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Sample records for plasma pathology results

  1. Resident training in pathology: Results of questionnaires

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    İpek Işık GÖNÜL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss the training of pathology residents from the points of wave of themselves and their tutors and reveal the problems.For this purpose, representatives of 4 Universities, 5 State hospitals and Gülhane Military Medical Academy have prepared 2 types of questionnaires in order to the serving capacities of their institutions and the opinions of the tutors working in that departments on training of pathology residents.According to the results, the number of biopsy and cytological materials together with number of faculty is sufficient for all institutions. Both histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have been applied in all institutions. However, only one state hospital has been performing immunoflourescence technique. It is noticeable to see 2 state hospitals do not have any documents on written job description, which summarizes the authority and responsibility of the pathology residents. Another significant conclusion is that the answers of the tutors for the assistant's job description and their responsibility in the training process are very heterogeneous. Time spent for gross examination by tutors was found to be insufficient by 58% of themselves. Although “written feedbacks for residents and tutors” is only being applied in 2 Universities, the majority of the tutors who have participated in the questionnaire have agreed upon the necessity of them for all institutions (95.4% and 93.8%, respectively.

  2. Punch Biopsy Results of Nasopharynx Pathologies

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    İsa Özbay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although nasopharynx (NF has an anatomi­cally distant sites to view, biopsy can be taken easily from NF by the help of an endoscope in order to reach a defini­tive diagnosis. In this study, NF pathology results in the patient group were analyzed retrospectively. Methods: NF biopsy results of 80 patients who were ad­mitted to Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT clinic of Dumlupınar University Evliya Celebi Education and Research Hospital between September 2012-February 2016 were included in the study, retrospectively. NF has been viewed to rule out NF cancer under general or local anesthesia by rigid or flexible endoscopes and punch biopsies were taken. Results: NF patients who underwent biopsy were com­posed of 25 (31.2% females and 55 (68.8% males and the average age was 35.33. Histopathological results in 3 patients (3.7% were malignant. The pathology (96.3% were identified as chronic lymphoid hyperplasia and lym­phoid processes in the remaining 77 patients. 4 patients underwent repeat biopsy follow-on clinical suspicion of malignancy, but ultimately malignancy was not observed. Conclusion: NF biopsy is a method which is easily ap­plied in the examination of the cancer and other masses of NF. In this study, age, sex, clinical and histopathologic analysis of the patients who underwent NF biopsies were discussed in the light of the literature. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (1: 83-86

  3. Association between the miRNA Signatures in Plasma and Bronchoalveolar Fluid in Respiratory Pathologies

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    Sonia Molina-Pinelo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of new less invasive biomarkers is necessary to improve the detection and prognostic outcome of respiratory pathological processes. The measurement of miRNA expression through less invasive techniques such as plasma and serum have been suggested to analysis of several lung malignancies including lung cancer. These studies are assuming a common deregulated miRNA expression both in blood and lung tissue. The present study aimed to obtain miRNA representative signatures both in plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction that could serve as biomarker in respiratory diseases. Ten patients were evaluated to assess the expression levels of 381 miRNAs. We found that around 50% miRNAs were no detected in both plasma and bronchoalveolar cell fraction and only 20% of miRNAs showed similar expression in both samples. These results show a lack of association of miRNA signatures between plasma and bronchoalveolar cytology in the same patient. The profiles are not comparable; however, there is a similarity in the relative expression in a very small subset of miRNAs (miR-17, miR-19b, miR-195 and miR-20b between both biological samples in all patients. This finding supports that the miRNAs profiles obtained from different biological samples have to be carefully validated to link with respiratory diseases.

  4. Comparison of radiological and pathological results in gestational trophoblastic diseases

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    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a heterogenous group of neoplastic lesions that is derived from placental trophoblastic epithelium. According to World Health Organization (WHO classification they include: Hydatidiform mole (complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Hydatidiform mole is the most common and the diagnosis is achieved by pre-evacuation ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory tests and finally histological assessment as gold standard. Since these disorders show varying potential for local invasion and metastasis, the accurate diagnosis, follow up and recommendations given to patients may differ.Methods: Consecutive cases with diagnosis of GTD from archive of pathology department of women (Mirza Kochak Khan hospital were reviewed in whom results of clinical presentation and pre-evacuation ultrasound examination were documented. There were overall 220 cases for which the following clinical features were determined: gravidity, parity, history of previous abortion and gestational trophoblastic disease, the clinical symptoms such as vaginal bleeding and hypertension. Finally concordance between pre-evacuation ultrasonographic and histological diagnosis by kappa test is calculated.Results: Out of 220 cases with clinically gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis, 197 cases were confirmed by histological diagnosis. The concluding histological diagnosis includes: 98 cases of complete mole (CM, 84 partial mole (PM, 4 invasive mole and 11 cases of choriocarcinoma. Outside 98 cases with histological diagnosis CM only in 4 cases misdiagnosed by ultrasonoghraphy (4.1% and high degree of concordance between ultrasonography and histological diagnosis is seen.Conclusion: Ultrasonographic examination accompanied with clinical examination, beside histological assessment as gold standard have high efficacy in diagnosing  complete mole. This study did not show this finding for

  5. Differential pathologies resulting from sound exposure: Tinnitus vs hearing loss

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    Longenecker, Ryan James

    the acoustic startle reflex show that after sound exposure the magnitude of startle responses decrease in most mice, to varying degrees. Lastly, PPI audiometry was able to detect specific behavioral threshold deficits for each mouse after sound exposure. These deficits persist past initial threshold shifts and are able to detect frequency specific permanent threshold shifts. The third specific aim examined hyperactivity and increased bursting activity in the inferior colliculus after sound exposure in relation to tinnitus and hearing loss. Spontaneous firing rates were increased in all mice after sound exposure regardless of behavioral evidence of tinnitus. However, abnormal increased bursting activity was not found in the animals identified with tinnitus but was exhibited in a mouse with broad-band severe threshold deficits. CBA/CaJ mice are a good model for both tinnitus development and noise-induced hearing loss studies. Hyperactivity which was evident in all exposed animals does not seem to be well correlated with behavioral evidence of tinnitus but more likely to be a general result of acoustic over exposure. Data from one animal strongly suggest that wide-spread severe threshold deficits are linked to an elevation of bursting activity predominantly ipsilateral to the side of sound exposure. This result is intriguing and should be followed up in further studies. Data obtained in this study provide new insights into underlying neural pathologies following sound exposure and have possible clinical applications for development of effective treatments and diagnostic tools for tinnitus and hearing loss.

  6. Neural outcomes after plasma knife dissection: a pathologic study and clinical correlation.

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    Gillespie, M Boyd; Stachiw, Natalka D; Way, Justin; Lentsch, Eric J; Richardson, Mary S; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A; Hornig, Joshua D

    2010-10-01

    The initial aim was to determine the rate of pathologic tissue damage when dissecting the rat sciatic nerve with either bipolar forceps or low-temperature tripolar plasma knife. The second aim was to determine the safety and effectiveness of the plasma knife during parotid surgery. A prospective, randomized, single-blind study was performed on 40 rat sciatic nerves dissected by either bipolar electrocautery with a cold knife or a plasma knife. Dissected nerves were excised and submitted blindly to pathology for analysis of nerve injury. The degree of nerve trauma was graded by the Carlander nerve injury classification. Separately, a review was performed on the facial nerve outcomes of 30 patients who underwent plasma knife parotidectomy. No thermal or neural injury was noted in the 40 rat sciatic nerves dissected by either bipolar electrocautery or plasma knife (p = 1.0). Two plasma knife-dissected nerves (8%) demonstrated significant numbers of mast cells in the perineural soft tissue. In 30 patients undergoing plasma knife-parotidectomy, 10 (33%) had mild weakness of 1 or 2 preserved facial nerve branch postoperatively (House-Brackmann 2) that resolved within 1 month, whereas 2 (7%) had visible weakness in 1 branch (HB 3) that normalized after 3 months of follow-up. Plasma knife nerve dissection seems to be a safe and effective alternative to conventional methods. This technique may confer some advantages over conventional methods with the ability to simultaneously cut and coagulate tissue with minimal thermal spread and electrical stimulation of adjacent neural structures. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Use of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of rotator cuff pathology. What has been scientifically proven?

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    Miranda, I; Sánchez-Alepuz, E; Lucas, F J; Carratalá, V; González-Jofre, C A

    To analyze the current scientific and/or clinical evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of rotator cuff pathology. After a systematic review in PubMed, studies assessing PRP efficacy in the treatment of rotator cuff pathology published since 2013 to date were identified. Data were grouped based on type of study (laboratory, clinical or meta-analysis); accordingly study design, pathology treated and clinical outcomes were summarized. Thirty five articles have been analyzed: 10 laboratory studies, 17 clinical assays and 8 meta-analyses. While laboratory studies report positive or partially positive results for the use of PRP, 70.6% of clinical studies and 75% of meta-analysis found no statistically significant differences between the PRP group and the control group. The positive results of laboratory studies do not translate well to clinical practice. There is no concordance among the few positive results reported in the clinical studies, and even some contradictory effects have been reported. There is no solid scientific and/or clinical evidence supporting the use of PRP in the treatment of rotator cuff pathology in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. COMPARISON BETWEEN ULTRASONOGRAPHY RESULTS AND RESULTS OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN SHOULDER PATHOLOGY – CASE REPORT

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    Karmela Filipović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The common pathological condition of the shoulder joint is rotator cuff diseases. Patient, 68 years, had pain in the shoulder with limited joint mobility. After clinical examination, blood tests (SE >100 nmol/L, CSF normal, hypergamma- globulinemia and radiographic examination (bone dilution with deformities of the humeral head, a solitary plasmocytoma was suspected. This diagnosis was excluded after biopsy. Patient was referred to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the shoulder, so ultrasonographic (US examination was performed. Our case study points to comparability between US and MRI results regarding tendinitis of muscles in the rotator cuff. By applying both diagnostic methods, calcifications within muscle tendons were evident. Sonography is faster, cheaper, more accessible and readily available method that certainly is a valuable tool for clinicians when it comes to rotator cuff lesions.

