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Sample records for plasma phospholipid eicosapentaenoic

  1. Wheat aleurone polyphenols increase plasma eicosapentaenoic acid in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Ounnas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: These studies were designed to assess whether wheat polyphenols (mainly ferulic acid [FA] increased the very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (VLC n-3 [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA] in rats. Wheat aleurone (WA was used as a dietary source of wheat polyphenols. Two experiments were performed; in the first one, the rats were fed WA or control pellets (CP in presence of linseed oil (LO to provide alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor of VLC n-3. In the second one, the rats were fed WA or CP in presence of control oil (CO without ALA. The concentrations of phenolic acid metabolites in urine were also investigated. Results: The urinary concentration of conjugated FA increased with WA ingestion (p<0.05. Plasma EPA increased by 25% (p<0.05 with WA in the CO group but not in the LO group. In contrast, there was no effect of WA on plasma DHA and omega-6 fatty acids (n-6. Finally, both n-3 and n-6 in the liver remained unchanged by the WA. Conclusion: These results suggest that WA consumption has a significant effect on EPA in plasma without affecting n-6. Subsequent studies are required to examine whether these effects may explain partly the health benefits associated with whole wheat consumption.

  2. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A; Rønningen, Kjersti S; Bøås, Håkon; Tapia, German; Andersen, Lene F

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort 'Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study'. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001-2007. One hundred and ten (age 3-10 years) children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29), total fat dairy products (r=0.39), and cheese products (r=0.36). EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively) and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA). To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a high-fat content and cod liver/fish oil supplements.

  3. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  4. [Plasma lipoproteins as drug carriers. Effect of phospholipid formulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkhovskaia, T I; Ipatova, O M; Medvedeva, N V; Ivanov, V S; Ivanova, L I

    2010-01-01

    The extensive development of nanotechnologies in the last two decades has brought about new understanding of plasma lipoproteins (LP) as natural drug nanocarriers that escape interaction with immune and reticuloendothelial systems. Drugs bound to LP (especially LDL) can more actively penetrate into cells of many cancer and inflammation tissues with enhanced expression or/and dysregulation of B,E receptors or possibly scavenger SR-BI receptors. Relevant studies are focused on the development of new dosage forms by conjugating lipophilic drugs either with isolated plasma LP or with their model formulations, such as nanoemulsions, mimetics, lipid nanospheres, etc. Some authors include in these particles serum or recombinant apoproteins, peptides, and modified polymer products. As shown recently, protein-free lipid nanoemulsions in plasma take up free apoA and apoE. Complexes with various LP also form after direct administration of lypophilic drugs into blood especially those enclosed in phospholipid formulations, e.g. liposomes. Results of evaluation of some lipophilic dugs (mainly cytostatics, amphotericin B, cyclosporine A, etc.) are discussed. Original data are presented on the influence of phospholipid formulations on the distribution of doxorubicin and indomethacin between LP classes after in vitro incubation in plasma. On the whole, the review illustrates the importance of research on LP and phospholi pid forms as drug nanocarriers to be used to enhance effect of therapy.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid or gamma-linolenic acid on neutrophil phospholipid fatty acid composition and activation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, M P; Ziboh, V A

    1990-10-01

    Previous data that alimentation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:n-3) or vegetable oil rich in gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6) can reduce symptoms of inflammatory skin disorders lead us to determine the effects of dietary supplements of oils rich in EPA or GLA on guinea pig (GP) neutrophil (PMN) membrane potential (delta gamma), secretion, and superoxide (O2-) responses. Weanling GPs were initially fed diets supplemented with olive oil (less than 0.1% EPA; less than 0.1% GLA) for 2 weeks, followed by a crossover by two sets of animals to diets supplemented with fish oil (19% EPA) or borage oil (25% GLA). At 4-week intervals, 12% sterile casein-elicited peritoneal neutrophils (PMN) were assessed for membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) profiles and FMLP-, LTB4-, and PMA-stimulated delta gamma changes, changes in flow cytometrically measured forward scatter (FWD-SC) (shape change), 90 degrees scatter (90 degrees -SC) in cytochalasin B-pretreated-PMN (secretion response), and superoxide responses, GP incorporated EPA and GLA (as the elongation product, dihomo-GLA or DGLA) into their PMN phospholipids by 4 weeks. The peritoneal PMN of all groups demonstrated broad resting FWD-SC and poor activation-related FWD-SC increases, suggesting in vivo activation. While secretion was comparable in the three groups in response to FMLP, there was a trend toward inhibition of LTB4-stimulated 90 degrees -SC loss in both fish and borage oil groups. This was significant only with borage oil (21.7 +/- 2.1 vs 15.3 +/- 1.2% loss of baseline 90 degrees -SC, olive vs borage: P = 0.03). PMN from borage- and fish oil-fed GPs showed a progressively lower O2- response to FMLP than the olive oil group (73.9 +/- 3.9 and 42.9 +/- 6.8% of olive oil response for borage and fish oils, respectively; P less than 0.005 and P less than 0.01, respectively, at 12 weeks), while PMA-stimulated O2- was inhibited only in the fish oil-fed group and only at 12 weeks (62.0 +/- 2

  6. Efficient discrimination and removal of phospholipids during electromembrane extraction from human plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Gjelstad, Astrid; Huang, Chuixiu

    2017-01-01

    to be highly efficient for providing phospholipid-free extracts. CONCLUSION: Ultra-HPLC-MS/MS analysis of the donor solutions revealed that the phospholipids principally remained in the plasma samples. This proved that the phospholipids did not migrate in the electrical field and they were prevented from......AIM: For the first time, extracts obtained from human plasma samples by electromembrane extraction (EME) were investigated comprehensively with particular respect to phospholipids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Thhe purpose...

  7. Phospholipid transfer from vesicles to high density lipoproteins, catalyzed by human plasma phospholipid transfer protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeny, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) catalyzes the mass transfer of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Partial purification of PLTP yielded proteins with apparent M/sub r/ = 59,000 and 40,000 by SDS-PAGE. PLTP activity was measured by transfer of [ 14 C]L-α-dipalmitoyl PC from egg-PC vesicles to HDL. Activity was enhanced at low pH (4.5) upon addition of β-mercaptoethanol while Ca +2 and Na + had no effect. E/sub act/ for facilitated PC transfer was 18.2 +/- 2 kcal/mol. The donor specificity of PLTP was examined using vesicles containing egg-PC plus cholesterol or sphingomyelin. The fluidity of the donor membrane (measured by fluorescence polarization of diphenylhexatriene) correlated strongly with a decrease in PLTP activity. Phosphatidic acid did not affect activity. Increase in vesicle size reduced activity. The acceptor specificity of PLTP was examined using chemically modified HDL. PLTP activity increased up to 1.7-fold with an initial increase in negative charge and then decreased upon extensive modification. A mechanism is proposed where PLTP binds to vesicls and enhances the diffusion of PC into the medium where it is adsorbed by HDL

  8. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  9. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  10. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

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    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  12. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic...

  13. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Hutchins Heather L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype. Methods Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted dependent on the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA to EPA in the isolated plasma phospholipids at four weeks to reach a level normally found in the Japanese population. Results At the end of the eight-week study, supplementation resulted in significant increases in EPA and DHA, as well as a significant reduction in the AA:EPA ratio (20.78 ± 5.26 to 5.95 ± 7.35, p Conclusion The findings of this small pilot study suggest supplementation with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates may improve behavior in children with ADHD.

  14. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  15. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  16. Insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, K L; Kiechle, F L; Jarett, L

    1984-01-01

    Partially purified plasma membranes prepared from rat adipocytes contain N-methyltransferase(s) that utilize(s) S-adenosyl-L-methionine to synthesize phosphatidylcholine from phosphatidylethanolamine. The incorporation of [3H]methyl from S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine into plasma membrane phospholipids was linear with incubation time and plasma membrane protein concentration and was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and 3-deazadenosine. The addition of...

  17. Relationship between the concentrations of plasma phospholipid stearic acid and plasma lipoprotein lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the plasma phospholipid (PL) saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (as a surrogate marker of SFA intake) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in 139 healthy Australian men aged 20-55 years old with widely varying intakes of saturated fat (vegans, n=18; ovolacto vegetarians, n=43; moderate meat eaters, n=60; high meat eaters, n=18). Both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups demonstrated significant decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol concentrations compared with both the high-meat-eater and moderate-meat-eater groups. Total SFA and individual SFA [palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and arachidic acid (20:0)] in the plasma PL were significantly lower in both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups than in both the high- and moderate-meat-eater groups, while myristic acid (14:0) was significantly lower in the vegans than in the high-meat-eaters. Bivariate analysis of the results showed that the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (P<0.0001), with r(2) values of 0.655, 0.518 and 0.43 respectively. In multiple linear regression, after controlling for potential confounding factors (such as exercise, dietary group, age, body mass index, plasma PL myristic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate and fibre intake), the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was still strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P=0.006) concentrations. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for the population to reduce their dietary total SFA intake rather than to replace other SFA with stearic acid.

  18. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  19. Perforin rapidly induces plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop.

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    Sunil S Metkar

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for host defense. This pathway is fundamentally a form of intracellular protein delivery where granule proteases (granzymes from cytotoxic lymphocytes are thought to diffuse through barrel stave pores generated in the plasma membrane of the target cell by the pore forming protein perforin (PFN and mediate apoptotic as well as additional biological effects. While recent electron microscopy and structural analyses indicate that recombinant PFN oligomerizes to form pores containing 20 monomers (20 nm when applied to liposomal membranes, these pores are not observed by propidium iodide uptake in target cells. Instead, concentrations of human PFN that encourage granzyme-mediated apoptosis are associated with pore structures that unexpectedly favor phosphatidylserine flip-flop measured by Annexin-V and Lactadherin. Efforts that reduce PFN mediated Ca influx in targets did not reduce Annexin-V reactivity. Antigen specific mouse CD8 cells initiate a similar rapid flip-flop in target cells. A lipid that augments plasma membrane curvature as well as cholesterol depletion in target cells enhance flip-flop. Annexin-V staining highly correlated with apoptosis after Granzyme B (GzmB treatment. We propose the structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and that these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid and PFN oligomers that may act as a flexible gateway for GzmB to translocate across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of target cells.

  20. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  1. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine; Halvorsen, Trine Grønhaug; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-09-10

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solvent used as supported liquid membranes (SLMs), and into 50μL aqueous acceptor solutions. The acceptor solutions were subsequently analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using in-source fragmentation and monitoring the m/z 184→184 transition for investigation of phosphatidylcholines (PC), sphingomyelins (SM), and lysophosphatidylcholines (Lyso-PC). In both generic methods, no phospholipids were detected in the acceptor solutions. Thus, PALME appeared to be highly efficient for phospholipid removal. To further support this, qualitative (post-column infusion) and quantitative matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface plasmon resonance investigation of optical detection in plasma-modified phospholipid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungchoo; Cho, Chanyoun; Choi, Kyoungho; Jeon, Honggoo

    2012-01-01

    We herein report on a study of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in thin gold (Au) films coated with thin layers of phospholipid material, which had been exposed to an atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma containing both pure Ar and Ar mixed with O 2 (Ar/O 2 , 0.8%). The phospholipid material that we used for the SPR experiments was lecithin, and the AP plasma system was applied in air by means of a radio-frequency (RF) plasma generator. A thin (∼60 nm) film of Au and a thin (∼15 nm) layer of lecithin were deposited and attached to the face of a prism, and surface plasmon modes were excited along the interfaces of the prism-Au-lecithin-air system by means of prism coupling using a He-Ne Laser (632.8 nm). The experimental SPR reflectance curves of the Au-lecithin-air modes were found to be shifted towards those of the Au-air mode with increasing applications of AP RF plasma treatment. From the shifts in the SPR curves, we found that the estimated thickness of the lecithin layer treated with a pure Ar plasma showed a linear decrease with etching rate of about 3 nm per treatment while the thickness of the lecithin layer treated with a mixed Ar/O 2 plasma showed a tendency to saturate following a large initial decrease (ca. 14 nm). All these results demonstrate that the use of SPR sensing could facilitate the detection of extremely small variations in plasma-treated films of biomaterials.

  3. LC-MS/MS determination of tranexamic acid in human plasma after phospholipid clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabresse, Nicolas; Fall, Fanta; Etting, Isabelle; Devillier, Philippe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas

    2017-07-15

    Tranexamic acid is a widely used antifibrinolytic drug but its pharmacology and pharmacokinetics remains poorly understood. Owing to the recent knowledge on phospholipid-induced matrix effects during human plasma analysis, our aim was to develop a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of tranexamic acid after efficient sample clean-up. Sample preparation consisted in phospholipid removal and protein precipitation. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was used and the detection was achieved with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was validated according to the European Medicine Agency guideline in the range 1.0-1000.0μg/mL. The performance of the method was excellent with a precision in the range 1.2-3.0%, an accuracy between 88.4 and 96.6% and a coefficient of variation of the internal standard-normalized matrix factor below 6.7%. This method is suitable for the quantification of tranexamic acid in the wide range of concentrations observed during clinical studies, with all the advantages related to phospholipid removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins. A 31P NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, D.B.; Chana, R.S.; Parmar, Y.I.; Treleaven, W.D.; Cushley, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins have been studied by using 31 P NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients, D T , obtained from the viscosity dependence of the 31 P NMR line widths, were obtained for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 2 , HDL 3 ), and egg PC/TO microemulsions at 25 degree C, for VLDL at 40 degree C, and for LDL at 45 degree C. In order to prove the orientation and/or order of the phospholipid head-group, estimates of the residual chemical shift anistropy, Δσ, have been obtained for all the lipoproteins and the microemulsions from the viscosity and field dependence for the 31 P NMR line widths. These results suggest differences in the orientation and/or ordering of the head-group in the HDLs. The dynamic behavior of the phosphate moiety in LDL and HDL 3 has been obtained from the temperature dependence of the 31 P spin-lattice relaxation rates. Values of the correlation time for phosphate group reorientation and the activation energy for the motion are nearly identical in LDL and HDL 3 and are similar to values obtained for phospholipid bilayers. This argues against long-lived protein-lipid interactions being the source of either the slow diffusion in LDL or the altered head-group orientation in the HDLs

  5. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  6. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  7. Whole-body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics from plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in the free-living rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    Whole body docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) synthesis from α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) is considered to be very low, however, the daily synthesis-secretion of DHA may be sufficient to supply the adult brain. The current study aims to assess whether whole body DHA synthesis-secretion kinetics are different when comparing plasma ALA versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) as the precursor. Male Long Evans rats (n=6) were fed a 2% ALA in total fat diet for eight weeks, followed by surgery to implant a catheter into each of the jugular vein and carotid artery and 3h of steady-state infusion with a known amount of (2)H-ALA and (13)C-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n3). Blood samples were collected at thirty-minute intervals and plasma enrichment of (2)H- and (13)C EPA, n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-3, 22:5n-3) and DHA were determined for assessment of synthesis-secretion kinetic parameters. Results indicate a 13-fold higher synthesis-secretion coefficient for DHA from EPA as compared to ALA. However, after correcting for the 6.6 fold higher endogenous plasma ALA concentration, no significant differences in daily synthesis-secretion (nmol/day) of DHA (97.6±28.2 and 172±62), DPAn-3 (853±279 and 1139±484) or EPA (1587±592 and 1628±366) were observed from plasma unesterified ALA and EPA sources, respectively. These results suggest that typical diets which are significantly higher in ALA compared to EPA yield similar daily DHA synthesis-secretion despite a significantly higher synthesis-secretion coefficient from EPA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Mariarita; Noce, Annalisa; Bertucci, Pierfrancesco; Noce, Gianluca; Rizza, Stefano; De Stefano, Alessandro; Manca di Villahermosa, Simone; Bernardini, Sergio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2014-03-21

    Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from "Tor Vergata" University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector.The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p HD patients (p HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient.

  9. Measurement of Ether Phospholipids in Human Plasma with HPLC-ELSD and LC/ESI-MS After Hydrolysis of Plasma with Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawatari, Shiro; Hazeyama, Seira; Fujino, Takehiko

    2016-08-01

    Ethanolamine ether phospholipid (eEtnGpl) and choline ether phospholipid (eChoGpl) are present in human plasma or serum, but the relative concentration of the ether phospholipids in plasma is very low as compared to those in other tissues. Nowadays, measurement of ether phospholipids in plasma depends on tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), but a system for LC/MS/MS is generally too expensive for usual clinical laboratories. Treatment of plasma with phospholipase A1 (PLA1) causes complete hydrolysis of diacylphospholipids, but ether phospholipids remain intact. After the treatment of plasma with PLA1, both eEtnGpl and eChoGpl are detected as independent peaks by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The same sample used for HPLC-ELSD can be applied to detect eEtnGpl and eChoGpl with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Presence of alkylacylphospholipids in both eChoGpl and eEtnGpl in human plasma was indicated by sequential hydrolysis of plasma with PLA1 and hydrochloric acid.

  10. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  11. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is related to insulin resistance : impaired acute lowering by insulin in obese Type II diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) have important functions in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. We determined the association of plasma CETP and PLTP activities (measured with exogenous' substrate assays) with insulin resistance, plasma

  12. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  13. [Peculiarities of the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte plasma membranes of the Black Sea fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkin, Iu A; Silkina, E N; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the main phospholipids families of erythrocyte plasma membranes was studied in two species of cartilaginous fish: the common thrasher (Raja clavata L.) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) and three bony fish species: the scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus L.), the smarida (Spicara flexuosa Raf.), and the horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev). It was shown that in the studied fish, 70.0-80.0 % of all membrane phospholipids were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine, monophosphoinositide, and sphingomyelin were minor components whose content in the erythrocyte membrane fluctuated from 3.0 % to 13.0 %. The fatty acid phospholipids composition was represented by a large specter of acids. From saturated acids, basic for plasma membranes are palmitic (C16: 0) and stearic (C18: 0) acids. From unsaturated acids, the larger part belong to mono-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaenoic acids in fish phospholipids. The calculation of the double bond index and of the unsaturation coefficient showed difference in the deformation ability of erythrocyte membranes of the studied fish.

  14. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  15. Phospholipid composition and a polybasic motif determine D6 PROTEIN KINASE polar association with the plasma membrane and tropic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Inês C R; Shikata, Hiromasa; Zourelidou, Melina; Heilmann, Mareike; Heilmann, Ingo; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-12-15

    Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatiotemporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it colocalizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root. We further show that D6PK directly binds polyacidic phospholipids through a polybasic lysine-rich motif in the middle domain of the kinase. The lysine-rich motif is required for proper PIN3 phosphorylation and for auxin transport-dependent tropic growth. Polybasic motifs are also present at a conserved position in other D6PK-related kinases and required for membrane and phospholipid binding. Thus, phospholipid-dependent recruitment to membranes through polybasic motifs might not only be required for D6PK-mediated auxin transport but also other processes regulated by these, as yet, functionally uncharacterized kinases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, V; Assi, N; Biessy, C; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Lenoir, G M; Baglietto, L; His, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Katsoulis, M; Kaaks, R; Kühn, T; Panico, S; Pala, V; Masala, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; van Gils, C; Hjartåker, A; Standahl Olsen, K; Borgund Barnung, R; Barricarte, A; Redondo-Sanchez, D; Menéndez, V; Amiano, P; Wennberg, M; Key, T; Khaw, K T; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I

    2017-11-01

    Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n-7/16:0) [OR (Q4-Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07-1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3-T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor. These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer

  17. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.

    2004-01-01

    -utilizing bacteria (LNGB), which were rich in PE. The group with 0% LNGB was fed a diet for which the lipid content was 100% soybean oil. The total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol of animals consuming a diet with 67% LNGB (67LNGB-diet), were significantly lowered by 35, 49, and 29%, respectively......, and unesterified cholesterol increased by 17% compared with the animals fed a diet of 100% lipids from soybean oil (SB-diet). In addition, the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was 27% lower in mink fed the 67LNGB-diet than those fed the S13-cliet. When the mink were fed the 67LNGB-diet, plasma PC, total...... phospholipids, lysoPC, and PI were lowered significantly compared with the mink fed a SB-diet. Plasma total cholesterol was correlated with total phospholipids as well as with PC (R = 0.8, P

  18. Analysis of the induction of the myelin basic protein binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Hao Changchun; Feng Ying; Gao Feng; Lu Xiaolong; Li Junhua; Sun Runguang

    2016-01-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential structure involved in the generation of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Myelin shape has been described as liquid crystal structure of biological membrane. The interactions of MBP with monolayers of different lipid compositions are responsible for the multi-lamellar structure and stability of myelin. In this paper, we have designed MBP-incorporated model lipid monolayers and studied the phase behavior of MBP adsorbed on the plasma membrane at the air/water interface by thermodynamic method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By analyzing the pressure–area ( π – A ) and pressure–time ( π – T ) isotherms, univariate linear regression equation was obtained. In addition, the elastic modulus, surface pressure increase, maximal insertion pressure, and synergy factor of monolayers were detected. These parameters can be used to modulate the monolayers binding of protein, and the results show that MBP has the strongest affinity for 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoserine (DPPS) monolayer, followed by DPPC/DPPS mixed and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DPPC) monolayers via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. AFM images of DPPS and DPPC/DPPS mixed monolayers in the presence of MBP (5 nM) show a phase separation texture at the surface pressure of 20 mN/m and the incorporation of MBP put into the DPPC monolayers has exerted a significant effect on the domain structure. MBP is not an integral membrane protein but, due to its positive charge, interacts with the lipid head groups and stabilizes the membranes. The interaction between MBP and phospholipid membrane to determine the nervous system of the disease has a good biophysical significance and medical value. (special topic)

  19. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Cooper, Thomas B; Oquendo, Maria A; Grunebaum, Michael F; Mann, J John; Sublette, M Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts, we investigated plasma PUFA relationships with trait aggression and impulsivity in patients with MDD. Medication-free MDD patients (n = 48) and healthy volunteers (HV, n = 35) were assessed with the Brown-Goodwin Aggression Inventory. A subset (MDD, n = 39; HV, n = 33) completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Plasma PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) were quantified and ln-transformed to mitigate distributional skew. Ln-transformed PUFA (lnPUFA) levels were predictors in regression models, with aggression or impulsivity scores as outcomes, and cofactors of sex and diagnostic status (MDD with or without a history of substance use disorder [SUD], or HV). Interactions were tested between relevant PUFAs and diagnostic status. Additional analyses explored possible confounds of depression severity, self-reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD was in full sustained remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the induction of the myelin basic protein binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Hao, Changchun; Feng, Ying; Gao, Feng; Lu, Xiaolong; Li, Junhua; Sun, Runguang

    2016-09-01

    Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential structure involved in the generation of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. Myelin shape has been described as liquid crystal structure of biological membrane. The interactions of MBP with monolayers of different lipid compositions are responsible for the multi-lamellar structure and stability of myelin. In this paper, we have designed MBP-incorporated model lipid monolayers and studied the phase behavior of MBP adsorbed on the plasma membrane at the air/water interface by thermodynamic method and atomic force microscopy (AFM). By analyzing the pressure-area (π-A) and pressure-time (π-T) isotherms, univariate linear regression equation was obtained. In addition, the elastic modulus, surface pressure increase, maximal insertion pressure, and synergy factor of monolayers were detected. These parameters can be used to modulate the monolayers binding of protein, and the results show that MBP has the strongest affinity for 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphoserine (DPPS) monolayer, followed by DPPC/DPPS mixed and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-choline (DPPC) monolayers via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. AFM images of DPPS and DPPC/DPPS mixed monolayers in the presence of MBP (5 nM) show a phase separation texture at the surface pressure of 20 mN/m and the incorporation of MBP put into the DPPC monolayers has exerted a significant effect on the domain structure. MBP is not an integral membrane protein but, due to its positive charge, interacts with the lipid head groups and stabilizes the membranes. The interaction between MBP and phospholipid membrane to determine the nervous system of the disease has a good biophysical significance and medical value. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21402114 and 11544009), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2016JM2010), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central

  1. Disparate effects of oxidation on plasma acyltransferase activities: inhibition of cholesterol esterification but stimulation of transesterification of oxidized phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, P V; Liu, M

    1996-05-31

    Oxidation of lipoproteins results in the formation of several polar phospholipids with pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties. To examine the possible role of lecithin/cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the metabolism of these oxidized phospholipids, we oxidized whole plasma with either Cu(2+) or a free-radical generator, and determined the various activities of LCAT. Oxidation caused a reduction in plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), an increase in a short-chain polar PC (SCP-PC), and an inhibition of the transfer of long-chain acyl groups to cholesterol (LCAT activity) or to lyso PC (lysolecithin acyltransferase (LAT) I activity). However, the transfer of short-chain acyl groups from SCP-PC to lyso PCLAT II activity) was stimulated several fold, in direct correlation with the degree of oxidation. LAT II activity was not stimulated by oxidation in LCAT-deficient plasma, showing that it is carried out by LCAT. Oxidized normal plasma exhibited low LCAT activity even in the presence of exogenous proteoliposome substrate, indicating that the depletion of substrate PC was not responsible for the loss of activity. Oxidation of isolated LDL or HDL abolished their ability to support LCAT and LAT I activities of exogenous enzyme, but promoted the LAT II activity. Purified LCAT lost its LCAT and LAT I functions, but not its LAT II function, when oxidized in vitro. These results show that while oxidation of plasma causes a loss of LCAT's ability to transfer long-chain acyl groups, its ability to transfer short-chain acyl groups, from SCP-PC is retained, and even stimulated, suggesting that LCAT may have a physiological role in the metabolism of oxidized PC in plasma.

  2. Effects of dietary phospholipid level in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae: growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J; Liu, Y J; Tian, L X; Mai, K S; Yang, H J; Ye, C X; Zhu, Y

    2008-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary phospholipid (PL) levels in cobia (Rachycentron canadum) larvae with regard to growth, survival, plasma lipids and enzymes of lipid metabolism. Fish with an average weight of 0.4 g were fed diets containing four levels of PL (0, 20, 40 and 80 g kg(-1)dry matter: purity 97%) for 42 days. Final body weight (FBW), weight gain (WG) and survival ratio were highest in the 8% PL diet group and mortality was highest in PL-free diet group. We examined the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) in liver, lecithin-cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma as well as plasma lipids and lipoprotein. LCAT activity showed a decrease of more than two-fold in PL-supplemented diet groups compared with the PL-free diet group. HL activity was highest in the 8% PL diet group and the other three groups showed no difference. LPL activity was significantly higher in the PL-supplemented diet groups than in the PL-free diet group. The dietary intervention significantly increased plasma phospholipids and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the higher free cholesterol (FC) level contributed to the TC level. However, the fish fed PL exhibited a significantly decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) level. The lipoprotein fractions were also affected significantly by the PL. The PL-supplemented diet groups had significantly higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with the PL-free diet group, but showed a marked decrease in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The results suggested that PL could modify plasma lipoprotein metabolism and lipid profile, and that the optimal dietary PL level may well exceed 80 g kg(-1) for cobia larvae according to growth and survival.

  3. Plasma pre beta-HDL formation is decreased by atorvastatin treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Role of phospholipid transfer protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    Atorvastatin lowers plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, which stimulates pre-beta-HDL, generation in vitro. We determined the effect of atorvastatin on pre-beta-HDL formation and its relation with PLTP activity in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Plasma pre-beta-HDL formation as well as

  4. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, S.J.; Koulman, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.

    Methods and Findings
    Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography

  5. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes : The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J.; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Sluijs, Ivonne; Guevara, Marcela; Huerta, José María; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J M; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings: Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with differential effects on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities and concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; De Vries, R; Scheek, L; Borggreve, SE; Van Gent, T; Dallinga-Thie, GM; Ito, M; Nagano, M; Sluiter, WJ; Hattori, H; Van Tol, A

    Background: Human plasma contains two lipid transfer proteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which are crucial in reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Plasma CETP and PLTP activity levels and concentrations in 16 type 2 diabetic patients and

  7. Rooster sperm plasma membrane protein and phospholipid organization and reorganization attributed to cooling and cryopreservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol to phospholipid ratio is used as a representation for membrane fluidity, and predictor of cryopreservation success but results are not consistent across species and ignore the impact of membrane proteins. Therefore, this research explored the modulation of membrane fluidity and protein ...

  8. Effects of Chain Length and Saturability of Fatty Acids on Phospholipids and Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Bovine Mammary Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiongxian; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Bamikole, Musibau Adungbe; Zhou, Chuanshe; Kang, Jinhe; Wang, Min; Tan, Zhiliang

    2016-12-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) in plasma are essential substrates for de novo synthesis of milk fat, or directly import into mammary cells. The physico-chemical properties of mammary cells membrane composition affected by FFAs with different chain lengths and saturability are unclear yet. Employing GC, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy, the adsorption capacity, phospholipids content, membrane proteins conformation, lipid peroxidation product, and free sulfhydryl of plasma membranes (PMs) interacted with different FFAs were determined. The mammary cells PMs at 38 and 39.5 °C showed different adsorption capacities: acetic acid (Ac) > stearic acid (SA) > β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) > trans10, cis12 CLA. In the FTIR spectrum, the major adsorption peaks appeared at 2920 and 2850 cm -1 for phospholipids, and at 1628 and 1560 cm -1 for membrane proteins. The intensities of PMs-FFAs complexes were varied with the FFAs species and their initial concentrations. The β-sheet and turn structures of membrane proteins were transferred into random coil and α-helix after BHBA, SA and trans10, cis12 CLA treatments compared with Ac treatment. The quenching effects on the fluorescence of endogenous membrane protein, 1, 8-ANS, NBD-PE, and DHPE entrapped in PMs by LCFA were different from those of short chain FFAs. These results indicate that the adsorption of FFAs could change membrane protein conformation and polarity of head group in phospholipids. This variation of the mammary cells PMs was regulated by carbon chain length and saturability of FFAs.

  9. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  10. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Krill with Antioxidative and Immunomodulating Properties Reduced Plasma Triacylglycerol and Hepatic Lipogenesis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs can change the plasma profile from atherogenic to cardioprotective. In addition, there is growing evidence that proteins of marine origin may have health benefits. We investigated a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC from krill that is hypothesized to influence lipid metabolism, inflammation, and redox status. Male Wistar rats were fed a control diet (2% soy oil, 8% lard, 20% casein, or diets where corresponding amounts of casein and lard were replaced with PPC at 3%, 6%, or 11% (wt %, for four weeks. Dietary supplementation with PPC resulted in significantly lower levels of plasma triacylglycerols in the 11% PPC-fed group, probably due to reduced hepatic lipogenesis. Plasma cholesterol levels were also reduced at the highest dose of PPC. In addition, the plasma and liver content of n-3 PUFAs increased while n-6 PUFAs decreased. This was associated with increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma and increased liver gene expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2. Finally, a reduced plasma level of the inflammatory mediator interleukin-2 (IL-2 was detected in the PPC-fed animals. The present data show that PPC has lipid-lowering effects in rats, and may modulate risk factors related to cardiovascular disease progression.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of a 24-hour intravenous triglyceride emulsion challenge on plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase, phospholipid transfer protein, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factors in remodeling of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. We examined the effect of a large, 24 h intravenous fat load on plasma

  12. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Manichaikul (Ani); M. Foy (Millennia); E.K. Kabagambe (Edmond); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); I.B. King (Irena); L.-C. Weng; S. Bhattacharya (Sayanti); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.S. Rich (Stephen); D.R. Jacobs (David); A. Cherubini (Antonio); B. McKnight (Barbara); S. Liang (Shuang); X. Gu (Xiangjun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); C.C. Laurie (Cathy); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.L. Browning (Brian); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); L. Djousse (Luc); J.H.Y. Wu (Jason); D.S. Siscovick (David); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); L.M. Steffen (Lyn); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide

  13. Different in the prospective association between individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Koulman, A.; Sharp, S.J.; Groenendijk-van Woudenbergh, G.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and type 2 diabetes. In this longitudinal case-cohort study, we aimed to investigate the prospective associations between objectively measured individual plasma phospholipid SFAs and incident type 2

  14. Chemistry of phospholipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ana; Spickett, Corinne M

    2012-10-01

    The oxidation of lipids has long been a topic of interest in biological and food sciences, and the fundamental principles of non-enzymatic free radical attack on phospholipids are well established, although questions about detail of the mechanisms remain. The number of end products that are formed following the initiation of phospholipid peroxidation is large, and is continually growing as new structures of oxidized phospholipids are elucidated. Common products are phospholipids with esterified isoprostane-like structures and chain-shortened products containing hydroxy, carbonyl or carboxylic acid groups; the carbonyl-containing compounds are reactive and readily form adducts with proteins and other biomolecules. Phospholipids can also be attacked by reactive nitrogen and chlorine species, further expanding the range of products to nitrated and chlorinated phospholipids. Key to understanding the mechanisms of oxidation is the development of advanced and sensitive technologies that enable structural elucidation. Tandem mass spectrometry has proved invaluable in this respect and is generally the method of choice for structural work. A number of studies have investigated whether individual oxidized phospholipid products occur in vivo, and mass spectrometry techniques have been instrumental in detecting a variety of oxidation products in biological samples such as atherosclerotic plaque material, brain tissue, intestinal tissue and plasma, although relatively few have achieved an absolute quantitative analysis. The levels of oxidized phospholipids in vivo is a critical question, as there is now substantial evidence that many of these compounds are bioactive and could contribute to pathology. The challenges for the future will be to adopt lipidomic approaches to map the profile of oxidized phospholipid formation in different biological conditions, and relate this to their effects in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxidized phospholipids

  15. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  16. Plasma angiopoietin-like 4 is related to phospholipid transfer protein activity in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruppen, Eke G.; Kersten, Sander; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibits lipoprotein lipase, whereas phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) enhances hepatic triglyceride secretion. Both factors may be upregulated by inflammatory pathways. Since the extent to which these circulating factors are interrelated is unknown, we

  17. Storage stability of marine phospholipids emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) are believed to provide more advantages than fish oil from the same source. They are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic...... acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the feasibility of using marine phospholipids emulsions as delivery system through investigation of the physical, oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL emulsions with or without addition of fish oil....... The effect of initial Peroxide Value, total lipids, phospholipids and antioxidants content on stability of MPL emulsions were studied. The physical stability was investigated through measurement of particle size distribution and creaming stability, which involve measurement of changes (%) in emulsion volume...

  18. Cortical actin networks induce spatio-temporal confinement of phospholipids in the plasma membrane--a minimally invasive investigation by STED-FCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Débora M; Clausen, Mathias P; Keller, Jan; Mueller, Veronika; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E; Hell, Stefan W; Lagerholm, B Christoffer; Eggeling, Christian

    2015-06-29

    Important discoveries in the last decades have changed our view of the plasma membrane organisation. Specifically, the cortical cytoskeleton has emerged as a key modulator of the lateral diffusion of membrane proteins. Cytoskeleton-dependent compartmentalised lipid diffusion has been proposed, but this concept remains controversial because this phenomenon has thus far only been observed with artefact-prone probes in combination with a single technique: single particle tracking. In this paper, we report the first direct observation of compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion in the plasma membrane of living cells using a minimally invasive, fluorescent dye labelled lipid analogue. These observations were made using optical STED nanoscopy in combination with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STED-FCS), a technique which allows the study of membrane dynamics on a sub-millisecond time-scale and with a spatial resolution of down to 40 nm. Specifically, we find that compartmentalised phospholipid diffusion depends on the cortical actin cytoskeleton, and that this constrained diffusion is directly dependent on the F-actin branching nucleator Arp2/3. These findings provide solid evidence that the Arp2/3-dependent cortical actin cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in the dynamic organisation of the plasma membrane, potentially regulating fundamental cellular processes.

  19. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-11-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P=0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA.Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of potential plasma biomarkers related to cognitive impairment by untargeted profiling of phospholipids using the HILIC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Cheong, Ling-Zhi; Man, Qing-Qing; Pang, Shao-Jie; Li, Yue-Qi; Ren, Biao; Zhang, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Early diagnosis of neural changes causing cognitive impairment is critical for development of preventive therapies for dementia. Biomarkers currently characterized cannot be extensively applied due to the invasive sampling of cerebrospinal fluid. The other imaging approaches are either expensive or require a high technique. Phospholipids (PLs), which are basic constituents of neurons, might be a key variable in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment. Changes in plasma PL provide the possibility for development of novel biomarkers with minimal invasion and high patient acceptance. In this work, a HILIC-ESI-IT-TOF-MS system was introduced for untargeted profiling of plasma PLs to investigate the relationship between changes of plasma PL profiles and cognitive impairment. A total of 272 types of PL molecular structures were characterized in human plasma and quantified through the internal standard method. Univariate analysis shows 29 PLs were significantly different between the control (n = 41) and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n = 41). Multivariate analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA) was conducted based on these 29 potential PL biomarkers. Both univariate and multivariate analyses show abnormality of PL metabolism in the CI group, and the downregulation of ethanolamine plasmalogen (pPE) supply, especially those with PUFAs, in the circulation system should be strongly associated with neurodegeneration. A discriminative model was established with satisfied fit (R2) and prediction (Q2) abilities, and the classification test showed better recognition of the CI group than the control group indicating that this model of PL biomarkers could be used as indicators for screening of CI. Graphical abstract Characterization of potential plasma biomarkers related to cognitive impairment by untargeted profiling of phospholipids.

  1. Postpartum levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α in plasma and milk phospholipid fractions as biomarker of oxidative stress in first-lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernunft, A; Viergutz, T; Plinski, C; Weitzel, J M

    2014-08-01

    F2-isoprostanes such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2 (8-iso-PGF2α) are formed by free radical-catalyzed mechanisms from membrane phospholipids and from low density lipoproteins through peroxidation of arachidonic acid. Esterified 8-iso-PGF2α is cleaved by phospholipases, circulates in blood and is excreted as putatively harmful oxidatively modified lipid via the kidney into urine. In this study we demonstrate that 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in plasma samples from heifers are higher (piso-PGF2α concentrations vary with ovarian activity and differ in response to luteolytic initiation as well as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis between heifers and first-lactating cows. Sustainable concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α (50-150 pg/ml) are detectable in the phospholipid fraction of milk, suggesting milk as an additional excretion route for 8-isoprostanes. Plasma levels largely paralleled levels in milk (piso-PGF2α concentrations in cyclic cows decreased (piso-PGF2α rather increased (piso-PGF2α were not correlated with milk yield (p>0.05). Our data indicate 8-iso-PGF2α may be a novel biomarker of oxidative stress in dairy cow, which is detectable in blood as well as in milk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (MPL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil). The objective...... of this study is to investigate the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of MPL. In addition, this study also investigates the effect of chemical composition of MPL and Maillard reaction (interaction between lipids oxidation products with the residue of amino acids) on MPL emulsions’ stability. Firstly, MPL were...... was further investigated through measurement of secondary volatile compounds by Solid Phase Microextraction at several time intervals. On the other hand, the Maillard reaction was investigated through the measurement of color changes and pyrrole content before and after 32 days storage. Preliminary result...

  3. Phospholipid-binding protein EhC2A mediates calcium-dependent translocation of transcription factor URE3-BP to the plasma membrane of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Heriberto; Linford, Alicia S; Gilchrist, Carol A; Petri, William A

    2010-05-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica upstream regulatory element 3-binding protein (URE3-BP) is a transcription factor that binds DNA in a Ca(2+)-inhibitable manner. The protein is located in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm but has also been found to be enriched in the plasma membrane of amebic trophozoites. We investigated the reason for the unusual localization of URE3-BP at the amebic plasma membrane. Here we identify and characterize a 22-kDa Ca(2+)-dependent binding partner of URE3-BP, EhC2A, a novel member of the C2-domain superfamily. Immunoprecipitations of URE3-BP and EhC2A showed that the proteins interact and that such interaction was enhanced in the presence of Ca(2+). Recombinant and native EhC2A bound phospholipid liposomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, with half-maximal binding occurring at 3.4 muM free Ca(2+). A direct interaction between EhC2A and URE3-BP was demonstrated by the ability of recombinant EhC2A to recruit recombinant URE3-BP to phospholipid liposomes in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. URE3-BP and EhC2A were observed to translocate to the amebic plasma membrane upon an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration of trophozoites, as revealed by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescent staining. Short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of EhC2A protein expression significantly modulated the mRNA levels of URE3-BP-regulated transcripts. Based on these results, we propose a model for EhC2A-mediated regulation of the transcriptional activities of URE3-BP via Ca(2+)-dependent anchoring of the transcription factor to the amebic plasma membrane.

  4. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosh, Travis; Jordan, Kelsey D; Wu, Ja-Shin; Yarlett, Nigel; Upmacis, Rita K

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted parasite and, while it is often asymptomatic in males, the parasite is associated with disease in both sexes. Metronidazole is an effective treatment for trichomoniasis, but resistant strains have evolved and, thus, it has become necessary to investigate other possible therapies. In this study, we examined the effects of native and oxidized forms of the sodium salts of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids on T. vaginalis activity. Eicosapentaenoic acid was the most toxic with 190 and 380 μM causing approximately 90% cell death in Casu2 and ATCC 50142 strains, respectively. In contrast, oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid was the least toxic, requiring > 3 mM to inhibit activity, while low levels (10 μM) were associated with increased parasite density. Mass spectrometric analysis of oxidized eicosapentaenoic acid revealed C20 products containing one to six additional oxygen atoms and various degrees of bond saturation. These results indicate that eicosapentaenoic acid has different effects on T. vaginalis survival, depending on whether it is present in the native or oxidized form. A better understanding of lipid metabolism in T. vaginalis may facilitate the design of synthetic fatty acids that are effective for the treatment of metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  6. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

  7. Role of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in the metabolism of oxidized phospholipids in plasma: studies with platelet-activating factor-acetyl hydrolase-deficient plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V S; Goyal, J; Miwa, M; Sugatami, J; Akiyama, M; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1999-07-09

    To determine the relative importance of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the hydrolysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OXPCs) to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), we studied the formation and metabolism of OXPCs in the plasma of normal and PAF-AH-deficient subjects. Whereas the loss of PC following oxidation was similar in the deficient and normal plasmas, the formation of lyso-PC was significantly lower, and the accumulation of OXPC was higher in the deficient plasma. Isolated LDL from the PAF-AH-deficient subjects was more susceptible to oxidation, and stimulated adhesion molecule synthesis in endothelial cells, more than the normal LDL. Oxidation of 16:0-[1-14C]-18:2 PC, equilibrated with plasma PC, resulted in the accumulation of labeled short- and long-chain OXPCs, in addition to the labeled aqueous products. The formation of the aqueous products decreased by 80%, and the accumulation of short-chain OXPC increased by 110% in the deficient plasma, compared to the normal plasma, showing that PAF-AH is predominantly involved in the hydrolysis of the truncated OXPCs. Labeled sn-2-acyl group from the long-chain OXPC was not only hydrolyzed to free fatty acid, but was preferentially transferred to diacylglycerol, in both the normal and deficient plasmas. In contrast, the acyl group from unoxidized PC was transferred only to cholesterol, showing that the specificity of LCAT is altered by OXPC. It is concluded that, while PAF-AH carries out the hydrolysis of mainly truncated OXPCs, LCAT hydrolyzes and transesterifies the long-chain OXPCs.

  8. Food enrichment with marine phospholipid emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    marine PL emulsions with and without addition of fish oil. The oxidative stability of marine PL emulsions was significantly influenced by the chemical composition of marine PL used for emulsions preparation. For instance, emulsions with good oxidative stability could be obtained when using raw materials...... with high purity, low fish oil content and high PL, cholesterol and α-tocopherol content. In addition, non-enzymatic browning reactions may also affect the oxidative stability of the marine PL emulsion. These reactions included Strecker degradation and pyrrolization, and their occurrence were due......Many studies have shown that marine phospholipids (PL) provide more advantages than fish oil. They seem to have better bioavailability, better resistance towards oxidation and higher content of eicosapentaenoic acids and docosahexaenoic acids than fish oil, which essentially contains triglycerides...

  9. Biophysical studies of cholesterol in unsaturated phospholipid model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin Adam

    Cellular membranes contain a staggering diversity of lipids. The lipids are heterogeneously distributed to create regions, or domains, whose physical properties differ from the bulk membrane and play an essential role in modulating the function of resident proteins. Many basic questions pertaining to the formation of these lateral assemblies remain. This research employs model membranes of well-defined composition to focus on the potential role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their interaction with cholesterol (chol) in restructuring the membrane environment. Omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs are the main bioactive components of fish oil, whose consumption alleviates a variety of health problems by a molecular mechanism that is unclear. We hypothesize that the incorporation of PUFAs into membrane lipids and the effect they have on molecular organization may be, in part, responsible. Chol is a major constituent in the plasma membrane of mammals. It determines the arrangement and collective properties of neighboring lipids, driving the formation of domains via differential affinity for different lipids. The molecular organization of 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-eicosapentaenoylphosphatidylcholine (PEPC-d31) and 1-[2H31]palmitoyl-2-docosahexaenoylphosphatidylcholine (PDPC-d31) in membranes with sphingomyelin (SM) and chol (1:1:1 mol) was compared by solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are the two major n-3 PUFAs found in fish oil, while PEPC-d31 and PDPC-d31 are phospholipids containing the respective PUFAs at the sn-2 position and a perdeuterated palmitic acid at the sn-1 position. Analysis of spectra recorded as a function of temperature indicates that in both cases, formation of PUFA-rich (less ordered) and SM-rich (more ordered) domains occurred. A surprisingly substantial proportion of PUFA was found to infiltrate the more ordered domain. There was almost twice as much DHA (65%) as EPA (30%). The implication is that n-3

  10. Lipidomics study of plasma phospholipid metabolism in early type 2 diabetes rats with ancient prescription Huang-Qi-San intervention by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Zhu, Jian-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Wei-Min; Rong, Xiang-Lu; Feng, Yi-Fan

    2016-08-25

    Potential impact of lipid research has been increasingly realized both in disease treatment and prevention. An effective metabolomics approach based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS) along with multivariate statistic analysis has been applied for investigating the dynamic change of plasma phospholipids compositions in early type 2 diabetic rats after the treatment of an ancient prescription of Chinese Medicine Huang-Qi-San. The exported UPLC/Q-TOF-MS data of plasma samples were subjected to SIMCA-P and processed by bioMark, mixOmics, Rcomdr packages with R software. A clear score plots of plasma sample groups, including normal control group (NC), model group (MC), positive medicine control group (Flu) and Huang-Qi-San group (HQS), were achieved by principal-components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Biomarkers were screened out using student T test, principal component regression (PCR), partial least-squares regression (PLS) and important variable method (variable influence on projection, VIP). Structures of metabolites were identified and metabolic pathways were deduced by correlation coefficient. The relationship between compounds was explained by the correlation coefficient diagram, and the metabolic differences between similar compounds were illustrated. Based on KEGG database, the biological significances of identified biomarkers were described. The correlation coefficient was firstly applied to identify the structure and deduce the metabolic pathways of phospholipids metabolites, and the study provided a new methodological cue for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolites in the process of regulating Huang-Qi-San for treating early type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, Véronique; Biessy, Carine; Byrnes, Graham; Deharveng, Geneviève; Saadatian-Elahi, Mitra; Jenab, Mazda; Peeters, Petra H M; Ocké, Marga; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Wirfält, Elisabet; Jakszyn, Paula; González, Carlos A; Huerta, Jose-Maria; Martinez, Carmen; Amiano, Pilar; Suárez, Laudina Rodriguez; Ardanaz, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Berrino, Franco; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Spencer, Elisabeth A; Crowe, Francesca L; Bingham, Sheila; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Nöethlings, Ute; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Zilis, Dimosthenis; Oustoglou, Erifili; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2011-11-01

    Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.

  12. Incorporation and distribution of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in cultured human keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    Human keratinocytes in culture were labelled with 14 C-dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, 14 C-arachidonic acid or 14 C-eicosapentaenoic acid. All three eicosanoid precursor fatty acids were effectively incorporated into the cells. In phospholipids most of the radioactivity was recovered, in neutral lipids a substantial amount, and as free unesterified fatty acids only a minor amount. Most of the radioactivity was found in phosphatidylethanolamine which was also the major phospholipid as measured by phosphorous assay. The incorporation of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid into lipid subfractions was essentially similar. Eicosapentaenoic acid was, however, much less effectively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol + phosphatidylserine and, correspondingly, more effectively into triacylglycerols as compared to the two other precursor fatty acids. Once incorporated, the distribution of all three precursor fatty acids was relatively stable, and only minor amounts of fatty acids were released into the culture medium during short term culture (two days). Our study demonstrates that eicosanoid precursor fatty acids are avidly taken up by human keratinocytes and esterified into membrane lipids. The clinical implication of this finding is that dietary manipulations might be employed to cause changes in the fatty acid composition of keratinocytes

  13. Phospholipid composition of Dipylidium caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, A K; Jain, S K; Vinayak, V K; Khuller, G K

    1978-11-15

    The phospholipid composition of Dipylidium caninum has been studied. Chloroform-methanol-soluble fraction amounted to 2.4% and phospholipids to 0.5% of the wet weight of the parasite. Phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine represented the bulk of the phospholipids, whereas phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidyl inositol, lysolecithin and lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine were present in minor amounts. Sulfatides were also identified in this parasite.

  14. Thermodynamics of Indomethacin Adsorption to Phospholipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Amanda D; Stokes, Grace Y

    2017-11-22

    Using second-harmonic generation, we directly monitored adsorption of indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to supported lipid bilayers composed of phospholipids of varying phase, cholesterol content, and head group charge without the use of extrinsic labels at therapeutically relevant aqueous concentrations. Indomethacin adsorbed to gel-phase lipids with a high binding affinity, suggesting that like other arylacetic acid-containing drugs, it preferentially interacts with ordered lipid domains. We discovered that adsorption of indomethacin to gel-phase phospholipids was endothermic and entropically driven, whereas adsorption to fluid-phase phospholipids was exothermic and enthalpically driven. As temperature increased from 19 to 34 °C, binding affinities to gel-phase lipids increased by 7-fold but relative surface concentration decreased to one-fifth of the original value. We also compared our results to the entropies reported for indomethacin adsorbed to surfactant micelles, which are used in drug delivery systems, and assert that adsorbed water molecules in the phospholipid bilayer may be buried deeper into the acyl chains and less accessible for disruption. The thermodynamic studies reported here provide mechanistic insight into indomethacin interactions with mammalian plasma membranes in the gastrointestinal tract and inform studies of drug delivery, where indomethacin is commonly used as a prototypical, hydrophobic small-molecule drug.

  15. Phospholipid transfer protein activity and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The plasma activity of phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which has multifaceted functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in inflammatory responses, is elevated in insulin resistant conditions. We determined the association of plasma PLTP activity with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

  16. LCA of Egg Phospholipids

    OpenAIRE

    Berggren, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts. The aim of this study is ...

