tomato plants expressing the first 210 amino acids of TYLCSV Rep (Rep210) and TYLCSV-infected wild-type tomato plants (Wt-Ty). Also, we compared these profiles with those of transgenic Rep130 tomatoes. Comparison of Wt-Ty and Rep210 libraries with the wild-type one identified 118 and 203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), respectively. Importantly, 55% of Wt-Ty DEGs were in common with Rep210, and no ones showed opposite expression. Conversely, a negligible overlap was found between Rep130 DEGs and Wt-Ty and Rep210 ones. TYLCSV- and Rep210-repressed genes, but not induced ones, overlapped with the leaf senescence process. Interestingly, TYLCSV upregulates expression of genes involved in the negative regulation of programmed cell death (PCD), several of which were also regulated by the abscisic acid. Rep210 upregulated genes related to defence response, immune system processes and negative regulation of PCD. Collectively, our results support a model in which the Rep central domain has a pivotal role in redirecting host plant gene expression.

  8. Beam-Plasma Interaction in a 2D Complex Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkos, Stamatios; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.

    2006-10-01

    In a complex (dusty) plasma, penetrating ion or electron beams may lead to beam-plasma instabilities. The instability displays interesting new properties when either the plasma or the beam, or both, are strongly interacting^1. Foremost amongst them is the possible generation of transverse instabilities. We consider the case when a 2D plasma is in the crystalline phase, forming a lattice, and the beam is moving in the lattice plane. Both the grains and the beam particles interact through a realistic Yukawa potential. The beam particles are assumed to be weakly coupled to each other and to the lattice^2. Using the full phonon spectrum for a 2D hexagonal Yukawa lattice^3, we determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The behavior of the growth rates depends on the direction of the beam and on the relationship between the beam speed v and the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds sL, sT. For beam speeds between the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds, the transverse instability could be more important, because it appears at lower k values. ^1 G. J. Kalman and M. Rosenberg, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 5963 (2003) ^2 M. Rosenberg, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4613 (2006) ^3 T. Sullivan, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos, P. Bakshi, M. Rosenberg and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4607 (2006)

  9. Elecciones consulares en la República romana: control y manipulación

    OpenAIRE

    Muñiz Coello, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Tratamos en este artículo sobre la naturaleza de la autoridad del magistrado que preside los comicios electorales en la República romana, con relación a la liturgia de las diversas fases de los procesos y los actos previstos en los mismos. Consideramos relevante tratar de explicar las circuntancias de poder e influencia que caracterizaba al oficio, y la pugna que se desataba entre las factiones del senado, bien para colocar a sus candidatos, bien para influir en ...

  10. La teoría de la justicia en La República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sobrevilla

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta la teoría platónica de la justicia a nivel colectivoe individual en La República, siguiéndose los lineamientos del artículode G. Vlastos, "Justice and Happiness in theRepublic" (1971 . Pesea que se haya objetado a esta teoría de diversas maneras, ella aparece como habiendo iniciado la tradición utópica occidental de reflexión sobre elEstado justo.

  11. La democracia parlamentaria en la República de Weimar: entre el mito y la realidad

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    El artículo examina las principales teorías sobre el fracaso de la República de Weimar y el ascenso del nacional socialismo y llama la atención sobre la necesidad de estudiar en sí el período de Weimar para que, al margen de mitos de todo tipo, revele las deficiencias ideológicas y culturales de la primera experiencia democrática alemana. This article studies the main theories in relation to the failure of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nationalsocialist Dictatorship. Thus it call...

  12. Carreiras políticas e nepotismo na Terceira República francesa (1871-1940)

    OpenAIRE

    Niess,Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Ainda que possa parecer improvável em um regime baseado no sufrágio universal masculino, as conexões familiares e o nepotismo cumpriram um papel extremamente importante na democracia representativa na Terceira República Francesa (1870-1940). Na verdade, essas práticas continuam importantes em algumas partes da esfera política até hoje. Este artigo examina detalhadamente as conexões e as práticas políticas no departamento de Marne, um espaço político onde vários tipos diferentes de conexões po...

  13. Lightweight Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) performing coastal survey operations in REP 10A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incze, Michael L.

    2011-11-01

    Lightweight Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) were developed for Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Group 4 search and survey missions from a commercial AUV baseline (Iver 2) through integration of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware components, and through software development for enhanced on-board Command and Control functions. The development period was 1 year under a project sponsored by the Office of Naval Research TechSolutions Program Office. Hardware integration was completed by the commercial AUV vendor, OceanServer Technology, Inc., and software development was conducted by the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Naval Oceanographic Office, and U MASS Dartmouth, with support from hardware and software application providers (YSI, Inc., Imagenex Technology Corp., and CARIS). At the conclusion of the integration and development period, an at-sea performance evaluation was scheduled for the Lightweight NSW AUVs with NSWG-4 personnel. The venue for this evaluation was the NATO exercise Recognized Environmental Picture 10A (REP 10A), hosted by Marinha Portuguesa, and coordinated by the Faculdade de Engenharia-Universidade do Porto. REP 10A offered an opportunity to evaluate the performance of the new AUVs and to explore the Concept of Operations (CONOPS) for employing them in military survey operations in shallow coastal waters. Shore- and ship-launched scenarios with launch/recovery by a single operator in a one-to-many coordinated survey, on-scene data product generation and visualization, data push to Reach Back Cells for product integration and enhancement, and survey optimization to streamline survey effort and timelines were included in the CONOPS review. Opportunities to explore employment of hybrid AUV fleets in Combined Force scenarios were also utilized. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Marinha Portuguesa, the Faculdade de Engenharia-Universidade do Porto, and OceanServer Technology, Inc., were the primary participants bringing in-water resources to

  14. El separatismo en la República Popular China : El caso de los Uigures en Xinjiang

    OpenAIRE

    Sarli, Corina; Schiaffi, Belén

    2010-01-01

    Con la intención de profundizar el estudio de diferentes aspectos de las relaciones internacionales, se considera relevante analizar aquellos movimientos separatistas que trascienden los conflictos propios de un Estado. En este sentido, es nuestra intención centrarnos en uno de los conflictos internos mas importantes que esta atravesando el Estado que hoy es considerado la segunda economía mundial, la República Popular China (RPCh). Así, el objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar el conflicto...

  15. Realidades de la independencia del Banco de la República Realities of the independence of the Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmanovitz Salomón

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available La autonomía del banco central Colombiano es parte del proceso político que buscaba reducir el exagerado centralismo colombiano. Sin embargo el poder central no fue limitado en grado suficiente por la Constitución del 1991, como muestra el hecho de que el Ministro de Hacienda es el Presidente de la Junta Directiva del Banco de la República. Esto no sucede en ningun banco independiente del mundo por que los objetivos del gobierno son distintos a los del Banco Central y el Ministerio de Finanzas podría desviar al Banco de sus objetivos antiinflacionarios fundamentales. En Colombia, el gobierno no sólo participa en la Junta para acomodar sus múltiples objetivos sino también hace opocisión pública a la política monetaria y así la desacredita. El articulo plantea que el principio de no reelección hace que el horizonte de tiempo sea muy corto para que el gobierno coseche los frutos de una política de estabilización. El gobierno tiende a gastar en exceso para mejorar su imagen pública y el desajuste lo tiene que enfrentar el gobierno siguiente. De modo que la coordinación entre el Banco Central y el gobierno se torna muy conflictiva.The autonomy of the Central Bank of Colombia is part of a political process which seeks to reduce Colombia' s exaggerated centralismo However, central power was not limited to a sufficient degree by the Constitution of 1991, as demonstrated by the fact that the Minister of Finance is the President of the Board of Directors of the Banco de la República. This does not happen in any independent bank in the world, because the objectives of the government are different from those of the central bank, and the Minister of Finance could divert the Bank away from its fundamental anti-inflationary objectives. This article proposes that the principle of no reelection makes the time horizon very short for the government to reap the fruits of a stabilization policy. The government tends to spend in excess in order to

  16. Estado actual de la odontopediatría en la República Mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E .-Huitzil-Muñóz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La odontología pediátrica satisface un propósito muy especial con respecto de las especialidades odontológicas orientada a la prevención y curación de las enfermedades del sistema estomatognático durante la infancia y considerada como una especialidad muy completa y relativamente nueva se realiza una revisión acerca de la historia de la odontología pedíatrica en el mundo y en especial en México, recopilando información importante acerca de las instituciones universitarias que cuentan en su curricula con la especialidad, certificación y zonas de ubicación en la República Mexicana. Conclusiones: De acuerdo a las regiones de la República Mexicana en las que se encuentran ubicados los diversos posgrados, se concluye que de un total de 30 universidades que cuentan con la especialidad o maestría en odontopediatría, existen 7 en la denominada región centro y golfo y 6 en la región México D.F., estos datos concuerdan con el elevado número de habitantes que habitan esas regiones y que necesitan atención odontopediátrica cubriendo así la alta demanda del servicio por parte de los odontólogos posgraduados egresados.

  17. Averróis e a República de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Rosalie Helena de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre República é o único comentário de uma obra de Platão deixado por Averróis, o comentador por antonomásia, diga-se de Aristóteles. Embora se tenha perdido o original árabe, a teles. Embora se tenha perdido o original árabe, a posteridade recebeu uma versão hebraíca e duas latinas. O comentário (ou paráfrase a República de Platão pode ser considerado uma obra original - divida em três livros - já que apenas um terço dela corresponde ao texto platônico. Além de apresentar conceitos aristotélicos retirados da Ética Nicomaquéia e de obras políticas de Al-Farabi, Averróis apresenta reflexões próprias e faz críticas à sociedade em que vive

  18. Four types of (super)conformal mechanics: D-module reps and invariant actions

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, N L

    2014-01-01

    (Super)conformal mechanics in one dimension is induced by parabolic or hyperbolic/trigonometric transformations, either homogeneous (for a scaling dimension $\\lambda$) or inhomogeneous (at $\\lambda=0$, with $\\rho$ an inhomogeneity parameter). Four types of inequivalent (super)conformal actions are thus obtained. With the exclusion of the homogeneous parabolic case, dimensional constants are present. Both the inhomogeneity and the insertion of $\\lambda$ generalize the construction of Papadopoulos [CQG 30 (2013) 075018; arXiv:1210.1719]. Inhomogeneous $D$-module reps are presented for the $d=1$ superconformal algebras $osp(1|2)$, $sl(2|1)$, $B(1,1)$ and $A(1,1)$. For centerless superVirasoro algebras $D$-module reps are presented (in the homogeneous case for ${\\cal N}=1,2,3,4$; in the inhomogeneous case for ${\\cal N}=1,2,3$). The four types of $d=1$ superconformal actions are derived for ${\\cal N}=1,2,4$ systems. When ${\\cal N}=4$, the homogeneously-induced actions are $D(2,1;\\alpha)$-invariant ($\\alpha$ is cri...

  19. Four types of (super)conformal mechanics: D-module reps and invariant actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, N.L.; Toppan, F., E-mail: linneu@cbpf.br, E-mail: toppan@cbpf.br

    2014-03-15

    (Super)conformal mechanics in one dimension is induced by parabolic or hyperbolic/trigonometric transformations, either homogeneous (for a scaling dimension λor inhomogeneous (at λ = 0, with ρ an inhomogeneity parameter). Four types of inequivalent (super)conformal actions are thus obtained. With the exclusion of the homogeneous parabolic case, dimensional constants are present. Both the inhomogeneity and the insertion of λ generalize the construction of Papadopoulos [CQG 30 (2013) 075018; arXiv:1210.1719]. Inhomogeneous D-module reps are presented for the d = 1 superconformal algebras osp(1∣2), sl(2∣1), B(1, 1) and A(1, 1). For centerless super Virasoro algebras D-module reps are presented (in the homogeneous case for N = 1; 2; 3; 4; in the inhomogeneous case for N = 1, 2, 3). The four types of d = 1 superconformal actions are derived for N = 1, 2, 4 systems. When N = 4, the homogeneously-induced actions are D(2, 1; α)-invariant (α is critically linked to λ); the inhomogeneously-induced actions are A(1, 1)-invariant. In d = 2, for a single bosonic field, the homogeneous transformations induce a conformally invariant power-law action, while the inhomogeneous transformations induce the conformally invariant Liouville action. (author)

  20. La segunda república: un discurso esquivo en la izquierda colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Antonio Espinosa Rico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo trata sobre el estado actual de la realidad de la izquierda colombiana y su relación con la crisis del estado moderno colombiano. Se argumenta con FalsBorda (2001 y otros, que la globalización constituye un tema central para la consolidación del capitalismo colombiano, considerando con los autores revisados que el Estado Moderno representa la estructura sobre la cual se yergue el capitalismo en Occidente, pero que en Latinoamérica, y en especial, en la República Neogranadina, sienta las bases para la perpetuación del sistema. Analiza el sistema de división territorial colombiano para establecer premisas de dominio del régimen capitalista sobre el ciudadano común. Se concluye que el nuevo país solo es posible con sueño de la izquierda de la Segunda República, que reivindica las regiones como pilar fundamental para la dignidad del pueblo colombiano.

  1. Postsymbiotic plasmid acquisition and evolution of the repA1-replicon in Buchnera aphidicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; González-Candelas, Fernando; Silva, Francisco J.; Sabater, Beatriz; Moya, Andrés; Latorre, Amparo

    2000-01-01

    Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and chromosomally encoded loci. We infer from these incongruencies a case of horizontal plasmid transfer in Buchnera. This process may have been mediated by secondary endosymbionts, which occasionally undergo horizontal transmission in aphids. PMID:10984505

  2. RepExplore: addressing technical replicate variance in proteomics and metabolomics data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Enrico; Schneider, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    High-throughput omics datasets often contain technical replicates included to account for technical sources of noise in the measurement process. Although summarizing these replicate measurements by using robust averages may help to reduce the influence of noise on downstream data analysis, the information on the variance across the replicate measurements is lost in the averaging process and therefore typically disregarded in subsequent statistical analyses.We introduce RepExplore, a web-service dedicated to exploit the information captured in the technical replicate variance to provide more reliable and informative differential expression and abundance statistics for omics datasets. The software builds on previously published statistical methods, which have been applied successfully to biomedical omics data but are difficult to use without prior experience in programming or scripting. RepExplore facilitates the analysis by providing a fully automated data processing and interactive ranking tables, whisker plot, heat map and principal component analysis visualizations to interpret omics data and derived statistics. Freely available at http://www.repexplore.tk enrico.glaab@uni.lu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Generation of RGB-D data for SLAM using robotic framework V-REP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavel S.; Gritsenko, Igor S.; Seidakhmet, Askar Zh.; Abduraimov, Azizbek E.

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we will present a methodology to debug RGB-D SLAM systems as well as to generate testing data. We have created a model of a laboratory with an area of 250 m2 (25 × 10) with set of objects of different type. V-REP Microsoft Kinect sensor simulation model was used as a basis for robot vision system. Motion path of the sensor model has multiple loops. We have written a program in V-Rep native language Lua to record data array from the Microsoft Kinect sensor model. The array includes both RGB and Depth streams with full resolution (640 × 480) for every 10 cm of the path. The simulated path has absolute accuracy, since it is a simulation, and is represented by an array of transformation matrices (4 × 4). The length of the data array is 1000 steps or 100 m. The path simulates frequently occurring cases in SLAM, including loops. It is worth noting that the path was modeled for a mobile robot and it is represented by a 2D path parallel to the floor at a height of 40 cm.

  4. Reply Comments on Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014) "Reevaluation of the parton distribution of strange quarks in the nucleon"

    CERN Document Server

    Aschenauer, E C; Joosten, S; Rith, K; Schnell, G; Van Hulse, C

    2015-01-01

    In the "Comments on Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014)", the Author presents a number of studies to conjecture that the analysis by the HERMES Collaboration presented in Phys. Rev. D89, 097101 (2014) likely suffers from effects that invalidate the leading-order analysis used in that publication. In our opinion, the Author has drawn erroneous conclusions. We present below a discussion of his arguments and the results from a repetition of that analysis using a range of parton distribution sets. The spread in those results precludes credible conclusions and demonstrates the sensitivity of the analysis to poorly known input data (unfavored FFs, strange-quark distributions, and mixed singlet and nonsinglet quantities).

  5. La “República de Colombia” del Libertador Simón Bolívar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Uribe Celis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo traza el recorrido hist rico de la Rep blica de Colombia como la visualiz , la program y le dio vida el Libertador Sim n Bol var. La Rep blica de Colombia de Bol var era la uni n de lo que despu s constituyeron tres rep blicas distintas, hoy conocidas como Venezuela, Colombia y Ecuador. Bol var aprovecha parcialmente una idea original de Miranda (la Colombeia del sue o continental del ?recursor?, y este ensayo ilustra la con?guraci n del proyecto bolivariano, desde sus comienzos ajenos hasta la disoluci n del mismo, lo que pr cticamente coincide con la muerte del Libertador. La historia de Colombia se ubica aqu en el contexto de la lucha bolivariana por la Independencia del norte y centro de Suram rica.

  6. Identification of new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis using rep-PCR products and d-endotoxin electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima A.S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR has been used to analyze the distribution of REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus sequences (rep-PCR found within the genome of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, with the purpose to analyze the genetic similarities among 56 subspecies samples and 95 field isolates. The PCR products were analyzed by EB-AGE (ethidium bromide-agarose electrophoresis and then submitted to banding comparisons, based on the Phyllip software algorithm. When the banding similarities were considered for comparison purposes among all the strains, the phylogenic tree patterns varied according to the rep-PCR primers considered, but, from a broader point of view, the ERIC sequences produced better results, which, together with electron microscopy analysis of the released parasporal bodies and colony morphology characteristics, allowed to detect two possible new subspecies of B. thuringiensis.

  7. Identification of new isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis using rep-PCR products and delta-endotoxin electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.G. Lima

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PCR has been used to analyze the distribution of REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus sequences (rep-PCR found within the genome of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, with the purpose to analyze the genetic similarities among 56 subspecies samples and 95 field isolates. The PCR products were analyzed by EB-AGE (ethidium bromide-agarose electrophoresis and then submitted to banding comparisons, based on the Phyllip software algorithm. When the banding similarities were considered for comparison purposes among all the strains, the phylogenic tree patterns varied according to the rep-PCR primers considered, but, from a broader point of view, the ERIC sequences produced better results, which, together with electron microscopy analysis of the released parasporal bodies and colony morphology characteristics, allowed to detect two possible new subspecies of B. thuringiensis.

  8. Retraction: On the origin of power-law distributions in systems with constrained phase space [Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Condens. Matter Phys., 2013, vol. 16, 43802 ( DOI:10.5488/CMP.16.43802 has been retracted by the decision of the Editorial Board. There is a significant overlap with an article: Phys. Rev. E, 2006, vol. 74, 036120 ( DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.74.036120. Appologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  9. Comments on ``Lightning return stroke. A numerical calculation of the optical radiation'' [Phys. Fluids 29, 2736 (1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. D.

    1987-08-01

    It is noted that the energy computed by Paxton et al. [Phys. Fluids 29, 2736 (1986)] for the dissipation in unit length of a typical lightning channel is much less than a widely quoted experimental value, and also less than an earlier computed value. A further comment on the work of Paxton et al. that a large fraction of energy is ``radiated away,'' is also made.

  10. Comment on "Total Negative Refraction in Real Crystals for Ballistic Electrons and Light" (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 157404 (2003))

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, H. -F.; Liu, J.-P.; Ke, B; Kuo, C. -H.; Ye, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Zhang et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 157404 (2003)) have demonstrated that an amphoteric refraction, i. e. both positive and negative refraction, may prevail at the interface of two uniaxial anisotropic crystals when their optical axes are in different directions. The authors subsequently made a correspondence between such a refraction with the negative refraction expected for Left Handed Materials (LHMs). Here we comment that the amphoteric refraction can be observed even with one un...

  11. Comment on ``Unified explanation of the anomalous dynamic properties of highly asymmetric polymer blends'' [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054903 (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, J.

    2013-05-01

    In a recent paper by Ngai and Capaccioli ["Unified explanation of the anomalous dynamic properties of highly asymmetric polymer blends," J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054903 (2013), 10.1063/1.4789585] the authors claimed that the so-called coupling model (CM) provides a unified explanation of all dynamical anomalies that have been reported for dynamically asymmetric blends over last ten years. Approximately half of the paper is devoted to chain-dynamic properties involving un-entangled polymers. According to the authors, the application of the CM to these results is based on the existence of a crossover at a time tc ≈ 1-2 ns of the magnitudes describing chain-dynamics. Ngai and Capaccioli claimed that the existence of such a crossover is supported by the neutron scattering and MD-simulation results, corresponding to the blend poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide), by Niedzwiedz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 168301 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.168301] and Brodeck et al. [Macromolecules 43, 3036 (2010), 10.1021/ma902820a], respectively. Being one of the authors of these two papers, I will demonstrate here that there is no evidence supporting such a crossover in the data reported in these papers.

  12. Desplazando al Rey en la escuela de la nueva nación mexicana: "el catecismo de República"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Adelina ARREDONDO LÓPEZ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo estudia cómo un texto escolar, como el catecismo político de la nueva República de México, contribuye a desplazar de la escuela primaria la presencia colonial española, representada en el Rey, por nuevas imágenes de las instituciones de la naciente República de México. ABSTRACT: This paper studie how a textbook, the politic catechism of Mexican Republic, contribute to suplant the Spanish King instead the new images of the recent Mexican Republic during the emancipation process.

  13. Impact of Capsid Conformation and Rep-Capsid Interactions on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Genome Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Bleker, Svenja; Pawlita, Michael; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) are packaged into preformed capsids. It has been proposed that packaging is initiated by interaction of genome-bound Rep proteins to the capsid, thereby targeting the genome to the portal of encapsidation. Here we describe a panel of mutants with amino acid exchanges in the pores at the fivefold axes of symmetry on AAV2 capsids with reduced packaging and reduced Rep-capsid interaction. Mutation of two threonines at the rim of the fivefol...

  14. Presencia y bioacumulación de productos de cuidado personal en corales marinos de República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    De León Peguero, Ana Esther

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del proyecto a desarrollar es determinar la presencia de determinados aditivos orgánicos que se utilizan en productos de cuidado personal como champú, gel de baño, maquillaje, cremas solares, etc, en aguas y arrecifes de coral de la República Dominicana. Recientemente se ha documentado que la presencia de este tipo de contaminantes es responsable del blanqueamiento de los corales en zonas del Pacífico y dada la preocupación creciente en la República. Dominicana por el mal estado ...

  15. Em busca do despertar: o fortalecimento da sociedade civil angolana após a Segunda República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza Pain

    2006-01-01

    passagem da Primeira República, caracterizada por um Estado de Partido Único, por uma economia planificada e inspirada nos ideais marxistas e leninistas; para a Segunda República, ou seja, para uma economia de mercado, multipartidária, explicitando as adversidades advindas das diversas realidades sociais, políticas e culturais do espaço territorial angolano resultante do processo de colonização, para a formação e consolidação da democracia e da sociedade civil em Angola.

  16. Iberia : capital federal de la IIª República Española (Un proyecto de Rubio i Tuduri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sambricio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A los pocos meses de proclamarse, en 1931, la II República Española, Nicolás Rubio i Tuduri presentaba —en el marco de la Exposición organizada por la Asociación de Arquitectos de Cataluña, celebrada en la barcelonesa Galería Maragall— una propuesta un tanto sorprendente: el proyecto de una nueva Capital Federal de la República Española que él denominaba Iberia.

  17. Transient evolution of solitary electron holes in low pressure laboratory plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2015-01-01

    Solitary electrons holes (SEHs) are localized electrostatic positive potential structures in collisionless plasmas. These are vortex-like structures in the electron phase space. Its existence is cause of distortion of the electron distribution in the resonant region. These are explained theoretically first time by Schamel et.al [Phys. Scr. 20, 336 (1979) and Phys. Plasmas 19, 020501 (2012)]. Propagating solitary electron holes can also be formed in a laboratory plasma when a fast rising high positive voltage pulse is applied to a metallic electrode [Kar et. al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102113 (2010)] immersed in a low pressure plasma. The temporal evolution of these structures can be studied by measuring the transient electron distribution function (EDF). In the present work, transient EDF is measured after formation of a solitary electron hole in nearly uniform, unmagnetized, and collisionless plasma for applied pulse width and, where and are applied pulse width and inverse of ion plasma frequency respectively. Fo...

  18. Dust Acoustic Wave Excitation in a Plasma with Warm Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Thomas, E., Jr.; Marcus, L.; Fisher, R.; Williams, J. D.; Merlino, R. L.

    2008-11-01

    Measurements of the dust acoustic wave dispersion relation in dusty plasmas formed in glow discharges at the University of Iowa [1] and Auburn University [2] have shown the importance of finite dust temperature effects. The effect of dust grains with large thermal speeds was taken into account using kinetic theory of the ion-dust streaming instability [3]. The results of analytic and numerical calculations of the dispersion relation based on the kinetic theory will be presented and compared with the experimental results. [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [3] M. Rosenberg, E. Thomas Jr., and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 15, 073701 (2008).

  19. The tissue-specific Rep8/UBXD6 tethers p97 to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for degradation of misfolded proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Madsen

    Full Text Available The protein known as p97 or VCP in mammals and Cdc48 in yeast is a versatile ATPase complex involved in several biological functions including membrane fusion, protein folding, and activation of membrane-bound transcription factors. In addition, p97 plays a central role in degradation of misfolded secretory proteins via the ER-associated degradation pathway. This functional diversity of p97 depends on its association with various cofactors, and to further our understanding of p97 function it is important that these cofactors are identified and analyzed. Here, we isolate and characterize the human protein named Rep8 or Ubxd6 as a new cofactor of p97. Mouse Rep8 is highly tissue-specific and abundant in gonads. In testes, Rep8 is expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids, whereas in ovaries Rep8 is expressed in granulosa cells. Rep8 associates directly with p97 via its UBX domain. We show that Rep8 is a transmembrane protein that localizes to the ER membrane with its UBX domain facing the cytoplasm. Knock-down of Rep8 expression in human cells leads to a decreased association of p97 with the ER membrane and concomitantly a retarded degradation of misfolded ER-derived proteasome substrates. Thus, Rep8 tethers p97 to the ER membrane for efficient ER-associated degradation.

  20. Expression of full-length and truncated Rep genes from Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna inhibits viral replication in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, Padubidri V; Thillaichidambaram, P; Balaji, Vasudevan; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2006-12-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV-Vig) is a bipartite geminivirus that causes a severe yellow mosaic disease in blackgram. An assay was developed to study MYMV-Vig replication by agroinoculation of tobacco leaf discs with partial dimers of the virus. This assay, in a non-host model plant, was used to evaluate pathogen-derived resistance contributed by MYMV-Vig genes in transgenic plants. Viral DNA accumulation was optimum in tobacco leaf discs cultured for 10 days after infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain Ach5 containing partial dimers of both DNA A and DNA B of MYMV-Vig. Transgenic tobacco plants with MYMV-Vig genes for coat protein (CP), replication-associated protein (Rep)-sense, Rep-antisense, truncated Rep (T-Rep), nuclear shuttle protein (NSP) and movement protein (MP) were generated. Leaf discs from transgenic tobacco plants, harbouring MYMV-Vig genes, were agroinoculated with partial dimers of MYMV-Vig and analyzed for viral DNA accumulation. The leaf discs from transgenic tobacco plants harbouring CP and MP genes supported the accumulation of higher levels of MYMV-Vig DNA. However, MYMV-Vig accumulation was inhibited in one transgenic plant harbouring the Rep-sense gene and in two plants harbouring the T-Rep gene. Northern analysis of these plants revealed a good correlation between expression of Rep or T-Rep genes and inhibition of MYMV-Vig accumulation.

  1. Research in Pulsed Power Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    constraints will preclude the use of channels with much with a Tesla coil. Nor is uniformity improved by the use of larger wall radii. a 3 kA prepulse. Driving...Oliphant. 12C. Bruno, J. Delvaux. A. Nicolas . and M. Roche, IEEE Trans. Plasma and P. F. Ottinger. App!. Phys. Lett. 45. 1043 (1984).ISci. PS-IS, 686

  2. A model for transonic plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guazzotto, Luca, E-mail: luca.guazzotto@rochester.edu [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hameiri, Eliezer, E-mail: hameiri@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.

  3. 环境因素对大肠杆菌REP-PCR指纹图谱稳定性影响研究%Effect of environmental factors of REP-PCR fingerprinting patterns stability of Escherichia coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彦垒; 梁斌; 李冬梅; 苏洁; 关道明; 王耀兵

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli is an important indicator in fecal pollution, The E. Coli DN A fingerprinting stability is to restrict one of identifying techniques development of the microbial polluted sources. In order to solve this problem, the E. Coli K12( K12CFP) , which the green fluorescent protein (CFP) plasmid was transformed, were chose to make a research. Its DNA fingerprinting stability was under different environmental factors (temperature,sunlight time and salinity). The results showed that the green fluorescent protein (CFP) did not affect the REP-PCR fingerprinting patterns of E. Coli K12 and the REP-PCR fingerprinting pattern is highly stable under the different environmental factors, temperature, sunlight time and salinity.%大肠杆菌作为粪便污染指示生物,其DNA指纹图谱稳定性是制约微生物污染源识别技术发展的瓶颈之一.本研究采用绿色荧光蛋白基因(GFP)标记后的Escherichia coli K12(K12GFP)为受试菌株,利用REP-PCR方法,对大肠杆菌在不同温度、光照、盐度条件下其DNA指纹图谱的稳定性进行了研究.结果表明,绿色荧光蛋白基因的标记不影响E.coli K12的REP-PCR指纹图谱;且大肠杆菌在不同温度、光照、盐度条件下REP-PCR指纹图谱具有高度的稳定性.

  4. Eficacia publicitaria: El caso de IKEA y 'La República Independiente de Tu Casa'

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Ramírez, Marta

    2014-01-01

    L'estudi pretén aprofundir en l'àmbit de l'avaluació de l'eficàcia publicitària, a través de l'anàlisi d'un cas concret: l'anunci d'IKEA 'Benvingut a la República Independent de casa teva' de l'any 2006. Primerament, s'intenta explicar en què consisteix el concepte d'eficàcia, es reflexiona sobre la seva relació o no amb les vendes que aconsegueix generar una marca, i s'obren vies sobre criteris d'avaluació útils per a la investigació. S'arriba a una primera observació: la importància dels ob...

  5. Triatoma baccalaureatus: sobre a crise do bacharelismo na Primeira República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sontag

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende abordar a crise do bacharelismo (hegemônico durante o Império nas primeiras décadas do século XX, principalmente por meio da literatura, relacionando-a com as transformações que estavam ocorrendo no ensino e no saber jurídico. Ao longo da Primeira República, à medida que outras figuras passam a ganhar espaço no cenário público (engenheiros, sanitaristas, etc., o bacharelismo passa a ser duramente questionado, aprofundando as críticas que já vinham sendo levadas a cabo no final do século XIX pelo positivismo cientificista; a partir disso, começa a se formar a cultura do tecnicismo jurídico. Palavras-chave: História do Direito. Bacharelismo. Positivismo cientificista. Tecnicismo.

  6. Agripino Nazareth e o movimento operário da Primeira República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldrin Armstrong Silva Castellucci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agripino Nazareth (1886-1961 se destacou como liderança socialista do movimento operário brasileiro ao longo da Primeira República. Depois de 1930, passou a integrar os quadros do Ministério do Trabalho e da Justiça do Trabalho, aposentando-se como Procurador do Trabalho no início de 1960 e falecendo no dia 1º de agosto de 1961. Neste artigo, analisaremos o primeiro momento de sua trajetória, quando se associou a outros militantes das mais variadas correntes político-ideológicas, envolvendo-se em movimentos de diversos matizes e assumindo diferentes compromissos.

  7. Site-specific integration by the adeno-associated virus rep protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Alessandra; Mavilio, Fulvio

    2011-10-01

    Inserting genetic information at precise locations into the human genome has been the goal of gene transfer technology for almost two decades. The spectacular progress of mammalian genetics has led to the development of technology for genome editing and homologous recombination in human somatic cells that is finally approaching efficiency compatible with clinical application. Site-specific integration, or the insertion of genes at known locations by enzymes with target recognition capacity, has progressed slowly but steadily in recent years, and could very well be the basis of the next generation of gene transfer technology. This review focuses on the use of Rep, the replicase/integrase of the adeno-associated virus (AAV), to insert genes at the natural AAV integration site on human chromosome 19. This region (AAVS1) has characteristics that make it an ideal target for somatic transgenesis.

  8. A paradiplomacia financeira no Brasil da República Velha, 1890-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nelson Bessa Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, visa-se a analisar um caso de extroversão de governos estaduais no campo do financiamento externo no período da chamada República Velha (1890-1930 no Brasil. Com base na definição de "paradiplomacia financeira", argumenta que a experiência histórica brasileira nesse aspecto teria sido um caso típico de ação paradiplomática. Amplo levantamento estatístico dos empréstimos externos por estados, o resgate das fontes documentais primárias sobre o assunto e a contextualização histórica pertinente dão sustentação à caracterização do período como uma fase de paradiplomacia financeira precoce.

  9. A paradiplomacia financeira no Brasil da República Velha, 1890-1930

    OpenAIRE

    José Nelson Bessa Maia; José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2012-01-01

    Neste artigo, visa-se a analisar um caso de extroversão de governos estaduais no campo do financiamento externo no período da chamada República Velha (1890-1930) no Brasil. Com base na definição de "paradiplomacia financeira", argumenta que a experiência histórica brasileira nesse aspecto teria sido um caso típico de ação paradiplomática. Amplo levantamento estatístico dos empréstimos externos por estados, o resgate das fontes documentais primárias sobre o assunto e a contextualização históri...

  10. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  11. 78 FR 53774 - Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, FEMA-REP-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... not available when FEMA REP-10 was first developed, such as smartphones and social media. Removes... Design Report) and planning aspects (ANS/Communication Plans) demonstrating the achievement of minimally... proposed policy does not have the force or effect of law. FEMA seeks comment on the proposed policy,...

  12. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tluczkiewicz, I.; Batke, M.; Kroese, D.; Buist, H.; Aldenberg, T.; Pauné, E.; Grimm, H.; Kühne, R.; Schüürmann, G.; Mangelsdorf, I.; Escher, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evalua

  13. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  14. La lucha contra la discriminación y la apatridia en la República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Bridget WOODING

    2009-01-01

    Tras muchas décadas de migración irregular de haitianos que llegan a la República Dominicana para asentarse y trabajar, existe una población numerosa en situación incierta expuesta a frecuentes discriminaciones y abusos de los derechos humanos.

  15. Mida on vaja teha õpilaskodude arendamiseks? / Ale Sprenk, Karin Saare, Merike Mändla, Mailis Reps...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Krabi põhikooli direktor, õpilaskodu mõtte algataja Ale Sprenk, Kasari põhikooli direktor Karin Saare, haridus- ja teadusministeeriumi üldharidusosakonna peaekspert Merike Mändla, riigikogu liige, endine haridusminister Mailis Reps ja Otepää gümnaasiumi direktor Aivo Meema

  16. Feature selection and data sampling methods for learning reputation dimensions: The University of Amsterdam at RepLab 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on our participation in the reputation dimension task of the CLEF RepLab 2014 evaluation initiative, i.e., to classify social media updates into eight predefined categories. We address the task by using corpus-based methods to extract textual features from the labeled training data to

  17. Naturaleza jurídica de la Contraloría General de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Murillo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Todavía reina una confusión acerca de la naturaleza jurídica de la ContraloríaGeneral  de la República, pese a los 15 años de vigencia del texto constitucional, cuya insuficiente redacción es obviamente la causante del problema.