  9. Space plasma physics results from Spacelab 1

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    Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Spacelab 1 payload carried several instrument systems which together investigated a number of space plasma phenomena. These experiments used the Space Shuttle Orbiter as a platform for making controlled particle-beam, plasma and neutral gas inputs to the ionosphere and magnetosphere and for observing the outputs produced. Spacelab 1 space-plasma investigations included the Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB), Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging (AEPI) and the Low Energy Electron Spectrometer and Magnetometer. Among the major phenomena investigated both singly and jointly by these experiments are vehicle charging and neutralization, beam-plasma and wave-particle interactions, anomalous ionization phenomena produced by neutral-gas and plasma injections and several phenomena induced by modulated particle beam injections.

  10. Role of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 2 in spinal cord pathology

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    Amanda; Kathleen; Fakira; Stella; Elkabes

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that plasma membrane calcium ATPases(PMCAs) are expressed in the brain and spinal cord and could play important roles not only in the maintenance of cellular calcium homeostasis but also in the survival and function of central nervous system cells under pathological conditions.The different regional and cellular distributions of the various PMCA isoforms and splice variants in the nervous system and the diverse phenotypes of PMCA knockout mice support the notion that each isoform might play a distinct role. Especially in the spinal cord,the survival of neurons and,in particular,motor neurons could be dependent on PMCA2.This is indicated by the knockdown of PMCA2 in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures that leads to cell death via a decrease in collapsing response mediator protein 1 levels.Moreover,the progressive decline in the number of motor neurons in PMCA2-null mice andheterozygous mice further supports this notion.Therefore,the reported reduction in PMCA2 mRNA and protein levels in the inflamed spinal cord of mice affected by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis(EAE) ,an animal model of multiple sclerosis,and after spinal cord contusion injury,suggests that changes in PMCA2 expression could be a cause of neuronal pathology and death during inflammation and injury.Glutamate excitotoxicity mediated via kainate receptors has been implicated in the neuropathology of both EAE and spinal cord injury,and has been identified as a trigger that reduces PMCA2 levels in pure spinal cord neuronal cultures through degradation of the pump by calpain without affecting PMCA2 transcript levels.It remains to be determined which other stimuli modulate PMCA2 mRNA expression in the aforementioned pathological conditions of the spinal cord.

  11. Phenotype in patients with intellectual disability and pathological results in array CGH.

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    Caballero Pérez, V; López Pisón, F J; Miramar Gallart, M D; González Álvarez, A; García Jiménez, M C; García Iñiguez, J P; Orden Rueda, C; Gil Hernández, I; Fuertes Rodrigo, C; Fernando Martínez, R; Rodríguez Valle, A; Alcaine Villarroya, M J

    2016-05-06

    Global developmental delay (GDD) and intellectual disability (ID) are frequent reasons for consultation in paediatric neurology departments. Nowadays, array comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) is one of the most widely used techniques for diagnosing these disorders. Our purpose was to determine the phenotypic features associated with pathological results in this genetic test. We conducted a blind study of the epidemiological, clinical, anthropometric, and morphological features of 80 patients with unexplained ID to determine which features were associated with pathological results in array-CGH. Pathological results were found in 27.5% of the patients. Factors associated with pathological results in array-CGH were a family history of GDD/ID (OR = 12.1), congenital malformations (OR = 5.33), having more than 3 facial dysmorphic features (OR = 20.9), and hypotonia (OR = 3.25). Our findings are consistent with those reported by other published series. We therefore conclude that the probability of having pathological results in array-CGH increases with the presence of any of the features mentioned above in patients with ID/GDD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. First results of the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment at PITZ

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    Lishilin, O., E-mail: osip.lishilin@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Gross, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Brinkmann, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Engel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Grüner, F. [Universität Hamburg, UHH, Hamburg (Germany); Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, CFEL, Hamburg (Germany); Koss, G.; Krasilnikov, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Mehrling, T.; Osterhoff, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Pathak, G.; Philipp, S.; Renier, Y. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Richter, D. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, HZB, Berlin (Germany); Schroeder, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL, Berkeley (United States); Schütze, R.; Stephan, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2016-09-01

    The self-modulation instability of long particle beams was proposed as a new mechanism to produce driver beams for proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). The PWFA experiment at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) was launched to experimentally demonstrate and study the self-modulation of long electron beams in plasma. Key aspects for the experiment are the very flexible photocathode laser system, a plasma cell and well-developed beam diagnostics. In this contribution we report about the plasma cell design, preparatory experiments and the results of the first PWFA experiment at PITZ. - Highlights: • A self-modulation mechanism for producing driver beams for PWFA is proposed. • A proof-of-principle experiment is launched at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY. • The self-modulation instability occurs in long particle beams passing through plasma. • A heat pipe oven and a laser are used to produce plasma.

  13. First results of the plasma wakefield acceleration experiment at PITZ

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    Lishilin, O.; Gross, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Engel, J.; Grüner, F.; Koss, G.; Krasilnikov, M.; Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Mehrling, T.; Osterhoff, J.; Pathak, G.; Philipp, S.; Renier, Y.; Richter, D.; Schroeder, C.; Schütze, R.; Stephan, F.

    2016-09-01

    The self-modulation instability of long particle beams was proposed as a new mechanism to produce driver beams for proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). The PWFA experiment at the Photo Injector Test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ) was launched to experimentally demonstrate and study the self-modulation of long electron beams in plasma. Key aspects for the experiment are the very flexible photocathode laser system, a plasma cell and well-developed beam diagnostics. In this contribution we report about the plasma cell design, preparatory experiments and the results of the first PWFA experiment at PITZ.

  14. Treatment results in women with clinical stage I and pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma.

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    Jobsen, J J; Schutter, E M; Meerwaldt, J H; Van Der Palen, J; Van Der Sijde, R; Ten Cate, L N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report survival and results of therapy and possible prognostic factors in women with pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma. Forty-two patients with pathologic stage II endometrial carcinoma were treated at the department of Radiation Oncology of the Medisch Spectrum Twente between 1987 and 1998. All patients received external radiotherapy following standard surgical procedures and no adjuvant systemic therapy was given. From the 42 patients 21 had a pathologic stage IIA and 21 stage IIB. The median follow-up was 62 months. The overall recurrence rate was 21.5% (9/42). Seven patients had distant metastasis, of which three also had locoregional recurrence, vaginal vault and/or pelvic. The presence of myometrial invasion (> (1/2)) and/or lymph-angioinvasion showed a significant relation with distant metastasis (P = 0.017). Stage IIB showed more recurrences, 33% (7/21). There was a significant different 5-year disease specific survival for stage IIA and IIB, respectively, 95% and 74% (P = 0.0311). Patients with a differentiation grade 3 and stage IIB showed a significantly poorer (P = 0.003) 5-year survival of 48.6% (P = 0.003). Results obtained in the present series of patients are in accordance with the literature. The present treatment policy seems justified, except for patients with pathologic stage IIB and grade 3, in which a more aggressive treatment should be considered.

  15. A potential role for plasma uric acid in the endothelial pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Neida K Mita-Mendoza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokinemia and systemic activation of the microvascular endothelium are central to the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recently, 'parasite-derived' uric acid (UA was shown to activate human immune cells in vitro, and plasma UA levels were associated with inflammatory cytokine levels and disease severity in Malian children with malaria. Since UA is associated with endothelial inflammation in non-malaria diseases, we hypothesized that elevated UA levels contribute to the endothelial pathology of P. falciparum malaria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured levels of UA and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1, E-selectin (sE-Selectin, thrombomodulin (sTM, tissue factor (sTF and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the plasma of Malian children aged 0.5-17 years with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 487 and non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM, n = 68. In 69 of these children, we measured these same factors once when they experienced a malaria episode and twice when they were healthy (i.e., before and after the malaria transmission season. We found that levels of UA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin and sTM increase during a malaria episode and return to basal levels at the end of the transmission season (p<0.0001. Plasma levels of UA and these four endothelial biomarkers correlate with parasite density and disease severity. In children with UM, UA levels correlate with parasite density (r = 0.092, p = 0.043, sICAM-1 (r = 0.255, p<0.0001 and sTM (r = 0.175, p = 0.0001 levels. After adjusting for parasite density, UA levels predict sTM levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Elevated UA levels may contribute to malaria pathogenesis by damaging endothelium and promoting a procoagulant state. The correlation between UA levels and parasite densities suggests that parasitized erythrocytes are one possible source of excess UA. UA-induced shedding of