  17. Liver phospholipids fatty acids composition in response to different types of diets in rats of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranković, Slavica; Popović, Tamara; Martačić, Jasmina Debeljak; Petrović, Snježana; Tomić, Mirko; Ignjatović, Đurđica; Tovilović-Kovačević, Gordana; Glibetić, Maria

    2017-05-19

    Dietary intake influence changes in fatty acids (FA) profiles in liver which plays a central role in fatty acid metabolism, triacylglycerol synthesis and energy homeostasis. We investigated the effects of 4-weeks treatment with milk- and fish-based diet, on plasma biochemical parameters and FA composition of liver phospholipids (PL) in rats of both sexes. Adult, 4 months old, Wistar rats of both sexes, were fed with different types of diets: standard, milk-based and fish-based, during 4 weeks. Analytical characterization of different foods was done. Biochemical parameters in plasma were determined. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas-chromatography. Statistical significance of FA levels was tested with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the sex of animals and treatment (type of diet) as factors on logarithmic or trigonometric transformed data. Our results showed that both, milk- and fish-based diet, changed the composition and ratio of rat liver phospholipids FA, in gender-specific manner. Initially present sex differences appear to be dietary modulated. Although, applied diets changed the ratio of total saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and effects were gender specific. Milk-based diet lowered SFA and elevated MUFA in males and increased PUFA in females vs. standard diet. The same diet decreased n-3, increased n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio in males. Fish-based diet increased n-3, decreased n-6 and n-6/n-3 ratio vs. standard and milk-based diet in females. However, the ratio of individual FA in liver PL was also dietary-influenced, but with gender specific manner. While in females fish-based diet decreased AA (arachidonic acid) increased level of EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), DPA (docosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), the same diet elevated only DHA levels in males. Gender related variations in FA composition of rat liver PL were observed, and results have shown that

  18. Relative turnover of [3H]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid in stimulated human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, B.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The relative release of arachidonic acid (AA) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from platelet phospholipids may be important in accounting for the potential of dietary fish oil containing EPA to alter platelet reactivity. Human platelets enriched in EPA and prelabelled with [ 3 H]AA and [ 14 C]EPA were used to examine the relative losses of these fatty acids from platelet phospholipids upon stimulation. Washed dual-labelled platelets were incubated with and without thrombin in the presence of BW755C and in the presence and absence of trifluoperazine. The platelet lipids were extracted and the individual phospholipids as well as diacylglycerol (DG), phosphatidic acid (PA), etc. were separated by thin-layer chromatography and the radioactivity in each fraction determined. The [ 3 H]AA/[ 14 C]EPA dpm ratio for the loss in radioactivity from PC upon thrombin stimulation was similar to that for the PC in resting platelets. This suggests no marked selectivity in the degradation of AA versus EPA species of PC during platelet activation. The [ 3 H]/[ 14 C] ratios for the increased radioactivity in DG and PA upon thrombin stimulation were slightly higher than the ratio in PI from resting platelets suggesting only a minor preference for 1-acyl 2-arachidonoyl PI over 1-acyl 2-eicosapentaenoyl PI in the pathway from PI to DG to PA

  19. Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acid Profile is Altered in Both Septic and Non-Septic Critically Ill: A Correlation with Inflammatory Markers and Albumin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, F.; Borovská, J.; Vecka, M.; Rychlíková, J.; Vávrová, L.; Petrásková, H.; Žák, A.; Nováková, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2017), s. 245-254 ISSN 0024-4201 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sepsis * inflammation * oxidative stress * plasma lipids * fatty acid profile * PUFA * lipoproteins Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition OBOR OECD: Critical care medicine and Emergency medicine Impact factor: 1.934, year: 2016

  20. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Fabrication of an Anti-Biofouling Plasma-Filtration Membrane by an Electrospinning Process Using Photo-Cross-linkable Zwitterionic Phospholipid Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jiae; Seo, Ji-Hun

    2017-06-14

    The goal of this study is to fabricate a stable plasma filtration membrane with antibiofouling properties via an electrospinning process. To this end, a random-type copolymer consisting of zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC) groups and ultraviolet (UV)-cross-linkable phenyl azide groups was synthesized. The zwitterionic PC group provides antibiofouling properties, and the phenyl azide group enables the stable maintenance of the fibrous nanostructure of hydrophilic zwitterion polymers in aqueous medium via a simple UV curing process. To demonstrate the antibiofouling nature of the PC group, a polymer without antibiofouling PC groups was also prepared for comparison. The successful synthesis of the random-type copolymers containing phenyl azide groups was proven by 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the fibrous structure of the prepared membranes was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The antibiofouling properties were analyzed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin adsorption and platelet adhesion tests. The experimental results show that membranes containing zwitterionic PC groups exhibited obvious decreases in platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Platelet-rich plasma solution was filtered using the prepared membranes to test their filtration properties. The sequential filtration process removed 80% and almost 98% of the platelets. This finding confirmed that the membrane retained its blood-inert biomaterial surface in a complex medium that included blood plasma and platelets.

  2. Progesterone modulation of transmembrane helix-helix interactions between the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase and phospholipid N-methyltransferase in the oocyte plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askari Amir

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progesterone binding to the surface of the amphibian oocyte initiates the meiotic divisions. Our previous studies with Rana pipiens oocytes indicate that progesterone binds to a plasma membrane site within the external loop between the M1 and M2 helices of the α-subunit of Na/K-ATPase, triggering a cascade of lipid second messengers and the release of the block at meiotic prophase. We have characterized this site, using a low affinity ouabain binding isoform of the α1-subunit. Results Preparations of isolated plasma membranes from Rana oocytes demonstrate that physiological levels of progesterone (or the non-metabolizable progestin R5020 successively activate phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PE-NMT and sphingomyelin synthase within seconds. Inhibition of PE-NMT blocks the progesterone induction of meiosis in intact oocytes, whereas its initial product, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine (PME, can itself initiate meiosis in the presence of the inhibitor. Published X-ray crystallographic data on Na/K-ATPase, computer-generated 3D projections, heptad repeat analysis and hydrophobic cluster analysis of the transmembrane helices predict that hydrophobic residues L, V, V, I, F and Y of helix M2 of the α1-subunit interact with F, L, G, L, L and F, respectively, of helix M3 of PE-NMT. Conclusion We propose that progesterone binding to the first external loop of the α1-subunit facilitates specific helix-helix interactions between integral membrane proteins to up-regulate PE-NMT, and, that successive interactions between two or more integral plasma membrane proteins induce the signaling cascades which result in completion of the meiotic divisions.

  3. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Ultraviolet B irradiation induces changes in the distribution and release of arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punnonen, K.; Puustinen, T.; Jansen, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that derivatives of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids, the eicosanoids, play an important role in the inflammatory responses of the human skin. To better understand the metabolic fate of fatty acids in the skin, the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation (280-320 nm) on the distribution and release of 14 C-labeled arachidonic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid in human keratinocytes in culture was investigated. Ultraviolet B irradiation induced the release of all three 14 C-labeled fatty acids from the phospholipids, especially from phosphatidylethanolamine, and this was accompanied by increased labeling of the nonphosphorus lipids. This finding suggests that UVB induces a significant liberation of eicosanoid precursor fatty acids from cellular phospholipids, but the liberated fatty acids are largely reincorporated into the nonphosphorus lipids. In conclusion, the present study suggests that not only arachidonic acid but also dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid might be involved in the UVB irradiation-induced inflammatory reactions of human skin

  5. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  6. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids

  7. Antibiotic interaction with phospholipid monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambinossi, F.; Mecheri, B.; Caminati, G.; Nocentini, M.; Puggelli, M.; Gabrielli, G

    2002-12-01

    We studied the interactions of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic molecules with phospholipid monolayers with the two-fold aim of elucidating the mechanism of action and providing a first step for the realization of bio-mimetic sensors for such drugs by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. We examined spreading monolayers of three phospholipids in the presence of tetracycline in the subphase by means of surface pressure-area and surface potential-area isotherms as a function of bulk pH. We selected phospholipids with hydrophobic chains of the same length but polar head groups differing either in dimensions and protonation equilibria, i.e. dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) and dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid (DPPA). The interaction of tetracycline with the three phospholipids was found to be highly dependent on the electric charge of the antibiotic and on the ionization state of the lipid. Significant interactions are established between the negatively charged form of dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and the zwitterionic form of tetracycline. The drug was found to migrate at the interface where it is adsorbed underneath or/and among the head groups, depending on the surface pressure of the film, whereas penetration through the hydrophobic layer was excluded for all the three phospholipids.

  8. Dicarboxylic phospholipids and irradiated biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, Nicole.

    1977-01-01

    It was decided to study the effects of ionizing radiations on biomembranes, with special reference to erythrocytes and liver microsomes representing two kinds of membrane very common in nature. Diacid phospholipids were observed at these membranes and the results are reported in part one of this work. It appeared essential to examine as far as possible the metabolism, in vitro and in animals, of these diacids and to find out whether certain harmful effects of radiations on the proteins (membrane permeability changes and enzyme inactivation) could be due to the action of these newly formed compounds. The study of acid compounds formed under irradiation was limited to nonanal-9-oic acid and azelaic acid. Part two deals with the incorporation of acid and diacid compounds into lipids and the effects of diacid phospholipids on the membrane permeability. A chapter is devoted to the changes in certain enzyme activities brought about by diacid phospholipids [fr

  9. Characterization of Phospholipids in Insulin Secretory Granules and Mitochondria in Pancreatic Beta Cells and Their Changes with Glucose Stimulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michael J.; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M.; Ansari, Israr-Ul H.; Stoker, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. PMID:25762724

  10. Characterization of phospholipids in insulin secretory granules and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells and their changes with glucose stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michael J; Ade, Lacmbouh; Ntambi, James M; Ansari, Israr-Ul H; Stoker, Scott W

    2015-04-24

    The lipid composition of insulin secretory granules (ISG) has never previously been thoroughly characterized. We characterized the phospholipid composition of ISG and mitochondria in pancreatic beta cells without and with glucose stimulation. The phospholipid/protein ratios of most phospholipids containing unsaturated fatty acids were higher in ISG than in whole cells and in mitochondria. The concentrations of negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol in ISG were 5-fold higher than in the whole cell. In ISG phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and sphingomyelin, fatty acids 12:0 and 14:0 were high, as were phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol containing 18-carbon unsaturated FA. With glucose stimulation, the concentration of many ISG phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylinositols increased; unsaturated fatty acids in phosphatidylserine increased; and most phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins, and lysophosphatidylcholines were unchanged. Unsaturation and shorter fatty acid length in phospholipids facilitate curvature and fluidity of membranes, which favors fusion of membranes. Recent evidence suggests that negatively charged phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, act as coupling factors enhancing the interaction of positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in synaptic or secretory vesicle membrane lipid bilayers with positively charged regions in SNARE proteins in the plasma membrane lipid bilayer to facilitate docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane during exocytosis. The results indicate that ISG phospholipids are in a dynamic state and are consistent with the idea that changes in ISG phospholipids facilitate fusion of ISG with the plasma membrane-enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Ana C., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk; Chronakis, Ioannis S., E-mail: anac@food.dtu.dk, E-mail: ioach@food.dtu.dk [Technical University of Denmark, DTU-Food, Søltofts Plads B227, DK-2800, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-06-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 ± 2.7 μm. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 ± 1 MPa. At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip. The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h.

  12. Nanomechanics of electrospun phospholipid fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun asolectin phospholipid fibers were prepared using isooctane as a solvent and had an average diameter of 6.1 +/- 2.7 mu m. Their mechanical properties were evaluated by nanoindentation using Atomic Force Microscopy, and their elastic modulus was found to be approximately 17.2 +/- 1MPa....... At a cycle of piezo expansion-retraction (loading-unloading) of a silicon tip on a fiber, relatively high adhesion was observed during unloading. It is proposed that this was primarily due to molecular rearrangements at the utmost layers of the fiber caused by the indentation of the hydrophilic tip....... The phospholipid fibers were shown to be stable in ambient conditions, preserving the modulus of elasticity up to 24 h. (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC....

  13. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusinol, A.; Salomon, R.A.; Bloj, B.

    1987-01-01

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14 C-labeled phospholipids and 3 H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

  14. Oxidative Stability of Marine Phospholipids in the Liposomal Form and Their Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Timm-Heinrich, M.

    2011-01-01

    Marine phospholipids (MPL) have attracted a great deal of attention recently as they are considered to have a better bioavailability, a better resistance towards oxidation and a higher content of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) than oily triglycerides (fish oil) from the same...... source. Due to their tight intermolecular packing conformation at the sn-2 position and their synergism with α-tocopherol present in MPL extracts, they can form stable liposomes which are attractive ingredients for food or feed applications. However, MPL are still susceptible to oxidation as they contain...... large amounts polyunsaturated fatty acids and application of MPL in food and aquaculture industries is therefore a great challenge for researchers. Hence, knowledge on the oxidative stability of MPL and the behavior of MPL in food and feed systems is an important issue. For this reason, this review...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Phospholipids and the Combination of Docosahexaenoic Acid-Bound Triglyceride and Egg Yolk Phospholipid on Lipid Metabolism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hongxia; Cui, Jie; Wen, Min; Xu, Jie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Wang, Qi; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-04-01

    The bioavailability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) depends on their chemical forms. This study investigated the long-term effects of DHA-bound triglyceride (TG-DHA), DHA-bound phospholipid (PL-DHA), and the combination of TG-DHA and egg yolk phospholipid (Egg-PL) on lipid metabolism in mice fed with a high-fat diet (fat levels of 22.5%). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed with different formulations containing 0.5% DHA, including TG-DHA, PL-DHA, and the combination of TG-DHA and Egg-PL, for 6 weeks. Serum, hepatic, and cerebral lipid concentrations and the fatty acid compositions of the liver and brain were determined. The concentrations of serum total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and hepatic TG in the PL-DHA group and the combination group were significantly lower than those in the high-fat (HF) group ( P Egg-PL in decreasing the AI. Long-term dietary supplementation with low amount of DHA (0.5%) may improve hepatic DHA levels, although cerebral DHA levels may not be enhanced.

  16. Slaved diffusion in phospholipid bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangfang; Granick, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The translational diffusion of phospholipids in supported fluid bilayers splits into two populations when polyelectrolytes adsorb at incomplete surface coverage. Spatially resolved measurements using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy show that a slow mode, whose magnitude scales inversely with the degree of polymerization of the adsorbate, coexists with a fast mode characteristic of naked lipid diffusion. Inner and outer leaflets of the bilayer are affected nearly equally. Mobility may vary from spot to spot on the membrane surface, despite the lipid composition being the same. This work offers a mechanism to explain how nanosized domains with reduced mobility arise in lipid membranes. PMID:15967988

  17. Phospholipid liposomes functionalized by protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, O. E.; Savostyanov, G. V.; Grishina, O. A.

    2015-03-01

    Finding new ways to deliver neurotrophic drugs to the brain in newborns is one of the contemporary problems of medicine and pharmaceutical industry. Modern researches in this field indicate the promising prospects of supramolecular transport systems for targeted drug delivery to the brain which can overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, the solution of this problem is actual not only for medicine, but also for society as a whole because it determines the health of future generations. Phospholipid liposomes due to combination of lipo- and hydrophilic properties are considered as the main future objects in medicine for drug delivery through the BBB as well as increasing their bioavailability and toxicity. Liposomes functionalized by various proteins were used as transport systems for ease of liposomes use. Designing of modification oligosaccharide of liposomes surface is promising in the last decade because it enables the delivery of liposomes to specific receptor of human cells by selecting ligand and it is widely used in pharmacology for the treatment of several diseases. The purpose of this work is creation of a coarse-grained model of bilayer of phospholipid liposomes, functionalized by specific to the structural elements of the BBB proteins, as well as prediction of the most favorable orientation and position of the molecules in the generated complex by methods of molecular docking for the formation of the structure. Investigation of activity of the ligand molecule to protein receptor of human cells by the methods of molecular dynamics was carried out.

  18. Electrostatic control of phospholipid polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahovsky, Y S; Arsenault, A L; MacDonald, R C; McIntosh, T J; Epand, R M

    2000-12-01

    A regular progression of polymorphic phase behavior was observed for mixtures of the anionic phospholipid, cardiolipin, and the cationic phospholipid derivative, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy and small-angle x-ray diffraction, whereas the two lipids separately assume only lamellar phases, their mixtures exhibit a symmetrical (depending on charge ratio and not polarity) sequence of nonlamellar phases. The inverted hexagonal phase, H(II,) formed from equimolar mixtures of the two lipids, i.e., at net charge neutrality (charge ratio (CR((+/-))) = 1:1). When one type of lipid was in significant excess (CR((+/-)) = 2:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:2), a bicontinuous cubic structure was observed. These cubic phases were very similar to those sometimes present in cellular organelles that contain cardiolipin. Increasing the excess of cationic or anionic charge to CR((+/-)) = 4:1 or CR((+/-)) = 1:4 led to the appearance of membrane bilayers with numerous interlamellar contacts, i.e., sponge structures. It is evident that interactions between cationic and anionic moieties can influence the packing of polar heads and hence control polymorphic phase transitions. The facile isothermal, polymorphic interconversion of these lipids may have important biological and technical implications.

  19. Blood docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in vegans: Associations with age and gender and effects of an algal-derived omega-3 fatty acid supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Barbara; Kelsey, Kristine S; Schwartz, Todd A; Harris, William S

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that vegetarians and vegans have much lower plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids (i.e., docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids) when compared to those who eat fish. The purposes of this study were 1) to define the age and/or sex-specific docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids levels in red blood cell membranes (expressed as a percent of total fatty acids; hereafter the omega-3 index) in long-term vegans, and 2) to determine the effects of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement (254 mg docosahexaenoic plus eicosapentaenoic acids/day for 4 months) on the omega-3 index. A sample (n = 165) of vegans was recruited, and their omega-3 index was determined using a dried blood spot methodology. A subset of 46 subjects with a baseline omega-3 index of vegan cohort, the index was significantly higher in females than males (3.9 ± 1.0% vs. 3.5 ± 1.0%; p = 0.026) and was directly related to age (p for trend = 0.009). The omega-3 index increased from 3.1 ± 0.6% to 4.8 ± 0.8% (p = 0.009) in the supplementation study. We conclude that vegans have low baseline omega-3 levels, but not lower than omnivores who also consume very little docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The vegans responded robustly to a relatively low dose of a vegetarian omega-3 supplement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Sunflower press cake as a substrate for eicosapentaenoic acid production by representatives of the genus Mortierella

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Long chain omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are essential for the regulation of critical biological functions in humans and other mammals. EPA production via solid state fermentation of sunflower press cake was investigated...

  1. Increased Anti-Phospholipid Antibodies in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milo Careaga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are characterized by impairments in communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. While the etiology of ASD is complex and likely involves the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, growing evidence suggests that immune dysfunction and the presence of autoimmune responses including autoantibodies may play a role in ASD. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are believed to occur from both genetic and environmental factors and have been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as cognitive impairments, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. In the current study, we investigated whether there were elevated levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies in a cross-sectional analysis of plasma of young children with ASD compared to age-matched typically developing (TD controls and children with developmental delays (DD other than ASD. We found that levels of anti-cardiolipin, β2-glycoprotein 1, and anti-phosphoserine antibodies were elevated in children with ASD compared with age-matched TD and DD controls. Further, the increase in antibody levels was associated with more impaired behaviors reported by parents. This study provides the first evidence for elevated production of anti-phospholipid antibodies in young children with ASD and provides a unique avenue for future research into determining possible pathogenic mechanisms that may underlie some cases of ASD.

  2. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  3. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration Performance for Phospholipid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, N.; Wardhani, D. H.; Maulana, Z. S.; Roberto, D.

    2017-11-01

    Ultrafiltration membrane for degumming of crude palm oil has been applied as an alternative method since the membrane process required less procedure than the conventional degumming. This research focused on the examination of ultrafiltration performance for phospholipid separation from model crude palm oil degumming. Specifically, profile flux and rejection, as well as blocking mechanism, were investigated. Feed consisting of Refined Crude Palm Oil - Isopropanol - Lecithin mixtures were represented as crude palm oil degumming. Lecithin was denoted a phospholipid component, and the concentrations of lecithin in feed were varied to 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%. The concentration of phospholipid was determined as phosphor content. At the concentration of lecithin in feed representing phospholipid concentration of 8,45 mg/kg, 8,45 mg/kg, 24,87 mg/kg and 57,58 mg/kg, respectively. Flux profiles confirmed that there was a flux decline during filtration. In addition, the lecithin concentrations do not significantly effect on further flux decline. Rejection characteristic and phospholipid concentration in the permeate showed that the phospholipid rejections by ultrafiltration were in the range of 23-79,5% representing permeate’s phospholipid concentration of 1,73 - 44,25 mg/kg. Evaluation of fouling mechanism by Hermia’s blocking model confirmed that the standard blocking is the dominant mechanism in the ultrafiltration of lecithin mixture.

  4. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  5. Risk of secondary lymphedema in breast cancer survivors is related to serum phospholipid fatty acid desaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eunjung; Yim, Seung Yun; Do, Hyun Ju; Lim, Jae-Young; Yang, Eun Joo; Shin, Min-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Min

    2016-09-01

    Secondary lymphedema is a common irreversible side effect of breast cancer surgery. We investigated if risk of secondary lymphedema in breast cancer survivors was related to changes in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition. Study subjects were voluntarily recruited into the following three groups: breast cancer survivors who had sentinel lymph node biopsy without lymphedema (SLNB), those who had auxillary lymph node dissection without lymphedema (ALND), and those who had ALND with lymphedema (ALND + LE). Body mass index (BMI), serum lipid profiles, bioimpedance data with single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SFBIA), and serum phospholipid compositions were analyzed and compared among the groups. BMI, serum total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and SFBIA ratios increased only in the ALND + LE. High polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high C20:4 to C18:2 n-6 PUFAs (arachidonic acid [AA]/linoleic acid [LA]) was detected in the ALND and ALND + LE groups compared to SLNB. The ALND + LE group showed increased activity indices for delta 6 desaturase (D6D) and D5D and increased ratio of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (AA/EPA) compared to the ALND and SLNB groups. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that D6D, D5D, and AA/EPA were associated with SFBIA ratios. We demonstrated that breast cancer survivors with lymphedema had elevated total PUFAs, fatty acid desaturase activity indices, and AA/EPA in serum phospholipids. Our findings suggested that desaturation extent of fatty acid composition might be related to the risk of secondary lymphedema in breast cancer survivors.

  6. Molecular phospholipid films on solid supports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czolkos, Ilja; Jesorka, Aldo; Orwar, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid membranes are versatile structures for mimicking biological surfaces. Bilayer and monolayer membranes can be formed on solid supports, leading to enhanced stability and accessibility of the biomimetic molecular film. This has facilitated functional studies of membrane proteins and ai...

  7. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have distinct membrane locations and lipid interactions as determined by X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-01-31

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differentially influence lipid oxidation, signal transduction, fluidity, and cholesterol domain formation, potentially due in part to distinct membrane interactions. We used small angle X-ray diffraction to evaluate the EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure. Membrane vesicles composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and cholesterol (C) (0.3C:POPC mole ratio) were prepared and treated with vehicle, EPA, or DHA (1:10 mol ratio to POPC). Electron density profiles generated from the diffraction data showed that EPA increased membrane hydrocarbon core electron density over a broad area, up to ± 20 Å from the membrane center, indicating an energetically favorable extended orientation for EPA likely stabilized by van der Waals interactions. By contrast, DHA increased electron density in the phospholipid head group region starting at ± 12 Å from the membrane center, presumably due to DHA-surface interactions, with coincident reduction in electron density in the membrane hydrocarbon core centered ± 7-9 Å from the membrane center. The membrane width (d-space) decreased by 5 Å in the presence of vehicle as the temperature increased from 10 °C to 30 °C due to increased acyl chain trans-gauche isomerizations, which was unaffected by addition of EPA or DHA. The influence of DHA on membrane structure was modulated by temperature changes while the interactions of EPA were unaffected. The contrasting EPA and DHA effects on membrane structure indicate distinct molecular locations and orientations that may contribute to observed differences in biological activity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  9. The interaction of insulin with phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M. C.; Tampion, W.; Lucy, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. A simple two-phase chloroform–aqueous buffer system was used to investigate the interaction of insulin with phospholipids and other amphipathic substances. 2. The distribution of 125I-labelled insulin in this system was determined after incubation at 37°C. Phosphatidic acid, dicetylphosphoric acid and, to a lesser extent, phosphatidylcholine and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide solubilized 125I-labelled insulin in the chloroform phase, indicating the formation of chloroform-soluble insulin–phospholipid or insulin–amphipath complexes. Phosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, cholesterol, stearylamine and Triton X-100 were without effect. 3. Formation of insulin–phospholipid complex was confirmed by paper chromatography. 4. The two-phase system was adapted to act as a simple functional system with which to investigate possible effects of insulin on the structural and functional properties of phospholipid micelles in chloroform, by using the distribution of [14C]glucose between the two phases as a monitor of phospholipid–insulin interactions. The ability of phospholipids to solubilize [14C]glucose in chloroform increased in the order phosphatidylcholineInsulin decreased the [14C]glucose solubilized by phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid, but not by sphingomyelin. 5. The significance of these results and the molecular requirements for the formation of insulin–phospholipid complexes in chloroform are discussed. PMID:5158903

  10. Isolated soya protein with standardised levels of isoflavones, cotyledon soya fibres and soya phospholipids improves plasma lipids in hypercholesterolaemia: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a yoghurt formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puska, Pekka; Korpelainen, Vesa; Høie, Lars H; Skovlund, Eva; Smerud, Knut T

    2004-03-01

    The objective was to study whether a yoghurt containing isolated soya protein with standardised levels of isoflavones, cotyledon soya fibres and soya phospholipids is more effective in lowering total and LDL-cholesterol than a placebo. One hundred and forty-three subjects were randomised to the soya group (n 69) or to the placebo (n 74). The mean baseline levels were 7.6 and 5.1 mmol/l for total and LDL-cholesterol, respectively. Fasting serum lipoproteins were assessed five times during the 8-week intervention period, and 4 weeks thereafter. The results were analysed by a mixed model for unbalanced repeated measurements. During the intervention, there were highly significant differences in lipid-lowering effect in favour of the active soya intervention group compared with the control group. The significant differences were for total cholesterol (estimated mean difference 0.40 mmol/l; P<0.001), LDL-cholesterol (0.39 mmol/l; P<0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (0.40 mmol/l; P<0.001) and for the total:HDL-cholesterol ratio (0.23; P=0.005). There was no difference in the effects on HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols or homocysteine. The lipid-lowering effect occurred within 1-2 weeks of intervention, and was not due to weight loss. The safety profile for active soya was similar to the placebo group, except for gastrointestinal symptoms, which caused a significantly higher dropout rate (fourteen v. three subjects) among the subjects taking active soya.

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves glycemic control in elderly bedridden patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Susumu; Abe, Takaaki; Nako, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Masashi; Senda, Miho; Sakamoto, Takuya; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids mainly contained in the blue-backed fish oil, and are effective in decreasing the lipids disorder and the cardiovascular incidence among diabetic patients. Moreover, it has been suggested that EPA and DHA may improve the insulin resistance and glucose metabolism. However, the clinical effects of EPA and DHA on glucose metabolism remain unclear. We aimed to clarify the effects of EPA/DHA treatment on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial involving 30 elderly type 2 diabetic patients on a liquid diet. Their exercises were almost zero and the content of their meals was strictly managed and understood well. Therefore, the difference by the individual's life was a minimum. The subjects were divided into two groups: those receiving EPA/DHA-rich liquid diet [EPA/DHA (+)] or liquid diet lacking EPA/DHA [EPA/DHA (-)]. Changes in factors related to glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed after the three-month study. Serum concentrations of EPA rose in EPA/DHA (+), although the levels of DHA and fasting C-peptide remained unchanged in EPA/DHA (+). In addition, there was a significant decline in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting remnant-like particles and apolipoprotein (apo) B in EPA/DHA (+), compared with the values in EPA/DHA (-). EPA/DHA-rich diet might improve glucose metabolism in elderly type 2 diabetic patients on a liquid diet. This phenomenon may be due to the improved insulin resistance mediated by the rise in serum EPA concentrations.

  12. Effect of intravenous omega-3 fatty acid infusion and hemodialysis on fatty acid composition of free fatty acids and phospholipids in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Toft, Egon; Aardestrup, Inge; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Schmidt, Erik B

    2011-01-01

    Patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) have been reported to have decreased levels of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in plasma and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ω-3 PUFAs administered intravenously during HD, as well as the effect of HD treatment, on the fatty acid composition of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), plasma phospholipids, and platelet phospholipids. Forty-four HD patients were randomized to groups receiving either a single dose of a lipid emulsion containing 4.1 g of ω-3 PUFAs or placebo (saline) administered intravenously during HD. Blood was drawn immediately before (baseline) and after (4 hours) HD and before the next HD session (48 hours). Fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography. The increase in ω-3 FFAs was greater in the ω-3 PUFA group compared with the placebo group, whereas the increase in total FFAs was similar between the 2 groups. In the ω-3 PUFA group, ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids were higher after 48 hours than at baseline, and in platelet phospholipids, ω-3 PUFAs increased after 4 hours. In the placebo group, no changes were observed in ω-3 PUFAs in plasma and platelet phospholipids. Intravenous ω-3 PUFAs administered during HD caused a transient selective increase in ω-3 FFA concentration. Furthermore, ω-3 PUFAs were rapidly incorporated into platelets, and the content of ω-3 PUFAs in plasma phospholipids increased after 48 hours.

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid in cancer improves body composition and modulates metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Giulia; Almeida, Ana; Ravasco, Paula

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this review article is to present the most recent intervention studies with EPA on nutritional outcomes in cancer patients, e.g. nutritional status, weight & lean body mass. For this purpose a PubMed(®) and MedLine(®) search of the published literature up to and including January 2014 that contained the keywords: cancer, sarcopenia, EPA, ω-3 fatty acids, weight, intervention trial, muscle mass was conducted. The collected data was summarized and written in text format and in tables that contained: study design, patient' population, sample size, statistical significance and results of the intervention. The paper will cover malignancy, body composition, intervention with EPA, physiological mechanisms of action of EPA, effect of EPA on weight and body composition, future research. In cancer patients deterioration of muscle mass can be present regardless of body weight or Body Mass Index (BMI). Thus, sarcopenia in cancer patients with excessive fat mass (FM), entitled sarcopenic obesity, has gained greater relevance in clinical practice; it can negatively influence patients' functional status, tolerance to treatments & disease prognosis. The search for an effective nutritional intervention that improves body composition (preservation of muscle mass and muscle quality) is of utmost importance for clinicians and patients. The improvement of muscle quality is an even more recent area of interest because it has probable implications in patients' prognosis. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) has been identified as a promising nutrient with the wide clinical benefits. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain EPA potential benefits on body composition: inhibition of catabolic stimuli by modulating pro-inflammatory cytokines production and enhancing insulin sensitivity that induces protein synthesis; also, EPA may attenuate deterioration of nutritional status resulting from antineoplastic therapies by improving calorie and protein intake as well. Indeed

  14. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  15. Autistic disorder and phospholipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christine M; Austin, David W

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulated phospholipid metabolism has been proposed as an underlying biological component of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autistic disorder (AD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review provides an overview of fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism and evidence for phospholipid dysregulation with reference to the membrane hypothesis of schizophrenia. While there is evidence that phospholipid metabolism is at least impaired in individuals with AD, it has not been established whether phospholipid metabolism is implicated in causal, mechanistic or epiphenomenological models. More research is needed to ascertain whether breastfeeding, and specifically, the administration of colostrum or an adequate substitute can play a preventative role by supplying the neonate with essential fatty acids (EFAs) at a critical juncture in their development. Regarding treatment, further clinical trials of EFA supplementation are essential to determine the efficacy of EFAs in reducing AD symptomatology and whether supplementation can serve as a cost-effective and readily available intervention. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Granules Have no Phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresan, Stephanie; Sznajder, Anna; Hauf, Waldemar; Forchhammer, Karl; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, also designated as carbonosomes, are supra-molecular complexes in prokaryotes consisting of a PHB polymer core and a surface layer of structural and functional proteins. The presence of suspected phospholipids in the surface layer is based on in vitro data of isolated PHB granules and is often shown in cartoons of the PHB granule structure in reviews on PHB metabolism. However, the in vivo presence of a phospholipid layer has never been demonstrated. We addressed this topic by the expression of fusion proteins of DsRed2EC and other fluorescent proteins with the phospholipid-binding domain (LactC2) of lactadherin in three model organisms. The fusion proteins specifically localized at the cell membrane of Ralstonia eutropha but did not co-localize with PHB granules. The same result was obtained for Pseudomonas putida, a species that accumulates another type of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules related to PHB. Notably, DsRed2EC-LactC2 expressed in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense was detected at the position of membrane-enclosed magnetosome chains and at the cytoplasmic membrane but not at PHB granules. In conclusion, the carbonosomes of representatives of α-proteobacteria, β-proteobacteria and γ-proteobacteria have no phospholipids in vivo and we postulate that the PHB/PHA granule surface layers in natural producers generally are free of phospholipids and consist of proteins only. PMID:27222167

  17. Association of polymorphisms in FADS gene with age-related changes in serum phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidative stress markers in middle-aged nonobese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong SH

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Seul Hee Hong,1,* Jung Hyun Kwak,2,* Jean Kyung Paik,3 Jey Sook Chae,2 Jong Ho Lee1,21National Research Laboratory for Clinical Nutrigenetics/Nutrigenomics, 2Research Institute of Science for Aging, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: To investigate the association of FADS gene polymorphisms with age-related changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in serum phospholipids and oxidative stress markers.Methods: We genotyped 122 nonobese men aged 35–59 years without any known diseases at baseline for rs174537 near FADS1 (FEN1 rs174537G > T, FADS2 (rs174575, rs2727270, and FADS3 (rs1000778, and followed them for 3 years.Results: Among the four single-nucleotide polymorphisms, the minor variants of rs174537 and rs2727270 were significantly associated with lower concentrations of long-chain PUFAs. However, rs174537G > T showed stronger association. At baseline, men with the rs174537T allele had lower arachidonic acid (AA and AA/linoleic acid (LA, and higher interleukin (IL-6 levels than rs174537GG counterparts. After 3 years, rs174537GG men had significantly increased AA (P = 0.022, AA/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA (P = 0.007, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL, but decreased eicosatrienoic acid. The rs174537T group showed significantly increased γ-linolenic acid and ox-LDL, and decreased eicosadienoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/α-linolenic acid (ALA, and IL-6. After 3 years, the rs174537T group had lower AA (P < 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.019, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-epi-PGF2α (P = 0.011 than rs174537GG. Changes in AA (P = 0.001, AA/DGLA (P = 0.017, EPA, DPA, EPA/ALA, and urinary 8-epi-PGF2α (P < 0.001 were significantly different between the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Overall, changes in AA

  18. Hybrid, Nanoscale Phospholipid/Block Copolymer Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liedberg

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles, in which the polymeric membrane is blended with phospholipids, display interesting self-assembly behavior, incorporating the robustness and chemical versatility of polymersomes with the softness and biocompatibility of liposomes. Such structures can be conveniently characterized by preparing giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs via electroformation. Here, we are interested in exploring the self-assembly and properties of the analogous nanoscale hybrid vesicles (ca. 100 nm in diameter of the same composition prepared by film-hydration and extrusion. We show that the self-assembly and content-release behavior of nanoscale polybutadiene-b-poly(ethylene oxide (PB-PEO/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC hybrid phospholipid/block copolymer vesicles can be tuned by the mixing ratio of the amphiphiles. In brief, these hybrids may provide alternative tools for drug delivery purposes and molecular imaging/sensing applications and clearly open up new avenues for further investigation.

  19. Protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on ouabain toxicity in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaq, H.; Leaf, A.; Sellmayer, A.; Smith, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Isolated neonatal cardiac myocytes have been utilized as a model for the study of cardiac arrhythmogenic factors. The myocytes respond to the toxic effects of a potent cardiac glycoside, ouabain at 0.1 mM, by an increase in their spontaneous beating rate and a reduction in amplitude of contractions resulting within minutes in a lethal state of contracture. Incubating the isolated myocytes for 3 endash 5 days in culture medium enriched with 5 μM arachidonic acid had no effect on the development of lethal contracture after subsequent exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain. By contrast, incubating the myocytes for 3 endash 5 days with 5 μM eicosapentaenoic acid completely prevented the toxic effects of ouabain at 0.1 mM. No differences in bumetanide-inhibitable 86 Rb flux were observed between the three preparations. However, measurements with fura-2 of cytosolic free calcium levels indicated that control and arachidonic acid-enriched myocytes developed toxic cytosolic calcium concentrations of 845 ± 29 and 757 ± 64 nM, respectively, on exposure to 0.1 mM ouabain, whereas in eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched myocytes, physiologic calcium levels were preserved. Incubating the myocytes with eicosapentaenoic acid for 3 endash 5 days resulted in a small reduction of arachidonic acid and a small but significant increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in membrane phospolipids of the myocytes

  20. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids from the coastal marine fish of Bay of Bengal and their therapeutic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Rabindranath; Dhara, Tushar K; Bhadra, Ranjan; Majumder, Gopal C; Sen, Parimal C

    2010-12-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) significantly present in marine fish oil emerge as preventive agents for combating many health problems specially in chronic or metabolic disorders. The fish in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal has remained unexplored with respect to EPA/DHA enriched PUFA content in its oils, although it may be a potential source in harnessing the health benefit. In this study, seven varieties of the coastal fish were analysed for the content of EPA/DHA. The one locally known as lotte, (Harpadon nehereus) though has low content of total lipids, was found to have high EPA/DHA in its oil. The phospholipids rich fraction was extracted from the total fish oil. The EPA/DHA enriched PUFA was isolated to investigate the potential use for health benefits. EPA/DHA is found to act as protective agent against mercury poisoning studied in cell culture as well as in animal mode. It is found to be highly preventive in diabetes. The lotte is available in the coastal area of Bay of Bengal adjoining West Bengal, India in large scale and it is the first report showing EPA/DHA enriched PUFA in these fish oil that can be availed to harness in important health benefits.

  1. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are

  2. A phospholipidomic analysis of all defined human plasma lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are

  3. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...

  4. [The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on liver phospholipid composition of rats with insulin resistance caused by alimentary obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onopchenko, O V; Kosiakova, H V; Horid'ko, T M; Klimashevskyĭ, V M; Hula, N M

    2014-01-01

    We used alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR) model in rats to investigate the influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the content of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition. Our results show that prolonged high-fat diet triggers considerable aberrations in the composition of main phospholipids in the liver and can be one of the causes of IR in rats. In particular, the increase of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and significant decrease of other phospholipids: lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and diphosphaglicerol were observed. The levels of monounsaturated (erucic, nervonic, oleic) and polyunsaturated (eicosatrienoic, docosatrienoic, arachidonic) fatty acids were increased; meanwhile the content of diunsaturated acids was decreased. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight) caused restoration of the phospholipids content in the liver of rats with diet-induced IR that highly correlated with the decrease in plasma insulin level and the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the effect of NSE was accompanied by the normalization of fatty acids composition of phospholipids that could be related to modulating influence of NSE on the activity of the main fatty acid desaturases. It is known that the imbalance in phospholipid composition of the rat liver causes substantial metabolic alterations that are associated with the development of IR. Accordingly, the compensations of the imbalance by NSE can help to restore insulin sensitivity, inhibit the development of obesity, IR and type 2 diabetes.

  5. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on liver phospholipid composition of rats with insulin resistance caused by alimentary obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We used alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR model in rats to investigate the influence of N-stearoylethanolamine on the content of phospholipids and their fatty acid composition. Our results show that prolonged high-fat diet triggers considerable aberrations in the composition of main phospholipids in the liver and can be one of the causes of IR in rats. In particular, the increase of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and significant decrease of other phospholipids: lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and diphosphaglicerol were observed. The levels of monounsaturated (erucic, nervonic, oleic and polyunsaturated (eicosatrienoic, docosatrienoic, arachidonic fatty acids were increased; meanwhile the content of diunsaturated acids was decreased. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight caused restoration of the phospholipids content in the liver of rats with diet-induced IR that highly correlated with the decrease in plasma insulin level and the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the effect of NSE was accompanied by the normalization of fatty acids composition of phospholipids that could be related to modulating influen­ce of NSE on the activity of the main fatty acid desaturases. It is known that the imbalance in phospholipid composition of the rat liver causes substantial metabolic alterations that are associated with the development of IR. Accordingly, the compensations of the imbalance by NSE can help to restore insulin sensitivity, inhibit the development of obesity, IR and type 2 diabetes.

  6. Phospholipids of New Zealand Edible Brown Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Lagutin, Kirill; MacKenzie, Andrew; Mitchell, Kevin; Scott, Dawn

    2017-07-01

    Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids. NI (negative ion) ESI QToF MS spectra confirmed the presence of more familiar phospholipids, and also suggested the presence of PHEG or its isomers. The structure of PHEG was confirmed by comparison with a synthetic standard. An unusual MS fragmentation pattern that was also observed prompted us to synthesise a number of possible candidates, and was found to follow that of phosphatidylhydroxyethyl methylcarbamate, likely an extraction artefact. An unexpected outcome was the finding of ceramidephosphoinositol that has not been reported previously as occurring in brown algae. An uncommon arsenic-containing phospholipid has also been observed and quantified, and its TLC behaviour studied, along with that of the newly synthesised lipids.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation of a phospholipid membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, Egbert; Marrink, Siewert-Jan; Berendsen, Herman J.C.

    We present the results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a phospholipid membrane in water, including full atomic detail. The goal of the simulations was twofold: first we wanted to set up a simulation system which is able to reproduce experimental results and can serve as a model membrane in

  8. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    NUMBER Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0497 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...suspected of alcohol abuse. Toxicol Lett, 151(1), 235-241. Graham, D. P., Cardon , A. L., & Uhl, G. R. (2008). An update on substance use and treatment

  9. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  10. Bioinspired phospholipid polymer biomaterials for making high performance artificial organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ishihara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel polymer biomaterials, which can be used in contact with blood, are prepared with strong inspiration from the surface structure of biomembrane. That is, the polymers with a phospholipid polar group in the side chain, 2-methacrylooyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC polymers were synthesized. The MPC polymers can inhibit surface-induced clot formation effectively, when they are in contact with blood even in the absence of an anticoagulant. This phenomenon was due to the reduction of plasma protein and suppression of denaturation of adsorbed proteins, that is the MPC polymers interact with blood components very mildly. As the molecular structure of the MPC polymer was easily designed by changing the monomer units and their composition, it could be applied to surface modification of artificial organs and biomedical devices for improving blood and tissue compatibility. Thus, the MPC polymers are useful polymer biomaterials for manufacturing high performance artificial organs and biomedical devices to provide safe medical treatments.

  11. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...... design. This will of course provide fundamental bases also for the development of enzymatic technology to produce structured or modified phospholipids....

  12. Phospholipid Binding Protein C Inhibitor (PCI) Is Present on Microparticles Generated In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfinger, Katrin; Badrnya, Sigrun; Furtmüller, Margareta; Handschuh, Daniela; Lindner, Herbert; Geiger, Margarethe

    2015-01-01

    Protein C inhibitor is a secreted, non-specific serine protease inhibitor with broad protease reactivity. It binds glycosaminoglycans and anionic phospholipids, which can modulate its activity. Anionic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine are normally localized to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, but are exposed on activated and apoptotic cells and on plasma membrane-derived microparticles. In this report we show by flow cytometry that microparticles derived from cultured cells and activated platelets incorporated protein C inhibitor during membrane blebbing. Moreover, protein C inhibitor is present in/on microparticles circulating in normal human plasma as judged from Western blots, ELISAs, flow cytometry, and mass spectrometry. These plasma microparticles are mainly derived from megakaryocytes. They seem to be saturated with protein C inhibitor, since they do not bind added fluorescence-labeled protein C inhibitor. Heparin partially removed microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor, supporting our assumption that protein C inhibitor is bound via phospholipids. To assess the biological role of microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor we performed protease inhibition assays and co-precipitated putative binding partners on microparticles with anti-protein C inhibitor IgG. As judged from amidolytic assays microparticle-bound protein C inhibitor did not inhibit activated protein C or thrombin, nor did microparticles modulate the activity of exogenous protein C inhibitor. Among the proteins co-precipitating with protein C inhibitor, complement factors, especially complement factor 3, were most striking. Taken together, our data do not support a major role of microparticle-associated protein C inhibitor in coagulation, but rather suggest an interaction with proteins of the complement system present on these phospholipid vesicles. PMID:26580551

  13. Keloids in rural black South Africans. Part 2: dietary fatty acid intake and total phospholipid fatty acid profile in the blood of keloid patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, L; Dannhauser, A

    2000-11-01

    In the second part of this study, emphasis is placed on nutritional intakes (fatty acids and micronutrients) and fatty acid intake and metabolism in the blood, respectively, according to a combined 24 h recall and standardized food frequency questionnaire analyses of keloid prone patients (n=10), compared with normal black South Africans (n=80), and total phospholipid blood (plasma and red blood cell ) analyses of keloid patients (n=20), compared with normal individuals (n=20). Lipid extraction and fractionation by standard procedures, total phospholipid (TPL) separation with thin layer chromatography, and fatty acid methyl ester analyses with gas liquid chromatography techniques were used. Since nutrition may play a role in several disease disorders, the purpose of this study was to confirm or refute a role for essential fatty acids (EFAs) in the hypothesis of keloid formations stated in part 1 of this study. (1)According to the Canadian recommendation (1991), we observed that in keloid patients linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-6-series, are higher than the recommended 7-11 g/d. However, the a-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intakes, as EFAs of the omega-3 series, are lower than the recommendation of 1.1-1.5 g/d. This was also the case in the control group, where a higher dietary intake of the omega-6 fatty acids and a slightly lower dietary intake of the omega-3 fatty acids occurred. Thus, we confirm a high dietary intake of LA (as a product of organ meats, diary products and many vegetable oils) and AA (as a product of meats and egg yolks), as well as lower dietary intakes of ALA (as a product of grains, green leafy vegetables, soy oil, rapeseed oil and linseed), and EPA and DHA (as products of marine oils). Lower micronutrient intakes than the recommended dietary allowances were observed in the keloid group that may influence EFA metabolism and/or collagen

  14. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  15. Sea cucumber and blue mussel: new sources of phospholipid enriched omega-3 fatty acids with a potential role in 3T3-L1 adipocyte metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Hitesh; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2014-12-01

    Omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are known to reduce the risk of insulin resistance and ameliorate obesity-associated disorders. DHA and EPA structured in the phospholipid form possess superior biological effects compared to the triglyceride form available in fish oil. In this study, we have found that sea cucumber (SC) and blue mussel (BM) from Newfoundland and Labrador are rich sources of n-3 PUFA structured in the phospholipid form. Treatment with SC and BM methanolic extracts (250 and 100 μg mL(-1), respectively) significantly (p triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, along with an increase in the mRNA expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (37 and 39%, respectively) and adiponectin (57 and 56%, respectively) compared with control cells (p triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells as opposed to an increase in triglyceride accumulation at lower concentrations. This was due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and SREBP-1 mRNA expression compared to control cells (p triglyceride accumulation at higher concentrations is not due to breakdown and release of fat. This is the first report to show that SC and BM are new sources of phospholipid bonded n-3 PUFA, with the potential to target insulin resistance and obesity.

  16. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana C; Baj, Vanessa; Beeren, Sophie R; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2017-10-17

    Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  17. Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhamalsadat Shekarforoush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC and the total phenolic content (TPC of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient and pressures (vacuum, ambient. 1H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin within phospholipid fibers. Release studies in aqueous media revealed that the phenolic bioactives were released mainly due to swelling of the phospholipid fiber matrix over time. The above studies confirm the efficacy of electrospun phospholipid microfibers as encapsulation and antioxidant systems.

  18. A randomized longitudinal dietary intervention study during pregnancy: effects on fish intake, phospholipids, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Marja; Hussain, Aysha; Karlsson, Therese; Andersson, Louise; Hulthén, Lena; Svelander, Cecilia; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Larsson, Ingrid; Ellegård, Lars; Holmäng, Agneta

    2015-01-02

    Fish and meat intake may affect gestational weight gain, body composition and serum fatty acids. We aimed to determine whether a longitudinal dietary intervention during pregnancy could increase fish intake, affect serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain and body composition changes during pregnancy in women of normal weight participating in the Pregnancy Obesity Nutrition and Child Health study. A second aim was to study possible effects in early pregnancy of fish intake and meat intake, respectively, on serum phospholipid fatty acids, gestational weight gain, and body composition changes during pregnancy. In this prospective, randomized controlled study, women were allocated to a control group or to a dietary counseling group that focused on increasing fish intake. Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured by air-displacement plethysmography. Reported intake of fish and meat was collected from a baseline population and from a subgroup of women who participated in each trimester of their pregnancies. Serum levels of phospholipid arachidonic acid (s-ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (s-EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (s-DHA) were measured during each trimester. Weekly fish intake increased only in the intervention group (n = 18) from the first to the second trimester (median difference 113 g, p = 0.03) and from the first to the third trimester (median difference 75 g, p = 0.01). In the first trimester, fish intake correlated with s-EPA (r = 0.36, p = 0.002, n = 69) and s-DHA (r = 0.34, p = 0.005, n = 69), and meat intake correlated with s-ARA (r = 0.28, p = 0.02, n = 69). Fat-free mass gain correlated with reported meat intake in the first trimester (r = 0.39, p = 0.01, n = 45). Dietary counseling throughout pregnancy could help women increase their fish intake. Intake of meat in early pregnancy may increase the gain in fat-free mass during pregnancy.

  19. Phospholipids as Biomarkers for Excessive Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    is designed to evaluate the utility of levels of two phospholipids in serum as a marker of past drinking behavior across month- level time horizons...in an attempt to improve ability to measure alcohol quantity consumed and associated damage better than can be done with ethyl alcohol level measures...and other existing tests that only measure very recent exposure and poorly reflect quantity consumed . This will be achieved by correlating detailed

  20. Cholesterol autoxidation in phospholipid membrane bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevanian, A.; McLeod, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation in unilamellar liposomes of known cholesterol-phospholipid composition was monitored under conditions of autoxidation or as induced by a superoxide radical generating system, gamma-irradiation or cumene hydroperoxide. Formation of cholesterol oxidation products was indexed to the level of lipid peroxidation. The major cholesterol oxidation products identified were 7-keto-cholesterol, isomeric cholesterol 5,6-epoxides, isomeric 7-hydroperoxides and isomeric 3,7-cholestane diols. Other commonly encountered products included 3,5-cholestadiene-7-one and cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha, 6 beta-triol. Superoxide-dependent peroxidation required iron and produced a gradual increase in 7-keto-cholesterol and cholesterol epoxides. Cholesterol oxidation was greatest in liposomes containing high proportions of unsaturated phospholipid to cholesterol (4:1 molar ratio), intermediate with low phospholipid to cholesterol ratios (2:1) and least in liposomes prepared with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol. This relationship held regardless of the oxidizing conditions used. Cumene hydroperoxide-dependent lipid peroxidation and/or more prolonged oxidations with other oxidizing systems yielded a variety of products where cholesterol-5 beta,6 beta-epoxide, 7-ketocholesterol and the 7-hydroperoxides were most consistently elevated. Oxyradical initiation of lipid peroxidation produced a pattern of cholesterol oxidation products distinguishable from the pattern derived by cumene hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidation

  1. Annexin-Phospholipid Interactions. Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Turnay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Annexins constitute an evolutionary conserved multigene protein superfamily characterized by their ability to interact with biological membranes in a calcium dependent manner. They are expressed by all living organisms with the exception of certain unicellular organisms. The vertebrate annexin core is composed of four (eight in annexin A6 homologous domains of around 70 amino acids, with the overall shape of a slightly bent ring surrounding a central hydrophilic pore. Calcium- and phospholipid-binding sites are located on the convex side while the N-terminus links domains I and IV on the concave side. The N-terminus region shows great variability in length and amino acid sequence and it greatly influences protein stability and specific functions of annexins. These proteins interact mainly with acidic phospholipids, such as phosphatidylserine, but differences are found regarding their affinity for lipids and calcium requirements for the interaction. Annexins are involved in a wide range of intra- and extracellular biological processes in vitro, most of them directly related with the conserved ability to bind to phospholipid bilayers: membrane trafficking, membrane-cytoskeleton anchorage, ion channel activity and regulation, as well as antiinflammatory and anticoagulant activities. However, the in vivo physiological functions of annexins are just beginning to be established.