  18. Molecular characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from poultry, ruminant, cats and dogs using RAPD and REP-PCR analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA‌ (RAPD and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic sequence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (REP-PCR were used to characterize 131 isolates of Pasteurella multocida, originating from different healthy and diseased animal species obtained from several geographical regions of Iran. The RAPD and REP-PCR generated amplified products in the range of 300 to 3400 bp and 200 to 2850 bp, respectively. Among all of the P. multocida isolates, cluster analysis revealed that 63 clusters and nine untypable isolates and 81 clusters and six untypable isolates were produced with RAPD and REP-PCR methods, respectively. The results indicated that the REP-PCR method showed a slightly higher level of discrimination power in differentiating of P. multocida isolates as compared with RAPD. The results showed that a considerable level of genetic diversity exists among P. multocida isolates even in the isolates with the same animal or geographical origins. There was no host- and region-specific pattern. In addition, the isolates obtained from the healthy and diseased animal did not reveal any correlation genotypic profiles, which could be supported by the hypothesis that P. multocida is a strictly opportunistic pathogen. In conclusion, because of a large amount of genetic heterogeneityin the P. multocida isolates, Pasteurellosis may be caused by different clones in the same herd or animal.

  19. DEMO_REP: A LABS TOOL FOR TEACHING DATA REPLICATION / DEMO_REP: HERRAMIENTA PARA LABORATORIOS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DE RÉPLICA DE DATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileane Martí Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of training professionals in information technologies is a key aspect in the development of the country. University Informatics Science is one of the main centers dedicated to this process, also has postgraduate training programs to further advanced topics not mentioned in the pregraduate. One such program is the "DIPLOMADO EN TECNOLOGÍAS DE BASES DE DATOS POSTGRESQL," which has a number of courses to obtain expertise in the subject of databases in PostgreSQL Manager. In this paper show how affects in the understanding of the process of data replication, the use of the software tool "Demo_rep" for laboratory exercises replication. It also describes the main features of software tool.RESUMENEl proceso de formación de los profesionales en tecnologías de la informática es un aspecto clave en el desarrollo del país. La Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas es uno de los principales centros que se dedica a este proceso, la misma consta de programas de formación postgraduada para profundizar en temas que no aparecen incluidos en los programas analíticos de las asignaturas de pregrado. Uno de estos programas es el “DIPLOMADO EN TECNOLOGÍAS DE BASES DE DATOS POSTGRESQL”, el cual cuenta con una serie de cursos para lograr experticia en la temática de las bases de datos en el gestor PostgreSQL. En el presente trabajo se muestra cómo incide en la comprensión del proceso de la replicación de datos, la utilización de una herramienta informática “Demo_rep” para realizar los ejercicios de laboratorio de réplica. Se describe además las principales funcionalidades de la misma.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships, virulence factors and Rep-PCR epidemiological analysis of E. coli from human sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Caroppo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Escherichia coli to cause of extra-intestinal infections was studied on a group of 94 clinical isolates. In this work, 32 E. coli isolates from urinary tract infections, 25 from bacteraemia, 12 from low respiratory tract infections, and 25 from the normal commensal flora were characterized for the phylogenetic type, the virulence factors (VFs carriage and the Rep-PCR clonal composition.The B2 phylogenetic type was predominant among the urinary isolates (59%, the B2 and D strains among the haematic isolates (32% and 32%.The A phylogenetic type was predominant among the commensal and the respiratory isolates (52% and 58% respectively.The distribution of the B2 type strains among the urinary isolates and of the D type strains among the faecal isolates was suggesting a urinary-origin for the B2 phylogenetic type isolates found in the blood and a direct faecal derivation for the haematic isolates with D phylogenetic type.Twenty-nine VFs were analyzed.The B2 and D type strains carried a higher burden of VFs than the A and B1 phylogenetic type strains (average of VFs/strain = 8 vs 3. Some of the VFs were homogeneously distributed among the phylogenetic types (fimH, iutA, fyuA, traT. The PAI, papGII, ibeA, KpsMTIII were exclusive of B2 and D phylogenetic type strains, while sfa/foc, focG, cnf1, hlyA and rfc were exclusively observed among the B2 type strains.The clustering analysis by Rep-PCR distinguished two groups of strains, the first including 96.77% of B2 and D type strains, while the second encompassing 91,5% of A and B1 type strains.

  1. Los médicos del exilio repúblicano en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La guerra civil española provocó el exilio de un importante número de científicos e intelectuales. Dentro de ellos numerosos médicos saldrían de España obligados por su defensa de la República o su ideología democrática. Una gran mayoría se establecieron en América Latina. Venezuela es el segundo país donde más facultativos acoge, tras México. En el presente trabajo se analiza cuales fueron las circunstancias históricas que permitieron esta acogida, y se hace referencia a alguna de las personalidades y sus campos de trabajo en su nuevo país de acogida. Dentro de la historia social de la medicina española existe un espacio vacío sobre el exilio médico y sobre la represión interior ejercida físicamente o simplemente como depurados de numerosos médicos que se vincularon de distinto modo con los ideales de modernidad de la República Española.______________ABSTRACT:The Spanish Civil War led to the exile of a large number of scientists and intellectuals. Among them, many doctors escaped from Spain because of their defense of the Republic or their democratic ideology. A large majority were established in Latin America. Venezuela is the second country of welcome, after Mexico. In this paper we analyze what were the historical circumstances that allowed this host, and it is made reference to some personalities and their fields of work in their new host country. Within the social history of Spanish medicine, there is an empty space on the exile of this category and their internal repression or the purged of many doctors linked to the ideals of modernity of the Spanish Republic.

  2. Engineered bacterial hydrophobic oligopeptide repeats in a synthetic yeast prion, [REP-PSI+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eGasset-Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The yeast translation termination factor Sup35p, by aggregating as the [PSI+] prion, enables ribosomes to read-through stop codons, thus expanding the diversity of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteome. Yeast prions are functional amyloids that replicate by templating their conformation on native protein molecules, then assembling as large aggregates and fibers. Prions propagate epigenetically from mother to daughter cells by fragmentation of such assemblies. In the N-terminal prion-forming domain, Sup35p has glutamine/asparagine-rich oligopeptide repeats (OPRs, which enable propagation through chaperone-elicited shearing. We have engineered chimeras by replacing the polar OPRs in Sup35p by up to five repeats of a hydrophobic amyloidogenic sequence from the synthetic bacterial prionoid RepA-WH1. The resulting hybrid, [REP-PSI+], i was functional in a stop codon read-through assay in S. cerevisiae; ii generates weak phenotypic variants upon both its expression or transformation into [psi-] cells; iii these variants correlated with high molecular weight aggregates resistant to SDS during electrophoresis; and iv according to fluorescence microscopy, the fusion of the prion domains from the engineered chimeras to the reporter protein mCherry generated perivacuolar aggregate foci in yeast cells. All these are signatures of bona fide yeast prions. As assessed through biophysical approaches, the chimeras assembled as oligomers rather than as the fibers characteristic of [PSI+]. These results suggest that it is the balance between polar and hydrophobic residues in OPRs what determines prion conformational dynamics. In addition, our findings illustrate the feasibility of enabling new propagation traits in yeast prions by engineering OPRs with heterologous amyloidogenic sequence repeats.

  3. A Primeira República Portuguesa (1910-1926: partidos e sistema político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiôa, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available For historical, organisational, clientelist, violent and constitutional reasons the Portuguese Republican Party became the dominant party in the political system of the Portuguese First Republic (1910-1926. The opposition felt alternation via elections would be difficult to achieve so resorted to violent and unconstitutional practices to reach government. The Portuguese political parties modernised themselves in this period, but failed to turn into mass parties. In major cities they acted as a cadre party and in the rural area as a party of notables. The First Republic failed to take solid steps to democratise the political system were And Portugal remained tied to the liberal and elitist tradition of the nineteenth century, although in a republican version.El Partido Republicano Portugués se convirtió en el partido dominante del sistema político de la Primera República Portuguesa (1910-1926 debido a causas históricas, organizacionales, clientelistas, violentas y constitucionales. La oposición sentía que difícilmente conseguiría la alternancia política a través de elecciones, y por lo tanto, recurre a prácticas violentas e inconstitucionales para llegar al gobierno. Los partidos políticos portugueses se modernizaron en este período, pero no se convirtieron en partidos de masas. En las principales ciudades actuaban como partidos de cuadros y en las zonas rurales como partidos de notables. Durante la Primera República no se dieron pasos consistentes para democratizar el sistema político. Portugal se mantuvo ancorado a la tradición liberal y elitista del siglo XIX, aunque en una versión republicana.

  4. Comment on "A three-loop radiative neutrino mass model with dark matter" [Phys. Lett. B 741 (2015) 163

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Tsai, Lu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the calculation of the three-loop diagrams for the radiative neutrino mass generation and consider some relevant constraints on the model recently proposed by L. Jin {\\it et al} [Phys. Lett. B 741 (2015) 163]. We find that the previous approximation is inappropriate due to the neglect of some important contributions, and the benchmark point proposed can neither give rise to enough neutrino masses nor accommodate these additional constraints, such as the validity of the perturbation theory, the electroweak precision measurements, and the neutrinoless double beta decays.

  5. Comments on Letter (Phys. Rev. L, Vol.89, No. 10,2002) by D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh

    CERN Document Server

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P; Cho, JaeSeon; Lahey, Richard T; Nigmatulin, Robert I; Block, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on correcting several factual errors and critiques in the previously published Letter in Phys. Rev. L, Vol. 89, No. 10, 2022, by D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh. The authors of the Letter did not perform their own "independent" experiments as claimed; they did not perform control experiments with normal acetone; and, neither did they monitor for tritium. It their Letter, the authors (D. Shapira and M. Saltmarsh) failed to disclose that the data they collected actually confirmed our claims of having observed statistically significant nuclear emissions in chilled, cavitated deuterated acetone.

  6. Comment on “On the quantum theory of molecules” [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A544 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutcliffe, Brian T., E-mail: bsutclif@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Woolley, R. Guy [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-21

    In our previous paper [B. T. Sutcliffe and R. G. Woolley, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 22A544 (2012)] we argued that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation could not be based on an exact transformation of the molecular Schrödinger equation. In this Comment we suggest that the fundamental reason for the approximate nature of the Born-Oppenheimer model is the lack of a complete set of functions for the electronic space, and the need to describe the continuous spectrum using spectral projection.

  7. Comment on "The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space" [J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, C. H.

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper [A. Bejan and R. W. Wagstaff, J. Appl. Phys. 119, 094901 (2016)] concludes that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space are in a state of high internal tension. The tension is then relieved by rearrangement of the bodies into a non-uniform distribution of mass. In this Comment, it is shown that the conclusions are based upon calculations which are in error, and that the amount of tension is not in fact decreased by such a rearrangement.

  8. Nondiffusive plasma transport at tokamak edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2000-10-01

    Recent findings show that cross field edge plasma transport at tokamak edge does not necessarily obey a simple diffusive law [1], the only type of a transport model applied so far in the macroscopic modeling of edge plasma transport. Cross field edge transport is more likely due to plasma filamentation with a ballistic motion of the filaments towards the first wall. Moreover, it so fast that plasma recycles on the main chamber first wall rather than to flow into divertor as conventional picture of edge plasma fluxes suggests. Crudely speaking particle recycling wise diverted tokamak operates in a limiter regime due to fast anomalous non-diffusive cross field plasma transport. Obviously that this newly found feature of edge plasma anomalous transport can significantly alter a design of any future reactor relevant tokamaks. Here we present a simple model describing the motion of the filaments in the scrape off layer and discuss it implications for experimental observations. [1] M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard, B. Lipschultz, and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 2791; M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 3373.

  9. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication by adeno-associated virus rep proteins depends on their combined DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Daniel L; Seyffert, Michael; Strasser, Regina; Franchini, Marco; Laimbacher, Andrea S; Dresch, Christiane; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Vogel, Rebecca; Büning, Hildegard; Salvetti, Anna; Ackermann, Mathias; Fraefel, Cornel

    2010-04-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has previously been shown to inhibit the replication of its helper virus herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), and the inhibitory activity has been attributed to the expression of the AAV Rep proteins. In the present study, we assessed the Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication using a panel of wild-type and mutant Rep proteins lacking defined domains and activities. We found that the inhibition of HSV-1 replication required Rep DNA-binding and ATPase/helicase activities but not endonuclease activity. The Rep activities required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication precisely coincided with the activities that were responsible for induction of cellular DNA damage and apoptosis, suggesting that these three processes are closely linked. Notably, the presence of Rep induced the hyperphosphorylation of a DNA damage marker, replication protein A (RPA), which has been reported not to be normally hyperphosphorylated during HSV-1 infection and to be sequestered away from HSV-1 replication compartments during infection. Finally, we demonstrate that the execution of apoptosis is not required for inhibition of HSV-1 replication and that the hyperphosphorylation of RPA per se is not inhibitory for HSV-1 replication, suggesting that these two processes are not directly responsible for the inhibition of HSV-1 replication by Rep.

  10. Treatment with lenalidomide (Revlimid®), cyclophosphamide (Endoxan®) and prednisone (REP) in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients: results of a single centre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelis, N; Devos, T; Dierickx, D; Janssens, A; Raddoux, J; Verhoef, G; Delforge, M

    2014-04-01

    Lenalidomide (Revlimid®) combined with intermittent dexamethasone (the RD regimen) is one of the current standards for treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). However, since the disease in the majority of patients will become resistant to RD, or treatment with RD needs to be discontinued due to side effects, we evaluated the combination lenalidomide, low-dose oral cyclophosphamide, with prednisone (REP) in patients with relapsed/refractory MM previously exposed to RD. For this purpose, we performed a single centre retrospective study of the efficacy of REP in 19 patients with relapsed/refractory MM. Overall response rate (partial response or better) with REP was 68% compared with 83% with RD, but with a shorter time to response with the triplet REP. Time to progression after REP was 6 months. Overall the REP regimen was better tolerated compared to RD. We conclude that the REP regimen is an effective treatment regimen for patients with relapsed/refractory MM with good tolerance, warranting further exploration in prospective randomized trials.

  11. El montaje de la transición argentina. Un análisis de los films La República perdida, La República perdida II y Evita, quien quiera oír que oiga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Judith Margulis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se propone reconstruir una zona de la historia del documental argentino a partir del abordaje de tres films que tuvieron un alto impacto en Argentina hacia la transición democrática: La República perdida (Miguel Pérez, 1983, su secuela La República perdida II (Miguel Pérez, 1986 y Evita, quien quiera oír que oiga (Eduardo Mignogna, 1984. Dada la importancia de estos films -tanto en términos políticos como de impacto en el público-, intentaremos situarlos en contexto y analizar algunos aspectos inherentes a su lógica fílmica.

  12. Lecturas de un sueño. (Sobre la República literaria de Saavedra Fajardo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, Juan Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the República Literaria, a diplomatic voyager from the 17th Century, dreams of a city of paper: to read a city as if it were a book and to read a book as if it were a journey throughout literary history. Is it possible? On this journey across all of written culture that Saavedra describes, where the inhabitants of the city are authors of ‘literary’ texts and the arts live together with the sciences and the muses, the author analyses with subtle irony the present and the tradition of everything that surrounds the production of all that is written. With the classic resource of the ‘Dream’ he shows an incredibly clear panorama where we can recognize the beginnings of capitalism, in which books have gone from being considered repositories of wisdom and common sense, to becoming mere marketplace objects.El autor de la República Literaria, un diplomático viajero del siglo XVII, sueña una ciudad de papel: leer una ciudad como si fuera un libro y leer un libro como si fuera un viaje a través de la historia literaria. ¿Es posible? En este recorrido por toda la cultura escrita que traza Saavedra, donde los habitantes de la ciudad son los autores de los textos «literarios» y las artes conviven con las ciencias y las musas, el autor desmenuza con finísima ironía la actualidad y la tradición de todo lo que rodea a la producción de lo escrito. Con el clásico recurso del «Sueño» muestra un panorama increíblemente nítido donde podemos reconocer los inicios del capitalismo en el que los libros han pasado de ser considerados como un depósito de sabiduría y cordura a tener carácter de mero objeto de mercado.

  13. Nonlinear PIC Simulations for Nonneutral Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Luca Delzanno, Gian; Finn, John M.

    2002-11-01

    We present nonlinear simulations of the low frequency dynamics of electrons in a Malmberg-Penning trap, including compressional and thermal effects [1,2]. First, we consider a 2D model where we assume the effective plasma length constant in time. In this framework, we further neglect the thermal effect on the velocity field, and show with the PIC code KANDINSKY that Penning traps could be used to perform geophysical fluid dynamics experiments [3]. We also observe that, due to the presence of the nonlinear m=1 instability, the initially hollow density profile becomes peaked, as in the experiments. Then, we show 2D results including thermal effects. In this case, the development of the m=1 instability is slowed since the equilibrium plasma length profile is closer to the integrable profile, namely the length profile for which there are no discrete unstable modes [4]. Finally, we present simulations of the 3D fluiddynamics model of Ref. [2]. In particular, we investigate the evolution of a m=1 perturbation for different electron temperatures, when compressional and thermal effects are included. [1] J.M. Finn, D. del-Castillo-Negrete, D.C. Barnes,Phys. Plasmas, 6, 3744, 1999. [2] G.G.M. Coppa, A. D'Angola, G.L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas, 8, 1133, 2001. [3] G.L. Delzanno, J.M. Finn, G. Lapenta, "Nonlinear Phase of the Compressional m=1 Diocotron Instability: Saturation and Analogy with Geophysical Fluid Dynamics", submitted to Phys. Plasmas. [4] G.L. Delzanno, V.I. Pariev, J.M. Finn, G. Lapenta, "Stability Analysis of Hollow Electron Columns Including Compression and Thermal Effects: Integrability Condition and Numerical Simulations", submitted to Phys. Plasmas.

  14. Pleonexía: el centro ausente de La República de Platón

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Nemrod

    2008-01-01

    La pleonexía es una categoría platónica más complicada de lo que puede parecer. Tradicionalmente asociada a las posiciones de Calicles y Trasímaco, lo primero que nos indica La república es que la pleonexía no es únicamente el motor constitutivo de toda ciudad, sino el punto de referencia decisivo de la concepción platónica de la justicia. Es ahí donde radica la paradoja del tránsito de la ciudad sana de Sócrates a la ciudad enferma de Glaucón: lejos de rep...

  15. Liberalismo, iluminismo y romanticismo: el problema de la libertad en dos novelas de la República Restaurada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Hernández Landa Valencia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo propone una reflexión en torno a la forma como influyen tres corrientes de pensamiento, el liberalismo, el iluminismo y el romanticismo, en la representación del problema de la libertad en dos novelas históricas publicadas en la República Restaurada: Monja y casada, virgen y mártir, de Vicente Riva Palacio, y El pecado del siglo, de José Tomás de Cuéllar. Se busca mostrar que dichas corrientes se entrecruzan en un solo texto, que ello contribuye a la conformación de un concepto de libertad restringida y que la forma específica que adquiere ese concepto se explica a partir de la postura ideológica y política de los autores en el contexto de la República Restaurada.

  16. 150 años despues: Constitución de la república de Tunja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Hurtado García

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En Tunja perduran abiertos los corazones y los zaguanes. La Villa noble de Suárez Rendón, embelesada en el canto de la Madre Castillo y de don Juan de Castellanos, amaneció en la República con el sacrificio de sus hijos y con sus ideas proceras. Precisamente en este mes de diciembre de 1961 -el nueve- se cumplen los ciento cincuenta años de la expedición de su Constitución, cuyo título definido reza: " Constitución de la República de Tunja sancionada en plena Asamblea de los Representantes de toda la Provincia, en sesiones continuas desde el 21 de noviembre hasta el 9 de diciembre de 1811. Año Segundo de la Transformación Política del Nuevo Reyno de Granada".

  17. A “Primeira República”: os preceitos liberais e a práxis oligárquica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Liziane Gonzáles Bandeira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa a analisar o processo de mudança de regime político no Brasil, no final do século XIX – o advento da República. As fontes utilizadas da análise são um fragmento da primeira Constituição republicana e os programas dos partidos Republicano Federal e Republicano Conservador. Visou-se a buscar os limites entre o discurso encontrado nesses documentos e a prática política realizada no Brasil da República Velha. Para melhor extrair o teor do documento foi utilizada a técnica metodológica de análise de conteúdo quantitativa, nomeando unidades referenciais mais incidentes nos respectivos textos, seguida da análise qualitativa aplicada a estas.

  18. O sistema oligárquico representativo da Primeira República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Guilherme dos Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre les absolutismes des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, d'une part, et les variantes démocratiques repérées après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, d'autre part, demeure un brouillard conceptuel gênant la compréhension de l'histoire politico-institutionnelle de cette période. L'oligarchie, traitée soit comme germe de démocratie soit comme vestige autocratique, reste une période soumise à la subjectivité. On présente un modèle analytique différent de ce que serait un système oligarchique, à la validité trans-locale, en cherchant à montrer la façon dont l'histoire du Second Empire et de la Première République apparaitrait au moyen d'une approche préalable utilisant le modèle général.

  19. Desterrando formas poéticas en la República de Platón.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ariza.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina un aspecto seminal, pero sorprendente en la crítica de Platón de la poesía: Platón destierra a los contenidos, no sólo particular, y los autores, pero las formas poéticas también ellas mismas, en concreto la forma mimética. El análisis muestra que la principal razón para desterrar tales reside en el hecho de que Platón descubrió que la forma como la forma (con independencia de su contenido tiene un carácter autónomo y se rige por criterios estéticos y no moral. Estos criterios estéticos son incompatibles con la ideología que apoya la polis ideal. Esto pone de relieve el mérito del análisis de Platón de que no está en la evaluación de la actividad poética, sino en la identificación de las puramente estéticas y sus consecuencias sobre el programa político de la República

  20. Leptospirosis porcina: prevalencia serológica en establecimientos productores de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Petrakovsky M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Leptospira sp en cerdos que no presentaban sintomatología clínica, pertenecientes a establecimientos de producción porcina ubicados en todo el territorio de la República Argentina. Materiales y métodos. La asignación de predios y muestras se realizó en forma proporcional a los registrados en cada provincia a lo largo de todo el país. En total se estudiaron 1.524 predios, de los cuales se tomaron 19.872 muestras de suero y en la primera etapa se procesaron 3.631 de los mismos. Este estudio toma en consideración zonas identificadas por provincia, municipio y predios. Los sueros fueron analizados por la técnica de MAT (prueba de microaglutinación. Resultados. El 30% de las muestras resultaron positivas a la prueba tamiz empleada (primera etapa del MAT. La mayoría presentó coaglutininas a dos o a tres serovariedades. Al realizar la titulación de los sueros (segunda etapa del MAT, el porcentaje de positividad se mantuvo, siendo los serovares de mayor prevalencia Castellonis e Icterohaemorrhagiae. El 90% de las muestras presentó un título final de 1:200. Conclusiones. La existencia de sueros positivos en todas las provincias indica el contacto de los animales con la leptospira a lo largo de todo el país.

  1. Representações cômicas da República no contexto do Getulismo

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    Elio Chaves Flores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso as representações cômicas e discursivas da República e a trajetória política de Getúlio Vargas, a partir de uma narrativa que se assenta no método regressivo. Para isso, trabalhei com uma série de caricaturas publicadas em jornais e revistas na duração entre 1930 e 1954, confrontando a intertextualidade dessas imagens com alguns discursos satíricos e irônicos produzidos por memorialistas. Procuro demonstrar que há semelhança entre a inversão humorística e a textualidade da memória, quando inventam a respeito de seu tempo e dos outros imagens verossímeis.This article analyses the comic and discursive representations of the Brazilian Republic and Getúlio Vargas’ political career, starting from a narrative constructed in the regressive method. For that, I worked with a series of cartoons published in newspapers and magazines in the span of time between 1954 and 1930, matching the intertextuality of these images with some of the satiric and ironic speeches produced by witnesses. It is demonstrated there is likeness between the comic inversion and the textuality of the memory, when they invent concerning their time and other ones, the verisimilitude of the images.

  2. A loucura e a república no Brasil: a influência das teorias raciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Rossi Weyler

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo discutir as modificações nas formas de compreensão e de enfrentamento da loucura na passagem do Império para a República, levando-se em conta a influência das teorias raciais importadas da Europa a partir de 1870. A adoção desses modelos teóricos cumpriu uma série de funções sociais e políticas referente a um projeto de nação. Neste contexto, as manifestações da loucura passaram a ser associadas à doença, à degeneração e ao risco e sofreram variadas medidas de opressão justificadas "cientificamente". Até hoje, as interpretações científicas do problema da "doença mental" continuam localizando a enfermidade no paciente. Ao reduzir a doença e a sua causa a uma problemática exclusivamente pessoal, sem que se considere o contexto socioeconômico e político da sua emergência, estas explicações configuram-se como ideologia.

  3. Les revistes bilingües a la Tortosa de la II República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carme Gombau Domingo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En l’àmbit de la premsa tortosina en català del primer terç del segle xx es donen dues actituds lingüístiques: la fabriana i la tortosinista. La primera, partidària del model de llengua de l’IEC, era minoritària als anys vint però es generalitza a partir dels anys trenta (La Veu de Tortosa, La Veu Comarcal, Ara, Acció, Vida Tortosina i Lluita; mentre que el tortosinisme, que es correspon amb una ideologia cada cop més localista i que eleva el «parlar tortosí» a la categoria de llengua, queda reduït durant la II República a tres revistes bilingües: La Zuda, Germanor i La Santa Cinta. There were two linguistic actitudes in the tortosine press of the first third in the 20th century: the fabriana amb the tortosinista. The fabriana, in favour of the IEC linguistic model, was in minority during the 20’s, but it became widespread from the 30’s (La Veu de Tortosa, La Veu Comarcal, Ara, Acció, Vida Tortosina i Lluita. The second, the tortosinista, had a local ideology and compared the tortosinisme talk as a complet language, but it was reduced during the ii Republic to three magazines: La Zuda, Germanor i La Santa Cinta.

  4. Interspecies extrapolation based on the RepDose database--a probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Sylvia E; Batke, Monika; Hoffmann-Doerr, Simone; Messinger, Horst; Mangelsdorf, Inge

    2013-04-12

    Repeated dose toxicity studies from the RepDose database (DB) were used to determine interspecies differences for rats and mice. NOEL (no observed effect level) ratios based on systemic effects were investigated for three different types of exposure: inhalation, oral food/drinking water and oral gavage. Furthermore, NOEL ratios for local effects in inhalation studies were evaluated. On the basis of the NOEL ratio distributions, interspecies assessment factors (AF) are evaluated. All data sets were best described by a lognormal distribution. No difference was seen between inhalation and oral exposure for systemic effects. Rats and mice were on average equally sensitive at equipotent doses with geometric mean (GM) values of 1 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) values ranging from 2.30 to 3.08. The local AF based on inhalation exposure resulted in a similar distribution with GM values of 1 and GSD values between 2.53 and 2.70. Our analysis confirms former analyses on interspecies differences, including also dog and human data. Furthermore it supports the principle of allometric scaling according to caloric demand in the case that body doses are applied. In conclusion, an interspecies distribution animal/human with a GM equal to allometric scaling and a GSD of 2.5 was derived.

  5. República federal y patronato: el ascenso y descalabro de un proyecto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Connaughton

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aborda el patronato durante la primera república federal (1824-1834 desde la perspectiva de los debates que lo rodearon y dificultaron una solución por la cual el gobierno mexicano ejerciera los derechos de patrono de la Iglesia. La polémica sobre el patronato tuvo aspectos eclesiológicos, políticos y diplomáticos. Permite ver que México estaba inserto en una compleja dinámica nacional e internacional que acabaría frustrando la firma de un concordato.This article examines the trust established during the first federal republic (1824-1834 from the perspective of the debates that surrounded it and prevented reaching a solution whereby the Mexican government would act as owner of the Church. The polemic over the trust had ecclesiastic, political and diplomatic aspects. It showed that Mexico was inserted in a complex national and international dynamic that would end up preventing the signing of a concordat.

  6. Sistema de salud de República Dominicana The health system of Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de la República Dominicana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud dominicano, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y la generación de información. También se discuten la participación de los usuarios en la operación y evaluación del sistema de salud y las más recientes innovaciones implementadas, dentro de las que destacan la nueva Ley General de Salud, la nueva Ley de Seguridad Social y el Plan Decenal de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.

  7. Mapa educativo nacional. Una experiencia en la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Rodolfo Bozzano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El Proyecto Mapa Educativo Nacional (MEN es un SIG generado a partir del desarrollo e integración de 24 Mapas Educativos Provinciales sobre la base de un modelo conceptual general, con una visión dinámica de los 49.000 establecimientos educativos, así como de su contexto territorial. Los objetivos del trabajo son: a sistematizar los aportes al Proyecto MEN desde la teoría cartográfica, reconociendo instancias de concepción, construcción y comunicación de los mapas que lo integran, así como vinculaciones entre territorio, espacio y espacialidades emergentes de la concreción de la tarea; y b identificar en qué medida la concreción del Proyecto MEN en la República Argentina contribuye a fortalecer un enfoque dialéctico conocimiento-realidad sobre el territorio y la gestión aplicado a un objeto de estudio e intervención concreto de desarrollo institucional, con el propósito de promover un círculo virtuoso de transformación entre sujetos de cambio y agentes de desarrollo.

  8. La Historia de la Psicología en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Zaite

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo revisa el desarrollo de la psicología académica y profesional en la República Dominicana. Se da relevancia a los acontecimientos socio-históricos que sirvieron de contexto para el surgimiento y el avance de la psicología dominicana. Los aportes de los y las profesionales que contribuyen al impulso de los estudios y el ejercicio profesional de la psicología en nuestro país, son señalados y reconocidos. En el trabajo se aborda un análisis de los ámbitos de realización; así como de los logros y de las dificultades, en el avance tanto de la psicología académica, como del ejercicio profesional en la psicología dominicana. Finalmente, se consideran las perspectivas actuales de la psicología dominicana, para su desarrollo, su integración y proyección en el conjunto de la psicología en el Caribe y en Latinoamérica.

  9. Dos nuevas publicaciones de la Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango del Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boletín Cultural y Bibliográfico Banco de la República

    1961-11-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Luis-Ángel Arango, del Banco de la República, acaba de dar a la publicidad dos importantes trabajos que serán inapreciable ayuda para los investigadores de las letras colombianas, como son el volumen del Catálogo de su espléndida colección y Papeletas Bibliográficas para el estudio de la historia colombiana.

  10. Molecular Dynamics of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II Ternary Complex and Identification of Their Putative Drug Binding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Meenakshi; Saini, Vandana; Piplani, Sakshi; Kumar, A

    2013-01-01

    The structure-function correlation of membrane proteins have been a difficult task, particularly in context to transient protein complexes. The molecular simulation of ternary complex of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II was carried out to understand the basic structural events occurring during the prenylation event of Rab proteins, using the software YASARA. The study suggested that the C-terminus of Rab7 has to be in completely extended conformation during prenylation to reach the active site of RabGGTase-II. Also, attempt was made to find putative drug binding sites on the ternary complex of Rab7::REP1::GGTase-II using Q-SiteFinder programme. The comprehensive consensus probe generated by the program revealed a total of 10 major pockets as putative drug binding sites on Rab7::REP:: GGTase-II ternary complex. These pockets were found on REP protein and GGTase protein subunits. The Rab7 was found to be devoid of any putative drug binding sites in the ternary complex. The phylogenetic analysis of 60 Rab proteins of human was carried out using PHYLIP and study indicated the close phylogenetic relationship between Rab7 and Rab9 proteins of human and hence with further in silico study, the present observations can be extrapolated to Rab9 proteins. The study paves a good platform for further experimental verifications of the findings and other in silico studies like identifying the potential drug targets by searching the putative drug binding sites, generating pharmacophoric pattern, searching or constructing suitable ligand and docking studies.

  11. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR MEDIANTE rep-PCR DE AISLADOS NATIVOS DE Bacillus thuringiensis, OBTENIDOS DE MUESTRAS DE SUELO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi\\u00E1n Galvis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis es una bacteria Gram-positiva formadora de esporas, que produ - ce cristales parasporales de naturaleza proteica, tóxicos contra diferentes órdenes de insectos y biodegradables e inocuos para otras especies. Esta investigación empleó el modelo experimen - tal, que mediante técnicas de observación permi - tió, la identificación microbiológica y bioquímica de B. thuringiensis a partir de muestras de suelo de los municipios de Cúcuta, El Zulia, Los Patios, San Cayetano y Villa del Rosario, Norte de Santander, Colombia, y su posterior caracteri - zación con los marcadores moleculares Bc-Rep y MB1. Se identificaron microbiológica y bioquí - micamente 10 aislados como B. thuringiensis ; los resultados del análisis filogenético mostraron diferencias significativas en los agrupamientos obtenidos con los marcadores Bc-Rep y MB1. Con Bc-Rep se registró un índice de similaridad bajo (18%, mientras que con el marcador MB1 se obtuvo un índice mayor de similitud, 58%. En este trabajo se evidenció una gran variabilidad genética entre los aislados, que mostraron a los marcadores Bc-Rep y MB1 como altamente efectivos para diferenciar cepas estrechamente relacionadas, convirtiéndose en una herramienta genética de gran valor para estudios de identifi-cación y diversidad en B. thuringiensis.

  12. Operación Sonrisa República Dominicana: 8 años de una intensa y positiva experiencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando De La Cruz-Acosta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer el trabajo que, desde hace 8 años, está realizando un grupo de cirujanos plásticos perteneciente a la Fundación Operación Sonrisa República Dominicana a favor de los pacientes con malformaciones congénitas faciales, especialmente labio leporino y fisura palatina.

  13. Operación Sonrisa República Dominicana: 8 años de una intensa y positiva experiencia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando De La Cruz-Acosta

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer el trabajo que, desde hace 8 años, está realizando un grupo de cirujanos plásticos perteneciente a la Fundación Operación Sonrisa República Dominicana a favor de los pacientes con malformaciones congénitas faciales, especialmente labio leporino y fisura palatina.

  14. La Segunda República Española: Acción y omisión en materia electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cebrián Zazurca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available : El artículo realiza un recorrido por la normativa electoral vigente en la Segunda República Española; presenta las características principales de las distintas normas, resaltando los elementos del régimen electoral republicano. Una vez conocido el régimen, se abordan las principales claves del sistema electoral de la República concebido globalmente. Finalmente, el artículo pone en relación el sistema electoral con el sistema de partidos, tratando de valorar si aquel influyó en la crisis de la República. El trabajo sostiene que en la Segunda República Española no se aprobó nunca una ley electoral que pudiera considerarse como verdaderamente republicana.