  16. A potential role for plasma uric acid in the endothelial pathology of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

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    Mita-Mendoza, Neida K; van de Hoef, Diana L; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M; Doumbia, Saibou; Konate, Drissa; Doumbouya, Mory; Gu, Wenjuan; Anderson, Jennifer M; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Rodriguez, Ana; Fay, Michael P; Diakite, Mahamadou; Long, Carole A; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokinemia and systemic activation of the microvascular endothelium are central to the pathogenesis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Recently, 'parasite-derived' uric acid (UA) was shown to activate human immune cells in vitro, and plasma UA levels were associated with inflammatory cytokine levels and disease severity in Malian children with malaria. Since UA is associated with endothelial inflammation in non-malaria diseases, we hypothesized that elevated UA levels contribute to the endothelial pathology of P. falciparum malaria. We measured levels of UA and soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), E-selectin (sE-Selectin), thrombomodulin (sTM), tissue factor (sTF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the plasma of Malian children aged 0.5-17 years with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 487) and non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM, n = 68). In 69 of these children, we measured these same factors once when they experienced a malaria episode and twice when they were healthy (i.e., before and after the malaria transmission season). We found that levels of UA, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-Selectin and sTM increase during a malaria episode and return to basal levels at the end of the transmission season (p<0.0001). Plasma levels of UA and these four endothelial biomarkers correlate with parasite density and disease severity. In children with UM, UA levels correlate with parasite density (r = 0.092, p = 0.043), sICAM-1 (r = 0.255, p<0.0001) and sTM (r = 0.175, p = 0.0001) levels. After adjusting for parasite density, UA levels predict sTM levels. Elevated UA levels may contribute to malaria pathogenesis by damaging endothelium and promoting a procoagulant state. The correlation between UA levels and parasite densities suggests that parasitized erythrocytes are one possible source of excess UA. UA-induced shedding of endothelial TM may represent a novel mechanism of malaria pathogenesis, in

  17. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis.

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    Debrah, Alexander Yaw; Mand, Sabine; Specht, Sabine; Marfo-Debrekyei, Yeboah; Batsa, Linda; Pfarr, Kenneth; Larbi, John; Lawson, Bernard; Taylor, Mark; Adjei, Ohene; Hoerauf, Achim

    2006-09-01

    lymphedema in the doxycycline-treated patients being significantly lower compared to placebo patients 12 mo after treatment. The reduction in the stages manifested as better skin texture, a reduction of deep folds, and fewer deep skin folds. In conclusion, a 6-wk regimen of antifilarial treatment with doxycycline against W. bancrofti showed a strong macrofilaricidal activity and reduction in plasma levels of VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3, the latter being associated with amelioration of supratesticular dilated lymphatic vessels and with an improvement of pathology in lymphatic filariasis patients.

  18. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis.

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    Alexander Yaw Debrah

    2006-09-01

    the mean stage of lymphedema in the doxycycline-treated patients being significantly lower compared to placebo patients 12 mo after treatment. The reduction in the stages manifested as better skin texture, a reduction of deep folds, and fewer deep skin folds. In conclusion, a 6-wk regimen of antifilarial treatment with doxycycline against W. bancrofti showed a strong macrofilaricidal activity and reduction in plasma levels of VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3, the latter being associated with amelioration of supratesticular dilated lymphatic vessels and with an improvement of pathology in lymphatic filariasis patients.

  19. Clinical pathology results from cranes with experimental West Nile Virus infection

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    Olsen, Glenn H.

    2011-01-01

    Sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) were vaccinated for and then challenged with West Nile virus. Resulting titers demonstrated protection in the vaccinated-challenged cranes as compared to the unvaccinated-challenged cranes. Clinical pathology results showed challenged cranes, whether vaccinated or not, had a decrease in their hematocrits and an elevation of 2.5-fold in their white blood cell counts as compared to unchallenged control sandhill cranes. No differences were apparent in the differential counts of heterophils and lymphocytes.

  20. Intravenous pyelogram results in association with renal pathology and therapy in trauma patients.

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    Bergren, C T; Chan, F N; Bodzin, J H

    1987-05-01

    The charts of 127 consecutive patients who sustained renal trauma between December 1977 and January 1984 were reviewed in order to relate the results of intravenous pyelogram (IVP) to the magnitude of renal pathology. Eighty-eight cases resulted from blunt trauma and 39 cases had penetrating injuries. There were 34 gunshot wounds and five stab wounds. An IVP was performed in 116 patients. All cases of blunt trauma with an IVP reported as normal had no renal pathology greater than contusion. Intravenous pyelogram results in penetrating injuries had a 75% false negative rate. Findings of nonvisualization or extravasation were significant for fractures, perforation, or pedicle injuries in all trauma. Eight of the patients with nonpenetrating wounds and 37 of the patients with penetrating injury underwent exploratory laparotomy. Sixteen nephrectomies were performed for a nephrectomy rate of 12.6% of the total series. This nephrectomy rate is comparable to similar studies which are reviewed.

  1. Modelling of a water plasma flow: I. Basic results

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    KotalIk, Pavel [INP Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-06-21

    One-fluid MHD equations are numerically solved for an axisymmetric flow of thermal water plasma inside and outside a discharge chamber of a plasma torch with water vortex stabilization of electric arc. Comparisons with experimental data and previous calculations are given. For arc currents of 300-600 A, the respective temperatures and velocities in the range 16 700-26 400 K and 2300-6900 m s{sup -1} are obtained at the centre of the nozzle exit. The flow velocity on axis increases by 1-2 km s{sup -1} in the 5 mm long nozzle. Ohmic heating and radiative losses are two competitive processes influencing most the plasma temperature and velocity. The radiative losses represent 39% to 46% of the torch power of 69-174 kW when optical thickness of 3 mm is assumed for the plasma column. In front of the cathode, inside the discharge chamber, a recirculation zone is predicted and discussed. Effects of the temperature dependence of the plasma viscosity and sound velocity and of the optical thickness are examined. It is shown that the results such as waviness of the Mach number isolines are direct consequences of these dependences. Different lengths of 55 and 60 mm of the water vortex stabilized part of the electric arc do not substantially influence the plasma temperature and velocity at the nozzle exit.

  2. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization

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    Jonhan Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. Aim: As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS. Methods: Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1 Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2 avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. Results: When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity

  3. DECOMPOSITION OF TARS IN MICROWAVE PLASMA – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

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    Mateusz Wnukowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the main problem connected with biomass gasification - a presence of tar in a product gas. This paper presents preliminary results of tar decomposition in a microwave plasma reactor. It gives a basic insight into the construction and work of the plasma reactor. During the experiment, researches were carried out on toluene as a tar surrogate. As a carrier gas for toluene and as a plasma agent, nitrogen was used. Flow rates of the gases and the microwave generator’s power were constant during the whole experiment. Results of the experiment showed that the decomposition process of toluene was effective because the decomposition efficiency attained above 95%. The main products of tar decomposition were light hydrocarbons and soot. The article also gives plans for further research in a matter of tar removal from the product gas.

  4. Can digital pathology result in cost savings? A financial projection for digital pathology implementation at a large integrated health care organization.

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    Ho, Jonhan; Ahlers, Stefan M; Stratman, Curtis; Aridor, Orly; Pantanowitz, Liron; Fine, Jeffrey L; Kuzmishin, John A; Montalto, Michael C; Parwani, Anil V

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology offers potential improvements in workflow and interpretive accuracy. Although currently digital pathology is commonly used for research and education, its clinical use has been limited to niche applications such as frozen sections and remote second opinion consultations. This is mainly due to regulatory hurdles, but also to a dearth of data supporting a positive economic cost-benefit. Large scale adoption of digital pathology and the integration of digital slides into the routine anatomic/surgical pathology "slide less" clinical workflow will occur only if digital pathology will offer a quantifiable benefit, which could come in the form of more efficient and/or higher quality care. As a large academic-based health care organization expecting to adopt digital pathology for primary diagnosis upon its regulatory approval, our institution estimated potential operational cost savings offered by the implementation of an enterprise-wide digital pathology system (DPS). Projected cost savings were calculated for the first 5 years following implementation of a DPS based on operational data collected from the pathology department. Projected savings were based on two factors: (1) Productivity and lab consolidation savings; and (2) avoided treatment costs due to improvements in the accuracy of cancer diagnoses among nonsubspecialty pathologists. Detailed analyses of incremental treatment costs due to interpretive errors, resulting in either a false positive or false negative diagnosis, was performed for melanoma and breast cancer and extrapolated to 10 other common cancers. When phased in over 5-years, total cost savings based on anticipated improvements in pathology productivity and histology lab consolidation were estimated at $12.4 million for an institution with 219,000 annual accessions. The main contributing factors to these savings were gains in pathologist clinical full-time equivalent capacity impacted by improved pathologist productivity and workload

  5. Electronic capture and communication of synoptic cancer data elements from pathology reports: results of the Reporting Pathology Protocols 2 (RPP2) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, Lewis; Aldinger, Wendy; Moody, Cheryl; Winters, Sharon; Gerlach, Ken; Schwenn, Molly; Perriello, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Pathology reports represent a rich data source for cancer registries. The College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Checklists present pathology reports in synoptic form and allow registries to be updated electronically. To assess the challenge of employing the CAP Cancer Checklists in pathology laboratories and transmitting that information to cancer registries, we conducted a pilot project: the Reporting Pathology Protocols project (RPP2). The RPP2 project was a multi-year, "proof of concept" demonstration that assessed pathology report-generated data for 3 CAP Cancer Checklists (breast, prostate, and melanoma) in several different cancer registry-pathology laboratory combinations in 3 states. Collaborating pathology laboratories and state cancer registries in California, Maine, and Pennsylvania identified key questions (queries) to address in the course of the project, developed and tested standardized HL7 messaging specifications to link senders and recipients, and then assessed the actual process results using either parallel reporting or retrospective-prospective cases for each tumor type. Successful electronic transfer and capture of pertinent data elements for numerous examples of each tumor type was accomplished in each participating cancer registry/reporting laboratory/information system combination. We noted shortcomings in the electronically encoded CAP Checklists as opposed to text-based reports, particularly for breast cancers. We uncovered opportunities to improve Checklists and the information systems that incorporate them. Workflow, productivity, and timeliness of reporting are areas where electronically encoded reports may enhance cancer registry processes. The accuracy and completeness of electronically encoded data appears largely comparable to text-based data, but subject to the degree of synchrony between the formats of text-based and electronic reports.