  2. Identification of unusual phospholipid fatty acyl compositions of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Palusinska-Szysz

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba are opportunistic protozoan pathogens that may lead to sight-threatening keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis. The successful prognosis requires early diagnosis and differentiation of pathogenic Acanthamoeba followed by aggressive treatment regimen. The plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba consists of 25% phospholipids (PL. The presence of C20 and, recently reported, 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues is characteristic of amoeba PL. A detailed knowledge about this unusual PL composition could help to differentiate Acanthamoeba from other parasites, e.g. bacteria and develop more efficient treatment strategies. Therefore, the detailed PL composition of Acanthamoeba castellanii was investigated by 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Normal and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection was used for detailed characterization of the fatty acyl composition of each detected PL. The most abundant fatty acyl residues in each PL class were octadecanoyl (18∶0, octadecenoyl (18∶1 Δ9 and hexadecanoyl (16∶0. However, some selected PLs contained also very long fatty acyl chains: the presence of 28- and 30-carbon fatty acyl residues was confirmed in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid and cardiolipin. The majority of these fatty acyl residues were also identified in PE that resulted in the following composition: 28∶1/20∶2, 30∶2/18∶1, 28∶0/20∶2, 30∶2/20∶4 and 30∶3/20∶3. The PL of amoebae are significantly different in comparison to other cells: we describe here for the first time unusual, very long chain fatty acids with Δ5-unsaturation (30∶35,21,24 and 30∶221,24 localized exclusively in specific phospholipid classes of A. castellanii protozoa that could serve as specific biomarkers for the presence of

  3. Porphyrin-phospholipid interaction and ring metallation depending on the phospholipid polar head type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana P; Pavani, Christiane; Iamamoto, Yassuko; Zaniquelli, Maria E D

    2010-10-01

    The interaction between a hydrophobically modified 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-tetradecyl-pyridyl) porphyrin and three phospholipids: two negatively charged, DMPA (the sodium salt of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidyl acid) and DMPG (the sodium salt of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)]) and a zwitterionic DMPC (dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylcholine), were studied by means of surface pressure isotherms and spectroscopic methods. The interaction results in partial or total metallation of the porphyrin with zinc ions in the presence of negatively charged phospholipids, as attested by UV-vis and luminescence spectroscopy of the transferred films. In the presence of the zwitterionic phospholipid no insertion of zinc ion in the porphyrin ring is detected. These results are relevant for the understanding of photosensitizer-lipid-carrier binding for use in photodynamic therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidiabetic phospholipid-nuclear receptor complex reveals the mechanism for phospholipid-driven gene regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musille, Paul M; Pathak, Manish C; Lauer, Janelle L; Hudson, William H; Griffin, Patrick R; Ortlund, Eric A [Emory-MED; (Scripps)

    2013-01-31

    The human nuclear receptor liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) has an important role in controlling lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and is a potential target for the treatment of diabetes and hepatic diseases. LRH-1 is known to bind phospholipids, but the role of phospholipids in controlling LRH-1 activation remains highly debated. Here we describe the structure of both apo LRH-1 and LRH-1 in complex with the antidiabetic phospholipid dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC). Together with hydrogen-deuterium exchange MS and functional data, our studies show that DLPC binding is a dynamic process that alters co-regulator selectivity. We show that the lipid-free receptor undergoes previously unrecognized structural fluctuations, allowing it to interact with widely expressed co-repressors. These observations enhance our understanding of LRH-1 regulation and highlight its importance as a new therapeutic target for controlling diabetes.

  5. Physico-chemical properties, oxidative stability and non-enzymatic browning in marine phospholipid emulsions and their use in food applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng

    Marine phospholipids (PL) contain a high level of eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), which have documented beneficial effect on human health. In addition, marine PL are more advantageous than crude or refined fish oils. Marine PL are more resistant to oxidation, provide...... of current marine PL that was used for emulsion preparation and food application. In addition, the oxidative stability and sensory quality of marine PL fortified products varied depending on the quality and source of marine PL used for fortification. Although the attempts to incorporate marine PL into food...... better bioavailability and ability to form liposomes. All these unique properties of marine PL make them an attractive choice as ingredients for food fortification. Nowadays, a wide range of food products fortified with n-3 triglycerides (TAG) are available worldwide. However, the feasibility of using...

  6. A Phospholipidomic Analysis of All Defined Human Plasma Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Monireh; Kulik, Willem; Hoek, Frans; Veerman, Enno C.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Since plasma lipoproteins contain both protein and phospholipid components, either may be involved in processes such as atherosclerosis. In this study the identification of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipids, which is essential for understanding these processes at the molecular level, are performed. LC-ESI/MS, LC-ESI-MS/MS and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis of different lipoprotein fractions collected from pooled plasma revealed the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and sphingomyeline (SM) only on lipoproteins and phosphatidylcholine (PC), Lyso-PC on both lipoproteins and plasma lipoprotein free fraction (PLFF). Cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and Phosphatidylserine (PS) were observed neither in the lipoprotein fractions nor in PLFF. All three approaches led to the same results regarding phospholipids occurrence in plasma lipoproteins and PLFF. A high abundancy of PE and SM was observed in VLDL and LDL fractions respectively. This study provides for the first time the knowledge about the phospholipid composition of all defined plasma lipoproteins. PMID:22355656

  7. Statin action enriches HDL3 in polyunsaturated phospholipids and plasmalogens and reduces LDL-derived phospholipid hydroperoxides in atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ricardo; Giral, Philippe; Robillard, Paul; Kontush, Anatol; Chapman, M. John

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic mixed dyslipidemia associates with oxidative stress and defective HDL antioxidative function in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The impact of statin treatment on the capacity of HDL to inactivate LDL-derived, redox-active phospholipid hydroperoxides (PCOOHs) in MetS is indeterminate. Insulin-resistant, hypertriglyceridemic, hypertensive, obese males were treated with pitavastatin (4 mg/day) for 180 days, resulting in marked reduction in plasma TGs (−41%) and LDL-cholesterol (−38%), with minor effects on HDL-cholesterol and apoAI. Native plasma LDL (baseline vs. 180 days) was oxidized by aqueous free radicals under mild conditions in vitro either alone or in the presence of the corresponding pre- or poststatin HDL2 or HDL3 at authentic plasma mass ratios. Lipidomic analyses revealed that statin treatment i) reduced the content of oxidizable polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PUPC) species containing DHA and linoleic acid in LDL; ii) preferentially increased the content of PUPC species containing arachidonic acid (AA) in small, dense HDL3; iii) induced significant elevation in the content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogens containing AA and DHA in HDL3; and iv) induced formation of HDL3 particles with increased capacity to inactivate PCOOH with formation of redox-inactive phospholipid hydroxide. Statin action attenuated LDL oxidability Concomitantly, the capacity of HDL3 to inactivate redox-active PCOOH was enhanced relative to HDL2, consistent with preferential enrichment of PE plasmalogens and PUPC in HDL3. PMID:27581680

  8. Platelet activating factor activity in the phospholipids of bovine spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, J.E.; Hough, S.; Elrod, C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been detected in sperm from several mammalian species and can affect sperm motility and fertilization. Because bovine sperm contain a high percentage of ether-linked phospholipid precursors required for PAF synthesis, a study was undertaken to determine the PAF activity of bovine sperm phospholipids. Total lipids of washed, ejaculated bull sperm were extracted, and phospholipids were fractionated by thin-layer chromatography. Individual phospholipid fractions were assayed for PAF activity on the basis of (3H)serotonin release from equine platelets. PAF activity was detected in the PAF fraction (1.84 pmol/mumol total phospholipid) and in serine/inositol (PS/PI), choline (CP), and ethanolamine phosphoglyceride (EP) and cardiolipin (CA) fractions. Activity was highest in the CP fraction (8.05 pmol/mumol total phospholipid). Incomplete resolution of PAF and neutral lipids may have contributed to the activity in the PS/PI and CA fractions, respectively. Phospholipids from nonsperm sources did not stimulate serotonin release. Platelet activation by purified PAF and by sperm phospholipid fractions was inhibited by the receptor antagonist SRI 63-675. These results indicate that bovine sperm contain PAF and that other sperm phospholipids, especially CP and EP, which are high in glycerylether components, are capable of receptor-mediated platelet activation.

  9. Computer simulations of phospholipid - membrane thermodynamic fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U.R.; Peters, Günther H.j.; Schröder, T.B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports all-atom computer simulations of five phospholipid membranes, DMPC, DPPC, DMPG, DMPS, and DMPSH, with a focus on the thermal equilibrium fluctuations of volume, energy, area, thickness, and order parameter. For the slow fluctuations at constant temperature and pressure (defined...... membranes, showing a similar picture. The cause of the observed strong correlations is identified by splitting volume and energy into contributions from tails, heads, and water, showing that the slow volume-energy fluctuations derive from the tail region’s van der Waals interactions and are thus analogous...

  10. Angiotensin and bradykinin interactions with phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.E.; Goodfriend, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    Reversible interactions were demonstrated between some phospholipids and some polypeptides related to angiotensin and bradykinin. The extent of the interaction was dependent on the structures of the lipid and peptide. The naturally occurring compounds that interacted most avidly were cardiolipin and (des-Asp 1 )-angiotensins. The apparent dissociation constant of this complex in chloroform was 10 -5 M. The complex contained more than one cardiolipin molecule/molecule of peptide. Kinins interacted most strongly with lecithin. The phospholipids altered the chromatographic behaviour of radioiodinated derivatives of the polypeptides, and solubilized radioactive and unlabeled polypeptides in chloroform. In aqueous media, cardiolipin suspensions preferentially bound (des-Asp 1 )-angiotensin II, and inhibited its binding by antibody. The interactions were sensitive to pH and cations in the aqueous phase, and were reversed by some reagents added to the organic phase. These interactions have direct implications for binding reactions of peptides in vitro, and may bear upon the actions of the hormones in vivo. (Auth.)

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Kuniha; Itoh, Michiko; Suganami, Takayoshi; Kanai, Sayaka; Nakagawa, Nobutaka; Sakai, Takeru; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Izumi, Yuichi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS), where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid ameliorates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in a novel mouse model using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniha Konuma

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to find novel therapeutic strategies for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, while their clinical efficacy is unclear. We have recently reported a novel rodent model of NASH using melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO mice, which exhibit the sequence of events that comprise hepatic steatosis, liver fibrosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma with obesity-related phenotypes. In the liver of MC4R-KO mice, there is a unique histological feature termed hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS, where macrophages interact with dead hepatocytes and fibrogenic cells, thereby accelerating inflammation and fibrosis. In this study, we employed MC4R-KO mice to examine the effect of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, a clinically available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the development of NASH. EPA treatment markedly prevented the development of hepatocyte injury, hCLS formation and liver fibrosis along with lipid accumulation. EPA treatment was also effective even after MC4R-KO mice developed NASH. Intriguingly, improvement of liver fibrosis was accompanied by the reduction of hCLS formation and plasma kallikrein-mediated transforming growth factor-β activation. Moreover, EPA treatment increased the otherwise reduced serum concentrations of adiponectin, an adipocytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. Collectively, EPA treatment effectively prevents the development and progression of NASH in MC4R-KO mice along with amelioration of hepatic steatosis. This study unravels a novel anti-fibrotic mechanism of EPA, thereby suggesting a clinical implication for the treatment of NASH.

  13. Screening for the drug-phospholipid interaction: correlation to phospholipidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Vitovic, Pavol; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers represent a complex, anisotropic environment fundamentally different from bulk oil or octanol, for instance. Even "simple" drug association to phospholipid bilayers can only be fully understood if the slab-of-hydrocarbon approach is abandoned and the complex, anisotropic...

  14. Co-assembly of chitosan and phospholipids into hybrid hydrogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Engwer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid hydrogels were formed by adding chitosan (Ch) to phospholipids (P) self-assembled particles in lactic acid. The effect of the phospholipid concentration on the hydrogel properties was investigated and was observed to affect the rate of hydrogel formation and viscoelastic properties...

  15. Visualization and analysis of lipopolysaccharide distribution in binary phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Maria Florencia [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Sanchez, Susana [Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States); Bakas, Laura, E-mail: lbakas@biol.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas La Plata (INIBIOLP), CCT-La Plata, CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, UNLP, Calles 60 y 120, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, UNLP, Calles 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2009-05-22

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin released from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria during infections. It have been reported that LPS may play a role in the outer membrane of bacteria similar to that of cholesterol in eukaryotic plasma membranes. In this article we compare the effect of introducing LPS or cholesterol in liposomes made of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine on the solubilization process by Triton X-100. The results show that liposomes containing LPS or cholesterol are more resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 than the binary phospholipid mixtures at 4 {sup o}C. The LPS distribution was analyzed on GUVs of DPPC:DOPC using FITC-LPS. Solid and liquid-crystalline domains were visualized labeling the GUVs with LAURDAN and GP images were acquired using a two-photon microscope. The images show a selective distribution of LPS in gel domains. Our results support the hypothesis that LPS could aggregate and concentrate selectively in biological membranes providing a mechanism to bring together several components of the LPS-sensing machinery.

  16. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A.; Williamson, P.

    1991-01-01

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho[ 14 C] ethanolamine ([ 14 C]AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by [ 14 C]AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes

  17. Specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis: a role for anti-cofactor protein antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, M; Pittoni, V; Griggi, T; Losardo, A; Leri, O; Magno, M S; Misasi, R; Valesini, G

    2000-01-01

    The antigen specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis (IM) was studied using ELISA for the detection of anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI), anti-annexin V, anti-protein S and anti-prothrombin antibodies and TLC immunostaining for the detection of anti-phospholipid antibodies. This technique enabled us to look at antibodies reacting to ‘pure’ phospholipid antigens in the absence of protein contamination. Sera from 46 patients with IM, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 with primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS), 50 with Helicobacter pylori infection and 30 healthy blood donors were tested. This study highlights anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with IM as specific ‘pure’ anti-cardiolipin antibodies, while in PAPS and SLE patients anti-phosphatidylserine and anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibodies were also found. This investigation also shows that the anti-cardiolipin antibodies found in IM can be present with anti-cofactor protein antibodies. The higher prevalence of anti-cofactor antibodies found in IM sera than in Helicobacter pylori sera may be due to the immunostimulatory effect and/or the polyclonal activation often observed in course of Epstein–Barr virus infection. However, anti-β2-GPI and, to a lesser extent, anti-prothrombin antibodies occur with a significantly lower prevalence in IM than in PAPS patients. This finding suggests that these antibodies should be regarded as the expression of the broad autoimmune syndrome involving the phospholipid-binding plasma proteins. PMID:10792380

  18. Phospholipid fatty acid and phospholipid etherlipid fingerprints approach to describe complex soil microbial community under impact of cattle husbandry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elhottová, Dana; Němcová, Anna; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 73 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : phospholipid fatty acid * phospholipid etherlipid fingerprints * cattle husbandry Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Application of Soluplus to Improve the Flowability and Dissolution of Baicalein Phospholipid Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junting Fan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel ternary complex system (TCS composed of baicalein, phospholipids, and Soluplus was prepared to improve the flowability and dissolution for baicalein phospholipid complex (BPC. TCS was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The flowability, solubility, oil–water partition coefficient, in vitro dissolution, and in vivo pharmacokinetics of the system were also evaluated. DSC, IR, PXRD, and SEM data confirmed that the crystal form of baicalein disappeared in BPC and TCS. Furthermore, the angle of repose of TCS of 35° indicated an improvement in flowability, and solubility increased by approximately eight-fold in distilled water when TCS was compared with BPC (41.00 ± 4.89 μg/mL vs. 5.00 ± 0.16 μg/mL. Approximately 91.24% of TCS was released at the end of 60 min in 0.5% SDS (pH = 6.8, which suggested that TCS could improve the dissolution velocity and extent. Moreover, TCS exhibited a considerable enhancement in bioavailability with higher peak plasma concentration (25.55 μg/mL vs. 6.05 μg/mL and increased AUC0–∞ (62.47 μg·h/mL vs. 50.48 μg·h/mL with 123.75% relative bioavailability compared with BPC. Thus, Soluplus achieved the purpose of improving the flowability and solubility of baicalein phospholipid complexes. The application of Soluplus to phospholipid complexes has great potential.

  20. Spontaneous transfer of gangliotetraosylceramide between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Sugar, I.P.; Thompson, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the neutral glycosphingolipid gangliotetraosylceramide (asialo-GM1) were investigated by monitoring tritiated asialo-GM1 movement from donor to acceptor vesicles. Two different methods were employed to separate donor and acceptor vesicles at desired time intervals. In one method, a negative charge was imparted to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine donor vesicles by including 10 mol% dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid. Donors were separated from neutral dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine acceptor vesicles by ion-exchange chromatography. In the other method, small, unilamellar donor vesicles and large, unilamellar acceptor vesicles were coincubated at 45 degrees C and then separated at desired time intervals by molecular sieve chromatography. The majority of asialo-GM1 transfer to acceptor vesicles occurred as a slow first-order process with a half-time of about 24 days assuming that the relative concentration of asialo-GM1 in the phospholipid matrix was identical in each half of the donor bilayer and that no glycolipid flip-flop occurred. Asialo-GM1 net transfer was calculated relative to that of [ 14 C]cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. A nearly identical transfer half-time was obtained when the phospholipid matrix was changed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine to palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. Varying the acceptor vesicle concentration did not significantly alter the asialo-GM1 transfer half-time. This result is consistent with a transfer mechanism involving diffusion of glycolipid through the aqueous phase rather than movement of glycolipid following formation of collisional complexes between donor and acceptor vesicles. (Abstract Truncated)

  1. Inhibition of triacylglycerol and apoprotein B secretion and of low density lipoprotein binding in Hep G2 cells by eicosapentaenoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.H.; Nestel, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The consumption of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of fish oils leads to profound lowering of plasma triacylglyercol (TAG) but not of plasma cholesterol. Reasons for this were investigated with the human hepatoma cell line, the Hep G2 cell. Incubations with oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA) and the characteristic marine fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) enriched cellular TAG mass, though least with EPA. However, secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TAG and apoprotein B (apo B), measured from [ 3 H]-glycerol and [ 3 H]-leucine was markedly inhibited by EPA. Preincubation with LA reduced VLDL-TAG but not apo B secretion in comparison with OA which stimulated both. A possible effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) removal was studied by measuring [ 125 I]-LDL binding. Preincubation with either EPA or LA inhibited the saturable binding of LDL, observed with OA and control incubations. The binding of lipoproteins containing chylomicron remnants was not affected by any of the fatty acids

  2. Dynamic shaping of cellular membranes by phospholipids and membrane-deforming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2014-10-01

    All cellular compartments are separated from the external environment by a membrane, which consists of a lipid bilayer. Subcellular structures, including clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia, lamellipodia, podosomes, and other intracellular membrane systems, are molded into their specific submicron-scale shapes through various mechanisms. Cells construct their micro-structures on plasma membrane and execute vital functions for life, such as cell migration, cell division, endocytosis, exocytosis, and cytoskeletal regulation. The plasma membrane, rich in anionic phospholipids, utilizes the electrostatic nature of the lipids, specifically the phosphoinositides, to form interactions with cytosolic proteins. These cytosolic proteins have three modes of interaction: 1) electrostatic interaction through unstructured polycationic regions, 2) through structured phosphoinositide-specific binding domains, and 3) through structured domains that bind the membrane without specificity for particular phospholipid. Among the structured domains, there are several that have membrane-deforming activity, which is essential for the formation of concave or convex membrane curvature. These domains include the amphipathic helix, which deforms the membrane by hemi-insertion of the helix with both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, and/or the BAR domain superfamily, known to use their positively charged, curved structural surface to deform membranes. Below the membrane, actin filaments support the micro-structures through interactions with several BAR proteins as well as other scaffold proteins, resulting in outward and inward membrane micro-structure formation. Here, we describe the characteristics of phospholipids, and the mechanisms utilized by phosphoinositides to regulate cellular events. We then summarize the precise mechanisms underlying the construction of membrane micro-structures and their involvements in physiological and pathological processes. Copyright © 2014 the

  3. Apolipoprotein L1 confers pH-switchable ion permeability to phospholipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Jonathan; Pozzi, Nicola; Oliva, Jonathan; Edwards, John C

    2017-11-03

    Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) is a human serum protein conferring resistance to African trypanosomes, and certain ApoL1 variants increase susceptibility to some progressive kidney diseases. ApoL1 has been hypothesized to function like a pore-forming colicin and has been reported to have permeability effects on both intracellular and plasma membranes. Here, to gain insight into how ApoL1 may function in vivo , we used vesicle-based ion permeability, direct membrane association, and intrinsic fluorescence to study the activities of purified recombinant ApoL1. We found that ApoL1 confers chloride-selective permeability to preformed phospholipid vesicles and that this selectivity is strongly pH-sensitive, with maximal activity at pH 5 and little activity above pH 7. When ApoL1 and lipid were allowed to interact at low pH and were then brought to neutral pH, chloride permeability was suppressed, and potassium permeability was activated. Both chloride and potassium permeability linearly correlated with the mass of ApoL1 in the reaction mixture, and both exhibited lipid selectivity, requiring the presence of negatively charged lipids for activity. Potassium, but not chloride, permease activity required the presence of calcium ions in both the association and activation steps. Direct assessment of ApoL1-lipid associations confirmed that ApoL1 stably associates with phospholipid vesicles, requiring low pH and the presence of negatively charged phospholipids for maximal binding. Intrinsic fluorescence of ApoL1 supported the presence of a significant structural transition when ApoL1 is mixed with lipids at low pH. This pH-switchable ion-selective permeability may explain the different effects of ApoL1 reported in intracellular and plasma membrane environments. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. β-oxidation and rapid metabolism, but not uptake regulate brain eicosapentaenoic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The brain has a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid composition, with high levels of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) while levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are several orders of magnitude lower. As evidence accumulated that fatty acid entry into the brain was not selective and, in fact, that DHA and EPA enter the brain at similar rates, new mechanisms were required to explain their large concentration differences in the brain. Here we summarize recent research demonstrating that EPA is rapidly and extensively β-oxidized upon entry into the brain. Although the ATP generated from the β-oxidation of EPA is low compared to the use of glucose, fatty acid β-oxidation may serve to regulate brain fatty acid levels in the absence of selective transportation. Furthermore, when β-oxidation of EPA is blocked, desaturation of EPA increases and Land׳s recycling decreases to maintain low EPA levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Considerations for incorporating eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic omega-3 fatty acids into the military food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Adam; Rice, Harry B

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. military may consider exploring the inclusion of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in the diets of active duty military personnel. To be successful, certain challenges must be overcome including determining appropriate dosage, ensuring cost efficiency, and optimizing stability. To increase EPA and DHA intake, the military should consider using one of three strategies, including mandates or recommendations on omega-3 supplement usage, contracts to purchase commercially available foods for distribution in the food supply chain, or direct addition of EPA and DHA into currently consumed foods. This review presents the challenges and strategies and provides potential suggestions to the military to increase the likelihood of success. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  6. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  7. Structure and mechanism of ATP-dependent phospholipid transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Bailly, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    Background ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and P4-ATPases are two large and seemingly unrelated families of primary active pumps involved in moving phospholipids from one leaflet of a biological membrane to the other. Scope of review This review aims to identify common mechanistic features...... in the way phospholipid flipping is carried out by two evolutionarily unrelated families of transporters. Major conclusions Both protein families hydrolyze ATP, although they employ different mechanisms to use it, and have a comparable size with twelve transmembrane segments in the functional unit. Further......, despite differences in overall architecture, both appear to operate by an alternating access mechanism and during transport they might allow access of phospholipids to the internal part of the transmembrane domain. The latter feature is obvious for ABC transporters, but phospholipids and other hydrophobic...

  8. Regional distribution of phospholipids in porcine vitreous humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Abigail; Yappert, Marta Cecilia; Borchman, Douglas

    2017-07-01

    This project explores the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor, retina, and lens. Matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry has been used previously to image lipids, proteins, and other metabolites in retinas and lenses. However, the regional composition of phospholipids in vitreous humors is not known. To address this issue, we have applied this mass spectral method to explore the regional phospholipid distribution in porcine vitreous humor both ex-situ and in-vitro. To establish the possible source(s) of phospholipids in the vitreous humor, compositional studies of the lens and retina were also pursued. Due to the overall low levels of phospholipids in vitreous humor, it was necessary to optimize the experimental approaches for ex-situ and in-vitro studies. The sensitivity observed in the spectra of methanol extracts from the lens and retina was higher than that for methanol:chloroform extracts, but the compositional trends were the same. A fourfold improvement in sensitivity was observed in the analysis of vitreous humor extracts obtained with the Bligh and Dyer protocol relative to the other two extraction methods. For ex-situ studies, the 'stamp method' with para-nitroaniline as the matrix was chosen. Throughout the vitreous humor, phosphatidylcholines were the most abundant phospholipids. In-vitro results showed higher relative levels of phospholipids compared to the 'stamp' method. However, more details in the regional phospholipid distribution were provided by the ex-situ approach. Both in-vitro and ex-situ results indicated higher levels of phospholipids in the posterior vitreous region, followed by the anterior and central regions. The posterior region contained more unsaturated species whereas more saturated phospholipids were detected in the anterior region. The observed trends suggest that the phospholipids detected in the posterior vitreous humor migrate from the retina and associated vasculature while those present in

  9. The effects of the oral administration of fish oil concentrate on the release and the metabolism of [14C]arachidonic acid and [14C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, A.; Terano, T.; Hamazaki, T.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested by several investigators that eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 omega 3, EPA) might have anti-thrombotic effects. In this experiment, the effect of the oral administration of EPA rich fish oil concentrate on platelet aggregation and the release and the metabolism of [ 1 - 14 C]arachidonic acid and [(U)- 14 C]eicosapentaenoic acid by human platelets was studied. Eight healthy male subjects ingested 18 capsules of fish oil concentrate (EPA 1.4 g) per day for 4 weeks. Plasma and platelet concentrations of EPA markedly increased, while those of arachidonic acid (C20:4 omega 6, AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3, DHA) did not change. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen and ADP was reduced. Collagen induced [ 14 C]thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets decreased. There was no detectable formation of [ 14 C]TXB3 from [ 14 C]EPA prelabeled platelets, and the conversion of exogenous [ 14 C]EPA to [ 14 C]TXB3 was lower than that of [ 14 C]AA to [ 14 C]TXB2. The release of [ 14 C]AA from [ 14 C]AA prelabeled platelets by collagen was significantly decreased. These observations raise the possibility that the release of arachidonic acid from platelet lipids might be affected by the alteration of EPA content in platelets

  10. Deformation of phospholipid vesicles in an optical stretcher

    OpenAIRE

    Delabre , Ulysse; Feld , Kasper; Crespo , Eleonore; Whyte , Graeme; Sykes , Cecile; Seifert , Udo; Guck , Jochen

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Phospholipid vesicles are common model systems for cell membranes. Important aspects of the membrane function relate to its mechanical properties. Here we have investigated the deformation behaviour of phospholipid vesicles in a dual-beam laser trap, also called an optical stretcher. This study explicitly makes use of the inherent heating present in such traps to investigate the dependence of vesicle deformation on temperature. By using lasers with different wavelength...

  11. Morphological and Physical Analysis of Natural Phospholipids-Based Biomembranes

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquot, Adrien; Francius, Grégory; Razafitianamaharavo, Angelina; Dehghani, Fariba; Tamayol, Ali; Linder, Michel; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Background: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells.Scope of Review: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon ar...

  12. Exit-strategies - smart ways to release phospholipid vesicle cargo

    OpenAIRE

    Mellal Denia; Zumbuehl Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This highlight describes recent trends in fundamental phospholipid research towards possible future drug delivery technology. In particular it focuses on synthetic phospholipids and their vesicular constructs and describes selected “smart” ways to release cargo from liposomes. Various chemical and physical release triggers are discussed such as temperature changes, application of ultrasound, enzyme degradation, changes in pH, redox reactions, photochemical reactions, as well as the effects of...

  13. Interaction of abscisic acid with phospholipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, W.; Brengle, B.; Hester, P.; Wassall, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is shown, under certain conditions, to greatly enhance the permeability of phospholipid bilayer membranes to the nonelectrolyte erythritol (followed spectrophotometrically by osmotic swelling) and the anion carboxyfluorescein (followed by fluorescence). The hormone is ineffective with single- and mixed-component phosphatidylcholine membranes in the liquid-crystalline or gel states. In contrast, substantial ABA-induced permeability is measured for two-component membranes containing lipids with different polar head groups or containing phosphatidylcholines with different acyl chains at temperatures where gel and liquid-crystalline phases coexist. Despite the large ABA-induced enhancement in bilayer permeability, no evidence for a substantial change at the molecular level was seen in the membranes by magnetic resonance techniques. 13 C NMR spin-lattice relaxation times, T 1 , in sonicated unilamellar vesicles and ESR of spin-labeled fatty acids intercalated into membranes showed negligible effect on acyl chain order and dynamics within the bilayer, while 31 P NMR of sonicated unilamellar vesicles indicated negligible effect on molecular motion and conformation in the head-group region. The authors propose that, instead of causing a general nonspecific perturbation to the membrane, the hormone acts at membrane defects formed due to mismatch in molecular packing where two different head groups or acyl chain states interface. Increased membrane disruption by ABA at these points of membrane instability could then produce an enhancement in permeability

  14. Tissue phospholipids (TPL) in avian tuberculosis (AT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, A.K.N.; Malhotra, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    AT constitutes one of the major problems in animal husbandry. Chickens (white, leg horn, male, 400-600 g) were infected with Mycobacterium avium maintained on I.U.T. medium to induce clinical AT which was confirmed by histopathological examinations of the affected tissues. Fatty infiltration and tissue enlargement was visible in infected birds. After 4 wks, incorporation of i.v. 32 P (50 uCi/100 g body wt.) in affected tissues was followed for 3,7,9,12 hr intervals. Lipids were extracted and fractionated by silicic acid (SA) column and SA impregnated paper chromatography. When compared with pair-fed controls, in AT slower turnover of TPL in liver, slightly higher in heart and significantly increased turnover of TPL in serum were observed. No appreciable change in total TPL content was noticed in brain, spleen and kidney. Further fractionation of TPL provided better understanding of the metabolism. Increase in lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC) and -ethanolamine (LPE) content, powerful hemolytic agents, in liver may explain frequent occurrence of anemia in tuberculosis. Also, a concomitant marked increase in the ratio of total saturated/unsaturated fatty acids is observed in serum phosphatidyl choline fraction. This confirms the observation that the membrane phospholipid metabolism is significantly affected in tuberculosis infection

  15. Influence of membrane phospholipid composition and structural organization on spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, R; Markovska, T; Antonov, P; Ivanova, L; Momchilova, A

    2006-09-01

    Investigations were carried out on the influence of phospholipid composition of model membranes on the processes of spontaneous lipid transfer between membranes. Acceptor vesicles were prepared from phospholipids extracted from plasma membranes of control and ras-transformed fibroblasts. Acceptor model membranes with manipulated levels of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), sphingomyelin and phosphatidic acid were also used in the studies. Donor vesicles were prepared of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and contained two fluorescent lipid analogues, NBD-PC and N-Rh-PE, at a self-quenching concentration. Lipid transfer rate was assessed by measuring the increase of fluorescence in acceptor membranes due to transfer of fluorescent lipid analogues from quenched donor to unquenched acceptor vesicles. The results showed that spontaneous NBD-PC transfer increased upon fluidization of acceptor vesicles. In addition, elevation of PE concentration in model membranes was also accompanied by an increase of lipid transfer to all series of acceptor vesicles. The results are discussed with respect to the role of lipid composition and structural order of cellular plasma membranes in the processes of spontaneous lipid exchange between membrane bilayers.

  16. Interrelation between human fertility and seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Zaki, K.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Abdel-Azis, A.

    1986-01-01

    In adult fertile men (32), men with oligospermia (43) and men with azoospermia (31) seminal plasma lipids, prostaglandins (PG) and Zn were determined. The PGs were determined by radioimmunoassay. In oligospermia the seminal plasma levels of PGE phospholipids, triglycerides and Zn were significantly increased, while the PGF/sub 2α/ level was unchanged. In azoospermia the seminal plasma total lipids, phospholipids and cholesterol were significantly decreased, PGE revealed an insignificant decrease only

  17. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester v. oleic acid-rich safflower oil on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic model rats with hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Asako; Ishimura, Noriko; Sakamoto, Sadaichi; Takishita, Eiko; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Okada, Kazuko; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test whether hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats can be improved by dietary supplementation with purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or oleic acid (OA). Male OLETF rats were fed powdered chow (510 g fat/kg) alone (n 8) or chow supplemented with 10 g EPA- (n 8) or OA- (n 8) rich oil/kg per d from 5 weeks until 30 weeks of age. An oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed at 25 and 30 weeks of age. EPA supplementation resulted in significantly (P<0.05) reduced plasma lipids, hepatic triacylglycerols, and abdominal fat deposits, and more efficient in vivo glucose disposal compared with OA supplementation and no supplementation. OA supplementation was associated with significantly increased insulin response to oral glucose compared with EPA supplementation and no supplementation. Inverse correlation was noted between glucose uptake and plasma triacylglycerol levels (r -086, P<0.001) and abdominal fat volume (r -0.80, P<0.001). The result of oral glucose tolerance test study showed that the rats fed EPA tended to improve glucose intolerance, although this was not statistically significant. Levels of plasma insulin at 60 min after glucose was significantly increased in rats fed OA compared with the other two groups. The results indicate that long-term feeding of EPA might be effective in preventing insulin resistance in diabetes-prone rats, at least in part, due to improving hypertriacylglycerolaemia.

  18. Elevated circulating soluble thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and circulating procoagulant phospholipids: new and useful markers for pre-eclampsia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Aurélie; Favier, Rémi; Van Dreden, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    One of the most frequently proposed mechanisms for pre-eclampsia refers to uteroplacental thrombosis. However, the contribution of classical thrombotic risk factors remains questionable. The aims of this study were to investigate the activities of thrombomodulin, tissue factor and procoagulant phospholipids to assess endothelial cell injury in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia and to compare them with other classical markers of vascular injury and thrombotic risk. Using three new functional assays we studied the plasma levels of these new markers in 35 healthy women, 30 healthy pregnant women, and 35 women with pre-eclampsia. We found that plasma levels of thrombomodulin activity, tissue factor activity and procoagulant phospholipids were significantly elevated in women with pre-eclampsia versus normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. It is thus suggested that elevated levels of these parameters in pre-eclampsia may reflect vascular endothelium damage, and may be a more valuable biomarker than antigen for the assessment of endothelial damage in pre-eclampsia. The high increased levels of procoagulant phospholipids and tissue factor activities in pre-eclampsia could suggest that the procoagulant potential may be implicated in this complication and makes these markers very promising for the understanding, follow-up and therapeutic handling of complicated pregnancy.

  19. Effects of MAT9001 containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid, compared to eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters, on triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol, and related variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Bobotas, George; Dicklin, Mary R; Huebner, Margie; Keane, William F

    Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid concentrate pharmaceuticals are used in the United States for treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥500 mg/dL) and are under investigation as adjuncts to statins for lowering cardiovascular risk in patients with high triglycerides (TGs; 200-499 mg/dL). To evaluate MAT9001, an investigational prescription-only omega-3 fatty acid agent containing predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid, in 42 men and women with fasting TG 200 to 400 mg/dL. In this open-label, crossover trial, subjects received MAT9001 and EPA ethyl esters (EPA-EE) in random order. They were housed in a clinical research unit for 2 14-day treatment periods, separated by a ≥35-day washout. Lipoprotein lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos) and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 levels were measured before and at the end of each treatment period. MAT9001, compared with EPA-EE, resulted in significantly (P < .05) larger reductions from pretreatment levels for TG (-33.2% vs -10.5%), total cholesterol (-9.0% vs -6.2%), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-8.8% vs -4.6%), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-32.5% vs -8.1%), Apo C3 (-25.5% vs -5.0%), and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (-12.3% vs +8.8%). MAT9001 also produced a significantly (P = .003) larger reduction in Apo A1 (-15.3% vs -10.2%), but responses for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-11.3% vs -11.1%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2.4% vs -4.3%), and Apo B (-3.8% vs -0.7%), respectively, were not significantly different relative to EPA-EE. MAT9001 produced significantly larger reductions than EPA-EE in several lipoprotein-related variables that would be expected to favorably alter cardiovascular disease risk in men and women with hypertriglyceridemia. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was approximately 90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were camembert, cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC(eq)) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively.

  1. Confocal Raman Microscopy for in Situ Measurement of Phospholipid-Water Partitioning into Model Phospholipid Bilayers within Individual Chromatographic Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitt, Jay P; Bryce, David A; Minteer, Shelley D; Harris, Joel M

    2018-06-05

    The phospholipid-water partition coefficient is a commonly measured parameter that correlates with drug efficacy, small-molecule toxicity, and accumulation of molecules in biological systems in the environment. Despite the utility of this parameter, methods for measuring phospholipid-water partition coefficients are limited. This is due to the difficulty of making quantitative measurements in vesicle membranes or supported phospholipid bilayers, both of which are small-volume phases that challenge the sensitivity of many analytical techniques. In this work, we employ in situ confocal Raman microscopy to probe the partitioning of a model membrane-active compound, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid or ibuprofen, into both hybrid- and supported-phospholipid bilayers deposited on the pore walls of individual chromatographic particles. The large surface-area-to-volume ratio of chromatographic silica allows interrogation of a significant lipid bilayer area within a very small volume. The local phospholipid concentration within a confocal probe volume inside the particle can be as high as 0.5 M, which overcomes the sensitivity limitations of making measurements in the limited membrane areas of single vesicles or planar supported bilayers. Quantitative determination of ibuprofen partitioning is achieved by using the phospholipid acyl-chains of the within-particle bilayer as an internal standard. This approach is tested for measurements of pH-dependent partitioning of ibuprofen into both hybrid-lipid and supported-lipid bilayers within silica particles, and the results are compared with octanol-water partitioning and with partitioning into individual optically trapped phospholipid vesicle membranes. Additionally, the impact of ibuprofen partitioning on bilayer structure is evaluated for both within-particle model membranes and compared with the structural impacts of partitioning into vesicle lipid bilayers.

  2. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phospholipid flip-flop in transmembrane peptide-containing vesicles was investigated. ► Peptides that contained polar residues in the center of the transmembrane region promoted phospholipid flip-flop. ► A bioinformatics approach revealed the presence of polar residues in the transmembrane region of ER membrane proteins. ► Polar residues in ER membrane proteins possibly provide flippase-like activity. - Abstract: We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity

  3. Morphological and physical analysis of natural phospholipids-based biomembranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Jacquot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liposomes are currently an important part of biological, pharmaceutical, medical and nutritional research, as they are considered to be among the most effective carriers for the introduction of various types of bioactive agents into target cells. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this work, we study the lipid organization and mechanical properties of biomembranes made of marine and plant phospholipids. Membranes based on phospholipids extracted from rapeseed and salmon are studied in the form of liposome and as supported lipid bilayer. Dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC are used as references to determine the lipid organization of marine and plant phospholipid based membranes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and force spectroscopy measurements are performed to investigate the membranes' topography at the micrometer scale and to determine their mechanical properties. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: The mechanical properties of the membranes are correlated to the fatty acid composition, the morphology, the electrophoretic mobility and the membrane fluidity. Thus, soft and homogeneous mechanical properties are evidenced for salmon phospholipids membrane containing various polyunsaturated fatty acids. Besides, phase segregation in rapeseed membrane and more important mechanical properties were emphasized for this type of membranes by contrast to the marine phospholipids based membranes. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper provides new information on the nanomechanical and morphological properties of membrane in form of liposome by AFM. The originality of this work is to characterize the physico-chemical properties of the nanoliposome from the natural sources containing various fatty acids and polar head.

  4. Treatment with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Delays Ca2+-Induced Mitochondria Permeability Transition in Normal and Hypertrophied Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Khairallah, Ramzi J.; O'Shea, Karen M.; Brown, Bethany H.; Khanna, Nishanth; Des Rosiers, Christine; Stanley, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Intake of fish oil containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prevents heart failure; however, the mechanisms are unclear. Mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening contributes to myocardial pathology in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and treatment with DHA + EPA delays MPTP opening. Here, we assessed: 1) whether supplementation with both DHA and EPA is needed for optimal prevention of MPTP opening, and 2) whether this benefit occurs in hyper...

  5. The effect of insulin deficiency on the plasma clearance and exchange of high-density-lipoprotein phosphatidylcholine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, I J; Redgrave, T G

    1992-01-01

    Triolein/cholesteryl oleate/cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine emulsions designed to model the lipid composition of chylomicrons were injected intravenously into control and streptozotocin-treated insulin-deficient rats. As previously described for lymph chylomicrons, the emulsion triolein was hydrolysed and phosphatidylcholine was transferred to the plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This mechanism was used to introduce a phospholipid label into HDL in vivo. The subsequent clearance of phospholipid radioactivity from the plasma of insulin-deficient rats was significantly slower than in controls (P less than 0.025). Plasma clearance was similarly slower in insulin-deficient rats after injection of HDL that was previously labelled with radioactive phospholipids. After injection, the phospholipid label redistributed rapidly between the large-particle fraction of plasma lipoproteins (very-low- and low-density lipoproteins), and the lighter and heavier fractions of HDL. Compared with control rats, in insulin-deficient rats less of the phospholipid label was distributed to the lighter HDL fraction and more to the heavier HDL fraction, and this difference was not due to changes in activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase or in the apparent activity of phospholipid transfer protein. In insulin-deficient rats the changes in HDL phospholipid clearance and exchange appeared to be secondary to the associated hypertriglyceridaemia and the related changes in distribution of phospholipids between classes of plasma lipoproteins. PMID:1536661

  6. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Duff, K.C. [Univ. of Edinburgh Medical School (United Kingdom); Saxena, A.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein.

  7. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248 +/- 94 nm to 600 +/- 201 nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids...... used. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data suggested the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between amine groups of chitosan with the phospholipid counterparts. The nanofibers were shown to be stable for at least 7 days in Phosphate Buffer...... culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system....

  8. Possible mechanism of adhesion in a mica supported phospholipid bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertsin, Alexander; Grunze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid bilayers supported on hydrophilic solids like silica and mica play a substantial role in fundamental studies and technological applications of phospholipid membranes. In both cases the molecular mechanism of adhesion between the bilayer and the support is of primary interest. Since the possibilities of experimental methods in this specific area are rather limited, the methods of computer simulation acquire great importance. In this paper we use the grand canonical Monte Carlo technique and an atomistic force field to simulate the behavior of a mica supported phospholipid bilayer in pure water as a function of the distance between the bilayer and the support. The simulation reveals a possible adhesion mechanism, where the adhesion is due to individual lipid molecules that protrude from the bilayer and form widely spaced links with the support. Simultaneously, the bilayer remains separated from the bilayer by a thin water interlayer which maintains the bilayer fluidity

  9. Neutron diffraction studies of amphipathic helices in phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, J.P.; Gilchrist, P.J.; Duff, K.C.; Saxena, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The structural feature which is thought to facilitate the interaction of many peptides with phospholipid bilayers is the ability to fold into an amphipathic helix. In most cases the exact location and orientation of this helix with respect to the membrane is not known, and may vary with factors such as pH and phospholipid content of the bilayer. The growing interest in this area is stimulated by indications that similar interactions can contribute to the binding of certain hormones to their cell-surface receptors. We have been using the techniques of neutron diffraction from stacked phospholipid bilayers in an attempt to investigate this phenomenon with a number of membrane-active peptides. Here we report some of our findings with three of these: the bee venom melittin; the hormone calcitonin; and a synthetic peptide representing the ion channel fragment of influenza A M2 protein

  10. Stability of sonicated aqueous suspensions of phospholipids under air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, R; Forward, R; Samsonoff, C

    1991-12-01

    The stability of phospholipids in liposomal aqueous suspension against oxidative degradation in air was investigated using spectrophotometric indices, glutathione peroxidase reactivity and thin layer chromatography. Zwitterionic phospholipid was found to be susceptible to degradation via oxidation of polyunsaturated hydrocarbon chains and ester hydrolysis, producing oxidized lysophosphatide and free fatty acid derivatives. These products were characterized as hydroperoxides based on their reactivity with the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase isolated from human erythrocytes. Lecithin in Tris buffer was more resistant to hydrolysis than in water. The sonication of 8.0 mM of soybean phosphatidylcholine (SB-PC) suspension in 0.1 M Tris (pH 7.5) in the presence of air produced relatively high concentration of conjugated diene hydroperoxide, but a small amount of hydrolyzed products. Anionic phospholipids, such as egg-phosphatidylglycerol (egg-PG), demonstrated higher resistance to air oxidation than the zwitterionic lecithin, but its oxidation was promoted by sonication.

  11. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauff, Simone; Vetter, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was ∼90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were eq ) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese was 0.60%, 1.42% and 0.79%, respectively

  12. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation Changes Fatty Acid Composition and Corrects Endothelial Dysfunction in Hyperlipidemic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Yamakawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA on vascular endothelial function and free fatty acid composition in Japanese hyperlipidemic subjects. In subjects with hyperlipidemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL and/or triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, lipid profile and forearm blood flow (FBF during reactive hyperemia were determined before and 3 months after supplementation with 1800 mg/day EPA. Peak FBF during reactive hyperemia was lower in the hyperlipidemic group than the normolipidemic group. EPA supplementation did not change serum levels of total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol, apolipoproteins, remnant-like particle (RLP cholesterol, RLP triglycerides, or malondialdehyde-modified LDL cholesterol. EPA supplementation did not change total free fatty acid levels in serum, but changed the fatty acid composition, with increased EPA and decreased linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation recovered peak FBF after 3 months. Peak FBF recovery was correlated positively with EPA and EPA/arachidonic acid levels and correlated inversely with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. EPA supplementation restores endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hyperlipidemic patients despite having no effect on serum cholesterol and triglyceride patterns. These results suggest that EPA supplementation may improve vascular function at least partly via changes in fatty acid composition.

  13. The Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Jacqueline K.; Calder, Philip C.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the cardioprotective effects of the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). There is increasing interest in the independent effects of EPA and DHA in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. This systematic review aims to appraise the latest available evidence of the differential effects of EPA and DHA on such risk factors. A systematic literature review was conducted up to May 2017. Randomised controlled trials were included if they met strict eligibility criteria, including EPA or DHA > 2 g/day and purity ≥ 90%. Eighteen identified articles were included, corresponding to six unique studies involving 527 participants. Both EPA and DHA lowered triglyceride concentration, with DHA having a greater triglyceride-lowering effect. Whilst total cholesterol levels were largely unchanged by EPA and DHA, DHA increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, particularly HDL2, and increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration and LDL particle size. Both EPA and DHA inhibited platelet activity, whilst DHA improved vascular function and lowered heart rate and blood pressure to a greater extent than EPA. The effects of EPA and DHA on inflammatory markers and glycaemic control were inconclusive; however both lowered oxidative stress. Thus, EPA and DHA appear to have differential effects on cardiometabolic risk factors, but these need to be confirmed by larger clinical studies. PMID:29425187

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched High Fat Diet Delays Skeletal Muscle Degradation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikul K. Soni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade chronic inflammatory conditions such as ageing, obesity and related metabolic disorders are associated with deterioration of skeletal muscle (SkM. Human studies have shown that marine fatty acids influence SkM function, though the underlying mechanisms of action are unknown. As a model of diet-induced obesity, we fed C57BL/6J mice either a high fat diet (HFD with purified marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (HFD-ED, a HFD with corn oil, or normal mouse chow for 8 weeks; and used transcriptomics to identify the molecular effects of EPA and DHA on SkM. Consumption of ED-enriched HFD modulated SkM metabolism through increased gene expression of mitochondrial β-oxidation and slow-fiber type genes compared with HFD-corn oil fed mice. Furthermore, HFD-ED intake increased nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (Nfatc4 protein, which controls fiber-type composition. This data suggests a role for EPA and DHA in mitigating some of the molecular responses due to a HFD in SkM. Overall, the results suggest that increased consumption of the marine fatty acids EPA and DHA may aid in the prevention of molecular processes that lead to muscle deterioration commonly associated with obesity-induced low-grade inflammation.

  15. Structural basis of control of inward rectifier Kir2 channel gating by bulk anionic phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Joo; Ren, Feifei; Zangerl-Plessl, Eva-Maria; Heyman, Sarah; Stary-Weinzinger, Anna; Yuan, Peng; Nichols, Colin G

    2016-09-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel activity is controlled by plasma membrane lipids. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding to a primary site is required for opening of classic inward rectifier Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels, but interaction of bulk anionic phospholipid (PL(-)) with a distinct second site is required for high PIP2 sensitivity. Here we show that introduction of a lipid-partitioning tryptophan at the second site (K62W) generates high PIP2 sensitivity, even in the absence of PL(-) Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray crystal structures of Kir2.2[K62W], with or without added PIP2 (2.8- and 2.0-Å resolution, respectively), reveal tight tethering of the C-terminal domain (CTD) to the transmembrane domain (TMD) in each condition. Our results suggest a refined model for phospholipid gating in which PL(-) binding at the second site pulls the CTD toward the membrane, inducing the formation of the high-affinity primary PIP2 site and explaining the positive allostery between PL(-) binding and PIP2 sensitivity. © 2016 Lee et al.

  16. Effect of Ca2+ on the morphology of mixed DPPC-DOPS supported phospholipid bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reviakine, [No Value; Simon, A; Brisson, A

    2000-01-01

    The morphology of supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) containing mixtures of phospholipids in gel (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, DPPC) and fluid (dioleoyl phosphatidylserine (DOPS) or -choline (DOPC)) states at room temperature was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fluid-gel phase

  17. A simple solid-phase extraction method for the analysis of red cell phospholipids by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Long

    2018-02-25

    There has been increasing interest in the analysis of phospholipids in red blood cells as potential long-term biomarkers of different disease states. Here, we describe a simple method for the analysis of two phospholipids: 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (PE 16:0/18:1) and 1-Palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanol (PE 16:/0/18:2) in erythrocytes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Whole blood samples were removed free of plasma and washed in isotonic saline. Red cells were lysed with ultrapure water. Lysate samples were processed using a hybrid solid-phase extraction (SPE) phospholipid cartridge (1 mL, 30 mg). Both PE 16:0/18:1 and PE 16:0/18:2 and their deuterated internal standards were separated on an ACE C4 (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 2.7 μm particle size) by gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.5 mL per minute using mobile phases consisting of 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate in: water (A), methanol (B), and isopropanol (C). The phospholipid species were quantified by the following transitions: PE 16:0/18:1: 701.5→281.3 and PE 16:0/18:2: 699.5→279.3. Both PE species displayed linearity ranging from 10 to 500 μg/L. The coefficient of variation (CV%) of PE 16:0/18:1 concerning intraday and interday precision was between 1.9%-2.6% and 3.0%-4.3%, respectively. For PE 16:0/18:2, this was between 1.8%-3.4% and 3.7%-4.1%, respectively. Both phospholipid species had accuracy (PE 16:0/18:1: 91%-98% and PE 16:0/18:2: 94%-103%) and extraction recovery (PE 16:0/18:1: 95%-106% and PE 16:0/18:2: 92%-102%) exceeding 90% over the analytical range. The limit of detection was 5 μg/L. Here we propose a simple SPE LC-MS/MS method for analyzing phospholipids in erythrocytes, which can be easily adopted. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry at the phospholipid bilayer interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansfeld, Friederike M.; Au-Yeung, Ho Yu; Sanders, Jeremy K.M.; Otto, Sijbren

    2010-01-01

    Background: Molecular recognition at the environment provided by the phospholipid bilayer interface plays an important role in biology and is subject of intense investigation. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry is a powerful approach for exploring molecular recognition, but has thus far not been

  19. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  20. PHOSPHOLIPIDS OF FIVE PSEUDOMONAD ARCHETYPES FOR DIFFERENT TOLUENE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) was used to determine phospholipid profiles for five reference pseudomonad strains harboring distinct toluene catabolic pathways: Pseudomonas putida mt-2, Pseudomonas putida F1, Burkholderia cepacia G4, B...

  1. Effects of phospholipids in the diet on biochemical factors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids biochemical factors parameters of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles. Juveniles were fed formulated diet with four varying dietary levels of PL, that is, 0 (D1), 2 (D2), 4 (D3) and 6% (D4). At the end of the experimental period (56 days), there were ...

  2. Phospholipid Complex Technique for Superior Bioavailability of Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kattamanchi Gnananath

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytoconstituents have been utilized as medicines for thousands of years, yet their application is limited owing to major hurdles like deficit lipid solubility, large molecular size and degradation in the gastric environment of gut. Recently, phospholipid-complex technique has unveiled in addressing these stumbling blocks either by enhancing the solubilizing capacity or its potentiating ability to pass through the biological membranes and it also protects the active herbal components from degradation. Hence, this phospholipid-complex-technique can enable researchers to deliver the phytoconstituents into systemic circulation by using certain conventional dosage forms like tablets and capsules. This review highlights the unique property of phospholipids in drug delivery, their role as adjuvant in health benefits, and their application in the herbal medicine systems to improve the bioavailability of active herbal components. Also we summarize the prerequisites for phytosomes preparation like the selection of type of phytoconstituents, solvents used, various methods employed in phytosomal preparation and its characterization. Further we discuss the key findings of recent research work conducted on phospholipid-based delivery systems which can enable new directions and advancements to the development of herbal dosage forms.