  15. Design and Implementation of 3D Dressing System Based on Physics Engine PhysX%基于物理引擎PhysX的3D试衣系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐康熙; 郝泳涛

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the 3D fitting function and solve the problem of large algorithm time complexity of virtual try modeling, based on virtual reality technology, this paper tend to model clothing fabric by sprint-mass model. Then, based on Newton's second law, we analysis the spring-mass model-based forces of clothing fabric modeling. Combined with GPU-based physics engine PhysX, build the 3D fitting room, simulate the sports interactive situation of fabrics and mannequin. Finally add mannequin adjustment, the election of clothing, dressing and other functions. Built under Windows platform, designed and devel-oped by using VisualStudio2008, combined with the comprehensive application of virtual reality technology, we establish the 3D fitting system, including functions such as clothing select, dressing, body parameter adjustment .%为了实现3D试衣功能及解决虚拟试衣建模算法时间复杂度比较大的问题,该文结合虚拟现实等技术,首先用弹簧-质点模型对服装布料进行建模,然后以牛顿第二定律为理论基础分析以质点-弹簧模型建模的服装布料的受力情况,结合以GPU为基础的物理引擎PhysX,建立3D试衣间,仿真服装布料与人体模型的运动交互状况。最后加入人体模型调整、选衣、试衣等功能。该系统在Windows平台下,利用VisualStudio2008设计开发,结合虚拟现实等技术的综合应用,建立了一套包括选衣、试衣、人体参数调整等功能的3D试衣系统。

  16. El Ecoturismo en los Humedales: Análisis de las Potencialidades de República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Orgaz Agüera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El turismo se configura como uno de los principales motores económicos de República Dominicana. En este sentido, el turismo de sol y playa es la principal tipología turística en el país. Aunque, República Dominicana cuenta con numerosas potencialidades turísticas para poner en marchas nuevas formas de turismo: Turismo gastronómico, turismo ornitológico, turismo cultural, ecoturismo, etc. El principal objetivo de esta investigación es analizar las potencialidades existentes en República Dominicana para desarrollar el ecoturismo en las zonas de humedales. La metodología ha consistido en un trabajo de campo, a través de las entrevistas, los grupos de discusión y la observación participante. Los resultados muestran las grandes potencialidades que tiene el país para desarrollar el ecoturismo en los humedales, y contribuir así, al desarrollo socioeconómico de las comunidades locales. 

  17. Overview of the relativistic electron precipitations (REP) observed on LEO satellites and ISS by Bulgarian build instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan

    Relativistic electron precipitation (REP) are observed by the R3D B2/B3 and RD3-B3 instruments during the flights of the Foton M2/M3 and “BION-M” № 1 satellite in 2005, 2007 and 2013, and by the R3DE/R instruments at the EXPOSE-E facility of the European Columbus module and at the EXPOSE-R facility of the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the period from February 2008 till August 2010. The obtained dose rates strongly depend by the external and internal shielding of the detectors in the instruments. The highest dose rate reaching more than 20 mGy h (-1) was observed outside the ISS Zvezda module during the REP in April 2010 being the second largest in GOES history with a >2 MeV electron fluence event. REP doses behind relatively thick shielding are too small but may play considerable role during extra vehicular activity (EVA) when the cosmonauts/astronauts body is shielded only by the space suit.

  18. Enhanced nicking activity of Rep in presence of pre-coat protein of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhibakhsh, A; Choudhury, N R; Mukherjee, S K; Malathi, V G

    2012-04-01

    Yellow mosaic disease causes severe yield loss in grain legumes in Indian subcontinent and south east Asia. The disease is caused by two virus species, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV). They have genome organization typical of Old World begomoviruses, the unique feature being the presence of an open reading frame (ORF) AV2 upstream of coat protein gene. In order to elucidate its function, ORF AV2 of blackgram isolate, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus-[India:New Delhi:Blackgram 3:1991] MYMIV-[IN:ND:Bg3:91] and cowpea isolate, Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus-[India:New Delhi:Cowpea7:1998] MYMIV-[IN:ND:Cp7:98], respectively, were over expressed in Escherichia coli in fusion with maltose binding protein (MBP). The recombinant protein did not show efficient binding to DNA. However, both MBP-BgAV2 and MBP-CpAV2 proteins modulated nicking and ATPase activity of replication initiation protein (Rep). Even low concentration, 20 ng of MBP-BgAV2 and MBP-CpAV2 could bring 20 folds increase in nicking activity of Rep. Similarly in the presence of AV2 protein, two to three fold increase in ATPase activity was observed. It is hypothesized that AV2 protein may play a role of accessory protein modulating Rep activities.

  19. Revolución versus reforma educativa en la segunda república española. Elementos de ruptura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel FERNÁNDEZ SORIA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Están fuera de toda duda las conexiones existentes entre la República de 1931-35 y la de 1936-39. En este sentido estamos de acuerdo con quienes afirman que el estallido de la guerra del 36 es el resultado de un proceso que arranca del mismo año en que se proclama la II República, iniciándose ya entonces —como sostiene Andrés M. Kramer— la «mecánica de guerra civil». La educación republicana en tiempo de guerra no puede quedar fuera de esta consideración, porque aquélla sumerge sus cimientos más profundos en la política educativa de 1931-35. Efectivamente, muchas de las acciones educativas y culturales llevadas a cabo durante la guerra no tendrían fácil explicación si no se examina previamente la tarea de la República del 31 en estos mismos aspectos.

  20. Breaking of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Wave in a Maxwellian Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    The determination of maximum possible amplitude of a coherent longitudinal plasma oscillation/wave is a topic of fundamental importance in non-linear plasma physics. The amplitudes of these large amplitude plasma waves is limited by a phenomena called wave breaking which may be induced by several non-linear processes. It was shown by Coffey [T. P. Coffey, Phys. Fluids 14, 1402 (1971)] using a "water-bag" distribution for electrons that, in a warm plasma the maximum electric field amplitude and density amplitude implicitly depend on the electron temperature, known as Coffey's limit. In this paper, the breaking of large amplitude freely running electron plasma wave in a homogeneous warm plasma where electron's velocity distribution is Maxwellian has been studied numerically using 1D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulation method. It is found that Coffey's propagating wave solutions, which was derived using a "water-bag" distribution for electrons, also represent propagating waves in a Maxwellian plasma. Coffey's wave...

  1. The RXL motif of the African cassava mosaic virus Rep protein is necessary for rereplication of yeast DNA and viral infection in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hipp, Katharina; Rau, Peter; Schäfer, Benjamin [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Gronenborn, Bruno [Institut des Sciences du Végétal, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jeske, Holger, E-mail: holger.jeske@bio.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Biomaterialien und biomolekulare Systeme, Abteilung für Molekularbiologie und Virologie der Pflanzen, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Geminiviruses, single-stranded DNA plant viruses, encode a replication-initiator protein (Rep) that is indispensable for virus replication. A potential cyclin interaction motif (RXL) in the sequence of African cassava mosaic virus Rep may be an alternative link to cell cycle controls to the known interaction with plant homologs of retinoblastoma protein (pRBR). Mutation of this motif abrogated rereplication in fission yeast induced by expression of wildtype Rep suggesting that Rep interacts via its RXL motif with one or several yeast proteins. The RXL motif is essential for viral infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants, since mutation of this motif in infectious clones prevented any symptomatic infection. The cell-cycle link (Clink) protein of a nanovirus (faba bean necrotic yellows virus) was investigated that activates the cell cycle by binding via its LXCXE motif to pRBR. Expression of wildtype Clink and a Clink mutant deficient in pRBR-binding did not trigger rereplication in fission yeast. - Highlights: • A potential cyclin interaction motif is conserved in geminivirus Rep proteins. • In ACMV Rep, this motif (RXL) is essential for rereplication of fission yeast DNA. • Mutating RXL abrogated viral infection completely in Nicotiana benthamiana. • Expression of a nanovirus Clink protein in yeast did not induce rereplication. • Plant viruses may have evolved multiple routes to exploit host DNA synthesis.

  2. Response to “Comment on ‘Two-dimensional positive column structure in a discharge tube with radius discontinuity’” [Phys. Plasmas 22, 094701 (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zobnin, A. V., E-mail: zobnin@ihed.ras.ru; Usachev, A. D.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    For a quantitative validation of the nonlocal approach for simulation of positive column of dc gas discharge in neon, we have performed a comparative self-consistent calculations of parameters of longitudinally uniform positive column using two approaches—a full kinetic equation with a radially inhomogeneous electron distribution function (exact calculation) and a nonlocal approach. The calculations were performed for discharge current 1 mA and neon pressures 40 and 90 Pa. It is shown that discrepancies between parameters calculated with the two approaches—radial distributions of electron number densities, ionization rates, space potentials—are minor. Physical reasons of a validity of the nonlocal approach for present conditions are discussed.

  3. Development of a Renormalization Group Approach to Multi-Scale Plasma Physics Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    with important kinetic non - Maxwellian particle distributions. These plasmas exhibit a range of length and time scales, making accurate simulation a...the plasmas ’ phase space for accurate reproduction of natural phenomena. These four goals offer an interlocking plan of attack to reach a full...anisotropic bimodal intermittent turbulence in space plasmasPhys. Plasmas . 11 (2004) 1287-1299.] to describe phenomena such as the scaling of the

  4. Couette Flow of Unmagnetized Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, C; Cooper, C M; Flanagan, K; Khalzov, I V; Nornberg, M D; Seidlitz, B; Wallace, J; Forest, C B

    2014-01-01

    Differentially rotating flows of unmagnetized, highly conducting plasmas have been created in the Plasma Couette Experiment. Previously, hot-cathodes have been used to control plasma rotation by a stirring technique [C. Collins et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 115001(2012)] on the outer cylindrical boundary---these plasmas were nearly rigid rotors, modified only by the presence of a neutral particle drag. Experiments have now been extended to include stirring from an inner boundary, allowing for generalized Couette flow and opening a path for both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic experiments, as well as fundamental studies of plasma viscosity. Plasma is confined in a cylindrical, axisymmetric, multicusp magnetic field, with $T_e< 10$ eV, $T_i<1$ eV, and $n_e<10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Azimuthal flows (up to 12 km/s, $M=V/c_s\\sim 0.7$) are driven by edge ${\\bf J \\times B}$ torques in helium, neon, argon, and xenon plasmas. We present measurements of a self-consistent, rotation-induced, species-dependent rad...

  5. Platão e a poesia na República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Penha Villela-Petit

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Platão não é o iniciador, e sim o herdeiro da "velha divergência" entre filósofos e poetas. A motivação ético-teológica, que já animava Xenófanes,vai se reatualizar na República. Para poder apreciar o sentido dessa reatualização, importa que não se considere o Livro X isoladamente, mas se atente para os primeiros livros do diálogo. Neles, e com vistas a uma melhor determinação do justo -que é o que está em pauta-, Platão mostra a necessidade de se discutir as afirmações dos poetas. Trata-se assim de destituí-los da autoridade de que ainda gozam na educação e na opinião comum. Só graças à discussão filosófica e a uma educação por ela inspirada -o que pressupõe a produção ou a seleção de mitos- é que se pode esperar uma maior realização da justiça, tanto no plano do indivíduo (do governo de sua alma quanto no nível da cidade. A leitura aqui proposta das "razões" de Platão na República não impede que reconheçamos a importância da tragédia para a compreensão da existência humana, inclusive no que toca à idéia do divino.Plato is not the initiator, but rather the heir of the "old quarrel", between philosophers and poets. The ethical and theological motivation that drove Xenophanes is brought to date in the Republic. In order to realize that, one must take into account the whole of the dialogue - where the definition of justice is at stake - and, more precisely, its first books. There, Plato shows how important it is to put the poets' claims to question. The point is, after all, to deprive them of the authority they enjoy in what concerns educational matters as well as with public opinion. It is only through an education which is inspired by philosophical questioning - which also implies the production and selection of myths - that one can expect more justice both on the individual (the gouvernment of his soul and on the city levels. The reading we propose of Plato's "reasons" in the Republic does

  6. Comment on “Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium” [Appl. Phys. Rev. 1, 011301 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowern, N. E. B., E-mail: nick.cowern@ncl.ac.uk; Simdyankin, S.; Goss, J. P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Napolitani, E.; De Salvador, D. [CNR-IMM-MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S. [CNR-IMM-MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Ahn, C. [Samsung Semiconductor, Inc., 3655 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Bennett, N. S. [Institute of Mechanical, Process and Energy Engineering, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The authors of the above paper call into question recent evidence on the properties of self-interstitials, I, in Ge [Cowern et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155501 (2013)]. We show that this judgment stems from invalid model assumptions during analysis of data on B marker-layer diffusion during proton irradiation, and that a corrected analysis fully supports the reported evidence. As previously stated, I-mediated self-diffusion in Ge exhibits two distinct regimes of temperature, T: high-T, dominated by amorphous-like mono-interstitial clusters—i-morphs—with self-diffusion entropy ≈30 k, and low-T, where transport is dominated by simple self-interstitials. In a transitional range centered on 475 °C both mechanisms contribute. The experimental I migration energy of 1.84 ± 0.26 eV reported by the Münster group based on measurements of self-diffusion during irradiation at 550 °C < T < 680 °C further establishes our proposed i-morph mechanism.

  7. Discurso de orden.Tribunal supremo de justicia de la república Bolivariana de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Delgado Ocando

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available José Manuel Delgado Ocando, nos presenta un original y brillante análisis de la realidad política venezolana. Bien es sabido que a raíz de la elección presidencial de Hugo Chávez Frías, éste convoca a un referéndum popular con la expresa intención de constituir un nuevo orden constitucional. Tal inusual experiencia de la ciudadanía en la participación de los “asuntos de Estado”, generó no pocas controversias sobre el conflicto de competencias entre la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (poder constituyente y el Congreso de la República (poder constituido. No previsto en la Constitución de 1961 este inédito protagonismo popular y la coexistencia de dos regímenes constitucionales distintos, le toca a la Corte Suprema de Justicia legislar sobre este caso particular teniendo que apelar a la doctrina de la supraconstitucionalidad a fin de dirimir el conflicto normativo y ratificar la legalidad de la consulta referendaria que da origen a la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente. El autor se vale de una compleja hermenéutica jurídico-política para interpretar este inédito fenómeno de la filosofía política moderna que se ha vivido en Venezuela, así como para confirmar su confianza en la producción originaria del derecho cuando ésta es reclamada por la soberanía popular.

  8. "Sobre la justicia en el libro "La República" de Platón"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Olivari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La justicia, ha sido siempre un tema presente en la filosofía y con más notoriedad en la filosofía clásica, por ello resulta saludable, atractivo y de valor el análisis de los textos griegos al respecto. En este punto, Platón es quizás el más estudiado, siempre sus diálogos resultan útiles para quien recorre sus páginas, ya convertidas en verdaderos monumentos de la filosofía, con pasajes y afirmaciones hasta hoy irrefutables, además haciendo de su maestro Sócrates un personaje invalorable para la sabiduría universal. La innata ansia por una vida mejor, empuja al hombre casi siempre a la búsqueda de un mundo sin defectos. Esta es la razón de sus ilusiones utópicas de alcanzar justica, entendida ella como la perfecta armonía en la convivencia social. De la producción platónica, extensa, variada y valiosa, por todo lo que trata y por su sobrevivencia al paso de los años, la obra La República ocupa un lugar de preferencia, por eso estudiar sus paginas y repasar, tanto como re-pensar sus conceptos, es buen estimulo para quienes desean conocer temas de trascendencia en Filosofía, Derecho o afines. Volver a los clásicos es siempre un deber, ellos siempre son fascinantes y sus enseñanzas perduran con gran lozanía, a prueba de todo elemento corrosivo, por tanto no hay pretexto que valga, como para no estudiar, lo que sobre la justicia con genialidad nos comentaron hace ya tantos años.

  9. High burnup effects on fuel behaviour under accident conditions: the tests CABRI REP-Na

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Franz; Papin, Joelle

    A large, performance based, knowledge and experience in the field of nuclear fuel behaviour is available for nominal operation conditions. The database is continuously completed and precursor assembly irradiations are performed for testing of new materials and innovative designs. This procedure produces data and arguments to extend licencing limits in the permanent research for economic competitiveness. A similar effort must be devoted to the establishment of a database for fuel behaviour under off-normal and accident conditions. In particular, special attention must be given to the so-called design-basis-accident (DBA) conditions. Safety criteria are formulated for these situations and must be respected without consideration of the occurrence probability and the risk associated to the accident situation. The introduction of MOX fuel into the cores of light water reactors and the steadily increasing goal burnup of the fuel call for research work, both experimental and analytical, in the field of fuel response to DBA conditions. In 1992, a significant programme step, CABRI REP-Na, has been launched by the French Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (IPSN) in the field of the reactivity initiated accident (RIA). After performing the nine experiments of the initial test matrix it can be concluded that important new findings have been evidenced. High burnup clad corrosion and the associated degradation of the mechanical properties of the ZIRCALOY4 clad is one of the key phenomena of the fuel behaviour under accident conditions. Equally important is the evidence that transient, dynamic fission gas effects resulting from the close to adiabatic heating introduces a new explosive loading mechanism which may lead to clad rupture under RIA conditions, especially in the case of heterogeneous MOX fuel.

  10. Quasi-Localized Charge Approximation for Strongly Correlated Plasmas in Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kählert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael; Kalman, Gabor

    2012-10-01

    Over the last two decades, the Quasi-Localized Charge Approximation (QLCA) has been successfully applied to investigate the dielectric properties of various strongly coupled systems [1]. While these earlier studies focused on bulk properties, we are concerned with the application of the QLCA to finite inhomogeneous systems. These situations are commonly encountered in ion trap plasmas, ultra-cold neutral plasmas, or dusty plasmas. Starting from the microscopic Lagrangian, we derive an equation for the fluid displacement field and compare our results with previous calculations [2] and a theory for strongly correlated ion plasmas [3]. Since the QLCA accounts for correlation effects, it improves upon so-called ``cold-fluid'' theories and should allow to reduce the discrepancies between the latter and molecular dynamics simulations in a confined Yukawa plasma [4]. Here, we present our first results.[3pt] [1] K. I. Golden and G. J. Kalman, Phys. Plasmas 7, 14 (2000)[0pt] [2] C.-J. Lee and G. J. Kalman, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 58, 448 (2011)[0pt] [3] D. H. E. Dubin and J. P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5249 (1996), D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5268 (1996)[0pt] [4] H. K"ahlert and M. Bonitz, Phys. Rev. E 83, 056401 (2011)

  11. Online platform for simulations of ion energy distribution functions behind a plasma boundary sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, Alexander; Shihab, Mohammed; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2012-10-01

    Plasma processes, particularly plasma etching and plasma deposition are crucial for a large variety of industrial manufacturing purposes. For these processes the knowledge of the ion energy distribution function plays a key role. Measurements of the ion energy and ion angular distribution functions (IEDF, IADF) are at least challenging and often impossible in industrial processes. An alternative to measurements of the IEDF are simulations. With this contribution we present a self-consistent model available online for everyone. The simulation of ion energy and ion angular distribution functions involves the well known plasma boundary sheath model by Brinkmann [1-4], which is controlled via a web interface (http://sheath.tet.rub.de). After a successful simulation run all results are evaluable within the browser and ready for download for further analysis.[4pt] [1] R.P. Brinkmann, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44, 042002 (2011)[0pt] [2] R.P. Brinkmann, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42, 194009 (2009)[0pt] [3] R.P. Brinkmann, J. App. Phys. 102, 093303 (2007)[0pt] [4] M. Kratzer et al., J. Appl. Phys. 90, 2169 (2001)

  12. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  13. 2-D studies of Relativistic electron beam plasma instabilities in an inhomogeneous plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrashekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [Phys. Rev Letts. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nano tube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and simulations with the help of 2-D Particle - In - Cell code. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/ks...

  14. Rotation and plasma stability in the Fitzpatrick-Aydemir model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2007-08-01

    The rotational stabilization of the resistive wall modes (RWMs) is analyzed within the single-mode cylindrical Fitzpatrick-Aydemir model [R. Fitzpatrick, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3459 (2002)]. Here, the consequences of the Fitzpatrick-Aydemir dispersion relation are derived in terms of the observable growth rate and toroidal rotation frequency of the mode, which allows easy interpretation of the results and comparison with experimental observations. It is shown that this model, developed for the plasma with weak dissipation, predicts the rotational destabilization of RWM in the typical range of the RWM rotation. The model predictions are compared with those obtained in a similar model, but with the Boozer boundary conditions at the plasma surface [A. H. Boozer, Phys. Plasmas 11, 110 (2004)]. Simple experimental tests of the model are proposed.

  15. Response to "Comment on ‘Electric Multipole Moments for Some First-Row Diatomic Hydride Molecules' [Commun. Theor. Phys. 38 (2002) 256]"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Metin Orbay; Telhat Ozdogan

    2003-01-01

    The comment of Guseinov is irrelevant and also unjust. In contrast to his comment, we show that theobtained electric multipole moment values for some first-row diatomic molecules are original and better than his values(I.I. Guseinov, E. Akin, and A.M. Rzaeva, J. Mol. Struct. (Theochem) 453 (1998) 163) with respect to Hartree-Fockvalues. Moreover, it must be noted that all the formulas are cited in our paper (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun.Theor. Phys. (Beijing, China) 35 (2001) 585) and corrigendum (M. Orbay and T. Ozdogan, Commun. Theor. Phys.(Beijing, China) 37 (2002) 768).

  16. Parametric Instabilities of Electron Cyclotron Waves in Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Perkins, PPPL-1578 (1979). 7. C. S. Liu, in Advances in Plasma Physics, edited by A. Simon and W. B. Thompson (Wiley, N. Y. 1976) Vol. 6. p. 121. 8. V. K. Tripathi, C. S. Liu and C. Grebogi , Phys. Fluids 22, 301 (1979). II II II1I. .. ,

  17. Hacia una república conservadora : el programa político del Partido Agrario Español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Teófilo Gil Cuadrado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El Partido Agrario Español (PAE, fundado en enero de 1934 y presidido por José Martínez de Velasco, representó, dentro de la II República española, una alternativa conservadora y, al tiempo, leal al régimen. El programa político del PAE aceptaba la República —a diferencia de otros partidos derechistas del momento, como la CEDA y los monárquicos— y defendía la unidad nacional, el establecimiento de una segunda Cámara legislativa, la protección de la agricultura y la industria mediante aranceles, el libre comercio dentro de las fronteras nacionales y la revisión de algunas leyes del primer bienio como la Reforma Agraria de 1932. El objetivo era la configuración de una República conservadora distinta, en aspectos fundamentales, a la diseñada por la Constitución de 1931 y la legislación del bienio social-republicano.The Spanish Agrarian Party (Partido Agrario Español, PAE, founded in january of 1934 and presided by José Martínez de Velasco, was, in the political life of the Spanish Second Republic, a conservative and republican option. The agrarian program accepted the republican regime —in opposition to other conservative parties, like the CEDA or the monarchists— and defended the national union, the establishment of a Senate, the protection of the national agriculture and industry trough tariffs, the free trade in the Spanish market and the revision of some laws voted in the first biennium like the Agrarian Reform, promulgated in 1932. The idea was to establish a conservative Republic, different, in some fundamental aspects, of the regime designed by the Constitution of 1931 and the legislation approved during the socialist-republican biennium.

  18. On non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets and plasma bullet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinpei

    2012-10-01

    Because of the enhanced plasma chemistry, atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas (APNPs) have been widely studied for several emerging applications such as biomedical applications. For the biomedical applications, plasma jet devices, which generate plasma in open space (surrounding air) rather than in confined discharge gaps only, have lots of advantages over the traditional dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) devices. For example, it can be used for root canal disinfection, which can't be realized by the traditional plasma device. On the other hand, currently, the working gases of most of the plasma jet devices are noble gases or the mixtures of the noble gases with small amount of O2, or air. If ambient air is used as the working gas, several serious difficulties are encountered in the plasma generation process. Amongst these are high gas temperatures and disrupting instabilities. In this presentation, firstly, a brief review of the different cold plasma jets developed to date is presented. Secondly, several different plasma jet devices developed in our lab are reported. The effects of various parameters on the plasma jets are discussed. Finally, one of the most interesting phenomena of APNP-Js, the plasma bullet is discussed and its behavior is described. References: [1] X. Lu, M. Laroussi, V. Puech, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21, 034005 (2012); [2] Y. Xian, X. Lu, S. Wu, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 123702 (2012); [3] X. Pei, X. Lu, J. Liu, D. Liu, Y. Yang, K. Ostrikov, P. Chu, and Y. Pan, J. Phys. D 45, 165205 (2012).

  19. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  20. The general dielectric tensor for bi-kappa magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaelzer, Rudi; Meneses, Anelise Ramires

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we derive the dielectric tensor for a plasma containing particles described by an anisotropic superthermal (bi-kappa) velocity distribution function. The tensor components are written in terms of the two-variables kappa plasma special functions, recently defined by Gaelzer and Ziebell [Phys. Plasmas 23, 022110 (2016)]. We also obtain various new mathematical properties for these functions, which are useful for the analytical treatment, numerical implementation and evaluation of the functions and, consequently, of the dielectric tensor. The formalism developed here and in the previous paper provides a mathematical framework for the study of electromagnetic waves propagating at arbitrary angles and polarizations in a superthermal plasma.

  1. Proyectos de parcelas con servicios desarrollados por el INVI en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Howley, Carlos

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, has not escaped the phenomenon of urban growth and the concentration of large slum areas or hovels, mainly due to the migratory movements of the peasants who have been driven from the country. As a viable solution to the enormous problem of housing in this city, INVI, with the participation of the World Bank, is putting forward projects for lots supplied with services in which infrastructure services are installed on urban land and plots or parcels of land are given to families so that they can build or complete their houses. These projects are located in places registering a greater tendency towards development. The urban plan formulated in both projects is of an eminently pedestrian nature with a reduced thoroughfare for vehicles. In the pedestrian precinct, it was possible to lay down what have been called mini-parks, which involve widening the pedestrian thoroughfare and, in addition to constituting green areas distributed throughout the projects, they also reinforce the idea of a neighbourhood. Because of the scope of the projects, a series of installations have been provided to maintain their own community services, as well as commercial and institutional ones, which are distributed strategically.Santo Domingo, capital de la República Dominicana, no ha escapado al fenómeno del crecimiento urbano y a la concentración de grandes tugurios o arrabales, debido principalmente a los movimientos migratorios de los campesinos expulsados del campo. Como una solución viable al gran problema de la vivienda de esta ciudad, el INVI, con la participación del Banco Mundial, plantea proyectos de parcelas con Servicios en los cuales se instalan servicios de infraestructura en tierras urbanas y se proporcionan parcelas o solares a familias para que éstas construyan o completen sus viviendas. Se ubican estos proyectos en sitios que acusan una mayor tendencia de desarrollo. El esquema urbano

  2. A natureza dos números na República de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastácio Borges de Araújo Jr.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available É incontestável a presença das matemáticas nos diálogos de Platão, todavia o alcance e o sentido desta presença é matéria de controvérsia entre os especialistas. Alguns acreditam que os temas matemáticos empregados nos diálogos são fantasias matemáticas, outros defendem baseados, sobretudo no testemunho de Aristóteles, que Platão teria substituído na sua hipótese as formas inteligíveis pelos números ideais. Sem tomar partido de antemão nestas querelas, o que propomos aqui é uma investigação acerca da natureza dos números fundamentada exclusivamente nos textos de Platão, particularmente orientada por uma passagem do livro VII do diálogo República(525 b11- c3, em que Sócrates diz o seguinte: "Seria, portanto, conveniente colocar este estudo, ò Glaucon, dentro de uma legislação e persuadir aqueles que vão participar das grandes coisas na cidade a irem ao cálculo e a aplicarem-se a ele, não nos seus afazeres privados, mas até chegarem à contemplação da natureza dos números através da própria intelecção (...".The presence of the mathematics in Plato's dialogues is unquestionable. However, its reach and sense is controversial for some specialists. Some believe that the mathematical themes employed in the dialogues are mathematical fantasies; on the other hand, others defend, based on the Aristotle's testimonies, that Plato would have substituted the intelligible forms by the ideal numbers in his hypothesis. Having not taken part in the quarrel, we propose an investigation on the nature of the numbers based exclusively in Plato's texts, particularly oriented by the a passage in book VII of Republic (525 b11 - c3, in which Socrates says: "Then it would be fitting, Glaucon, to set this study down in law and persuade those who are going to participate in the greatest things in the city to go to calculation and to take it up, not after the fashion of private men, but stay with it until they come to the

  3. Galeguismo, agro e agrarismo na Galicia da II República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabo Villaverde, Miguel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Partido Galeguista (PG was created in December 1931 as the expression of Galician nationalism during the Second Republic (1931-1936. Prior to that, the Galician nationalists had been very influential in the cultural sphere but rather powerless from a political point of view. The PG regarded agriculture and peasantry as a priority, not only because of their objective importance in the Galician economy and society in the 1930s but also because they were seen as the bulwarks of the national identity. In fact, the characteristics, needs and paths of development of the Galician agrarian sector were usually defined as opposed to those of the rest of Spain. It is then understable that the PG tried to win the agrarian unions over, and that it is arguable that it had plenty of common features with the so-called Agrarian Parties in other European regions.

    O Partido Galeguista (PG foi creado en decembro de 1931 como expresión do nacionalismo galego durante a Segunda República (1931-1936. Con anterioridade, os nacionalistas galegos foron moi influíntes no eido cultural pero maiormente inoperantes dende o punto de vista político. O PG consideraba a agricultura e o campesiñado como unha prioridade, non só pola súa importancia obxectiva na economía e sociedade galegas dos anos trinta senón tamén porque eran vistos como os baluartes da identidade nacional. De feito, as características, necesidades e vías de desenvolvemento do sector agrario galego eran normalmente definidas en oposición ás do resto de España. É daquela comprensible que o PG tentase gañarse ás sociedades agrarias, e mesmo se pode afirmar que tiña moitos puntos en común cos chamados Partidos Agrarios doutras rexións europeas.

  4. Virtud en La República de Platón y El Príncipe de Maquiavelo

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Desde el punto de vista de la ética de virtudes, el presente ensayo compara los filósofos-reyes de Platón con el príncipe de Maquiavelo. Primeramente, se define la ética de virtudes; seguidamente, se explica la manera en que se manifiesta la virtud en La República de Platón y El Príncipe de Maquiavelo. Finalmente, se valoran las semejanzas y diferencias entre ambos autores con respecto al concepto de virtud.

  5. Proteinopatías amiloides: desarrollo de un nuevo sistema modelo en microorganismos basado en RepA-WH1

    OpenAIRE

    Gasset Rosa, Fátima

    2012-01-01

    Las bases moleculares de la agregación de las proteínas amiloides son similares en todos los organismos, sean provenientes de microorganismos procariotas, hongos o metazoos. Muchas de estas proteínas poseen naturaleza priónica y son agentes causantes de enfermedades fatales (neurodegenerativas o sistémicas), cuyos mecanismos quedan todavía por esclarecer como previo paso hacia posibles terapias. Considerando estos presupuestos, el estudio de la amiloidosis de RepA-WH1, una proteína iniciadora...

  6. O surgimento da escola médica paulista no contexto brasileiro da Primeira República (1891 a 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Silva Barros da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta compreender el proceso de instauración de la enseñanza médica en São Paulo, Brasil, entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX. Para tanto se discute los cambios que ocurrieron en el Estado de São Paulo en los comienzos del periodo de la República, en el contexto de la creación de nuevas instituciones médicas, tales como la Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia y el Serviço Sanitário, asi como surgimiento de varias revistas de la area.

  7. Experiencias de colaboradores tuneros en la República Democrática de Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Magdalena Castro García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En la presente comunicación breve se relatan las experiencias de una enfermera que se desempeñó profesionalmente en la asistencia médica y la docencia en la República Democrática de Timor Leste. A través de las vivencias compartidas se ponen de manifiesto los valores humanos que caracterizan al personal de la salud cubana, entre ellos: el humanismo, la responsabilidad, la laboriosidad y la solidaridad, características que muestran un ejemplo del papel de la mujer cubana en la Revolución

  8. Variedades de vegetales y de hongos existentes en la República Argentina y poseedoras de principios psicoactivos /

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Tesis [Maestría] -- Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Escuela de Salud Pública En este trabajo se ha recopilado información correspondiente a 25 géneros, 34 especies de vegetales y 4 géneros ,4 especies de hongos que pueden ser encontrados en el espacio territorial de la República Argentina. Todos estos organismos poseen principios psicoactivos. Haciéndose referencia a la forma que se utilizan como fuente alternativa de sustancias psicoactivas y/o a su potencia...

  9. Acoso laboral: ¿Cómo intervenir? : Una mirada desde la Universidad de la República del Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Menéndez, Manuel; Cánepa, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    En el año 2010 la Universidad de la República del Uruguay, la principal universidad del país, que es pública y cogobernada, creó un Programa de Salud Mental (PSM) para abordar las problemáticas de salud mental de sus estudiantes y trabajadores. El PSM decidió abordar la problemática del acoso laboral debido a la gran demanda existente. Una investigación estadística realizada por el PSM sobre la Calidad de Vida de los trabajadores docentes y no docentes de la Universidad, publicada en el añ...

  10. Alguns ectoparasitas e protozoários em bovinos da República da Guiné-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    ROSA, FERNANDA; Crespo, Maria Virgínia; Travassos Dias, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Os autores assinalam a presença de algumas espécies de ixodídeos (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus annulatus, B. geigy e Hyalomma sp.) localizados em diferentes regiões do corpo de bovinos autóctones da República da Guiné-Bissau, colhidos entre Novembro de 1990 e Março de 1991. A pesquisa de protozoários, efectuada principalmente em esfregaços de sangue revelou a presença de Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans, Babesia bigemina e Sarcocystis sp. Não foram encontradas lesões relacionada...

  11. El matrimonio como estrategia en la carrera política durante el último tramo de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Castán, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    En el último siglo de la República el matrimonio se convirtió en un poderoso instrumento para alcanzar el poder político o mantenerse entre la élite gobernante. Además de la importancia del matrimonio desde un punto de vista socio-político más que jurídico, el estudio se centra en las alianzas político-familiares celebradas por personajes claves de este período como César, Pompeyo, Cicerón y Marco Antonio

  12. L’ethnographie et l’anthropologie religieuses de Cuba : repères historiques et bibliographiques

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Le développement que connaissent aujourd’hui les études sur Cuba, en particulier l’ethnographie des pratiques religieuses dites « d’origine africaine », n’est pas le fruit du hasard. Cet article introductif revient sur les conditions sociohistoriques spécifiques qui ont présidé à ce renouveau en les replaçant dans le contexte politique et idéologique cubain. Afin d’établir quelques repères bibliographiques dans un domaine d’études devenu particulièrement dynamique, il évoque aussi certaines t...

  13. Rep-PCR typing of Staphylococcus spp. strains in meat paste production line and identification of their origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A meat paste production line and its microbial parameters have been evaluated in single Czech company. The raw meat paste samples before heat treatment were tested positively for the presence of three staphylococci species: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Subsequent microbial analysis of meat paste components and ingredients (fresh meat, water, spices, equipment identified only the spices used as positive for S. aureus (coriander, cinnamon, badian, mustard – (10 - 40 cfu/g and S. haemolyticus strains (juniper, ginger. The collection of sixteen collected strains (S. aureus (n = 4, S. haemolyticus (n = 4, S. epidermidis (n = 8 has been typed with the rep-PCR method utilising (GTG5 primer. Analysis of the fingerprints using the unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA clustering method revealed presence of eleven strain clusters with similarity lower than 90%: two fingerprint clusters of S. aureus, three individual clusters characteristic for S. haemolyticus and six different S. epidermidis specific clusters. The S. aureus strains from different types of spice were identical, resp. very similar. Molecular tracking composed from the rep-PCR analysis of acquired isolates and comparison among all collected fingerprints confirmed the spices to be the source of both S. aureus and S. haemolyticus strains identified in raw meat paste. The additional rep-PCR analysis of the S. epidermidis collection confirmed usability and performance of this method. The antibiotic susceptibility to fourteen individual antibiotics has been examined among the collected staphylococci strains. The predominant erythromycin resistance (68.8% was followed with the resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (56.2%. Other resistances observed were less frequent (clindamycin – 12.5%, oxacillin – 6.3%, tetracycline – 6.3%, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim – 6.3%, chloramphenicol – 6.3%, novobiocin – 6

  14. Virtud en La República de Platón y El Príncipe de Maquiavelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Masís Iverson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la ética de virtudes, el presente ensayo compara los filósofos-reyes de Platón con el príncipe de Maquiavelo. Primeramente, se define la ética de virtudes; seguidamente, se explica la manera en que se manifiesta la virtud en La República de Platón y El Príncipe de Maquiavelo. Finalmente, se valoran las semejanzas y diferencias entre ambos autores con respecto al concepto de virtud.