  6. Preliminary results of Lean method implementation in a pathology lab from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane S. Quetz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oncologic care shows a growing and unmet demand, and requires the search for alternatives that allow the efficient use of limited resources, the building of autonomy, and the endeavour for continuous improvement of processes. In the present work, we present the implementation of Lean philosophy at a pathology laboratory of an oncology hospital. Among the preliminary results, we highlight the redefinition of the dynamics of the staff, and the physical reorganization of the area. Such important changes culminated in an expressive reduction of lead time, even with a significant increase in the monthly load of exams.

  7. Correlation of FDG-PET in the thyroid nodules with ultrasonographic and pathologic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, E. H.; Yun, M. J.; Kim, E. K.; Park, J. S.; Lee, J. D. [Yonsei University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    To assess the aspect of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the thyroid nodules and to find the correlation between ultrasonographic (US), pathologic and positron emission tomography (PET) results. We performed a retrospective review of patients who had pathologically confirmed thyroid neoplasm and who had undergone FDG-PET imaging from 9/2004 to 8/2005. There were 41 and 35 patients (9 men + 67 women, 52 years (29-76)) were confirmed to have papillary thyroid cancer by surgery and adenomatous hyperplasia by aspiration. 34 of the 41 patients underwent after US-guided aspiration biopsy, excepting 7 cases of thyroid incidentaloma (3 papillary cancers and 4 adenomatous hyperplasias) on PET. With the presence of perithyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis of papillary cancers in the pathologic report, malignant nodules were grouped to progressed and limited. We compared US findings and surgical results between thyroid nodules with and without FDG uptake on PET. 23 of the 41 papillary cancers and 9 of the 35 AHs showed increased FDG uptake. SUV of 23 papillary carcinoma and 9 AHs were similar (6.39{+-}6.14 and 5.3{+-}2.97). The size of thyroid nodules with FDG uptake was slightly larger than nodules without FDG uptake in both papillary cancer and AH. There are no remarkable difference of US findings between thyroid nodules with and without increased FDG uptake. 13 of 16 malignant nodules with SUV = 2 and 4 of 7 nodules with SUV < 2 were belonged to progressed group. There was significant difference of SUV and nodular between progressed and limited groups. Nodular size and SUV were positively correlated with each other (R = 0.56, P < 0, Pearson correlation). Thyroid nodules of increased FDG uptake are not necessarily indicative of malignant tumors. There are no remarkable US differences of thyroid nodules between with and without increased FDG uptake on PET. However, large malignant nodules show tendency to present increased FDG uptake and to be progressed.

  8. Experimental results of an iodine plasma in PEGASES gridded thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondein, Pascaline; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-09-01

    In the electric gridded thruster PEGASES, both positive and negative ions are expelled after extraction from an ion-ion plasma. This ion-ion plasma is formed downstream a localized magnetic field placed a few centimeters from the ionization region, trapping and cooling down the electron to allow a better attachment to an electronegative gas. For this thruster concept, iodine has emerged as the most attractive option. Heavy, under diatomic form and therefore good for high thrust, its low ionization threshold and high electronegativity lead to high ion-ion densities and low RF power. After the proof-of-concept of PEGASES using SF6 as propellant, we present here experimental results of an iodine plasma studied inside PEGASES thruster. At solid state at standard temperature and pressure, iodine is heated to sublimate, then injected inside the chamber where the neutral gas is heated and ionized. The whole injection system is heated to avoid deposition on surfaces and a mass flow controller allows a fine control on the neutral gas mass flow. A 3D translation stage inside the vacuum chamber allows volumetric plasma studies using electrostatic probes. The results are also compared with the global model dedicated to iodine as propellant for electric gridded thrusters. This work has been done within the LABEX Plas@par project, and received financial state aid managed by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche, as part of the programme ``Investissements d'avenir.''

  9. [Physiological reasoning and results of using the functional electrostimulation of muscles in pathological walking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitenzon, A S; Petrushanskaia, K A

    2004-01-01

    The ideology of a method of muscle electrostimulation (MES) in walking up and down the stairs is under discussion in the paper. It is pointed out that the above locomotor acts, which are based on the central innervation program, are principally similar; periods and zones of muscle excitation and inhibition during the locomotor cycle are specified; MES is shown to be a variety of phase muscle electrostimulation. A hypothesis is put forward on the MES significance in normalizing the locomotor skills. The main MES function are described, i.e. therapy, diagnostics and prognostication. The key indication for MES administration in pathological walking is defined, i.e. a deficit of the muscle function (DMF). A new method is suggested for DMF determination through examining the muscle-force moments estimated by mathematic modeling. The MES technique is shown to comprise 5 main stages: choice of corrected movements and muscle stimulation as well as setting-up of the amplitude and temporal MES parameters, of electrode parameters and of a stimulation regime in walking. Medical contraindications to MES stages of patients' rehabilitation are defined. The results of a successful treatment of above 6000 patients with different pathological conditions of the support-motor apparatus are summarized.

  10. Assessment of reproductive results of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy for intrauterine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Röyale Seferli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the reproductive outcomes of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy (HS with the diagnoses of uterine septum, endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, and intrauterine adhesion. Methods: This retrospective study included 334 patients who had been diagnosed with primary and secondary infertility, aged between 18–35 years and diagnosed with uterine septum (group 1, endometrial polyp (group 2, submucous myoma (group 3, and intrauterine adhesion (group 4 by hysterosalpingography or office HS and who were treated via hysteroscopic operation between January 2009 and January 2013. Pregnancy results were obtained from the patients’ files and hospital database; when this was not possible, the patients were queried by phone calls. Groups were then compared in terms of characteristics, prognoses, and pregnancy outcomes. Results: The cumulative pregnancy rate was 58.7% in infertile patients who underwent operative HS due to intrauterine pathology. The mean length of time from operation to conception was 10.8±9.6 months in all groups. Mean age, infertility duration, infertility type, and smoking status were statistically different among the groups (p<0.05. Following surgery, 95 (66.4% of 143 patients in group 1 conceived and 57 (60% of these pregnancies resulted in term birth. There were 64 (54.2% pregnancies in group 2 and 34 (53.1% resulted in term birth. Sixteen (47.1% patients conceived in group 3, and 6 (37.5% of them had term birth. Twenty-one (53.8% patients conceived in group 4. Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1% had term birth. The most common mode of delivery was cesarean section in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, operative HS increases pregnancy rates in patients with intrauterine pathology. In future, large-scale prospective studies should be carried out to reveal the effects of the hysteroscopic method and compare this approach with other methods in order to achieve better pregnancy outcomes in

  11. Recent results on ITER plasma equilibrium diagnostics and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R.; Coccorese, E.; Morabito, F.C.; Pironti, A.; Versaci, M. [Associazione CREATE/ENEA/EURATOM - DIMET, Loc. Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mc Carthy, P.J. [Cork Univ. College (Ireland). Physics Dept.

    1998-07-01

    The most recent results achieved by our work-group on the plasma shape and position identification problem as well as on the interpretation of magnetic diagnostics are presented. The proposed test cases are related to the most recent configuration of sensors and geometry specification available from ITER. One of the aims of the work is also to give some design directions about the problem of optimal selection of the diagnostics for control parameters. (author)

  12. Building pathology in the Netherlands – main problems and results through research and practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report is dedicated to the main problems of building pathologies in the Netherlands and the main solutions through research and practice as questioned by the CIB W086 Building Pathology Commission for its 2014 meeting in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Objective is to contribute to the Research Roadmap 2014

  13. Results with a micro-cavity plasma panel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    During the three last years, a complete study of a radiation detector based on plasma panel technology (main component of plasma television display) has been completed using source, cosmic ray and beam. This studies showed a fast response (O(5 ns)), high spatial resolution detection of ionizing particle and minimum ionizing particles. It shows very promising results in term of pixel-to-pixel uniformity and time stability of both signal shapes and rates. The prototype has also demonstrated very low background over a wide range of applied high voltages, excellent pixel response isolation, time resolutions of a few nanoseconds, and efficiencies above 95% over a 100-volt range for beta particles emitted by a {sup 106}Ru radioactive source. A full report will be presented (authors)

  14. Experimental results of breakdown in "Dena" plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Shervin; Hoseinian, S. M.; Raeisdana, A.