  3. Anti-Phospholipid Syndrome In Nigeria: Report Of Five Cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five cases of secondary anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) are presented and literature reviewed. Pregnancy loss was the most common presentation but neurologic manifestations are also seen. IgG ACA was more commonly seen than IgM ACA. Although APS has been infrequently reported in black Africans, ...

  4. An averaged polarizable potential for multiscale modeling in phospholipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Sarah; List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    A set of average atom-centered charges and polarizabilities has been developed for three types of phospholipids for use in polarizable embedding calculations. The lipids investigated are 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, and 1-palmitoyl...

  5. Enzyme catalysed production of phospholipids with modified fatty acid profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk

    2006-01-01

    Phospholipider har stor anvendelse i levnedsmiddel-, kosmetik-, og farmaceutiske produkter for blandt andet deres emulgerende egenskaber samt evne til at danne liposomer. Interessen for at ændre på phospholipidernes struktur er stigende. Strukturændringer resulterer i ændret funktionalitet. Ved u...

  6. Asymmetric incorporation of Na+, K+-ATPase into phospholipid vesicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jackson, R.L.; Verkleij, A.J.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Lane, L.K.; Schwartz, A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    Purified lamb kidney Na+, K+-ATPase, consisting solely of the Mτ = 95,000 catalytic subunit and the Mτ- 44,000 glycoprotein, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and incorporated into unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy of the vesicles showed intramembranous particles

  7. Role of phospholipids in the pathophysiology of the gut-liver axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petruzzelli, M.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipids represent essential components of bile. Together with bile acids and cholesterol, phospholipids form “mixed micelles”. If sufficient amounts of phospholipids are available, no simple bile acid micelles are present, with prevention of bile acid toxicity and cholesterol crystallization.

  8. Content of alpha-linolenic acid in human atrial tissue correlates with plasma levels of alpha-linolenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Jiwei; Eschen, Rikke Bülow; Andreasen, Annette

    and ALA levels were compared by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There was a statistical significant correlation (r=0.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.30-0.71) between levels of ALA in plasma phospholipids and atrial tissue. Conclusion: The content of ALA in plasma phospholipids is a short term...... indicator of intake of ALA and this correlated well with the content of ALA in atrial tissue. Atrial tissue is not readily available but this study shows that determination of plasma phospholipids may be useful to further investigate an antiarrhythmic effect of ALA on AF....

  9. The potential relevance of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid to the etiopathogenesis of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesei, Alessandra; Crippa, Alessandro; Ceccarelli, Silvia Busti; Mauri, Maddalena; Molteni, Massimo; Agostoni, Carlo; Nobile, Maria

    2017-09-01

    Over the last 15 years, considerable interest has been given to the potential role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for understanding pathogenesis and treatment of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This review aims to systematically investigate the scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis on the omega-3 PUFAs deficit as a risk factor shared by different pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders. Medline PubMed database was searched for studies examining blood docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) status in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Forty-one published manuscripts were compatible with the search criteria. The majority of studies on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism found a significant decrease in DHA levels in patients versus healthy controls. For the other conditions examined-depression, juvenile bipolar disorder, intellectual disabilities, learning difficulties, and eating disorders (EDs)-the literature was too limited to draw any stable conclusions. However, except EDs, findings in these conditions were in line with results from ADHD and autism studies. Results about EPA levels were too inconsistent to conclude that EPA could be associated with any of the conditions examined. Finally, correlational data provided, on one hand, evidence for a negative association between DHA and symptomatology, whereas on the other hand, evidence for a positive association between EPA and emotional well-being. Although the present review underlines the potential involvement of omega-3 PUFAs in the predisposition to childhood neuropsychiatric disorders, more observational and intervention studies across different diagnoses are needed, which should integrate the collection of baseline PUFA levels with their potential genetic and environmental influencing factors.

  10. Novel Eicosapentaenoic Acid-derived F3-isoprostanes as Biomarkers of Lipid Peroxidation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Liang; Paschos, Georgios; Fries, Susanne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Yu, Ying; Rokach, Joshua; Chang, Chih-Tsung; Patel, Pranav; Lawson, John A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2009-01-01

    Isoprostanes (iPs) are prostaglandin (PG) isomers generated by free radical-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Urinary F2-iPs, PGF2α isomers derived from arachidonic acid (AA) are used as indices of lipid peroxidation in vivo. We now report the characterization of two major F3-iPs, 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI, derived from the ω-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Although the potential therapeutic benefits of EPA receive much attention, a shift toward a diet rich in ω-3 PUFAs may also predispose to enhanced lipid peroxidation. Urinary 5-epi-8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI are highly correlated and unaltered by cyclooxygenase inhibition in humans. Fish oil dose-dependently elevates urinary F3-iPs in mice and a shift in dietary ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs is reflected by an increasing slope [m] of the line relating urinary 8, 12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide evokes a reversible increase in both urinary 8,12-iso-iPF3α-VI and 8,12-iso-iPF2α-VI in humans on an ad lib diet. However, while excretion of the iPs is highly correlated (R2 median = 0.8), [m] varies by an order of magnitude, reflecting marked inter-individual variability in the relative peroxidation of ω-3 versus ω-6 substrates. Clustered analysis of F2- and F3-iPs refines assessment of the oxidant stress response to an inflammatory stimulus in vivo by integrating variability in dietary intake of ω-3/ω-6 PUFAs. PMID:19520854

  11. Randomized controlled trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in Huntington disease: the TREND-HD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid, improves the motor features of Huntington disease. Six-month multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial followed by a 6-month open-label phase without disclosing initial treatment assignments. Forty-one research sites in the United States and Canada. Three hundred sixteen adults with Huntington disease, enriched for a population with shorter trinucleotide (cytosine-adenine-guanine) repeat length expansions. Random assignment to placebo or ethyl-EPA, 1 g twice a day, followed by open-label treatment with ethyl-EPA. Six-month change in the Total Motor Score 4 component of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale analyzed for all research participants and those with shorter cytosine-adenine-guanine repeat length expansions (<45). At 6 months, the Total Motor Score 4 point change for patients receiving ethyl-EPA did not differ from that for those receiving placebo. No differences were found in measures of function, cognition, or global impression. Before public disclosure of the 6-month placebo-controlled results, 192 individuals completed the open-label phase. The Total Motor Score 4 change did not worsen for those who received active treatment for 12 continuous months compared with those who received active treatment for only 6 months (2.0-point worsening; P=.02). Ethyl-EPA was not beneficial in patients with Huntington disease during 6 months of placebo-controlled evaluation. Clinical Trial Registry clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00146211.

  12. Eicosapentaenoic Acid Enhances the Effects of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in Experimental Allergic Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Carvalho Abreu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Despite recent advances in the understanding of its pathophysiology, asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodeling. Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC-based therapy mitigates lung inflammation in experimental allergic asthma; however, its ability to reduce airway remodeling is limited. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA potentiates the therapeutic properties of MSCs in experimental allergic asthma. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were used. House dust mite (HDM extract was intranasally administered to induce severe allergic asthma in mice. Unstimulated or EPA-stimulated MSCs were administered intratracheally 24 h after final HDM challenge. Lung mechanics, histology, protein levels of biomarkers, and cellularity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, thymus, lymph nodes, and bone marrow were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of EPA on lipid body formation and secretion of resolvin-D1 (RvD1, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, interleukin (IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 by MSCs were evaluated in vitro. EPA-stimulated MSCs, compared to unstimulated MSCs, yielded greater therapeutic effects by further reducing bronchoconstriction, alveolar collapse, total cell counts (in BALF, bone marrow, and lymph nodes, and collagen fiber content in airways, while increasing IL-10 levels in BALF and M2 macrophage counts in lungs. In conclusion, EPA potentiated MSC-based therapy in experimental allergic asthma, leading to increased secretion of pro-resolution and anti-inflammatory mediators (RvD1, PGE2, IL-10, and TGF-β, modulation of macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype, and reduction in the remodeling process. Taken together, these modifications may explain the greater improvement in lung mechanics obtained. This may be a promising novel

  13. Binding of Diphtheria Toxin to Phospholipids in Liposomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alving, Carl R.; Iglewski, Barbara H.; Urban, Katharine A.; Moss, Joel; Richards, Roberta L.; Sadoff, Jerald C.

    1980-04-01

    Diphtheria toxin bound to the phosphate portion of some, but not all, phospholipids in liposomes. Liposomes consisting of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol did not bind toxin. Addition of 20 mol% (compared to dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine) of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid, dicetyl phosphate, phosphatidylinositol phosphate, cardiolipin, or phosphatidylserine in the liposomes resulted in substantial binding of toxin. Inclusion of phosphatidylinositol in dimyristol phosphatidylcholine / cholesterol liposomes did not result in toxin binding. The calcium salt of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid was more effective than the sodium salt, and the highest level of binding occurred with liposomes consisting only of dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (calcium salt) and cholesterol. Binding of toxin to liposomes was dependent on pH, and the pattern of pH dependence varied with liposomes having different compositions. Incubation of diphtheria toxin with liposomes containing dicetyl phosphate resulted in maximal binding at pH 3.6, whereas binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylinositol phosphate was maximal above pH 7. Toxin did not bind to liposomes containing 20 mol% of a free fatty acid (palmitic acid) or a sulfated lipid (3-sulfogalactosylceramide). Toxin binding to dicetyl phosphate or phosphatidylinositol phosphate was inhibited by UTP, ATP, phosphocholine, or p-nitrophenyl phosphate, but not by uracil. We conclude that (a) diphtheria toxin binds specifically to the phosphate portion of certain phospholipids, (b) binding to phospholipids in liposomes is dependent on pH, but is not due only to electrostatic interaction, and (c) binding may be strongly influenced by the composition of adjacent phospholipids that do not bind toxin. We propose that a minor membrane phospholipid (such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate or phosphatidic acid), or that some other phosphorylated membrane molecule (such as a phosphoprotein) may be important in the initial binding of

  14. Liposomes as potential masking agents in sport doping. Part 1: analysis of phospholipids and sphingomyelins in drugs and biological fluids by aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Simone; Colicchia, Sonia; de la Torre, Xavier; Mazzarino, Monica; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, aqueous normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), in different acquisition modes, was employed for the direct analysis and profiling of nine phospholipid classes (phosphatidic acids, phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylglycerols, phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, and sphingomyelins) in biological and pharmaceutical matrices. After chromatographic separation by a diol column, detection and elucidation of phospholipid and sphingomyelin classes and molecular species were performed by different scan acquisition modes. For screening analysis, molecular ions [M + H] + were detected in positive precursor ion scan of m/z 184 for the classes of phosphatidylcholines, lyso-phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins; while phosphatidylethanolamines and lyso-phosphatidylethanolamines were detected monitoring neutral loss scan of 141 Da; and phosphatidylserines detected using neutral loss scan of 184 Da. Molecular ions [M-H] - were instead acquired in negative precursor ion scan of m/z 153 for the classes of phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylglycerols; and of m/z 241 for the phosphatidylinositols. For the identification of the single molecular species, product ion scan mass spectra of the [M + HCOO] - ions for phosphatidylcholines and [M + H] + ions for the other phospholipids considered were determined for each class and compared with the fragmentation pattern of model phospholipid reference standard. By this approach, nearly 100 phospholipids and sphingomyelins were detected and identified. The optimized method was then used to characterize the phospholipid and sphingomyelin profiles in human plasma and urine samples and in two phospholipid-based pharmaceutical formulations, proving that it also allows to discriminate compounds of endogenous origin from those resulting from the intake of pharmaceutical products

  15. Ionic protein-lipid interaction at the plasma membrane: what can the charge do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lunyi; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Li, Hua; Xu, Chenqi

    2014-03-01

    Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes, but they have functional roles beyond forming lipid bilayers. In particular, acidic phospholipids form microdomains in the plasma membrane and can ionically interact with proteins via polybasic sequences, which can have functional consequences for the protein. The list of proteins regulated by ionic protein-lipid interaction has been quickly expanding, and now includes membrane proteins, cytoplasmic soluble proteins, and viral proteins. Here we review how acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane regulate protein structure and function via ionic interactions, and how Ca(2+) regulates ionic protein-lipid interactions via direct and indirect mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of fatty acids as methyl esters and phospholipids in cheese samples after separation of triacylglycerides and phospholipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauff, Simone [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Vetter, Walter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Food Chemistry, Garbenstrasse 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: w-vetter@uni-hohenheim.de

    2009-03-23

    Determination of the individual fatty acid composition of neutral- and phospholipids as well as the phospholipid content of dairy food and other foodstuffs are important tasks in life sciences. For these purposes, a method was developed for the separation of lipids (standards of triolein and diacylphosphatidylcholines as well as three cheese samples) by solid-phase extraction using a self-packed column filled with partly deactivated silica. Non-halogenated solvents were used for the elution of the lipid classes. Cyclohexane/ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) served for the elution of neutral lipids, while polar lipids were eluted with three solvents (ethyl acetate/methanol, methanol, and methanol/water) into one fraction. The separated lipid fractions were transesterified and the individual fatty acids were quantified by using gas chromatography coupled to electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The recovery rate for standard phosphatidylcholines was {approx}90% and cross-contamination from neutral lipids was negligible. The method was applied to cheese samples. Quantitative amounts of individual fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction were <0.002-0.29% of total lipids from camembert, <0.002-0.12% of total lipids from mozzarella, and <0.002-0.18% of total lipids in a goat cream cheese. Differences in the fatty acid pattern of neutral and polar lipids were detected. The quantity of the fatty acids determined in the phospholipid fraction was divided by the factor 0.7 in order to convert the fatty acid content into the phospholipid content of the cheese samples. This factor is based on the contribution of 16:0 to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The resulting DPPC equivalents (DPPC{sub eq}) were found to be representative for the average contribution of fatty acids to all classes of phospholipids in dairy products. Using this approach, the phospholipid content of lipids from mozzarella, camembert, and goat cream cheese

  17. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Stubhaug, Ingunn; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Rimbach, Gerald; Menoyo, David

    2015-07-10

    The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docoxahexaenoic (DHA) acids). However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6%) on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC), showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively) but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  18. Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Fillets of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar Fed Vegetable and Fish Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Ruiz-Lopez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional and functional characteristics of dietary fat are related to the fatty acid (FA composition and its positional distribution in the triacylglycerol (TAG fraction. Atlantic salmon is an important source of healthy long chain omega 3 FA (particularly, eicosapentaenoic (EPA and docoxahexaenoic (DHA acids. However, the impact of lipid sources in salmon feeds on the regiospecificity of FA in the fish TAG remains to be explored. The present study determines the effect of feeding salmon with blends of palm, rapeseed, and fish oil, providing two different EPA + DHA concentrations (high: H-ED 10.3% and low: L-ED 4.6% on the fillet lipid class composition and the positional distribution of FA in TAG and phospholipids. The regiospecific analysis of fillet TAG showed that around 50% of the EPA and around 80% of DHA was located in the sn-2 position. The positional distribution of FA in phosphatidylcholine (PC, showed that around 80% of the EPA and around 90% of DHA were located in the sn-2. Fish fed the vegetable-rich diets showed higher EPA in the sn-2 position in PC (77% vs. 83% in the H-ED and L-ED diets, respectively but similar DHA concentrations. It is concluded that feeding salmon with different EPA + DHA concentrations does not affect their positional distribution in the fillet TAG.

  19. A diet high in α-linolenic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids attenuates hepatic steatosis and alters hepatic phospholipid fatty acid profile in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Danielle; Zahradka, Peter; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Clark, Jaime L; Taylor, Carla G

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the plant-based n-3 fatty acid, α-linolenic acid (ALA), a dietary precursor of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for modulating hepatic steatosis. Rats were fed high fat (55% energy) diets containing high oleic canola oil, canola oil, a canola/flax oil blend (C/F, 3:1), safflower oil, soybean oil, or lard. After 12 weeks, C/F and weight-matched (WM) groups had 20% less liver lipid. Body mass, liver weight, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and molecular markers of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, desaturation and elongation did not account for this effect. The C/F group had the highest total n-3 and EPA in hepatic phospholipids (PL), as well as one of the highest DHA and lowest arachidonic acid (n-6) concentrations. In conclusion, the C/F diet with the highest content of the plant-based n-3 ALA attenuated hepatic steatosis and altered the hepatic PL fatty acid profile. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Raabe

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1 eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2 dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3 dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  1. Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker discovery and association analysis with the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content in Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers are valuable genetic resources for the association and conservation studies. Genome-wide SNP development in many teleost species are still challenging because of the genome complexity and the cost of re-sequencing. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS provided an efficient reduced representative method to squeeze cost for SNP detection; however, most of recent GBS applications were reported on plant organisms. In this work, we used an EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS protocol to teleost large yellow croaker, an important commercial fish in China and East-Asia, and reported the first whole-genome SNP development for the species. 69,845 high quality SNP markers that evenly distributed along genome were detected in at least 80% of 500 individuals. Nearly 95% randomly selected genotypes were successfully validated by Sequenom MassARRAY assay. The association studies with the muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA content discovered 39 significant SNP markers, contributing as high up to ∼63% genetic variance that explained by all markers. Functional genes that involved in fat digestion and absorption pathway were identified, such as APOB, CRAT and OSBPL10. Notably, PPT2 Gene, previously identified in the association study of the plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid level in human, was re-discovered in large yellow croaker. Our study verified that EcoRI-NlaIII based GBS could produce quality SNP markers in a cost-efficient manner in teleost genome. The developed SNP markers and the EPA and DHA associated SNP loci provided invaluable resources for the population structure, conservation genetics and genomic selection of large yellow croaker and other fish organisms.

  2. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  3. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against periodontopathic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Zhou, Zichao; Dong, Jiachen; Zhang, Jichun; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are two major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) with antimicrobial properties. In this study, we evaluated the potential antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of DHA and EPA against two periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum). MTT assay showed that DHA and EPA still exhibited no cytotoxicity to human oral tissue cells when the concentration came to 100 μM and 200 μM, respectively. Against P. gingivalis, DHA and EPA showed the same minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 12.5 μM, and a respective minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 12.5 μM and 25 μM. However, the MIC and MBC values of DHA or EPA against F. nucleatum were both greater than 100 μM. For early-stage bacteria, DHA or EPA displayed complete inhibition on the planktonic growth and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis from the lowest concentration of 12.5 μM. And the planktonic growth of F. nucleatum was slightly but not completely inhibited by DHA or EPA even at the concentration of 100 μM, however, the biofilm formation of F. nucleatum at 24 h was significantly restrained by 100 μM EPA. For exponential-phase bacteria, 100 μM DHA or EPA completely killed P. gingivalis and significantly decreased the viable counts of F. nucleatum. Meanwhile, the morphology of P. gingivalis was apparently damaged, and the virulence factor gene expression of P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum was strongly downregulated. Besides, the viability and the thickness of mature P. gingivalis biofilm, together with the viability of mature F. nucleatum biofilm were both significantly decreased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. In conclusion, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm forms of periodontal pathogens, which suggested that DHA and EPA might be potentially supplementary therapeutic agents for prevention

  4. Chronic Psychological Stress Was Not Ameliorated by Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic psychological stress and mental health disorders are endemic in Western culture where population dietary insufficiencies of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA from seafood have been observed.Objective: This study was designed to test for a causal relationship between one of the most active components of fish oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and chronic psychological stress.Method: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with parallel-assignment to two groups was designed (Trial Id: ACTRN12610000404022. The interventions were four EPA-rich fish oil capsules per day, delivering 2.2 g/d EPA (and 0.44 g/d DHA, or identical placebo (low-phenolic olive oil capsules with 5% fish oil to aid blinding. The primary outcome was the between-group difference on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 after 12 weeks supplementation. An a priori power analysis determined that group sizes of 43 would provide 80% power to detect a significant between-group difference of 12.5%, at α = 0.05. Ninety community members (64 females, 26 males reporting chronic work stress were recruited via public advertising in northern NSW, Australia.Results: At baseline the omega-3 index (EPA + DHA as % to total fatty acids in red blood cell membranes was 5.2% in both groups (SD = 1.6% control group; 1.8% active group. After supplementation this remained stable at 5.3% (SD = 1.6% for the control group but increased to 8.9% (SD = 1.5% for the active group, demonstrating successful incorporation of EPA into cells. Intention-to-treat (ITT analysis found no significant between-group differences in PSS outcome scores post-intervention (b = 1.21, p = 0.30 after adjusting for sex (b = 2.36, p = 0.079, baseline PSS (b = 0.42, p = 0.001 and baseline logEPA [b = 1.41, p = 0.185; F(3, 86 = 8.47, p < 0.01, n = 89, R-square = 0.243].Discussion: Treatment increased cell membrane EPA but, contrary to the hypothesis, there was no effect on perceived stress. Limitations

  5. Effect of phospholipid metabolites on model membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shragin, A.S.; Vasilenko, I.A.; Selishcheva, A.A.; Shvets, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    /sup 31/P-NMR spectroscopy and formation of fluorescent complexes between Tb/sup 3 +/ and dipicolinic acid were used to monitor liposome fusion and the effects of phospholipases C and D on the process. Phospholipase C was found highly efficient in initiating liposomal fusion, regardless of the phospholipid composition of the bilayer membranes. However, phospholipase D promoted liposomal fusion only in cases in which the membranes contained high concentrations of phospholipids incapable of forming bilayer membranes, such as phosphatidylethanolamine and cardiolipin. The mechanism of action of both enzymes in promoting liposomal fusion was ascribed to the generation of a metastable state in the membranes as a result of enzymatic formation of lipophilic metabolites 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. The perturbation, or fluidity, of the liposomal membranes favored fusion on contact. 21 references, 4 figures.

  6. Phospholipid Homeostasis Regulates Dendrite Morphogenesis in Drosophila Sensory Neurons

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    Shan Meltzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Disruptions in lipid homeostasis have been observed in many neurodevelopmental disorders that are associated with dendrite morphogenesis defects. However, the molecular mechanisms of how lipid homeostasis affects dendrite morphogenesis are unclear. We find that easily shocked (eas, which encodes a kinase with a critical role in phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE synthesis, and two other enzymes in this synthesis pathway are required cell autonomously in sensory neurons for dendrite growth and stability. Furthermore, we show that the level of Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP activity is important for dendrite development. SREBP activity increases in eas mutants, and decreasing the level of SREBP and its transcriptional targets in eas mutants largely suppresses the dendrite growth defects. Furthermore, reducing Ca2+ influx in neurons of eas mutants ameliorates the dendrite morphogenesis defects. Our study uncovers a role for EAS kinase and reveals the in vivo function of phospholipid homeostasis in dendrite morphogenesis.

  7. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  8. Phospholipids Polysaccharide and Its Application as Inhibitive Drilling Fluid Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xue-Fan; Hu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Fan; Du, Wei-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yong-Ming; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    For the improvement of solubility and the performance of the sample that derived plant polysaccharide(SJ) in drilling fluid based on water, which was improved by phosphoric esterification with phospholipids reagent. The conditions of the reaction were discussed by orthogonal ways in four factors and three levels, and the optimization of handling approaches were found out: With pH=12 at the temperature of 80°C, the mass ratio between phospholipids agent and SJ is 0.1g/1g. The viscosity about the system added by sulfonated SJ (SJP) was extremely increased and below 120°, rheological properties had a slight change. The inhibitive ability of SJP is assessed by the mud ball immersing tests and clay-swelling experiments, that is apparently better than SJ and even 4wt% KCl in free water.

  9. Differential intrahepatic phospholipid zonation in simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

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    Julia Wattacheril

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD occurs frequently in a setting of obesity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, but the etiology of the disease, particularly the events favoring progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH as opposed to simple steatosis (SS, are not fully understood. Based on known zonation patterns in protein, glucose and lipid metabolism, coupled with evidence that phosphatidylcholine may play a role in NASH pathogenesis, we hypothesized that phospholipid zonation exists in liver and that specific phospholipid abundance and distribution may be associated with histologic disease. A survey of normal hepatic protein expression profiles in the Human Protein Atlas revealed pronounced zonation of enzymes involved in lipid utilization and storage, particularly those facilitating phosphatidylcholine (PC metabolism. Immunohistochemistry of obese normal, SS and NASH liver specimens with anti-phosphatidylethanomine N-methyltransferase (PEMT antibodies showed a progressive decrease in the zonal distribution of this PC biosynthetic enzyme. Phospholipid quantitation by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS in hepatic extracts of Class III obese patients with increasing NAFLD severity revealed that most PC species with 32, 34 and 36 carbons as well as total PC abundance was decreased with SS and NASH. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS imaging revealed strong zonal distributions for 32, 34 and 36 carbon PCs in controls (minimal histologic findings and SS that was lost in NASH specimens. Specific lipid species such as PC 34:1 and PC 36:2 best illustrated this phenomenon. These findings suggest that phospholipid zonation may be associated with the presence of an intrahepatic proinflammatory phenotype and thus have broad implications in the etiopathogenesis of NASH.

  10. Hybrid electrospun chitosan-phospholipids nanofibers for transdermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ana C; Gorzelanny, Christian; Halter, Natalia; Schneider, Stefan W; Chronakis, Ioannis S

    2016-08-20

    Chitosan (Ch) polysaccharide was mixed with phospholipids (P) to generate electrospun hybrid nanofibers intended to be used as platforms for transdermal drug delivery. Ch/P nanofibers exibithed average diameters ranging from 248±94nm to 600±201nm, depending on the amount of phospholipids used. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data suggested the occurrence of electrostatic interactions between amine groups of chitosan with the phospholipid counterparts. The nanofibers were shown to be stable for at least 7days in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) solution. Cytotoxicity studies (WST-1 and LDH assays) demonstrated that the hybrid nanofibers have suitable biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy, also suggested that L929 cells seeded on top of the CH/P hybrid have similar metabolic activity comparatively to the cells seeded on tissue culture plate (control). The release of curcumin, diclofenac and vitamin B12, as model drugs, from Ch/P hybrid nanofibers was investigated, demonstrating their potential utilization as a transdermal drug delivery system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  12. The interaction of MRI contrast agents with phospholipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jendrasiak, Gordon L.; Smith, Ralph L.; Ribeiro, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular interactions of three clinically used MRI contrast agents with lipid vesicles, consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC), have been studied using high-field NMR techniques. At a molar ratio of one contrast agent molecule to five phospholipid molecules, a significant increase in the proton resonance line width occurred for certain lipid head group moieties. A large decrease in the T 1 relaxation times for the head group moieties was also observed. These two effects occurred regardless of the ionic status and the chelate structure of the three contrast agents. The structure of the contrast agents did, however, affect the magnitude of the two NMR parameter changes. These NMR effects also differed in magnitude amongst the various head group entities. The NMR effects were greatest for the head group moieties at or near the vesicle-water interface. The results are discussed in terms of the structure of the phospholipid-water interface. Since the use of contrast agents has become routine in clinical MRI, our results are of importance in terms of the interaction of the agents with physiological surfaces, many of which contain phospholipids. The understanding of such interactions should be of value not only for improved diagnostics, but also in the development of new contrast agents. (author)

  13. Post-translational regulation of P2X receptor channels: modulation by phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe eBernier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available P2X receptor channels mediate fast excitatory signaling by ATP and play major roles in sensory transduction, neuro-immune communication and inflammatory response. P2X receptors constitute a gene family of calcium-permeable ATP-gated cation channels therefore the regulation of P2X signaling is critical for both membrane potential and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Phosphoinositides (PIPn are anionic signaling phospholipids that act as functional regulators of many types of ion channels. Direct PIPn binding was demonstrated for several ligand- or voltage-gated ion channels, however no generic motif emerged to accurately predict lipid-protein binding sites. This review presents what is currently known about the modulation of the different P2X subtypes by phospholipids and about critical determinants underlying their sensitivity to PIPn levels in the plasma membrane.All functional mammalian P2X subtypes tested, with the notable exception of P2X5, have been shown to be positively modulated by PIPn, i.e. homomeric P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7, as well as heteromeric P2X1/5 and P2X2/3 receptors. Based on various results reported on the aforementioned subtypes including mutagenesis of the prototypical PIPn-sensitive P2X4 and PIPn-insensitive P2X5 receptor subtypes, an increasing amount of functional, biochemical and structural evidence converges on the modulatory role of a short polybasic domain located in the proximal C-terminus of P2X subunits. This linear motif, semi-conserved in the P2X family, seems necessary and sufficient for encoding direct modulation of ATP-gated channels by PIPn. Furthermore, the physiological impact of the regulation of ionotropic purinergic responses by phospholipids on pain pathways was recently revealed in the context of native crosstalks between phospholipase C-linked metabotropic receptors and P2X receptor channels in DRG sensory neurons and microglia.

  14. Effect of phospholipid deposits on adhesion of bacteria to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Proschogo, Nicholas; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Diec, Jennie; Borazjani, Roya; Willcox, Mark D P

    2012-01-01

    Protein and lipid deposits on contact lenses may contribute to clinical complications. This study examined the effect of phospholipids on the adhesion of bacteria to contact lenses. Worn balafilcon A (n = 11) and senofilcon A (n = 11) were collected after daily wear and phospholipids were extracted in chloroform:methanol. The amount of phospholipid was measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unworn lenses soaked in phospholipids were exposed to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. After 18 h incubation, the numbers of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus that adhered to the lenses were measured. Phospholipid was tested for possible effects on bacterial growth. A broad range of sphingomyelins (SM) and phosphatidylcholines (PC) were detected from both types of worn lenses. SM (16:0) (m/z 703) and PC (34:2) (m/z 758) were the major phospholipids detected in the lens extracts. Phospholipids did not alter the adhesion of any strain of P. aeruginosa or S. aureus (p > 0.05). Phospholipids (0.1 mg/mL) showed no effect on the growth of P. aeruginosa 6294 or S. aureus 031. Phospholipids adsorb/absorb to contact lenses during wear, however, the major types of phospholipids adsorbed to lenses do not alter bacterial adhesion or growth.

  15. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, Fernando; Morais, Sofia; Emery, James A; Turchini, Giovanni M

    2015-01-01

    Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher water temperature

  16. Arachidonic Acid and Eicosapentaenoic Acid Metabolism in Juvenile Atlantic Salmon as Affected by Water Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Norambuena

    Full Text Available Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3, with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways. Three experimental diets were formulated to be identical, except for the ratio EPA/ARA, and fed to triplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar kept either at 10°C or 20°C. Results showed that fatty acid metabolic utilisation, and likely also their dietary requirements for optimal performance, can be affected by changes in their relative levels and by environmental temperature in Atlantic salmon. Thus, the increase in temperature, independently from dietary treatment, had a significant effect on the β-oxidation of a fatty acid including EPA, as observed by the apparent in vivo enzyme activity and mRNA expression of pparα -transcription factor in lipid metabolism, including β-oxidation genes- and cpt1 -key enzyme responsible for the movement of LC-PUFA from the cytosol into the mitochondria for β-oxidation-, were both increased at the higher water temperature. An interesting interaction was observed in the transcription and in vivo enzyme activity of Δ5fad-time-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis pathway of EPA and ARA. Such, at lower temperature, the highest mRNA expression and enzyme activity was recorded in fish with limited supply of dietary EPA, whereas at higher temperature these were recorded in fish with limited ARA supply. In consideration that fish at higher

  17. Promiscuous and specific phospholipid binding by domains in ZAC, a membrane-associated Arabidopsis protein with an ARF GAP zinc finger and a C2 domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Lykke-Andersen, K; Frandsen, G I

    2000-01-01

    domain are separated by a region without homology to other known proteins. Zac promoter/beta-glucuronidase reporter assays revealed highest expression levels in flowering tissue, rosettes and roots. ZAC protein was immuno-detected mainly in association with membranes and fractionated with Golgi...... and plasma membrane marker proteins. ZAC membrane association was confirmed in assays by a fusion between ZAC and the green fluorescence protein and prompted an analysis of the in vitro phospholipid-binding ability of ZAC. Phospholipid dot-blot and liposome-binding assays indicated that fusion proteins...... zinc finger motif, but proteins containing only the zinc finger domain (residues 1-105) did not bind PI-3-P. Recombinant ZAC possessed GTPase-activating activity on Arabidopsis ARF proteins. These data identify a novel PI-3-P-binding protein region and thereby provide evidence...

  18. Associations of obesity with triglycerides and C-reactive protein are attenuated in adults with high red blood cell eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background:N-3 fatty acids are associated with favorable, and obesity with unfavorable, concentrations of chronic disease risk biomarkers.Objective:We examined whether high eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid intakes, measured as percentages of total red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid...

  19. A retrospective: Use of Escherichia coli as a vehicle to study phospholipid synthesis and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhan, William

    2012-01-01

    Although the study of individual phospholipids and their synthesis began in the 1920’s first in plants and then mammals, it was not until the early 1960’s that Eugene Kennedy using Escherichia coli initiated studies of bacterial phospholipid metabolism. With the base of information already available from studies of mammalian tissue, the basic blueprint of phospholipid biosynthesis in E. coli was worked out by the late 1960’s. In 1970’s and 1980’s most of the enzymes responsible for phospholipid biosynthesis were purified and many of the genes encoding these enzymes were identified. By the late 1990’s conditional and null mutants were available along with clones of the genes for every step of phospholipid biosynthesis. Most of these genes had been sequenced before the complete E. coli genome sequence was available. Strains of E. coli were developed in which phospholipid composition could be changed in a systematic manner while maintaining cell viability. Null mutants, strains in which phospholipid metabolism was artificially regulated, and strains synthesizing foreign lipids not found in E. coli have been used to this day to define specific roles for individual phospholipid. This review will trace the findings that have led to the development of E. coli as an excellent model system to study mechanisms underlying the synthesis and function of phospholipids that are widely applicable to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. PMID:22925633

  20. Measurement of total phospholipids in urine of patients treated with gentamicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D A; Begg, E J; Kirkpatrick, C M; Yeo, J; Graham, G G; Bailey, R R

    1997-04-01

    The excretion of phospholipids in urine may be a marker of the early renal toxicity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. Urinary phospholipids are formed in myeloid bodies which develop in the lysosomes of proximal tubules during treatment with the aminoglycosides, and overflow into the urine. Published assays were modified in order to measure the total phospholipid concentrations in human urine. Phospholipids were extracted from freeze-dried urine samples, digested in concentrated sulphuric acid, and the inorganic phosphorus content determined by complexing with ammonium molybdate and measuring the absorbance at 820 nm. Ten septicaemic patients treated with gentamicin for 5-7 days had significantly higher urine phospholipid concentrations than 10 healthy untreated control subjects (P < 0.0001). There was a negative linear relationship between phospholipid excretion and creatinine clearance (r2 = 0.71). In 34 patients with acute pyelonephritis, increased phospholipid concentrations were observed prior to treatment compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001) and did not alter during treatment with gentamicin. However, the phospholipid concentrations decreased significantly after treatment was completed (P < 0.03). These studies suggest that urinary phospholipids may indicate early aminoglycoside toxicity but with poor specificity, as many of the infections being treated may themselves be associated with phospholipiduria.

  1. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13 C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1- 13 C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with ≥80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was ≥90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13 C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data

  2. Construction of a multifunctional coating consisting of phospholipids and endothelial progenitor cell-specific peptides on titanium substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huiqing; Li, Xiaojing [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhao, Yuancong, E-mail: zhaoyc7320@163.com [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Li, Jingan; Chen, Jiang [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangping8@263.net [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Maitz, Manfred F. [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Leibniz of Polymer Research Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Huang, Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Graphical abstract: The phospholipid groups of PMMDP can inhibit platele adhesion, and the EPCs-specific peptide of the PMMDP showed special recognition and capture for EPCs. The catechol groups of PMMDP play a critical role as molecular anchor for balancing the binding between the coating and the substrate. - Highlights: • The uniform coating of PMMDP can be constructed on titanium surface successfully through the catechol groups. • The phospholipid groups of PMMDP can inhibit platele adhesion, fibrinogen denaturation and improve the hydrophilicity of substrate. • The EPCs-specific peptide of the PMMDP showed special recognition and capture for EPCs. - Abstract: A phospholipid/peptide polymer (PMMDP) with phosphorylcholine groups, endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-specific peptides and catechol groups was anchored onto a titanium (Ti) surface to fabricate a biomimetic multifunctional surface. The PMMDP coating was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The amount of PMMDP coating on the Ti surface was quantified by using the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Interactions between blood components and the coated and bare Ti substrates were evaluated by platelet adhesion and activation assays and fibrinogen denaturation test using platelet rich plasma (PRP). The results revealed that the PMMDP-modified surface inhibited fibrinogen denaturation and reduced platelet adhesion and activation. EPC cell culture on the PMMDP-modified surface showed increased adhesion and proliferation of EPCs when compared to the cells cultured on untreated Ti surface. The inhibition of fibrinogen denaturation and platelet adhesion and support of EPCs attachment and proliferation indicated that this coating might be beneficial for future applications in blood-contacting implants, such as vascular stents.

  3. Use of dry-milling derived thin stillage for producing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Zhao, Xuefei; Strait, Megan; Wen, Zhiyou

    2012-05-01

    This study was to explore the use of thin stillage, a major byproduct in dry milling corn-ethanol plants, for production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) by the fungus Pythium irregulare. Thin stillage contains various compounds that were ideal for fungal growth. Thin stillage concentration and temperature played important roles in fungal growth and EPA production. When 50% thin stillage was used in a stepwise temperature shift culture process, the cell density reached 23 g/L at day 9 with EPA yield and productivity of 243 and 27 mg/L day, respectively. The fungal biomass contained 39% lipid, 28% protein, 30% carbohydrate, and 3% ash. The fungal culture also generated a nutrient-depleted liquid by removing organic compounds in the raw thin stillage. The results collectively showed a new use of thin stillage by feeding to the fungus P. irregulare for producing omega-3 fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mechanics and dynamics of triglyceride-phospholipid model membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Duelund, Lars; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate here that triolein alters the mechanical properties of phospholipid membranes and induces extraordinary conformational dynamics. Triolein containing membranes exhibit fluctuations up to size range of 100µm and with the help of these are e.g. able to squeeze through narrow passages...... with larger lamellar distances observed in the TOPOPC membranes. These findings suggest repulsion between adjacent membranes. We provide a comprehensive discussion on the possible explanations for the observed mechanics and dynamics in the TOPOPC system and on their potential cellular implications....

  5. Increased Binding of Calcium Ions at Positively Curved Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Allolio, Christoph; Hof, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2017), s. 518-523 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01074S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1102 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : molecular dynamics * fluorescence spectroscopy * calcium * phospholipids Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 9.353, year: 2016

  6. Equation of State for Phospholipid Self-Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipid self-assembly is the basis of biomembrane stability. The entropy of transfer from water to self-assembled micelles of lysophosphatidylcholines and diacyl phosphatidylcholines with different chain lengths converges to a common value at a temperature of 44°C. The corresponding enthalpies...... of transfer converge at ∼-18°C. An equation of state for the free energy of self-assembly formulated from this thermodynamic data depends on the heat capacity of transfer as the sole parameter needed to specify a particular lipid. For lipids lacking calorimetric data, measurement of the critical micelle...

  7. Clinical implications of eicosapentaenoic acid/arachidonic acid ratio (EPA/AA) in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Miki; Inai, Kei; Shinohara, Tokuko; Tomimatsu, Hirofumi; Nakanishi, Toshio

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies showed that a low ratio between the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and those of arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) is associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease and poor prognosis of heart failure, arrhythmia, and cardiac sudden death. However, the clinical implications of EPA/AA in adult patients with congenital heart disease remain unclear. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of EPA/AA regarding cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease. We measured the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid in 130 adult patients (median age, 31 years) stratified into two groups according to their EPA/AA (low, ≤0.22; high, >0.22). We prospectively analyzed the association between EPA/AA and incidence of cardiac events during a mean observation period of 15 months, expressed in terms of hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In the subgroup of patients with biventricular circulation (2VC) (n = 76), we analyzed the same clinical endpoints. In our study population, EPA/AA was not associated with the incidence of arrhythmic events (HR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.82-2.85; p = 0.19), but low EPA/AA was a predictor of heart failure hospitalization (HR, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.35-6.30; p AA of ≤0.25 was associated with a significantly higher risk of arrhythmic events (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.11-6.41; p = 0.03) and heart failure hospitalization (HR, 5.20; 95% CI, 1.78-18.1; p AA represents a useful predictor of cardiac events in adult patients with congenital heart disease.

  8. Spontaneous transfer of ganglioside GM1 between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Thompson, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the negatively charged glycosphingolipid II 3 -N-acetylneuraminosyl-gangliotetraosylceramide (GM 1 ) were investigated by monitoring tritiated GM 1 movement between donor and acceptor vesicles. After appropriate incubation times at 45 0 C, donor and acceptor vesicles were separated by molecular sieve chromatography. Donors were small unilamellar vesicles produced by sonication, whereas acceptors were large unilamellar vesicles produced by either fusion or ethanol injection. Initial GM 1 transfer to acceptors followed first-order kinetics with a half-time of about 40 h assuming that GM 1 is present in equal mole fractions in the exterior and interior surfaces of the donor vesicle bilayer and that no glycolipid flip-flop occurs. GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to that of [ 14 C]cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. Factors affecting the GM 1 interbilayer transfer rate included phospholipid matrix composition, initial GM 1 concentration in donor vesicles, and the GM 1 distribution in donor vesicles with respect to total lipid symmetry. The findings provide evidence that GM 1 is molecularly dispersed at low concentrations within liquid-crystalline phospholipid bilayers

  9. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A; Cantu, L; Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F; May, R

    2008-01-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation

  10. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerelli, Y; Bari, M T Di; Deriu, A [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita degli Studi di Parma and CRS SOFT, INFM-CNR (Italy); Cantu, L [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica e Biotecnologie per la Medicina-LITA, Universita di Milano (Italy); Colombo, P; Como, C; Motta, S; Sonvico, F [Dipartimento Farmaceutico, Universita degli Studi di Parma (Italy); May, R [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)], E-mail: Antonio.Deriu@fis.unipr.it

    2008-03-12

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 A and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 A. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  11. Structure and organization of phospholipid/polysaccharide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerelli, Y.; Di Bari, M. T.; Deriu, A.; Cantù, L.; Colombo, P.; Como, C.; Motta, S.; Sonvico, F.; May, R.

    2008-03-01

    In recent years nanoparticles and microparticles composed of polymeric or lipid material have been proposed as drug carriers for improving the efficacy of encapsulated drugs. For the production of these systems different materials have been proposed, among them phospholipids and polysaccharides due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low cost and safety. We report here a morphological and structural investigation, performed using cryo-TEM, static light scattering and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering, on phospholipid/saccharide nanoparticles loaded with a lipophilic positively charged drug (tamoxifen citrate) used in breast cancer therapy. The lipid component was soybean lecithin; the saccharide one was chitosan that usually acts as an outer coating increasing vesicle stability. The microscopy and scattering data indicate the presence of two distinct nanoparticle families: uni-lamellar vesicles with average radius 90 Å and multi-lamellar vesicles with average radius 440 Å. In both families the inner core is occupied by the solvent. The presence of tamoxifen gives rise to a multi-lamellar structure of the lipid outer shell. It also induces a positive surface charge into the vesicles, repelling the positively charged chitosan molecules which therefore do not take part in nanoparticle formation.

  12. Adhesion signals of phospholipid vesicles at an electrified interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNardis, Nadica Ivošević; Žutić, Vera; Svetličić, Vesna; Frkanec, Ruža

    2012-09-01

    General adhesion behavior of phospholipid vesicles was examined in a wide range of potentials at the mercury electrode by recording time-resolved adhesion signals. It was demonstrated that adhesion-based detection is sensitive to polar headgroups in phospholipid vesicles. We identified a narrow potential window around the point of zero charge of the electrode where the interaction of polar headgroups of phosphatidylcholine vesicles with the substrate is manifested in the form of bidirectional signals. The bidirectional signal is composed of the charge flow due to the nonspecific interaction of vesicle adhesion and spreading and of the charge flow due to a specific interaction of the negatively charged electrode and the most exposed positively charged choline headgroups. These signals are expected to appear only when the electrode surface charge density is less than the surface charge density of the choline groups at the contact interface. In comparison, for the negatively charged phosphatidylserine vesicles, we identified the potential window at the mercury electrode where charge compensation takes place, and bidirectional signals were not detected.

  13. ER phospholipid composition modulates lipogenesis during feeding and in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Bo; Palladino, Elisa Nd; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-10-02

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced nuclear SREBP-1c abundance, and blunted the lipogenic response to feeding, LXR agonist treatment, or obesity-linked insulin resistance. Desaturation of the ER membrane may serve as an auxiliary signal of the fed state that promotes lipid synthesis in response to nutrient availability.

  14. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust soot dispersed in phospholipid surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.; Keane, M.; Xing, S.; Harrison, J.; Gautam, M.; Ong, T.

    1994-06-01

    Organics extractable from respirable diesel exhaust soot particles by organic solvents have been known for some time to be direct acting frameshift mutagens in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium histidine reversion assay. Upon deposition in a pulmonary alveolus or respiratory bronchiole, respirable diesel soot particles will contact first the hypophase which is coated by and laden with surfactants. To model interactions of soot and pulmonary surfactant, the authors dispersed soots in vitro in the primary phospholipid pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl glycerophosphorylcholine (lecithin) (DPL) in physiological saline. They have shown that diesel soots dispersed in lecithin surfactant can express mutagenic activity, in the Ames assay system using S. typhimurium TA98, comparable to that expressed by equal amounts of soot extracted by dichloromethane/dimethylsulfoxide (DCM/DMSO). Here the authors report additional data on the same system using additional exhaust soots and also using two other phospholipids, dipalmitoyl glycerophosphoryl ethanolamine (DPPE), and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA), with different ionic character hydrophilic moieties. A preliminary study of the surfactant dispersed soot in an eucaryotic cell test system also is reported.

  15. Metformin Decouples Phospholipid Metabolism in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A D Smith

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic drug metformin, currently undergoing trials for cancer treatment, modulates lipid and glucose metabolism both crucial in phospholipid synthesis. Here the effect of treatment of breast tumour cells with metformin on phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho metabolism which plays a key role in membrane synthesis and intracellular signalling has been examined.MDA-MB-468, BT474 and SKBr3 breast cancer cell lines were treated with metformin and [3H-methyl]choline and [14C(U]glucose incorporation and lipid accumulation determined in the presence and absence of lipase inhibitors. Activities of choline kinase (CK, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase (CCT and PtdCho-phospholipase C (PLC were also measured. [3H] Radiolabelled metabolites were determined using thin layer chromatography.Metformin-treated cells exhibited decreased formation of [3H]phosphocholine but increased accumulation of [3H]choline by PtdCho. CK and PLC activities were decreased and CCT activity increased by metformin-treatment. [14C] incorporation into fatty acids was decreased and into glycerol was increased in breast cancer cells treated with metformin incubated with [14C(U]glucose.This is the first study to show that treatment of breast cancer cells with metformin induces profound changes in phospholipid metabolism.

  16. Characterization of Phospholipid Mixed Micelles by Translational Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, James J.; Baber, James L.; Bax, Ad

    2004-01-01

    The concentration dependence of the translational self diffusion rate, D s , has been measured for a range of micelle and mixed micelle systems. Use of bipolar gradient pulse pairs in the longitudinal eddy current delay experiment minimizes NOE attenuation and is found critical for optimizing sensitivity of the translational diffusion measurement of macromolecules and aggregates. For low volume fractions Φ (Φ ≤ 15% v/v) of the micelles, experimental measurement of the concentration dependence, combined with use of the D s =D o (1-3.2λΦ) relationship, yields the hydrodynamic volume. For proteins, the hydrodynamic volume, derived from D s at infinitely dilute concentration, is found to be about 2.6 times the unhydrated molecular volume. Using the data collected for hen egg white lysozyme as a reference, diffusion data for dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) micelles indicate approximately 27 molecules per micelle, and a critical micelle concentration of 14 mM. Differences in translational diffusion rates for detergent and long chain phospholipids in mixed micelles are attributed to rapid exchange between free and micelle-bound detergent. This difference permits determination of the free detergent concentration, which, for a high detergent to long chain phospholipid molar ratio, is found to depend strongly on this ratio. The hydrodynamic volume of DHPC/POPC bicelles, loaded with an M2 channel peptide homolog, derived from translational diffusion, predicts a rotational correlation time that slightly exceeds the value obtained from peptide 15 N relaxation data

  17. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Beentjes; A. van Tol (Arie); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, are

  18. Plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: The Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Iso, Hiroyasu; Eshak, Ehab S; Ikehara, Satoyo; Ikeda, Ai; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-05-01

    Higher intake of fish or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether increased blood levels of n-3 PUFAs are associated with reduced risk of CHD in the Japanese population. The relationship between circulating levels of n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) and risk of CHD was examined in a nested case-control study among participants in the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based Study Cohort. Plasma n-3 PUFA phospholipid levels were measured at baseline by gas chromatography in 209 cases with CHD and 418 controls matched for sex, age, date of blood draw, time elapsed since last meal before blood collection, and study location. The CHD cases (n = 209) comprised 168 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 of sudden cardiac death, otherwise classified as 157 non-fatal and 52 fatal coronary events, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 13.5 years. Multivariate conditional logistic analysis showed no significant association between n-3 PUFAs and risk of total CHD. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of plasma n-3 PUFAs was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.41-1.51, p for trend = 0.51). Subtype analysis of CHD revealed that the multivariate ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles for n-3 PUFAs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.43-1.89, p for trend = 0.90) for myocardial infarction, 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88, p for trend = 0.04) for sudden cardiac death, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.42-1.89, p for trend = 0.97) for nonfatal coronary events, and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.75, p for trend = 0.03) for fatal coronary events. Plasma n-3 PUFA levels were not associated with risk of total CHD but were inversely associated with risks of sudden cardiac death and fatal coronary events among middle-aged Japanese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An efficient hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation of 7 phospholipid classes based on a diol column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, C.; Dane, A.; Spijksma, G.; Wang, M.; Greef, J. van der; Luo, G.; Hankemeier, T.; Vreeken, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) - ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for separation of a wide range of phospholipids. A diol column which is often used with normal phase chromatography was adapted to separate different phospholipid classes in HILIC mode using a

  20. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients

  1. Phospholipid composition of cell-derived microparticles determined by one-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheim, A. M.; Kolb, A. M.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2002-01-01

    Microparticles in the circulation activate the coagulation system and may activate the complement system via C-reactive protein upon conversion of membrane phospholipids by phospholipases. We developed a sensitive and reproducible method to determine the phospholipid composition of microparticles.

  2. Recent Advances in Phospholipids from Colostrum, Milk and Dairy By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Verardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk is one of the most important foods for mammals, because it is the first form of feed providing energy, nutrients and immunological factors. In the last few years, milk lipids have attracted the attention of researchers due to the presence of several bioactive components in the lipid fraction. The lipid fraction of milk and dairy products contains several components of nutritional significance, such as ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, CLA, short chain fatty acids, gangliosides and phospholipids. Prospective cohort evidence has shown that phospholipids play an important role in the human diet and reinforce the possible relationship between their consumption and prevention of several chronic diseases. Because of these potential benefits of phospholipids in the human diet, this review is focused on the recent advances in phospholipids from colostrum, milk and dairy by-products. Phospholipid composition, its main determination methods and the health activities of these compounds will be addressed.

  3. Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scrambling by a reconstituted TMEM16 ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvezzi, Mattia; Chalat, Madhavan; Janjusevic, Radmila; Picollo, Alessandra; Terashima, Hiroyuki; Menon, Anant K; Accardi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipid (PL) scramblases disrupt the lipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane, externalizing phosphatidylserine to trigger blood coagulation and mark apoptotic cells. Recently, members of the TMEM16 family of Ca(2+)-gated channels have been shown to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent scrambling. It is however controversial whether they are scramblases or channels regulating scrambling. Here we show that purified afTMEM16, from Aspergillus fumigatus, is a dual-function protein: it is a Ca(2+)-gated channel, with characteristics of other TMEM16 homologues, and a Ca(2+)-dependent scramblase, with the expected properties of mammalian PL scramblases. Remarkably, we find that a single Ca(2+) site regulates separate transmembrane pathways for ions and lipids. Two other purified TMEM16-channel homologues do not mediate scrambling, suggesting that the family diverged into channels and channel/scramblases. We propose that the spatial separation of the ion and lipid pathways underlies the evolutionary divergence of the TMEM16 family, and that other homologues, such as TMEM16F, might also be dual-function channel/scramblases.