  15. Elemento material de los decretos con fuerza de ley propiamente dichos en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola del del Valle Duarte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de esta investigación consiste en determinar el elemento material de los decretos con fuerza de ley propiamente dichos en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999. Se utiliza la estrategia de investigación documental, sustentada en el método analítico. Las fuentes para la recolección de información atienden a cuatro ámbitos: constitucional, legal, doctrinal y jurisprudencial. Los decretos con fuerza de ley propiamente dichos, contemplados en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999, constituyen actos jurídicos normativos de efectos generales, con rango legal, dictados por el Presidente de la República en Consejo de Ministros, cuyo elemento material comprende dos concurrentes subelementos: ausencia de límites materiales expresos en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 y sometido a directrices, propósitos y marco en materias de competencia nacional establecidos en la ley habilitante. La Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela de 1999 permite inferir la presencia de límites materiales implícitos. Cada ley habilitante, sancionada por la Asamblea Nacional, configura el único límite material expreso de los decretos con fuerza de ley propiamente dichos por ella autorizados.

  16. rep-PCR指纹图谱技术在乳酸菌鉴定中的应用%Application of Rep-PCR technique for the identification of lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满朝新; 迟涛; 胡博韬; 房玉国; 王旻; 周艳秋; 韩琳琳; 胡惠秩; 姜毓君

    2010-01-01

    采用了 rep-PCR指纹图谱技术,对分离自内蒙古通辽地区的传统发酵乳中的乳酸菌进行了鉴定和多样性分析.应用rep-PCR指纹图谱技术能够对实验菌株达到非常好的分辨能力.结果表明,该地区的乳酸菌呈现出非常高的多样性,其中Lactobcillus plantarum和Lactobacillus helveticus等6种菌种是这些传统发酵乳中常见的种,而植物乳杆菌Lactobacillus plantarum为优势种;而且还发现同一乳酸菌种群指纹图谱存在一些特征性的条带,这将为我们快速鉴定乳酸菌提供了理论依据.

  17. Comment on "A new exactly solvable quantum model in $N$ dimensions" [Phys. Lett. A 375(2011)1431, arXiv:1007.1335

    CERN Document Server

    Ley, B L Moreno

    2011-01-01

    We pinpoint that the work about "a new exactly solvable quantum model in $N$ dimensions" by Ballesteros et al. [Phys. Lett. A {\\bf 375} (2011) 1431, arXiv:1007.1335] is not a new exactly solvable quantum model since the flaw of the position-dependent mass Hamiltonian proposed by them makes it less valuable in physics.

  18. Comment on ``Barut-Girardello and Klauder-Perelomov coherent states for the Kravchuk functions'' [J. Math. Phys. 48, 112106 (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, H.; Dehghani, A.

    2008-04-01

    We call attention to the misconstructions in a paper recently published in this journal [A. Chenaghlou and O. Faizy, J. Math. Phys. 48, 112106 (2007)]. It is shown that the constructed Barut-Girardello coherent states are problematic from the view points of the definition and the measure. The claimed coherencies for the Kravchuk functions cannot actually exist.

  19. Some comments on the paper: Controllability of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 65 (2014), no. 5, 941-959

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierri, Michelle; O'Regan, Donal

    2016-04-01

    The abstract results and applications presented in "Controllability of fractional neutral stochastic functional differential systems, Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 65 (2014), no. 5, 941-959, are not correct. Moreover, the class of differential control problems studied in [1] is not H-controllable.

  20. Comments on the paper: Synthesis growth and characterization of copper mercury thiocyanate crystal [Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2015-01-01

    The unit cell parameters, infrared and UV-Vis spectral data reported in the paper by Vijayabhaskaran et al (Indian J Pure & App Phys 49 (2011) 340-343) cannot belong to the colourless crystalline compound formulated as copper mercury thiocyanate CuHg(SCN)4 as claimed by the authors.

  1. Erratum to ;Neutron-19C scattering: Emergence of universal properties in a finite range potential; [Phys. Lett. B 764 (2017) 196

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalchi, M. A.; Yamashita, M. T.; Hadizadeh, M. R.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro

    2017-08-01

    Numerical results for the function (1 -EK /E0) kcot ⁡δ0R, as given in Phys. Lett. B 764 (2017) 196, are revised. Fig. 2 and Tables 2 and 3 should be replaced by the following corresponding figure and tables. The conclusions of the original paper remain unchanged.

  2. Erratum to “Neutron–19C scattering: Emergence of universal properties in a finite range potential” [Phys. Lett. B 764 (2017 196

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shalchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical results for the function (1−EK/E0kcot⁡δ0R, as given in Phys. Lett. B 764 (2017 196, are revised. Fig. 2 and Tables 2 and 3 should be replaced by the following corresponding figure and tables. The conclusions of the original paper remain unchanged.

  3. Comment on "Rethinking first-principles electron transport theories with projection operators: The problems caused by partitioning the basis set" [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114104 (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Reuter and Harrison [J. Chem. Phys.139, 114104 (2013)] question the widely used mean-field electron transport theories, which employ nonorthogonal localized basis sets. They claim these can violate an “implicit decoupling assumption,” leading to wrong results for the current...

  4. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  5. Repérage d’Images Ordinaires : Analyse des Requêtes des Chercheurs d’Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ménard

    2009-06-01

    also emphasizes the pressing necessity to optimize the methods used for image processing, in order to facilitate image retrieval and dissemination in multilingual environments. Résumé Depuis quelques années, le web est devenu un média incontournable pour la diffusion de ressources multilingues. Cependant, les différences linguistiques constituent souvent un obstacle majeur aux échanges de documents scientifiques, culturels, pédagogiques et commerciaux. En plus de cette diversité linguistique, on constate le développement croissant de bases de données et de collections composées de différents types de documents textuels ou multimédias, ce qui complexifie également le processus de repérage documentaire. Par exemple, les collections d’images numériques sont aussi nombreuses que diversifiées. Le besoin de repérer une image spécifique dans diverses collections est devenu une préoccupation partagée par plusieurs communautés. La croissance du web a mis en relief le besoin pressant de se doter d’outils propres à la description des images dans le but de faciliter leur repérage, puisque l’on retrouve celles-ci dans la plupart des ressources disponibles. Cette recherche compare le repérage d’images dans deux contextes linguistiques différents : un contexte monolingue, c’est-à-dire que la langue de la requête (français est la même que la langue d’indexation (français; et un contexte multilingue où la langue de la requête (français est différente de la langue d’indexation (anglais. Cet article présente les résultats de l’analyse des requêtes formulées par les participants pour repérer un ensemble d’images ordinaires représentant des objets de la vie quotidienne, en contexte de repérage multilingue. L’examen des termes contenus dans les requêtes des chercheurs d’images révèle les tendances observées sur le plan terminologique, perceptuel et structurel. Les participants emploient généralement des requêtes simples

  6. El Gobierno de la República en el exilio : crónica de un imposible retorno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Flores

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El triunfo de los aliados en la Segunda Guena Mundial hizo que los republicanos españoles exiliados en 1939 concibiesen esperanzas de un inmediato retomo de la República a su país con el apoyo aliado. Con esta idea se reconstituyeron las instituciones de la República Española en el exilio en México D. R, en agosto de 1945. En este artículo se analiza el proceso de esa reconstitución y los sucesivos gobiernos que se sucedieron hasta la disolución de las instituciones en junio de 1977, después de un imposible retorno.The victory of the salles in the Second World war did that the Spanish republicans exiled in 1939 were conceiving hopes ofan immediate return ofthe Republic to his(its country with the allied support. With this idea there were re-constituted the institutions of the Spanish Republic in the exile in México D.F., in August, 1945. In this article there are analyzed the process of this reconstitution and the successive governments that happened up to the dissolution of the institutions in June, 1977, afíer impossible I come back.

  7. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  8. Isolation of a minireplicon of the plasmid pG6303 of Lactobacillus plantarum G63 and characterization of the plasmid-encoded Rep replication protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jing Fan; Xuedong Xi; Yan Huang; Zhongli Cui

    2015-06-01

    A cryptic 10.0-kb plasmid pG6303 from a multiplasmid-containing Lactobacillus plantarum G63 was studied. The analysis of replicon was facilitated by the construction of shuttle vectors and electrotransformation into L. plantarum. The pG6303 replicon included (i) an open reading frame encoding the putative Rep replication initiation protein; and (ii) the putative origin of replication. The Rep protein was expressed as a fusion with the hexa-histidine (His) at its C-terminal end and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The electrophoretic mobility shift assays in pG6303 showed that the purified Rep protein specifically bound from 5582 to 5945 bp, differing from the putative origin of replication of pG6303. We speculate that pG6303 replication is a new mode of plasmid replication.

  9. Functionalized silk assembled from a recombinant spider silk fusion protein (Z-4RepCT) produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Ronnie; Lau, Cheuk H; Ishida, Takuya; Ramström, Margareta; Sandgren, Mats; Hedhammar, My

    2016-05-01

    Functional biological materials are a growing research area with potential applicability in medicine and biotechnology. Using genetic engineering, the possibility to introduce additional functions into spider silk-based materials has been realized. Recently, a recombinant spider silk fusion protein, Z-4RepCT, was produced intracellularly in Escherichia coli and could after purification self-assemble into silk-like fibers with ability to bind antibodies via the IgG-binding Z domain. In this study, the use of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris for production of Z-4RepCT has been investigated. Temperature, pH and production time were influencing the amount of soluble Z-4RepCT retrieved from the extracellular fraction. Purification of secreted Z-4RepCT resulted in a mixture of full-length and degraded silk proteins that failed to self-assemble into fibers. A position in the C-terminal domain of 4RepCT was identified as being subjected to proteolytic cleavage by proteases in the Pichia culture supernatant. Moreover, the C-terminal domain was subjected to glycosylation during production in P. pastoris. These observed alterations of the CT domain are suggested to contribute to the failure in fiber assembly. As alternative approach, Z-4RepCT retrieved from the intracellular fraction, which was less degraded, was used and shown to retain ability to assemble into silk-like fibers after enzymatic deglycosylation. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Gestión Integral en Puentes de carretera en la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. González Arestuche

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El logro de la seguridad en la circulación automotora es el problema básico a resolver en el proceso de conservación de la red de carreteras, partiendo de los aspectos que se vinculan con su explotación. Durante los diferentes movimientos de los vehículos, cada conductor precisa contar con las posibilidades técnicas de su equipo en cuanto a velocidad y capacidad de carga, tratando de realizar las operaciones con un gasto mínimo de tiempo, medios materiales y financieros, y con las mejores condiciones de confort y seguridad. El confort y seguridad del sistema de redes estará en función del estado técnico de la carretera en estudio y del sistema de gestión para su conservación. La premisa fundamental para la organización del servicio de mantenimiento, reparación y/o reconstrucción del sistema de carreteras, incluyendo sus puentes, se determinará atendiendo a los datos extraídos del inventario de toda la red vial existente en el territorio nacional. Para disponer de una Base de Datos confiable, que recoja con fiabilidad el estado técnico de la red vial y los puentes de carretera, se precisa de la combinación de las técnicas de inspección, levantamiento de patologías y diagnóstico del estado técnico de dicha red y sus puentes, unido a las técnicas de modelación e instrumentación que permitan realizar una correcta evaluación y un diagnóstico eficaz, además de contar con un excelente sistema de gestión de conservación en función del grado de deterioro de la red vial y de todos sus elementos componentes, incluyendo sus puentes. Este tipo de estudio y enfoque permite validar, con mayor grado de efectividad, las causas que propician el estado técnico del sistema vial y de los puentes de las carreteras, y a su vez posibilita realizar proyectos de rehabilitación, fiables y eficientes desde el punto de vista técnico. La República de Cuba en la actualidad sigue enfrentando la escasez de recursos materiales y financieros

  11. V-REP & ROS Testbed for Design, Test, and Tuning of a Quadrotor Vision Based Fuzzy Control System for Autonomous Landing

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Kannan, Somasundar; Voos, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of the Virtual Robotics Experimental Platform (V-REP) and the Robotics Operative System (ROS) working in parallel for design, test, and tuning of a vision based control system to command an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Here, is presented how to configure the V-REP, and ROS to work in parallel, and how to use the developed packages in ROS for the pose estimation based on vision and for the design and use of a fuzzy logic control system. It is also shown in this ...

  12. Nueva Gerencia Pública en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Desafíos y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    Edith Cuñarro; Eduviges Morales; Nila Leal Gonzàlez

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la relación entre las bases institucionales del Estado establecidas en la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela (1999) y algunos elementos propuestos por la Nueva Gerencia Pública (NGP). La metodología consiste en el estudio crítico de los principales planteamientos de la NGP y su viabilidad en el marco de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela (CRBV), así como el planteamiento de las carencias analíticas q...

  13. Examen de Auditoría Integral a la Dirección de Compras Públicas de la Vicepresidencia de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Balarezo Nuñez, Mariana de Jesus

    2014-01-01

    La auditoría integral practicada a la Dirección de Compras Públicas de la Vicepresidencia de la República del Ecuador se desarrolló considerando aspectos encaminados al análisis del control interno; al cumplimiento de las disposiciones legales, y demás normas aplicables en la entidad; y de las metas y objetivos propuestos; investigación que servirá de aporte para mejorar los sistemas de control administrativos y financieros de la Dirección de Compras Públicas de la Vicepresidencia de la Rep...

  14. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Tsung, Frank S.; Tableman, Adam R.; Mori, Warren B.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1692942 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1342 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1693437 14, 371 (1971); Silva , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.2273 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca , Lect. Note Comput. Sci.9783

  15. BRIEF COMMUNICATION: On the drift kinetic equation driven by plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaing, K. C.

    2010-07-01

    A drift kinetic equation that is driven by plasma flows has previously been derived by Shaing and Spong 1990 (Phys. Fluids B 2 1190). The terms that are driven by particle speed that is parallel to the magnetic field B have been neglected. Here, such terms are discussed to examine their importance to the equation and to show that these terms do not contribute to the calculations of plasma viscosity in large aspect ratio toroidal plasmas, e.g. tokamaks and stellarators.

  16. Effect of biasing on plasma rotation in the edge of IR-T1 Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Arvin, R.; Gheydi, M.; Nikmohammadi, A. [Plasma physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O.Box: 14665-768 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorshid, P.; Bolourian, H. [Department of Physics, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad Branch, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Electrode biasing experiments were carried out on the IR-T1 Tokamak. The effects of radial electric field (Er) on plasma fluid velocity and magnetic island rotation investigated by a Mach/Langmuir electric probe and an array of 12 Mirnov coils. The Results have shown a change in the fluid velocity during biasing regime. References: [1] Van Oost G. et al. 2001 Czech. J. of Phys. 51 957; [2] Effect of Plasma Biasing on Suppression of Electrostatic Fluctuation in the Edge Region of STP-3(M) Reversed Field Pinch J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 74 (2005) pp.605-612; [3] Weynants R. R. and Van Oost G. 1993 Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 35 B177. (authors)

  17. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  18. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  19. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  20. Firmino Costa, un intelectual de la República y sus propósitos educativos (1907-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cesário Hamdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende analizar la actu - ación del educador Firmino Costa, nacido en Minas Gerais, al retomar sus antecedentes his - tóricos que se localizan en la base de las formas de su actuación política e intelectual. Para este análisis, recurrimos al trabajo de Alonso (2008, 1 Oliveira (1999 2 y Carvalho (2003, 3 considera - mos las expresivas contribuciones para su com - prensión en relación con la historia e ideas que circularon en este periodo, comprendido entre los años que antecedieron a las primeras déca - das de la Proclamación de la República en Brasil (I889. Las tres obras, pese a que se escribieron a partir de objetos y objetivos distintos, refuta - ron interpretaciones que, por un lado, tratan el escenario intelectual de la República por medio de tipologías de intelectuales, que estarían ab - sorbiendo pasivamente las teorías europeas y norteamericanas. Y, por otro lado, las que son marcadas por estudios que enfatizan las acciones individuales, empeñadas en llevar adelante sus banderas ideológicas. Al contrario, los autores entienden que los sujetos están inmersos en de - terminado entorno cultural, constituido por las redes de sociabilidad y por el repertorio de ideas en circulación y, por eso mismo, tienen formas distintas de actuación política e intelectual. Y ese escenario condiciona, en gran medida, las posi - bilidades de actuación. Así, este artículo busca establecer conexiones entre algunos elementos del escenario cultural, presentes en los años que antecedieron y en los que sucedieron a la República, relacionándolos a las formas de actuación política e intelectual que informan la acción educacional del educador minero. Ese movimiento analítico, por su vez, exigió que recorriésemos a algunas de las formu - laciones teóricas de Antonio Gramsci, en lo que se refiere a los sentidos de actuación de los inte - lectuales, como forma de comprenderlos a partir del contexto y de las

  1. Comment on “Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic Lagrangian density in fractional form” [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabei, Eqab M.; Al-Jamel, A.; Widyan, H. [Physics Department, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq (Jordan); Baleanu, D. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Cankaya University, Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Space Sciences, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-03-15

    In a recent paper, Jaradat et al. [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033505 (2012)] have presented the fractional form of the electromagnetic Lagrangian density within the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative. They claimed that the Agrawal procedure [O. P. Agrawal, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 272, 368 (2002)] is used to obtain Maxwell's equations in the fractional form, and the Hamilton's equations of motion together with the conserved quantities obtained from fractional Noether's theorem are reported. In this comment, we draw the attention that there are some serious steps of the procedure used in their work are not applicable even though their final results are correct. Their work should have been done based on a formulation as reported by Baleanu and Muslih [Phys. Scr. 72, 119 (2005)].

  2. Comments on ``The Euclidean gravitational action as black hole entropy, singularities, and space-time voids'' [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhas

    2009-04-01

    We point out that the space-time void inferred by Castro [J. Math. Phys. 49, 042501 (2008)] results from his choice of a discontinuous radial gauge. Further since the integration constant α0=2M0 (G =c=1) occurring in the vacuum Hilbert/Schwarzschild solution of a neutral "point mass" is zero [Arnowitt et al., in Gravitation: An Introduction to Current Research, edited by L. Witten (Wiley, New York, 1962), Chap. 7, p. 227; also Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 375 (1960). A. Mitra, Adv. Space Res. 38, 2917 (2006); Proceedings of the XIth Marcel-Grossmann Conference on General Relativity (World Scientific, Singapore, 2008), Vol. 3, p. 1968], Castro's gauge reduces to the well behaved and physical Hilbert gauge. Physically this means that true Hilbert/Schwarzschild black holes have unique gravitational mass M =0. Accordingly, the unphysical space-time void inferred by Castro is actually nonexistent.

  3. Erratum: ``Whittaker pairs for the Virasoro algebra and the Gaiotto-Bonelli-Maruyoshi-Tanzini states'' [J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felińska, Ewa; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Kosztołowicz, Michał

    2012-12-01

    A flow in the formulation and proof of Lemma 2.7 of E. Felińska, Z. Jaskólski, and M. M. Kosztołowicz, J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012) is fixed in Sec. I of this Erratum. This has no consequences for the rest of the paper. An essential error was made in Theorems 3.5, 3.6, and Corollary 3.7 of Sec. III of E. Felińska, Z. Jaskólski, and M. M. Kosztołowicz, J. Math. Phys. 53, 033504 (2012). As it was pointed out by V. Mazorchuk and K. Zhao ["Simple Virasoro modules which are locally finite over positive part," e-print arXiv:1205.5937v2 [math.RT

  4. Plasma-generated reactive oxygen species for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, J. S.; Hammer, M. U.; Winter, J.; Tresp, H.; Duennbier, M.; Iseni, S.; Martin, V.; Puech, V.; Weltmann, K. D.; Reuter, S.

    2012-10-01

    To get a better insight into the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cellular components, fundamental studies are essential to determine the nature and concentration of plasma-generated ROS, and the chemistry induced in biological liquids by those ROS. In this context, we have measured the absolute density of the main ROS created in three different atmospheric pressure plasma sources: two geometrically distinct RF-driven microplasma jets (μ-APPJ [1] and kinpen [2]), and an array of microcathode sustained discharges [3]. Optical diagnostics of the plasma volumes and effluent regions have been performed: UV absorption for O3 and IR emission for O2(a^1δ) [4]. High concentrations of both ROS have been obtained (10^14--10^17cm-3). The effect of different parameters, such as gas flows and mixtures and power coupled to the plasmas, has been studied. For plasma biomedicine, the determination of the reactive species present in plasma-treated liquids is of great importance. In this work, we focused on the measurement of the concentration of H2O2 and NOX radicals, generated in physiological solutions like NaCl and PBS.[4pt] [1] N. Knake et al., J. Phys. D: App. Phys. 41, 194006 (2008)[0pt] [2] K.D. Weltmann et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 82, 1223 (2010)[0pt] [3] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 141502 (2010)[0pt] [4] J.S. Sousa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011502 (2008)

  5. Comment on "A study of phantom scalar field cosmology using Lie and Noether symmetries" [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 25 (2016) 1650051

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos; Tsamparlis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We show that the recent results of \\ [Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 25 (2016) 1650051] on the application of Lie/Noether symmetries in scalar field cosmology are well-known in the literature while the problem could have been solved easily under a coordinate transformation. That follows from the property, that the admitted group of invariant transformations of dynamical system is independent on the coordinate system.

  6. Note: Derivation of two-photon circular dichroism - Addendum to "two-photon circular dichroism" [J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1006 (1975)

    OpenAIRE

    Friese, Daniel Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Published version, also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4930017 This addendum shows the detailed derivation of the fundamental equations for two-photon circular dichroism which are given in a very condensed form in the original publication [I. Tinoco, J. Chem. Phys. 62, 1006 (1975)]. In addition, some minor errors are corrected and some of the derivations in the original publication are commented.

  7. Comment on "Four-component relativistic theory for NMR parameters: Unified formulation and numerical assessment of different approaches" [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 144102 (2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Szmytkowski, Radoslaw

    2011-01-01

    In the paper commented on [J. Chem. Phys. 130 (2009) 144102], Cheng et al. derived a formula for the magnetic dipole shielding constant $\\sigma$ for the Dirac one-electron atom in its ground state. That formula involves an infinite series of ratios of the Euler's gamma functions. We show that with some algebra the series may be expressed in terms of elementary functions. This leads to a simple closed-form expression for the shielding constant.

  8. Comment on ``Monte Carlo investigation of current voltage and avalanche noise in GaN double-drift impact diodes'' [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043709 (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, G. N.

    2005-11-01

    The avalanche noise behavior of impact avalanche transit-time (IMPATT) diodes has been modeled by Reklaitis and Reggiani [J. Appl. Phys. 97, 043709 (2005)]. They have obtained general agreement of their results with those of McIntyre [IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-13, 164 (1966)]. However, McIntyre's theory predicts the opposite noise behavior from that observed in the IMPATT diode. Hence the applicability of the noise model of Reklaitis and Reggiani to IMPATT diode is questionable.

  9. Co-producción de conocimiento en la integralidad. Montevideo: Universidad de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El libro Co-producción de conocimiento en la integralidad es organizado por el equipo docente de la Unidad de Apoyo a la Extensión y Actividades en el Medio (UAExAM de la Facultad de Psicología de la Universidad de la República (UdelaR. El proceso de producción del texto cuenta con un equipo de comité académico integrado por los Profesores Agregados Humberto Tommasino, Gabriel Kaplún y Gabriela Etchebehere. Además cuenta con un comité editor compuesto por los docentes asistentes, Javier Romano y Sandra Fraga, y la ayudante Valeria Cavalli. Ambos equipos realizan las revisiones para la selección de los artículos publicados.

  10. Alejandro Bunge y el problema de la vivienda obrera en la República Argentina (1910-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Núñez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende indagar, a partir del estudio de la figura del economista Alejandro Bunge, en la problemática de la vivienda obrera en la República Argentina en las primeras décadas de la pasada centuria. Aquí se argumentará que los estudios realizados porAlejandro Bunge como director de la División Estadísticas del Departamento Nacional de Trabajo en el período 1910-1915 contribuyeron de manera notable a la elaboración del proyectoy posterior sanción de la Ley de Casas Baratas para Obreros (n°9677.

  11. Indalecio Prieto enjuicia el papel del Gobierno de la República en el estallido de la Guerra Civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El documento que procedemos a transcribir es una grabación efectuada por Indalecio Prieto el 28 de marzo de 1961 en la casa de los esposos Rafael y Guillermina Supervía, en Washington. La grabación se puede dividir en cuatro partes. Una primera, de introducción, donde Prieto narra cómo fue invitado a México y el anhelo por volver a España de los republicanos exiliados. Luego la narración de los acontecimientos del 14 de abril con la instauración de la II República. El tercer apartado se refiere al pronunciamiento militar del 17 de julio, que enlaza con la última parte del documento relativa a la opinión de Prieto sobre Manuel Azaña.

  12. [Characterization of rhizobia causing nodules on leguminous trees native to Uruguay using the rep-PCR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Frioni, L

    2003-01-01

    Methods for identifying and following microorganisms in the environment such as soils, water and plant association have been highly developed in recent years. In this study, we used rep-PCR for the characterization of Rhizobium bacteria isolated from legume trees native of Uruguay which permitted to follow them in plant inoculation assays. Among the primers used, ERIC and BOX1AR, the latter allowed the differentiation of isolates from different legumes and the finding of a high level of homology among rhizobia that nodulate the same legume species. Besides, it demonstrated that the profiles of the isolates recovered from nodules of Acacia caven, were identical to the ones used as inoculants; this confirmed the efficiency of these methods to follow these diazotrophs in the environment.

  13. La psicología en la república federal Alemana: situación actual de la disciplina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Heineken

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan datos sobre la situación actual de la psicología como ciencia y como profesión en la República Federal Alemana. Se muestra la distribución temática de las actividades de investigación y la dinámica de la comunicación científica, así como el número de estudiantes de psicología en los últimos años y la situación universitaria en lo que atañe al profesorado y estudiantado. Se explica además la situación de la psicología como profesión analizando la distribución de los psicólogos en las diferentes áreas profesionales.

  14. Barrio Adentro en Salud: un proyecto político y social de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Aguirre

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo intenta sistematizar un proceso histórico muy complejo que vive la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, donde la participación protagónica de la comunidad está marcando una pauta en la transformación política y social. La implementación de la red de atención primaria del nuevo Sistema Público Nacional de Salud, cuya expresión es la Misión Barrio Adentro, es uno de los logros de significativa trascendencia en salud. Se trata de un proyecto político de inclusión social donde se est...

  15. Cuba: el advenimiento de la República en el periódico La Lucha, 1902

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Rodríguez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    El establecimiento de la primera república de cuba, en mayo de 1902, ha sido un tema escasamente abordado en la historiografía cubana contemporánea. Por ello, en el pre- sente artículo nos proponemos analizar esta coyuntura histórica a través del discurso periodístico del diario la lucha, órgano dirigido a un público bilingüe, acorde a las exigencias del nuevo poder foráneo. Pretendemos estudiar la problemática existente durante el periodo de transi- ción y el inicio de la era republicana en ...

  16. Genetic relationships between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, as revealed by rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula S Peruca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus is closely related to Bacillus thuringiensis, although any genetic relationship between the two strains is still in debate. Using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, we established the genetic relationships between Brazilian sympatric populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis simultaneously collected from two geographically separate sites. We observed the formation of both B. thuringiensis and B. cereus clusters, as well as strains of B. cereus that are more closely related to B. thuringiensis than to other B. cereus strains. In addition, lower genetic variability was observed among B. thuringiensis clusters compared to B. cereus clusters, indicating that either the two species should be categorized as separate or that B. thuringiensis may represent a clone from a B. cereus background.

  17. Joint analysis of the NACP-REP1 marker within the alpha synuclein gene concludes association with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönsch, D; Lederer, T; Reulbach, U; Hothorn, T; Kornhuber, J; Bleich, S

    2005-04-01

    Various studies have linked alcohol dependence phenotypes to chromosome 4. One candidate gene is NACP (non-amyloid component of plaques), coding for alpha synuclein. Recently, it has been shown that alpha synuclein mRNA is increased in alcohol-dependent patients within withdrawal state. This increase is significantly associated with craving, especially obsessive craving. On the basis of these observations, the present study analysed two polymorphic repeats within the NACP gene. We found highly significant longer alleles of NACP-REP1 in alcohol-dependent patients compared with healthy controls (Kruskal-Wallis test, chi(2)=99.5; df=3, Pcraving, a key factor in the genesis and maintenance not only of alcoholism but also of addiction in general.

  18. La cuestión autonómica en el PSOE durante la II República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Molina Jiménez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El debate sobre la cuestión regional en el PSOE durante la II República española fue muy amplio. Existe una lucha entre una concepción centralista y otra federal, en cualquier caso, ambas van a estar vinculadas en el discurso de los socialistas a los intereses de la clase obrera. Palabras clave: Federalismo, centralismo, Estado, nacionalismo, trabajadores. ______________________Abstract:The debate on the issue in the PSOE regional during the Second Spanish Republic was very wide. There is a fight between a centralized approach and other federal, in any case, both are going to be linked in the speech of the socialists to the interests of the working class.  Keywords: Federalism and centralist State, nationalism, workers.  

  19. Arte antioqueño en la colección del Banco de la República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Londoño Vélez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hace cincuenta años, la Biblioteca Luis Ángel Arango del Banco de la República adquirió la primera pintura con la que inició su colección de arte colombiano y latinoamericano que hoy se puede apreciar en la Manzana Cultural. Se trata del óleo del pintor antioqueño Fernando Botero titulado En rojo y azul. Este hecho y la muy buena representación de arte antioqueño que se encuentra en sus salas, me animan a trazar a mano alzada su evolución y a señalar algunos elementos que contribuyan a su mejor comprensión.

  20. Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  1. Breves reflexiones en torno al control externo administrativo y sus consecuencias en la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Mabel Ivanega

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo contiene una reflexión sobre la Ley 24.156 sobre administración financiera y sistemas de control de la República Argenti na, que puede ser aplicable a otros países. El control público externo debe, de un lado, no sólo exigir el cumplimiento de la ley sino ser también el primero en cumplirla y, por otro,  debe ser útil  a la sociedad, es decir, comprometerse con el bien común y en forma más es pecífica,   ser  efectivo,   independiente,   transparente  y oportuno.

  2. Influence of retinoblastoma-related gene silencing on the initiation of DNA replication by African cassava mosaic virus Rep in cells of mature leaves in Nicotiana benthamiana plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Gareth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses mainly infect terminally differentiated tissues and cells in plants. They need to reprogramme host cellular machinery for DNA replication. This process is thought to be mediated by inactivation of cell-cycle repressor proteins and by induction of host DNA synthesis protein expression through actions of the geminviral replication initiator protein (Rep. Findings Exploiting a Nicotiana benthamiana pOri2 line, which is transformed with a transgene consisting of a direct repeat of the African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV-replication origin (Ori flanking a non-viral DNA region, and virus-induced RNA silencing (VIGS, the impact of host gene expression on replication of the ACMV-derived replicon was investigated. The ACMV Rep trans-replicated the viral episomal replicon in leaves of young but not older pOri2 plants. Upon VIGS-mediated down-regulation of N. benthamiana NbRBR1, the retinoblastoma-related protein gene coding for a negative cell-cycle suppressor, recovered the ability of ACMV Rep for trans DNA replication, whereas the silencing of NbPCNA coding for the sliding clamp of DNA polymerase had no effect. Conclusions These results suggest that the cellular machinery for DNA replication in differentiated tissues of older leaves cannot be reprogrammed by Rep alone but may need other uncharacterised viral and plant factors.

  3. [Valitsusliidus olevad Reformierakond ning Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit on kavandatava koolireformi suhtes eri meelt] / Mailis Reps, Tiiu Kuurme, Karin Kütt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Reformierakonna ettepaneku kohta jätta omavalitsustele õiguse otsustada, kas gümnaasium ja põhikool lahutatakse või jätkatakse ühendkooliga avaldavad arvamust riigikogu liige Mailis Reps, Tallinna Ülikooli dotsent Tiiu Kuurme ja Rannu keskkooli direktor Karin Kütt

  4. Elecciones 2016 en República Dominicana: Características, desafíos y retos desde la perspectiva electoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosario Márquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expone la reforma electoral del año 2010, los aspectos importantes que se presentaron en las elecciones de 2012 y los retos que la Junta Central Electoral de la República Dominicana enfrenta en la organización y administración del proceso electoral del año 2016

  5. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic Polymerase Chain Reaction (REP-PCR), characterization of shigella spp. over two decades in Tianjin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Wei, Dianjun; kamara, Idrissa L; Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    To understand the change of the dominant serogroup of Shigella spp., their antimicrobial resistance over more than two decades in Tianjin, their phylogenetic similarity and to determine their evolutionary biology by using REP-PCR and MLST in order to study their epidemiological character. Multi-locus Sequence Typing was performed to determine their lineage and phylogenetic similarity. REP-PCR typing was used to study the homology of their genomic DNA. The isolated rate of group D Shigella in 2009 and 2010 had obviously increased. Antimicrobial susceptibility test results showed that the resistant rates of the 1981-1983 Shigella flexneri to tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol varied from 76.47 to 100%, they were all sensitive to other antibiotics. During 2009-2010, the resistance rates of the isolated Shigella flexneri to gentamicin, amikacin, third and fourth Generation Cephalosporins and quinolones had increased. MLST results produced five sequence types and two sequence type complexes. REP-PCR showed DNA band similarities between the 1981-1983 and 2009-2010 strains. The dominant serogroup of Shigella in Tianjin has changed from Shigella flexneri to Shigella sonnei. Increased drug resistance of Shigella flexneri is higher than Shigella sonnei because a great variety of antibiotics has been used. The MLST results showed that the 1981-1983 strains had the same sequence type with some of the 2009-2010 strains. Combination of MLST and REP-PCR produced better discriminatory power than using either method alone. PMID:23205184

  6. [Valitsusliidus olevad Reformierakond ning Isamaa ja Res Publica Liit on kavandatava koolireformi suhtes eri meelt] / Mailis Reps, Tiiu Kuurme, Karin Kütt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    Reformierakonna ettepaneku kohta jätta omavalitsustele õiguse otsustada, kas gümnaasium ja põhikool lahutatakse või jätkatakse ühendkooliga avaldavad arvamust riigikogu liige Mailis Reps, Tallinna Ülikooli dotsent Tiiu Kuurme ja Rannu keskkooli direktor Karin Kütt

  7. Repše: välislaenuabi katkedes on aasta lõpuks raha läbi / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Läti rahandusminister Einars Repše hoiatas, et kui Lätil ei õnnestu täita oma kohustusi rahvusvaheliste kreeditoride ees ja vähendada 2010. a. eelarvedefitsiiti poole miljardi lati võrra, võib riigikassa rahast tühjaks joosta juba enne aasta lõppu

  8. Avances y desafíos en los regímenes electorales: América Central y República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Picado León

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo resume los principales temas tratados en el Seminario Internacional Elecciones en América Central y República Dominicana. Se subraya el aporte de los organismos electorales en los procesos de transición a la democracia y sus principales desafíos en la actualidad

  9. Macau no Contexto da Estratégia de Integração da República Popular da China no Mercado Mundial

    OpenAIRE

    Murteira, Mário

    1994-01-01

    Série II Especulação sobre o futuro de Macau perante a forte estratégia de intergração da República Popular da China no mercado mundial (com o desempenho de um papel influente por parte de Macau e Taiwan).