    2014-06-01

    In spite of the intense research activities on Plasma Focus devices, the physics of the initial breakdown and surface discharge phase has not been realized completely. In this paper we have analyzed the surface discharge and initial breakdown phase in Filippov-type Plasma Focus Facility "Dena" (90 kJ, 25 kV) on the base of the current and current derivative measured signals by using Argon, Neon and Krypton as working gases at different discharge voltages and gas pressures, and the effects of working conditions (atomic weight, discharge voltage and gas pressure) on the breakdown and surface discharge phase have expressed. Also, on the base of these results, we have investigated about the relation of this phase with final pinch phase.

  15. Treatment results of combined platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Fathi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency causes hypernasal vocal quality and can also result in audible nasal air emission and difficulty in producing pressure consonants. The resulting speech is often socially unacceptable and can be difficult to understand. Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous derivative of whole blood. Today, the importance of clinical use of Platelet-rich plasma in the plastic surgery is considered. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection in the treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency. Methods: In this prospective clinicaltrial study, of 15 patients including 9 males and 6 females and aged 15-20 years with mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency who were injected with 5 mL of combined Platelet-rich plasma (1 mL and fat (4 mL in the front volume in the posterior pharyngeal wall in the pre-vertebral fascia under sedation. Speech samples were recorded by nasoendoscopy before the injection, and at 6 weeks and 6 months after the injection. Assessment of pathologic speech was done by speech therapist. Results: Velar displacement showed significantly increased at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.049. Velopharyngeal gap disappeared in 60% of patients at 6 weeks after the injection (P=0.019. Lateral pharyngeal wall movement showed significantly increased in 73.3% of the patients at 6 months after the injection (P=0.04. After the treatment, aerodynamic assessment showed significantly decreased in nasal air escape during phonation and repeat the words (P<0.05. Assessment speech therapist showed significantly improve quality of phonation in these patients (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that, combined Platelet-rich plasma and fat injection lead to improve voice resonance and reduce nasal air escape in all treated cases. It can be a promising alternative to major procedures, such as velopharyngoplasties, for the treatment of mild/ moderate velopharyngeal insufficiency.

  16. Studies on pathological plasma proteolysis in patients with acute pancreatitis. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, A O; Kierulf, P; Ruud, T E; Godal, H C; Aune, S

    1982-01-01

    Changes in the plasma proteolytic enzyme systems were studied in 14 patients with acute pancreatitis. Ten patients survived whereas four died. In both survivors and fatal cases a high frequency of reduced values of plasma prekallikrein (PKK) functional antithrombin III (AT III) and platelets were found during the first week after admission. These changes were seen together with increased serum FDP values and the presence of soluble fibrin. In the fatal cases PKK, AT III, platelets and functional kallikrein inhibition values observed during the first week after admission, were found significantly more reduced than in the survivors. These observations underline that activation of proteases in plasma is an important pathophysiological mechanism in this state, and that evaluation of this process in patients with acute pancreatitis might give information of prognostic value.

  17. THz spectroscopy of whole blood, plasma and cells in mice of SHR line with various pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A.; Tyndyk, M.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Sulatskiy, M.; Kravtsenyuk, O.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to studying of optical properties of whole blood and blood plasma in SHR mice grafted Ehrlich's carcinoma and mice with chronic inflammation at the terahertz frequency range. Additionally physiological saline solution suspension of ascites Ehrlich's carcinoma cells was explored.

  18. Comorbid physical and mental illnesses among pathological gamblers: Results from a population based study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Wong, Kim Eng; Chong, Siow Ann

    2015-06-30

    The aim of the current study was to examine the comorbidity of pathological gambling with other mental and physical disorders as well as to examine health related quality of life perceived by those with pathological gambling using data from a community survey in Singapore. All respondents were administered the South Oaks Gambling Screen to screen for pathological gambling. The diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. The weighted lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling was 2.7%. After multiple logistic regression, age 18-34 years (OR=5.3, 95% CI=1.6-17.4), male gender (OR=7.8, CI=3.8-16.2), widowhood (OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.02-17.5), and those with pre-primary (OR=17.1, CI=4.9-59.1), primary (OR=5.3, CI=1.7-16.6), and secondary education (OR=6, CI=2.5-14.7) had significantly higher odds of having pathological gambling. Those of Malay (OR=0.1, 95% CI=0.07-0.2) and Indian ethnicity (OR=0.2, 95% CI=0.1-0.3) had significantly lower odds of having pathological gambling compared to those of Chinese ethnicity. Pathological gamblers had significantly higher odds of having comorbid mental and physical disorders than non-gamblers/non-problem gamblers. The significant association of comorbid mental and physical disorders among those with pathological gambling indicates a need to screen for these disorders and for their subsequent treatment.

  19. Stroke atlas: a 3D interactive tool correlating cerebrovascular pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C

    2013-02-01

    Understanding stroke-related pathology with underlying neuroanatomy and resulting neurological deficits is critical in education and clinical practice. Moreover, communicating a stroke situation to a patient/family is difficult because of complicated neuroanatomy and pathology. For this purpose, we created a stroke atlas. The atlas correlates localized cerebrovascular pathology with both the resulting disorder and surrounding neuroanatomy. It also provides 3D display both of labeled pathology and freely composed neuroanatomy. Disorders are described in terms of resulting signs, symptoms and syndromes, and they have been compiled for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and cerebral aneurysms. Neuroanatomy, subdivided into 2,000 components including 1,300 vessels, contains cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, white matter, deep grey nuclei, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, cranial nerves and tracts. A computer application was developed comprising: 1) anatomy browser with the normal brain atlas (created earlier); 2) simulator of infarcts/hematomas/aneurysms/stenoses; 3) tools to label pathology; 4) cerebrovascular pathology database with lesions and disorders, and resulting signs, symptoms and/or syndromes. The pathology database is populated with 70 lesions compiled from textbooks. The initial view of each pathological site is preset in terms of lesion location, size, surrounding surface and sectional neuroanatomy, and lesion and neuroanatomy labeling. The atlas is useful for medical students, residents, nurses, general practitioners, and stroke clinicians, neuroradiologists and neurologists. It may serve as an aid in patient-doctor communication helping a stroke clinician explain the situation to a patient/family. It also enables a layman to become familiarized with normal brain anatomy and understand what happens in stroke.

  20. First results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gurnett

    Full Text Available In this report we present the first results from the Cluster wideband plasma wave investigation. The four Cluster spacecraft were successfully placed in closely spaced, high-inclination eccentric orbits around the Earth during two separate launches in July – August 2000. Each spacecraft includes a wideband plasma wave instrument designed to provide high-resolution electric and magnetic field wave-forms via both stored data and direct downlinks to the NASA Deep Space Network. Results are presented for three commonly occurring magnetospheric plasma wave phenomena: (1 whistlers, (2 chorus, and (3 auroral kilometric radiation. Lightning-generated whistlers are frequently observed when the spacecraft is inside the plasmasphere. Usually the same whistler can be detected by all spacecraft, indicating that the whistler wave packet extends over a spatial dimension at least as large as the separation distances transverse to the magnetic field, which during these observations were a few hundred km. This is what would be expected for nonducted whistler propagation. No case has been found in which a strong whistler was detected at one spacecraft, with no signal at the other spacecraft, which would indicate ducted propagation. Whistler-mode chorus emissions are also observed in the inner region of the magnetosphere. In contrast to lightning-generated whistlers, the individual chorus elements seldom show a one-to-one correspondence between the spacecraft, indicating that a typical chorus wave packet has dimensions transverse to the magnetic field of only a few hundred km or less. In one case where a good one-to-one correspondence existed, significant frequency variations were observed between the spacecraft, indicating that the frequency of the wave packet may be evolving as the wave propagates. Auroral kilometric radiation, which is an intense radio emission generated along the auroral field lines, is frequently observed over the polar regions. The

  1. Preliminary Results Of A 600 Joules Small Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. H.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary results of a 600 J (3.7 μF, 18 kV) Mather type plasma focus device operated at low pressure will be presented. The discharge is formed between a solid anode with length of 6 cm and six symmetrically and coaxially arranged cathode rods of same lengths. The cathode base is profiled in a knife-edge design and a set of coaxial plasma gun are attached to it in order to initiate the breakdown and enhance the current sheath formation. The experiments have been performed in argon gas under a low pressure condition of several microbars. The discharge current and the voltage across the electrodes during the discharge are measured with high voltage probe and current coil. The current and voltage characteristics are used to determine the possible range of operating pressure that gives good focusing action. At a narrow pressure regime of 9.0±0.5 μbar, focusing action is observed with good reproducibility. Preliminary result of ion beam energy is presented. More work will be carried out to investigate the radiation output.