  4. Evaluation of Intestinal Absorption and Bioavailability of a Bergenin-Phospholipid Complex Solid Dispersion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoshi; Wei, Yue; Xi, Long; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    Bergenin (BN) is a Biopharmaceutics Classification System class IV (BCS IV) drug with poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity and is potentially eliminated by the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). These factors may explain its low oral bioavailability. In the present study, a BN-phospholipid complex solid dispersion (BNPC-SD) was prepared by solvent evaporation and characterized based on differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, infrared diffraction, solubility, octanol-water partition coefficient, and in vitro dissolution. To investigate how P-gp can inhibit BN absorption in vivo, the P-gp inhibitor verapamil was co-administered with BNPC-SD to Sprague Dawley rats. By in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion, the membrane permeability of BN from BNPC-SD was higher than that of BN given alone and was improved further by co-administered verapamil. A pharmacokinetics study was done in Sprague Dawley rats, with plasma BN levels estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. C max and AUC 0 → t values for BN were significantly higher for BNPC-SD than for BN given alone and were increased further by verapamil. Thus, the relative oral bioavailability of BNPC-SD as well as BNPC-SD co-administered with verapamil was 156.33 and 202.46%, respectively, compared with the value for BN given alone. These results showed that BNPC-SD can increase the oral bioavailability of BCS IV drugs.

  5. Evolution of phospholipid contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Martínez, S; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2016-06-01

    We report the evolution of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and sphingomyelin (SM) contents during the production of quark cheese from buttermilk by successive ultrafiltration concentration, enrichment with cream, concurrent homogenization and pasteurization, fermentative coagulation, and separation of quark from whey by further ultrafiltration. Buttermilk is richer than milk itself in phospholipids that afford desirable functional and technological properties, and is widely used in dairy products. To investigate how phospholipid content is affected by end-product production processes such as ultrafiltration, homogenization, pasteurization or coagulation, we measured the phospholipids at several stages of each of 5 industrial-scale quark cheese production runs. In each run, 10,000L of buttermilk was concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration, enriched with cream, homogenized, pasteurized, inoculated with lactic acid bacteria, incubated to coagulation, and once more concentrated to half volume by ultrafiltration. Phospholipid contents were determined by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection in the starting buttermilk, concentrated buttermilk, ultrafiltrate, cream-enriched concentrated buttermilk (both before and after concurrent homogenization and pasteurization), coagulate, and quark, and also in the rinsings obtained when the ultrafiltration equipment was washed following initial concentration. The average phospholipid content of buttermilk was approximately 5 times that of milk, and the phospholipid content of buttermilk fat 26 to 29 times that of milk fat. Although phospholipids did not cross ultrafiltration membranes, significant losses occurred during ultrafiltration (due to retention on the membranes) and during the homogenization and pasteurization process. During coagulation, however, phospholipid content rose, presumably as a consequence of the proliferation of the

  6. Biosynthesis of ether-phospholipids including plasmalogens, peroxisomes and human disease: new insights into an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Brites, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Ether-phospholipids represent an important subclass of phospholipids in animal cell membranes characterized by the presence of an ether bond at the sn-I position and the enrichment of PUFAs at the sn-2 position. Of the different ether-phospholipids, plasmalogens are the most abundant form and their

  7. Pairing of cholesterol with oxidized phospholipid species in lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Loubet, Bastien; Olzynska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    We claim that (1) cholesterol protects bilayers from disruption caused by lipid oxidation by sequestering conical shaped oxidized lipid species such as 1-palmitoyl-2-azelaoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PZPC) away from phospholipid, because cholesterol and the oxidized lipid have complementary...... shapes and (2) mixtures of cholesterol and oxidized lipids can self-assemble into bilayers much like lysolipid–cholesterol mixtures. The evidence for bilayer protection comes from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. Unimodal size distributions of extruded...... vesicles (LUVETs) made up of a mixture of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and PZPC containing high amounts of PZPC are only obtained when cholesterol is present in high concentrations. In simulations, bilayers containing high amounts of PZPC become porous, unless cholesterol is also present...

  8. Microscopic methods in analysis of submicron phospholipid dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy belongs to the group of tests, used in pharmaceutical technology, that despite the lapse of time and the development of new analytical methods, still remain irreplaceable for the characterization of dispersed drug dosage forms (e.g., suspensions and emulsions. To obtain complete description of a specific drug formulation, such as parenteral colloidal products, a combination of different microscopic techniques is sometimes required. Electron microscopy methods are the most useful ones; however, even such basic methods as optical microscopy may be helpful for determination of some properties of a sample. The publication explicates the most popular microscopical techniques used nowadays for characterization of the morphology of nanoparticles suspended in pharmaceutical formulations; ad vantages and disadvantages of these methods are also discussed. Parenteral submicron formulations containing lecithin or a particular phospholipid were chosen as examples.

  9. Phospholipid-assisted synthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Peng; Zhu Xinyuan

    2007-01-01

    Morphology and size control of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by phospholipids (PLs) has been reported. It was found that gold entities could form nanostructures with different sizes controlled by PLs in an aqueous solution. During the preparation of 1.5 nm gold seeds, AuNPs were obtained from the reduction of gold complex by sodium borohydride and capped by citrate for stabilization. With the different ratios between seed solution and growth solution, which was composed by gold complex and PLs, gold seeds grew into larger nanoparticles step by step until enough large size up to 30 nm. The main discovery of this work is that common biomolecules, such as PLs can be used to control nanoparticle size. This conclusion has been confirmed by transmission electron micrographs, particle size analysis, and UV-vis spectra

  10. Ganglioside GM1 spontaneous transfer between phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.; Sugar, I.P.; Thompson, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The transfer kinetics of the monosiaylated glycosphingolipid, GM 1 , between different size phospholipid vesicles was measured using molecular sieve chromatography. At desired time intervals, small unilamellar donor vesicles were separated from large unilamellar acceptor vesicles by elution from a Sephacryl S-500 column [ 3 H]-GM 1 net transfer was calculated relative to [ 14 C]-cholesteryl oleate, which served as a nontransferable marker in the donor vesicles. The initial GM 1 transfer rate between 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles at 45 0 C deviated slightly from first order kinetics and possessed a half time of 3.6 days. This transfer half time is an order of magnitude shorter than that observed from the desiaylated derivative of GM 1 . The transfer kinetics are consistent with the authors recent electron microscopic results suggesting a molecular distribution of GM 1 in liquid-crystalline phosphatidylcholine bilayers

  11. Forms, Crosstalks, and the Role of Phospholipid Biosynthesis in Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process occurring during periods of stress to ensure a cell's survival by recycling cytosolic constituents and making products that can be used in energy generation and other essential processes. Three major forms of autophagy exist according to the specific mechanism through which cytoplasmic material is transported to a lysosome. Chaperone-mediated autophagy is a highly selective form of autophagy that delivers specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. Microautophagy is a less selective form of autophagy that occurs through lysosomal membrane invaginations, forming tubes and directly engulfing cytoplasm. Finally, macroautophagy involves formation of new membrane bilayers (autophagosomes that engulf cytosolic material and deliver it to lysosomes. This review provides new insights on the crosstalks between different forms of autophagy and the significance of bilayer-forming phospholipid synthesis in autophagosomal membrane formation.

  12. Phospholipid class-specific brain enrichment in response to lysophosphatidylcholine docosahexaenoic acid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Chen, Chuck T; Metherel, Adam H; Lacombe, R J Scott; Thies, Frank; Masoodi, Mojgan; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that at least two pools of plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can supply the brain: non-esterified DHA (NE-DHA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho)-DHA. In contrast to NE-DHA, brain uptake of lysoPtdCho-DHA appears to be mediated by a specific transporter, but whether both forms of DHA supply undergo the same metabolic fate, particularly with regards to enrichment of specific phospholipid (PL) subclasses, remains to be determined. This study aimed to evaluate brain uptake of NE-DHA and lysoPtdCho-DHA into brain PL classes. Fifteen-week-old rats were infused intravenously with radiolabelled NE- 14 C-DHA or lysoPtdCho- 14 C-DHA (n=4/group) over five mins to achieve a steady-state plasma level. PLs were extracted from the brain and separated by thin layer chromatography and radioactivity was quantified by liquid scintillation counting. The net rate of entry of lysoPtdCho-DHA into the brain was between 59% and 86% lower than the net rate of entry of NE-DHA, depending on the PL class. The proportion of total PL radioactivity in the lysoPtdCho- 14 C-DHA group compared to the NE- 14 C-DHA group was significantly higher in choline glycerophospholipids (ChoGpl) (48% vs 28%, respectively) but lower in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (EtnGpl) (32% vs 46%, respectively). In both groups, radioactivity was disproportionally high in phosphatidylinositol and ChoGpl but low in phosphatidylserine and EtnGpl compared to the corresponding DHA pool size. This suggests that DHA undergoes extensive PL remodeling after entry into the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adsorption of lysozyme to phospholipid and meibomian lipid monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Torres, Margaux; Millar, Thomas J

    2006-03-15

    It is believed that a lipid layer forms the outer layer of the pre-ocular tear film and this layer helps maintain tear film stability by lowering its surface tension. Proteins of the aqueous layer of the tear film (beneath the lipid layer) may also contribute to reducing surface tension by adsorbing to, or penetrating the lipid layer. The purpose of this study was to compare the penetration of lysozyme, a tear protein, into films of meibomian lipids and phospholipids held at different surface pressures to determine if lysozyme were part of the surface layer of the tear film. Films of meibomian lipids or phospholipids were spread onto the surface of a buffered aqueous subphase. Films were compressed to particular pressures and lysozyme was injected into the subphase. Changes in surface pressure were monitored to determine adsorption or penetration of lysozyme into the surface film. Lysozyme penetrated a meibomian lipid film at all pressures tested (max=20 mN/m). It also penetrated phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylethanolamine lipid films up to a pressure of 20 mN/m. It was not able to penetrate a phosphatidylcholine film at pressures >or=10 mN/m irrespective of the temperature being at 20 or 37 degrees C. However, it was able to penetrate it at very low pressures (<10 mN/m). Epifluorescence microscopy showed that the protein either adsorbs to or penetrates the lipid layer and the pattern of mixing depended upon the lipid at the surface. These results indicate that lysozyme is present at the surface of the tear film where it contributes to decreasing the surface tension by adsorbing and penetrating the meibomian lipids. Thus it helps to stabilize the tear film.

  14. Phospholipid composition and longevity: lessons from Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencak, Teresa G; Ruf, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Membrane fatty acid (FA) composition is correlated with longevity in mammals. The "membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing" proposes that animals which cellular membranes contain high amounts of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) have shorter life spans because their membranes are more susceptible to peroxidation and further oxidative damage. It remains to be shown, however, that long-lived phenotypes such as the Ames dwarf mouse have membranes containing fewer PUFAs and thus being less prone to peroxidation, as would be predicted from the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing. Here, we show that across four different tissues, i.e., muscle, heart, liver and brain as well as in liver mitochondria, Ames dwarf mice possess membrane phospholipids containing between 30 and 60 % PUFAs (depending on the tissue), which is similar to PUFA contents of their normal-sized, short-lived siblings. However, we found that that Ames dwarf mice membrane phospholipids were significantly poorer in n-3 PUFAs. While lack of a difference in PUFA contents is contradicting the membrane pacemaker hypothesis, the lower n-3 PUFAs content in the long-lived mice provides some support for the membrane pacemaker hypothesis of ageing, as n-3 PUFAs comprise those FAs being blamed most for causing oxidative damage. By comparing tissue composition between 1-, 2- and 6-month-old mice in both phenotypes, we found that membranes differed both in quantity of PUFAs and in the prevalence of certain PUFAs. In sum, membrane composition in the Ames dwarf mouse supports the concept that tissue FA composition is related to longevity.

  15. The Plasma Membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : Structure, Function, and Biogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERREST, ME; KAMMINGA, AH; NAKANO, A; ANRAKU, Y; POOLMAN, B; KONINGS, WN

    The composition of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols in the plasma membrane has a strong influence on the activity of the proteins associated or embedded in the lipid bilayer. Since most lipid-synthesizing enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are located in intracellular organelles, an

  16. Characterization of methanotrophic bacteria on the basis of intact phospholipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J; Barcelona, M J; Semrau, J D

    2000-08-01

    The intact phospholipid profiles (IPPs) of seven species of methanotrophs from all three physiological groups, type I, II and X, were determined using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. In these methanotrophs, two major classes of phospholipids were found, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as well as its derivatives phosphatidylmethylethanolamine (PME) and phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine (PDME). Specifically, the type I methanotrophs, Methylomonas methanica, Methylomonas rubra and Methylomicrobium album BG8 were characterized by PE and PG phospholipids with predominantly C16:1 fatty acids. The type II methanotrophs, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and CSC1 were characterized by phospholipids of PG, PME and PDME with predominantly C18:1 fatty acids. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath, a representative of type X methanotrophs, contained mostly PE (89% of the total phospholipids). Finally, the IPPs of a recently isolated acidophilic methanotroph, Methylocella palustris, showed it had a preponderance of PME phospholipids with 18:1 fatty acids (94% of total). Principal component analysis showed these methanotrophs could be clearly distinguished based on phospholipid profiles. Results from this study suggest that IPP can be very useful in bacterial chemotaxonomy.

  17. Flip-flop of phospholipids in proteoliposomes reconstituted from detergent extract of chloroplast membranes: kinetics and phospholipid specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Rajasekharan

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized into distinct sub-cellular organelles by lipid bilayers, which are known to be involved in numerous cellular processes. The wide repertoire of lipids, synthesized in the biogenic membranes like the endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial cytoplasmic membranes are initially localized in the cytosolic leaflet and some of these lipids have to be translocated to the exoplasmic leaflet for membrane biogenesis and uniform growth. It is known that phospholipid (PL translocation in biogenic membranes is mediated by specific membrane proteins which occur in a rapid, bi-directional fashion without metabolic energy requirement and with no specificity to PL head group. A recent study reported the existence of biogenic membrane flippases in plants and that the mechanism of plant membrane biogenesis was similar to that found in animals. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time ATP independent and ATP dependent flippase activity in chloroplast membranes of plants. For this, we generated proteoliposomes from Triton X-100 extract of intact chloroplast, envelope membrane and thylakoid isolated from spinach leaves and assayed for flippase activity using fluorescent labeled phospholipids. Half-life time of flipping was found to be 6 ± 1 min. We also show that: (a intact chloroplast and envelope membrane reconstituted proteoliposomes can flip fluorescent labeled analogs of phosphatidylcholine in ATP independent manner, (b envelope membrane and thylakoid reconstituted proteoliposomes can flip phosphatidylglycerol in ATP dependent manner, (c Biogenic membrane ATP independent PC flipping activity is protein mediated and (d the kinetics of PC translocation gets affected differently upon treatment with protease and protein modifying reagents.

  18. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Lee, Youngae; Eun, Hee Chul; Chung, Jin Ho

    2008-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Some reports have demonstrated that EPA inhibits NF-κB activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in various cells. However, its detailed mode of action is unclear. In this report, we investigated whether EPA inhibits the expression of TNF-α-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). TNF-α induced MMP-9 expression by NF-κB-dependent pathway. Pretreatment of EPA inhibited TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and p65 phosphorylation. However, EPA could not affect IκB-α phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and DNA binding activity of NF-κB. EPA inhibited TNF-α-induced p65 phosphorylation through p38 and Akt inhibition and this inhibition was IKKα-dependent event. Taken together, we demonstrate that EPA inhibits TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of p38 and Akt activation

  19. Application of a ω-3 Desaturase with an Arachidonic Acid Preference to Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production in Mortierella alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4; ω-6 fraction can reach 50% of the total fatty acids (TFAs in vivo. However, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5; ω-3 fraction is less than 3% when this fungus is cultivated at a low temperature (12°C. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme in ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways. To enhance EPA production, we transformed the ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (PaD17, which exhibits strong Δ-17 desaturase activity, into M. alpina, thus increasing the AA to EPA conversion rate to 49.8%. This PaD17-harboring M. alpina reconstruction strain produced 617 mg L−1 of EPA at room temperature in broth medium, this yield was increased to 1.73 g L−1 after culture medium optimization (i.e., about threefold higher than that under original culture conditions, with concomitant respective increases in dry cell weight and TFA content to 16.55 and 6.46 g L−1. These findings suggest a new platform for the future industrial production of EPA.

  20. Concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA of Asian catfish oil by urea complexation: optimization of reaction conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpisanu Thammapat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the concentrating conditions of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA extracted from Asian catfish oil was studied to obtain a maximum concentration. The crude fish oil was extracted from the belly flap and adipose tissue of Asian catfish, and the extracted oil was used as fresh crude oil. The EPA and DHA were concentrated by the urea complexation method. A hexagonal rotatable design was applied to examine the effects of crystallization temperature and urea-to-fatty acid ratio on the total content of EPA and DHA (Y1 and the liquid recovery yield (Y2 . The second order polynomial regression models for Y1 and Y2 were employed to generate the response surfaces. Under the optimum conditions of -20 °C and a urea-to-fatty acid ratio of 4 (w/w, the total concentration of EPA and DHA could be increased by up to 88%, while a liquid recovery yield of 26% was obtained.

  1. Elucidation of the biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid in the microalga Porphyridium cruentum. II. Studies with radiolabeled precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khozin, I.; Adlerstein, D.; Bigongo, C.; Heimer, Y.M.; Cohen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    In the course of the study of the biosynthesis of the fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the microalga Porphyridium cruentum, cells were pulse-labeled with various radiolabeled fatty acid precursors. Our data show that the major end products of the biosynthesis are EPA-containing galactolipids of a eukaryotic and prokaryotic nature. The prokaryotic molecular species contain EPA and arachidonic acid at the sn-1 position and C16 fatty acids, mainly 16:0, at the sn-2 positions, whereas in the eukaryotic species both positions are occupied by EPA or arachidonic acid. However, we suggest that both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic molecular species are formed in two pathways, omega 6 and omega 3, which involve cytoplasmic and chloroplastic lipids. In the omega 6 pathway, cytoplasmic 18:2-phosphatidylcholine (PC) is converted to 20:4 omega 6-PC by a sequence that includes a delta 6 desaturase, an elongation step, and a delta 5 desaturase. In the minor omega 3 pathway, 18:2-PC is presumably desaturated to 18:3 omega 3, which is sequentially converted by the enzymatic sequence of the omega 6 pathway to 20:5 omega 3-PC. The products of both pathways are exported, as their diacylglycerol moieties, to the chloroplast to be galactosylated into their respective monogalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species. The 20:4 omega 6 in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic monogalactosyldiacylglycerol can be further desaturated to EPA by a chloroplastic delta 17 (omega 3) desaturase

  2. Sustainable source of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid from metabolically engineered Yarrowia lipolytica: from fundamental research to commercial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dongming; Jackson, Ethel N; Zhu, Quinn

    2015-02-01

    The omega-3 fatty acids, cis-5, 8, 11, 14, and 17-eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5; EPA) and cis-4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19-docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6; DHA), have wide-ranging benefits in improving heart health, immune function, mental health, and infant cognitive development. Currently, the major source for EPA and DHA is from fish oil, and a minor source of DHA is from microalgae. With the increased demand for EPA and DHA, DuPont has developed a clean and sustainable source of the omega-3 fatty acid EPA through fermentation using metabolically engineered strains of Yarrowia lipolytica. In this mini-review, we will focus on DuPont's technology for EPA production. Specifically, EPA biosynthetic and supporting pathways have been introduced into the oleaginous yeast to synthesize and accumulate EPA under fermentation conditions. This Yarrowia platform can also produce tailored omega-3 (EPA, DHA) and/or omega-6 (ARA, GLA) fatty acid mixtures in the cellular lipid profiles. Fundamental research such as metabolic engineering for strain construction, high-throughput screening for strain selection, fermentation process development, and process scale-up were all needed to achieve the high levels of EPA titer, rate, and yield required for commercial application. Here, we summarize how we have combined the fundamental bioscience and the industrial engineering skills to achieve large-scale production of Yarrowia biomass containing high amounts of EPA, which led to two commercial products, New Harvest™ EPA oil and Verlasso® salmon.

  3. Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Fetal Pulmonary Circulation: An Experimental Study in Fetal Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dyuti; Aubry, Estelle; Ouk, Thavarak; Houeijeh, Ali; Houfflin-Debarge, Véronique; Besson, Rémi; Deruelle, Philippe; Storme, Laurent

    2017-07-16

    Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n -3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA). Pulmonary arterial pressure and LPA flow were measured while infusing EPA or DHA for 120 min to the fetus, to compute pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). The dose effects of EPA or DHA were studied in vascular rings pre-constricted with serotonin. Rings treated with EPA were separated into three groups: E+ (intact endothelium), E- (endothelium stripped) and LNA E+ (pretreatment of E+ rings with l-nitro-arginine). Results: EPA, but not DHA, induced a significant and prolonged 25% drop in PVR ( n = 8, p DHA resulted in only a mild relaxation at the highest concentration of DHA (300 µM) compared to E+. Conclusions: EPA induces a sustained pulmonary vasodilatation in fetal lambs. This effect is endothelium- and dose-dependent and involves nitric oxide (NO) production. We speculate that EPA supplementation may improve pulmonary circulation in clinical conditions with PPHN.

  4. Formulation of dark chocolate as a carrier to deliver eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids: Effects on product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Omer Said; Konar, Nevzat; Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Rasouli Pirouzian, Haniyeh; Oba, Sirin; Polat, Derya Genc; Poyrazoglu, Ender Sinan; Sagdic, Osman

    2018-07-15

    In this study, dark chocolate enriched with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) was developed using various forms and origins. Quality characteristics such as physical, thermo-gravimetric, rheological, textural and sensory properties of chocolates were investigated. The highest EPA/DHA stability was determined in samples prepared by free-flowing powder and microencapsulated forms of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). The L ∗ and C ∗ values varied from 32.16-33.37 and 7.45-8.09, respectively for the all samples. Hardness values ranged between 6422 and 8367 N and the use of EPA/DHA in the triglyceride form caused softer chocolate whereas control sample was the hardest sample. Melting and rheological properties were not significantly affected by the studied EPA/DHA sources (P chocolate was the most preferred source whereas sample with algae oil showed the lowest acceptability. According to the results, dark chocolate can be used for delivering omega-3 FA by considering their origin and physical form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced eicosapentaenoic acid production by a new deep-sea marine bacterium Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Zhang

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are products of secondary metabolism, essential for growth and important for human health. Although there are numerous reports of bacterial production of omega-3 fatty acids, less information is available on the biotechnological production of these compounds from bacteria. The production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5ω3 by a new species of marine bacteria Shewanella electrodiphila MAR441T was investigated under different fermentation conditions. This strain produced a high percentage (up to 26% of total fatty acids and high yields (mg / g of biomass of EPA at or below the optimal growth temperature. At higher growth temperatures these values decreased greatly. The amount of EPA produced was affected by the carbon source, which also influenced fatty acid composition. This strain required Na+ for growth and EPA synthesis and cells harvested at late exponential or early stationary phase had a higher EPA content. Both the highest amounts (20 mg g-1 and highest percent EPA content (18% occurred with growth on L-proline and (NH42SO4. The addition of cerulenin further enhanced EPA production to 30 mg g-1. Chemical mutagenesis using NTG allowed the isolation of mutants with improved levels of EPA content (from 9.7 to 15.8 mg g-1 when grown at 15°C. Thus, the yields of EPA could be substantially enhanced without the need for recombinant DNA technology, often a commercial requirement for food supplement manufacture.

  6. Antihypertensive effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, B.K.; Quilley, J.; Hirai, A.; Yoshida, S.; Tamura, Y.; Wong, P.Y.K.

    1986-01-01

    EPA ethyl ester (99.8% pure) was administered orally (300 mg/kg/d) to adult (25-wk-old) and young (11 1/2-wk-old) SHR rats for 2 weeks at which time systolic blood pressure (BP), platelet aggregation, glomerular leukotriene (LT)A 4 hydrolase activity, plasma renin activity (PRA), urinary levels of TxB 2 and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ and aortic conversion of [ 14 C]-AA to [ 14 C]-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ were measured. EPA treatment decreased BP of adult SHR with established hypertension from 238.7 +/- 2 to 217 +/- 4 mmHg (M +/- SD, P 4 hydrolase activity was inhibited. PRA and urinary levels of TxB 2 and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ were not changed. Similarly, there was no change in aortic conversion of [ 14 C]-AA to [ 14 C]-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ indicating that EPA treatment does not alter vascular cyclo-oxygenase activity. These results indicate that EPA treatment affects eicosanoid metabolism and cardiovascular function

  7. Anticancer effects of saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng grown in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Thu Dang Kim; Hai Nguyen Thanh; Duong Nguyen Thuy; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Vu Thi; Hung Vu Manh; Patcharee Boonsiri; Tung Bui Thanh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antitumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of saponin–phospholipid complex of Panax notoginseng. Methods: The in vitro cytotoxic effect of saponins extract and saponin–phospholipid complex against human lung cancer NCI-H460 and breast cancer cell lines BT474 was examined using MTS assay. For in vivo evaluation of antitumor potential, saponin and saponin–phospholipid complex were administered orally in rats induced mammary carcinogenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)a...

  8. Effect of low-dose gamma radiation on individual phospholipids in aqueous suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, P.W.; Maerker, G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of individual phospholipids (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidylserines and phosphatidylglycerols) containing either saturated or unsaturated fatty acid chains was irradiated at 9.66 kgy and 0.4 degree C in aqueous suspension. The phospholipids were analyzed by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on a silica column with an evporative light scattering detector. Phospholipid disppearance and production of two radiolytic products, phosphatidic acid and the lysophospholipid, after irradiation were quantitated from calibration curves of synthetic standards. Dipalmitoylphosphatidic acid and monopalmitoylphosphatidylcholine from irradiated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine were identified by liquid secondary-ion mass spectrometry

  9. Investigating the protective properties of milk phospholipids against ultraviolet light exposure in a skin equivalent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ashley; Laubscher, Andrea; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2010-02-01

    Current research on bioactive molecules in milk has documented health advantages of bovine milk and its components. Milk Phospholipids, selected for this study, represent molecules with great potential benefit in human health and nutrition. In this study we used confocal reflectance and multiphoton microscopy to monitor changes in skin morphology upon skin exposure to ultraviolet light and evaluate the potential of milk phospholipids in preventing photodamage to skin equivalent models. The results suggest that milk phospholipids act upon skin cells in a protective manner against the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Similar results were obtained from MTT tissue viability assay and histology.

  10. Phospholipid transfer protein deficiency decreases the content of S1P in HDL via the loss of its transfer capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Guo, Shoudong; Feng, Yumei; Feng, Lei; Cui, Yingjie; Song, Guohua; Luo, Tian; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yiwei; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Qin, Shucun

    2014-02-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is an amphiphilic signaling molecule, which is enriched in functional high density lipoprotein (HDL) and shows arterial protection. The distribution of S1P is changed with increased plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and impaired HDL function in patients with coronary heart diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that PLTP might transfer S1P among cells or lipoproteins. We found that plasma S1P contents were decreased by 60.1 % in PLTP knockout mice (PLTP-/-, N = 5) compared with their wild type littermates (WT, N = 5) (151.70 ± 38.59 vs. 379.32 ± 59.90 nmol/l, PS1P content in HDL fraction (HDL-S1P) from PLTP-/- was decreased by 64.7 % compared with WT (49.36 ± 1.49 vs. 139.76 ± 2.94 nmol/l, PS1P transfer assay indicated that PLTP could facilitate S1P transport from erythrocytes to HDL at 37 °C in D-Hanks buffer. Plasma content of apolipoprotein M, a specific adaptor of S1P, was not changed in PLTP-/- compared with WT. Therefore, we concluded that PLTP was a key factor to maintain plasma HDL-S1P, and PLTP deficiency could decrease the S1P content in plasma lipoproteins, which involves its capability of transferring S1P from erythrocyte to HDL.

  11. Direct investigation of the vectorization properties of amphiphilic cyclodextrins in phospholipid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, Isabelle; Nedyalkov, Mickael; Petkova, Vera; Benattar, Jean Jacques; Weisse, Sandrine; Auzély-Velty, Rachel; Djedaïni-Pilard, Florence; Perly, Bruno

    2002-10-01

    Recently, new cyclodextrin derivatives were synthesized and shown to exhibit strong amphiphilic properties. In this paper, we study the action of these new amphiphilic cyclodextrins on phospholipids. Mixed phospholipid/cyclodextrin derivative films were prepared and studied using X-ray reflectivity for various phospholipid/cyclodextrin ratios. A molar ratio of 3 provides a highly stable film the molecular structure of which has been investigated in detail. The cholesterol tail of the cyclodextrin molecule was found to be anchored into the phospholipid film. The cyclodextrin moieties exposed to the aqueous medium are prone to the addition of the guest molecule Dosulepin, making them of high interest for drug delivery. For this purpose and as an example of a potential application, this cyclodextrin molecular carrier property is also addressed to this complex film architecture.

  12. Postprandial changes in the phospholipid composition of circulating microparticles are not associated with coagulation activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tushuizen, Maarten E.; Diamant, Michaela; Peypers, Erik G.; Hoek, Frans J.; Heine, Robert J.; Sturk, Augueste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence is present that the phospholipid composition of circulating cell-derived microparticles (MP) affects coagulation in vivo, and that postprandial metabolic alterations may be associated with hypercoagulable state. Our objective was to investigate whether postprandial metabolic

  13. Cardiolipin, a major phospholipid of gram-positive bacteria that is not readily extractable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filgueiras, M.H.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of phospholipids from stationary phase grown cells of the Gram+ bacteria, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus was found to be incomplete with various commonly used extraction procedures. Phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

  14. Encapsulation of phytosterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes made with soy phospholipids by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan C; Acevedo, Nuria; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2017-11-15

    Phytosterols and phytosterol esters were encapsulated within large unilamellar liposomes prepared with soy phospholipids using a microfluidizer. The average particle diameter of these liposomal vesicles increased with increasing amounts of encapsulated phytosterols, especially with increasing free sterol content. The phytosterol content, liposomal particle size, and phytosterol encapsulation efficiency started to plateau when liposomes were prepared with MOPS buffer dispersions that contained 50 mg ml -1 soy phospholipid and more than 4% phytosterol blend, suggesting the saturation of phytosterol encapsulation. We proposed an encapsulation mechanism of free sterols and phytosterol esters in liposomes, where free sterols were mainly encapsulated within the lumen of these liposomes as crystals, and sterol esters and some free sterols were incorporated within the phospholipid bilayer of the liposomal membrane. The results from this work could provide the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries a practical method to produce loaded liposomes using inexpensive phospholipid mixtures for the delivery of bioactive ingredients.

  15. Employment of Voltammetry in Studies of Transport Processes across Artificial Phospholipid Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šestáková, Ivana; Navrátil, Tomáš; Josypčuk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 11 (2016), s. 2754-2759 ISSN 1040-0397 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : phospholipid membrane * cadmium * calcium ionophore (calcimycin) Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.851, year: 2016

  16. Biophysical properties of membrane lipids of anammox bacteria : I. Ladderane phospholipids form highly organized fluid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumann, Henry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Stroeve, Pieter; Poolman, Bert; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    Anammox bacteria that are capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonium (anammox) with nitrite to nitrogen gas produce unique membrane phospholipids that comprise hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly condensed cyclobutane rings. To gain insight into the biophysical properties of these

  17. Phospholipid metabolism and nuclear function: roles of the lipin family of phosphatidic acid phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniossoglou, Symeon

    2013-03-01

    Phospholipids play important roles in nuclear function as dynamic building blocks for the biogenesis of the nuclear membrane, as well as signals by which the nucleus communicates with other organelles, and regulate a variety of nuclear events. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear roles of phospholipids remain poorly understood. Lipins represent a family of phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatases that are conserved from yeasts to humans and perform essential functions in lipid metabolism. Several studies have identified key roles for lipins and their regulators in nuclear envelope organization, gene expression and the maintenance of lipid homeostasis in yeast and metazoans. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the roles of lipins in nuclear structure and function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Composition and physical state of phospholipids in calanoid copepods from India and Norway

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Farkas, T.; Storebakken, T.; Bhosle, N.B.

    The fatty acid composition and physical state of isolated phospholipids obtained from marine copepods collected on the Southwest coast of India (Calanus spp.) and the west coast of Norway (Calanus finmarchicus) were investigated to compare...

  19. Response of melanoma tumor phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea: a high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvan, Daniel; Demidem, Aïcha; Madelmont, Jean-Claude

    2003-07-01

    Phospholipid metabolism is tightly involved in tumor growth regulation and tumor cell survival. The response of phospholipid metabolism to chloroethyle nitrosourea treatment is investigated in a murine B16 melanoma model. Measurements of phospholipid derivatives are performed on intact tumor tissue samples using one- and two-dimensional proton NMR spectroscopy. During the tumor growth inhibition phase under treatment, tumors overexpress phosphocholine, phosphoethanolamine, glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine, whereas phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine levels are maintained to control levels. During re-growth, which remained quantitatively much below control growth, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors overexpress phosphocholine and phosphoethanolamine only. In treated melanoma, phosphatidylcholine levels show an inverse relationship with tumor growth rates. In conclusion, chloroethyle nitrosourea-treated melanoma tumors maintain their phosphatidylcholine levels and exhibit transformed phospholipid metabolism phenotype, by mechanisms that could participate in tumor cell survival.

  20. The ancient link between G-protein-coupled receptors and C-terminal phospholipid kinase domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogen, van den D.J.; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Seidl, Michael F.; Govers, Francine

    2018-01-01

    Sensing external signals and transducing these into intracellular responses requires a molecular signaling system that is crucial for every living organism. Two important eukaryotic signal transduction pathways that are often interlinked are G-protein signaling and phospholipid signaling.

  1. Phospholipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Acting as Lubricating Drug Nanocarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Sun; Yulong Sun; Hongyu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a severe disease caused by wear and inflammation of joints. In this study, phospholipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs@lip) were prepared in order to treat OA at an early stage. The phospholipid layer has excellent lubrication capability in aqueous media due to the hydration lubrication mechanism, while mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) act as effective drug nanocarriers. The MSNs@lip were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission el...

  2. Covalent modification of serum transferrin with phospholipid and incorporation into liposomal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Demant, E J; Hansen, Gert Helge

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized, and the deriva......A method is described for incorporation of water-soluble proteins into liposomal membranes using covalent protein-phospholipid conjugates in detergent solution. A disulfide derivative of phosphatidylethanolamine containing a reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester group is synthesized...

  3. Isolation and Analysis of Phospholipids in Dairy Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Pimentel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid fraction of milk is one of the most complex matrixes in foodstuffs due to the presence of a high number of moieties with different physical and chemical properties. Glycerolipids include glycerol and two fatty acids esterified in positions sn-1 and sn-2 with higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids than in the triglyceride fraction of milk. Sphingolipids consist of a sphingoid base linked to a fatty acid across an amide bond. Their amphiphilic nature makes them suitable to be added into a variety of foods and recent investigations show that phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin, can exert antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer activities as well as positive effects in Alzheimer’s disease, stress, and memory decline. Polar lipids can be found as natural constituents in the membranes of all living organisms with soybean and eggs as the principal industrial sources, yet they have low contents in phosphatidylserine and sphingomyelin. Animal products are rich sources of these compounds but since there are legal restrictions to avoid transmission of prions, milk and dairy products are gaining interest as alternative sources. This review summarizes the analysis of polar lipids in dairy products including sample preparation (extraction and fractionation/isolation and analysis by GC or HPLC and the latest research works using ELSD, CAD, and MS detectors.

  4. Determination of phospholipid transfer proteins in rat tissues by immunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerlink, T.

    1983-01-01

    Several quantitative immunoassays have been developed for two phospholipid transfer proteins from rat liver, i.e. the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein and the non-specific lipid transfer protein. The development of a double-antibody radioimmunoassay for the phosphatidylcholine transfer protein is described. The transfer protein was labelled with iodine-125 by the mild glucose oxidase-lactoperoxidase method. Although less than one tyrosine residue per molecule of transfer protein was labelled, only 20% of the labelled transfer protein was immunoprecipitable. This value could be increased to 80% by purifying the labelled protein by affinity chromatography on a column of anti-phosphatidylcholine transfer protein-IgG coupled to Sepharose 4B. The radioimmunoassay was used to determine the levels of phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in homogenates and 105 000 xg supernatants from various rat tissues as well as several Morris hepatomas. An enzyme immunoassay for the non-specific lipid transfer protein is also described. The antiserum that was raised especially by the author was cross-reactive with the non-specific lipid transfer protein present in 105 000 xg supernatants from human, mouse and bovine liver. The non-specific lipid transfer protein lost its immunoreactivity upon labelling with iodine-125 using different labelling techniques. Therefore, a regular radioimmunoassay could not be developed. The results of these different assays were compared. (Auth.)

  5. Calculations of the electrostatic potential adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, R M; Eisenberg, M; Sharp, K A; McLaughlin, S

    1995-03-01

    We used the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation to calculate electrostatic potentials in the aqueous phase adjacent to model phospholipid bilayers containing mixtures of zwitterionic lipids (phosphatidylcholine) and acidic lipids (phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylglycerol). The aqueous phase (relative permittivity, epsilon r = 80) contains 0.1 M monovalent salt. When the bilayers contain equipotential surfaces are discrete domes centered over the negatively charged lipids and are approximately twice the value calculated using Debye-Hückel theory. When the bilayers contain > 25% acidic lipid, the -25 mV equipotential profiles are essentially flat and agree well with the values calculated using Gouy-Chapman theory. When the bilayers contain 100% acidic lipid, all of the equipotential surfaces are flat and agree with Gouy-Chapman predictions (including the -100 mV surface, which is located only 1 A from the outermost atoms). Even our model bilayers are not simple systems: the charge on each lipid is distributed over several atoms, these partial charges are non-coplanar, there is a 2 A ion-exclusion region (epsilon r = 80) adjacent to the polar headgroups, and the molecular surface is rough. We investigated the effect of these four factors using smooth (or bumpy) epsilon r = 2 slabs with embedded point charges: these factors had only minor effects on the potential in the aqueous phase.

  6. Intracellular Drug Bioavailability: Effect of Neutral Lipids and Phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyer, Andrea; Mateus, André; Wiśniewski, Jacek R; Boriss, Hinnerk; Matsson, Pär; Artursson, Per

    2018-06-04

    Intracellular unbound drug concentrations are the pharmacologically relevant concentrations for targets inside cells. Intracellular drug concentrations are determined by multiple processes, including the extent of drug binding to intracellular structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) levels on intracellular drug disposition. The NL and/or PL content of 3T3-L1 cells were enhanced, resulting in phenotypes (in terms of morphology and proteome) reminiscent of adipocytes (high NL and PL) or mild phospholipidosis (only high PL). Intracellular bioavailability ( F ic ) was then determined for 23 drugs in these cellular models and in untreated wild-type cells. A higher PL content led to higher intracellular drug binding and a lower F ic . The induction of NL did not further increase drug binding but led to altered F ic due to increased lysosomal pH. Further, there was a good correlation between binding to beads coated with pure PL and intracellular drug binding. In conclusion, our results suggest that PL content is a major determinant of drug binding in cells and that PL beads may constitute a simple alternative to estimating this parameter. Further, the presence of massive amounts of intracellular NLs did not influence drug binding significantly.

  7. Effect of phospholipid-based formulations of Boswellia serrata extract on the solubility, permeability, and absorption of the individual boswellic acid constituents present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsch, Jan; Gerbeth, Kathleen; Fricker, Gert; Setzer, Constanze; Zirkel, Jürgen; Rebmann, Herbert; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2012-10-26

    Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts are used widely for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, very low concentrations in the plasma and brain were observed for the boswellic acids (1-6, the active constituents of B. serrata). The present study investigated the effect of phospholipids alone and in combination with common co-surfactants (e.g., Tween 80, vitamin E-TPGS, pluronic f127) on the solubility of 1-6 in physiologically relevant media and on the permeability in the Caco-2 cell model. Because of the high lipophilicity of 1-6, the permeability experiments were adapted to physiological conditions using modified fasted state simulated intestinal fluid as apical (donor) medium and 4% bovine serum albumin in the basolateral (receiver) compartment. A formulation composed of extract/phospholipid/pluronic f127 (1:1:1 w/w/w) increased the solubility of 1-6 up to 54 times compared with the nonformulated extract and exhibited the highest mass net flux in the permeability tests. The oral administration of this formulation to rats (240 mg/kg) resulted in 26 and 14 times higher plasma levels for 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (1) and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (2), respectively. In the brain, five times higher levels for 2 compared to the nonformulated extract were determined 8 h after oral administration.

  8. Double-chain phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes: Synthesis, characterization and platelet adhesion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Dongsheng; Zhang Xiaoqing; Li Jiehua; Tan Hong; Fu Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel phospholipid containing double chains and phosphotidylcholine polar head groups, 2-(10-(2-aminoethylamino)-10-oxodecanamido)-3-(decyloxy)-3-oxopropyl phosphorylcholine (ADDPC), was synthesized and characterized. Two kinds of double-chain phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes with different soft segments were prepared. The structure of prepared polyurethanes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and atomic force microscope (AFM), which indicated that the double-chain phospholipids enriched onto the top surface of the prepared polyurethane films. The preliminary evaluation of blood compatibility showed that these novel phospholipid end-capped polyurethanes could suppress platelet adhesion and activation effectively. This property did not depend on the chemical structure of polyurethanes. In addition, according to tensile test results, the phospholipid polyurethanes kept good mechanical properties in comparison with original polyurethanes. It is suggested that double-chain phospholipid end-caption has good potential for achieving both hemocompatibility and good mechanical properties simultaneously for polyurethanes.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in animal depression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J.; Sowa-Kucma, M.; Nowak, G.; Papp, M.; Gruca, P.; Misztak, P.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M.

    2017-04-01

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the major causes being chronic stress. Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of rats subjected to chronic mild stress, which is a common animal depression model. Moreover, the efficiency of the imipramine treatment was evaluated. It was found that chronic mild stress not only damages the structure of the phospholipids and proteins, but also decreases their level in the blood serum. A 5 weeks imipramine treatment did increase slightly the quantity of proteins, leaving the damaged phospholipids unchanged. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained by UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of stressed rats was normalized after imipramine therapy, while the impaired structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that the depression factor, which is chronic mild stress, may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression.

  10. Effects of cholesterol or gramicidin on slow and fast motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Z.Y.; Simplaceanu, V.; Dowd, S.R.; Ho, C.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation both in the rotating frame and in the laboratory frame is used to investigate the slow and fast molecular motions of phospholipids in oriented bilayers in the liquid crystalline phase. The bilayers are prepared from a perdeuterated phospholipid labeled with a pair of 19 F atoms at the 7 position of the 2-sn acyl chain. Phospholipid-cholesterol or phospholipid-gramicidin interactions are characterized by measuring the relaxation rates as a function of the bilayer orientation, the locking field, and the temperature. These studies show that cholesterol or gramicidin can specifically enhance the relaxation due to slow motions in phospholipid bilayers with correlation times τ s longer than 10 -8 sec. The perturbations of the geometry of the slow motions induced by cholesterol are qualitatively different from those induced by gramicidin. In contrast, the presence of cholesterol or gramicidin slightly suppresses the fast motions with correlation times τ f = 10 -9 to 10 -10 sec without significantly affecting their geometry. Weak locking-field and temperature dependences are observed for both pure lipid bilayers and bilayers containing either cholesterol or gramicidin, suggesting that the motions of phospholipid acyl chains may have dispersed correlation times

  11. Influence of molecular packing and phospholipid type on rates of cholesterol exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund-Katz, S.; Laboda, H.M.; McLean, L.R.; Phillips, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The rates of [ 14 C]cholesterol transfer from small unilamellar vesicles containing cholesterol dissolved in bilayers of different phospholipids have been determined to examine the influence of phospholipid-cholesterol interactions on the rate of cholesterol desorption from the lipid-water interface. At 37 0 C, for vesicles containing 10 mol % cholesterol, the half-times for exchange are about 1, 13, and 80 h, respectively, for unsaturated PC, saturated PC, and SM. In order to probe how differences in molecular packing in the bilayers cause the rate constants for cholesterol desorption to be in the order unsaturated PC > saturated PC > SM, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and monolayer methods were used to evaluate the cholesterol physical state and interactions with phospholipid. The NMR relaxation parameters for [4- 13 C] cholesterol reveal no differences in molecular dynamics in the above bilayers. The greater van der Waals interaction in the SM monolayer (or bilayer) compared to PC gives rise to a larger condensation by cholesterol. This is a direct demonstration of the greater interaction of cholesterol with SM compared to PC. An estimate of the van der Waals interactions between cholesterol and these phospholipids has been used to derive a relationship between the ratio of the rate constants for cholesterol desorption and the relative molecular areas (lateral packing density) in two bilayers. This analysis suggests that differences in cholesterol-phospholipid van der Waals interaction energy are an important cause of varying rates of cholesterol exchange from different host phospholipid bilayers

  12. pH-Induced Changes in the Surface Viscosity of Unsaturated Phospholipids Monitored Using Active Interfacial Microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Saba; Alonso, Ryan; Alhakamy, Nabil; Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    2018-01-23

    Lipid membranes, a major component of cells, are subjected to significant changes in pH depending on their location in the cell: the outer leaflet of the cell membrane is exposed to a pH of 7.4 whereas lipid membranes that make up late endosomes and lysosomes are exposed to a pH of as low as 4.4. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how changes in the environmental pH within cells alter the fluidity of phospholipid membranes. Specifically, we studied pH-induced alterations in the surface arrangement of monounsaturated lipids with zwitterionic headgroups (phosphoethanolamine (PE) and phosphocholine (PC)) that are abundant in plasma membranes as well as anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG)) that are abundant in inner membranes using a combination of techniques including surface tension vs area measurements, interfacial microrheology, and fluorescence/atomic force microscopy. Using an active interfacial microrheology technique, we find that phospholipids with zwitterionic headgroups show a significant increase in their surface viscosity at acidic pH. This increase in surface viscosity is also found to depend on the size of the lipid headgroup, with a smaller headgroup showing a greater increase in viscosity. The observed pH-induced increase in viscosity is also accompanied by an increase in the cohesion pressure between zwitterionic molecules at acidic pH and a decrease in the average molecular area of the lipids, as measured by fitting the surface pressure isotherms to well-established equations of state. Because fluorescent images show no change in the phase of the lipids, we attribute this change in surface viscosity to the pH-induced reorientation of the P - -N + dipoles that form part of the polar lipid headgroup, resulting in increased lipid-lipid interactions. Anionic PG headgroups do not demonstrate this pH-induced change in viscosity, suggesting that the presence of a net negative charge on the headgroup causes

  13. Relationship between coronary flow reserve evaluated by phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance and serum eicosapentaenoic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Long-term intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is associated with a low risk for cardiovascular disease. Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (PC cine CMR) can assess coronary flow reserve (CFR). The present study investigates the relationship between CFR evaluated by PC cine CMR and the serum EPA. Methods We studied 127 patients (male, 116 (91%); mean age, 72.2 ± 7.4 years) with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). X-ray coronary angiography revealed no significant coronary arterial stenoses (defined as luminal diameter reduction ≥50% on quantitative coronary angiogram (QCA) analysis) in all study participants. Breath-hold PC cine CMR images of the coronary sinus (CS) were acquired to assess blood flow of the CS both at rest and during adenosine triphosphate (ATP) infusion. We calculated CFR as CS blood flow during ATP infusion divided by that at rest. Patients were allocated to groups according to whether they had high (n = 64, EPA ≥ 75.8 μg/mL) or low (n = 63, EPA  2.5, which is the previously reported lower limit of normal flow reserve without obstructive CAD. Multivariate analysis revealed that EPA is an independent predictor of CFR > 2.5 (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 – 1.02, p = 0.008). Conclusions The serum EPA is significantly correlated with CFR in CAD patients without significant coronary artery stenosis. PMID:24359564

  14. Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids Attenuate Progression of Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elajami, Tarec K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Lakshminarayan, Dharshan; Soliman, Michael; Chandnani, Madhuri; Welty, Francine K

    2017-07-14

    Albuminuria is a marker of inflammation and an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current study evaluated whether eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation attenuates progression of albuminuria in subjects with coronary artery disease. Two-hundred sixty-two subjects with stable coronary artery disease were randomized to either Lovaza (1.86 g of EPA and 1.5 g of DHA daily) or no Lovaza (control) for 1 year. Percent change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was compared. Mean (SD) age was 63.3 (7.6) years; 17% were women and 30% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic subjects, no change in urine ACR occurred in either the Lovaza or control groups. In contrast, ACR increased 72.3% ( P diabetic subjects not receiving Lovaza, whereas those receiving Lovaza had no change. In diabetic subjects on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker, those receiving Lovaza had no change in urine ACR, whereas those not receiving Lovaza had a 64.2% increase ( P type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, most of whom were on an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker. Thus, EPA and DHA supplementation should be considered as additional therapy to an angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blocker in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01624727. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, cognition, and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effects of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich oil and a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil versus an ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich safflower oil (control) on literacy and behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a randomized controlled trial. Supplements rich in EPA, DHA, or safflower oil were randomly allocated for 4 mo to 90 Australian children 7 to 12 y old with ADHD symptoms higher than the 90th percentile on the Conners Rating Scales. The effect of supplementation on cognition, literacy, and parent-rated behavior was assessed by linear mixed modeling. Pearson correlations determined associations between the changes in outcome measurements and the erythrocyte fatty acid content (percentage of total) from baseline to 4 mo. There were no significant differences between the supplement groups in the primary outcomes after 4 mo. However, the erythrocyte fatty acid profiles indicated that an increased proportion of DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.394) and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.392). These effects were more evident in a subgroup of 17 children with learning difficulties: an increased erythrocyte DHA was associated with improved word reading (r = 0.683), improved spelling (r = 0.556), an improved ability to divide attention (r = 0.676), and lower parent ratings of oppositional behavior (r = 0.777), hyperactivity (r = 0.702), restlessness (r = 0.705), and overall ADHD symptoms (r = 0.665). Increases in erythrocyte ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, specifically DHA, may improve literacy and behavior in children with ADHD. The greatest benefit may be observed in children who have comorbid learning difficulties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol; Gray, Stuart R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using 3 H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using 3 H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion

  18. Two-Stage Enzymatic Preparation of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) And Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) Enriched Fish Oil Triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Fang; Ma, Xiang; Huang, Huihua; Wang, Yong

    2018-01-10

    Fish oil products in the form of triacylglycerols generally have relatively low contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and so it is of potential research and industrial interest to enrich the related contents in commercial products. Thereby an economical and efficient two-stage preparation of EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols is proposed in this study. The first stage was the partial hydrolysis of fish oil by only 0.2 wt.‰ AY "Amano" 400SD which led to increases of EPA and DHA contents in acylglycerols from 19.30 and 13.09 wt % to 25.95 and 22.06 wt %, respectively. Subsequently, products of the first stage were subjected to transesterification with EPA and DHA enriched fatty acid ethyl esters (EDEE) as the second stage to afford EPA and DHA enriched fish oil triacylglycerols by using as low as 2 wt % Novozyme 435. EDEEs prepared from fish oil ethyl ester, and recycled DHA and EPA, respectively, were applied in this stage. Final products prepared with two different sources of EDEEs were composed of 97.62 and 95.92 wt % of triacylglycerols, respectively, with EPA and DHA contents of 28.20 and 21.41 wt % for the former and 25.61 and 17.40 wt % for the latter. Results not only demonstrate this two-stage process's capability and industrial value for enriching EPA and DHA in fish oil products, but also offer new opportunities for the development of fortified fish oil products.