  10. Variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences in Pseudomonas syringae and potential use of modified REP primers in the identification of closely related isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Çepni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Pseudomonas syringe pathovars isolated from olive, tomato and bean were identified by species-specific PCR and their genetic diversity was assessed by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR. Reverse universal primers for REP-PCR were designed by using the bases of A, T, G or C at the positions of 1, 4 and 11 to identify additional polymorphism in the banding patterns. Binding of the primers to different annealing sites in the genome revealed additional fingerprint patterns in eight isolates of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and two isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato. The use of four different bases in the primer sequences did not affect the PCR reproducibility and was very efficient in revealing intra-pathovar diversity, particularly in P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi. At the pathovar level, the primer BOX1AR yielded shared fragments, in addition to five bands that discriminated among the pathovars P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi and P. syringae pv. tomato. REP-PCR with a modified primer containing C produced identical bands among the isolates in a pathovar but separated three pathovars more distinctly than four other primers. Although REP-and BOX-PCRs have been successfully used in the molecular identification of Pseudomonas isolates from Turkish flora, a PCR based on inter-enterobacterial repetitive intergenic concensus (ERIC sequences failed to produce clear banding patterns in this study.

  11. Un ministro para la Defensa de la República desde el exilio : Juan Hernández Saravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Aroca Mohedano

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La nueva situación internacionai surgida tras el final de la II Guerra Mundial propició la recuperación de las instituciones republicanas españolas en el exilio. Juan Hernández Saravia, un militar profesional, azañista y republicano, será el ministro de la Defensa Nacional de la República Española. Entre posibilidades reales y utopías, a caballo entre la defensa a ultranza de la legalidad y la protección de los movimientos clandestinos antifranquistas, en medio de las disensiones de los militares exiliados dispersos en varios continentes, discurrirá la actuación de un Ministerio que tendrá como objetivo principal la recuperación del ejército para la futura restaurada República y que verá truncadas sus expectativas por la aparición en el panorama mundial de los primeros.A Minister in exile for tfie Republic Defence: Juan Hernández Saravia The new International situation arisen after the end of the Second World War led to the recovery of Spanish Republic Institutions in exile. Juan Hernández Saravia, an army officer, republican and adherent to Azaña, became the National Defence Minister of Spanish Republic. Among real possibilities and utopia, halfway between a vigorous legality defence and the protection of clandestino movements against Franco's dictatorship, the main objective of this Ministery was the army recovery for the futuro restoring Republic, but the early Cold War shattered these prospects.

  12. A comprehensive computational study on pathogenic mis-sense mutations spanning the RING2 and REP domains of Parkin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ria; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2017-04-30

    Various mutations in PARK2 gene, which encodes the protein parkin, are significantly associated with the onset of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson (ARJP) in neuronal cells. Parkin is a multi domain protein, the N-terminal part contains the Ubl and the C-terminal part consists of four zinc coordinating domains, viz., RING0, RING1, in between ring (IBR) and RING2. Disease mutations are spread over all the domains of Parkin, although mutations in some regions may affect the functionality of Parkin more adversely. The mutations in the RING2 domain are seen to abolish the neuroprotective E3 ligase activity of Parkin. In this current work, we carried out detailed in silico analysis to study the extent of pathogenicity of mutations spanning the Parkin RING2 domain and the adjoining REP region by SIFT, Mutation Accessor, PolyPhen2, SNPs and GO, GV/GD and I-mutant. To study the structural and functional implications of these mutations on RING2-REP domain of Parkin, we studied the solvent accessibility (SASA/RSA), hydrophobicity, intra-molecular hydrogen bonding profile and domain analysis by various computational tools. Finally, we analysed the interaction energy profiles of the mutants and compared them to the wild type protein using Discovery studio 2.5. By comparing the various analyses it could be safely concluded that except P437L and A379V mutations, all other mutations were potentially deleterious affecting various structural aspects of RING2 domain architecture. This study is based purely on computational approach which has the potential to identify disease mutations and the information could further be used in treatment of diseases and prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differentiation of banding patterns between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus isolates in rep-PCR using ERIC primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Tamami; Takada, Kazuko; Fujita, Kou; Ikemi, Takuji; Osgood, Robert C.; Childers, Noel K.; Michalek, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered to be important bacterial species in the initiation of human dental caries. Therefore, the establishment of a reliable genotyping method to distinguish S. mutans from S. sobrinus is of central importance. Objective We assessed the usefulness of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) using ERIC primer banding patterns in differentiating S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Design Five S. mutans and two S. sobrinus prototype strains and 50 clinical isolates (38 S. mutans serotype c, 4 S. sobrinus serotype d, and 8 S. sobrinus serotype g) were examined. The banding patterns of amplicons generated were compared among the prototype strains and clinical isolates, to find common bands that distinguish S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Results Multiple banding patterns were seen with all strains tested. The representative strains of S. mutans tested revealed six unique, strong bands at 2,000 bp, 1,700 bp, 1,400 bp, 1,100 bp, 850 bp, and 250 bp, whereas S. sobrinus had seven strong bands at 2,000 bp, 1,800 bp, 1,100 bp, 900 bp, 800 bp, 600 bp, and 550 bp. The band at 1,100 bp was the only band that was observed in both S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Furthermore, most clinical S. mutans isolates revealed identical banding patterns. All S. mutans had amplicons at 1,700 bp, 850 bp, and 250 bp, whereas those of S. sobrinus were at 1,100 bp, 900 bp, and 800 bp. Conclusions These results indicate that using rep-PCR with the ERIC primers can distinguish between S. mutans and S. sobrinus. PMID:22145074

  14. Maquiavel Versus Rousseau: as Divisões Sociais e Seu Papel em uma República Bem-Ordenada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Moscateli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:As relações de conflito entre os grupos sociais constituem um tópico relevante para a filosofia política, e as maneiras distintas como elas são interpretadas dependem de uma visão mais ampla sobre as condições apropriadas a um Estado bem-ordenado. Maquiavel, por exemplo, ao refletir sobre o caso da Roma Antiga, procurou refutar aqueles que condenavam os tumultos entre os nobres e a plebe da cidade, como se eles tivessem provocado apenas males à república. Para o autor, tais tumultos estavam entre as principais causas da liberdade romana, visto que a diferença nos “humores” dos grandes e do povo resultou em embates que deram origem às leis favoráveis à liberdade. Rousseau, por sua vez, descreveu a existência de “associações particulares” dentro da sociedade civil como algo potencialmente nocivo à harmonia da república, pois cada uma delas contém um interesse particular passível de se sobrepor ao bem comum, nas deliberações públicas, prejudicando o prevalecimento da vontade geral. Ainda para o genebrino, a ocorrência de longos debates e de tumultos nas assembleias populares poderia ser um sinal de divisões internas capazes de ocasionar a ruína do Estado. Frente a essas duas maneiras de conceber o papel político dos conflitos sociais, o objetivo deste trabalho é realizar uma análise comparativa das ideias de Maquiavel e de Rousseau.

  15. On the drift kinetic equation driven by plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaing, K C [Plasma and Space Science Center and ISAPS, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A drift kinetic equation that is driven by plasma flows has previously been derived by Shaing and Spong 1990 (Phys. Fluids B 2 1190). The terms that are driven by particle speed that is parallel to the magnetic field B have been neglected. Here, such terms are discussed to examine their importance to the equation and to show that these terms do not contribute to the calculations of plasma viscosity in large aspect ratio toroidal plasmas, e.g. tokamaks and stellarators. (brief communication)

  16. Secondary electron emission from plasma-generated nanostructured tungsten fuzz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, M.; Raitses, Y.; Wirz, R.

    2016-11-01

    Recently, several researchers [e.g., Yang et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 10959 (2015)] have shown that tungsten fuzz can grow on a hot tungsten surface under bombardment by energetic helium ions in different plasma discharges and applications, including magnetic fusion devices with plasma facing tungsten components. This work reports the direct measurements of the total effective secondary electron emission (SEE) from tungsten fuzz. Using dedicated material surface diagnostics and in-situ characterization, we find two important results: (1) SEE values for tungsten fuzz are 40%-63% lower than for smooth tungsten and (2) the SEE values for tungsten fuzz are independent of the angle of the incident electron. The reduction in SEE from tungsten fuzz is most pronounced at high incident angles, which has important implications for many plasma devices since in a negative-going sheath the potential structure leads to relatively high incident angles for the electrons at the plasma confining walls. Overall, low SEE will create a relatively higher sheath potential difference that reduces plasma electron energy loss to the confining wall. Thus, the presence or self-generation in a plasma of a low SEE surface such as tungsten fuzz can be desirable for improved performance of many plasma devices.

  17. Simulations of a beam-driven plasma antenna in the regime of plasma transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Berendeev, E. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the theoretically predicted possibility to increase the efficiency of electromagnetic radiation generated by a thin beam-plasma system in the regime of oblique emission, when a plasma column becomes transparent to radiation near the plasma frequency, is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. If a finite-size plasma column has a longitudinal density modulation, such a system is able to radiate electromagnetic waves as a dipole antenna. This radiation mechanism is based on the conversion of an electron beam-driven potential plasma wave on the periodic perturbation of plasma density. In this case, the frequency of radiated waves appears to be slightly lower than the plasma frequency. That is why their fields enable the penetration into the plasma only to the skin-depth. This case is realized when the period of density modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, and the produced radiation escapes from the plasma in the purely transverse direction. In the recent theoretical paper [I. V. Timofeev et al. Phys. Plasmas 23, 083119 (2016)], however, it has been found that the magnetized plasma can be transparent to this radiation at certain emission angles. It means that the beam-to-radiation power conversion can be highly efficient even in a relatively thick plasma since not only boundary layers but also the whole plasma volume can be involved in the generation of electromagnetic waves. Simulations of steady-state beam injection into a pre-modulated plasma channel confirm the existence of this effect and show limits of validity for the simplified theoretical model.

  18. Nonlinear Simulation of Plasma Response to the NSTX Error Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J. A.; Park, J. K.; Boozer, A. H.; Park, W.

    2008-11-01

    In order to better understand the effects of the time-varying error field in NSTX on rotation braking, which impedes RWM stabilization, we model the plasma response to an applied low-n external field perturbation using the resistive MHD model in the M3D code. As an initial benchmark, we apply an m=2, n=1 perturbation to the flux at the boundary of a non-rotating model equilibrium and compare the resulting steady-state island sizes with those predicted by the ideal linear code IPEC. For sufficiently small perturbations, the codes agree; for larger perturbations, the nonlinear correction yields an upper limit on the island width beyond which stochasticity sets in. We also present results of scaling studies showing the effects of finite resistivity on island size in NSTX, and of time-dependent studies of the interaction between these islands and plasma rotation. The M3D-C1 code is also being evaluated as a tool for this analysis; first results will be shown. J.E. Menard, et al., Nucl. Fus. 47, S645 (2007). W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1796 (1999). J.K. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 052110 (2007). S.C. Jardin, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 226, 2146 (2007).

  19. El derecho de prenda y la realización de la prenda en los códigos civiles de la república de chile y de la república de argentina que recogen los proyectos bello y velez sarsfield, respectivamente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Viale Salazar

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por finalidad efectuar un estudio comparativo de dos grandes proyectos de Código Civil en Latinoamérica del siglo XIX, cuales son los Proyectos Bello y Vélez Sarsfield, que se van a plasmar en los Códigos Civiles de la República de Chile y de la República Argentina, respectivamente, encuanto a algunos aspectos de su normatividad acerca del derecho de prenda y la realización de la misma.

  20. Multiscale Gyrokinetics for Rotating Tokamak Plasmas II: Reduced Models for Electron Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, I G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the multiscale approch developed in [Abel et. al., Rep. Prog. Phys., in press] by exploiting the scale separation between ions and the electrons. The gyrokinetic equation is expanded in powers of the electron to ion mass ratio, which provides a rigorous method for deriving the reduced electron model. We prove that ion-scale electromagnetic turbulence cannot change the magnetic topology, and argue that to lowest order the magnetic field lies on fluctuating flux surfaces. These flux surfaces are used to construct magnetic coordinates, and in these coordinates a closed system of equations for the electron response to ion-scale turbulence is derived. All fast electron timescales have been eliminated from these equations. We also use these magnetic surfaces to construct transport equations for electrons and for electron heat in terms of the reduced electron model.

  1. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  2. Comment on “The two dimensional motion of a particle in an inverse square potential: Classical and quantum aspects” [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolbi@nucleares.unam.mx; Chryssomalakos, Chryssomalis, E-mail: chryss@nucleares.unam.mx; Salgado, Marcelo, E-mail: marcelo@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, México D.F. 04510, México (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    We comment on a fatal flaw in the analysis contained in the work of Martínez-y-Romero et al., [J. Math. Phys. 54, 053509 (2013)], which concerns the motion of a point particle in an inverse square potential, and show that most conclusions reached there are wrong. In particular, the manifestly senseless claim that, in the attractive potential case, no bounded orbits exist for negative energies, is traced to a sign error. Several more mistakes, both in the classical and the quantum cases, are pointed out.

  3. Comment on “Frequency-domain stimulated and spontaneous light emission signals at molecular junctions” [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, Michael [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Ratner, Mark A. [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Nitzan, Abraham [School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2015-04-07

    We discuss the derivation of the optical response in molecular junctions presented by U. Harbola et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 141, 074107 (2014)], which questions some terms in the theory of Raman scattering in molecular junctions developed in our earlier publications. We show that the terms considered in our theory represent the correct contribution to calculated Raman scattering and are in fact identical to those considered by Harbola et al. We also indicate drawbacks of the presented approach in treating the quantum transport part of the problem.

  4. Comment on "Communication: Simple and accurate uniform electron gas correlation energy for the full range of densities" [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Karasiev, Valentin V

    2016-01-01

    A simple expression for the uniform electron gas (UEG) correlation energy, recently presented in Ref. [J. Chem. Phys. 145, 021101 (2016)], deviates from the reference quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) data at large r_s. We propose to define one of the parameters from a requirement to match the large-rs QMC data. Functional with the new parameter provides much better agreement with the QMC data at large r_s without deterioration of the functional quality at small and intermediate r_s.

  5. Response to "Comment on 'Rethinking first-principles electron transport theories with projection operators: the problems caused by partitioning the basis set'" [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 177103 (2014)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Harrison, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    The thesis of Brandbyge's comment [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 177103 (2014)] is that our operator decoupling condition is immaterial to transport theories, and it appeals to discussions of nonorthogonal basis sets in transport calculations in its arguments. We maintain that the operator condition is to be preferred over the usual matrix conditions and subsequently detail problems in the existing approaches. From this operator perspective, we conclude that nonorthogonal projectors cannot be used and that the projectors must be selected to satisfy the operator decoupling condition. Because these conclusions pertain to operators, the choice of basis set is not germane.

  6. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  7. Magnetic susceptibility and Landau diamagnetism of a quantum collisional Plasmas with arbitrary degree of degeneration of electronic gas

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic description of magnetic susceptibility and Landau diamagnetism of quantum collisional plasmas with any degeration of electronic gas is given. The correct expression of electric conductivity of quantum collisional plasmas with any degeration of electronic gas (see A. V. Latyshev and A. A. Yushkanov, Transverse electrical conductivity of a quantum collisional plasma in the Mermin approach. - Theor. and Math. Phys., V. 175(1):559-569 (2013)) is used.

  8. Study on two-dimensional equilibrium structure of magnetized complex plasmas based on a Langevin dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Yang, Fang; Liu, Songfen; Shi, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin dynamics simulation method is used to study the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium structure of complex plasmas while considering an external magnetic field. The traditional Yukawa potential and a modified Yukawa potential according to Shukla et al. [Phys. Lett. A 291, 413 (2001); Shukla and Mendonca, Phys. Scr. T113 82 (2004)] and Salimullah et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3047 (2003)] respectively, are employed to account for the interaction of the charged dust particles. It is found that the collisions between neutral gas and charged dust particles have minor effects on the 2D equilibrium structure of the system. Based on the modified Yukawa potential, studies on the 2D equilibrium structure show that the traditional Yukawa potential is still suitable for describing the magnetized complex plasmas, even if the shielding distance of charged dust particles is affected by the strong external magnetic field.

  9. La "Carta a los maestros" de Jules Ferry (1883 y el laicismo escolar de la IIIª República francesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel FERNÁNDEZ SORIA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Partiendo del valor histórico —de lo que es una muestra su influencia en la política educativa de la Segunda República española— y de la proyección de su legado en nuestros días de la «Carta a los Maestros» (1883 del ministro francés de Instrucción Pública, Jules Ferry, este trabajo se acerca a la vida de su autor y a su política educativa para analizar luego con mayor profundidad los aspectos más sobresalientes del documento —que transcribimos en francés y castellano—, especialmente el laicismo escolar, como medio de establecer una escuela nacional y de fundación de la República, la defensa de la moral común y positiva, los modos y procedimientos —tanto directos como indirectos— de su enseñanza, así como el papel del maestro y del manual en la educación moral y cívica del futuro ciudadano. ABSTRACT: Starting with the historic value —of which it is an example its influence in the educational policy of the Second Republic— and with the influence that remains in our days, of the legate of the «Elementary Schoolteacher’s Letter», written by Jules Ferry, French minister of the Public Instruction, this piece of work approaches to its author’s life and to its educational policy in order to analyse later in greater detail the most relevant aspects of the document —which we reproduce in Spanish and French— specially the scholastic laicism as a way to establish a national school, and the foundation of the Republic, the defence of common and positive morality, the ways and procedures, both direct and indirect, of its teaching, and also the role of schoolteachers and the guide in the moral and civic education of the future citizens.

  10. Plasma wakefield acceleration studies using the quasi-static code WAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Palastro, John [Icarus Research Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, Maryland 20824-0780 (United States); Antonsen, T. M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Mori, Warren B.; An, Weiming [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The quasi-static code WAKE [P. Mora and T. Antonsen, Phys. Plasmas 4, 217 (1997)] is upgraded to model the propagation of an ultra-relativistic charged particle beam through a warm background plasma in plasma wakefield acceleration. The upgraded code is benchmarked against the full particle-in-cell code OSIRIS [Hemker et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 3, 061301 (2000)] and the quasi-static code QuickPIC [Huang et al., J. Comput. Phys. 217, 658 (2006)]. The effect of non-zero plasma temperature on the peak accelerating electric field is studied for a two bunch electron beam driver with parameters corresponding to the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams. It is shown that plasma temperature does not affect the energy gain and spread of the accelerated particles despite suppressing the peak accelerating electric field. The role of plasma temperature in improving the numerical convergence of the electric field with the grid resolution is discussed.

  11. Plasma wakefield acceleration studies using the quasi-static code WAKE

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Neeraj; Antonsen, T M; Mori, Warren B; An, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-static code WAKE [P. Mora and T. Antonsen, Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 4}, 217(1997)] is upgraded to model the propagation of an ultra-relativistic charged particle beam through a warm background plasma in plasma wakefield acceleration. The upgraded code is benchmarked against the full particle-in-cell code OSIRIS [Hemker et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams {\\bf 3}, 061301(2000)] and the quasi-static code QuickPIC [Huang et al., J. Comp. Phys. {\\bf 217}, 658 (2006)]. The effect of non-zero plasma temperature on the peak accelerating electric field is studied for a two bunch electron beam driver with parameters corresponding to the plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET. It is shown that plasma temperature does not affect the energy gain and spread of the accelerated particles despite suppressing the peak accelerating electric field. The role of plasma temperature in improving the numerical convergence of the electric field with the grid resolution is discussed.

  12. PKE-Nefedov: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, Anatoli P [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Morfill, Gregor E [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Fortov, Vladimir E [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thomas, Hubertus M [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Rothermel, Hermann [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hagl, Tanja [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Ivlev, Alexei V [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Zuzic, Milenko [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Klumov, Boris A [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Lipaev, Andrey M [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molotkov, Vladimir I [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gidzenko, Yuri P [Y Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Centre, 141160 Star City, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Krikalev, Sergey K [SP Korolev RSC Energia, Korolev 141070, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shepherd, William [Expedition 1 Crew, International Space Station (ISS) (Country Unknown)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The plasma crystal experiment PKE-Nefedov, the first basic science experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), was installed in February 2001 by the first permanent crew. It is designed for long-term investigations of complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. 'Complex plasmas' contain ions, electrons, neutrals and small solid particles - normally in the micrometre range. These microparticles obtain thousands of elementary charges and interact with each other via a 'screened' Coulomb potential. Complex plasmas are of special interest, because they can form liquid and crystalline states (Thomas et al 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 652-5, Chu and I 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 4009-12) and are observable at the kinetic level. In experiments on Earth the microparticles are usually suspended against gravity in strong electric fields. This creates asymmetries, stresses and pseudo-equilibrium states with sufficient free energy to readily become unstable. Under microgravity conditions the microparticles move into the bulk of the plasma (Morfill et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 1598), experiencing much weaker volume forces than on Earth. This allows investigations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled plasma states under substantially stress-free conditions. In this first paper we report our results on plasma crystals, in particular the first experimental observations of bcc lattice structures.

  13. Modeling of plasma jet production from rail and coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R. J.; Kirikpatrick, R. C.; Witherspoon, D.; Cassibry, J.

    2010-11-01

    We study the generation of plasma jets for forming imploding plasma liners using an enhanced version of the ePLAS implicit/hybrid model.^1 Typically, the jets are partially ionized D or Ar gases, in initial 3-10 cm long slugs at 10^16-10^18 electron/cm^3, accelerated for microseconds along 15-30 cm rail or coaxial guns with a 1 cm inter-electrode gap and driven by magnetic fields of a few Tesla. We re-examine the B-field penetration mechanisms that can be active in such wall-connected plasmas,^2 including erosion and EMHD influences, which can subsequently impact plasma liner formation and implosion. For the background and emitted plasma components we discuss optimized PIC and fluid modeling techniques, and the use of implicit fields and hybridized electrons to speed simulation. The plasmas are relatively cold (˜3 eV), so results with fixed atomic Z are compared to those from a simple analytic EOS, and allowing radiative heat loss from the plasma. The use of PIC ions is explored to extract large mean-free-path kinetic effects. 1. R. J. Mason and C. Cranfill, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 45 (1986) 2. R. Mason, et al., Phys. Fluids B, 5, 1115 (1993). [4pt] *Research supported in part by USDOE Grant DE-SC0004207.

  14. Two-dimensional studies of relativistic electron beam plasma instabilities in an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation, etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [G. Chatterjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nanotube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/k{sub s} of the inhomogeneous plasma is less than the typical plasma skin depth (c/ω{sub 0}) scale. At such small scale lengths channelization of currents is also observed in simulation.

  15. Response to "Comment on 'A model for phosphate glass topology considering the modifying ion sub-network"' [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 107103 (2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, Christian; Mauro, John C; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2015-03-14

    In our recent paper [C. Hermansen, J. C. Mauro, and Y.-Z. Yue, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 154501 (2014)], we applied temperature-dependent constraint theory to model the glass transition temperature (Tg) and liquid fragility index (m) of alkali phosphate glasses. Sidebottom commented on this paper concerning the m values obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) [D. L. Sidebottom, J. Chem. Phys. 142, ⬛ (2015)]. We have considered Sidebottom's comments carefully and conclude that the m values of phosphate liquids obtained by DSC are reliable, except for the NaPO3 and possibly P2O5 compositions. Based on his dynamic light scattering measurements, Sidebottom has found that P2O5 is a strong liquid with m ≈ 20. However, based on the heat capacity jump at Tg and the stretching exponent of the relaxation function, P2O5 should be classified as an intermediate fragile liquid with m ≈ 40. We also argue that m cannot be universally related to the average connectivity of the network and point out several inconsistencies with this view.

  16. Modelling of a Multi-Temperature Plasma Composition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Liani; R.Benallal; Z.Bentalha

    2005-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of plasma composition is very important for various plasma applications and prediction of plasma properties. We use the Saha equation and Debye length equation to calculate the non-local thermodynamicequilibrium plasma composition. It has been shown that the model to 2T with T representing the temperature (electron temperature and heavy-particle temperature) described by Chen and Han [J. Phys. D 32 (1999)1711]can be applied for a mixture of gases, where each atomic species has its own temperature, but the model to 4T is more general because it can be applicable to temperatures distant enough of the heavy particles. This can occur in a plasma composed of big- or macro-molecules. The electron temperature Te varies in the range 8000*20000 K at atmospheric pressure.

  17. Kinetic simulations of ladder climbing by electron plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-05-01

    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on whether the wave spectrum is discrete (bounded plasma) or continuous (boundless plasma), this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autoresonant acceleration of plasmons. It was first proposed by Barth et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 075001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.075001] based on a linear fluid model. In this paper, LC of electron plasma waves is investigated using fully nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. It is shown that, in agreement with the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. Since nonlinear effects decrease the damping rate, LC is even more efficient when practiced on structures like quasiperiodic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) waves rather than on Langmuir waves per se.

  18. RESEÑA DE: GUERRA SESMA, Daniel: El pensamiento territorial de la Segunda República Española, Athenaica, Sevilla, 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Baelo Álvarez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bajo el sugerente título “El pensamiento territorial de la Segunda República Española”, Daniel Guerra Sesma (1967, politólogo, doctor en Ciencias Políticas y de la Administración y profesor de Derecho Internacional Público y Relaciones Internacionales en la Universidad de Sevilla, nos presenta en la Editorial Athenaica (2016 una acertada selección de veinte breves opúsculos, artículos de opinión y discursos ante las Cortes en los que se aborda la problemática e inconclusa “cuestión territorial” durante la Segunda República.

  19. La República Corporativa - Constituciones, ciudadanía corporativa y política (Perú 1821-1896)

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo propone entender el Perú decimonónico como una República corporativa. No sólo porque en su estructura social, como han señalado varios autores desde los liberales del siglo XIX, persistía una “herencia colonial”, sino porque las soluciones políticas también expresaban una concepción organicista, particularmente en el modo de definir la ciudadanía. Así, en 1875, para que los adultos varones ejerzan el derecho a sufragio en la gran mayoría de repúblicas de América Latina,...

  20. República de expósitos, genealogías de la orfandad en 2666 de Roberto Bolaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bejarano

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A través de la relectura filosófica de la novela de Roberto Bolaño 2666 (2004, se pretende repensar el concepto de república como cuerpo político “libre” en América Latina, a través del estudio del personaje Lalo Cura como figura de la orfandad (un policía, descendiente de una historia familiar de cinco generaciones de mujeres sucesivamente violadas desde 1865. El propósito es pensar la república como un régimen de la orfandad. Se concluye que la potencia de la ficción reside en reescribir permanentemente la historia, brindándonos otras perspectivas de análisis.

  1. Transición demográfica y arreglos residenciales de los adultos mayores en República Dominicana y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique PELÁEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe y compara los arreglos residenciales de los adultos mayores en dos países que se encuentran en distintas etapas de transición demográfica: Argentina y República Dominicana. Las fuentes de información utilizadas fueron los microdatos censales de ambos países, boletines demográficos y el Sistema de Indicadores sobre Envejecimiento desarrollado por el FNUAP y Celade. El análisis del impacto de las diferencias de la transición demográfica entre Argentina y la República Dominicana en la organización de la vida de las personas mayores es el objetivo principal de este estudio.

  2. La República Holandesa y su posición en el contexto colonial americano después de 1713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Solana, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During the War of Spanish Succession, the Dutch Republic fought alongside the Austrians and their allies against the Bourbon party. Still, and in spite of its alliance with England, the treaties of Utrecht did not leave the Dutch Republic in a good position. In this article, these treaties’ consequences for the commercial and colonial Dutch expansion in the Atlantic world are analyzed.Durante la guerra de Sucesión española, la República Holandesa luchó junto al bloque aliado austracista contra la opción borbónica. Sin embargo, y a pesar de su alianza con Inglaterra, la República Holandesa no salió bien restablecida de los tratados de Utrecht. En este artículo se analizarán las consecuencias que estos tratados tuvieron para la expansión comercial y colonial de Holanda en el Atlántico.

  3. Interplay of discharge and gas flow in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, JingLong; He, Feng; Cao, Zexian

    2011-05-01

    Interplay of discharge and gas flow in the atmospheric pressure plasma jets generated with three different discharge modes [N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 013308 (2009); N. Jiang, A. L. Ji, and Z. X. Cao, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033302 (2010)] has been investigated by simultaneous photographing of both plasma plumes and gas flows in the ambient, with the former being visualized by using an optical schlieren system. Gas flow gains a forward momentum from discharge except for the case of overflow jets at smaller applied voltages. Larger applied voltage implies an elongated plasma jet only for single-electrode mode; for dielectric barrier discharge jet the plume length maximizes at a properly applied voltage. These findings can help understand the underlying processes, and are useful particularly for the economic operation of tiny helium plasma jets and jet arrays.

  4. Delay time embedding of mass loss avalanches in a fusion plasma-oriented sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, C. A.; Dendy, R. O.; Hole, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    The sandpile paradigm is widely used to model aspects of the phenomenology of magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasmas, including enhanced confinement, edge pedestals and, potentially, the impulsive energy and particle release process known as ELMing. Here we identify new points of contact between ELMing and the systemwide avalanches in a sandpile. We compare the quantified response [Calderon et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042306 (2014)] to increased fuelling of the time sequence of edge localised mode events in a series of similar Joint European Torus plasmas with the response to increased fuelling of the time sequence of systemwide avalanches in a sandpile model [Chapman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2814 (2001)] that has well established links to MCF plasma phenomenology. Both the probability density functions of inter-event time intervals, and delay time embeddings of event time sequences, at different fuelling rates, show common features and point to shared underlying physics.

  5. Envelope excitations in electronegative plasmas with electrons featuring the Tsallis distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Bains, A S; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2013-01-01

    We examine the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an electronegative plasma containing positive and negative ions as well as electrons that follow the nonextensive statistics proposed by Tsallis [J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. Using the reductive perturbation method (RPM), the nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation (NLSE) that governs the modulational instability of the IAWs is obtained. Inspired by the experimental work of Ichiki \\emph{et al.} [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4275 (2001)], three types of electronegative plasmas are investigated. The effects of various parameters on the propagation of IAWs are discussed in detail numerically. We find that the plasma supports both bright and dark solutions. The presence of the non-extensively distributed electrons is found to play a crucial role in the formation of envelope excitations. The region in the parameter space where the MI exists depends sensitively on the positive to negative ion mass ratio (M) and negative to positive ion density ratio ($\\...

  6. La sociedad civil movilizada y las reformas democráticas en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Espinal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se identifican cinco periodos en el proceso de organización y movilización social que se produjo en la República Dominicana entre 1978 y 2000, el lapso más largo de apertura política que ha tenido el país. Se plantea que la naturaleza y la forma de estos movimientos ha variado como resultado de la situación económica, el partido en el poder, las estrategias de distintos gobiernos para ejercer control social sobre los grupos movilizados, el tipo de relación entre los partidos políticos y las organizaciones sociales y el financiamiento disponible para las organizaciones sociales. En cuanto al debate teórico sobre la relación entre movimientos sociales y democracia, se plantea que esta relación no es unívoca, y que en determinadas circunstancias los movimientos sociales pueden ayudar a la democratización y en otras a obstaculizarla

  7. Alejandro Bunge y el problema de la vivienda obrera en la República Argentina (1910-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Núñez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende indagar, a partir del estudio de la figura del economista Alejandro Bunge, en la problemática de la vivienda obrera en la República Argentina en las primeras décadas de la pasada centuria. Aquí se argumentará que los estudios realizados por Alejandro Bunge como director de la División Estadísticas del Departamento Nacional de Trabajo en el período 1910-1915 contribuyeron de manera notable a la elaboración del proyecto y posterior sanción de la Ley de Casas Baratas para Obreros (n°9677. Palabras claves: Vivienda obrera, Catolicismo Social, Estadísticas _________________ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to carry out a research on the workers housing in Argentina during the first decades of the past century, based on the research done by the economist Alejandro Bunge. The studies carried out by Alejandro Bunge, Director of Statistics Division of the National Labour Department during 1910-1915, highly contributed to the project and further sanction of the "Cheap Houses for Workers Law" (Nbr. 9677. KeyWords: Workers Housing, Social Catholicism, Statistics

  8. Transpondo muros: Escritas da violência na República Democrática Alemã

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Loureiro Cornelsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é esboçar, a partir da interpretação das obras “Zeit-Zeugen”. Inhaftiert in Berlin-Hohenschönhausen (1996, organizada por Gabriele Camphausen, Folterzelle 36 Berlin-Pankow. Erlebnisbericht einer Stasihaft (1993, de Timo Zilli, Ein guter Kampf. Fakten, Daten, Erinnerungen 1945-1954 (1998 do político Ewald Ernst, Die Stasi war mein Eckermann: oder mein Leben mit der Wanze (1991, do escritor Erich Loest, e Geboren am 13. August. Der Sozialismus und ich (2004, do jornalista Jens Bisky, um breve estudo sobre as diversas formas e fases da violência enquanto instrumento de poder, praticada pelo Estado do SED na República Democrática Alemã nos 40 anos de sua existência, e discutir especialmente alguns aspectos teóricos sobre o conceito de “literatura de testemunho”. Os cinco relatos analisados, de caráter memorialista e autobiográfico, se pautam por um tom decididamente crítico frente aos desmandos num Estado totalitário. “Transpor muros” nos 20 anos após a Queda do Muro de Berlim, desse ponto de vista, implica um olhar memorialista de denúncia contra o esquecimento frente a um passado traumático.

  9. Felicidad subjetiva y autoeficacia docente en profesorado de República Dominicana y España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mª Perandones González

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio analiza la relación entre los niveles de felicidad subjetiva y autoeficacia docente en una muestra de 454 docentes de todos los niveles educativos (desde Educación Infantil hasta la Universidad de República Dominicana y España. Para ello, se ha utilizado la Escala de Felicidad Subjetiva (Lyubomirsky y Lepper, 1999, que evalúa la felicidad general, y la Escala de Autoeficacia Docente (Tschannen-Moran y Woolfolk, 2001, la cual mide tres dimensiones: eficacia en el compromiso o la dedicación al estudiante, eficacia en las estrategias instruccionales, y eficacia en el manejo de la clase. Los resultados muestran correlaciones significativas y positivas entre las puntuaciones en felicidad subjetiva y las tres dimensiones de autoeficacia docente. Asimismo, la población dominicana obtiene puntuaciones más elevadas que la población española en todos los constructos analizados. En función de los resultados hallados, los cuales corroboran los de investigaciones previas en el ámbito de la Psicología Positiva (Seligman y Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, se propone la incorporación de planes formativos de educación emocional para el profesorado, puesto que la felicidad subjetiva, como parte de las emociones individuales, es un factor con altas implicaciones positivas para llevar a cabo con éxito los retos profesionales que plantea la tarea educativa.

  10. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields.

  11. The OSIRIS Weight of Evidence approach: ITS for the endpoints repeated-dose toxicity (RepDose ITS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczkiewicz, Inga; Batke, Monika; Kroese, Dinant; Buist, Harrie; Aldenberg, Tom; Pauné, Eduard; Grimm, Helvi; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Escher, Sylvia E

    2013-11-01

    In the FP6 European project OSIRIS, Integrated Testing Strategies (ITSs) for relevant toxicological endpoints were developed to avoid new animal testing and thus to reduce time and costs. The present paper describes the development of an ITS for repeated-dose toxicity called RepDose ITS which evaluates the conditions under which in vivo non-guideline studies are reliable. In a tiered approach three aspects of these "non-guideline" studies are assessed: the documentation of the study (reliability), the quality of the study design (adequacy) and the scope of examination (validity). The reliability is addressed by the method "Knock-out criteria", which consists of four essential criteria for repeated-dose toxicity studies. A second tool, termed QUANTOS (Quality Assessment of Non-guideline Toxicity Studies), evaluates and weights the adequacy of the study by using intra-criterion and inter-criteria weighting. Finally, the Coverage approach calculates a probability that the detected Lowest-Observed-Effect-Level (LOEL) is similar to the LOEL of a guideline study dependent on the examined targets and organs of the non-guideline study. If the validity and adequacy of the non-guideline study are insufficient for risk assessment, the ITS proposes to apply category approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept, and only as a last resort new animal-testing.