  2. The plasma membrane calcium pumps: focus on the role in (neuro)pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Carafoli, Ernesto; Calì, Tito

    2017-02-19

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA pump) is a member of the superfamily of P-type pumps. It is organized in the plasma membrane with ten transmembrane helices and two main cytosolic loops, one of which contains the catalytic center. It also contains a long C-terminal tail that houses the binding site for calmodulin, the main regulator of the activity of the pump. The pump also contains a number of other regulators, among them acidic phospholipids, kinases, and numerous protein interactors. Separate genes code for 4 basic pump isoforms in mammals, additional isoform complexity being generated by the alternative splicing of primary transcripts. Pumps 1 and 4 are expressed ubiquitously, pumps 2 and 3 are tissue restricted, with preference for the nervous system. In essentially all cells, the pump coexists with much more powerful systems that clear Ca(2+) from the cytosol, e.g. the SERCA pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Its role in the global regulation of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is thus quantitatively marginal: its main function is the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in selected sub-plasma membrane microdomains where Ca(2+) modulated interactors also reside. Malfunctions of the pump linked to genetic mutations are now described with increasing frequency, the disease phenotypes being especially severe in the nervous system where isoforms 2 and 3 predominate. The analysis of the pump defects suggests that the disease phenotypes are likely to be related to the imperfect modulation of Ca(2+) signaling in selected sub-plasma membrane microdomains, leading to the defective control of the activity of important Ca(2+) dependent interactors.

  3. Magnetic resonance tomography of the scrotum - preliminary results and comparison with sonography. Pt. 2. Intratesticular pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, P.C.

    1987-11-01

    The wide differences in signal intensity in the scrotum provide an excellent background for the assessment of intratesticular pathology. Besides hemorrhage, all intratesticular pathologic changes have lower-signal intensities than surrounding normal testicular tissue. Proton density- and T1-weighted images are essential for the characterization of hematomas, abscesses and hydroceles. Clear delineation of the tunica albuginea is necessary for precise assessment of trauma and tumors. Because a ruptured tunica albuginea can be visualized and because of its high sensitivity, MRI is superior to sonography in the diagnosis of trauma and orchitis. In addition, MRI is the imaging modality of choice for characterization and precise assessment of tumor size as well as for the exclusion of pathologic changes.

  4. Plasma Drifts in the Intermediate Magnetosphere: Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J.; Zhang, B.

    2016-12-01

    One of the outstanding questions about the inner magnetosphere dynamics is how the ring current is populated. It is not clear how much is due to a general injection over longer time and spatial scales and how much due to more bursty events. One of the major uncertainties is the behavior of the plasma in the intermediate magnetosphere: the region where the magnetosphere changes from being tail-like to one where the dipole field dominates. This is also the region where physically the plasma behavior changes from MHD-like in the tail to one dominated by particle drifts in the inner magnetosphere. No of the current simulation models self-consistently handle the region where drifts are important but not dominant. We have recently developed a version of the multi-fluid LFM code that can self-consistently handle this situation. The drifts are modeled in a fashion similar to the Rice Convection Model in that a number of energy "channels" are explicitly simulated. However, the method is not limited to the "slow flow" region and both diamagnetic and inertial drifts are included. We present results from a number of idealized cases of the global magnetosphere interacting with a southward turning of the IMF. We discuss the relative importance of general convection and bursty flows to the transport of particles and energy across this region.

  5. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Matteucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na+/H+ exchange and HC3 -/Cl- anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments.So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.

  6. Electron Pathways through Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane in Human Physiology and Pathology: Potential Redox Biomarker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Elena; Giampietro, Ottavio

    2007-09-17

    Erythrocytes are involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Since pH is the influential factor in the Bohr-Haldane effect, pHi is actively maintained via secondary active transports Na(+)/H(+) exchange and HC(3) (-)/Cl(-) anion exchanger. Because of the redox properties of the iron, hemoglobin generates reactive oxygen species and thus, the human erythrocyte is constantly exposed to oxidative damage. Although the adult erythrocyte lacks protein synthesis and cannot restore damaged proteins, it is equipped with high activity of protective enzymes. Redox changes in the cell initiate various signalling pathways. Plasma membrane oxido-reductases (PMORs) are transmembrane electron transport systems that have been found in the membranes of all cells and have been extensively characterized in the human erythrocyte. Erythrocyte PMORs transfer reducing equivalents from intracellular reductants to extracellular oxidants, thus their most important role seems to be to enable the cell respond to changes in intra- and extra-cellular redox environments.So far the activity of erythrocyte PMORs in disease states has not been systematically investigated. This review summarizes present knowledge on erythrocyte electron transfer activity in humans (health, type 1 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic uremia) and hypothesizes an integrated model of the functional organization of erythrocyte plasma membrane where electron pathways work in parallel with transport metabolons to maintain redox homeostasis.

  7. Intravitreal bevacizumab treatment for choroidal neovascularization in pathologic myopia: 12-month results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbiya, Magda; Allievi, Francesca; Mazzeo, Luigi; Gabrieli, Corrado Balacco

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab for the treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series. Twenty eyes from 20 patients with CNV secondary to pathologic myopia participated in this prospective nonrandomized interventional case series. All patients were scheduled for three monthly intravitreal bevacizumab 1.25 mg injections. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), foveal center thickness (FCT) on optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiographic findings were examined before and after treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 months. The mean BCVA (+/- standard deviation [SD]) at baseline was 24.8 (+/- 11.86) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/80). At 12 months after treatment, the mean BCVA (+/- SD) improved significantly (P = .000001) to 43 (+/- 12.38) letters (Snellen equivalent: 20/35). At 12 month follow-up, BCVA improved 10 letters or more in 18 (90%) out of 20 treated eyes and improved 15 letters or more in 14 (70%) out of 20 treated eyes. No treated eyes experienced a worsening of BCVA from baseline. The mean FCT (+/- SD) at baseline was 223 (+/- 47.43) microns. At 12 months after treatment, the mean FCT (+/- SD) reduced to 206 (+/- 50.87) microns. This reduction in FCT after treatment was not statistically significant (P = .11). At 12 months follow-up, absence of fluorescein leakage from the CNV was demonstrated in 19 (95%) out of 20 treated eyes and persistent leakage in one eye (5%). None of the 19 eyes that had CNV closure experienced recurrence at 12-month follow-up. No ocular or systemic adverse effects from treatment were encountered. These results of intravitreal bevacizumab in myopic CNV are very promising with no apparent short-term safety concerns. At 12 months, treated eyes had a significant improvement in visual acuity (VA). OCT findings, as well, showed a trend consistent with the

  8. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Superoxide Dismutase 1 Loss Disturbs Intracellular Redox Signaling, Resulting in Global Age-Related Pathological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and organ dysfunction, which occur in a progressive and irreversible manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD serves as a major antioxidant and neutralizes superoxide radicals throughout the body. In vivo studies have demonstrated that copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/− mice show various aging-like pathologies, accompanied by augmentation of oxidative damage in organs. We found that antioxidant treatment significantly attenuated the age-related tissue changes and oxidative damage-associated p53 upregulation in Sod1−/− mice. This review will focus on various age-related pathologies caused by the loss of Sod1 and will discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis in Sod1−/− mice.

  10. Multifocal meningeal melanocytoma: a new pathological entity or the result of leptomeningeal seeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Youssef; Rahme, Ralph; Moussa, Ronald; Abadjian, Gerard; Menassa-Moussa, Lina; Samaha, Elie

    2009-09-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare benign CNS tumor derived from the leptomeningeal melanocytes. Although unusual, malignant transformation with leptomeningeal seeding into the brain or spinal cord may occur years after the initial diagnosis. The authors report a unique case of multifocal benign meningeal melanocytoma involving both cerebellopontine angles and the thoracic spinal cord, with associated diffuse leptomeningeal hyperpigmentation. They review the literature relevant to this topic and discuss the radiological and pathological features of this disease as well as its treatment options.

  11. THE RESULT OF INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING WITH BONE GRAFTING OF TIBIA'S PATHOLOGIC FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shapovalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the clinical case of successful surgical treatment of patient with tibia's pathologic fracture by intramedullary nailing with bone grafting. The disadvantages of such patients' treatment by plaster immobilization and by some invasive methods like vascular autografting by Ilizarov's method and bone plating were also discussed. The obvious benefits of proposed surgical treatment technique of observed patient category are shown.

  12. [Pathology of the digestive tract in kangaroos. A review based on our own study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoon, H A; Murmann, W

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes spontaneous pathological findings including etiological aspects in digestive tracts of kangaroos, which have been detected in 166 necropsies during the last 20 years. Protozoan - infections, herpes virus infections, gastroenteritis of unknown etiology and especially the occurrence of the so called "lumpy-jaw" turned out to be of special importance. These findings are discussed with reference to the literature, completed as well by short literature reviews, sub-divided into the different organs and the variable etiology of the diseases, as by a brief description of digestive tract physiology and anatomy in marsupials.