  19. The effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on protein synthesis and breakdown in murine C2C12 myotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamolrat, Torkamol [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Gray, Stuart R., E-mail: s.r.gray@abdn.ac.uk [Musculoskeletal Research Programme, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► EPA can enhance protein synthesis and retard protein breakdown in muscle cells. ► These effects were concurrent with increases in p70s6k and FOXO3a phosphorylation. ► EPA may be a useful tool in the treatment of muscle wasting conditions. -- Abstract: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been found to stimulate protein synthesis with little information regarding their effects on protein breakdown. Furthermore whether there are distinct effects of EPA and DHA remains to be established. The aim of the current study was to determine the distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein synthesis, protein breakdown and signalling pathways in C2C12 myotubes. Fully differentiated C2C12 cells were incubated for 24 h with 0.1% ethanol (control), 50 μM EPA or 50 μM DHA prior to experimentation. After serum (4 h) and amino acid (1 h) starvation cells were stimulated with 2 mM L-leucine and protein synthesis measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine. Protein breakdown was measured using {sup 3}H-labelled phenylalanine and signalling pathways (Akt, mTOR, p70S6k, 4EBP1, rps6 and FOXO3a) via Western blots. Data revealed that after incubation with EPA protein synthesis was 25% greater (P < 0.05) compared to control cells, with no effect of DHA. Protein breakdown was 22% (P < 0.05) lower, compared to control cells, after incubation with EPA, with no effect of DHA. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed that both EPA and DHA incubation increased (P < 0.05) p70s6k phosphorylation, EPA increased (P < 0.05) FOXO3a phosphorylation, with no alteration in other signalling proteins. The current study has demonstrated distinct effects of EPA and DHA on protein metabolism with EPA showing a greater ability to result in skeletal muscle protein accretion.

  20. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the Welcome* study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorletti, Eleonora; Bhatia, Lokpal; McCormick, Keith G; Clough, Geraldine F; Nash, Kathryn; Hodson, Leanne; Moyses, Helen E; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2014-10-01

    There is no licensed treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition that increases risk of chronic liver disease, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We tested whether 15-18 months treatment with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (Omacor/Lovaza) (4 g/day) decreased liver fat and improved two histologically-validated liver fibrosis biomarker scores (primary outcomes). Patients with NAFLD were randomised in a double blind placebo-controlled trial [DHA+EPA(n=51), placebo(n=52)]. We quantified liver fat percentage (%) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy in three liver zones. We measured liver fibrosis using two validated scores. We tested adherence to the intervention (Omacor group) and contamination (with DHA and EPA) (placebo group) by measuring erythrocyte percentage DHA and EPA enrichment (gas chromatography). We undertook multivariable linear regression to test effects of: a) DHA+EPA treatment (ITT analyses) and b) erythrocyte DHA and EPA enrichment (secondary analysis). Median (IQR) baseline and end of study liver fat% were 21.7 (19.3) and 19.7 (18.0) (placebo), and 23.0 (36.2) and 16.3 (22.0), (DHA+EPA). In the fully adjusted regression model there was a trend towards improvement in liver fat% with DHA+EPA treatment (β=-3.64 (95%CI -8.0,0.8); p=0.1) but there was evidence of contamination in the placebo group and variable adherence to the intervention in the Omacor group. Further regression analysis showed that DHA enrichment was independently associated with a decrease in liver fat% (for each 1% enrichment, β=-1.70 (95%CI -2.9,-0.5); p=0.007). No improvement in the fibrosis scores occurred. Conclusion. Erythrocyte DHA enrichment with DHA+EPA treatment is linearly associated with decreased liver fat%. Substantial decreases in liver fat% can be achieved with high percentage erythrocyte DHA enrichment in NAFLD. (Hepatology 2014;).

  1. Insulin-sensitive phospholipid signaling systems and glucose transport. Update II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farese, R V

    2001-04-01

    Insulin provokes rapid changes in phospholipid metabolism and thereby generates biologically active lipids that serve as intracellular signaling factors that regulate glucose transport and glycogen synthesis. These changes include: (i) activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and production of PIP3; (ii) PIP3-dependent activation of atypical protein kinase Cs (PKCs); (iii) PIP3-dependent activation of PKB; (iv) PI3K-dependent activation of phospholipase D and hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine with subsequent increases in phosphatidic acid (PA) and diacylglycerol (DAG); (v) PI3K-independent activation of glycerol-3-phosphate acylytansferase and increases in de novo synthesis of PA and DAG; and (vi) activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs. Recent findings suggest that atypical PKCs and PKB serve as important positive regulators of insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism, whereas mechanisms that result in the activation of DAG-sensitive PKCs serve mainly as negative regulators of insulin signaling through PI3K. Atypical PKCs and PKB are rapidly activated by insulin in adipocytes, liver, skeletal muscles, and other cell types by a mechanism requiring PI3K and its downstream effector, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), which, in conjunction with PIP3, phosphorylates critical threonine residues in the activation loops of atypical PKCs and PKB. PIP3 also promotes increases in autophosphorylation and allosteric activation of atypical PKCs. Atypical PKCs and perhaps PKB appear to be required for insulin-induced translocation of the GLUT 4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane and subsequent glucose transport. PKB also appears to be the major regulator of glycogen synthase. Together, atypical PKCs and PKB serve as a potent, integrated PI3K/PDK-1-directed signaling system that is used by insulin to regulate glucose metabolism.

  2. Application of biomimetic HPLC to estimate lipophilicity, protein and phospholipid binding of potential peptide therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Livia Valko

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptide therapeutics are new modalities offering several challenges to drug discovery. They are generally less stable and permeable in vivo. The characterization of their lipophilicity cannot be carried out using the traditional in silico or wet octanol/water partition coefficients. The prediction of their in vivo distribution and permeability is also challenging. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the biomimetic properties such as lipophilicity, protein and phospholipid binding can be easily assessed by HPLC using chemically bonded protein and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM stationary phases. The obtained properties for a set of potential therapeutic peptides with 3 to 33 amino acids have been analysed and it was found that similar characteristics of the properties could be observed as for small molecule drugs. The albumin binding showed correlation with their measured lipophilicity on the C-18 stationary phase with acidic peptides showing stronger than expected albumin binding. The (IAM chromatography revealed peptide membrane affinity, which was stronger for positively charged peptides (containing arginine and showed correlation to the alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP binding, which was also stronger for positively charged compounds. The in vivo volume of distribution and drug efficiency of the peptides have been estimated using the models developed for small molecules. One of the candidate linear peptides has been assessed in various cellular and in vivo assays and the results have confirmed the estimated cell partition and brain to plasma ratio. It can be demonstrated, that up to 21 amino acids, the peaks of the peptides obtained on the protein phase were symmetrical and narrow. The interaction of larger peptides with the protein stationary phases resulted in wide peaks showing multiple equilibrium processes with slow kinetics during chromatography. The larger peptides showed narrow and symmetrical peaks on the IAM column enabling

  3. Critical Synergistic Concentration of Lecithin Phospholipids Improves the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, the effect of individual lecithin phospholipids on the antimicrobial properties of eugenol against Escherichia coli C600 was investigated. We tested five major phospholipids common in soy or egg lecithin (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC], 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DPPE], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [sodium salt] [DPPA], and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine [DPPS]) and one synthetic cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine [18:0 EPC]). Among the six phospholipids, DPPC, DSPC, DPPE, DPPA, and the cationic 18:0 EPC showed critical synergistic concentrations that significantly improved the inactivation effect of eugenol against E. coli after 30 min of exposure. At the critical synergistic concentration, an additional ca. 0.4 to 1.9 log reduction (ca. 0.66 to 2.17 log CFU/ml reduction) in the microbial population was observed compared to eugenol-only (control) treatments (ca. 0.25 log reduction). In all cases, increasing the phospholipid amount above the critical synergistic concentration (which was different for each phospholipid) resulted in antimicrobial properties similar to those seen with the eugenol-only (control) treatments. DPPS did not affect the antimicrobial properties of eugenol at the tested concentrations. The critical synergistic concentration of phospholipids was correlated with their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are naturally occurring antimicrobials, with limited use in food due to their hydrophobicity and strong aroma. Lecithin is used as a natural emulsifier to stabilize EOs in aqueous systems. We previously demonstrated that, within a narrow critical-concentration window, lecithin can synergistically enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. Since lecithin is a mixture of different phospholipids, we aimed to

  4. Critical Synergistic Concentration of Lecithin Phospholipids Improves the Antimicrobial Activity of Eugenol against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoshu; Dudley, Edward G; Harte, Federico

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the effect of individual lecithin phospholipids on the antimicrobial properties of eugenol against Escherichia coli C600 was investigated. We tested five major phospholipids common in soy or egg lecithin (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DPPC], 1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [DSPC], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [DPPE], 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [sodium salt] [DPPA], and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine [DPPS]) and one synthetic cationic phospholipid (1,2-dioctadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine [18:0 EPC]). Among the six phospholipids, DPPC, DSPC, DPPE, DPPA, and the cationic 18:0 EPC showed critical synergistic concentrations that significantly improved the inactivation effect of eugenol against E. coli after 30 min of exposure. At the critical synergistic concentration, an additional ca. 0.4 to 1.9 log reduction (ca. 0.66 to 2.17 log CFU/ml reduction) in the microbial population was observed compared to eugenol-only (control) treatments (ca. 0.25 log reduction). In all cases, increasing the phospholipid amount above the critical synergistic concentration (which was different for each phospholipid) resulted in antimicrobial properties similar to those seen with the eugenol-only (control) treatments. DPPS did not affect the antimicrobial properties of eugenol at the tested concentrations. The critical synergistic concentration of phospholipids was correlated with their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). IMPORTANCE Essential oils (EOs) are naturally occurring antimicrobials, with limited use in food due to their hydrophobicity and strong aroma. Lecithin is used as a natural emulsifier to stabilize EOs in aqueous systems. We previously demonstrated that, within a narrow critical-concentration window, lecithin can synergistically enhance the antimicrobial properties of eugenol. Since lecithin is a mixture of different phospholipids, we aimed to identify

  5. Cationic Phospholipids Forming Cubic Phases: Lipoplex Structure and Transfection Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; MacDonald, Robert C. (NWU)

    2008-10-29

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  6. Cationic phospholipids forming cubic phases: lipoplex structure and transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koynova, Rumiana; Wang, Li; Macdonald, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    The transfection activity and the phase behavior of two novel cationic O-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines, 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-hexylphosphocholine (C6-DOPC) and 1,2-dierucoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (di22:1-EPC), have been examined with the aim of more completely understanding the mechanism of lipid-mediated DNA delivery. Both lipids form cubic phases: C6-DOPC in the entire temperature range from -10 to 90 degrees C, while di22:1-EPC exhibits an irreversible lamellar-cubic transition between 50 and 70 degrees C on heating. The lipoplexes formed by C6-DOPC arrange into hexagonal phase, while the lipoplexes of di22:1-EPC are lamellar. Both lipids exhibit lower transfection activity than the lamellar-forming 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-ethylphosphocholine (EDOPC). Thus, for the studied cationic phospholipid-DNA systems, the lipoplex phase state is a factor that does not seem to correlate with transfection activity. The parameter that exhibits better correlation with the transfection activity within the present data set is the phase state of the lipid dispersion prior to the addition of DNA. Thus, the lamellar lipid dispersion (EDOPC) produces more efficient lipoplexes than the dispersion with coexisting lamellar and cubic aggregates (diC22:1-EPC), which is even more efficient than the purely cubic dispersions (C6-DOPC; diC22:1-EPC after heating). It could be inferred from these data and from previous research that cubic phase lipid aggregates are unlikely to be beneficial to transfection. The lack of correlation between the phase state of lipoplexes and their transfection activity observed within the present data set does not mean that lipid phase state is generally unimportant for lipofection: a viewpoint now emerging from our previous studies is that the critical factor in lipid-mediated transfection is the structural evolution of lipoplexes within the cell, upon interacting and mixing with cellular lipids.

  7. Phospholipid ether analogs for the detection of colorectal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin A Deming

    Full Text Available The treatment of localized colorectal cancer (CRC depends on resection of the primary tumor with adequate margins and sufficient lymph node sampling. A novel imaging agent that accumulates in CRCs and the associated lymph nodes is needed. Cellectar Biosciences has developed a phospholipid ether analog platform that is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CLR1502 is a near-infrared fluorescent molecule, whereas 124/131I-CLR1404 is under clinical investigation as a PET tracer/therapeutic agent imaged by SPECT. We investigated the use of CLR1502 for the detection of intestinal cancers in a murine model and 131I-CLR1404 in a patient with metastatic CRC. Mice that develop multiple intestinal tumors ranging from adenomas to locally advanced adenocarcinomas were utilized. After 96 hours post CLR1502 injection, the intestinal tumors were analyzed using a Spectrum IVIS (Perkin Elmer and a Fluobeam (Fluoptics. The intensity of the fluorescent signal was correlated with the histological characteristics for each tumor. Colon adenocarcinomas demonstrated increased accumulation of CLR1502 compared to non-invasive lesions (total radiant efficiency: 1.76×10(10 vs 3.27×10(9 respectively, p = 0.006. Metastatic mesenteric tumors and uninvolved lymph nodes were detected with CLR1502. In addition, SPECT imaging with 131I-CLR1404 was performed as part of a clinical trial in patients with advanced solid tumors. 131I-CLR1404 was shown to accumulate in metastatic tumors in a patient with colorectal adenocarcinoma. Together, these compounds might enhance our ability to properly resect CRCs through better localization of the primary tumor and improved lymph node identification as well as detect distant disease.

  8. Synthesis of sn-1 functionalized phospholipids as substrates for secretory phospholipase A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Lars; Peters, Günther H.J.; Jørgensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) represents a family of small water-soluble enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids in the sn-2 position liberating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Herein we report the synthesis of two new phospholipids (1 and 2) with bulky allyl-substituen......Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) represents a family of small water-soluble enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids in the sn-2 position liberating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Herein we report the synthesis of two new phospholipids (1 and 2) with bulky allyl...... of the allyl-substituents by a zinc mediated allylation. Small unilamellar liposomes composed of phospholipids 1 and 2 were subjected to sPLA2 activity measurements. Our results show that only phospholipid 1 is hydrolyzed by the enzyme. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the lack of hydrolysis...

  9. Determination of phospholipid regiochemistry by Ag(I) adduction and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Ju; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of Ag-adducted phospholipids were investigated as structural tools. Previously, determination of the acyl chains at the two phospholipid esterification sites has been performed based on the R(1)COO(-)/R(2)COO(-) ratio in negative ion mode CAD tandem mass spectrometry. However, the observed product ion ratio is dependent on the extent of unsaturation of the fatty acyl group at sn-2 as well as on the total chain length. Similarly, in positive ion mode CAD with/without alkaline or alkaline earth metal adduction, the ratio of product ions resulting from either R(1)COOH or R(2)COOH neutral losses is dependent on the nature of the phospholipid polar headgroup. Ag(+) ion chromatography, in which silver ions are part of the stationary phase, can provide information on double bond number/distribution as well as double bond configuration (cis/trans) because of interaction between Ag(+) ions and olefinic π electrons of fatty acids and lipids. We hypothesized that interactions between double bonds and Ag(+) may be utilized to also reveal phospholipid esterification site information in tandem mass spectrometry. CAD and IRMPD of Ag-adducted phospholipids with unsaturated fatty acids (R(x)COOH, x = 1 or 2) provided characteristic product ions, [R(x)COOH + Ag](+), and their neutral losses. The characteristic product ions and their abundances do not depend on the type of polar headgroup or the number of double bonds of unsaturated acyl chains. Tandem mass spectrometry of Cu-adducted phospholipids was also performed for comparison based on the Lewis acid and base properties of Cu(+) and phospholipid double bonds, respectively.

  10. Instability Mechanisms of Water-in-Oil Nanoemulsions with Phospholipids: Temporal and Morphological Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerling, Jan-Hendrik; de Matos, Maria B C; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Dessy, Alberto; Kok, Robbert Jan; Nirschl, Hermann; Leneweit, Gero

    2018-01-16

    Many food preparations, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics use water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by phospholipids. Moreover, recent technological developments try to produce liposomes or lipid coated capsules from W/O emulsions, but are faced with colloidal instabilities. To explore these instability mechanisms, emulsification by sonication was applied in three cycles, and the sample stability was studied for 3 h after each cycle. Clearly identifiable temporal structures of instability provide evidence about the emulsion morphology: an initial regime of about 10 min is shown to be governed by coalescence after which Ostwald ripening dominates. Transport via molecular diffusion in Ostwald ripening is commonly based on the mutual solubility of the two phases and is therefore prohibited in emulsions composed of immiscible phases. However, in the case of water in oil emulsified by phospholipids, these form water-loaded reverse micelles in oil, which enable Ostwald ripening despite the low solubility of water in oil, as is shown for squalene. As is proved for the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), concentrations below the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) form monolayers at the interfaces and smaller droplet sizes. In contrast, phospholipid concentrations above the CAC create complex multilayers at the interface with larger droplet sizes. The key factors for stable W/O emulsions in classical or innovative applications are first, the minimization of the phospholipids' capacity to form reversed micelles, and second, the adaption of the initial phospholipid concentration to the water content to enable an optimized coverage of phospholipids at the interfaces for the intended drop size.

  11. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic omega-3 fatty acid does not influence serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetes mellitus patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, Mariska; Pouwer, Francois; Assies, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels are observed in both depressed and diabetes patients. Animal research has shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase BDNF levels. In this exploratory randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in diabetes patients...... with major depression, we tested whether (a) omega- 3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) leads to increased serum BDNF levels and (b) whether changes in BDNF levels are associated with corresponding changes in depression. METHODS: Patients received 1 g/day E-EPA (n = 13) or placebo (n = 12) for 12 weeks...

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF): a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higurashi, Takuma; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Maeda, Shin; Morita, Satoshi; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Nagase, Hajime; Nakajima, Atsushi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Iida, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Ezuka, Akiko; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral 900-mg EPA capsules thrice daily (total daily

  14. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Pérez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a

  15. Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on Myogenesis and Mitochondrial Biosynthesis during Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun-Yun Hsueh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured to confluency and then treated with differentiation medium that contained fatty acids (50-µM EPA and DHA. After 72 h of myogenic differentiation, mRNA was collected, and gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR. Microscopy was used to examine cell morphology following treatment with fatty acids. The effect of EPA and DHA on cellular oxygen consumption was measured using a Seahorse XF24 Analyzer. Cells treated with fatty acids had fewer myotubes formed (P ≤ 0.05 compared with control cells. The expression of the genes related to myogenesis was significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids, compared with control cells. Genes associated with adipogenesis had higher (P ≤ 0.05 expression after treatment with fatty acids. Also, the mitochondrial biogenesis decreased with lower (P ≤ 0.05 gene expression and lower (P ≤ 0.05 mtDNA/nDNA ratio in cells treated with fatty acids compared with control cells. However, the expression of genes related to peroxisome biosynthesis was higher (P ≤ 0.05 in cells treated with fatty acids. Moreover, fatty-acid treatment reduced (P ≤ 0.05 oxygen consumption rate under oligomycin-inhibited (reflecting proton leak and uncoupled conditions. Our data imply that fatty acids might reduce myogenesis and increase adipogenesis in myotube formation. Fatty acids

  16. Oral administration of eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid modifies cardiac function and ameliorates congestive heart failure in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanushi, Tomoko T; Kabuto, Hideaki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Janjua, Najma; Takayama, Fusako; Mankura, Mitsumasa

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on normal cardiac function (part 1) and congestive heart failure (CHF) (part 2) through electrocardiogram analysis and determination of EPA, DHA, and arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in rat hearts. In part 2, pathologic assessments were also performed. For part 1 of this study, 4-wk-old male rats were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups. The rats daily were orally administered (1 g/kg body weight) saline, EPA-ethyl ester (EPA-Et; E group), or DHA-ethyl ester (DHA-Et; D group), respectively, for 28 d. ECGs revealed that QT intervals were significantly shorter for groups E and D compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Relative to the control group, the concentration of EPA was higher in the E group and concentrations of EPA and DHA were higher in the D group, although AA concentrations were lower (P ≤ 0.05). In part 2, CHF was produced by subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline into 5-wk-old rats. At 3 d before monocrotaline injection, rats were administered either saline, EPA-Et, or DHA-Et as mentioned above and then killed at 21 d. The study groups were as follows: normal + saline (control), CHF + saline (H group), CHF + EPA-Et (HE group), and CHF + DHA-Et (HD group). QT intervals were significantly shorter (P ≤ 0.05) in the control and HD groups compared with the H and HE groups. Relative to the H group, concentrations of EPA were higher in the HE group and those of DHA were higher in the control and HD groups (P ≤ 0.05). There was less mononuclear cell infiltration in the myocytes of the HD group than in the H group (P = 0.06). The right ventricles in the H, HE, and HD groups showed significantly increased weights (P ≤ 0.05) compared with controls. The administration of EPA-Et or DHA-Et may affect cardiac function by modification of heart fatty acid composition, and the administration of DHA-Et may ameliorate CHF.

  17. LC-MS analysis of the plasma metabolome–a novel sample preparation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kasper; Hadrup, Niels; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma is a well-known body fluid often analyzed in studies on the effects of toxic compounds as physiological or chemical induced changes in the mammalian body are reflected in the plasma metabolome. Sample preparation prior to LC-MS based analysis of the plasma metabolome is a challenge...... as plasma contains compounds with very different properties. Besides, proteins, which usually are precipitated with organic solvent, phospholipids, are known to cause ion suppression in electrospray mass spectrometry. We have compared two different sample preparation techniques prior to LC-qTOF analysis...... of plasma samples: The first is protein precipitation; the second is protein precipitation followed by solid phase extraction with sub-fractionation into three sub-samples; a phospholipid, a lipid and a polar sub-fraction. Molecular feature extraction of the data files from LC-qTOF analysis of the samples...

  18. Insulin and adenosine regulate the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, F L; Sykes, E; Artiss, J D

    1995-01-01

    Blockade of adenosine receptors by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or degradation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase increased the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes, an effect which was suppressed by the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase inhibitor, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, and reversed by the adenosine analogue, N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. For example, the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine to adenosine deaminase pretreated plasma membranes rapidly lowered the concentration of phosphatidylcholine by 171 nmol/mg at 30 seconds compared to control. Insulin-induced stimulation of phospholipid methylation in membranes treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or adenosine deaminase was achieved only after the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. These results suggest that adenosine receptor occupancy inhibits phospholipid methylation, is required for insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation, and may perhaps activate a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  19. Docosahexaenoic (DHA modulates phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (Gpx4 gene expression to ensure self-protection from oxidative damage in hippocampal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eCasañas-Sanchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3 is a unique polyunsaturated fatty acid particularly abundant in nerve cell membrane phospholipids. DHA is a pleiotropic molecule that, not only modulates the physicochemical properties and architecture of neuronal plasma membrane, but it is also involved in multiple facets of neuronal biology, from regulation of synaptic function to neuroprotection and modulation of gene expression. As a highly unsaturated fatty acid due to the presence of six double bonds, DHA is susceptible for oxidation, especially in the highly pro-oxidant environment of brain parenchyma. We have recently reported the ability of DHA to regulate the transcriptional program controlling neuronal antioxidant defenses in a hippocampal cell line, especially the glutathione/glutaredoxin system. Within this antioxidant system, DHA was particularly efficient in triggering the upregulation of Gpx4 gene, which encodes for the nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PH-GPx/GPx4, the main enzyme protecting cell membranes against lipid peroxidation and capable to reduce oxidized phospholipids in situ. We show here that this novel property of DHA is also significant in the hippocampus of wild-type mice and APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a familial model of Alzheimer’s disease. By doing this, DHA stimulates a mechanism to self-protect from oxidative damage even in the neuronal scenario of high aerobic metabolism and in the presence of elevated levels of transition metals, which inevitably favor the generation of reactive oxygen species. Noticeably, DHA also upregulated a novel Gpx4 splicing variant, harboring part of the first intronic region, which according to the ‘sentinel RNA hypothesis’ would expand the ability of Gpx4 (and DHA to provide neuronal antioxidant defense independently of conventional nuclear splicing in cellular compartments, like dendritic zones, located away from nuclear

  20. Seasonal variations in the profile of main phospholipids in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels: A study by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, Laura; Losito, Ilario; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    A systematic characterization of phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in mussels of sp Mytilus galloprovincialis was performed by high-efficiency hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS), based on a quadrupole-Orbitrap hybrid spectrometer. The FTMS/MS experiments under high collisional energy dissociation conditions, complemented by low-energy collisionally induced dissociation MS n (n = 2,3) experiments, performed in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, were exploited for structural elucidation purposes. The described approach led to an unprecedented characterization of the mussel phospholipidome, with 185 phosphatidylcholines and 131 phosphatidylethanolamines species recognized, distributed among diacylic, plasmanylic, and plasmenylic forms. This was the starting point for the evaluation of the effects of season (in particular, of sea temperature) on the profile of those phospholipids. To this aim, a set of mussel samples retrieved from commercial sources in different periods of the year was considered. Principal component analysis revealed a clear separation between samples collected in periods characterized by cold, intermediate, or warm sea temperatures, respectively. In particular, an enrichment in phospholipids containing unsaturated side chains was observed in mussels collected from cold seawaters (winter-early spring), thus confirming the general model previously elaborated to explain the adaptation of marine invertebrates, including some bivalve molluscs, to low temperatures. On the other hand, relevant levels of plasma(e)nylic and acylic phospholipids bearing either saturated or non-methylene-interrupted side chains were found in mussels collected in warm seawaters (typical of summer and early autumn, at Italian latitudes). This finding opened interesting perspectives towards the development of strategies able to prevent global warming-related mussel

  1. Effect of free cholesterol on incorporation of triolein in phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, P.J.R.; Small, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Triacylglycerols are the major substrates for lipolytic enzymes that act at the surface of emulsion-like particles such as triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, chylomicrons, and intracellular lipid droplets. This study examines the effect of cholesterol on the solubility of a triacylglycerol, triolein, in phospholipid surfaces. Solubilities of [carbonyl- 13 C] triolein in phospholipid bilayer vesicles containing between 0 and 50 mol % free cholesterol, prepared by cosonication, were measured by 13 C NMR. The carbonyl resonances from bilayer-incorporated triglyceride were shifted downfield in the 13 C NMR spectra from those corresponding to excess, nonincorporated material. This enabled solubilities to be determined directly from carbonyl peak intensities at most cholesterol concentration. The bilayer solubility of triolein was inversely proportional to the cholesterol/phospholipid mole ratio. In pure phospholipid vesicles the triolein solubility was 2.2 mol %. The triglyceride incorporation decreased to 1.1 mol % at a cholesterol/phospholipid mole ratio of 0.5, and at a mole ratio of 1.0 for the bilayer lipids, the triolein solubility was reduced to just 0.15 mol %. The effects of free cholesterol were more pronounced and progressive than observed previously on the bilayer solubility of cholestery oleate. As with cholesteryl oleate, they suggest that cholesterol also displaces solubilized triglyceride to deeper regions of the bilayer

  2. Intermolecular crosslinks mediate aggregation of phospholipid vesicles by pulmonary surfactant-associated protein SAP-35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.R.; Sawyer, J.; Whitsett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant-associated protein, Mr=35,000 (SAP-35) is known to bind phospholipids and is hypothesized to function in the organization of surfactant lipid membranes. SAP-35 has been observed to accelerate the calcium-induced aggregation of phospholipid vesicles. In order to define the molecular domains of SAP-35 which function in phospholipid aggregation, they have measured the light scattering properties (400nm) of purified canine SAP-35-phospholipid vesicle suspensions. Accelerated aggregation of unilamellar vesicles, requires SAP-35 and at least 2mM free calcium. The initial rate of A 400 change is proportional to the amount of native SAP-35 added over lipid:protein molar ratios ranging from 100:1 to 5000:1. Removal of the SAP-35 collagen-like domain and a specific cysteine residue involved in intermolecular disulfide bonding by bacterial collagenase digestion destroys the protein's lipid aggregation activity. Pre-incubation of SAP-35 with dithiothreitol (DTT) under nondenaturing conditions also results in a time-dependent loss of aggregation activity. Sucrose density gradient floatation of SAP-35 with 14 C dipalmitoyl phosphatidycholine labelled vesicles in the absence or presence of DTT suggests retention of SAP-35 lipid binding capacity. These data demonstrate the importance of SAP-35 triple helix and disulfide crosslinking integrity for the aggregation of unilamellar phospholipid vesicles

  3. Aluminum stress and its role in the phospholipid signaling pathway in plants and possible biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poot-Poot, Wilberth; Hernandez-Sotomayor, Soledad M Teresa

    2011-10-01

    An early response of plants to environmental signals or abiotic stress suggests that the phospholipid signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in these mechanisms. The phospholipid signaling cascade is one of the main systems of cellular transduction and is related to other signal transduction mechanisms. These other mechanisms include the generation of second messengers and their interactions with various proteins, such as ion channels. This phospholipid signaling cascade is activated by changes in the environment, such as phosphate starvation, water, metals, saline stres, and plant-pathogen interactions. One important factor that impacts agricultural crops is metal-induced stress. Because aluminum has been considered to be a major toxic factor for agriculture conducted in acidic soils, many researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in plants. We have contributed the last fifteen years in this field by studying the effects of aluminum on phospholipid signaling in coffee, one of the Mexico's primary crops. We have focused our research on aluminum toxicity mechanisms in Coffea arabica suspension cells as a model for developing future contributions to the biotechnological transformation of coffee crops such that they can be made resistant to aluminum toxicity. We conclude that aluminum is able to not only generate a signal cascade in plants but also modulate other signal cascades generated by other types of stress in plants. The aim of this review is to discuss possible involvement of the phospholipid signaling pathway in the aluminum toxicity response of plant cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Insulin and thyroxine effect on /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids of chicken intestinal mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrov, S; Lazarov, J [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia-Kostinbrod (Bulgaria). Inst. po Zhivotnovydstvo

    1977-01-01

    Trials were conducted with 56-day-old broiler chickens. The effect was followed up of insulin and alloxan as well as of L-thyroxine and 6-methylthiouracil on /sup 32/P incorporation in phospholipids of the duodenal mucosa. A segment of the duodenum was isolated and Na/sub 2/H/sup 32/PO/sub 4/ was introduced therein. The lipids were extracted from duodenal mucosa and the individual phospholipids were separated by means of thin layer chromatography on sillica gel-G. Radioactivity was determined of individual phospholipid fractions. Blood glucose level was studied in insulin and alloxan-treated chickens. The inference was drawn that insulin significantly enhances /sup 32/P incorporation in the phospholipids in broiler chicken duodenal mucosa. The drop in blood glucose in insulin-treated chickens is inversely proportional to /sup 32/ P inclusion in individual phospholipids of duodenal mucosa. L-thyroxine exerts positive effect in chickens concerning /sup 32/P incorporation in lecithin and lysolecithin, this effect being negative with respect to sphingomyelin, cephalin and cardiolipin. Thyroid gland inhibition by 6-methylthiouracil induces negligible decline in /sup 32/P inclusion.

  5. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  6. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids on [3H]-vitamin E incorporation into pulmonary artery endothelial cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekharam, K.M.; Patel, J.M.; Block, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitamin E, a dietary antioxidant, is presumed to be incorporated into the lipid bilayer of biological membranes to an extent proportional to the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids or phospholipids in the membrane. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of incorporated polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in various membranes of pulmonary artery endothelial cells. We also studied whether incorporation of PUFA or PE is responsible for increased incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into the membranes of these cells. Following a 24-hr incubation with linoleic acid (18:2), 18:2 was increased by 6.9-, 9.2-, and 13.2-fold in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. Incorporation of 18:2 caused significant increases in the unsaturation indexes of mitochondrial and microsomal polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Incubation with arachidonic acid (20:4) for 24 hr resulted in 1.5-, 2.3-, and 2.4-fold increases in 20:4 in plasma, mitochondrial, and microsomal membranes, respectively. The unsaturation indexes of polyunsaturated fatty acyl chains of mitochondrial and microsomal membranes also increased (P less than .01 versus control in both membranes). Although incubations with 18:2 or 20:4 resulted in several-fold increases in membrane 18:2 or 20:4 fatty acids, incorporation of [3H]-vitamin E into these membranes was similar to that in controls. Following a 24-hr incubation with PE, membrane PE content was significantly increased, and [3H]-vitamin E incorporation was also increased to a comparable degree, i.e., plasma membrane greater than mitochondria greater than microsomes. Endogenous vitamin E content of the cells was not altered because of increased incorporation of PE and [3H]-vitamin E

  7. AceDoPC, a structured phospholipid to target the brain with docosahexaenoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagarde Michel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AceDoPC® is a structured phospholipid or acetyl-LysoPC-DHA made to prevent docosahexaenoic acyl migrating from the sn-2 to sn-1 position of the phospholipid, however keeping the main physical-chemical properties of LysoPC-DHA. As previously shown for LysoPC-DHA, AceDoPC® allows DHA crossing a re-constituted blood-brain barrier with higher efficiency than non-esterified DHA or PC-DHA. When injected to blood of rats, AceDoPC® is processed within the brain to deliver DHA to phosphatidyl-choline and -ethanolamine. When injected to rats following the induction of an ischemic stroke, AceDoPC® prevents the extension of brain lesions more efficiently than DHA. Overall, these properties make AceDoPC® a promising phospholipid carrier of DHA to the brain.

  8. Hepatic microsomal phospholipids in rats exposed intratracheally to coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Chauhan, S.S.; Misra, U.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of intratracheal administration of fly ash (50 mg/kg body weight, daily for 7 days) on hepatic microsomal phospholipid metabolism has been studied in rats using various phospholipid precursors, viz NaH 2 32 PO 4 , (methyl- 14 C)-choline, and (methyl- 14 C)-methionine. Fly ash administration significantly increased microsomal phosphatidylcholine (PC), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). The incorporation of NaH 2 32 PO 4 into total liver phospholipids, PC and Phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) was significantly increased in fly ash-treated rats as compared to the control. Fly ash administration also increased the incorporation of (methyl- 14 C)-choline into microsomal PC. Incorporation of (methyl- 14 C)-methionine into microsomal PC was not affected. Fly ash administration decreased the per cent distribution of arachidonic acid in PC and PE and increased that of oleic acid in PC and of linoleic acid in PE. (orig.)

  9. Phospholipid electrospun nanofibers: effect of solvents and co-axial processing on morphology and fiber diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Qvortrup, Klaus; Chronakis, Ioannis S.

    2015-01-01

    Asolectin phospholipid nano-microfibers were prepared using electrospinning processing. The asolectin fibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy, and the fiber morphology was found to be strongly dependent on the phospholipid concentration and the solvents used. The solvents studied were...... chloroform : dimethylformamide (CHCl3 : DMF, 3 : 2 v/v), isooctane, cyclohexane and limonene, producing phospholipid fibers with average diameters in the range of 2.57 +/- 0.59 mu m, similar to 3-8 mu m, similar to 4-5 mu m and 14.3 +/- 2.7 mu m, respectively. The diameter of asolectin electrospun fibers...... solvent and the inner needle contains the asolectin solution in CHCl3: DMF, a substantial reduction in the average fiber diameter was observed. In particular, the average diameter of the fibers when DMF (a solvent with a high dielectric constant) was used as a sheath solvent was reduced by a factor...

  10. Effect of pressure on the fast motions in ordered phase phospholipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, H

    2005-07-01

    Application of hydrostatic pressure to phospholipid bilayers increases acyl chain order and raises the main transition temperature. {sup 2}H NMR spectra and quadrupole echo decay times were obtained at ambient pressure and pressures of 85 MPa and 196.1 MPa for ordered phase bilayers of a zwitterionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PC-d{sub 62} (DPPC-d{sub 62}) and an anionic phospholipid : 16:0-16:0 PG-d{sub 62} (DPPG-d{sub 62}). The extent to which deuterium magnetization following an RF pulse is refocused in the echo after a second pulse is limited by the motions that modulate the orientation-dependent quadrupole interaction. The q-CPMG pulse sequence is used to separate the contribution of slow and fast motions to the echo decay rate. This work provides insight into how chain packing affects local motion.

  11. Phosphatidic acid is a major phospholipid class in reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ian Sofian; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Liu, Yu-Chi; Lin, Ying-Chen; Wenk, Markus R; Nakamura, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipids are the crucial components of biological membranes and signal transduction. Among different tissues, flower phospholipids are one of the least characterized features of plant lipidome. Here, we report that floral reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana contain high levels of phosphatidic acid (PA), a known lipid second messenger. By using floral homeotic mutants enriched with specific floral organs, lipidomics study showed increased levels of PA species in ap3-3 mutant with enriched pistils. Accompanied gene expression study for 7 diacylglycerol kinases and 11 PA phosphatases revealed distinct floral organ specificity, suggesting an active phosphorylation/dephosphorylation between PA and diacylglycerol in flowers. Our results suggest that PA is a major phospholipid class in floral reproductive organs of A. thaliana.

  12. Etoposide Incorporated into Camel Milk Phospholipids Liposomes Shows Increased Activity against Fibrosarcoma in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah M. Maswadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids were isolated from camel milk and identified by using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Anticancer drug etoposide (ETP was entrapped in liposomes, prepared from camel milk phospholipids, to determine its activity against fibrosarcoma in a murine model. Fibrosarcoma was induced in mice by injecting benzopyrene (BAP and tumor-bearing mice were treated with various formulations of etoposide, including etoposide entrapped camel milk phospholipids liposomes (ETP-Cam-liposomes and etoposide-loaded DPPC-liposomes (ETP-DPPC-liposomes. The tumor-bearing mice treated with ETP-Cam-liposomes showed slow progression of tumors and increased survival compared to free ETP or ETP-DPPC-liposomes. These results suggest that ETP-Cam-liposomes may prove to be a better drug delivery system for anticancer drugs.

  13. Impacts of Natural Surfactant Soybean Phospholipid on Wettability of High-rank Coal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, S.; Xiao, Y.; Yuan, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is significant to change the surface wettability of coal rock with the surfactant in coal mining and coalbed methane exploitation. Soybean phospholipid (SP) is a kind of natural zwitterionic surfactant which is non-toxic and degradable. In order to study the effects of soybean phospholipid on wettability of high-rank coal in Qinshui Basin, some experiments including surface tension test, contact angle measurement on the coal surface, coal fines imbibition, observation of dispersion effect and gas permeability test were carried out, and water locking mechanism of fracturing fluid in micro fractures of coal reservoir was analyzed. The results show that the surface of high-rank coal was negatively charged in solution and of weak hydrophilicity. The soybean phospholipid with the mass fraction of 0.1% reduced the surface tension of water by 69%, and increased the wettability of coal. Meanwhile, the soybean phospholipid helped coal fines to disperse by observation of the filter cake with the scanning electron microscope. The rising rate of soybean phospholipid solution in the pipe filled with coal fines was lower than that of anionic and cationic surfactant, higher than that of clean water and non-ionic surfactant. Composite surfactant made up of soybean phospholipid and OP-10 at the ratio of 1:3 having a low surface tension and large contact angle, reduced the capillary force effectively, which could be conducive to discharge of fracturing fluid from coal reservoir micro fracture and improve the migration channels of gas. Therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  14. Milk phospholipid's protective effects against UV damage in skin equivalent models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargitz, Carl; Russell, Ashley; Bingham, Michael; Achay, Zyra; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Laiho, Lily H.

    2012-03-01

    Exposure of skin tissue to UV radiation has been shown to cause DNA photodamage. If this damaged DNA is allowed to replicate, carcinogenesis may occur. DNA damage is prevented from being passed on to daughter cells by upregulation of the protein p21. p21 halts the cells cycle allowing the cell to undergo apoptosis, or repair its DNA before replication. Previous work suggested that milk phospholipids may possess protective properties against UV damage. In this study, we observed cell morphology, cell apoptosis, and p21 expression in tissue engineered epidermis through the use of Hematoxylin and Eosin staining, confocal microscopy, and western blot respectively. Tissues were divided into four treatment groups including: a control group with no UV and no milk phospholipid treatment, a group exposed to UV alone, a group incubated with milk phospholipids alone, and a group treated with milk phospholipids and UV. All groups were incubated for twenty-four hours after treatment. Tissues were then fixed, processed, and embedded in paraffin. Performing western blots resulted in visible p21 bands for the UV group only, implying that in every other group, p21 expression was lesser. Numbers of apoptotic cells were determined by observing the tissues treated with Hoechst dye under a confocal microscope, and counting the number of apoptotic and total cells to obtain a percentage of apoptotic cells. We found a decrease in apoptotic cells in tissues treated with milk phospholipids and UV compared to tissues exposed to UV alone. Collectively, these results suggest that milk phospholipids protect cell DNA from damage incurred from UV light.

  15. Effects of various spacers between biotin and the phospholipid headgroup on immobilization and sedimentation of biotinylated phospholipid-containing liposomes facilitated by avidin-biotin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Koji; Umeda, Kazuaki; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    Immobilization and sedimentation of liposomes (lipid vesicles) are used in liposome-protein binding assays, facilitated by avidin/streptavidin/NeutrAvidin and biotinylated phospholipid-containing liposomes. Here, we examined the effects of three spacers [six-carbon (X), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 180 (molecular weight 180) and PEG2000 (molecular weight 2,000)] between biotin and the phospholipid headgroup on the immobilization and sedimentation of small unilamellar liposomes/vesicles (SUVs). PEG180 and PEG2000 showed more efficient immobilization of biotinylated SUVs on NeutrAvidin-coated plates than X, but X and PEG180 showed more efficient sedimentation of biotinylated SUVs upon NeutrAvidin addition than PEG2000. Thus, the most appropriate spacers differed between immobilization and sedimentation. A spacer for biotinylated SUVs must be selected according to the particular liposome-protein binding assays examined. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrochemical extraction of gold from wastes as nanoparticles stabilized by phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro; Usami, Hisanao

    2017-02-01

    A simple one-step method for the extraction of gold from wastes as nanoparticles stabilized by phospholipids is demonstrated. This is achieved by applying an AC voltage for 5s to the gold-containing wastes, which act as the electrodes in a buffer solution containing a dispersed phospholipid (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DOPC). This is an environmentally friendly and rapid method for recovering gold from wastes. The extracted gold nanoparticles have significant potential as a catalyst or biomedical material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic assembly of MinD on phospholipid vesicles regulated by ATP and MinE

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zonglin; Gogol, Edward P.; Lutkenhaus, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Selection of the division site in Escherichia coli is regulated by the min system and requires the rapid oscillation of MinD between the two halves of the cell under the control of MinE. In this study we have further investigated the molecular basis for this oscillation by examining the interaction of MinD with phospholipid vesicles. We found that MinD bound to phospholipid vesicles in the presence of ATP and, upon binding, assembled into a well-ordered helical array that deformed the vesicle...

  18. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  19. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  20. Variables affecting resolution of lung phospholipids in one-dimensional thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J

    1987-01-01

    Resolution of the confusion in the literature about the separation of lung phospholipids in thin-layer chromatographic systems has awaited a systematic study of the variables that potentially affect this separation. In this study I show that: incorporation of ammonium sulfate into silica gel "GHL" has a dramatic effect on separation of lung phospholipids; this effect is equally dramatic but different in activated and nonactivated gels; when it picks up moisture, ammonium sulfate-activated gel very rapidly loses its ability to resolve lecithin from phosphatidylinositol; in gel containing ammonium sulfate, small amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine are hydrolyzed to lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of PEGylated phospholipid membrane coated layered double hydroxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles coated with PEGylated phospholipid membrane. By comparing the size distribution and zeta potential, the weight ratio of LDH to lipid materials which constitute the outside membrane was identified as 2:1. Transmission electron microscopy photographs confirmed the core-shell structure of PEGylated phospholipid membrane coated LDH (PEG-PLDH nanoparticles, and cell cytotoxicity assay showed their good cell viability on Hela and BALB/C-3T3 cells over the concentration range from 0.5 to 50 μg/mL.

  2. Effect of synthetic and natural phospholipids on N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-hydrolyzing phospholipase D activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte; Pedersen, Anders H; Pickering, Darryl S

    2009-01-01

    N-Acylethanolamines (NAEs) constitute a family of endogenous bioactive lipids that includes arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA). These lipids are formed from their respective N-acylated ethanolamine phospholipid (NAPE) precursor by the a...... analogues as well as selected phospholipids and beta-lactamase substrates were tested as potential modifiers of cloned human NAPE-PLD in an enzyme assay involving a (14)C-labeled diether-NAPE substrate. One hit was identified, namely 1,2-dihexanoyl-glycero-N-(3-(tetradecanoylamino...

  3. Circulating biologically active oxidized phospholipids show on-going and increased oxidative stress in older male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Oxidatively modified phospholipids are increased in the circulation during common, mild oxidant stresses of aging, or in male compared to female animals. Turnover of these biologically active phospholipids by rapid transport into liver and kidney is unchanged, so circulating levels reflect continuously increased production.

  4. Design and synthesis of a stable oxidized phospholipid mimic with specific binding recognition for macrophage scavenger receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, William W; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Boullier, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors appear to play a major role in the clearance of oxidized phospholipid (OxPL) products. Discrete peptide-phospholipid conjugates with the phosphatidylcholine headgroup have been shown to exhibit binding affinity for these receptors. We report the preparation of a wat...

  5. Molecular interactions between bile salts, phospholipids and cholesterol : relevance to bile formation, cholesterol crystallization and bile salt toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moschetta, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Cholesterol is a nonpolar lipid dietary constituent, absorbed from the small intestine, transported in blood and taken up by the liver. In bile, the sterol is solubilized in mixed micelles by bile salts and phospholipids. In case of supersaturation, cholesterol is kept in vesicles with phospholipid

  6. Acute myocardial infarction as first manifestation of primary anti phospholipid syndrome in a twenty-four years old patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, Carlos E; Cardenas, Juan M; Cabrales, Jaime; Bohorquez, Ricardo; Roa, Nubia I; Beltran, Javier; Urina, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Primary anti phospholipid syndrome is usually manifested with deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolism and arterial thrombosis, including cerebrovascular accidents. We report the case of a previously healthy young patient who suffered acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of a primary anti phospholipid syndrome

  7. CD36 Protein Influences Myocardial Ca2+ Homeostasis and Phospholipid Metabolism CONDUCTION ANOMALIES IN CD36-DEFICIENT MICE DURING FASTING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietka, T. A.; Sulkin, M.S.; Kuda, Ondřej; Wang, W.; Zhou, D.; Yamada, K. A.; Yang, K.; Su, X.; Gross, R. W.; Nerbonne, J. M.; Efimov, I. R.; Abumrad, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 46 (2012), s. 38901-38912 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : calcium * cyclic AMP (cAMP) * heart * phospholipid * phospholipid metabolism * polyunsaturated fatty acids * CD36 deficiency * SERCA2a * sudden death Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  8. A Postnatal Diet Containing Phospholipids, Processed to Yield Large, Phospholipid-Coated Lipid Droplets, Affects Specific Cognitive Behaviors in Healthy Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Lidewij; van Dijk, Gertjan; Broersen, Laus M; Loos, Maarten; Bartke, Nana; Scheurink, Anton Jw; van der Beek, Eline M

    2016-06-01

    Infant cognitive development can be positively influenced by breastfeeding rather than formula feeding. The composition of breast milk, especially lipid quality, and the duration of breastfeeding have been linked to this effect. We investigated whether the physical properties and composition of lipid droplets in milk may contribute to cognitive development. From postnatal day (P) 16 to P44, healthy male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice were fed either a control or a concept rodent diet, in which the dietary lipid droplets were large and coated with milk phospholipids, resembling more closely the physical properties and composition of breast milk lipids. Thereafter, all mice were fed an AIN-93M semisynthetic rodent diet. The mice were subjected to various cognitive tests during adolescence (P35-P44) and adulthood (P70-P101). On P102, mice were killed and brain phospholipids were analyzed. The concept diet improved performance in short-term memory tasks that rely on novelty exploration during adolescence (T-maze; spontaneous alternation 87% in concept-fed mice compared with 74% in mice fed control diet; P diet. Brain phospholipid composition at P102 was not different between diet groups. Exposure to a diet with lipids mimicking more closely the structure and composition of lipids in breast milk improved specific cognitive behaviors in mice. These data suggest that lipid structure should be considered as a relevant target to improve dietary lipid quality in infant milk formulas. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Microalgae is currently receiving strong consideration as a potential biofuel feedstock to help meet the advanced biofuels mandate of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act because of its theoretically high yield (gallons/acre/year) in comparison to current terrestrial feedstocks. Additionally, microalgae also do not compete with food and can be cultivated with wastewater on non-arable land. Microalgae lipids can be converted into a variety of biofuels including fatty acid methyl esters (e.g. FAME biodiesel), renewable diesel, renewable gasoline, or jet fuel. For microalgae derived FAME, the fuel properties will be directly related to the fatty acid composition of the lipids produced by the given microalgae strain. Several microalgae species under consideration for wide scale cultivation, such as Nannochloropsis, produce lipids with fatty acid compositions containing substantially higher quantities of long chainpolyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in comparison to terrestrial feedstocks. It is expected that increased levels of LC-PUFA will be problematic in terms of meeting all of the current ASTM specifications for biodiesel. For example, it is known that oxidative stability and cetane number decrease with increasing levels of LC-PUFA. However, these same LC-PUFA fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA: C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: C22:6) are known to have high nutritional value thereby making separation of these compounds economically attractive. Given the uncertainty in the future value of these LC-PUFA compounds and the economic viability of the separation process, the goal of this study was to examine the oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae-based FAME with varying levels of EPA and DHA removal. Oxidative stability tests were conducted at a temperature of 110°C and airflow of 10 L/h using a Metrohm 743 Rancimat with automatic induction period determination following the EN 14112 Method from the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214

  10. INVESTIGATION ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF AGGREGATE STRUCTURES OF NATURAL PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEM USING CRYO-TEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hudiyanti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM was used to investigate the aggregates morphology and properties of candle tree (Aleurites moluccana endosperm, sesame (Sesamum indicum L. syn. seeds, and coconut (Cocos nucifera endosperm phospholipids in dilute aqueous system. The micrographs showed that candle tree phospholipids formed planar bilayer and cluster of vesicles with lipid droplets, while coconut and sesame phospholipids formed well-defined unilamellar vesicles. The vesicles size could be as small as 50 nm in diameter. Coconut phospholipids also showed a good bending ability. Formation of clusters of vesicles was also found in coconut phospholipids dispersion, but this cluster was easily broken by extrusion through a small pore membrane.

  11. Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex for oral delivery: preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fude; Shi, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Tao, Anjin; Kawashima, Yoshiaki

    2006-08-28

    Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex were prepared by a novel reverse micelle-solvent evaporation method, in which soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was employed to improve the liposolubility of insulin, and biodegradable polymers as carrier materials to control drug release. Solubilization study, IR and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to prove the complex formation. The effects of key parameters such as polymer/SPC weight ratio, organic phase and polymer type on the properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. Spherical particles of 200 nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were obtained under optimal conditions. The drug entrapment efficiency was up to 90%. The in vitro drug release was characterized by an initial burst and subsequent delayed release in both pH 6.8 and pH 1.2 dissolution mediums. The specific modality of drug release, i.e., free or SPC-combined, was investigated in the aid of ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltration methods. The influence of polymer type on the drug release was also discussed. The pharmacological effects of the nanoparticles made of PLGA 50/50 (Av.Mw 9500) were further evaluated to confirm their potential suitability for oral delivery. Intragastric administration of the 20 IU/kg nanoparticles reduced fasting plasma glucose levels to 57.4% within the first 8 h of administration and this continued for 12 h. PK/PD analysis indicated that 7.7% of oral bioavailability relative to subcutaneous injection was obtained.

  12. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giacomo; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti H; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2017-12-01

    The present work aims at studying the interactions between cholesterol-rich phosphatidylcholine-based lipid vesicles and trioctylmethylphosphonium acetate ([P 8881 ][OAc]), a biomass dissolving ionic liquid (IL). The effect of cholesterol was assayed by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoplasmonic sensing (NPS) measurement techniques. Cholesterol-enriched dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine vesicles were exposed to different concentrations of the IL, and the derived membrane perturbation was monitored by DSC. The calorimetric data could suggest that the binding and infiltration of the IL are delayed in the vesicles containing cholesterol. To clarify our findings, NPS was applied to quantitatively follow the resistance of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine incorporating 0, 10, and 50mol% of cholesterol toward the IL exposure over time. The membrane perturbation induced by different concentrations of IL was found to be a concentration dependent process on cholesterol-free lipid vesicles. Moreover, our results showed that lipid depletion in cholesterol-enriched lipid vesicles is inversely proportional to the increasing amount of cholesterol in the vesicles. These findings support that cholesterol-rich lipid bilayers are less susceptible toward membrane disrupting agents as compared to membranes that do not incorporate any sterols. This probably occurs because cholesterol tightens the phospholipid acyl chain packing of the plasma membranes, increasing their resistance and reducing their permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Jenkins, A Toby A; Szili, Endre J; Short, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine. (fast track communication)

  14. Ionized gas (plasma) delivery of reactive oxygen species (ROS) into artificial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Szili, Endre J.; Jenkins, A. Toby A.; Short, Robert D.