  12. Nuevos registros de hongos entomopatógenos en acridios (Orthoptera: Acridoidea de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian A. PELIZZA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los acridios (tucuras y langostas continúan ocasionando pérdidas económicas en la agricultura a nivel mundial. En Argentina, la importancia de estos insectos ha sido reconocida desde mediados del siglo XIX, dependiendo de la región considerada y en relación al progresivo desarrollo agropecuario en el país. Los hongos son los microorganismos parásitos de insectos más frecuentemente encontrados en la naturaleza y la mayoría de las investigaciones con hongos entomopatógenos se ha centrado en su desarrollo como bioplaguicidas. En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer cinco registros nuevos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv. Vuill., y dos de Entomophaga grylli (Fresen. A. Batko que se encontraron afectando distintas especies de acridios; se amplía así la distribución geográfica y el espectro hospedador para estas especies fúngicas. Cabe destacar que con el aporte de estos siete registros nuevos, el número total de hongos entomopatógenos de acridios citados para la República Argentina se eleva de 22 a 29.

  13. La extinción del Cabildo en la República de Córdoba, 1815-1824

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Agüero

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo procura ofrecer un análisis del proceso histórico que llevó a la extinción de los cabildos en Córdoba, en 1824. A partir de la documentación tanto capitular como de las instituciones provinciales del período que transcurre entre 1815 y 1824, se intenta demostrar que aquella medida no fue necesariamente un resultado de la clásica conflictividad entre instituciones de orden provincial y municipal, así como que la misma no implicó una alteración sustancial de los patrones estructurales de representación política ni de la relación entre ciudad y campaña. La antigua noción de República, como gobierno doméstico en cabeza de "muchas familias", sirve de común denominador para explicar estas continuidades, a pesar de la mutación a nivel del lenguaje institucional que implicó la organización constitucional de la provincia y la posterior extinción de sus instituciones municipales.

  14. Os Jesuítas nas Américas: «A República dos Guaranis»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María do Rosário Pimentel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Para este trabalho, elegemos um estudo sobre uma «experiência jesuíta» junto dos Guaranis, quedesignamos por «A República dos Guaranis». Trata-se de um processo histórico complexo que teveinício no século XVII, sob o impacto da Contra-Reforma, e que terminou em pleno século XVIII,quando o Absolutismo, o Racionalismo e a Lei Natural dominavam a Europa. Este trabalho procuracompreender como esta realidade sociocultural se relacionou com uma das regiões do Brasil colonial.This study analyzes a «Jesuit experience» with the Guarani people, also known as the «Guarani’sRepublic». The latter is a complex historical venture which began in the 17th century, in the wake ofthe Counter-Reformation (1545-1648, and ended in the 18th century when Absolutism, Rationalism,and Natural Law dominated Europe. Our aim is thus that of analyzing how this socio-cultural realitywas tied with one region of Colonial Brazil (1500-1822.

  15. Jerónimo Grimaldi, enviado extraordinario de la república de Génova en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino García Diego

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerónimo Grimaldi y Pallavicini, embajador de España durante los reinados de Felipe V, Fernando VI y Carlos III y responsable de la primera secretaria de Estado y de Despacho entre 1763 y 1776, es una figura relativamente ausente de la investigación histórica. Este olvido es particularmente acusado en el caso de su actividad diplomática, que desempeñó durante más de tres décadas y que comenzó con su designación como enviado extraordinario de la república de Génova en Madrid.Jerónimo Grimaldi y Pallavicini, ambassador in the service of Philip V, Ferdinand VI and Charles III, served as Spanish Chief Minister between 1763 and 1776. Grimaldi has been relatively forgotten by the Spanish historians. This fact is particularly remarkable if we take into account his extensive career as diplomat —more than thirty years—,whose first step was his appointment as envoy extraordinary of the Genoa republic to Madrid.

  16. Evaluation of rep-PCR/DiversiLab versus PFGE and spa typing in genotyping methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadero, V; González Velasco, C; Vindel, A; Gonzalez Velasco, M; Moreno, J J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the 'gold standard' for genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, the DiversiLab (DL) system, based on rep-PCR, is faster, simpler and could be better adapted to daily routine hospital work. We genotyped 100 MRSA isolates using PFGE, DL, and spa typing, and evaluated the discriminatory power of each technique and the correlation between them by Simpson's index(SI) and adjusted Rand coefficient (ARI), respectively. The isolates were from clinical samples from eight hospitals in Extremadura (Spain) during 2010. DL separated the 100 MRSA into 18 patterns, with 69% of the isolates grouped into four predominant patterns. spa typing reported 17 spa types, classifying 69% of MRSA into two major types (t067 and t002). PFGE revealed the existence of 27 patterns, gathering 54% of MRSA into three pulse types (E8a, E7a and E7b). SI values were 0.819, 0.726, 0.887 and 0.460 for DL, spa typing, PFGE and CC-BURP, respectively. ARI values of DL over PFGE, spa typing and CC-BURP were 0.151, 0.321 and 0.071, respectively. DL has less discriminatory power than PFGE but more than spa typing. The concordance of DL with PFGE is low, primarily because DL does not discriminate between the three predominant MRSA pulse types in our environment.

  17. Improving Switching Performance of Power MOSFETs Used in High Rep-Rate, Short Pulse, High-Power Pulsers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E G

    2006-09-19

    As their switching and power handling characteristics improve, solid-state devices are finding new applications in pulsed power. This is particularly true of applications that require fast trains of short duration pulses. High voltage (600-1200V) MOSFETs are especially well suited for use in these systems, as they can switch at significant peak power levels and are easily gated on and off very quickly. MOSFET operation at the shortest pulse durations is not constrained by the intrinsic capabilities of the MOSFET, but rather by the capabilities of the gate drive circuit and the system physical layout. This project sought to improve MOSFET operation in a pulsed power context by addressing these issues. The primary goal of this project is to improve the switching performance of power MOSFETs for use in high rep-rate, short pulse, high-power applications by improving the design of the gate drive circuits and the circuit layouts used in these systems. This requires evaluation of new commercial gate drive circuits and upgrading the designs of LLNL-developed circuits. In addition, these circuits must be tested with the fastest available high-voltage power MOSFETs.

  18. La Libertad versus La República. Crónica de una polémica inconclusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS GUZMÁN URIÓSTEGUI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A finales de septiembre de 1880, el diputado y poeta Juan A. Mateos presentó un proyecto de ley para que el gobierno clausurara y pusiera en subasta pública templos y casas curales ocupadas por la Compañía de Jesús. Dicha iniciativa generó la oposición de muchos intelectuales seguidores del positivismo, quienes, desde las páginas del periódico La Libertad, acusaron a Mateos de retrógrada y de intolerante, defensor de unos postulados ya caducos, como los de los movimientos de Ayutla y de Reforma. Esta crítica motivó, a su vez, la participación de Ignacio Manuel Altamirano en pro de la doctrina liberal, utilizando para ello las páginas del diario La República. Durante poco más de dos semanas, en dichos periódicos se debatió en torno a la conveniencia de uno u otro modelo filosófico para el futuro del país, el orden y el progreso versus la democracia y las libertades individuales. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las condiciones en que se dio esta polémica.

  19. Identification of enteropathogens in infantile diarrhea in a study performed in the city of Posadas, Misiones, República Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, M; Quiroga, M; Grenón, S; Villalba, V; Pegels, E; Chade, M; González, C; Binsztein, N; Eiguer, T; Depetris, A

    1992-01-01

    The following work informs of the results of isolation, frequency and distribution of enteropathogens in children under five years old, without previous antibiotic treatment, less than seven days with diarrhoea, ambulatory or in Hospital "Dr. Ramón Madariaga" de Posadas, Misiones, República Argentina, from June 1986 to May 1989. From a total of 972 children with diarrhoea, 78% required to be hospitalized. The greatest number of cases were found during spring and summer in children from 1 to 11 months of age. Distribution of the main enteropathogens was: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (29.4%), parasites (22%), Shigella (16.3%), enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (14%) and rotavirus (12.9%). Highest incidence of rotavirus was registered in the coldest months and Shigella, ETEC, Salmonella and parasites in the warm months. The group of most affected children were from 1 to 11 months of age, with higher incidence of EPEC, Salmonella and rotavirus, and parasites were found in older children. ETEC and Shigella had no relationship with the age of children. The most frequent association was EPEC with rotavirus. This is the first finding of Salmonella zaiman in humans and of Salmonella hadar in Argentina. Cryptosporidium, etiological agent of serious diarrhoea in the immunocompetent, was isolated in 3.9% of our cases.

  20. Platão e a formação humana n’a República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Maria Bastos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available N’A República Platão indaga a respeito do verdadeiro sentido da justiça na constituição da melhor sociedade possível, cuja pedra angular é a formação do homem justo. O filósofo faz referência à expressão por natureza à medida que expõe sua proposta educativa. Isso poderia levar a pensar que o filósofo concebe o processo formativo do homem como o desenvolvimento de aptidões naturais. O intuito deste trabalho é investigar se realmente, e em que medida, a referência à natureza no homem designa dons naturais inatos, bem como sua relação com a educação na formação humana proposta.Abstract In The Republic, Plato inquires about the true meaning of justice in the establishment of the best possible society, whose cornerstone is the formation of the fair man. The philosopher refers to the expression by nature as he exposes his educational proposal. This could leave people to think that the philosopher conceives the formative process of man as the development of natural aptitudes. The aim of this work is to investigate if, and how much, the mention to the nature in man really designates innate natural gifts, as well as its relation with education in the human formation proposed.

  1. 14 de abril, La República: la intrahistoria española desde la ficción televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Chicharro-Merayo

    2012-01-01

    de la ficción, presentan lecturas explicativas sobre la sociedad española de presente y pasado. A partir de ahí, se concreta en el estudio de la telenovela 14 de abril, la República. Insertada en el macrogénero del melodrama, presenta un discurso adaptado a las características culturales de su público objetivo. Su relación con otros textos así como su utilización de estrategias emocionales y realistas facilita su acercamiento con la audiencia. El análisis de este texto permite identificar las claves semánticas conforme a las que se dibuja el devenir de la sociedad española, presentada en clave sentimental, pero también ideológica. La representación del mundo del trabajo, del espacio rural y urbano, así como de la figura de la mujer son algunos de los aspectos en los que este texto hace hincapié.

  2. Apuntes sobre falsificación y plagio en la república literaria española del siglo XVIII

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Barrientos, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents some apocryphal and plagiarisms that occurred in eighteenth century Spain to show how these practices contributed to the consolidation of the Republic of Letters. Este trabajo presenta algunos apócrifos y plagios ocurridos en el siglo XVIII español para mostrar de qué modo esas prácticas contribuyeron a la consolidación de la República Literaria.

  3. El Ututo chaqueño Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix 1825 (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Jujuy (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Gallardo, Freddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available República Argentina, Jujuy; Departamento Santa Bárbara, Paraje Finca Fachine (23º 35' 55.98" S; 64º 13' 46.09" O 324 m s.n.m. Colector: Freddy Burgos. Depositado en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Genética Evolutiva, Instituto de Biología Subtropical, UNaM-CONICET, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Macho adulto (LGE 02633.

  4. El poder local en la provincia de Albacete durante la II República y el intervencionismo del gobierno, 1931-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel REQUENA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia los diversos procesos electorales de carácter municipal durante la II República en la provincia de Albacete, las constantes interferencias del Gobierno de turno sustituyendo los consistorios democráticamente elegidos por gubernamentales, la lucha por el control del poder local y las medidas adoptadas para resolver los problemas locales y la conflictividad generada.

  5. Temporally resolved plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    Fusion plasma composition measurements by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were demonstrated in recent proof-of-principle measurements in TEXTOR [S. B. Korsholm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 165004 (2011)]. Such measurements rely on the ability to resolve and interpret ion cyclotron structure...

  6. Construction andimmunogenicity analysis of eukaryotic expression vector of porcine circovirus type 2 Rep gene%猪圆环病毒2型 Rep 基因真核表达载体的构建和免疫原性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 刘成倩; 李红; 易建中; 于宗幸; 陈磊; 孙晓云

    2016-01-01

    根据 GenBank 发表的猪圆环病毒2型(PCV2)基因序列设计并合成1对特异性引物,进行 PCR 扩增,从 PCV2突变株中扩增出 PCV2 Rep 基因,对 PCR 扩增产物清洁后进行双酶切,连接到 pEGFP-C1载体上,转化到大肠杆菌 DH5α感受态细胞中,经 PCR 筛选和测序后鉴定出正确的重组基因,完成真核表达载体的构建。将重组质粒转染到 PK15细胞中,收取病毒液抽提 DNA,PCR 检测到 Rep 基因,证明转染是成功的。进行间接免疫荧光试验,可以检测 Rep 基因在 PK15细胞中的表达,试验结果很好的验证了 Rep 基因的免疫原性。这为进一步研究 PCV2的生物学活性及 PCV2新型疫苗奠定了坚实的基础。%A pair of specific primers was designed and synthesized according to the porcine circovirus type 2(PCV2)gene sequence published in the GenBank,the PCV2 Rep gene was amplified by PCR from mutant strains of PCV2,and after cleaning and double digests the amplified products were connected to the pEGFP-C1 vector and transformed into E.coli DH5αcompetent cells.The correct recombinant gene was identified by PCR screening and sequencing,indicating the construction of eukaryotic expression vector was finished.The recombi-nant plasmid was transfected into PK1 5 cells,and then the virus liquid was collected to extract the DNA.The Rep gene detected by PCR proved that the transfection was successful.The experimental results well verified the im-munogenicity of Rep gene in PK1 5 cells,thus laying a solid foundation for further study of the biological activities and new vaccine of PCV2.

  7. Multi-dimensional Vlasov simulations and modeling of trapped-electron-driven filamentation of electron plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R. L., E-mail: berger5@llnl.gov; Cohen, B. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brunner, S., E-mail: stephan.brunner@epfl.ch [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confédération Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CRPP-PPB, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Banks, J. W. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, AE 301, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Winjum, B. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Kinetic simulations of two-dimensional finite-amplitude electron plasma waves are performed in a one-wavelength long system. A systematic study of the most unstable linear sideband mode, in particular its growth rate γ and wavenumber k{sub y}, is carried out by scanning the amplitude and wavenumber of the initial wave. Simulation results are compared with numerical and analytical solutions to a two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model [H. A. Rose and L. Yin, Phys. Plasmas 15, 042311 (2008)] and to the reduced model by Kruer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 838 (1969)] generalized to two dimensions.

  8. Attraction of positively charged dust grains in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2006-10-01

    In two recent papers, Delzanno et al. [1-2] have pointed out that an electron emitting dust grain immersed in a plasma can sustain profiles of the shielding potential having an attractive potential well. The existence of attractive potential wells around dust grains in a plasma is of considerable interest as it provides an alternative mechanism for the attraction of the grains. Moreover, this mechanism can play an important role in astrophysical scenarios, for example in star forming regions where a substantial UV field is responsible for grain photoemission. We have therefore developed a three-dimensional PIC code with the aim of studying the collapse of a system of grains undergoing gravitational and electrostatic forces (the latter modeled via the potential well discovered in Refs. [1,2]). We will show how the attractive potential well can indeed lead to the collapse of the system, at rates which can be higher with respect to the pure gravitational analogue. Further on, a pure monotonic Debye-Huckel electrostatic potential can impede the collapse, depending on the charge to mass ratio of the grains. These results are in agreement with the predictions of the linear theory we have recently developed [3]. [1] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004). [2] G. L. Delzanno, A. Bruno, G. Sorasio, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062102 (2005). [3] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 175005 (2005).

  9. Linear multispecies gyrokinetic flux tube benchmarks in shaped tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, G.; Sauter, O.; Brunner, S.; Burckel, A.; Villard, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Swiss Plasma Center (SPC), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Camenen, Y. [Aix-Marseille Université CNRS, PIIM UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille (France); Casson, F. J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Dorland, W. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Fable, E.; Görler, T. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jenko, F.; Told, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Peeters, A. G. [Physics Department, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Verification is the fundamental step that any turbulence simulation code has to be submitted in order to assess the proper implementation of the underlying equations. We have carried out a cross comparison of three flux tube gyrokinetic codes, GENE [F. Jenko et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1904 (2000)], GKW [A. G. Peeters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 2650 (2009)], and GS2 [W. Dorland et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5579 (2000)], focusing our attention on the effect of realistic geometries described by a series of MHD equilibria with increasing shaping complexity. To simplify the effort, the benchmark has been limited to the electrostatic collisionless linear behaviour of the system. A fully gyrokinetic model has been used to describe the dynamics of both ions and electrons. Several tests have been carried out looking at linear stability at ion and electron scales, where for the assumed profiles Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG)/Trapped Electron Modes and Electron Temperature Gradient modes are unstable. The capability of the codes to handle a non-zero ballooning angle has been successfully benchmarked in the ITG regime. Finally, the standard Rosenbluth-Hinton test has been successfully carried out looking at the effect of shaping on Zonal Flows (ZFs) and Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs). Inter-code comparison as well as validation of simulation results against analytical estimates has been accomplished. All the performed tests confirm that plasma elongation strongly stabilizes plasma instabilities as well as leads to a strong increase in ZF residual and GAM damping.

  10. Transport formulas for multi-component plasmas within the effective potential theory framework

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] allows evaluating transport in coupled plasmas with the well-developed formalisms for systems with binary collisions. To facilitate practical implementation of this concept in fluid models of multi-component plasmas, compact expressions for the transport coefficients in terms the generalized Coulomb logarithms are summarized from existing prescriptions. For weakly coupled plasmas, characterized by Debye-shielded Coulomb interaction potential, expressions become fully analytical. In coupled plasmas the generalized Coulomb logarithms need to be evaluated numerically. Routines implementing the described formalisms are included as supplemental material.

  11. Similarity for ultra-relativistic laser plasmas and the optimal acceleration regime

    CERN Document Server

    Pukhov, A

    2005-01-01

    A similarity theory is developed for ultra-relativistic laser-plasmas. It is shown that the most fundamental S-similarity is valid for both under- and overdense plasmas. Optimal scalings for laser wake field electron acceleration are obtained heuristically. The strong message of the present work is that the bubble acceleration regime [see Pukhov, Meyer-ter-Vehn, Appl. Phys. B, 74, 355 (2002)] satisfies these optimal scalings.

  12. Lab. of Appl. Math. Phys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels Christian

    1989-01-01

    A new system of poles for the Green's function for a dielectric-coated cylinder has been found. In general, these poles correspond to creeping waves, which are strongly attenuated except for very thick coatings. For radii below a critical value, one of the new poles replaces one of those previous...

  13. Rethermalization of a field-reversed configuration plasma in translation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himura, Haruhiko; Okada, Shigefumi; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Goto, Seiichi

    1995-01-01

    A translation experiment of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma is performed on the FIX machine [Shiokawa and Goto, Phys. Fluids B 5, 534 (1993)]. The translated FRC bounces between magnetic mirror fields at both ends of a confinement region. The plasma loses some of its axial kinetic energy when it is reflected by the magnetic mirror field, and eventually settles down in the confinement region. In this reflection process, the plasma temperature rises significantly. Such plasma rethermalization has been observed in OCT-L1 experiments [Ito et al., Phys. Fluids 30, 168 (1987)], but rarely in FRX-C/T experiments [Rej et al., Phys. Fluids 29, 852 (1986)]. It is found that the rethermalization depends on the relation between the plasma temperature and the translation velocity. The rethermalization occurs only in the case where the translation velocity exceeds the sound velocity. This result implies the rethermalization is caused by a shock wave induced within the FRC when the plasma is reflected by the magnetic mirror field.

  14. MHD Spectroscopic Study of the Stabilizing Effect of Plasma Flow on the Resistive Wall Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimerdes, H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Chu, M. S.; Jackson, G. L.; Jensen, T. H.; La Haye, R. J.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.; Edgell, D. H.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Okabayashi, M.

    2003-10-01

    MHD Spectroscopic Study of the Stabilizing Effect of Plasma Flow on the Resistive Wall Mode,* H. Reimerdes, A.M. Garofalo, G.A. Navratil, Columbia U, M.S. Chu, G.L. Jackson, T.H. Jensen, R.J. La Haye, J.T. Scoville, E.J. Strait, GA, D.H. Edgell, FAR-TECH, Inc., R.J. Jayakumar, LLNL, M. Okabayashi, PPPL - Resistive wall mode (RWM) stabilization by plasma rotation has been under study for the last decade. Dissipation caused by an interaction between the quasi-static magnetic perturbation and a near-sonic plasma flow alters the RWM stability [Bondeson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2709 (1994)]. To probe the RWM stability in DIII-D, we extend the technique of MHD spectroscopy, which was previously applied at frequencies above 10 kHz [Fasoli, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 645 (1995)], to frequencies of a few Hz. Internal coils generate a rotating magnetic field, whose spatial structure largely overlaps with the RWM structure. The plasma response, measured as the perturbed field at the wall, is rigid and peaks when the external field rotates at a fraction of the inverse wall time in the direction of the plasma rotation, which is in good agreement with a single mode model [Garofalo, et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 4573 (2002)]. This measurement is used to determine the contribution of the proposed dissipation mechanisms to the stabilization of the RWM.

  15. Comment on "High-pressure synthesis of orthorhombic SrIrO3 perovskite and its positive magnetoresistance" [J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103706 (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, D.; Rondinelli, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    In their article, Zhao et al. report the synthesis of SrIrO3 at high temperature and high pressure [J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103706 (2008)]. Under these conditions, the crystal structure of SrIrO3 can be stabilized as an orthorhombic perovskite with space group Pnma. They refine the lattice parameters and list the Wyckoff orbits and atomic coordinates. We believe that Zhao and coworkers made an unintentional error in reporting the crystal structure, which may adversely affect the description of the electronic structure. Indeed, we show the reported structure does not define a standard perovskite with nearly rigid IrO6 octahedral tilts and rather exhibits a structural discrepancy with respect to the equilibrium structure obtained from density functional calculations.

  16. Comment on 'A close examination of the motion of an adiabatic piston' by Eric A. Gislason [Am. J. Phys. 78, 995-1001 (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    de Abreu, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    A recent paper by Gislason published in Am. J. Phys. deals with the celebrated example of the so-called "adiabatic piston", a system involving two ideal gases contained in a horizontal cylinder and separated by an insulating piston that moves without friction. While the analysis presented in that paper is rather comprehensive, very interesting and useful as a teaching tool, it can be somewhat misleading if not taken within its appropriate context. As a matter of fact, the evolution to equilibrium involves two phases, a faster one leading to the equalization of pressures, and a slower one bringing the system to identical temperatures. Although Gislason addresses only the first process, we note that the final state after the second phase, the evolution to equal temperatures once the pressures are the same, is described by thermodynamics. Therefore, the discussion of the adiabatic piston given by Gislason can and should be enriched, in order to promote a proper and general view of thermodynamics.

  17. Comment on 'The diatomic dication CuZn{sup 2+} in the gas phase' [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiser, Jiri [Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Hlavova 2030, 128 40 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Diez, Reinaldo Pis [Departamento de Quimica, CEQUINOR, Centro de Quimica Inorganica (CONICET, UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, CC 962, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Franzreb, Klaus [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Alonso, Julio A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-02-21

    In this Comment, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations carried out by Diez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034306 (2011)] are revised within the framework of the coupled-cluster single double triple method. These more sophisticated calculations allow us to show that the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} electronic ground state of CuZn{sup 2+}, characterized as the metastable ground state by DFT calculations, is a repulsive state instead. The {sup 2}{Delta} and {sup 2}{Pi} metastable states of CuZn{sup 2+}, on the other hand, should be responsible for the formation mechanism of the dication through the near-resonant electron transfer CuZn{sup +}+ Ar{sup +}{yields} CuZn{sup 2+}+ Ar reaction.

  18. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  19. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  20. A "slingshot" laser-driven acceleration mechanism of plasma electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Gaetano; Fedele, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We briefly report on the recently proposed [G. Fiore, R. Fedele, U. de Angelis, Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014), 113105], [G. Fiore, S. De Nicola, arXiv:1509.04656] electron acceleration mechanism named "slingshot effect": under suitable conditions the impact of an ultra-short and ultra-intense laser pulse against the surface of a low-density plasma is expected to cause the expulsion of a bunch of superficial electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to that of the pulse propagation; this is due to the interplay of the huge ponderomotive force, huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation, and the finite size of the laser spot.

  1. Conservation of energy and momentum in nonrelativistic plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Conservation laws of energy and momentum for nonrelativistic plasmas are derived from applying Noether's theorem to the action integral for the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampere system [Sugama, Phys. Plasmas 7, 466 (2000)]. The symmetric pressure tensor is obtained from modifying the asymmetric canonical pressure tensor with using the rotational symmetry of the action integral. Differences between the resultant conservation laws and those for the Vlasov-Maxwell system including the Maxwell displacement current are clarified. These results provide a useful basis for gyrokinetic conservation laws because gyrokinetic equations are derived as an approximation of the Vlasov-Poisson-Ampere system.

  2. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  3. Transformaciones y cambios en la policía española durante la Segunda República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Miguélez Rueda

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El viejo aparato de Policía que heredó la II República se componía de dos colectivos desiguales: el militar Cuerpo de Seguridad, que dependía de los Ministerios de la Gobernación y de la Guerra, era un cuerpo dedicado a prevenir y reprimir las alteraciones del orden público, en cuya labor había causado y sufrido muchas bajas; por su parte, el menos numeroso y civil Cuerpo de Vigilancia, cuyos miembros actuaban de paisano, debía investigar los delitos y perseguir a los delincuentes, y se había distinguido en el reciente pasado por su ejecutoria contra los antimonárquicos. Tras la victoriosa proclamación del 14 de abril de 1931, gobernantes y policías se observaron con mutua desconfianza y un cierto temor.The old Police machine that the II Republic inherited was composed by two unequal collectives: the military "Cuerpo de Seguridad» which depended of the Government Office and War Office, it was an Institute dedicated to prevent and to repress the public order disorders in which work it had produced and suffered a lot of dead and injured; on the order hand the less numerous and civil «Cuerpo de Vigilancia», whose members worked in plain clothes, had to investigate the crimes and to pursue the crimináis, and it had been distinguished its activity against the antimonarchicals in the recent past. After the victorious proclamation of 14th april 1931, the governing persons and the policemen regarded each other wlth diffidence and a certain fear.

  4. Morfometría fluvial aplicada a una cuenca urbana en Ingeniero White, República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María Campo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La morfometría fluvial estudia diversas variables que caracterizan la forma de una cuenca de drenaje. El objetivo de este trabajo es aplicar el método morfométrico de cuencas naturales a una cuenca urbana. El área en estudio (6 km2 drena sus aguas al frente costero y comprende la localidad de Ingeniero White, República Argentina. Se realizó la jerarquización de la red de drenaje. Se identificaron tres subcuencas con escasa pendiente que presentan eventos de inundación, con mayor peligrosidad con precipitaciones extremas. Los valores de relación de longitud indicaron mayor concentración de energía en eventos de grandes avenidas. Los valores de relación de elongación demostraron que una de las subcuencas es de forma circular y presenta mayor velocidad en las avenidas de la escorrentía. Las dos cuencas más elongadas tienen mayor retardo en las avenidas. El mayor caudal del área en estudio fluye por la cuenca que posee el mayor número de orden y la mayor superficie. Las otras dos cuencas están sujetas a crecientes instantáneas y de respuesta inmediata. Los valores de pendiente y de área aplicados a modelos hidrológicos e hidraúlico determinaron la sección de los conductos y canales. El caudal calculado para el área drenada fue de 22.41 m3/s.

  5. Categorización del estado de conservación de las tortugas de la República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosdocimi, Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Con la participación de nueve especialistas de diferentes instituciones de Argentina y transcurridos más de 10 años desde la primera Lista Roja de la herpetofauna de la República Argentina realizada por la Asociación Herpetológica Argentina en el año 2000, se re-categorizaron los taxones de Testudines presentes en el país incorporando nueva información taxonómica, biológica y ecológica y, aplicando correcciones metodológicas. Como resultado, de los 14 taxones de tortugas continentales y marinas, nueve quedaron incluidas en la presente Lista Roja bajo algún grado de amenaza, tres En Peligro, tres Amenazadas y tres Vulnerables, mientras que dos fueron categorizadas como No Amenazadas y tres son Insuficientemente Conocidas. En la evaluación de las tres especies de tortugas marinas, que frecuentan las costas del Mar Argentino, se homologaron las categorías con las de IUCN (2011. Respecto de la categorización anterior, se agregó la especie Phrynops geoffranus (Insuficientemente Conocida, se sinonimizaron dos especies, disminuyó el número de especies En Peligro de tres a dos y se incrementó el de Vulnerables de una a tres. Los pocos cambios resultantes de la presente categorización de las tortugas de Argentina respecto de la anterior podría reflejar la escasez de estudios realizados sobre este grupo en la última década y la necesidad de promoverlos.

  6. Doblemente sometidas: las «mujeres de color» en la república de Cuba (1902-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Chicharro, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the development of afro-descendant women during the Republic of Cuba (1902-1959. First of all, works dedicated to Cuban women as a gender are assessed on one hand and to Afro culture on the other in order to show the extent to which Afro-Cuban women have been neglected by historiography. Then black and mixed-race women are studied in relation to the entire male population and white women. The text is divided into three parts: educational areas, vocational integration and political mobility. The data enables us to affirm that Afro-Cuban women were doubly subjugated throughout the Republican period, because of their gender against men, and because of race against white women.El estudio analiza la trayectoria de las mujeres afrodescendientes durante la República de Cuba (1902-1959. En primer lugar, se realiza una valoración de las obras dedicadas a las mujeres cubanas como género, por un lado, y a la cultura afro, por otro, para demostrar hasta qué punto las mujeres afrocubanas han sido desatendidas por la historiografía. Después se pasa a examinar a las mujeres negras y mestizas en relación con la población masculina total y las mujeres blancas. El texto se divide en tres apartados: campo educativo, inserción laboral y movilidad política. Los datos permiten afirmar que las mujeres afrocubanas estuvieron doblemente sometidas durante todo el período republicano, por género frente a los hombres negros, por «raza» frente a las mujeres blancas.

  7. Plasma Studies in Ion Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Czerny -Turner grating spectrometer with a linear dispersion of 26.5 A/mm. The output light was monitored with an EMI 9781R photomultiplier tube, which...Phys. Tech. Phys. 7 1015 (1982). 62. R. P. Little and W. T: Whitney. J. Appl. Phys. 34. 3142 (1963). 63. W. S. Boyle. P. Kisliuk. and L. H. Germer

  8. Kinetic models for the VASIMR thruster helicon plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishchev, Oleg; Molvig, Kim

    2001-10-01

    Helicon gas discharge [1] is widely used by industry because of its remarkable efficiency [2]. High energy and fuel efficiencies make it very attractive for space electrical propulsion applications. For example, helicon plasma source is used in the high specific impulse VASIMR [3] plasma thruster, including experimental prototypes VX-3 and upgraded VX-10 [4] configurations, which operate with hydrogen (deuterium) and helium plasmas. We have developed a set of models for the VASIMR helicon discharge. Firstly, we use zero-dimensional energy and mass balance equations to characterize partially ionized gas condition/composition. Next, we couple it to one-dimensional hybrid model [6] for gas flow in the quartz tube of the helicon. We compare hybrid model results to a purely kinetic simulation of propellant flow in gas feed + helicon source subsystem. Some of the experimental data [3-4] are explained. Lastly, we discuss full-scale kinetic modeling of coupled gas and plasmas [5-6] in the helicon discharge. [1] M.A.Lieberman, A.J.Lihtenberg, 'Principles of ..', Wiley, 1994; [2] F.F.Chen, Plas. Phys. Contr. Fus. 33, 339, 1991; [3] F.Chang-Diaz et al, Bull. APS 45 (7) 129, 2000; [4] J.Squire et al., Bull. APS 45 (7) 130, 2000; [5] O.Batishchev et al, J. Plasma Phys. 61, part II, 347, 1999; [6] O.Batishchev, K.Molvig, AIAA technical paper 2000-3754, -14p, 2001.

  9. Potential Barrier around an Emitting Body an a Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Antonio; Luca Delzanno, Gian; Sorasio, Gianfranco; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2005-10-01

    We present a self-consistent, kinetic theory for the charging and shielding of an object at rest in a collisionless plasma [1]. The body is an electron emitter according to thermionic emission, photoemission or secondary emission. The theory is formulated for positively charged bodies, derived under the assumption of spherical symmetry so that conservation of energy and angular momentum can be used to calculate the plasma distribution functions at any given point in phase space. Far away from the body the plasma is assumed unperturbed, described by a Maxwellian distribution function at rest. Thus, the unperturbed plasma acts as a source of particles balancing the absorptions from the body and a steady state is eventually reached. The theory is shown to be in good agreement with PIC simulations [1-2]. Further on, several cases (focusing on parameters typical of laboratory experiments) are presented for the three different emission mechanisms, showing that shielding potentials having an attractive well are possible for all of them.[1] G. L. Delzanno, A. Bruno, G. Sorasio, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062102 (2005).[2] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004).

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of magnetized dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Alexander; Reichstein, Torben; Wilms, Jochen

    2012-10-01

    The combination of the electric field that confines a dust cloud with a static magnetic field generally leads to a rotation of the dust cloud. In weak magnetic fields, the Hall component of the ion flow exerts a drag force that sets the dust in rotation. We have performed detailed molecular-dynamics simulations of the dynamics of torus-shaped dust clouds in anodic plasmas. The stationary flow [1] is characterized by a shell structure in the laminar dust flow and by the spontaneous formation of a shear-flow around a stationary vortex. Here we present new results on dynamic phenomena, among them fluctuations due to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the shear-flow. The simulations are compared with experimental results. [4pt] [1] T. Reichstein, A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 18, 083705 (2011)

  11. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  12. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  13. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. I. Front formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation with a variable neutral gas density profile. The simulation is tailored to a radio frequency plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055207 (2014)]. The experiment has shown the existence of a propagating ion front. The ion front features a strong electric field and features a sharp plasma potential drop similar to a double layer. However, the presented results of a first principle simulation show that, in general, the ion front does not have to be entangled with an electric field. The propagating electric field reflects the downstream ions, which stream with velocities up to twice as high as that of the ion front propagation. The observed ion density peak forms due to the accumulation of the reflected ions. The simulation shows that the ion front formation strongly depends on the initial ion density profile and is subject to a wave-breaking phenomenon. Virtual diagnostics in the code allow for a direct comparison with experimental results. Using this technique, the plateau forming in the wake of the plasma front could be indirectly verified in the expansion experiment. Although the simulation considers profiles only in one spatial dimensional, its results are qualitatively in a very good agreement with the laboratory experiment. It can successfully reproduce findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations. This indicates that the effects of magnetic field structures and tangential inhomogeneities are not essential for the general expansion dynamic. The presented simulation will be used for a detailed parameter study dealt with in Paper II [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasma 23, 013512 (2016)] of this series.

  14. Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.