  13. Do all men with pathological Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer have poor outcomes? Results from the SEARCH database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sean; Lin, Daniel; Simon, Ross M; Howard, Lauren E; Aronson, William J; Terris, Martha K; Kane, Christopher J; Amling, Christopher L; Cooperberg, Matt R; Freedland, Stephen J; Vidal, Adriana C

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether there are subsets of men with pathological high grade prostate cancer (Gleason score 8-10) with particularly high or low 2-year biochemical recurrence (BCR) risk after radical prostatectomy (RP) when stratified into groups based on combinations of pathological features, such as surgical margin status, extracapsular extension (ECE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI). We identified 459 men treated with RP with pathological Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer in the SEARCH database. The men were stratified into five groups based on pathological characteristics: group 1, men with negative surgical margins (NSMs) and no ECE; group 2, men with positive surgical margin (PSMs) and no ECE; group 3, men with NSMs and ECE; group 4, men with PSMs and ECE; and group 5, men with SVI. Cox proportional hazards models and the log-rank test were used to compare BCR among the groups. At 2 years after RP, pathological group was significantly correlated with BCR (log-rank, P < 0.001) with patients in group 5 (+SVI) having the highest BCR risk (66%) and those in group 1 (NSMs and no ECE) having the lowest risk (14%). When we compared groups 2, 3, and 4, with each other, there was no significant difference in BCR among the groups (~50% 2-year BCR risk; log-rank P = 0.28). Results were similar when adjusting for prostate-specific antigen, age, pathological Gleason sum and clinical stage, or after excluding men who received adjuvant therapy. In patients with high grade (Gleason score 8-10) prostate cancer after RP, the presence of either PSMs, ECE or SVI was associated with an increased risk of early BCR, with a 2-year BCR risk of ≥50%. Conversely, men with organ-confined margin-negative disease had a very low risk of early BCR despite Gleason score 8-10 disease. © 2015 The Authors BJU International © 2015 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Introduction results of radiosurgery technique in cervical pathology consultation. Analysis of five years 2004 – 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Pérez Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available AA cross sectional study and retrospective was performed in patients having cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, mainly in high grade lesions (CIN II, CIN III and C. In situ, which were treated with radiosurgery technique in the University General Hospital “Camilo Cienfuegos” Sancti Spiritus during the period may 2004 – may 2009 with the objective to evaluate the radiosurgery`s behaviour in the period mentioned before. The studied group was conformed by 550 patients having high grade lesions and low grade persistent lesions (NIC I with previous biopsy, a smaller group of 24 cases was formed by benign pathologies tributary of this procedure. High grade lesions were of major indications (73.1%. 69 cases were false negative (13.3%; since the second decade of life were presented high and low grade lesions of cervical pathology, a good correlation punch – cone byopsy was checked; edges of the surgical section behave properly, lower than what it is established in the international standard (6.7. The procedure had a great economic and social impact, because it is an ambulatory technique with few difficulties, low cost, and a fast integration patient – normal work.

  15. Discordance between clinical and pathological TNM classification: influence on results of treatment and prognosis in patients with laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celakovsky, P; Kalfert, D; Smatanova, K; Kordac, P; Laco, J; Chrobok, V

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this retrospective cohort study were to compare the results of clinical and pathological TNM staging in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to determine the impact of the discordance on prognosis and treatment results. A total of 124 patients with laryngeal cancer, primarily indicated for surgical treatment, were enrolled. The concordance or discordance between the clinical and pathological staging was compared with the frequency of cancer relapse and disease-specific survival. Other potential prognostic factors, like age, the stage and location of the primary tumor, the status of neck lymph nodes, histological margins, and an indication for postoperative radiotherapy, were also evaluated. A disparity in at least one component of TNM staging was found in 40 patients (32%). The discordance had significant negative influence on both disease-free survival (DSF) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Other significant negative prognostic factors were the stage of the primary tumor, nodal status and postoperative radiotherapy. Our results indicate that the discordance between clinical and pathological staging affects the results of cancer treatment significantly. Some improvement can be probably achieved with higher preoperative diagnostic method accuracy.

  16. Fast Plasma Instrument for MMS: Data Compression Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, A.; Adrian, M. L.; Yeh, P.; Winkert, G.; Lobell, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Simpson, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission will study small-scale reconnection structures and their rapid motions from closely spaced platforms using instruments capable of high angular, energy, and time resolution measurements. To meet these requirements, the Fast Plasma Instrument (FPI) consists of eight (8) identical half top-hat electron sensors and eight (8) identical ion sensors and an Instrument Data Processing Unit (IDPU). The sensors (electron or ion) are grouped into pairs whose 6° x 180° fields-of-view (FOV) are set 90° apart. Each sensor is equipped with electrostatic aperture steering to allow the sensor to scan a 45° x 180° fan about the its nominal viewing (0° deflection) direction. Each pair of sensors, known as the Dual Electron Spectrometer (DES) and the Dual Ion Spectrometer (DIS), occupies a quadrant on the MMS spacecraft and the combination of the eight electron/ion sensors, employing aperture steering, image the full-sky every 30-ms (electrons) and 150-ms (ions), respectively. To probe the diffusion regions of reconnection, the highest temporal/spatial resolution mode of FPI results in the DES complement of a given spacecraft generating 6.5-Mb s-1 of electron data while the DIS generates 1.1-Mb s-1 of ion data yielding an FPI total data rate of 6.6-Mb s-1. The FPI electron/ion data is collected by the IDPU then transmitted to the Central Data Instrument Processor (CIDP) on the spacecraft for science interest ranking. Only data sequences that contain the greatest amount of temporal/spatial structure will be intelligently down-linked by the spacecraft. Currently, the FPI data rate allocation to the CIDP is 1.5-Mb s-1. Consequently, the FPI-IDPU must employ data/image compression to meet this CIDP telemetry allocation. Here, we present updated simulations of the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 algorithm-based compression of the FPI-DES electron data as well as the FPI-DIS ion data. Compression analysis is based upon a seed of re-processed Cluster

  17. First results from the MAST digital plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArdle, G.J. E-mail: graham.mcardle@ukaea.org.uk; Storrs, J

    2004-06-01

    The mega-amp spherical tokamak (MAST) has operated under a new digital plasma control system [Fusion Eng. Des. 66-68 (2003) 761]. The new system, based on commercially available VME hardware, has replaced most of the old analogue control electronics [Fusion Eng. Des. 56-57 (2001) 749] with algorithms implemented in the control software. General Atomics provided their PCS [B.G. Penaflor, J.R. Ferron, M.L. Walker, A structured architecture for advanced plasma control experiments, in: Proceedings of the 19th SOFT, vol. 1, Lisbon, Portugal, 1996, p. 965] software infrastructure as a generic framework for a plasma control system. A powerful configuration tool has been developed to generate the MAST-specific code from a set of structured documents written in extensible mark-up language (XML). This enables rapid development of new control algorithms and permits safe re-configuration of the code layout, whilst maintaining the coherence of multiple cross-references. The initial algorithm set emulates the behaviour of the original analogue control hardware where it is sensible to do so, but implements several new plant protection capabilities that were previously too difficult to provide with analogue electronics. Shots previously run with the old system can be converted to run in the new system, thus allowing previous campaigns to be continued without the need to develop new scenarios. During the present engineering break, a new suite of algorithms is being developed to provide plasma boundary reconstruction and control functions that fully exploit the capabilities of the digital system.

  18. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 μs.

  19. Frequency of Pathological Changes in Lungs of Bodies with Positive Postmortem Toxicology Results for Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Mostafazadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pattern of drug abuse in Iran has dramatically changed in recent years, turning from the traditional opioids [opium, opium dross, and refined opium dross (Shireh] into drugs with newer forms. The present study is aimed at investigating the frequency of pathological changes in the lungs of bodies with positive postmortem toxicology results for narcotics and psychotropic substances autopsied in the forensic dissection hall of Tehran, Iran [the Iranian Legal Medicine Organization (LMO]. Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive study. The sample consisted of 153 bodies, which had been referred to the LMO with positive results in postmortem toxicology for narcotics and psychotropic substances. Results: We found that narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances were used more in men than women. Moreover, the average age of death due to drug use was 36 years old. In addition, methamphetamine was the mostly-used type of substances, and smoking was the most widely used method to use the drugs. Besides, the dominant consistency and color of the lungs of half of the bodies investigated were elastic brown-gray. Moreover, the most common pathologic changes observed in the lungs of the bodies investigated were congestion and edema. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of pathological changes in the lungs of the examined bodies and congestion, edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage, the results of the present study can be particularly effective in determining the drug use and the resultant death in the absence of any previous records and/or a negative result of toxicology.

  20. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3 ΔE2 ) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin level...

  1. First results with a microcavity plasma panel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Robert [University of Michigan; Ben Moshe, M. [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Benhammou, Yan [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Chapman, J. Wehrley [University of Michigan; Etzion, E [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Ferretti, Claudio [University of Michigan; Friedman, Dr. Peter S. [Integrated Sensors, LLC; Levin, Daniel S. [University of Michigan; Silver, Yiftah [Tel Aviv University, Israel; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weaverdyck, Curtis [University of Michigan; Zhou, Bing [University of Michigan; Bensimon, R [Tel Aviv University School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv, Israel; Davies, Merlin [Tel Aviv University School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv, Israel

    2015-01-01

    A new type of gaseous micropattern particle detector based on a closed-cell microcavity plasma panel sensor is reported. The first device was fabricated with 1 x 1 x 2 mm cells. It has shown very clean signals of 0.6-2.5 V amplitude, fast rise time of approximately 2 ns and FWHM of about 2 ns with very uniform signal shapes across all pixels. From initial measurements with beta particles from a radioactive source, a maximum pixel efficiency greater than 95% is calculated, for operation of the detector over a 100 V wide span of high voltages (HV). Over this same HV range, the background rate per pixel was measured to be 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than the rate with which the cell was illuminated by the beta source. Pixel-to-pixel count rate uniformity is within 3% and stable within 3% for many days. The time resolution is 2.4 ns, and a very low cell-to-cell crosstalk has been measured between cells separated by 2 mm. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. First results with a microcavity plasma panel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, R; Benhammou, Y; Bensimon, R; Chapman, J W; Davis, M; Etzion, E; Ferretti, C; Friedman, P S; Levin, D S; Silver, Y; Varner, R L; Weaverdyck, C; Zhou, B

    2014-01-01

    A new type of gaseous micropattern particle detector based on a closed-cell microcavity plasma panel sensor is reported. The first device was fabricated with 1 x 1 x 2 mm cells. It has shown very clean signals of 0.6 to 2.5 volt amplitude, fast rise time of approximately 2 ns and FWHM of about 2 ns with very uniform signal shapes across all pixels. From initial measurements with beta particles from a radioactive source, a maximum pixel efficiency of greater than 95% is calculated, for operation of the detector over a 100V wide span of high voltages (HV). Over this same HV range, the background rate per pixel was measured to be 3 to 4 orders of magnitude lower than the rate with the cell illuminated by the beta source. Pixel-to-pixel count rate uniformity is within 3% and stable within 3% for many days. The time resolution is 4.4 ns, and a very low cell-to-cell crosstalk has been measured between cells separated by 2 mm.