    2014-09-01

    This study was designed to enhance our understanding of how reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated ex situ by ionized gas (plasma), can affect the regulation of signalling processes within cells. A model system, comprising of a suspension of phospholipid vesicles (cell mimics) encapsulating a ROS reporter, was developed to study the plasma delivery of ROS into cells. For the first time it was shown that plasma unequivocally delivers ROS into cells over a sustained period and without compromising cell membrane integrity. An important consideration in cell and biological assays is the presence of serum, which significantly reduced the transfer efficiency of ROS into the vesicles. These results are key to understanding how plasma treatments can be tailored for specific medical or biotechnology applications. Further, the phospholipid vesicle ROS reporter system may find use in other studies involving the application of free radicals in biology and medicine.

  15. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels are associated with elevated trait aggression and impulsivity in major depressive disorder with a history of comorbid substance use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Anne Mette; Lauritzen, Lotte; Galfalvy, Hanga C

    2014-01-01

    -reported childhood abuse history, and, in MDD patients, suicide attempt history. Among PUFA, lnEPA but not lnDHA predicted aggression (F1,76 = 12.493, p = 0.001), and impulsivity (F1,65 = 5.598, p = 0.021), with interactions between lnEPA and history of SUD for both aggression (F1,76 = 7.941, p = 0.......001) and impulsivity (F1,65 = 3.485, p = 0.037). Results remained significant when adjusted for childhood abuse, depression severity, or history of suicide attempt. In conclusion, low EPA levels were associated with aggression and impulsivity only in patients with MDD and comorbid SUD, even though in most cases SUD......Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with low levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), holding promise for new perspectives on disease etiology and treatment targets. As aggressive and impulsive behaviors are associated with low omega-3 PUFA levels in some clinical contexts...

  16. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus : A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; Assies, J.; Jansen, E. H. J. M.; Diamant, M.; Snoek, F. J.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus.

  17. Phospholipid metabolism in lymphoid cells at delayed periods following sublethal γ-irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamics of phospholipid metabolism in rat thymocytes and bone marrow cells was studied 1-6 months after fractionated irradiation. The rate of total and individual lipid synthesis was shown to increase in the exposed cells. The rate of lipid synthesis increased 1 and 2 months after irradiation and was normalized 3 and 6 months after irradiation

  18. Impact of Phospholipids and Tocopherols on the Oxidative Stability of Soybean Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdani, Gautam K; McClements, D Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2018-04-18

    Phospholipids have been shown to act synergistically with tocopherols and delay lipid oxidation in bulk oil. The synergistic activity between phospholipids and tocopherols is due to the ability of amino-group-containing phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS)) to convert oxidized tocopherol back into tocopherols. This study shows the effect of PE and PS on the antioxidant activity of different tocopherol homologues in oil-in-water emulsions. Effect of emulsifier type on the interaction between tocopherols and phospholipids was also studied. δ-Tocopherol and PE exhibited greater antioxidant activity as compared to α-tocopherol and PE. PS displayed 1.5-3 times greater synergism than PE with Tween 20 as emulsifier whereas both PE and PS had a similar antioxidant activity in the presence of α-tocopherol when bovine serum albumin was used as the emulsifier. This study is the first to show that PE and PS can act synergistically with tocopherols to inhibit lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions and can present a new clean label antioxidant strategy for food emulsions.

  19. Checks and balances in membrane phospholipid class and acyl chain homeostasis, the yeast perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, A.I.P.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084765283; Rijken, P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32716297X; De Smet, C.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824224

    2013-01-01

    Glycerophospholipids are the most abundant membrane lipid constituents in most eukaryotic cells. As a consequence, phospholipid class and acyl chain homeostasis are crucial for maintaining optimal physical properties of membranes that in turn are crucial for membrane function. The topic of this

  20. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Bascuñán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA, with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  1. New peptide-phospholipid conjugate useful for treating or preventing atherosclerosis in subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a peptide-phospholipid conjugate of Formula 1 wherein: X is selected from the group consisting of -CR1R2-, -NR3-, -O-, -S-, and -S+(R3)-; Y is selected from the group consisting of a bond, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, haloalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, amino, ether...

  2. Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jaroszewski, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    -phospho(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPE(PLAS)), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs...

  3. Polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of maternal diet and erythrocyte phospholipid status in Chilean pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Karla A; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-11-07

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20-36 years old) in the 3rd-6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA.

  4. Novel Phospholipid-Protein Conjugates Allow Improved Detection of Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Simone V; Maity, Arindam; Nybo, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Reliable measurement of clinically relevant autoimmune antibodies toward phospholipid-protein conjugates is highly desirable in research and clinical assays. To date, the development in this field has been limited to the use of natural heterogeneous antigens. However, this approach does not take ...... on the correlation of detected autoantibodies with disease activity and manifestations. This confirms the crucial importance of antigens' composition on research and diagnostic assays, and opens up exciting perspectives for synthetic antigens in future studies of autoimmunity.......Reliable measurement of clinically relevant autoimmune antibodies toward phospholipid-protein conjugates is highly desirable in research and clinical assays. To date, the development in this field has been limited to the use of natural heterogeneous antigens. However, this approach does not take...... structural features of biologically active antigens into account and leads to low reliability and poor scientific test value. Here we describe novel phospholipid-protein conjugates for specific detection of human autoimmune antibodies. Our synthetic approach includes mild oxidation of synthetic phospholipid...

  5. Seasonal changes in minor membrane phospholipid classes, sterols and tocopherols in overwintering insect, Pyrrhocoris apterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Urban, T.; Řimnáčová, Lucie; Berková, Petra; Šimek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2013), s. 934-941 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12103; GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : seasonal membrane restructuring * phospholipids * lysophospholipids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191013001406#

  6. Myocardial phospholipid remodeling under different types of load imposed during early postnatal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, F.; Kolář, František; Hamplová, B.; Mrnka, L.; Pelouch, Václav; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Nováková, O.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl.2 (2009), S13-S32 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : phospholipids * myocardium * postnatal development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  7. Mass spectrometric study of rhamnolipid biosurfactants and their interactions with cell membrane phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashynska V. A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the formation of supramolecular complexes of biogenous rhamnolipids with membrane phospholipids that is considered as a molecular mechanism of the biosurfactants antimicrobial action. Method. In the present work rhamnolipid biosurfactant samples produced by Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 strain have been investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the first time. Results. As a result of the study, characteristic mass spectra of the rhamnolipid samples were obtained, that can be used as reference spectra for mass spectrometric identification of the compounds in any biological or industrial samples. At the next stage of the experiments the pair systems, containing the biosurfactants and a membrane phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, have been tested. The cationized noncovalent complexes of the rhamnolipids with the phospholipid were observed in the spectra. Conclusions. The results obtained testify to the consideration that rhamnolipids (similar to other membranotropic agents can form stable supramolecular complexes with membrane phospholipids that are able to evoke the biosurfactants antimicrobial action. A great potential of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the biosurfactants identification and study has been demonstrated in the work.

  8. Perimicrovillar membrane assembly: the fate of phospholipids synthesised by the midgut of Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Rego Bittencourt-Cunha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe the fate of fatty acids that are incorporated from the lumen by the posterior midgut epithelium of Rhodnius prolixus and the biosynthesis of lipids. We also demonstrate that neutral lipids (NL are transferred to the haemolymphatic lipophorin (Lp and that phospholipids remain in the tissue in which they are organised into perimicrovillar membranes (PMMs. 3H-palmitic acid added at the luminal side of isolated midguts of R. prolixus females was readily absorbed and was used to synthesise phospholipids (80% and NL (20%. The highest incorporation of 3H-palmitic acid was on the first day after a blood meal. The amounts of diacylglycerol (DG and triacylglycerol synthesised by the tissue decreased in the presence of Lp in the incubation medium. The metabolic fates of 3H-lipids synthesised by the posterior midgut were followed and it was observed that DG was the major lipid released to Lp particles. However, the majority of phospholipids were not transferred to Lp, but remained in the tissue. The phospholipids that were synthesised and accumulated in the posterior midgut were found to be associated with Rhodnius luminal contents as structural components of PMMs.

  9. Enhanced incorporation of radioactive inorganic phosphate into phospholipids of HeLa cells by tumor promoters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, H.; Fujiki, H.; Terada, M.; Sato, S.

    1983-01-01

    Teleocidin, a new tumor promoter, increased incorporation of radioactive inorganic phosphate ( 32 P/sub i/) into phospholipids in HeLa cells. This effect was detected within 1 h on incubation of the cells in medium containing teleocidin. The half-maximum effective dose of teleocidin was approximately 10 ng/ml. The main effect of teleocidin was on the incorporation of 32 P/sub i/ into the phosphatidylcholine fraction, with a lesser effect on 32 P/sub i/ incorporation into other phospholipid fractions. Increased incorporation of 32 P/sub i/ into phospholipids was also observed on incubation of the cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), dihydroteleocidin B, or lyngbyatoxin A, which are all complete tumor promoters, and also with mezerein, which is an incomplete and second stage promoter. On the other hand, at concentrations of up to 1 microgram/ml, 4-O-methyl TPA and C/sub a/ 2 + ionophore A23187, which are incomplete and first stage promoters, and phorbol, which has no promoting activity in skin carcinogenesis, did not cause any increased incorporation of 32 P/sub i/ into phospholipid fractions of HeLa cells

  10. Phospholipids and protein adaptation of Pseudomonas sp. to the xenoestrogen tributyltin chloride (TBT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Siewiera, Paulina; Soboń, Adrian; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-09-01

    A tributyltin (TBT)-resistant strain of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from an overworked car filter was tested for its adaptation to TBT. The isolate was checked for organotin degradation ability, as well as membrane lipid and cellular protein composition in the presence of TBT. The phospholipid profiles of bacteria, grown with and without increased amounts of TBT, were characterized using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. The strain reacted to the biocide by changing the composition of its phospholipids. TBT induced a twofold decline in the amounts of many molecular species of phosphatidylglycerol and an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (by 58%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (by 70%). An increase in the degree of saturation of phospholipid fatty acids of TBT exposed Pseudomonas sp. was observed. These changes in the phospholipid composition and concentration reflect the mechanisms which support optimal lipid ordering in the presence of toxic xenobiotic. In the presence of TBT the abundances of 16 proteins, including TonB-dependent receptors, porins and peroxidases were modified, which could indicate a contribution of some enzymes to TBT resistance.

  11. Phospholipid-Coated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Acting as Lubricating Drug Nanocarriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a severe disease caused by wear and inflammation of joints. In this study, phospholipid-coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs@lip were prepared in order to treat OA at an early stage. The phospholipid layer has excellent lubrication capability in aqueous media due to the hydration lubrication mechanism, while mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs act as effective drug nanocarriers. The MSNs@lip were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, X-ray photoelectron spectrum, thermogravimetric analysis and dynamic light scattering techniques to confirm that the phospholipid layer was coated onto the surface of MSNs successfully. A series of tribological tests were performed under different experimental conditions, and the results showed that MSNs@lip with multi-layers of phospholipids greatly reduced the friction coefficient in comparison with MSNs. Additionally, MSNs@lip demonstrated sustained drug release behavior and were biocompatible based on CCK-8 assay using MC3T3-E1 cells. The MSNs@lip developed in the present study, acting as effective lubricating drug nanocarriers, may represent a promising strategy to treat early stage OA by lubrication enhancement and drug delivery therapy.

  12. Effect of heavy water on phospholipid membranes: experimental confirmation of molecular dynamics simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, Lenka; Humpolíčková, Jana; Sýkora, Jan; Benda, Aleš; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Gröbner, G.; Hof, Martin

    Roč. 14, č. 42 ( 2012 ), s. 14516-14522 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR GEMEM/09/E006; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : phospholipid membranes * biophysics * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2012

  13. Effect of Phospholipid on Pyrite Oxidation and Microbial Communities under Simulated Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Louis, Andro-Marc; Yu, Hui; Shumlas, Samantha L; Van Aken, Benoit; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

    2015-07-07

    The effect of phospholipid on the biogeochemistry of pyrite oxidation, which leads to acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry in the environment, was investigated. Metagenomic analyses were carried out to understand how the microbial community structure, which developed during the oxidation of pyrite-containing coal mining overburden/waste rock (OWR), was affected by the presence of adsorbed phospholipid. Using columns packed with OWR (with and without lipid adsorption), the release of sulfate (SO4(2-)) and soluble iron (FeTot) was investigated. Exposure of lipid-free OWR to flowing pH-neutral water resulted in an acidic effluent with a pH range of 2-4.5 over a 3-year period. The average concentration of FeTot and SO4(2-) in the effluent was ≥20 and ≥30 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, in packed-column experiments where OWR was first treated with phospholipid, the effluent pH remained at ∼6.5 and the average concentrations of FeTot and SO4(2-) were ≤2 and l.6 mg/L, respectively. 16S rDNA metagenomic pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial communities associated with OWR samples revealed the development of AMD-like communities dominated by acidophilic sulfide-oxidizing bacteria on untreated OWR samples, but not on refuse pretreated with phospholipid.

  14. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, V.; Vugt, F. van; Golde, L.M.G. van

    1. 1. The phospholipid composition of Fasciola hepatica, the common liver fluke, was compared to that of the liver of the host animals (rats and cattle). Considerable differences were found: monoacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, hardly detectable in the liver, was found in significant amounts in

  15. Instability Mechanisms of Water-in-Oil Nanoemulsions with Phospholipids : Temporal and Morphological Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommerling, Jan-Hendrik; Carreira de Matos, Maria; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Dessy, Alberto; Kok, Robbert Jan; Nirschl, Hermann; Leneweit, Gero

    2018-01-01

    Many food preparations, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics use water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized by phospholipids. Moreover, recent technological developments try to produce liposomes or lipid coated capsules from W/O emulsions, but are faced with colloidal instabilities. To explore these

  16. Photolithographic Polymerization of Diacetylene-Containing Phospholipid Bilayers Studied by Multimode Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morigaki, Kenichi; Schönherr, Holger; Frank, Curtis W.; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    Photopolymerization of the diacetylene-containing phospholipid 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) in substrate-supported planar lipid bilayers (SPBs) has been studied by using multimode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Monolayers and bilayers of 1 have been transferred onto

  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from C4 leaves is selectively targeted for inhibition by anionic phospholipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monreal, J.A.; McLoughlin, F.; Echevarría, C.; García-Mauriño, S.; Testerink, C.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) is an enzyme playing a crucial role in photosynthesis of C4 plants. Here, we identify anionic phospholipids as novel regulators that inhibit C4 PEPC activity and provide evidence that the enzyme partially localizes to membranes.

  18. Modulation of FXYD interaction with Na,K-ATPase by anionic phospholipids and protein kinase phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Flemming; Mahmmoud, Yasser Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    acids of FXYD10 had been cleaved by mild, controlled trypsin treatment. Several kinetic properties of the Na,K-ATPase reaction cycle as well as the FXYD-regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity were found to be affected by acidic phospholipids like PI, PS, and PG. This takes into consideration the Na+ and K...

  19. Phospholipids, Dietary Supplements, and Chicken Eggs: An Inquiry-Based Exercise Using Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Sara E.; Belanger, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    This inquiry-based experiment is designed for organic or biochemistry undergraduate students to deduce the identity of phospholipids extracted from chicken eggs and dietary supplements. This is achieved using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) data, a series of guided questions of increasing complexity, and provided relative retention factor (Rf)…

  20. Preparation and characterization of standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex as an effective drug delivery tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Kamlesh Vora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagins, a pair of anomeric ellagitannins, present in Punica granatum (Pomegranates are known to possess excellent antioxidant activity in vitro, but poor oral bioavailability. The reasons cited for poor bioavailability are their large molecular size, poor lipophilicity, and degradation by colonic microflora into less active metabolites. The objective of the present research work was to complex the standardized pomegranate extract (SPE with phospholipid to formulate standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex (SPEPC, characterize it and check its permeability through an ex vivo everted gut sac experiment. SPEPC was prepared by mixing SPE (30% punicalagins and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC in 1:1 v/v mixture of methanol and dioxane and spray-drying the mixture. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. It was evaluated for its octanol solubility, dissolution, and permeability by everted the gut sac technique. The characterization methods confirmed the formation of complex. Increased n-octanol solubility of the complex proved its increased lipophilicity. Dissolution studies revealed that the phospholipid covering may prevent the punicalagins to be released in gastro-intestinal tract, thus preventing their colonic microbial degradation. SPEPC showed better apparent permeability than SPE in an everted gut sac technique. Hence, it could be concluded that phospholipid complex of SPE may be of potential use in increasing the permeability and hence the bioavailability of punicalagins.

  1. Simulation studies of pore and domain formation in a phospholipid monolayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Volker; Muller, M; Bonn, M; Marrink, SJ; Mark, AE

    2005-01-01

    Despite extensive study the phase behavior of phospholipid monolayers at an air-water interface is still not fully understood. In particular recent vibrational sum-frequency generation (VSFG) spectra of DPPC monolayers as a function of area density show a sharp transition in the order of the lipid

  2. Controlled release of astaxanthin from nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride complex for cosmetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Sun; Sung, Dae Kyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Choi, Won Il; Hwang, Ee Tag; Choi, Doo Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2017-12-01

    Nanoporous silicified-phospholipids assembled boron nitride (nSPLs@BN) powder was prepared and demonstrated for use in controlled release of anti-oxidant astaxanthin (AX) as a cosmetic application. The nanoporous silicified phospholipids (nSPLs) were obtained by the silicification with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) of the hydrophilic region of phospholipid bilayers. This process involved the co-assembly of chemically active phospholipid bilayers within the porous silica matrix. In addition, nSPLs@BN was characterized using several analytical techniques and tested to assess their efficiency as drug delivery systems. We calculated the maximum release amounts as a function of time and various pH. The release rate of AX from the nSPLs@BN for the initial 24 h was 10.7 μmol/(h mg) at pH 7.4. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant activity (KD) for the released AX with DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl) radical and the result was 34.6%.

  3. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for phytoplankton: application for inferring phytoplankton composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, N.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) are widely used as chemotaxonomic markers in microbial ecology. In this paper we explore the use of PLFA as chemotaxonomic markers for phytoplankton species. The PLFA composition was determined for 23 species relevant to estuarine phytoplankton. The taxonomic

  4. Conformations of double-headed, triple-tailed phospholipid oxidation lipid products in model membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermetter, Albin; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2013-01-01

    Products of phospholipid oxidation can produce lipids with a carbonyl moiety at the end of a shortened lipid acyl tail, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POVPC). The carbonyl tail of POVPC can covalently bond to the free tertiary amine of a phosphatidylethanolamine...

  5. Synthesis of structured phospholipids by immobilized phospholipase A2 catalyzed acidolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2007-01-01

    Acyl modification of the sn-2 position in phospholipids (PLs) was conducted by acidolysis reaction using immobilized phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as the catalyst. In the first stage we screened different carriers for their ability to immobilize PLA2. Several carriers were able to fix the enzyme...

  6. Study of Charged particles transport across model and real phospholipid bilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Jakl, M.; Mareček, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2010), s. 208-219 ISSN 1790-5079 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phospholipid bilayers * voltammetry * environment Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.worldses.org/journals/environment/index.html

  7. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  8. Preparation and characterization of tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules as potential oral carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YQ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yi-qing Zhao, Li-ping Wang, Chao Ma, Kun Zhao, Ying Liu, Nian-ping FengSchool of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Tetrandrine is an active constituent that is extracted from the root tuber of the Chinese herb Stephania tetrandra S. Moore. It has shown various pharmacological effects, such as antitumor activity, multidrug resistance reversal, and hepatic fibrosis resistance. In clinical applications, it has been used to treat hypertension, pneumosilicosis, and lung cancer. However, the poor water solubility of tetrandrine has limited its application. In this study, a newly emerging oral drug carrier of phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules was developed to improve the oral bioavailability of tetrandrine.Methods: The phospholipid complex was prepared with the solvent-evaporation method to enhance the liposolubility of tetrandrine. The formation of the phospholipid complex was confirmed with a solubility study, infrared spectroscopy, and a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis. The tetrandrine-phospholipid complex loaded lipid nanocapsules (TPC-LNCs were prepared using the phase inversion method. Lyophilization was performed with mannitol (10% as a cryoprotectant. TPC-LNCs were characterized according to their particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, morphology by transmission electron microscopy, and crystallinity by DSC. In addition, the in vitro release of tetrandrine from TPC-LNCs was examined to potentially illustrate the in vivo release behavior. The in vivo bioavailability of TPC-LNCs was studied and compared to tetrandrine tablets in rats.Results: The liposolubility of tetrandrine in n-octanol improved from 8.34 µg/mL to 35.64 µg/mL in the tetrandrine-phospholipid complex. The prepared TPC-LNCs were spherical-shaped particles with a small size of 40 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 93.9%. DSC measurements revealed

  9. β3-adrenoceptor agonist prevents alterations of muscle diacylglycerol and adipose tissue phospholipids induced by a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Christian

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet has been associated with alterations in lipid content and composition in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Administration of β3-adrenoceptor (β3-AR agonists was recently reported to prevent insulin resistance induced by a high fat diet, such as the cafeteria diet. The objective of the present study was to determine whether a selective β3-AR agonist (ZD7114 could prevent alterations of the lipid profile of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipids induced by a cafeteria diet. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a cafeteria diet were treated orally with either the β3-AR agonist ZD7114 (1 mg/kg per day or the vehicle for 60 days. Rats fed a chow diet were used as a reference group. In addition to the determination of body weight and insulin plasma level, lipid content and fatty acid composition in gastronemius and in epididymal adipose tissue were measured by gas-liquid chromatography, at the end of the study. Results In addition to higher body weights and plasma insulin concentrations, rats fed a cafeteria diet had greater triacylglycerol (TAG and diacylglycerol (DAG accumulation in skeletal muscle, contrary to animals fed a chow diet. As expected, ZD7114 treatment prevented the excessive weight gain and hyperinsulinemia induced by the cafeteria diet. Furthermore, in ZD7114 treated rats, intramyocellular DAG levels were lower and the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly arachidonic acid, in adipose tissue phospholipids was higher than in animals fed a cafeteria diet. Conclusions These results show that activation of the β3-AR was able to prevent lipid alterations in muscle and adipose tissue associated with insulin resistance induced by the cafeteria diet. These changes in intramyocellular DAG levels and adipose tissue PL composition may contribute to the improved insulin sensitivity associated with β3-AR activation.

  10. Increased Erythrocyte Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Are Associated With Improved Attention and Behavior in Children With ADHD in a Randomized Controlled Three-Way Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milte, Catherine M; Parletta, Natalie; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Young, Ross M; Howe, Peter R C

    2015-11-01

    To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months. Fifty-three children completed the treatment. Outcome measures showed no significant differences between the three treatments. However, in children with blood samples (n = 76-46), increased erythrocyte EPA + DHA was associated with improved spelling (r = .365, p attention (r = -.540, p improve behavior, attention, and literacy in children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and pigmentation in larvae of common sole ( Solea solea L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Hansen, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence confirms that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (ARA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA are involved in growth as well in pigmentation of marine fish larvae. In the present study we examined the performance of common sole larvae reared...... on Artemia enriched with 10 formulated emulsions, differing in inclusions of ARA, EPA, and DHA. The specific growth rate of the sole larvae until late metamorphosis, 21 days after hatching (dah) was 20 to 27% d(-1). Even though the relative tissue essential fatty acid (EFA) concentrations significantly...... reflected dietary composition, neither standard growth nor larval survival were significantly related to the absolute concentrations of ARA, EPA and DHA or their ratios. This suggests low requirements for essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in common sole. Malpigmentation was significantly related...

  12. Eicosapentaenoic acid as an add-on to antidepressant medication for co-morbid major depression in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; Assies, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    . METHODS: In the VU University Medical Center, we conducted a 12-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group intervention study of E-EPA (1g/day) versus placebo in 25 diabetes patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, who were already using antidepressant medication......BACKGROUND: Depression is common in individuals with diabetes. The present study is the first randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of omega-3 ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (E-EPA) as adjuvant to antidepressant medication in the treatment of depression in adults with diabetes mellitus....... The primary outcome was severity of depressive symptoms, assessed by the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) at baseline and 12-week follow-up at two-weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 12-week follow-up to determine EPA levels in erythrocyte membranes. Data were...

  13. Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in whole blood are differentially and sex-specifically associated with cardiometabolic risk markers in 8-11-year-old danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.

    2014-01-01

    ) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8-11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7......n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1......-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory...

  14. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldrick, Zachary [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: eenzc@leeds.ac.uk; Steenson, Paul [School of Electronic Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Millner, Paul [Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Davies, Matthew [Health and Safety Laboratories, Buxton, SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Nelson, Andrew [Centre for Self-Organising Molecular Systems (SOMS), School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s{sup -1} over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  15. Protein kinase C interaction with calcium: a phospholipid-dependent process.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bazzi, M D

    1990-08-21

    The calcium-binding properties of calcium- and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) were investigated by equilibrium dialysis in the presence and the absence of phospholipids. Calcium binding to PKC displayed striking and unexpected behavior; the free proteins bound virtually no calcium at intracellular calcium concentrations and bound limited calcium (about 1 mol\\/mol of PKC) at 200 microM calcium. However, in the presence of membranes containing acidic phospholipids, PKC bound at least eight calcium ions per protein. The presence of 1 microM phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) in the dialysis buffer had little effect on these calcium-binding properties. Analysis of PKC-calcium binding by gel filtration under equilibrium conditions gave similar results; only membrane-associated PKC bound significant amounts of calcium. Consequently, PKC is a member of what may be a large group of proteins that bind calcium in a phospholipid-dependent manner. The calcium concentrations needed to induce PKC-membrane binding were similar to those needed for calcium binding (about 40 microM calcium at the midpoint). However, the calcium concentration required for PKC-membrane binding was strongly influenced by the phosphatidylserine composition of the membranes. Membranes with higher percentages of phosphatidylserine required lower concentrations of calcium. These properties suggested that the calcium sites may be generated at the interface between PKC and the membrane. Calcium may function as a bridge between PKC and phospholipids. These studies also suggested that calcium-dependent PKC-membrane binding and PKC function could be regulated by a number of factors in addition to calcium levels and diacylglycerol content of the membrane.

  16. Phospholipid monolayer coated microfabricated electrodes to model the interaction of molecules with biomembranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldrick, Zachary; Steenson, Paul; Millner, Paul; Davies, Matthew; Nelson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The hanging mercury (Hg) drop electrode (HMDE) has a classical application as a tool to study adsorption and desorption processes of surface organic films due to its: (a) atomically smooth surface and, (b) hydrophobicity at its potential of zero charge. In this study we report on a replacement of the HMDE for studying supported organic layers in the form of platinum (Pt) working electrodes fabricated using lithography techniques on which a thin film of Hg is electrodeposited. These wafer-based Pt/Hg electrodes are characterised and compared to the HMDE using rapid cyclic voltammetry (RCV) and show similar capacitance-potential profiles while being far more mechanically stable and consuming considerably less Hg over their lifetime of several months. The electrodes have been used to support self-assembled phospholipid monolayers which are dynamic surface coatings with unique dielectric properties. The issue of surface contamination has been solved by regenerating the electrode surface prior to phospholipid coating by application of extreme cathodic potentials more negative than -2.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The phospholipid coated electrodes presented in this paper mimic one half of a phospholipid bilayer and exhibit interactions with the biomembrane active drug molecules chlorpromazine, and quinidine. The magnitudes of these interactions have been assessed by recording changes in the capacitance-potential profiles in real time using RCV at 40 V s -1 over potential ranges >1 V. A method for electrode coating with phospholipids with the electrodes fitted in a flow cell device has been developed. This has enabled sequential rapid cleaning/coating/interaction cycles for the purposes of drug screening and/or on-line monitoring for molecules of interest.

  17. Phospholipids and their degrading enzyme in the tears of soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Motoko; Hata, Seiichiro

    2006-12-01

    Low tear phospholipids levels are associated with tear film instability in soft contact lens wearers. We assayed levels of phospholipids and their degrading enzyme secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) both in tears and deposited on contact lenses composed of 2 hydrophilic materials after 1 day of routine use. Polymacon (Medalist; FDA group 1, low water/nonionic) and Etafilcon A (One Day Acuvue; group 4, high water/ionic) contact lenses were worn for 12 hours by 16 experienced contact lens wearers. Phospholipids in tear fluids and deposited on contact lenses were estimated by phosphorus determination with ammonium molybdate through enzymatic digestion. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to determine group IIa sPLA2 concentrations, and sPLA2 activity was assayed using 1,2-diheptanoyl thio-phosphatidylcholine as substrate. Phospholipids concentrations in tears with Polymacon and Etafilcon A were 186 +/- 39 and 162 +/- 33 microg/mL, respectively. The latter concentration was significantly lower than that observed in the same subjects when not wearing contact lenses (P = 0.0023). In tears, both group IIa sPLA2 concentrations and enzymatic activity remained unchanged, regardless of lens wearing. However, Etafilcon A (0.57 +/- 0.09 microg/lens) showed more group IIa sPLA2 deposition than Polymacon (0.01 +/- 0.01 microg/lens; P < 0.001). Furthermore, group IIa sPLA2 deposited on Etafilcon A but not on Polymacon lenses retained its enzymatic activity. Significant differences of group IIa sPLA2 deposition were found in the 2 lenses tested. Such deposition might induce phospholipid hydrolysis in tears and thereby promote tear film instability in hydrophilic contact lens wearers.

  18. Circulating Phospholipid Patterns in NAFLD Patients Associated with a Combination of Metabolic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with inefficient macro- and micronutrient metabolism, and alteration of circulating phospholipid compositions defines the signature of NAFLD. This current study aimed to assess the pattern of serum phospholipids in the spectrum of NAFLD, and its related comorbidities and genetic modifications. Methods: 97 patients with diagnosed NAFLD were recruited at a single center during 2013–2016. Based on histological and transient elastography assessment, 69 patients were divided into non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL subgroups. 28 patients served as healthy controls. Serum phospholipids were determined by liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results: The total content of phosphatidylcholine (PC and sphingomyelin in the serum was significantly increased in NAFL and NASH patients, compared to healthy controls. In addition, serum lysophospatidylethanolamine levels were significantly decreased in NAFL and NASH individuals. Circulating PC species, containing linoleic and α-linolenic acids, were markedly increased in NAFLD patients with hypertension, compared to NAFLD patients without hypertension. The pattern of phospholipids did not differ between NAFLD patients with diabetes and those without diabetes. However, NAFLD patients with hyperglycemia (blood glucose level (BGL >100 mg/dL exhibited significantly a higher amount of monounsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine than those with low blood glucose levels. In addition, NAFLD patients with proven GG-genotype of PNPLA3, who were at higher risk for the development of progressive disease with fibrosis, showed lower levels of circulating plasmalogens, especially 16:0, compared to those with CC- and CG-allele. Conclusions: Our extended lipidomic study presents a unique metabolic profile of circulating phospholipids associated with the presence of metabolic risk factors or the genetic background

  19. Combined application of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on depression in women: a meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang JR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jia-run Yang, Dong Han, Zheng-xue Qiao, Xue Tian, Dong Qi, Xiao-hui QiuDepartment of Medical Psychology, Public Health Institute of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of ChinaObjectives: Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs suggest that depression can be effectively treated by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the clinical applicability of the combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, which are the two major bioactive types of PUFAs, in depressed women.Methods: RCTs that compared the combination of DHA and EPA to placebo for short-course treatment of depression in women were systematically reviewed up to March 2015. Outcome measurement was the standardized difference in means in clinical measure of depression severity. Random effect model was performed. Meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of baseline depression scores.Results: Data were obtained from eight RCTs. In these RCTs, 182 patients received placebo and 185 patients received DHA and EPA. The pooled standardized difference in mean was 0.65 with 95% CI = [0.18, 1.12]. There was no relation between the efficacy and the baseline depression scores. The sensitivity analysis found that the combination of EPA and DHA as monotherapy yielded a standardized difference in means of 0.65 (95% CI =0.41, 0.90 without heterogeneity.Discussion: These results indicate a beneficial effect of the combination of EPA and DHA on depressed mood in women compared with placebo. The clinical applicability of EPA and DHA showed greater promise and should be further explored.Keywords: depression, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, PUFAs, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA

  20. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  1. Overexpression and deletion of phospholipid transfer protein reduce HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity but not macrophage reverse cholesterol transport[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Takashi; Bi, Xin; Cipollari, Eleonora; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Lagor, William R.; Szapary, Hannah J.; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John S.; Billheimer, Jeffrey T.; Lyssenko, Nicholas N.; Rader, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) may affect macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (mRCT) through its role in the metabolism of HDL. Ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity and in vivo mRCT were assessed in PLTP deletion and PLTP overexpression mice. PLTP deletion mice had reduced HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity, but unchanged in vivo mRCT. To directly compare the effects of PLTP overexpression and deletion on mRCT, human PLTP was overexpressed in the liver of wild-type animals using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector, and control and PLTP deletion animals were injected with AAV-null. PLTP overexpression and deletion reduced plasma HDL mass and cholesterol efflux capacity. Both substantially decreased ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux, whereas ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux remained the same or increased, even though preβ HDL levels were lower. Neither PLTP overexpression nor deletion affected excretion of macrophage-derived radiocholesterol in the in vivo mRCT assay. The ex vivo and in vivo assays were modified to gauge the rate of cholesterol efflux from macrophages to plasma. PLTP activity did not affect this metric. Thus, deviations in PLTP activity from the wild-type level reduce HDL mass and ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, but not the rate of macrophage cholesterol efflux to plasma or in vivo mRCT. PMID:28137768

  2. Comparison of the Incorporation of DHA in Circulatory and Neural Tissue When Provided as Triacylglycerol (TAG), Monoacylglycerol (MAG) or Phospholipids (PL) Provides New Insight into Fatty Acid Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Oliveira, Manuel; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Dupuis, Lénaïck; Gosoniu, Maria Laura; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-15

    Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days. The assessment of the longitudinal evolution of DHA in erythrocyte and plasma lipids suggest that PL-DHA and MAG-DHA are efficient carriers of dietary DHA when compared to conventional DHA oil (TAG-DHA). Under these experimental conditions, both PL-DHA and MAG-DHA led to higher incorporations of DHA erythrocytes lipids compared to TAG-DHA group. After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed.

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  4. 13C-labeled 18 : 2n-6 recovered in brush border membrane phospholipids short time after administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    fatty acids in the two phospholipid pools. Minor effects on BBM-PC and BBM-PE fatty acid profiles (mole-%) were observed. The present study demonstrated for the first time incorporation of C-13-labeled 18:2n-6 into BBM-PC 2 hours and 6 hours after intragastric administration of L*L*L* or ML......*M. This emphasizes the influence of the dietary fatty acid on BBM fatty acid composition and the rapid incorporation of dietary long-chain fatty acids into intestinal enterocyte phospholipids. Medium-chain fatty acids in a single meal exert only a minor influence on the BBM phospholipid fatty acid profile....

  5. Determination of the phospholipid precursor of anandamide and other N- acylethanolamine phospholipids before and after sodium azide-induced toxicity in cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Schousboe, A.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2000-01-01

    Phospholipase D-mediated hydrolysis of N-acylethanolamine phospholipids (NAPEs) releases anandamide and other N-acylethanolamines, resulting in different actions at cellular targets in the CNS. Recently, we have demonstrated that these N-acyl lipids accumulate in cultured neocortical neurons subj...... method, neuronal NAPE species can be identified and quantified with respect to N-acyl composition, including a trans-isomer of the anandamide precursor. The anandamide precursor is up-regulated to the same extent as other NAPEs upon neuronal injury....

  6. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  7. Stability of phospholipid vesicles studied by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation and capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohannes, Gebrenegus [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Pystynen, Kati-Henna [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Riekkola, Marja-Liisa [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Wiedmer, Susanne K. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: susanne.wiedmer@helsinki.fi

    2006-02-23

    The stability of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine vesicles in the presence of 20 mol% phosphatidyl serine (PS), phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidyl inositol (PI), and diacylphosphatidyl glycerol (PG) phospholipid vesicles, and cholesterol or calcium chloride was investigated by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF). Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV, diameter 100 nm) prepared by extrusion at 25 deg. C were used. Phospholipid vesicles (liposomes) were stored at +4 and -18 deg. C over an extended period of time. Extruded egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EPC) particle diameters at peak maximum and mean measured by AsFlFFF were 101 {+-} 3 nm and 122 {+-} 5 nm, respectively. No significant change in diameter was observed after storage at +4 deg. C for about 5 months. When the storage period was extended to about 8 months (250 days) larger destabilized aggregates were formed (172 and 215 nm at peak maximum and mean diameters, respectively). When EPC was stored at -18 deg. C, large particles with diameters of 700-800 nm were formed as a result of dehydration, aggregation, and fusion processes. In the presence of calcium chloride, EPC alone did not form large aggregates. Addition of 20 mol% of negatively charged phospholipids (PS, PA, PI, or PG) to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) vesicles increased the electrostatic interactions between calcium ion and the vesicles and large aggregates were formed. In the presence of cholesterol, large aggregates of about 250-350 nm appeared during storage at +4 and -18 deg. C for more than 1 day. The effect of liposome storage temperature on phospholipid coatings applied in capillary electrophoresis (CE) was studied by measuring the electroosmotic flow (EOF). EPC coatings with and without cholesterol, PS, or calcium chloride, prepared from liposomes stored at +25, +4, and -18 deg. C, were studied at 25 deg. C. The performances of the coatings were further evaluated with three uncharged compounds

  8. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  9. Estimation of the Asymmetrical Arrangement of Plasma Membrane Aminophospholipids. An Experimental Assay for Students of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Yague, J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes an experiment to discover the topology of plasma membrane aminophospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine) using whole platelets and trinitrobenzene sulfonate (TNBS) as a probe. Reports changes in phospholipid distribution during platelet activation with simultaneous action of thrombia and collagen. Details the…

  10. 23Na-NMR-studies on the detection of the interaction of phospholipids with sodium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, K.; Pausch, R.; Frenzel, J.; Winkler, E.

    1975-01-01

    The 23 Na-NMR-relaxation times have been measured in different sonicated phospholipid dispersions in dependence on the NaCl concentration. In an egg lecithin dispersion and a DPPC dispersion the relaxation rates are independent of the sodium concentration. In both systems there is no interaction between sodium ions and phospholipids. However, in a phosphatidylethanolamine dispersion a concentration dependence may be observed. Its interpretation is only possible for a stoichiometric ratio of 3:1 of the lecithin-ion-complex. The association constant is found to be k=65,0 l/Mol. For the case of an equimolar egg lecithin/phosphatidylethanolamine dispersion a stronger interaction is measured. The addition of CaCl 2 results in a complete inhibition of the binding of sodium ions at phosphatidylethanolamine

  11. Proceedings of the users meeting on structure and phase transition of phospholipid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Ichiro; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki

    1994-06-01

    On the occasion that the persons of three groups that have carried out the research on the structure and the phase transition of phospholipid membranes have carried out the experiment successively, the users meeting was held on November 1, 1993 at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Lectures were given on the L βI structure of DPPC/alcohol system, the self gathering and intermolecular cooperation phenomenon of glycero phospholipid, the phase transition of DEPE/water system, the structure of DMPA/polylysine, the development of X-ray television, the ripple structure of DMPC/cholesterol system and the simultaneous measurement of X-ray diffraction/DSC. To have the chance like this is very meaningful because sufficient discussion can be done among usually busy researchers at the synchrotron radiation experiment facility. (K.I.)

  12. A method for simultaneous quantification of phospholipid species by routine 31P NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann-Trettenes, Ulla; Stein, Paul C.; Klösgen, Beate Maria

    2012-01-01

    We report a 31P NMR assay for quantification of aqueous phospholipid samples. Using a capillary with trimethylphosphate as internal standard, the limit of quantification is 1.30mM. Comparison of the 31P NMR quantification method in aqueous buffer and in organic solvent revealed that the two methods...... are equal within experimental error. Changing the pH of the buffer enables peak separation for different phospholipid species. This is an advantage compared to the commercial enzyme assay based on phospholipase D and choline oxidase. The reported method, using routine 31P NMR equipment, is suitable when...... fast results of a limited number of samples are requested. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.....

  13. Specific Interaction between Redox Phospholipid Polymers and Plastoquinone in Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenya; Kaneko, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Masahito; Kato, Souichiro; Ito, Hidehiro; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Kamiya, Kazuhide; Nakanishi, Shuji

    2017-04-19

    Redox phospholipid polymers added in culture media are known to be capable of extracting electrons from living photosynthetic cells across bacterial cell membranes with high cytocompatibility. In the present study, we identify the intracellular redox species that transfers electrons to the polymers. The open-circuit electrochemical potential of an electrolyte containing the redox polymer and extracted thylakoid membranes shift to positive (or negative) under light irradiation, when an electron transport inhibitor specific to plastoquinone is added upstream (or downstream) in the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The same trend is also observed for a medium containing living photosynthetic cells of Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942. These results clearly indicate that the phospholipid redox polymers extract photosynthetic electrons mainly from plastoquinone. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Proceedings of the users meeting on structure and phase transition of phospholipid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Ichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki [eds.

    1994-06-01

    On the occasion that the persons of three groups that have carried out the research on the structure and the phase transition of phospholipid membranes have carried out the experiment successively, the users meeting was held on November 1, 1993 at National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Lectures were given on the L{sub {beta}I} structure of DPPC/alcohol system, the self gathering and intermolecular cooperation phenomenon of glycero phospholipid, the phase transition of DEPE/water system, the structure of DMPA/polylysine, the development of X-ray television, the ripple structure of DMPC/cholesterol system and the simultaneous measurement of X-ray diffraction/DSC. To have the chance like this is very meaningful because sufficient discussion can be done among usually busy researchers at the synchrotron radiation experiment facility. (K.I.).

  15. Characterization of Type Three Secretion System Translocator Interactions with Phospholipid Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Philip R; Barta, Michael L; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    In vitro characterization of type III secretion system (T3SS) translocator proteins has proven challenging due to complex purification schemes and their hydrophobic nature that often requires detergents to provide protein solubility and stability. Here, we provide experimental details for several techniques that overcome these hurdles, allowing for the direct characterization of the Shigella translocator protein IpaB with respect to phospholipid membrane interaction. The techniques specifically discussed in this chapter include membrane interaction/liposome flotation, liposome sensitive fluorescence quenching, and protein-mediated liposome disruption assays. These assays have provided valuable insight into the role of IpaB in T3SS-mediated phospholipid membrane interactions by Shigella and should readily extend to other members of this important class of proteins.

  16. Phosphorylation of dynamin I on Ser-795 by protein kinase C blocks its association with phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, K A; Valova, V A; Malladi, C S

    2000-01-01

    Dynamin I is phosphorylated in nerve terminals exclusively in the cytosolic compartment and in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC). Dephosphorylation is required for synaptic vesicle retrieval, suggesting that its phosphorylation affects its subcellular localization. An in vitro phospholipid binding ...... assay was established that prevents lipid vesiculation and dynamin lipid insertion into the lipid. Dynamin I bound the phospholipid in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner, with an apparent affinity of 230 +/- 51 nM. Optimal binding occurred with mixtures of phosphatidylserine...... the phosphorylation site in PKCalpha-phosphorylated dynamin I as a single site at Ser-795, located near a binding site for the SH3 domain of p85, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, phosphorylation had no effect on dynamin binding to a bacterially expressed p85-SH3 domain. Thus...

  17. Regulation of phospholipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis by cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareen, Monica; Kaur, Harpinder; Khuller, G.K.

    1993-01-01

    Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator and a cyclic AMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic AMP have been used to examine the relationship between intracellular levels of cyclic AMP and lipid synthesis in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Total phospholipid content was found to be increased in forskolin grown cells as a result of increased cyclic AMP levels caused by activation of adenylate cyclase. Increased phospholipid content was supported by increased [ 14 C]acetate incorporation as well as increased activity of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Pretreatment of cells with dibutyryl cyclic AMP had similar effects on lipid synthesis. Taking all these observations together it is suggested that lipid synthesis is being controlled by cyclic AMP in mycobacteria. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  18. Isoprenoid-phospholipid conjugates as potential therapeutic agents: Synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gliszczyńska

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to extend application field of isoprenoid compounds by their introduction into phospholipid structure as the transport vehicle. The series of novel isoprenoid phospholipids were synthesized in high yields (24-97%, their structures were fully characterized and its anticancer activity was investigated in vitro towards several cell lines of different origin. Most of synthesized compounds showed a significantly higher antiproliferative effect on tested cell lines than free terpene acids. The most active phosphatidylcholine analogue, containing 2,3-dihydro-3-vinylfarnesoic acids instead of fatty acids in both sn-1 and sn-2 position, inhibits the proliferation of colon cancer cells at 13.6 μM.

  19. Imaging phospholipid conformational disorder and packing in giant multilamellar liposome by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noothalapati, Hemanth; Iwasaki, Keita; Yoshimoto, Chikako; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoe; Ando, Masahiro; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.; Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Liposomes are closed phospholipid bilayer systems that have profound applications in fundamental cell biology, pharmaceutics and medicine. Depending on the composition (pure or mixture of phospholipids, presence of cholesterol) and preparation protocol, intra- and inter-chain molecular interactions vary leading to changes in the quality (order and packing) of liposomes. So far it is not possible to image conformational disorders and packing densities within a liposome in a straightforward manner. In this study, we utilized confocal Raman microspectroscopy to visualize structural disorders and packing efficiency within a giant multilamellar liposome model by focusing mainly on three regions in the vibrational spectrum (Csbnd C stretching, Csbnd H deformation and Csbnd H stretching). We estimated properties such as trans/gauche isomers and lateral packing probability. Interestingly, our Raman imaging studies revealed gel phase rich domains and heterogeneous lateral packing within the giant multilamellar liposome.

  20. Sequestration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids of Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva attenuates eicosanoid biosynthesis for prolonged survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Man Lam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic basis governing the extreme longevity and developmental quiescence of dauer juvenile, a “non-ageing” developmental variant of Caenorhabditis elegans, has remained largely obscure. Using a lipidomic approach comprising multiple reaction monitoring transitions specific to distinct fatty acyl moieties, we demonstrated that in comparison to other developmental stages, the membrane phospholipids of dauer larva contain a unique enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Esterified PUFAs in phospholipids exhibited temporal accumulation throughout the course of dauer endurance, followed by sharp reductions prior to termination of diapause. Reductions in esterified PUFAs were accompanied by concomitant increases in unbound PUFAs, as well as their corresponding downstream oxidized derivatives (i.e. eicosanoids. Global phospholipidomics has unveiled that PUFA sequestration in membrane phospholipids denotes an essential aspect of dauer dormancy, principally via suppression of eicosanoid production; and a failure to upkeep membrane lipid homeostasis is associated with termination of dauer endurance. Keywords: Dauer larva, Phospholipids, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Eicosanoids, Lipidomics, Caenorhabditis elegans

  1. Primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome causing recurrent venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia in a patient with Addison's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elebrashy, Ibrahim; Yousief, Elham; Saif, Aasem

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of Addison's disease presenting with recurrent deep venous thrombosis and thrombocytopenia and proved to have primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome. The case report highlights the shared autoimmune nature of both diseases.

  2. Effects of phosphonium-based ionic liquids on phospholipid membranes studied by small-angle X-ray scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kontro, I.; Svedström, K.; Duša, Filip; Ahvenainen, P.; Ruokonen, S. K.; Witos, J.; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, DEC (2016), s. 59-66 ISSN 0009-3084 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : phospholipids * x-ray scattering Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  3. Relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demel, R.A.; Geurts van Kessel, W.S.M.; Zwaal, R.F.A.; Roelofsen, B.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1975-01-01

    The action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. The phospholipases which cannot hydrolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus, phospholipase A2 from

  4. Phospholipid fatty acid composition of microorganisms in pine forest soils of Central Siberia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evgrafova, S.Yu.; Šantrůčková, H.; Shibistova, O.B.; Elhottová, Dana; Černá, B.; Zrazhevskaya, G.K.; Lloyd, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 5 (2008), s. 452-458 ISSN 1062-3590 Grant - others:Evropská unie(XE) 03-55-1344; Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation(RU) RUX0-002-KR-06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : phospholipid fatty acid * microorganisms * pine forest soils Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.082, year: 2008

  5. Functional and structural stability of the epidermal growth factor receptor in detergent micelles and phospholipid nanodiscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Li-Zhi; Grey, Michael J; Nishida, Noritaka

    2008-01-01

    Cellular signaling mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB) family of receptor tyrosine kinases plays an important role in regulating normal and oncogenic cellular physiology. While structures of isolated EGFR extracellular domains and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase...... differential functional stability in Triton X-100 versus dodecyl maltoside. Furthermore, the kinase activity can be significantly stabilized by reconstituting purified EGF-bound EGFR dimers in phospholipid nanodiscs or vesicles, suggesting that the environment around the hydrophobic transmembrane...

  6. Phospholipid layer stabilization via Yb(III) on ITIES and facilitated K(I) transport

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Navrátil, Tomáš; Mareček, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 12 (2011), s. 1917-1930 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : phospholipids * membranes * zwitterions Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.283, year: 2011

  7. Targeted metabolomic profiling indicates structure-based perturbations in serum phospholipids in children with acetaminophen overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeepa Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available Phospholipids are an important class of lipids that act as building blocks of biological cell membranes and participate in a variety of vital cellular functions including cell signaling. Previous studies have reported alterations in phosphatidylcholine (PC and lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC metabolism in acetaminophen (APAP-treated animals or cell cultures. However, little is known about phospholipid perturbations in humans with APAP toxicity. In the current study, targeted metabolomic analysis of 180 different metabolites including 14 lysoPCs and 73 PCs was performed in serum samples from children and adolescents hospitalized for APAP overdose. Metabolite profiles in the overdose group were compared to those of healthy controls and hospitalized children receiving low dose APAP for treatment of pain or fever (therapeutic group. PCs and lysoPCs with very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs were significantly decreased in the overdose group, while those with comparatively shorter chain lengths were increased in the overdose group compared to the therapeutic and control groups. All ether linked PCs were decreased in the overdose group compared to the controls. LysoPC-C26:1 was highly reduced in the overdose group and could discriminate between the overdose and control groups with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The PCs and lysoPCs with VLCFAs showed significant associations with changes in clinical indicators of drug metabolism (APAP protein adducts and liver injury (alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. Thus, a structure-dependent reduction in PCs and lysoPCs was observed in the APAP-overdose group, which may suggest a structure-activity relationship in inhibition of enzymes involved in phospholipid metabolism in APAP toxicity. Keywords: Metabolomics, Phospholipids, Acetaminophen, Hepatotoxicity, Drug

  8. Electrochemical Measurements on Supported Phospholipid Bilayers: Preparation, Properties and Ion Transport Using Incorporated Ionophores

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Štulík, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, 17-18 (2010), s. 2043-2050 ISSN 1040-0397. [International Conference on Modern Electroanalytical Methods. Prague, 09.12.2009-14.12.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : voltammetry * phospholipid bilayers * Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.721, year: 2010

  9. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A. [Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Pogodin, Sergey [Institute of Chemical Research of Catalonia, ICIQ, Av. Paisos Catalans 16, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2014-05-07

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  10. Interference of a short-chain phospholipid with ion transport pathways in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unmack, M A; Frederiksen, O; Willumsen, N J

    1997-01-01

    The effects of mucosal application of the short-chain phospholipid didecanoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DDPC; with two saturated 10-carbon acyl chains) on active Na+ transport and transepithelial conductance (G) in the frog skin (Rana temporaria) were investigated. Active Na+ transport...... of the frog skin epithelium and opens a paracellular tight junction pathway. Both effects may be caused by incorporation of DDPC in the apical cell membrane....

  11. Phospholipid synthesis in the squid giant axon: incorporation of lipid precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gould, R.M.; Pant, H.; Gainer, H.; Tytell, M.