  15. Numerical Simulation of Dust Void Evolution in Complex Plasmas with Ionization Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yue; WANG Zheng-Xiong; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2006-01-01

    We develop the nonlinear theory of dust voids [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (2003) 075001], focusing particularly on effects of the ionization, to investigate numerically the void evolution under cylindrical coordinates [Phys. Plasmas 13(2006) 064502]. The ion velocity profile is solved by a more accurate ion motion equation with the ion convection and ionization terms. It is shown that the differences between the previous result and the one obtained with ionizations are significant for the distributions of the ion and dust velocities, the dust density, and etc., in the void formation process. Furthermore, the ionization can slow down the void formation process effectively.

  16. Statically screened ion potential and Bohm potential in a quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldabekov, Zhandos [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Str., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Schoof, Tim; Ludwig, Patrick; Bonitz, Michael [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany); Ramazanov, Tlekkabul [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 71 Al-Farabi Str., 050040 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2015-10-15

    The effective potential Φ of a classical ion in a weakly correlated quantum plasma in thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature is well described by the random phase approximation screened Coulomb potential. Additionally, collision effects can be included via a relaxation time ansatz (Mermin dielectric function). These potentials are used to study the quality of various statically screened potentials that were recently proposed by Shukla and Eliasson (SE) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 165007 (2012)], Akbari-Moghanjoughi (AM) [Phys. Plasmas 22, 022103 (2015)], and Stanton and Murillo (SM) [Phys. Rev. E 91, 033104 (2015)] starting from quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory. Our analysis reveals that the SE potential is qualitatively different from the full potential, whereas the SM potential (at any temperature) and the AM potential (at zero temperature) are significantly more accurate. This confirms the correctness of the recently derived [Michta et al., Contrib. Plasma Phys. 55, 437 (2015)] pre-factor 1/9 in front of the Bohm term of QHD for fermions.

  17. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  18. “La República de los Sueños”: De lo racional de la República a lo irracional de los sueños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broullón Acuña, Esmeralda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of the dreams is an “Atlantic novel” and as such it develops a narrative on the trip and the memory of a family of Spanish origin in the contemporary Brazil. The work investigates the process of immigration and adjustment of a Galician patriarchal and capitalist, predestined to the social success. A consecration that will go up to his last consequences, coming back to his village, of which went out in 1913, to marry the daughter of a nobleman. Founder of a lineage hispanic-brazilian will remain caught in the profit that he itself interweaves on having taken part of the networks and the oligarchic practices that dominate in the country. Thus the authoress re-composes a statement ethnic-historical where she represents the ethnic segmentation of the condition state-nation and institutes the memory and the culture as elements of resistance.

    La República de los sueños es una “novela atlántica” y como tal desarrolla una narrativa sobre el viaje y la memoria de una familia de origen español en el Brasil contemporáneo. La obra indaga el proceso de inmigración y adaptación de un gallego patriarcal y capitalista, predestinado al éxito social. Una consagración que llevará hasta sus últimas consecuencias, retornando a su aldea, de la cual salió en 1913, para casarse con la hija de un hidalgo. Fundador de un linaje hispanobrasileño quedará atrapado en el lucro que él mismo entreteje al participar de las redes y las prácticas oligárquicas que dominan en el país. De este modo la autora recompone un relato etnohistórico donde representa la segmentación étnica del estado-nación e instituye la memoria y la cultura como elementos de resistencia.

  19. Simulating the magnetized liner inertial fusion plasma confinement with smaller-scale experiments [Simulating the MagLIF plasma confinement with smaller-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrmann, M. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinars, D. B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slutz, S. A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-06-20

    The recently proposed magnetized liner inertial fusion approach to a Z-pinch driven fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] is based on the use of an axial magnetic field to provide plasma thermal insulation from the walls of the imploding liner. The characteristic plasma transport regimes in the proposed approach cover parameter domains that have not been studied yet in either magnetic confinement or inertial confinement experiments. In this article, an analysis is presented of the scalability of the key physical processes that determine the plasma confinement. The dimensionless scaling parameters are identified and conclusion is drawn that the plasma behavior in scaled-down experiments can correctly represent the full-scale plasma, provided these parameters are approximately the same in two systems. Furthermore, this observation is important in that smaller-scale experiments typically have better diagnostic access and more experiments per year are possible.

  20. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  1. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physicochemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepshikha Deuri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C for 15 days. Materials and Methods: Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min, T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min, and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min. Results: Cooking yield was significantly higher (p<0.05 for the T-4. The pH of T-3 and T-4 samples was significantly higher (p<0.05 on day 15. The tyrosine value of all the samples increased significantly (p<0.05 among the different days of analysis. Thiobarbituric acid value was significantly (p<0.05 lower in T-3 sample both at the beginning and at the end of storage period. In microbiological profile, total plate count was lower in T-3 and T-4 than T-1 and T-2. However, Escherichia coli count was negative for T-3 and T-4 samples throughout the storage period. Among sensory attributes, T-3 and T-4 samples registered superior scores for color, flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Conclusion: Furthermore, Vawksa rep (smoked pork product could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.

  2. "O dia de amanhã": a República nas páginas do periódico ilustrado O Mequetrefe, 1875-1889

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristeu Elisandro Machado Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O periódico ilustrado O Mequetrefe iniciou sua circulação no Rio de Janeiro em 1875 e manteve suas atividades até janeiro de 1893. No transcurso de sua trajetória, os temas políticos se sobressaíram tratados em irreverentes ilustrações e em textos de opinião. Em suas páginas foram noticiadas as principais mudanças políticas ocorridas no Brasil Imperial, como a Abolição dos Escravos e o fim do Império com o advento republicano. O Mequetrefe publicou, ao longo de seus anos de atuação, notícias e opiniões sobre o ideário republicano difundido por seus adeptos na Corte. Já no final dos anos 1880, o jornal defendia a mudança de governo no Brasil com a República. O objetivo principal deste artigo é, portanto, averiguar quais as considerações deste periódico que foram dirigidas à questão republicana até a Proclamação da República. Outro assunto a ser tratado aqui é como a República - por meio do emprego das alegorias femininas e seus propagandistas - surgiu nas produções artísticas dos desenhistas e nas opiniões dos colaboradores do jornal, que igualmente se dedicavam ao humor e a sátira.

  3. Loss-of-function mutations in Rab escort protein 1 (REP-1 affect intracellular transport in fibroblasts and monocytes of choroideremia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Strunnikova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Choroideremia (CHM is a progressive X-linked retinopathy caused by mutations in the CHM gene, which encodes Rab escort protein-1 (REP-1, an escort protein involved in the prenylation of Rabs. Under-prenylation of certain Rabs, as a result of loss of function mutations in REP-1, could affect vesicular trafficking, exocytosis and secretion in peripheral cells of CHM patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate this hypothesis, intracellular vesicle transport, lysosomal acidification and rates of proteolytic degradation were studied in monocytes (CD14+ fraction and primary skin fibroblasts from the nine age-matched controls and thirteen CHM patients carrying 10 different loss-of-function mutations. With the use of pHrodo BioParticles conjugated with E. coli, collagen I coated FluoSpheres beads and fluorescent DQ ovalbumin with BODYPY FL dye, we demonstrated for the first time that lysosomal pH was increased in monocytes of CHM patients and, as a consequence, the rates of proteolytic degradation were slowed. Microarray analysis of gene expression revealed that some genes involved in the immune response, small GTPase regulation, transcription, cell adhesion and the regulation of exocytosis were significantly up and down regulated in cells from CHM patients compared to controls. Finally, CHM fibroblasts secreted significantly lower levels of cytokine/growth factors such as macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, pigment epithelial derived factor (PEDF, tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha, fibroblast growth factor (FGF beta and interleukin (lL-8. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time that peripheral cells of CHM patients had increased pH levels in lysosomes, reduced rates of proteolytic degradation and altered secretion of cytokines. Peripheral cells from CHM patients expose characteristics that were not previously recognized and could used as an alternative models to study the effects of different

  4. Functional rescue of REP1 following treatment with PTC124 and novel derivative PTC-414 in human choroideremia fibroblasts and the nonsense-mediated zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosajee, Mariya; Tracey-White, Dhani; Smart, Matthew; Weetall, Marla; Torriano, Simona; Kalatzis, Vasiliki; da Cruz, Lyndon; Coffey, Peter; Webster, Andrew R; Welch, Ellen

    2016-08-15

    Choroideremia (CHM) is an X-linked chorioretinal dystrophy that is caused by mutations within a single gene, CHM Currently no effective treatment exists for these patients. Since over 30% of patients harbour nonsense mutations in CHM, nonsense suppression therapy using translational readthrough inducing drugs may provide functional rescue of REP1, thus attenuating progressive sight loss. Here, we employed two CHM model systems to systematically test the efficacy and safety of ataluren (PTC124) and its novel analog PTC-414: (1) the chm(ru848) zebrafish, the only nonsense mutation animal model of CHM harbouring a TAA nonsense mutation, and (2) a primary human fibroblast cell line from a CHM patient harbouring a TAG nonsense mutation. PTC124 or PTC-414 treatment of chm(ru848) embryos led to a ∼2.0-fold increase in survival, prevented the onset of retinal degeneration with reduced oxidative stress and apoptosis, increased rep1 protein by 23.1% (PTC124) and 17.2% (PTC-414) and restored biochemical function as confirmed through in vitro prenylation assays (98 ± 2% [PTC124] and 68 ± 5% [PTC-414]). In CHM(Y42X/y) fibroblasts, there was a recovery of prenylation activity following treatment with either PTC124 (42 ± 5%) or PTC-414 (36 ± 11%), although an increase in REP1 protein was not detected in these cells, in contrast to the zebrafish model. This comprehensive study on the use of PTC124 and PTC-414 as successful nonsense suppression agents for the treatment of CHM highlights the translational potential of these drugs for inherited retinal disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  6. Modified Jeans Instability for Dust Grains in a Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca Delzanno, Gian

    2005-10-01

    In two recent papers, Delzanno et al. [1, 2] have pointed out that an electron emitting (for instance due to photoemission) dust grain immersed in a plasma can sustain profiles of the shielding potential having an attractive potential well (reminiscent of the Lennard-Jones potential for the attraction among atoms). The presence of a potential well in the shielding potential has important consequences as it can lead to attractive forces on other grains even if they have the sign of charge and can be particularly important for astrophysical systems. In this study, we will present the kinetic theory of the modified Jeans instability [3], where a system of dust particles interacts through the gravitational and electrostatic forces. The latter, however, is not modeled with the Coulomb potential but with the potential well discovered in Refs. [1, 2]. We show that the well acts broadening the spectrum of gravitationally unstable modes and enhance their growth rates, even with respect to the pure gravitational case [3]. On the other hand, a pure Debye-Huckel potential always acts as to stabilize the system. [1] G. L. Delzanno, A. Bruno, G. Sorasio, G. Lapenta, Phys. Plasmas 12, 062102 (2005). [2] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, M. Rosenberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 (3), 035002 (2004). [3] G. L. Delzanno, G. Lapenta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 175005 (2005).

  7. Discriminação de sorovares de Salmonella spp. isolados de carcaças de frango por REP e ERIC-PCR e fagotipagem do sorovar Enteriditis Discrimination of Salmonella serovars isolated from chicken meat by REP and ERIC-PCR and phagotyping of Enteriditis sorovar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Alcocer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonelose é a infecção bacteriana de origem alimentar mais freqüente no Paraná, Brasil, e os surtos estão associados, principalmente, ao consumo de ovos, carne de aves e derivados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os sorovares de Salmonella isolados de carcaças de frango e caracterizá-los molecularmente por REP e ERIC-PCR, assim como identificar os fagotipos de Salmonella Enteriditis. Dos 25 isolados de Salmonella spp. analisados, 18 foram identificados como Enteriditis, 4 como Braenderup, 2 como Worthington e 1 como infantis. Dos 18 isolados de Enteriditis, 14 foram PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 e 1 RDNC, por se tratar de colônia rugosa. REP-PCR forneceu padrão eletroforético distinto de 10 a 13 bandas distribuídas entre 120 e 2072 pb para cada sorovar diferente testado. A ERIC-PCR mostrou um padrão de 4 a 5 bandas entre 180 e 1000 pb e foi menos discriminativa quando comparada à REP-PCR. Os resultados encontrados confirmaram que a fagotipagem é uma ferramenta útil e discriminativa para o sorovar Enteriditis. Apesar do pequeno número de sorovares testados, os resultados sugerem que a REP-PCR parece ser um método atrativo a ser utilizado no futuro para a discriminação preliminar de sorovares de Salmonella.Salmonellosis is the most prevalent bacterial food-borne disease in the State of Paraná, Brazil, and the outbreaks are often associated with consumption of poultry products. The aim of this study was to serotype Salmonella strains isolated from chicken carcasses and characterize them molecularly using REP and ERIC-PCR. The phage types of Salmonella Enteriditis were also identified. Of the 25 Salmonella strains analysed, 18 were identified as Enteriditis, 4 as Braenderup, 2 as Worthington and 1 as infantis. Of the 18 Enteriditis isolates, 14 were PT4, 2 PT4a, 1 PT7 and 1 "reacted, but did not conform" - RDNC. Distinct REP-PCR profiles with 10 to 13 fragments distributed between 120 and 2072 pb were easily obtained for

  8. Haridusprognoos Eestimaale / Mailis Reps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reps, Mailis, 1975-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Koit, 6. märts 2004, lk. 6; Põhjarannik, 9. märts 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 9. märts 2004, lk. 2; Nädaline, 9. märts 2004, lk. 8; Sakala, 10. märts 2004, lk. 2. Endine haridusminister analüüsib haridusprobleeme: haridusuuendus, koolikorraldus, õpetajate ja lasteaiaõpetajate palgad, koolivõrgu haldamine ning vastavad seaduseelnõud Riigikogus

  9. Sexo y Modernidad en la España de la Segunda República. Los discursos de la ciencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huertas, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the scientific content of the “sexual reform” movement which took place in Spain during the 1920s and 1930s, culminating during the Second Republic. It covers three essential aspects of this subject: 1 the introduction of the new science of sexology; 2 the interest in sex education for children; and 3 the passing of new marriage legislation (the Divorce Law of 1932. Areas of scientific discourse are identified, associated with a “modernization” of mores and based on secular and progressive assumptions. The conflict between biological or endocrinological approaches and psychoanalytical methods is discussed, with encouragement of a healthy, aware experience of sexuality becoming established as the central argument. Issues such as responsible parenting, birth control, prevention of mental disorders (linked to traumatic sexual experiences, etc. are analysed in the light of medical, psychological and legal sources, in relation to the reform of sexual mores and overcoming the bourgeois moral double standardEste artículo pretende estudiar los contenidos científicos del movimiento de “reforma sexual” que tuvo lugar en España en los años veinte y treinta y que culminó durante la Segunda República. Se abordan, al respecto, tres aspectos fundamentales: 1 la introducción de la nueva ciencia sexológica; 2 el interés por la educación sexual de los niños; y 3 la promulgación de una nueva legislación matrimonial (la ley de divorcio de 1932. Se identifican discursos científicos, asimilados a una “modernización” de las costumbres, siempre desde presupuestos laicos y progresistas. Se apunta la confrontación entre enfoques biologicistas o endocrinológicos y planteamientos psicoanalíticos, estableciéndose como eje argumental el fomento de una vivencia consciente y sana de la sexualidad. Temas como paternidad responsable, control de la natalidad, prevención de los trastornos mentales (ligados a

  10. Comment on ``Neutrino oscillations in the early universe: how can large lepton asymmetry be generated?'' [Astropart. Phys. 14 (2000) 79-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, P.; Foot, R.; Volkas, R. R.; Wong, Y. Y. Y.

    2001-08-01

    We comment on the recent paper by A.D. Dolgov, S.H. Hansen, S. Pastor and D.V. Semikoz (DHPS) [Astropart. Phys. 14 (2000) 79] on the generation of neutrino asymmetries from active-sterile neutrino oscillations. We demonstrate that the approximate asymmetry evolution equation obtained therein is an expansion, up to a minor discrepancy, of the well-established static approximation equation, valid only when the supposedly new higher order correction term is small. In the regime where this so-called "back-reaction" term is large and artificially terminates the asymmetry growth, their evolution equation ceases to be a faithful approximation to the quantum kinetic equations simply because pure Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) transitions have been neglected. At low temperatures the MSW effect is the dominant asymmetry amplifier. Neither the static nor the DHPS approach contains this important physics. Therefore we conclude that the DHPS results have sufficient veracity at the onset of explosive asymmetry generation, but are invalid in the ensuing low temperature epoch where MSW conversions are able to enhance the asymmetry to values of order 0.2-0.37. DHPS do claim to find a significant final asymmetry for very large δm2 values. However, for this regime the effective potential they employed is not valid.

  11. El nacionalismo de derecha ante la cuestión peronista: la perspectiva del grupo Azul y Blanco/2da República (1956-1963)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria Galvan

    2012-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es mostrar el modo en que el grupo a cargo de la publicación Azul y Blanco/2da República (representativa del universo político e intelectual nacionalista durante el posperonismo) buscó construir un vínculo con los trabajadores peronistas cada vez más significativo. Las características de este lazo indican una evolución desde un lector modelo difuso pero atento a las preocupaciones del trabajador peronista hacia un lector peronista claramente definido como aliado pol...

  12. Casa-Escuela Santiago Uno: modelo de pedagogía personalista comunitaria para una República Deontológica Socialdemócrata

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente Prieto, José

    2016-01-01

    Falta resumen y palabras clave Este trabajo de investigación se enmarca dentro del paradigma socio-crítico y con una metodología etnográfica analiza, estudia y presenta a la Casa-Escuela Santiago Uno como modelo de pedagogía personalista comunitaria para una República Deontológica Socialdemócrata. Esta pedagogía tiene como fin principal el desarrollo en el ser humano de su dimensión espiritual como aspecto supremo de evolución de la condición humana para trascender hacia la Sociedad del Bi...

  13. Avatares de la «forma de Estado» en el período fundacional de la República (1820-1839

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Delgado Silva

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del presente ensayo es analizar la cuestión del «territorio» en el proceso constitutivo del Estado peruano durante el período de tránsito de la Colonia a los primeros años de la República. Este proceso debe ser comprendido como parte de un trasiego mayor aún: de la sociedad y el Estado del Antiguo Régimenal advenimiento del mundo moderno como resultado de los que Godechet llama las Revoluciones Atlánticas y que en nuestro medio implicó la revolución de la Independencia nacional.

  14. La huelga política. Análisis de su viabilidad en el ordenamiento jurídico en la República Oriental del Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Goldstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Distintas motivaciones han llevado a los trabajadores agremiados a ejercer este derecho fun- damental reconocido por el Art. 57 de la Constitución de la República Oriental del Uruguay, los cuales han sido objeto de debates doctrinarios cuando las huelgas incursionan dentro de las de- nominadas atípicas. En el presente estudio analizamos su viabilidad cuando la misma tiene mo- tivaciones políticas y que respuesta da a ese fenómeno el ordenamiento jurídico patrio

  15. Homonota fasciata Duméril y Bibron, 1839 (Reptilia, Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (República Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcione, Camila

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Homonota fasciata Duméril & Bibron, 1839. República Argentina, Provincia de Corrientes, Departamento Bella Vista, Cuarta Sección, Colonia Progreso, Loma Sur, Toropí (28°35'55" S; 59°03'38" W (Figura 1. Colectores: Eduardo Etchepare, María del Rosario Ingaramo, Camila Falcione y Roberto Aguirre. 05 de abril de 2011. Se colectaron 4 ejemplares adultos (2 machos y 2 hembras y 1 juvenil, depositados en la Colección Herpetológica de la Universidad Nacional del Nordeste (UNNEC-11212, UNNEC-11213, UNNEC- 11214, UNNEC-11215 y UNNEC-11216.

  16. Factores explicativos del fracaso y del éxito en las microempresas de la República Dominicana: un estudio empírico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz de Abreu, Marina Altagracia

    2016-01-01

    [ESP] Las microempresas en América Latina, al igual que en República Dominicana, constituyen una parte fundamental del tejido empresarial por su capacidad de generación de empleos y de ingresos, por ser distribuidoras de riqueza, dinamizadoras de la producción e incluso por contribuir a la estabilidad social del país. Iniciar una empresa implica la posibilidad de tener éxito o fracasar, por lo que es importante entender los factores que inciden en esta dualidad. Hay una amplia literatura sobr...

  17. Las vicisitudes de la Primera República en Colombia (1810-1816. La interpretación centralista de nuestro proceso de Independencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Zuluaga Gil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se ocupa de una de las cuestiones menos estudiadas en la nuestra historia constitucional. Se trata del proceso de formación y colapso de la llamada Primera República, etapa que se desarrolló entre 1811 y 1816. El documento destaca el espíritu altamente federativo que caracterizó a ese momento, lo cual desmitifica el acento altamente unitario y nacional que la historiografía tradicional le ha dado a ese proceso.

  18. Comparison of genetic variability between Czech and foreign isolates of phytopathogenic bacteria Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus by Rep-PCR technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fousek, J; Mráz, I; Petrzik, K

    2002-01-01

    Repetitive-sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (Rep-PCR) method was used for analysis of genetic variability among bacterial populations from different world locations. Collection of 26 Czech and 13 foreign strains of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus was amplified using BOX primer targeting to repetitive motif occurring in eubacterial genomes. Genetic fingerprints were visually compared and statistically evaluated by cluster analysis. Genetic similarity was estimated to be approximately 80% among all tested strains. Populations of these bacteria seem to be highly homogeneous; potential influence of geographic origin was not confirmed.

  19. O Deus do progresso: a difusão do cientificismo no movimento operário gaúcho da I República

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Benito Bisso

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é examinar a difusão de teorias cientificistas no movimento operário gaúcho no período da I República, tais como o positivismo, o darwinismo, a antropologia criminal, o espiritismo kardecista, etc.; bem como os canais de difusão de tais idéias e suas repercussões políticas, sobretudo a conformação de um "estilo autoritário" na condução das lutas operárias.

  20. De la República de las Letras a Internet: de la ciudad letrada a la cibercultura y las tecnologías del S. XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Martos Núñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Describe la evolución del concepto de la “República de lasLetras” hacia un concepto más omnicomprensivo y tecnológico de“Ciudad Letrada” y sus implicaciones en los campos educativo y cultural. Se examinan igualmente otras controversias sobre el sentido de dichos conceptos aplicados a los contextos actuales y, en particular, en relación a Internet y los nuevos fenómenos de la sociedad de la información.

  1. Evolución histórica del Banco de la República en Colombia: una aproximación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Inés Cárdenas Pinzón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Este documento hace un breve recorrido histórico de la evolución de la banca central en el país, empezando por el periodo de la historia de Colombia conocido como la Regeneración, pasando a la misión Kemmerer, el fin de “patrón oro”, la creación de la Junta Monetaria, hasta llegar a la independencia del Banco de la República en 1991.

  2. La integración en un sistema de bibliotecas de la Universidad de la República: una mirada desde las políticas educativas universitarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Madrid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una historia de los intentos de integración en un sistema de las bibliotecas de la Universidad de la República, con énfasis en el período que se inicia en 2003-2004, a partir de la conformación de la Subcomisión de Bibliotecas en el ámbito del Prorrectorado de Gestión Administrativa.Se intenta analizar el proceso en términos de políticas públicas de educación superior.

  3. El Paleolítico Medio en el Cáucaso Meridional: la Cueva Doble (Valle de Tsutskhvati, República de Georgia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando DÍEZ MARTÍN; Martínez Molina, Kenneth; García Garriga, Joan; José Ángel GÓMEZ GONZÁLEZ; Cáceres, Isabel; Allué Martí, Ethel; Sánchez Yustos, Policarpo; Yravedra Sáinz de los Terreros, José

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo recoge los principales resultados derivados de la intervención arqueológica acometida entre los años 2002 y 2003 en el Valle de Tsutskhvati (República de Georgia), principalmente centrados en una nueva ronda de excavaciones en la Cueva Doble. Los estudios estratigráficos, tecnológicos, tafonómicos y polínicos permiten arrojar nuevos datos, complementarios a los obtenidos en la cercana cueva de Ortvale Klde, sobre las comunidades neandertales que habitaron la región del Cáu...

  4. La europeización de la República de Moldova: un camino sinuoso e incierto hacia la integración europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Dercaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Después de la proclamación de la independencia en 1991, la República de Moldova (RM ha declarado su firme determinación de emprender su camino hacia Europa, a la que se siente identificada culturalmente. Aunque en las declaraciones y documentos adoptados el Estado nunca ha renunciado a este objetivo, ciertas acciones de sus líderes políticos parecen contradecir dicho compromiso. El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar el proceso de evolución de la República de Moldova a la Unión Europea (UE, los compromisos asumidos por ambos y su cumplimiento. Además, voy a comparar los progresos realizados por Ucrania y RM hacia el acercamiento a la Unión Europea en los últimos años. Hace algunos años, Ucrania fue el país oriental con la perspectiva fundamental de la futura integración en la UE debido a sus cambios democráticos, hoy República de Moldova ha demostrado ser capaz de hacer más progresos en la promoción de la democracia y la aplicación de las reformas de gobernanza que Ucrania. Por otro lado, la relación entre la RM y la UE sigue siendo influenciada por las medidas adoptadas por la Federación de Rusia en la región donde todavía tiene influencia significativa, y tratar de mantener su presencia. Una de las herramientas fuertes de la influencia es la dependencia del suministro de energía y su falta de diversificación. El conflicto sin resolver de Transnistria es otro factor determinante de la falta de certeza en el proceso de europeización de la RM. El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la eficiencia de la europeización de la República de Moldova a través de la Política de Vecindad Europea, utilizando un método combinado constructivista y racionalista.

  5. Modelo de análisis de las preferencias del consumidor de palta (aguacate) en el noroeste argentino (Distrito Ciudad de Salta, República Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Tubello, Daniel Antonio Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    El presenta trabajo de investigación ha modelado un sistema de análisis de preferencias del consumo de palta (aguacate), en la ciudad de Salta (República Argentina). El mismo adquiere importancia por dos motivos: por una parte al ser el primer trabajo de este tipo en nuestro país para un producto agroalimentario, ya que no existen referencias al respecto, y por otro, al ser el producto subtropical con mayor crecimiento en volumen de producción en la última década y con expectativas ciertas de...

  6. Modelo de análisis de las preferencias del consumidor de palta (aguacate) en el noroeste argentino (Distrito Ciudad de Salta, República Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Tubello, Daniel Antonio Gerardo

    2004-01-01

    El presenta trabajo de investigación ha modelado un sistema de análisis de preferencias del consumo de palta (aguacate), en la ciudad de Salta (República Argentina). El mismo adquiere importancia por dos motivos: por una parte al ser el primer trabajo de este tipo en nuestro país para un producto agroalimentario, ya que no existen referencias al respecto, y por otro, al ser el producto subtropical con mayor crecimiento en volumen de producción en la última década y con expectativas ciertas de...

  7. Inserción internacional en América Central y la República Dominica: Diagnóstico y desafíos

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Auguste; Ernesto H. Stein

    2012-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza el crecimiento reciente de las exportaciones de bienes y servicios de Centroamérica (excepto México) y la República Dominicana durante la década de 2000, con vistas a explicar a qué se debe la pérdida de participación de las exportaciones regionales en el comercio mundial. Los resultados encontrados muestran que distintos componentes actuaron de manera adversa: la especialización inicial no fue favorable para la región (los productos y regiones en los cuales se esp...

  8. El rol político del juez electoral. El Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de la República de Costa Rica, un análisi comparado.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenes Villalobos, Luis Diego

    2011-01-01

    [ES] El Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones de la República de Costa Rica constituye un órgano sui géneris ya que goza del rango e independencia de los Poderes del Estado pero además concentra bajo sí labores tanto de administrador como de juez electoral, ejerciendo esta última función cual si fuese un tribunal constitucional especializado. Esta diversidad de atribuciones, dentro de las cuales se suma y destaca la competencia interpretativa de la ley electoral, conlleva un protagonismo institucion...

  9. Análisis de la industria automotriz colombiana frente al Tratado de Libre Comercio con la República de Corea

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Agudelo, Daniela Stephanie; Millán Aguado, Juan Sebastián; Rubio Castillo, Angely Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Mediante este proyecto, se hace un análisis de la industria automotriz en Colombia, cómo se puede ver afectada y cuáles serán los pros y contras ante la puesta en ejecución del Tratado de Libre Comercio con la República de Corea, tomando como base diferentes agentes que incursionan directamente en la industria mencionada, como lo son sus consumidores, los comerciantes, productores (ensambladoras) y el gobierno nacional. Igualmente, la globalización como aspecto fundamental para las econom...

  10. Medición cuantitativa del subregistro de nacimientos e indocumentación: Costos socioeconómicos en Perú y República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Lucio; Rud, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    La indocumentación y el subregistro presentan un desafío para las posibilidades de desarrollo con inclusión social en América Latina. Usando datos de la Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud (ENDES) en Perú (2008) y en República Dominicana (2007), este estudio elabora una caracterización de este grave problema para los hogares y los individuos. Se descubrió que el subregistro de los menores afecta sobre todo a los hogares rurales con bajos niveles de ingreso donde el jefe de hogar tiene un bajo niv...

  11. Crisis de las instituciones sociales y sistema de valores de menores en conflicto con la Ley Penal del Distrito Nacional, República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Santos, Celedonio

    2016-01-01

    313 p. La tesis formula la existencia de una crisis de las instituciones sociales que afecta el sistema de valores (pensamiento, sentir, expectativas) de menores en conflicto con la ley penal del distrito nacional, Rep. Dominicana. Se establece que la actual crisis de la institución social (multiplicidad de familias monoparentales, de madres solteras, de separaciones matrimoniales y de un importante deterioro del sistema escolar) ha incidido en los valores de niños, niñas y adolescentes en...

  12. Tabaco y recreación en adolescentes escolarizados de Centroamérica, Panamá y República Dominicana

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Bejarano Orozco; Marco Alberto Sáenz Rojas; Federico Ugalde Montero

    1999-01-01

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos mediante la aplicación del Cuestionario para el Tamizaje del Consumo de Drogas, el cual fue debidamente adaptado y validado en una muestra significativa de estudiantes de secundaria con edades entre los 12 y los 19 años, de los países de Centroamérica, Panamá y República Dominicana, durante 1994. La selección de los centros educativos se efectuó al azar estratificada por tipo de institución y región. Específicamente, el estudio se dirigía...

  13. La República de Guayaquil como sujeto de derecho internacional y su contribución en la formación del nuevo estado

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Herrera, Fernando Xavier

    2014-01-01

    El maestrante entrega tres ejemplares empastados de la tesis y tres CD con el contenido de la misma en formato PDF El presente trabajo contiene la independencia y la creación de la Provincia Libre de Guayaquil o República de Guayaquil, sus antecedentes sociales y económicos; así como las instituciones políticas civiles y militares, creadas con posterioridad a la emancipación, que sirvieron de base para la institucionalización y relativa estabilidad de un gobierno autónomo. Se narra el acc...

  14. Modificación legislativa en materia de seguros en la República de Cuba. Comentarios al Decreto-Ley 263

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil Iduate, Alejandro; Universidad de La Habana

    2009-01-01

    Recién firmado el Decreto-Ley 263, del Contrato de Seguro, el que realiza una modificación sustancial en la legislación cubana al derogar lo establecido en la materia, en el Código Civil y Código de Comercio, y recoge los principios fundamentales del seguro, adecuando la legislación a las nuevas condiciones existentes en la República de Cuba, atemperada a las nuevas concepciones y corrientes doctrinales que refuerzan la función social del seguro. Se impone una primera aproximación a la normat...

  15. O sertanejo além-mar : identidade regional e imigração goiana na República da Irlanda

    OpenAIRE

    Reijane Pinheiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    A partir da análise de um fluxo emigratório de brasileiros de Goiás em direção à República da Irlanda, esta tese tem como objetivo compreender como os elementos da identidade regional desses imigrantes são reforçados, negociados ou negados no contexto da vida no exterior. Procurei, ainda, entender como essa experiência impacta as leituras que esses sujeitos fazem do lugar ao qual pertencem e dos lugares pelos quais transitam. A etnografia e a coleta de dados foram realizadas no Brasil e na Ir...

  16. Análisis de la industria automotriz colombiana frente al Tratado de Libre Comercio con la República de Corea

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Agudelo, Daniela Stephanie; Millán Aguado, Juan Sebastián; Rubio Castillo, Angely Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Mediante este proyecto, se hace un análisis de la industria automotriz en Colombia, cómo se puede ver afectada y cuáles serán los pros y contras ante la puesta en ejecución del Tratado de Libre Comercio con la República de Corea, tomando como base diferentes agentes que incursionan directamente en la industria mencionada, como lo son sus consumidores, los comerciantes, productores (ensambladoras) y el gobierno nacional. Igualmente, la globalización como aspecto fundamental para las econom...

  17. Moneda y esencia. Una reflexión sobre economía y metafísica en la República de Platón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Flórez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga la relación que se da en la República entre los dos significados de ousia: como propiedad en el sentido de posesiones y riqueza, o en el sentido de esencia o sustancia. Aparte de las relaciones económicas asociadas al préstamo, al intercambio y al interés, se examina la función que, respecto de la ousia, cumple la moneda en la economía como recurso para disociar la riqueza de las posesiones, con lo cual logra un nivel de universalidad y equivalencia equiparable al del propio ser.

  18. P2P声誉系统中GoodRep攻击及其防御机制%GoodRep Attack and Defense in P2P Reputation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯景瑜; 张玉清; 陈深龙; 付安民

    2011-01-01

    声誉系统由于其聚集评价的特点,为恶意节点提供了可乘之机.一些恶意节点合谋形成GoodRep攻击组,相互虚假夸大,进而在高声誉值的掩饰下危及P2P网络安全.提出了GoodRep的攻击模型及其防御机制--RatingGuard,并给出了该机制的数学描述和模块化实现过程.RatingGuard通过分析推荐节点之间的评价行为相似度,对推荐节点进行聚类划分和异常检测,识别出存在的GoodRep攻击组节点,从而帮助声誉系统排除GoodRep攻击组的干扰,仿真结果表明,RatingGuard在GoodRep攻击组的抵制方面效果显著,有效提高了声誉系统在面对GoodRep攻击时的恶意节点检测卒.%Reputation systems are playing critical roles in P2P networks as a method to assess the trustworthiness of peers and to combat malicious peers. However, the characteristic of aggregating ratings makes reputation systems vulnerable to be abused by false ratings, and thus offering opportunities for malicious peers. They can conspire with each other to form a collusive clique and unfairly increase the reputation of them. Under the cover of high reputation, malicious peers can masquerade as trusted ones and violate P2P networks arbitrarily. This attack model, called GoodRep, is described in this paper. In order to defend against GoodRep attack, the RatingGuard scheme is proposed to secure P2P reputation systems. This scheme is built with three functional modules: DC, DP and AD. The data collection (DC) module supports the collection of the previous rating data among raters. The data processing (DP) module measures the rating similarity of raters' activities by analyzing these data. To identify GoodRep cliques, the abnormal detection (AD) module detects the abnormalities through clustering partition technology. The experimental results show that our RatingGuard scheme is effective in suppressing GoodRep attack, and the reputation system with RatingGuard gains higher detection ratio of

  19. Tecnología cerámica en La Huerta, Quebrada de Humahuaca, provincia de Jujuy, República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    La siguiente Tesis presenta la caracterización tecnológica de la cerámica de La Huerta, sitio arqueológico localizado en el sector medio de la Quebrada de Humahuaca en Jujuy, República Argentina. Tradicionalmente denominado "antigal" o "pueblo viejo", este sitio es un ejemplo característico de las llamadas "sociedades complejas" del NOA y estuvo habitado aproximadamente entre el 800 al 1600 d.C. Con el objeto de mostrar las relacione...

  20. Stochastic heating of dust particles in complex plasmas as an energetic instability of a harmonic oscillator with random frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmolino, Ciro [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie dell' Ambiente e del Territorio-DiSTAT, Universita del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Pesche (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The paper describes the occurrence of stochastic heating of dust particles in dusty plasmas as an energy instability due to the correlations between dust grain charge and electric field fluctuations. The possibility that the mean energy (''temperature'') of dust particles can grow in time has been found both from the self-consistent kinetic description of dusty plasmas taking into account charge fluctuations [U. de Angelis, A. V. Ivlev, V. N. Tsytovich, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 052301 (2005)] and from a Fokker-Planck approach to systems with variable charge [A. V. Ivlev, S. K. Zhdanov, B. A. Klumov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(9), 092104 (2005)]. Here, a different derivation is given by using the mathematical techniques of the so called multiplicative stochastic differential equations. Both cases of ''fast'' and ''slow'' fluctuations are discussed.

  1. Slow plasma dynamo driven by electric current helicity in non-compact Riemann surfaces of negative curvature

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Boozer addressed the role of magnetic helicity in dynamos [Phys Fluids \\textbf{B},(1993)]. He pointed out that the magnetic helicity conservation implies that the dynamo action is more easily attainable if the electric potential varies over the surface of the dynamo. This provided us with motivation to investigate dynamos in Riemannian curved surfaces [Phys Plasmas \\textbf{14}, (2007);\\textbf{15} (2008)]. Thiffeault and Boozer [Phys Plasmas (2003)] discussed the onset of dissipation in kinematic dynamos. When curvature is constant and negative, a simple simple laminar dynamo solution is obtained on the flow topology of a Poincare disk, whose Gauss curvature is $K=-1$. By considering a laminar plasma dynamo [Wang et al, Phys Plasmas (2002)] the electric current helicity ${\\lambda}\\approx{2.34m^{-1}}$ for a Reynolds magnetic number of $Rm\\approx{210}$ and a growth rate of magnetic field $|{\\gamma}|\\approx{0.022}$. Negative constant curvature non-compact $\\textbf{H}^{2}$, has also been used in one-component elec...

  2. 禽腺联病毒Rep78和VP3蛋白的原核表达及抗血清制备%Prokaryotic expression of the Rep78 and VP3 proteins of avian adeno-associated virus and preparation of specific antisera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建业; 孙怀昌; 朱国强

    2008-01-01

    分别将禽腺联病毒(Avian adeno-associated virus,AAAV)的Rep78基因和VP3基因克隆入pET-47b原核表达载体并转化BL21(DE3)大肠杆菌,在1PTG的诱导下2种目的蛋白均成功得到了表达.SDS-PAGE显示,Rep78蛋白的相对分子质量约为85 000,而VP3蛋白相对分子质量约为60 000.Western-blot分析显示,表达产物均能与抗AAAV的阳性血清反应.将目的蛋白切胶免疫BALB/c小鼠分别制备了针对2种蛋白的多克隆血清.间接免疫荧光试验显示制备的抗血清能够与AAAV抗原特异反应.不与鸡胚致死孤儿病毒(CELO)抗原反应.结果表明,制备的抗Rep78和VP3蛋白的血清可以用于检测重组AAAV载体制备过程中Rep和Cap基因的表达水平.

  3. Design and Testing of a Small Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.; Dominguez, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Riley, Daniel P.; Kimberlin, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The design and testing of a small inductive pulsed plasma thruster (IPPT), shown in Fig. 1 with all the major subsystems required for a thruster of this kind are described. Thrust measurements and imaging of the device operated in rep-rated mode are presented to quantify the performance envelope of the device. The small IPPT described in this paper was designed to serve as a test-bed for the pulsed gas-valves and solid-state switches required for a IPPTs. A modular design approach was used to permit future modifications and upgrades. The thruster consists of the following sub-systems: a) a multi-turn, spiral-wound acceleration coil (27 cm o.d., 10 cm i.d.) driven by a 10 microFarad capacitor and switched with a high-voltage thyristor, b) a fast pulsed gas-valve, and c.) a glow-discharge pre-ionizer (PI) circuit. The acceleration-coil circuit may be operated at voltages up to 4 kV (the thyristor limit is 4.5 kV). The device may be operated at rep-rates up to 30 Hz with the present gas-valve. Thrust measurements and imaging of the device operated in rep-rated mode will be presented. The pre-ionizer consists of a 0.3 microFarad capacitor charged to 4 kV and connected to two annular stainless-steel electrodes bounding the area of the coil-face. The 4 kV potential is held across them and when the gas is puffed in over the coil, the PI circuit is completed, and a plasma is formed. Even at the less than optimal base-pressure in the chamber (approximately 5 × 10(exp -4) torr), the PI held-off the applied voltage, and only discharged upon command. For a capacitor charge of 2 kV the peak coil current is 4.1 kA, and during this pulse a very bright discharge (much brighter than from the PI alone) was observed (see Fig. 2). Interestingly, for discharges at this charge voltage the PI was not required as the current rise rate, dI/dt, of the coil itself was sufficient to ionize the gas.

  4. Free-Free Radiation in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheit, Jon; Daligault, Jerome; Murillo, Michael; Turner, Leaf

    2004-11-01

    In strongly coupled plasmas, the basic electron-ion collision events responsible for emission or absorption of free-free radiation are modified by interrelated collective effects: quasi-static ion correlations, dynamical electron correlations, and screened Coulombic interactions resulting from correlations between the positive and negative charged particle components of the plasma. We are investigating the relative importance of these different phenomena, within the context of the collision frequency formula of Boercker et al.[1] Our statistical model [2] describes the self-consistent fluctuations of a multi-component plasma, and includes quantal effects on the dynamics as well as strong coupling between species. We will present numerical results that identify plasma conditions for which strong coupling causes major changes to the electron-ion collision frequency. [1] D.B. Boercker, F.J. Rogers, H.E. DeWitt, Phys. Rev. A25, 1623 (1982). [2] J. Daligault and M.S. Murillo, Phys. Rev. E68, 015401 (2003).

  5. Integrated Plasma Simulation of Lower Hybrid Current Drive in Tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Harvey, R. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Berry, L. A.; Kessel, C. E.; Jardin, S. C.

    2012-03-01

    It has been shown in Alcator C-Mod that the onset time for sawteeth can be delayed significantly (up to 0.5 s) relative to ohmically heated plasmas, through the injection of off-axis LH current drive power [1]. We are simulating these experiments using the Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) [2], where the driven LH current density profiles are computed using a ray tracing component (GENRAY) and Fokker Planck code (CQL3D) [3] that are run in a tightly coupled time advance. The background plasma is evolved using the TSC transport code with the Porcelli sawtooth model [4]. Predictions of the driven LH current profiles will be compared with simpler ``reduced'' models for LHCD such as the LSC code which is implemented in TSC and which is also invoked within the IPS. [4pt] [1] C. E. Kessel et al, Bull. of the Am. Phys. Soc. 53, Poster PP6.00074 (2008). [0pt] [2] D. Batchelor et al, Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 125, 012039 (2008). [0pt] [3] R. W. Harvey and M. G. McCoy, Proc. of the IAEA Tech. Comm. Meeting on Simulation and Modeling of Therm. Plasmas, Montreal, Canada (1992). [0pt] [4] S. C. Jardin et al, J. Comp. Phys. 66, 481 (1986).

  6. Diversidad y abundancia relativa de corales, octocorales y esponjas en el Parque Nacional Jaragua, República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Weil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El Parque Nacional Jaragua está localizado en un área remota al SW de la República Dominicana. La actividad humana se limita a pesquerías y minería. Las principales formaciones arrecifales incluyen (a arrecifes de banco (montículo creciendo sobre la plataforma en bandas paralelas, separadas por canales de arena y en dirección SE - NW, entre 12 y 25 m de profundidad, (b arrecifes de franja profundos que se desarrollan en los bordes de la plataforma entre 10 y 45 m de profundidad, y (c parches arrecifales y comunidades coralinas con poca o ninguna estructura arrecifal en áreas cercanas a la costa y plataformas someras. Nueve localidades fueron muestreadas intensivamente entre Cabo Beata y Bahía Honda mediante buceo autónomo. Se nadó en un patrón de zig-zag (50 m a cada lado desde el fondo (30 m hasta la zona somera en los arrecifes frangeantes. Se uso el mismo patrón pero a lo largo (por 500 m cubriendo el ancho de las bandas en los arrecifes de montículo. Las abundancias relativas y la diversidad de corales escleractínidos, octocorales y esponjas se estimaron en estas bandas. Las esponjas presentaron la mayor diversidad con 83 especies en 50 géneros, seguidas por los corales escleractínidos con 56 especies en 26 géneros y los octocorales con 47 especies en 15 géneros. Nuevos registros para el área incluyen ocho especies de corales, 21 de octocorales y 59 de esponjas. La diversidad, abundancia y distribución de especies de cada grupo varió entre localidades. En general, las localidades del norte y la isla de Los Frailes mar afuera, mostraron las mayores diversidades y abundancias de los tres grupos. En general, el Parque Nacional Jaragua presenta las diversidades más altas de corales, octocorales y esponjas registradas para la República Dominicana y están entre las más diversas para el norte del Caribe. Se recomienda una protección integral del área que incluya una regulación substancial (o prohibición de las

  7. Finding the Elusive E ×B Staircase in Magnetized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.; Hornung, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Sarazin, Y.; Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Diamond, P. H.; Abiteboul, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ehrlacher, C.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Hennequin, P.; Kosuga, Y.; Latu, G.; Maget, P.; Morel, P.; Norscini, C.; Sabot, R.; Storelli, A.

    2015-02-01

    Turbulence in hot magnetized plasmas is shown to generate permeable localized transport barriers that globally organize into the so-called "ExB staircase" [G. Dif-Pradalier et al., Phys. Rev. E, 82, 025401(R) (2010)]. Its domain of existence and dependence with key plasma parameters is discussed theoretically. Based on these predictions, staircases are observed experimentally in the Tore Supra tokamak by means of high-resolution fast-sweeping X -mode reflectometry. This observation strongly emphasizes the critical role of mesoscale self-organization in plasma turbulence and may have far-reaching consequences for turbulent transport models and their validation.

  8. PREFACE: Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, E.; Dias, F. M.; Lebedev, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The Third International Workshop & Summer School on Plasma Physics (IWSSPP'08) organized by St Kliment Ohridsky University of Sofia, with co-organizers TCPA Foundation, Association EURATOM/IRNRE, The Union of the Physicists in Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences was held in Kiten, Bulgaria, at the Black Sea Coast, from 30 June to 5 July 2008. A Special Session on Plasmas for Environmental Issues was co-organised by the Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Lisbon, Portugal and the Laboratory of Plasmas and Energy Conversion, University of Toulouse, France. That puts the beginning of a series in Workshops on Plasmas for Environmental Issues, now as a satellite meeting of the European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics. As the previous issues of this scientific meeting (IWSSPP'05, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 44 (2006) and IWSSPP'06, J. Phys.: Conf. Series 63 (2007)), its aim was to stimulate the creation and support of a new generation of young scientists for further development of plasma physics fundamentals and applications, as well as to ensure an interdisciplinary exchange of views and initiate possible collaborations by bringing together scientists from various branches of plasma physics. This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series includes 38 papers (invited lectures, contributed talks and posters) devoted to various branches of plasma physics, among them fusion plasma and materials, dc and microwave discharge modelling, transport phenomena in gas discharge plasmas, plasma diagnostics, cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes, material processing, plasma-chemistry and technology. Some of them have been presented by internationally known and recognized specialists in their fields; others are MSc or PhD students' first steps in science. In both cases, we believe they will raise readers' interest. We would like to thank the members of both the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee, the

  9. Numerical modeling of deflagration mode in coaxial plasma guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed coaxial plasma guns have been used in several applications in the field of space propulsion, nuclear fusion and materials processing. These devices operate in two modes based on the delay between gas injection and breakdown initiation. Larger delay led to the plasma detonation mode where a compression wave in the form of a luminous front propagates from the breech to the muzzle. Shorter delay led to the more efficient deflagration mode characterized by a relatively diffuse plasma with higher resistivity. The overall physics of the discharge in the two modes of operation and in particular the latter remain relatively unexplored. Here we perform a computational modeling study by solving the non-ideal Magneto-hydrodynamics equations for the quasi-neutral plasma in the coaxial plasma gun. A finite volume formulation on an unstructured mesh framework with an implicit scheme is used to do stable computations. The final work will present details of important species in the plasma, particle energies and Mach number at the muzzle. A comparison of the plasma parameters will be made with the experiments reported in ref. [1]. [4pt] [1] F. R. Poehlmann et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 123508 (2010)

  10. Helical flow in RFX-mod tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piron, L.; Zaniol, B.; Bonfiglio, D.; Carraro, L.; Kirk, A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, R.; Piron, C.; Piovesan, P.; Zuin, M.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents the first evidence of helical flow in RFX-mod q(a)  Jardin et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 215001). Among them, the 3D fully non-linear PIXIE3D has been used to calculate synthetic flow measurements, using a 2D flow modelling code. Inputs to the code are the PIXIE3D flow maps, the ion emission profiles as calculated by a 1D collisional radiative impurity transport code (Carraro et al 2000 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 42 731) and a synthetic diagnostic with the same geometry installed in RFX-mod. Good agreement between the synthetic and the experimental flow behaviour has been obtained, confirming that the flow oscillations observed with the associated convective cells are a signature of helical flow.

  11. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  12. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    velocity can have important implications in cancer treatment by localizing the affected area of the tissue and by decreasing metastasic development. In addition, cold plasma treatment has affected the cell cycle of cancer cells. In particular, cold plasma induces a 2-fold increase in cells at the G2/M-checkpoint in both papilloma and carcinoma cells at about 24 hours after treatment, while normal epithelial cells (WTK) did not show significant differences. It was shown that reactive oxygen species metabolism and oxidative stress responsive genes are deregulated. We investigated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with cold plasma treatment as a potential mechanism for the tumor ablation observed. [4pt] [1] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Dogariu A., Miles R.B. and Keidar M. Appl. Phys. Lett. (2010) 96, 171502.[0pt] [2] Shashurin A., Shneider M.N., Keidar M. Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 (2012) 034006.[0pt] [3]. M. Keidar, R. Walk, A. Shashurin, P. Srinivasan, A. Sandler, S. Dasgupta , R. Ravi, R. Guerrero-Preston, B. Trink, British Journal of Cancer, 105, 1295-1301, 2011

  13. Collisional damping rates for plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic ("Spitzer") formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  14. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  15. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  16. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  17. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhir, Dass, E-mail: dass.sudhir@iter-india.org; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29 GIDC, Sec-25, Gandhinagar, 382016 Gujarat (India)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  18. Physics-electrical hybrid model for real time impedance matching and remote plasma characterization in RF plasma sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhir, Dass; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2016-02-01

    Plasma characterization and impedance matching are an integral part of any radio frequency (RF) based plasma source. In long pulse operation, particularly in high power operation where plasma load may vary due to different reasons (e.g. pressure and power), online tuning of impedance matching circuit and remote plasma density estimation are very useful. In some cases, due to remote interfaces, radio activation and, due to maintenance issues, power probes are not allowed to be incorporated in the ion source design for plasma characterization. Therefore, for characterization and impedance matching, more remote schemes are envisaged. Two such schemes by the same authors are suggested in these regards, which are based on air core transformer model of inductive coupled plasma (ICP) [M. Bandyopadhyay et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 033017 (2015); D. Sudhir et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 013510 (2014)]. However, the influence of the RF field interaction with the plasma to determine its impedance, a physics code HELIC [D. Arnush, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3042 (2000)] is coupled with the transformer model. This model can be useful for both types of RF sources, i.e., ICP and helicon sources.

  19. El Caribe colombiano en la república andina : identidad y autonomía política en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Múnera

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available En medio del humo de los cañones de las últimas batallas por la independencia, la historia nacional de la actual República de Colombia empezó a ser escrita. En 1827 José Manuel Restrepo publicó en París la primera parte, en seis volúmenes, de su soberbio trabajo sobre las luchas por la independencia de los estados de Venezuela, Ecuador y Colombia. Restrepo reconstruyó, detalle por detalle, una monumental cronología de todos aquellos eventos considerados por él como significativos en la guerra contra España. Propietario de documentos originales y un observador excepcional, en su calidad de miembro de la elite política criolla, el historiador Restrepo no se limitó a una simple descripción de los hechos. Por el contrario, en su Historia de la revolución de La República de Colombia creó los mitos fundacionales de la nación. Siglo y medio después, los más importantes de ellos continúan vigentes.

  20. El comienzo de la rivalidad internacional y de la injerencia española en la República Dominicana (1855-1856

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escolano Giménez, Luis Alfonso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the complex situation that the Dominican Republic experienced, resulting from the threat of Haiti, which once again invaded the Dominican Republic in 1855, as well as other more subtle interferences made by Great Britain, France, Spain and the United States. Diplomatic documentation of these two countries, along with bibliographic sources, have been used to investigate the beginning of foreign intervention in the Dominican Republic. The study of this process leads to the conclusion that the interference in Dominican politics by the First Consul of Spain in Santo Domingo helped accentuate Spanish-American rivalry.Esta investigación aborda la compleja coyuntura atravesada por la República Dominicana, como consecuencia de la amenaza de Haití, que invadió de nuevo el territorio dominicano en 1855, y de otras injerencias, si bien más sutiles, por parte de Gran Bretaña, Francia, España y Estados Unidos. Para indagar en el inicio del intervencionismo en la República Dominicana se ha utilizado documentación diplomática española y norteamericana, así como fuentes bibliográficas. El estudio de este proceso permite concluir que la injerencia en la política dominicana por parte del primer cónsul de España en Santo Domingo acentuó la rivalidad hispanoestadounidense.

  1. [The experience of implementation of REP-u RAPD-polymerase chain reaction in epidemiologic characteristic of nosocomial isolates Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, M V; Maksimova, A V; Karpunina, T I

    2015-03-01

    The article presents comparative evaluation of diagnostic value of technique REP- u RAPD-polymerase chain reaction applied under genetic typing of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa. The strains are isolated in different hospital departments of medical institutions in adult (8 medical institutions; n = 145) and children (5 medical institutions; n = 151) medical networks. The results of study demonstrated different boundary capacity of three reactions. The Simpson discrimination index made up to 0.993, 0.875 and 0.639 for RAPD-, ERIC- and BOX-polymerase chain reaction correspondingly. The RAPD-polymerase chain reaction makes it possible to detect individual characteristics of strains. Out of two alternatives the REP-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated its advantage, besides only with one primer ERIC2. The BOX-polymerase chain reaction has a least discriminating capacity under typing of isolates P. aeruginosa, detecting only species' characteristics. The clinical strains P. aeruginosa are distributed on 24 genome groups and 52 isolates had individual genotypes. The evaluation of results of genetic typing permitted to point out both similarity of tendencies in propagation of strains of P. aeruginosa among hospitalized adults and adolescents and specificity of detection in neonatal clinics. It is obvious that hospitals of different profiles, including departments of reanimation and intensive therapy represent specific ecological environment significantly different in its level of endogenous and exogenous infection.

  2. Las enseñanzas de sordomudos durante la II República Española. Una perspectiva histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo ALCINA MADUEÑO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Las enseñanzas de sordomudos en el periodo de la II República española es un tema poco estudiado e inédito en determinados aspectos. Se puede decir que participa de las características de la educación general de dicha etapa: esfuerzo económico y presupuestario de los gobiernos, renovación metodológica, modernización del sistema, ampliación de la red escolar, formación del magisterio, etc., si bien presenta una idiosincrasia muy marcada e incluso contradictoria, no solo por la conocida contraposición de los gobiernos de un bienio y otro (31/33 y 34/35, sino también por las decisiones de política educativa que se toman por los mismos gobiernos de la coalición republicano-socialista. El legado de la aportación republicana es más documental que de realizaciones concretas, y tendrá mayor aplicación en el régimen político que aniquila y sucede a la República que en ella misma. La consideración de fuentes primarias (legales y documentales fundamentan principalmente las conclusiones de esta exposición.

  3. Effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuri, Deepshikha; Hazarika, Pragati; Singh, Tarun Pal; Chhangte, Lalchamliani; Singh, Parminder; Talukder, Suman

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted for the development of ready-to-eat Vawksa rep (smoked pork product) and to study the synergistic effect of curing ingredients and vacuum packaging on the physico-chemical and storage quality during refrigerated storage at (4°C±1°C) for 15 days. Four different batches of Vawksa rep samples were prepared, i.e., T-1 (uncured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), T-2 (uncured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min), T-3 (cured, first cooked at 121°C for 15 min, and then smoked at 120°C for 30 min), and T-4 (cured, cooked, and smoked simultaneously at 120°C for 45 min). Cooking yield was significantly higher (pproduct) could be prepared easily with little technology up-gradation and with a negligible escalation of production cost.

  4. ERIC and REP-PCR banding patterns and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA of Stemphylium solani isolates from cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Yeshwant R; Mehta, Angela; Rosato, Yoko B

    2002-05-01

    The genetic diversity of the Stemphylium solani isolates from cotton was assessed by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromes (REP)-PCR fingerprinting. Twenty eight monosporic isolates of S. solani from cotton were used along with five isolates from tomato and one isolate of Alternaria macrospora from cotton for comparison. The dendrogram obtained revealed clear differences between the cotton and tomato isolates as well as between the tomato isolates from different geographic regions. The genetic relationships among S. solani isolates were also analyzed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of four isolates representing the three ERIC and REP groups. The tomato isolate from the State of São Paulo showed a distinct ITS sequence from that of the cotton isolates and tomato isolate from the State of Goiás, giving evidence that it belongs to a different genotype of S. solani. This is the first report of the entire sequence of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of S. solani.

  5. Hombres de letras en la provincia. Producción y comercio de libros en la República de Colombia, 1821-1874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Acevedo P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Han sido pocos los estudios en la historiografía nacional sobre el proceso de producción y comercialización de libros en la República de Colombia durante el siglo xix. A partir del análisis de las actividades de los impresores, los escritores de textos, los comerciantes y las autoridades políticas en Cartagena, en este artículo se demostrará que la difusión de las letras en la sociedad republicana estuvo sujeta a la dinámica de impresión y comercialización de obras de educación impulsada por los hombres de letras desde las provincias. Esta dinámica se constituyó en la base inicial de la formación de un pequeño mercado editorial en la República y fue posible gracias a los usos de la libertad de imprenta, las demandas de la alfabetización y las negociaciones de los autores con los gobiernos locales y nacionales. Se busca así contribuir al análisis de un problema sobre el que existen escasos trabajos en el contexto regional colombiano.

  6. The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Keith E; Kwong, Stephen M; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

    2009-03-01

    The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families.

  7. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  8. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  9. La cartografía colonial española durante la Segunda República (1931-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urteaga, Luis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Second Republic set aside a big amount of resources, both human and economic, to survey the colonies. The consecutive republican governments kept a strong continuity on the schemes for colonial cartography, with no significant changes over the plans established in past periods. Cartographic work was focused in Morocco’s territory, and was carry out by a military unit named Comisión Geográfíca de Marruecos y Límites (Morocco’s Geographical Commission. This paper, built on primary sources, examines the institutional framework of Spanish colonial cartography during the republican period, identifies the leading mapmakers, and discusses the main cartographic surveys.

    La Segunda República dedicó cuantiosos recursos, económicos y humanos, a la cartografía de las posesiones coloniales. Los sucesivos gobiernos republicanos mantuvieron una fuerte continuidad, organizativa y funcional, en el ámbito de la cartografía colonial, sin que se detecte ningún cambio significativo respecto a los planes trazados en etapas anteriores. La actividad cartográfica continuó centrada en el territorio de Marruecos, y fue protagonizada por una unidad dependiente del Ministerio de la Guerra, la Comisión Geográfica de Marruecos y Límites. En este trabajo, que se apoya en fuentes primarias, se ofrece una descripción del marco institucional de la cartografía colonial durante el período republicano, se identifica a sus artífices, y se da cuenta de los levantamientos cartográficos realizados. [fr] La Deuxième République a consacré nombreux ressources, économiques et humains, à la cartographie des possessions coloniales. Les successifs gouvernements républicains ont tenu une forte continuité, d’organisation et fonctionnelle, dans le domaine de la cartographie coloniale, sans qu’on ne puisse détecter aucun changement significatif en relation aux plans tracés en étapes antérieures. L’activité cartographique a continu

  10. Realidad de la cirugía cardíaca en la República Argentina. Registro CONAREC XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Lowenstein Haber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENIntroducciónLos dos grandes registros multicéntricos de cirugía cardíaca realizados en la Argentina,CONAREC y ESMUCICA, datan de más de 10 años. Considerando los avances médicosy quirúrgicos de la última década, surgió la necesidad de realizar un nuevo registronacional, prospectivo y multicéntrico para conocer las características, la evolución, lascomplicaciones y los predictores de mortalidad de los pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca.ObjetivosConocer el perfil epidemiológico, la modalidad quirúrgica y la evolución posoperatoria de lospacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca en la Argentina.Material y métodosRegistro prospectivo, consecutivo y multicéntrico realizado en 49 centros cardioquirúrgicosde la República Argentina por residentes de cardiología. Se analizaron las características yla evolución de 2.553 pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardíaca entre septiembre de 2007 yoctubre de 2008: 1.465 (57,4% a cirugía coronaria, 359 (14,1% a reemplazo valvular aórtico,169 (6,6% a cirugía valvular mitral, 312 (12,2% a cirugía combinada coronariovalvular y248 (9,7% a otros procedimientos.ResultadosHubo predominio de hombres (74,9%; la edad promedio fue de 63 ± 11 años. La prevalenciade diabetes fue del 24,9%, la de hipertensión del 76,3% y la de insuficiencia cardíaca del17%. La disfunción ventricular moderada a grave prequirúrgica fue del 23,8% y el 19,8% delas cirugías fueron no programadas.En las cirugías coronarias, el 41,9% de ellas se realizaron sin circulación extracorpórea y seempleó puente mamario en el 89%.El 81,7% de las cirugías mitrales se indicaron por insuficiencia y el 62,6% de las aórticas,por estenosis. En estas cirugías se emplearon válvulas mecánicas en el 58% de los casos.La mediana de internación fue de 6 días. Se presentaron complicaciones mayores en el31,7% (del 25% en coronarios al 49,36% en combinados y la mortalidad global fue del 7,7%(del 4,3% en coronarios al 13

  11. Electromagnetic thin-wall model for simulations of plasma wall-touching kink and vertical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Atanasiu, Calin V.; Lackner, Karl; Hoelzl, Matthias; Strumberger, Erika

    2015-12-01

    > The understanding of plasma disruptions in tokamaks and predictions of their effects require realistic simulations of electric current excitation in three-dimensional vessel structures by the plasma touching the walls. As discovered at JET in 1996 (Litunovski JET Internal Report contract no. JQ5/11961, 1995; Noll et al., Proceedings of the 19th Symposium on Fusion Technology, Lisbon (ed. C. Varandas & F. Serra), vol. 1, 1996, p. 751. Elsevier) the wall-touching kink modes are frequently excited during vertical displacement events and cause large sideways forces on the vacuum vessel which are difficult to withstand in large tokamaks. In disruptions, the sharing of electric current between the plasma and the wall plays an important role in plasma dynamics and determines the amplitude and localization of the sideways force (Riccardo et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 40, 2000, p. 1805; Riccardo & Walker, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion, vol. 42, 2000, p. 29; Zakharov, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 15, 2008, 062507; Riccardo et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 49, 2009, 055012; Bachmann et al., Fusion Engng Des., vol. 86, 2011, pp. 1915-1919). This paper describes a flat triangle representation of the electric circuits of a thin conducting wall of arbitrary three-dimensional geometry. Implemented into the shell simulation code (SHL) and the source sink current code (SSC), this model is suitable for modelling the electric currents excited in the wall inductively and through current sharing with the plasma.

  12. Plasma-Wall Interaction and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2005-10-01

    Existing Hall thruster models predict that secondary electron emission from the channel walls is significant and that the near-wall sheaths are space charge saturated. The plasma-wall interaction and its dependence on the discharge voltage and channel width were studied through the measurements of the electron temperature, plasma potential, and plasma density in a 2 kW Hall thruster [1,2]. The experimental electron-wall collision frequency is computed using the measured plasma parameters. For high discharge voltages, the deduced electron-wall collision frequency is much lower than the theoretical value obtained for the space charge saturated sheath regime, but larger than the wall recombination frequency. The observed electron temperature saturation appears to be directly associated with a decrease of the Joule heating, rather than with the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission. The channel width is shown to have a more significant effect on the axial distribution of the plasma potential than the discharge voltage. 1. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, M. Keidar, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 057104 (2005). 2. Y. Raitses, D. Staack, A. Smirnov, and N.J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 12, 073507 (2005).

  13. Development of a plasma pinch photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, John F.

    The need in advanced Linacs is for a high-performance (emittance, current, and life) cathode that will not poison in the only moderately good vacuums of such systems. Our approach embodies the durability of an unsensitized metal photocathode that is illuminated by a high-Z, high-density plasma pinch formed from a liquid-jet source in vacuum. The principal advantage of this pinch over a laser is both its simplicity and its ability to efficiently produce high-power vacuum ultraviolet radiation. The laser-guided gas-embedded pinch vacuum-ultraviolet source has been converted to a liquid-jet configuration in vacuum. This was undertaken for several reasons. First, the necessity of interposed high-density background gas is avoided. Second, a channel-forming guide laser beam is no longer needed. Finally, a wide variety of high-Z low cost substances are available in liquid form. For these reasons the liquid-jet approach makes sense for a rep-rate version of the pinch illuminator. Background gas absorption of hard UV is lessened. A large gas-transport system is not needed. Radiation output may be optimized through selection of the liquid's vapor pressure, surface tension, density, and composition.

  14. Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kählert, H

    2010-01-01

    The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically and expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is found that the mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter $\\xi=\\kappa R$, where $R$ is the plasma radius and $\\kappa$ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with $\\xi$ and saturate in the limit $\\xi\\to\\infty$. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit~[D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{66}, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number $n$ which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. These modes originate from the degenerate bulk modes of the Coulomb system. Analytical formulas for the eigenfrequencies are derived for limiting cases.

  15. Axisymmetric equilibria of a gravitating plasma with incompressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Throumoulopoulos, G N

    2001-01-01

    It is found that the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of an axisymmetric gravitating magnetically confined plasma with incompressible flows is governed by a second-order elliptic differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function containing five flux functions coupled with a Poisson equation for the gravitation potential, and an algebraic relation for the pressure. This set of equations is amenable to analytic solutions. As an application, the magnetic-dipole static axisymmetric equilibria with vanishing poloidal plasma currents derived recently by Krasheninnikov, Catto, and Hazeltine [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 82}, 2689 (1999)] are extended to plasmas with finite poloidal currents, subject to gravitating forces from a massive body (a star or black hole) and inertial forces due to incompressible sheared flows. Explicit solutions are obtained in two regimes: (a) in the low-energy regime $\\beta_0\\approx \\gamma_0\\approx \\delta_0 \\approx\\epsilon_0\\ll 1$, where $\\beta_0$, $\\gamma_0$, $\\delta_0$, and $\\...

  16. Analysis of stable resistive wall modes in a rotating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, A. M.; Jensen, T. H.; Strait, E. J.

    2003-12-01

    Measurements of the resistive wall mode (RWM) response to external resonant field pulses yield complete knowledge of the mode characteristics in the parameter range explored. An ideal magnetohydrodynamics model [Garofalo et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 4573 (2002)] has been generalized to include the effects of plasma rotation and dissipation, and the new model is found to explain quantitatively the experimental observations. Rotation of the RWM with respect to the wall is often described as an essential feature of the mechanism by which plasma rotation stabilizes the RWM. This interpretation of the rotational stabilization of the RWM appears inconsistent with the measurements from recent DIII-D [Luxon and Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] experiments. It is found that the theoretically predicted mode rotation with respect to the wall is not needed for stabilization and is only a consequence of torque balance in the absence of magnetic-field nonaxisymmetries.

  17. Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically in terms of hypergeometric functions. The mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter ξ=κR, where R is the plasma radius and κ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with ξ and saturate in the limit ξ->∞. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number n which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. We compare the fluid modes with molecular dynamics simulations and find good agreement for low order modes and weak to moderate screening.

  18. Nonlinear magnetic field transport in opening switch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Auer, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.; Oliver, B. V.; Seyler, C. E.; Greenly, J. B.

    1993-04-01

    The nonlinear transport of magnetic field in collisionless plasmas, as present in the plasma opening switch (POS), using the implicit multifluid simulation code anthem [J. Comput. Phys. 71, 429 (1987)] is studied. The focus is on early time behavior in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) limit, with the ions fixed, and the electrons streaming as a fluid under the influence of ve×B Hall forces. Through simulation, magnetic penetration and magnetic exclusion waves are characterized, due to the Hall effect in the presence of transverse density gradients, and the interaction of these Hall waves with nonlinear diffusive disturbances from electron velocity advection, (veṡ∇)ve, is studied. It is shown how these mechanisms give rise to the anode magnetic insulation layer, central diffusion, and cathode potential hill structures seen in earlier opening switch plasmas studies.

  19. Screened Coulomb potential in a flowing magnetized plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Joost, Jan-Philip; Kählert, Hanno; Arran, Christopher; Bonitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic potential of a moving dust grain in a complex plasma with magnetized ions is computed using linear response theory, thereby extending our previous work for unmagnetized plasmas [P. Ludwig et al., New J. Phys. 14, 053016 (2012)]. In addition to the magnetic field, our approach accounts for a finite ion temperature as well as ion-neutral collisions. Our recently introduced code \\texttt{Kielstream} is used for an efficient calculation of the dust potential. Increasing the magnetization of the ions, we find that the shape of the potential crucially depends on the Mach number $M$. In the regime of subsonic ion flow ($M1$ the magnetic field effectively suppresses the plasma wakefield.

  20. Fusion plasma experiments on TFTR: A 20 year retrospective*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Batha, S.; Blanchard, W.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Bretz, N. L; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Callen, J.; Camp, R.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C. Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Dendy, R. O.; Dorland, W.; Duong, H.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Fisch, N. J.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Hanson, G. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, J.; Hosea, J. C.; Houlberg, W. A.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R. A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kim, J. S.; Kissick, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kugel, H.; Kumar, A.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Ludescher, C.; Majeski, R. P.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Mazzucato, E.; McChesney, J.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Petrov, M. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, M.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Rewoldt, G.; Reznik, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rogers, J.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Skinner, C. H.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M. E.; Von Goeler, S.; Von Halle, A.; Walters, R. T.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yavorski, V.; Young, K. M.; Zakharov, L.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) (R. J. Hawryluk, to be published in Rev. Mod. Phys.) experiments on high-temperature plasmas, that culminated in the study of deuterium–tritium D–T plasmas containing significant populations of energetic alpha particles, spanned over two decades from conception to completion. During the design of TFTR, the key physics issues were magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, plasma energy transport, impurity effects, and plasma reactivity. Energetic particle physics was given less attention during this phase because, in part, of the necessity to address the issues that would create the conditions for the study of energetic particles and also the lack of diagnostics to study the energetic particles in detail. The worldwide tokamak program including the contributions from TFTR made substantial progress during the past two decades in addressing the fundamental issues affecting the performance of high-temperature plasmas and the behavior of energetic particles. The progress has been the result of the construction of new facilities, which enabled the production of high-temperature well-confined plasmas, development of sophisticated diagnostic techniques to study both the background plasma and the resulting energetic fusion products, and computational techniques to both interpret the experimental results and to predict the outcome of experiments. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.