    1983-05-01

    The squid giant axon and extruded axoplasm from the giant axon were used to study the capacity of axoplasm for phospholipid synthesis. Extruded axoplasm, suspended in chemically defined media, catalyzed the synthesis of phospholipids from all of the precursors tested. /sup 32/P-Labeled inorganic phosphate and gamma-labeled ATP were actively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol phosphate, while (2-/sup 3/H)myo-inositol and L-(/sup 3/H(G))serine were actively incorporated into phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine, respectively. Though less well utilized. (2-/sup 3/H)glycerol was incorporated into phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol, and triglyceride, and methyl-3H)choline and (1-/sup 3/H)ethanolamine were incorporated into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. Isolated squid giant axons were incubated in artificial seawater containing the above precursors. The axoplasm was extruded following the incubations. Although most of the product lipids were recovered in the sheath (composed of cortical axoplasm, axolemma, and surrounding satellite cells), significant amounts (4-20%) were present in the extruded axoplasm. With tritiated choline and myo-inositol, the major labeled phospholipids found in both the extruded axoplasm and the sheath were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol, respectively. With both glycerol and phosphate, phosphatidylethanolamine was a major labeled lipid in both axoplasm and sheath. These findings demonstrate that all classes of phospholipids are formed by endogenous synthetic enzymes in axoplasm. In addition, we feel that the different patterns of incorporation by intact axons and extruded axoplasm indicate that surrounding sheath cells contribute lipids to axoplasm. A comprehensive picture of axonal lipid metabolism should include axoplasmic synthesis and glial-axon transfer as pathways complementing the axonal transport of perikaryally formed lipids.

  12. Phospholipids composition and molecular species of large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea ) roe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Peng; Li, Ruifen; Sun, He

    2018-01-01

    The research aims to study phospholipids (PL) classes and molecular species of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) roe. Both gas chromatographymass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were utilized to anal......-Q-TOF-MS). A total of 92 PLs molecular species was identified, including 49 PCs, 13 PEs, 10 phosphatidic acids (PAs), 13 phosphatidylserines (PSs), 3 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs), 2 sphingomyelins (SMs), and 2 PIs of the P. crocea roe....

  13. Using neurolipidomics to identify phospholipid mediators of synaptic (dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffany A L Bennett

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Not all of the mysteries of life lie in our genetic code. Some can be found buried in our membranes. These shells of fat, sculpted in the central nervous system into the cellular (and subcellular boundaries of neurons and glia, are themselves complex systems of information. The diversity of neural phospholipids, coupled with their chameleon-like capacity to transmute into bioactive molecules, provides a vast repertoire of immediate response second messengers. The effects of compositional changes on synaptic function have only begun to be appreciated. Here, we mined 29 different neurolipidomic datasets for changes in neuronal membrane phospholipid metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease. Three overarching metabolic disturbances were detected. We found that an increase in the hydrolysis of platelet activating factor precursors and ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens, coupled with a failure to regenerate relatively rare alkyl-acyl and alkenyl-acyl structural phospholipids, correlated with disease severity. Accumulation of specific bioactive metabolites (i.e., PC(O-16:0/2:0 and PE(P-16:0/0:0 was associated with aggravating tau pathology, enhancing vesicular release, and signaling neuronal loss. Finally, depletion of PI(16:0/20:4, PI(16:0/22:6, and PI(18:0/22:6 was implicated in accelerating Aβ42 biogenesis. Our analysis further suggested that converging disruptions in platelet activating factor, plasmalogen, phosphoinositol and phosphoethanolamine, and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism may contribute mechanistically to catastrophic vesicular depletion, impaired receptor trafficking, and morphological dendritic deformation. Together, this analysis supports an emerging hypothesis that aberrant phospholipid metabolism may be one of multiple critical determinants required for Alzheimer disease conversion.

  14. Phospholipid complex enriched micelles: A novel drug delivery approach for promoting the antidiabetic effect of repaglinide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Basha, Mona; Salama, Abeer

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the oral antidiabetic effect of repaglinide (RG), a newly emerging approach, based on the combination of phospholipid complexation and micelle techniques, was employed. Repaglinide-phospholipid complex (RG-PLC) was prepared by the solvent-evaporation method then characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD). The results revealed obvious disappearance of the characteristic peaks of the prepared RG-PLCs confirming the formation of drug-phospholipid complex. RG-PLC enriched micelles (RG-PLC-Ms) were prepared by the solvent-evaporation technique employing poloxamer 188 as surfactant. The prepared RG-PLC-Ms showed high drug encapsulation efficiencies (93.81-99.38%), with nanometric particle diameters (500.61-665.32nm) of monodisperse distribution and high stability (Zeta potential < -29.8mV). The in vitro release of RG from RG-PLC-Ms was pH-dependant according to the release media. A higher release pattern was reported in pH=1.2 compared to a more retarded release in pH=6.8 owing to two different kinetics of drug release. Oral antidiabetic effect of two optimized RG-PLC-M formulations was evaluated in an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model for 7-day treatment protocol. The two investigated formulations depicted normal blood glucose, serum malondialdehyde and insulin levels as well as an improved lipid profile, at the end of daily oral treatment, in contrast to RG marketed tablets implying enhanced antidiabetic effect of the drug. Hence, phospholipid-complex enriched micelles approach holds a promising potential for promoting the antidiabetic effect of RG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Supported Phospholipid Membranes Formation at a Gel Electrode and Transport of Divalent Cations across them

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Mareček, Vladimír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2011), s. 6032-6046 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806; GA ČR GAP206/11/1638 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : gel * agar * phospholipids Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2011 http://www.electrochemsci.org/list11.htm

  16. Structure refinement and membrane positioning of selectively labeled OmpX in phospholipid nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagn, Franz, E-mail: franz.hagn@tum.de; Wagner, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard-wagner@hms.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology (United States)

    2015-04-15

    NMR structural studies on membrane proteins are often complicated by their large size, taking into account the contribution of the membrane mimetic. Therefore, classical resonance assignment approaches often fail. The large size of phospholipid nanodiscs, a detergent-free phospholipid bilayer mimetic, prevented their use in high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy so far. We recently introduced smaller nanodiscs that are suitable for NMR structure determination. However, side-chain assignments of a membrane protein in nanodiscs still remain elusive. Here, we utilized a NOE-based approach to assign (stereo-) specifically labeled Ile, Leu, Val and Ala methyl labeled and uniformly {sup 15}N-Phe and {sup 15}N-Tyr labeled OmpX and calculated a refined high-resolution structure. In addition, we were able to obtain residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of OmpX in nanodiscs using Pf1 phage medium for the induction of weak alignment. Back-calculated NOESY spectra of the obtained NMR structures were compared to experimental NOESYs in order to validate the quality of these structures. We further used NOE information between protonated lipid head groups and side-chain methyls to determine the position of OmpX in the phospholipid bilayer. These data were verified by paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) experiments obtained with Gd{sup 3+}-modified lipids. Taken together, this study emphasizes the need for the (stereo-) specific labeling of membrane proteins in a highly deuterated background for high-resolution structure determination, particularly in large membrane mimicking systems like phospholipid nanodiscs. Structure validation by NOESY back-calculation will be helpful for the structure determination and validation of membrane proteins where NOE assignment is often difficult. The use of protein to lipid NOEs will be beneficial for the positioning of a membrane protein in the lipid bilayer without the need for preparing multiple protein samples.

  17. Modulation of solubility and dissolution of furosemide by preparation of phospholipid complex

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Semalty; Prateeksha Badoni; Devendra Singh; Ajay Semalty

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the solubility and dissolution of furosemide (a potent high ceiling diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and a Class IV drug that is low solubility and low permeability drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System) by preparing its phospholipid complexes or pharmacosomes. Materials and Methods: Furosemide was complexed with phosphatidylcholine in four different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4) by conventional solvent-evaporati...

  18. The medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in mild Alzheimer's disease: results from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rijpma, A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lansbergen, M.M.; Meulenbroek, O.V.; Cetinyurek-Yavuz, A.; Sijben, J.W.; Heerschap, A.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Synaptic dysfunction contributes to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer?s disease and may be countered by increased intake of nutrients that target brain phospholipid metabolism. In this study, we explored whether the medical food Souvenaid affects brain phospholipid metabolism in patients with Alzheimer?s disease. Methods Thirty-four drug-naive patients with mild Alzheimer?s disease (Mini Mental State Examination score ?20) were enrolled in this exploratory, double-blind, randomized...

  19. Kaempferol-Phospholipid Complex: Formulation, and Evaluation of Improved Solubility, In Vivo Bioavailability, and Antioxidant Potential of Kaempferol

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan R. Telange; Arun T. Patil; Anil M. Pethe; Amol A. Tatode; Sridhar Anand; Vivek S. Dave

    2016-01-01

    The current work describes the formulation and evaluation of a phospholipid complex of kaempferol to enhance the latter’s aqueous solubility, in vitro dissolution rate, in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities, and oral bioavailability. The kaempferol-phospholipid complex was synthesized using a freeze-drying method with the formulation being optimized using a full factorial design (32) approach. Our results include the validation of the mathematical model in order to ascertain the...

  20. Activities of Native and Tyrosine-69 Mutant Phospholipases A2 on Phospholipid Analogues. A Reevaluation of the Minimal Substrate Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Oscar P.; Dekker, Nicolaas; Verheij, Hubertus M.; Haas, Gerard H. de

    1990-01-01

    The role of Tyr-69 of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 in substrate binding was studied with the help of proteins modified by site-directed mutagenesis and phospholipid analogues with a changed head-group geometry. Two mutants were used containing Phe and Lys, respectively, at position 69. Modifications in the phospholipids included introduction of a sulfur at the phosphorus (thionophospholipids), removal of the negative charge at phosphorus (phosphatidic acid dimethyl ester), and reductio...

  1. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  2. Cells determine cell density using a small protein bound to a unique tissue-specific phospholipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Petzold

    2013-10-01

    bone cofactor was identified as a lipid containing a ceramide phosphate, a single chained glycerol lipid and a linker. Tendon uses a different cofactor made up of two fatty acid chains linked directly to the phosphate yielding a molecule about half the size. Moreover, adding the tendon factor/cofactor to osteosarcoma cells causes them to stop growing, which is opposite to its role with tendon cells. Thus, the cofactor is cell type specific both in composition and in the triggered response. Further support of its proposed role came from frozen sections from 5 week old mice where an antibody to the factor stained strongly at the growing ends of the tendon as predicted. In conclusion, the molecule needed for cell density signaling is a small protein bound to a unique, tissue-specific phospholipid yielding a membrane associated but diffusible molecule. Signal transduction is postulated to occur by an increased ordering of the plasma membrane as the concentration of this protein/lipid increases with cell density.

  3. Loss of muscarinic receptors and of stimulated phospholipid labeling in ibotenate-treated hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Frey, K.A.; Agranoff, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The stimulation of phospholipid labeling by muscarinic agonists has been examined in nerve ending preparations from lesioned hippocampus in order to investigate the synaptic locus of the effect. Unilateral injections of the neurotoxin, ibotenic acid, into the hippocampus resulted in an extensive loss of nerve cells from both the dentate gyrus and hippocampus on the lesioned side and a parallel loss of muscarinic receptors as revealed by [ 3 H]quinuclidinyl benzilate autoradiography. Homogenates and nerve ending fractions prepared from the lesioned side of the hippocampus possessed a reduced specific activity (expressed per milligram of protein) of glutamic acid decarboxylase as well as a reduced number of muscarinic receptors compared with the control side. By contrast, choline acetyltransferase activity was either unchanged or slightly increased on the lesioned side. Although there was a reduced yield (25%) of nerve endings from the lesioned side, the specific activity of 32 Pi incorporation into phospholipids in the absence of added carbachol was comparable to that of the control side. There was, however, a marked reduction in the carbachol stimulation of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol labeling in nerve ending fractions obtained from he lesioned hippocampus. These results indicate that the muscarinic receptors present in nerve ending fractions from hippocampus and implicated in stimulated phospholipid turnover are derived from cholinoceptive intrinsic neurons

  4. Enhanced Dissolution and Oral Bioavailability of Piroxicam Formulations: Modulating Effect of Phospholipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad D. Hussain

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Several biologically relevant phospholipids were assessed as potential carriers/additives for rapidly dissolving solid formulations of piroxicam (Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class II drug. On the basis of in vitro dissolution studies, dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG was ranked as the first potent dissolution rate enhancer for the model drug. Subsequently, the solid dispersions of varying piroxicam/DMPG ratios were prepared and further investigated. Within the concentration range studied (6.4-16.7 wt %, the dissolution rate of piroxicam from the solid dispersions appeared to increase as a function of the carrier weight fraction, whereas the cumulative drug concentration was not significantly affected by piroxicam/DMPG ratio, presumably due to a unique phase behavior of the aqueous dispersions of this carrier phospholipid. Solid state analysis of DMPG-based formulations reveled that they are two-component systems, with a less thermodynamically stable form of piroxicam (Form II being dispersed within the carrier. Finally, oral bioavailability of piroxicam from the DMPG-based formulations in rats was found to be superior to that of the control, as indicated by the bioavailability parameters, cmax and especially Tmax (53 µg/mL within 2 h vs. 39 µg/mL within 5.5 h, respectively. Hence, DMPG was regarded as the most promising carrier phospholipid for enhancing oral bioavailability of piroxicam and potentially other Class II drugs.

  5. Chlorinated Phospholipids and Fatty Acids: (Pathophysiological Relevance, Potential Toxicity, and Analysis of Lipid Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Schröter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated phospholipids are formed by the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl, generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase under inflammatory conditions, and the unsaturated fatty acyl residues or the head group. In the first case the generated chlorohydrins are both proinflammatory and cytotoxic, thus having a significant impact on the structures of biomembranes. The latter case leads to chloramines, the properties of which are by far less well understood. Since HOCl is also widely used as a disinfecting and antibacterial agent in medicinal, industrial, and domestic applications, it may represent an additional source of danger in the case of abuse or mishandling. This review discusses the reaction behavior of in vivo generated HOCl and biomolecules like DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates but will focus on phospholipids. Not only the beneficial and pathological (toxic effects of chlorinated lipids but also the importance of these chlorinated species is discussed. Some selected cleavage products of (chlorinated phospholipids and plasmalogens such as lysophospholipids, (chlorinated free fatty acids and α-chloro fatty aldehydes, which are all well known to massively contribute to inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress, will be also discussed. Finally, common analytical methods to study these compounds will be reviewed with focus on mass spectrometric techniques.

  6. Curcumin liposomes prepared with milk fat globule membrane phospholipids and soybean lecithin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Lu, Qun; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-03-01

    Using thin film ultrasonic dispersion method, the curcumin liposomes were prepared with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) phospholipids and soybean lecithins, respectively, to compare the characteristics and stability of the 2 curcumin liposomes. The processing parameters of curcumin liposomes were investigated to evaluate their effects on the encapsulation efficiency. Curcumin liposomes were characterized in terms of size distribution, ζ-potential, and in vitro release behavior, and then their storage stability under various conditions was evaluated. The curcumin liposomes prepared with MFGM phospholipids had an encapsulation efficiency of about 74%, an average particle size of 212.3 nm, and a ζ-potential of -48.60 mV. The MFGM liposomes showed higher encapsulation efficiency, smaller particle size, higher absolute value of ζ-potential, and slower in vitro release than soybean liposomes. The retention rate of liposomal curcumin was significantly higher than that of free curcumin. The stability of the 2 liposomes under different pH was almost the same, but MFGM liposomes displayed a slightly higher stability than soybean liposomes under the conditions of Fe(3+), light, temperature, oxygen, and relative humidity. In conclusion, MFGM phospholipids have potential advantages in the manufacture of curcumin liposomes used in food systems. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Raman Investigation of Temperature Profiles of Phospholipid Dispersions in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2015-06-01

    The temperature dependence of self-assembled, cell-like dispersions of phospholipids is investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the biochemistry laboratory. Vibrational modes in the hydrocarbon interiors of phospholipid bilayers are strongly Raman active, whereas the vibrations of the polar head groups and the water matrix have little Raman activity. From Raman spectra increases in fluidity of the hydrocarbon chains can be monitored with intensity changes as a function of temperature in the CH-stretching region. The experiment uses detection of scattered 1064-nm laser light (Nicolet NXR module) by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Nicolet 6700). A thermoelectric heater-cooler device (Melcor) gives convenient temperature control from 5 to 95°C for samples in melting point capillaries. Use of deuterium oxide instead of water as the matrix avoids some absorption of the exciting laser light and interference with intensity observations in the CH-stretching region. Phospholipids studied range from dimyristoylphosphotidyl choline (C14, transition T = 24°C) to dibehenoylphosphotidyl choline (C22, transition T = 74°C).

  8. Liposome fusion and lipid exchange on ultraviolet irradiation of liposomes containing a photochromic phospholipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.G.; Sandhu, S.S.; Mitchell, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    A photochromic phospholipid, 1,2-bis[4-n-butylphenylazo)phenylbutyroyl]phosphatidylcholine (Bis-Azo PC) has been incorporated inot liposomes of gel- and liquid-crystalline-phase phospholipids. Liposomes of gel-phase phospholipid are stable in the presence of the trans photostationary state Bis-Az0 PC and can encapsulate fluorescent marker dye. On photoisomerization to the cis photostationary state, trapped marker is rapidly released. Liposomes containing Bis-Azo PC can rapidly fuse together after UV isomerization, this process continuing in the dark. Exposure to white light causes reversion of Bis-Azo PC to the trans form and halts dye leakage and vesicle fusion. Both unilamellar and multilamellar liposomes are able to fuse together on UV exposure. On UV photolysis, liposomes containing Bis-Azo PC do not fuse with a large excess of unlabeled liposomes, but transfer of Bis-Azo PC can be demonstrated spectrophotometrically. Vesicles of pure gel-phase lipid containing trapped marker dye but initially no Bis-Azo PC become leaky as a result of this lipid transfer. Liposomes composed of liquid-crystalline-phase phosphatidylcholine-containing Bis-Azo PC neither leak trapped marker nor fuse together on photolysis, nor do liquid-crystalline-phase liposomes, fuse with gel-phase liposomes under these conditions. (Author)

  9. Role of anti-thrombotic therapy for recurrent pregnancy loss due to anti-phospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawad, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recurrent pregnancy loss is a major health problem effecting 1 to 2% of women of reproductive age. Its causes range from chromosomal abnormalities to endocrinological factors and thrombophilia related factors. Treating thrombophilia s especially anti phospholipid syndrome with low dose aspirin and low molecular weight heparin improves foetal outcome. This study will add local data to already existing knowledge. Method: Sixty selected patients from gynaecology OPD of Aero Hospital with clinical and/or serological findings of anti phospholipid syndrome from February 2009 to January 2011 were given aspirin 75 mg once daily and enoxaparine 40 mg subcutaneously once daily from 6 - 8 weeks to 35 and 37 weeks respectively. Results : Ninety-three percent of patients achieved live birth. Out of these 75% patients delivered at term and 18% had preterm delivered. Four (7%) had early pregnancy loss and only one had early neonatal death due to extreme prematurity. None of patients experienced any major hemorrhagic complications . Conclusion: Use of low dose aspirin and low molecular weight heparin is safe in pregnancy and improve foetal outcome in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss due to anti phospholipids syndrome. (author)

  10. Phospholipid sources for adrenic acid mobilization in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Comparison with arachidonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijas, Carlos; Astudillo, Alma M; Gil-de-Gómez, Luis; Rubio, Julio M; Balboa, María A; Balsinde, Jesús

    2012-11-01

    Cells metabolize arachidonic acid (AA) to adrenic acid (AdA) via 2-carbon elongation reactions. Like AA, AdA can be converted into multiple oxygenated metabolites, with important roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, in contrast to AA, there is virtually no information on how the cells regulate the availability of free AdA for conversion into bioactive products. We have used a comparative lipidomic approach with both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize changes in the levels of AA- and AdA-containing phospholipid species in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Incubation of the cells with AA results in an extensive conversion to AdA but both fatty acids do not compete with each other for esterification into phospholipids. AdA but not AA, shows preference for incorporation into phospholipids containing stearic acid at the sn-1 position. After stimulation of the cells with zymosan, both AA and AdA are released in large quantities, albeit AA is released to a greater extent. Finally, a variety of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol molecular species contribute to AA; however, AdA is liberated exclusively from phosphatidylcholine species. Collectively, these results identify significant differences in the cellular utilization of AA and AdA by the macrophages, suggesting non-redundant biological actions for these two fatty acids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of solubility and dissolution of furosemide by preparation of phospholipid complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Semalty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to improve the solubility and dissolution of furosemide (a potent high ceiling diuretic used for the treatment of hypertension and a Class IV drug that is low solubility and low permeability drug as per the Biopharmaceutical Classification System by preparing its phospholipid complexes or pharmacosomes. Materials and Methods: Furosemide was complexed with phosphatidylcholine in four different molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 by conventional solvent-evaporation technique. The pharmacosomes prepared were evaluated for drug content, solubility, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and in-vitro dissolution study. Results: Pharmacosomes of furosemide showed high drug content ranging from 88.30% to 100%. XRPD studies confirmed the formation of phospholipid complex and the amorphization of drug in the complex. The water solubility was found to be increased up to six-fold in the complexes. The octanol solubility also increased in the complexes indicating the probable increase in permeability. The in-vitro dissolution profile of the prepared complexes was found to be much better than furosemide. Conclusion: It was concluded that the phospholipid complexes can be effectively used for improving the solubility, dissolution, permeability and hence the bioavailability of furosemide like Class IV drugs.

  12. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  13. The Effect of Phospholipids (Surfactant on Adhesion and Biomechanical Properties of Tendon: A Rat Achilles Tendon Repair Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kursat Dabak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion of the tendon is a major challenge for the orthopedic surgeon during tendon repair. Manipulation of biological environment is one of the concepts to prevent adhesion. Lots of biochemicals have been studied for this purpose. We aimed to determine the effect of phospholipids on adhesion and biomechanical properties of tendon in an animal tendon repair model. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Achilles tendons of rats were cut and repaired. Phospholipids were applied at two different dosages. Tendon adhesion was determined histopathologically and biomechanical test was performed. At macroscopic evaluation of adhesion, there are statistically significant differences between multiple-dose phospholipid injection group and Control group and also hyaluronic acid group and Control group (p0.008. Ultimate strength was highest at hyaluronic acid injection group and lowest at multiple-dose phospholipid injection group. Single-dose phospholipids (surfactant application may have a beneficial effect on the tendon adhesion. Although multiple applications of phospholipids seem the most effective regime to reduce the tendon adhesion among groups, it deteriorated the biomechanical properties of tendon.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative changes in phospholipids and proteins investigated by spectroscopic techniques in olfactory bulbectomy animal depression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depciuch, J; Parlinska-Wojtan, M

    2018-01-30

    Depression becomes nowadays a high mortality civilization disease with one of the potential causes being impaired smell. In this study Raman, Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies were used to determine the changes in the quantity and structure of phospholipids and proteins in the blood serum of bulbectomized rats (OB_NaCl), which is a common animal depression model. The efficiency of amitriptyline (AMI) treatment was also evaluated. The obtained results show a significant decrease in the phospholipid and protein fractions (as well as changes in their secondary structures) in blood serum of bulbectomized rats. AMI treatment in bulbectomized rats increased protein level and did not affect the level of phospholipids. Structural information from phospholipids and proteins was obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy combined with the second derivative of the FTIR spectra. Indeed, the structure of proteins in blood serum of bulbectomized rats was normalized after amitriptyline therapy, while the damaged structure of phospholipids remained unaffected. These findings strongly suggest that impaired smell could be one of the causes of depression and may induce permanent (irreversible) damages into the phospholipid structure identified as shortened carbon chains. This study shows a possible new application of spectroscopic techniques in the diagnosis and therapy monitoring of depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Phospholipid mediated activation of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CaCDPK1 from chickpea: a new paradigm of regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Dixit

    Full Text Available Phospholipids, the major structural components of membranes, can also have functions in regulating signaling pathways in plants under biotic and abiotic stress. The effects of adding phospholipids on the activity of stress-induced calcium dependent protein kinase (CaCDPK1 from chickpea are reported here. Both autophosphorylation as well as phosphorylation of the added substrate were enhanced specifically by phosphatidylcholine and to a lesser extent by phosphatidic acid, but not by phosphatidylethanolamine. Diacylgylerol, the neutral lipid known to activate mammalian PKC, stimulated CaCDPK1 but at higher concentrations. Increase in V(max of the enzyme activity by these phospholipids significantly decreased the K(m indicating that phospholipids enhance the affinity towards its substrate. In the absence of calcium, addition of phospholipids had no effect on the negligible activity of the enzyme. Intrinsic fluorescence intensity of the CaCDPK1 protein was quenched on adding PA and PC. Higher binding affinity was found with PC (K(½ = 114 nM compared to PA (K(½ = 335 nM. We also found that the concentration of PA increased in chickpea plants under salt stress. The stimulation by PA and PC suggests regulation of CaCDPK1 by these phospholipids during stress response.

  16. Anomalous Behavior of Hyaluronan Crosslinking Due to the Presence of Excess Phospholipids in the Articular Cartilage System of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bełdowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lubrication of articular cartilage is a complex multiscale phenomenon in synovial joint organ systems. In these systems, synovial fluid properties result from synergistic interactions between a variety of molecular constituent. Two molecular classes in particular are of importance in understanding lubrication mechanisms: hyaluronic acid and phospholipids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate interactions between hyaluronic acid and phospholipids at various functionality levels during normal and pathological synovial fluid conditions. Molecular dynamic simulations of hyaluronic acid and phospholipids complexes were performed with the concentration of hyaluronic acid set at a constant value for two organizational forms, extended (normal and coiled (pathologic. The results demonstrated that phospholipids affect the crosslinking mechanisms of hyaluronic acid significantly and the influence is higher during pathological conditions. During normal conditions, hyaluronic acid and phospholipid interactions seem to have no competing mechanism to that of the interaction between hyaluronic acid to hyaluronic acid. On the other hand, the structures formed under pathologic conditions were highly affected by phospholipid concentration.

  17. n-3 PUFA added to high-fat diets affect differently adiposity and inflammation when carried by phospholipids or triacylglycerols in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awada Manar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is primarily recognized to protect against cardiovascular diseases, cognitive dysfunctions and the onset of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. However, some of their properties such as bioavailability can depend on their chemical carriers. The objective of our study was to test the hypothesis that the nature of n-3 PUFA carrier results in different metabolic effects related to adiposity, oxidative stress and inflammation. Methods 4 groups of C57BL/6 mice were fed for 8 weeks low fat (LF diet or high-fat (HF, 20% diets. Two groups of high-fat diets were supplemented with long-chain n-3 PUFA either incorporated in the form of phospholipids (HF-ω3PL or triacylglycerols (HF-ω3TG. Results Both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG diets reduced the plasma concentrations of (i inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6, (ii leptin and (iii 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE, a marker of n-6 PUFA-derived oxidative stress compared with the control HF diet. Moreover, in both HF-ω3PL and HF-ω3TG groups, MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expressions were decreased in epididymal adipose tissue and the mRNA level of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase GPx2, an antioxidant enzyme, was decreased in the jejunum compared with the control HF diet. The type of n-3 PUFA carrier affected other outcomes. The phospholipid form of n-3 PUFA increased the level of tocopherols in epididymal adipose tissue compared with HF-ω3TG and resulted in smaller adipocytes than the two others HF groups. Adipocytes in the HF-ω3PL and LF groups were similar in size distribution. Conclusion Supplementation of mice diet with long-chain n-3 PUFA during long-term consumption of high-fat diets had the same lowering effects on inflammation regardless of triacyglycerol or phospholipid carrier, whereas the location of these fatty acids on a PL carrier had a major effect on decreasing

  18. Effects of phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) leaves on experimental atherosclerosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kexia; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Meiyu; Gu, Liqiang; Liu, Ziying; Jia, Jingming; Chen, Xiaohui

    2016-09-15

    The total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF), extracted from the leaves of Diospyros kaki L. Dispryosl and Ebenaceae, is reported to possess many beneficial health effects. However, the oral bioavailability of PLF is relatively low due to its poor solubility. In the present study, the phospholipid complexes of total flavonoids from Persimmon leaves (PLF-PC) was prepared to enhance the oral bioavailability of PLF and to evaluate its antiatherosclerotic properties in atherosclerosis rats in comparison to PLF. A HPLC-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of quercetin and kaempferol in rats plasma to assess the oral bioavailability of PLF-PC. The effect of PLF (50mg/kg/d) and PLF-PC (equivalent to PLF 50mg/kg/d) on atherosclerosis rats induced by excessive administration of vitamin D (600,000IU/kg) and cholesterol (0.5g/kg/d) was assessed after orally administered for 4 weeks. The relative bioavailabilities of quercetin and kaempferol in PLF-PC relative to PLF were 242% and 337%, respectively. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in serum were measured by an automatic biochemistry analyzer. The morphological changes of aorta were observed with optical microscopy. According to the levels of biochemical parameters in serum and the morphological changes of aorta, PLF-PC showed better therapeutic efficacy compared to PLF. Thus, PLF-PC holds a promising potential for increasing the oral bioavailability of PLF. Moreover, PLF-PC exerts better therapeutic potential in the treatment of atherosclerotic disease than PLF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelle precursor pellets prepared by fluid-bed coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuxia Dong,1,2 Yunchang Xie,1 Jianping Qi,1 Fuqiang Hu,3 Yi Lu,1 Sanming Li,2 Wei Wu1 1School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery of Ministry of Education and PLA, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Pharmacy, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bile salt/phospholipid mixed micelles (MMs are potent carriers used for oral absorption of drugs that are poorly soluble in water; however, there are many limitations associated with liquid formulations. In the current study, the feasibility of preparing bile salt/phospholipid MM precursor (preMM pellets with high oral bioavailability, using fluid-bed coating technology, was examined. In this study, fenofibrate (FB and sodium deoxycholate (SDC were used as the model drug and the bile salt, respectively. To prepare the MMs and to serve as the micellular carrier, a weight ratio of 4:6 was selected for the sodium deoxycholate/phospholipids based on the ternary phase diagram. Polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 was selected as the dispersion matrix for precipitation of the MMs onto pellets, since it can enhance the solubilizing ability of the MMs. Coating of the MMs onto the pellets using the fluid-bed coating technology was efficient and the pellets were spherical and intact. MMs could be easily reconstituted from preMM pellets in water. Although they existed in a crystalline state in the preMM pellets, FB could be encapsulated into the reconstituted MMs, and the MMs were redispersed better than solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3 and Lipanthyl®. The redispersibility of the preMM pellets increased with the increase of the FB/PEG/micellar carrier. PreMM pellets with a FB:PEG:micellar carrier ratio of 1:1.5:1.5 showed 284% and 145% bioavailability relative to Lipanthyl® and solid dispersion pellets (FB:PEG = 1:3, respectively. Fluid

  20. Radioprotection of whole-body gamma irradiation induced alterations in lipid metabolism of liver and plasma by AET (S-2, aminoethyl isothiuronium Br. H. Br.) and serotonin in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanathan, R.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of AET, serotonin and their mixture has been studied on liver and plasma lipid metabolism 24 hrs and 48 hrs after irradiation in fasted male rats. AET and serotonin both gave significant radioprotection to certain liver and plasma lipid components, but the mixture of the two afforded a better protection. The non-radioprotection of plasma NEFA, phospholipids and phosphatidyl choline levels by serotonin observed in irradiated rats was because serotonin itself raised the levels of these lipids in control rats. Serotonin alone or in mixture effectively protected the radiation-induced increased incorporation of NaH 2 32 PO 4 into liver phospholipids. Mixture of AET and serotonin failed to protect the increased incorporation of aceae-1-14-C into liver total fatty acids and cholesterol, but it prevented this increased incorporation into liver triglycerides and phospholipids. (orig.) [de

  1. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  2. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine isolated from Cucumaria frondosa exhibits anti-hyperglycemic effects via activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Xu, Leilei; Shi, Di; Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Yuming; Lou, Qiaoming; Xue, Changhu

    2014-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched phosphatidylcholine was isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (Cucumaria-PC) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal control, model control (STZ), low- and high-dose Cucumaria-PC groups (STZ + Cucumaria-PC at 25 and 75 mg/Kg·b·wt, intragastrically, respectively). Blood glucose, insulin, glycogen in liver and gastrocnemius were determined over 60 days. Insulin signaling in the rats' gastrocnemius was determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. The results showed that Cucumaria-PC significantly decreased blood glucose level, increased insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis in diabetic rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cucumaria-PC significantly promoted the expressions of glycometabolism-related genes of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in gastrocnemius. Western blotting assay demonstrated that Cucumaria-PC remarkably enhanced the proteins abundance of IR-β, PI3K, PKB, GLUT4, as well as phosphorylation of Tyr-IR-β, p85-PI3K, Ser473-PKB (P insulin. Nutritional supplementation with Cucumaria-PC, if validated for human studies, may offer an adjunctive therapy for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.

  5. The omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, prevents the damaging effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha during murine skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA is a ώ-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with anti-inflammatory and anti-cachetic properties that may have potential benefits with regards to skeletal muscle atrophy conditions where inflammation is present. It is also reported that pathologic levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α are associated with muscle wasting, exerted through inhibition of myogenic differentiation and enhanced apoptosis. These findings led us to hypothesize that EPA may have a protective effect against skeletal muscle damage induced by the actions of TNF-α. Results The deleterious effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis were completely inhibited by co-treatment with EPA. Thus, EPA prevented the TNF-mediated loss of MyHC expression and significantly increased myogenic fusion (p p p p p p Conclusion In conclusion, EPA has a protective action against the damaging effects of TNF-α on C2C12 myogenesis. These findings support further investigations of EPA as a potential therapeutic agent during skeletal muscle regeneration following injury.

  6. Profiling of Polar Lipids in Marine Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580: Prediction of the Potential Mechanism for Eicosapentaenoic Acid-Incorporation into Triacylglycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine oleaginous diatom Fistulifera solaris JPCC DA0580 is a candidate for biodiesel production because of its high lipid productivity. However, the substantial eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA content in this strain would affect the biodiesel quality. On the other hand, EPA is also known as the essential health supplement for humans. EPAs are mainly incorporated into glycerolipids in the microalgal cell instead of the presence as free fatty acids. Therefore, the understanding of the EPA biosynthesis including the incorporation of the EPA into glycerolipids especially triacylglycerol (TAG is fundamental for regulating EPA content for different purposes. In this study, in order to identify the biosynthesis pathway for the EPA-containing TAG species, a lipidomic characterization of the EPA-enriched polar lipids was performed by using direct infusion electrospray ionization (ESI-Q-TRAP-MS and MS/MS analyses. The determination of the fatty acid positional distribution showed that the sn-2 position of all the chloroplast lipids and part of phosphatidylcholine (PC species was occupied by C16 fatty acids. This result suggested the critical role of the chloroplast on the lipid synthesis in F. solaris. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of C18 fatty acids in PC highly indicated the biosynthesis of EPA on PC. Finally, the PC-based acyl-editing and head group exchange processes were proposed to be essential for the incorporation of EPA into TAG and chloroplast lipids.

  7. beta-oxidation modulates metabolic competition between eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid regulating prostaglandin E(2) synthesis in rat hepatocytes-Kupffer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Tao; Winterthun, Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for PGE(2) synthesis in a rat hepatocyte-Kupffer cell (HPC/KC) co-culture system when the cellular oxidation capacity was enhanced by exogenous l-carnitine. We demonstrate that in the absence of l-carnitine, 1) beta-oxidation rates of EPA and AA were comparable in HPCs and in KCs; 2) AA...... and not EPA was preferentially incorporated into glycerolipids; and 3) addition of EPA significantly decreased AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis in HPCs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in co-cultured HPCs/KCs. However, enhancing the cellular oxidation capacity by the addition of l-carnitine 1...... inhibition of AA-dependent PGE(2) synthesis and COX-2 expression by EPA. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that l-carnitine affects competition between AA and EPA in PG synthesis in liver cells by enhancing oxidation of EPA in HPCs. This implies that the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA, especially...

  8. A Study of the Differential Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) on Gene Expression Profiles of Stimulated Thp-1 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Barbier, Olivier; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2017-04-25

    Background: An appropriate intake of omega-3 ( n -3) fatty acids (FAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) from marine sources is known to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, molecular mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects on health are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to characterize gene expression profiles of THP-1 macrophages, incubated in either EPA or DHA and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a pro-inflammatory agent. Methods: THP-1 macrophages were incubated into 10, 50 and 75 µM of EPA or DHA for 24 h, and 100 nM of LPS was added to the culture media for 18 h. Total mRNA was extracted and gene expression examined by microarray analysis using Illumina Human HT-12 expression beadchips (Illumina). Results: Pathway analysis revealed that EPA and DHA regulate genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, immune response and inflammation, oxidative stress and cancer pathways in a differential and dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: EPA and DHA appear to exert differential effects on gene expression in THP-1 macrophages. Specific effects of n -3 FAs on gene expression levels are also dose-dependent.

  9. A quantitative study of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production by Nannochloropsis gaditana for aquaculture as a function of dilution rate, temperature and average irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Rodríguez, J; González-Céspedes, A M; Cerón-García, M C; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Acién-Fernández, F G; Molina-Grima, E

    2014-03-01

    Different pilot-scale outdoor photobioreactors using medium recycling were operated in a greenhouse under different environmental conditions and the growth rates (0.1 to 0.5 day(-1)) obtained evaluated in order to compare them with traditional systems used in aquaculture. The annualized volumetric growth rate for Nannochloropsis gaditana was 0.26 g l(-1) day(-1) (peak 0.4 g l(-1) day(-1)) at 0.4 day(-1) in a 5-cm wide flat-panel bioreactor (FP-PBR). The biomass productivity achieved in this reactor was 10-fold higher than in traditional reactors, reaching values of 28 % and 45 % dry weight (d.w.) of lipids and proteins, respectively, with a 4.3 % (d.w.) content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). A model for predicting EPA productivity from N. gaditana cultures that takes into account the existence of photolimitation and photoinhibition of growth under outdoor conditions is presented. The effect of temperature and average irradiance on EPA content is also studied. The maximum EPA productivity attained is 30 mg l(-1) day(-1).

  10. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease: Acting separately or synergistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cai; Shieh, Chu-Hsin; Wu, Yi-Shyuan; Kalueff, Allan; Gaikwad, Siddharth; Su, Kuan-Pin

    2016-04-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFAs), mainly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may improve or prevent some psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases in both experimental and clinical studies. As important membrane components, these PUFAs benefit brain health by modulating neuroimmune and apoptotic pathways, changing membrane function and/or competing with n-6 PUFAs, the precursors of inflammatory mediators. However, the exact role of each fatty acid in neuroimmune modulation and neurogenesis, the interaction between EPA and DHA, and the best EPA:DHA ratios for improving brain disorders, remain unclear. It is also unknown whether EPA, as a DHA precursor, acts directly or via DHA. Here, we discuss recent evidence of EPA and DHA effects in the treatment of major depression and Alzheimer's disease, as well as their potential synergistic action on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neurotrophic processes in the brain. We further analyze the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which EPA, DHA or their combination may benefit these diseases. We also outline the limitations of current studies and suggest new genetic models and novel approaches to overcome these limitations. Finally, we summarize future strategies for translational research in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Early Effect of High Dose of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Plasma Lipids Profile and Liver Fatty Acids Composition in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of acute gamma-irradiation on rats at supralethal doses of 20 Gy to determine the synthesis and amounts of free fatty acids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of plasma and liver after 24 and 48 h of gamma-irradiation. Male Wistar rats weighing 120+- 20 g were exposed to 20 Gy of gamma radiation (dose rate of 0.59 Gy/min). Exposure of rats to ionizing radiation resulted in significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating lipid metabolism disturbance. Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased up to 71.3 and 71.5 %, respectively, after 24 h from radiation exposure and then returned to 28 and 27 % change in-compare with control values after 48 h post-irradiation. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations increased concomitantly with irradiation, but their values are less high than cholesterol and phospholipid levels recording significant changes at 19 and 9 % comparing with control rats. Lipid peroxidation measured as MDA recorded significant elevation after 24 and 48 h post irradiation. It was shown that the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ethers and phospholipids was activated 48 h after irradiation at 20 Gy. The amount of free fatty acids of the rat liver decreased at 20 Gy exposures. This is assumed to be a result of the radioresistance to some degree in the system of free fatty acid synthesis of the rat to the gamma-irradiation in the lethal doses

  12. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  13. Novel Phospholipid-Protein Conjugates Allow Improved Detection of Antibodies in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone V Samuelsen

    Full Text Available Reliable measurement of clinically relevant autoimmune antibodies toward phospholipid-protein conjugates is highly desirable in research and clinical assays. To date, the development in this field has been limited to the use of natural heterogeneous antigens. However, this approach does not take structural features of biologically active antigens into account and leads to low reliability and poor scientific test value. Here we describe novel phospholipid-protein conjugates for specific detection of human autoimmune antibodies. Our synthetic approach includes mild oxidation of synthetic phospholipid cardiolipin, and as the last step, coupling of the product with azide-containing linker and copper-catalyzed click chemistry with β2-glycoprotein I and prothrombin. To prove utility of the product antigens, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and three cohorts of samples obtained from patients in Denmark (n = 34 and the USA (n = 27 and n = 14. Afterwards we analyzed correlation of the obtained autoantibody titers with clinical parameters for each patient. Our results prove that using novel antigens clinically relevant autoantibodies can be detected with high repeatability, sensitivity and specificity. Unlike previously used antigens the obtained autoantibody titers strongly correlate with high disease activity and in particular, with arthritis, renal involvement, anti-Smith antibodies and high lymphocyte count. Importantly, chemical composition of antigens has a strong influence on the correlation of detected autoantibodies with disease activity and manifestations. This confirms the crucial importance of antigens' composition on research and diagnostic assays, and opens up exciting perspectives for synthetic antigens in future studies of autoimmunity.

  14. Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Gauttam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifactorial metabolic diseases, for instance diabetes develop several complications like hyperlipidemia, hepatic toxicity, immunodeficiency etc., Hence, instead of mono-drug therapy the management of the disease requires the combination of herbs. Marketed herbal drugs comprise of irrational combinations, which makes their quality control more difficult. Phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility, resulting in high therapeutic dose regimen; phospholipids encapsulation can overcome this problem. Hence, present study was designed to develop a phospholipids encapsulated polyherbal anti-diabetic formulation. In the present study, polyherbal formulation comprises of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic (50% v/v extracts of Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Withania somnifera 2:2:1, respectively, named HA, optimized based on oral glucose tolerance test model in normal Wistar rats. The optimized formulation (HA entrapped in the phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (8:2 vesicle system is named HA lipids (HAL. The vesicles were characterized for shape, morphology, entrapment efficiency, polar-dispersity index and release profile in the gastric pH. The antidiabetic potential of HA, marketed polyherbal formulation (D-fit and HAL was compared in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of 21 days study. The parameters evaluated were behavioral changes, body weight, serum glucose level, lipid profile and oxidative stress. The antidiabetic potential of HA (1000 mg/kg was at par with the D-fit (1000 mg/kg. However, the potential was enhanced by phospholipids encapsulation; as HAL (500 mg/kg has shown more significant (P < 0.05 potential in comparison to HA (1000 mg/kg and at par with metformin (500 mg/kg.

  15. Bacillus subtilis alters the proportion of major membrane phospholipids in response to surfactin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttlová, Petra; Pinkas, Dominik; Bechyňková, Olga; Fišer, Radovan; Svobodová, Jaroslava; Seydlová, Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Surfactin, an anionic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, is an antimicrobial that targets the cytoplasmic membrane. Nowadays it appears increasingly apparent that the mechanism of resistance against these types of antibiotics consists of target site modification. This prompted us to investigate whether the surfactin non-producing strain B. subtilis 168 changes its membrane composition in response to a sublethal surfactin concentration. Here we show that the exposure of B. subtilis to surfactin at concentrations of 350 and 650 μg/ml (designated as SF350 and SF650, respectively) leads to a concentration-dependent growth arrest followed by regrowth with an altered growth rate. Analysis of the membrane lipid composition revealed modifications both in the polar head group and the fatty acid region. The presence of either surfactin concentration resulted in a reduction in the content of the major membrane phospholipid phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and increase in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which was accompanied by elevated levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) in SF350 cultures. The fatty acid analysis of SF350 cells showed a marked increase in non-branched high-melting fatty acids, which lowered the fluidity of the membrane interior measured as the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of DPH. The liposome leakage of carboxyfluorescein-loaded vesicles resembling the phospholipid composition of surfactin-adapted cells showed that the susceptibility to surfactin-induced leakage is strongly reduced when the PG/PE ratio decreases and/or PA is included in the target bilayer. We concluded that the modifications of the phospholipid content of B. subtilis cells might provide a self-tolerance of the membrane active surfactin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phospholipase D catalyzes phospholipid metabolism in chemotactic peptide-stimulated HL-60 granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, J.K.; Siegel, M.I.; Egan, R.W.; Billah, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    There exists circumstantial evidence for activation of phospholipase D (PLD) in intact cells. However, because of the complexity of phospholipid remodeling processes, it is essential to distinguish PLD clearly from other phospholipases and phospholipid remodeling enzymes. Therefore, to establish unequivocally PLD activity in dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 granulocytes, to demonstrate the relative contribution of PLD to phospholipid turnover, and to validate the hypothesis that the formation of phosphatidylethanol is an expression of PLD-catalyzed transphosphatidylation, we have developed methodologies to label HL-60 granulocytes in 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (alkyl-PC) with 32P without labeling cellular ATP. These methodologies involve (a) synthesis of alkyl-lysoPC containing 32P by a combination of enzymatic and chemical procedures and (b) incubation of HL-60 granulocytes with this alkyl-[32P] lysoPC which enters the cell and becomes acylated into membrane-associated alkyl-[32P]PC. Upon stimulation of these 32P-labeled cells with the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), alkyl-[32P]phosphatidic acid (alkyl-[32P]PA) is formed rapidly. Because, under these conditions, cellular ATP has not been labeled with 32P, alkyl-[32P]PA must be formed via PLD-catalyzed hydrolysis of alkyl-[32P]PC at the terminal phosphodiester bond. This result conclusively demonstrates fMLP-induced activation of PLD in HL-60 granulocytes. These 32P-labeled HL-60 granulocytes have also been stimulated in the presence of ethanol to produce alkyl-[32P]phosphatidylethanol (alkyl-[32P]PEt). Formation of alkyl-[32P]PEt parallels that of alkyl-[32P]PA with respect to time course, fMLP concentration, inhibition by a specific fMLP antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), and Ca2+ concentration

  17. Targeted Sterically Stabilized Phospholipid siRNA Nanomedicine for Hepatic and Renal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Khaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery, small interfering RNA (siRNA has been considered a potent tool for modulating gene expression. It has the ability to specifically target proteins via selective degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA not easily accessed by conventional drugs. Hence, RNA interference (RNAi therapeutics have great potential in the treatment of many diseases caused by faulty protein expression such as fibrosis and cancer. However, for clinical application siRNA faces a number of obstacles, such as poor in vivo stability, and off-target effects. Here we developed a unique targeted nanomedicine to tackle current siRNA delivery issues by formulating a biocompatible, biodegradable and relatively inexpensive nanocarrier of sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (SSLNPs. This nanocarrier is capable of incorporating siRNA in its core through self-association with a novel cationic lipid composed of naturally occuring phospholipids and amino acids. This overall assembly protects and delivers sufficient amounts of siRNA to knockdown over-expressed protein in target cells. The siRNA used in this study, targets connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, an important regulator of fibrosis in both hepatic and renal cells. Furthermore, asialoglycoprotein receptors are targeted by attaching the galactosamine ligand to the nanocarries which enhances the uptake of nanoparticles by hepatocytes and renal tubular epithelial cells, the major producers of CTGF in fibrosis. On animals this innovative nanoconstruct, small interfering RNA in sterically stabilized phospholipid nanoparticles (siRNA-SSLNP, showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and accumulated mostly in hepatic and renal tissues making siRNA-SSLNP a suitable system for targeting liver and kidney fibrotic diseases.

  18. Ancient rice cultivar extensively replaces phospholipids with non-phosphorus glycolipid under phosphorus deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawaraya, Keitaro; Honda, Soichiro; Cheng, Weiguo; Chuba, Masaru; Okazaki, Yozo; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira; Maruyama, Hayato; Wasaki, Jun; Wagatsuma, Tadao

    2018-02-07

    Recycling of phosphorus (P) from P-containing metabolites is an adaptive strategy of plants to overcome soil P deficiency. This study was aimed at demonstrating differences in lipid remodelling between low-P-tolerant and -sensitive rice cultivars using lipidome profiling. The rice cultivars Akamai (low-P-tolerant) and Koshihikari (low-P-sensitive) were grown in a culture solution with [2 mg l -1 (+P)] or without (-P) phosphate for 21 and 28 days after transplantation. Upper and lower leaves were collected. Lipids were extracted from the leaves and their composition was analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Phospholipids, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), diacylglycerol (DAG), triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycolipids, namely sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and 1,2-diacyl-3-O-alpha-glucuronosyl glycerol (GlcADG), were detected. GlcADG level was higher in both cultivars grown in -P than in +P and the increase was larger in Akamai than in Koshihikari. DGDG, MGDG and SQDG levels were higher in Akamai grown in -P than in +P and the increase was larger in the upper leaves than in the lower leaves. PC, PE, PG and PI levels were lower in both cultivars grown in -P than in +P and the decrease was larger in the lower leaves than in the upper leaves and in Akamai than in Koshihikari. Akamai catabolised more phospholipids in older leaves and synthesised glycolipids in younger leaves. These results suggested that extensive phospholipid replacement with non-phosphorus glycolipids is a mechanism underlying low-P-tolerance in rice cultivars. © 2018 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Mitogen-stimulated phospholipid synthesis in normal and immune-deficient human B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, M.M.; Yokoyama, W.M.; Ashman, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients with common variable panhypogammaglobulinemia were shown in the in vitro Ig biosynthesis assay to have defective B cell responses to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Phospholipid synthesis was assessed in the B cell plus monocyte fraction (MB) and irradiated T cells (T*) of patients and paired normal controls. Cell populations were studied separately and in the four possible combinations (1:1), with and without PWM, to reveal the effect of cell interactions. At 16 to 20 hr the mean stimulation index (SI) +/- standard error for MB cells alone was 1.01 +/- 0.02 for eight patients and 0.99 +/- 0.02 for the paired normals; the T* cell SI was 1.25 +/- 0.04 for patients and 1.28 +/- 0.05 for normals. Combinations of normal MB cells with normal T* cells showed significantly higher SI when compared with the combinations of normal MB cells with patient T* cells (p less than 0.005). However, the combination of patient MB cells with patient T* cells and the combination of patient MB cells with normal T* cells were not significantly different in SI (0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Isolation of patient and normal B cells, T* cells, and monocytes after the choline pulse showed that patient B cells gave a higher SI with normal T* help than with patient T* help. Of greatest interest is the finding that patient B cells that were defective in PWM-stimulated Ig production nevertheless showed a phospholipid synthesis response to PWM in the normal range, suggesting that the maturation defect in these B cells occurs later than the phospholipid synthesis acceleration step, or on a different pathway

  20. Interactions between the APOA5 -1131T>C and the FEN1 10154G>T polymorphisms on ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Yeon; Paik, Jean Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Chae, Jey Sook; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2010-01-01

    We determined the contribution of the combination of FEN1 10154G>T with the most significant association in the analysis of plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4ω6) and the APOA5-1131T>C on phospholipid ω6PUFA and coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients with CAD (n = 807, 27–81 years of age) and healthy controls (n = 1123) were genotyped for FEN1 10154G>T and APOA5-1131T>C. We found a significant interaction between these two genes for CAD risk (P = 0.007) adjusted for confounding factors. APOA5-1131C allele carriers had a higher CAD risk [odds ratio (OR):1.484, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.31–1.96; P = 0.005] compared with APOA5-1131TT individuals in the FEN1 10154GG genotype group but not in the FEN1 10154T allele group (OR:1.096, 95%CI:0.84–1.43; P = 0.504). Significant interactions between these two genes were also observed for the AA proportion (P = 0.04) and the ratio of AA/linoleic acid (LA, 18:2ω6) (P = 0.004) in serum phospholipids of controls. The APOA5-1131C allele was associated with lower AA (P = 0.027) and AA/LA (P = 0.014) only in controls carrying the FEN1 10154T allele. In conclusion, the interaction between these genes suggests that the FEN1 10154T variant allele decreases AA and AA/LA in the serum phospholipids of carriers of the APOA5-1131C allele, but contributes no significant increase in CAD risk for this population subset despite their increased triglylcerides and decreased apoA5. PMID:20802161