  3. Clinical–Pathologic Stage Discrepancy in Bladder Cancer Patients Treated With Radical Cystectomy: Results From the National Cancer Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Phillip J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lin, Chun Chieh; Jemal, Ahmedin [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Shipley, William U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fedewa, Stacey A. [Surveillance and Health Services Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kibel, Adam S. [Division of Urology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rosenberg, Jonathan E. [Genitourinary Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kamat, Ashish M. [Division of Surgery, Department of Urology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Virgo, Katherine S. [Department of Health Policy and Management, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Blute, Michael L. [Department of Urology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A., E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of clinical staging and its effects on outcome in bladder cancer (BC) patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC), using a large national database. Methods and Materials: A total of 16,953 patients with BC without distant metastases treated with RC from 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. Factors associated with clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy were assessed by multivariate generalized estimating equation models. Survival analysis was conducted for patients treated between 1998 and 2004 (n=7270) using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: At RC 41.9% of patients were upstaged, whereas 5.9% were downstaged. Upstaging was more common in females, the elderly, and in patients who underwent a more extensive lymphadenectomy. Downstaging was less common in patients treated at community centers, in the elderly, and in Hispanics. Receipt of preoperative chemotherapy was highly associated with downstaging. Five-year overall survival rates for patients with clinical stages 0, I, II, III, and IV were 67.2%, 62.9%, 50.4%, 36.9%, and 27.2%, respectively, whereas those for the same pathologic stages were 70.8%, 75.8%, 63.7%, 41.5%, and 24.7%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, upstaging was associated with increased 5-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.80, P<.001), but downstaging was not associated with survival (HR 0.88, P=.160). In contrast, more extensive lymphadenectomy was associated with decreased 5-year mortality (HR 0.76 for ≥10 lymph nodes examined, P<.001), as was treatment at an National Cancer Institute–designated cancer center (HR 0.90, P=.042). Conclusions: Clinical–pathologic stage discrepancy in BC patients is remarkably common across the United States. These findings should be considered when selecting patients for preoperative or nonoperative management strategies and when comparing the outcomes of bladder sparing approaches to RC.

  4. Study of 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion in different pathologic types of kidney tumor: preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate microcirculatory differences between pathologic types of kidney tumor using 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion. METHODS: Perfusion imaging with 320-slice dynamic volume CT was prospectively performed in 85 patients with pathologically proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC (n = 66, papillary RCC (n = 7, chromophobe RCC (n = 5, angiomyolipoma (AML with minimal fat (n = 7, or RCC (n = 78. Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV, permeability surface-area product (PS; clearance/unit volume = permeability, and blood flow (BF of tumor and normal renal cortex were measured and analyzed. Effective radiation dose was calculated. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in all three parameters between tumor and normal renal cortex (P<0.001. Equiv BV was significantly different between RCC and AML with minimal fat (P = 0.038 and between clear cell RCC and AML with minimal fat (P<0.001. Mean Equiv BV and BF were significantly higher in clear cell RCC than in papillary RCC (P<0.001 for both and mean Equiv BV was higher in clear cell RCC than in chromophobe RCC (P<0.001. The effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 18.5 mSv. CONCLUSION: Perfusion imaging using 320-slice dynamic volume CT can be used to evaluate hemodynamic features of the whole kidney and kidney tumors, which may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these four pathologic types of kidney tumor.

  5. Development of arthrogenic joint contracture as a result of pathological changes in remobilized rat knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneguchi, Akinori; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi; Yamaoka, Kaoru

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate how rats recover from immobilization-induced knee joint contracture. Rats' right knees were immobilized by an external fixator at a flexion of 140° for 3 weeks. After removal of the fixator, the joints were allowed to move freely (remobilization) for 0, 1, 3, 7, or 14 days (n = 5 each). To distinguish myogenic and arthrogenic contractures, the passive extension range of motion was measured before and after myotomy of the knee flexors. Knee joints were histologically analyzed and the expression of genes encoding inflammatory or fibrosis-related mediators, interleukin-1β (1L-1β), fibrosis-related transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and collagen type I (COL1A1) and III (COL3A1), were examined in the knee joint posterior capsules using real-time PCR. Both myogenic and arthrogenic contractures were established within 3 weeks of immobilization. During remobilization, the myogenic contracture decreased over time. In contrast, the arthrogenic contracture developed further during the remobilization period. On day 1 of remobilization, inflammatory changes characterized by edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, and upregulation of IL-1β gene started in the knee joint posterior capsule. In addition, collagen deposition accompanied by fibroblast proliferation, with upregulation of TGF-β1, COL1A1, and COL3A1 genes, appeared in the joint capsule between days 7 and 14. These results suggest the progression of arthrogenic contracture following remobilization, which is characterized by fibrosis development, is possibly triggered by inflammation in the joint capsule. It is therefore necessary to focus on developing new treatment strategies for immobilization-induced joint contracture. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1414-1423, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Muscleblind-like 3 deficit results in a spectrum of age-associated pathologies observed in myotonic dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongkyu; Dixon, Donald M; Dansithong, Warunee; Abdallah, Walid F; Roos, Kenneth P; Jordan, Maria C; Trac, Brandon; Lee, Han Shin; Comai, Lucio; Reddy, Sita

    2016-08-03

    Myotonic dystrophy type I (DM1) exhibits distinctive disease specific phenotypes and the accelerated onset of a spectrum of age-associated pathologies. In DM1, dominant effects of expanded CUG repeats result in part from the inactivation of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins. To test the role of MBNL3, we deleted Mbnl3 exon 2 (Mbnl3(ΔE2)) in mice and examined the onset of age-associated diseases over 4 to 13 months of age. Accelerated onset of glucose intolerance with elevated insulin levels, cardiac systole deficits, left ventricle hypertrophy, a predictor of a later onset of heart failure and the development of subcapsular and cortical cataracts is observed in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Retention of embryonic splice isoforms in adult organs, a prominent defect in DM1, is not observed in multiple RNAs including the Insulin Receptor (Insr), Cardiac Troponin T (Tnnt2), Lim Domain Binding 3 (Ldb3) RNAs in Mbnl3(ΔE2) mice. Although rare DM1-like splice errors underlying the observed phenotypes cannot be excluded, our data in conjunction with the reported absence of alternative splice errors in embryonic muscles of a similar Mbnl3(ΔE2) mouse by RNA-seq studies, suggest that mechanisms distinct from the adult retention of embryonic splice patterns may make important contributions to the onset of age-associated pathologies in DM1.

  7. Pathological characterisation of male breast cancer: Results of the EORTC 10085/TBCRC/BIG/NABCG International Male Breast Cancer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marijn A; Slaets, Leen; Cardoso, Fatima; Giordano, Sharon H; Tryfonidis, Konstantinos; van Diest, Paul J; Dijkstra, Nizet H; Schröder, Carolien P; van Asperen, Christi J; Linderholm, Barbro; Benstead, Kim; Foekens, Renee; Martens, John W M; Bartlett, John M S; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2017-09-01

    Several prognostic histological features have been established in female breast cancer (BC), but it is unknown whether these can be extrapolated to male BC patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of several histological features in a large series of male BC. Central pathology review was performed for 1483 male BCs collected through part 1 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) International Male BC Program. Pathology review included histological subtype, grade, mitotic activity index (MAI), presence of a fibrotic focus and density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). These features were correlated with clinical outcome. The relationship between these features and surrogate molecular subtypes using immunohistochemistry was also assessed. Median follow-up for overall survival (OS) was 7.1 years. Overall histological grade was not significantly associated with OS (p = 0.129). MAI, the presence of a fibrotic focus and a low TIL density however were correlated with unfavourable OS (p = 0.023, p = 0.004 and p = 0.011, respectively). BC subtype correlated with TIL density (p = 0.015), as we observed a higher density for human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) positive BC compared to luminal HER2-negative subtype. No association was observed between subtype and fibrotic focus. Histologic grade was not significantly correlated with clinical outcome in this series, unlike what is seen in female patients. These results contribute to our understanding of male BC and indicate the importance of further research on the optimisation of risk stratification and treatment decisions for male BC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Results of direct measurements of the plasma potential using a laser-heated emissive probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrittwieser, R.; Sarma, A.; Amarandei, G.; Ionita, C. [Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. for Ion Physics; Klinger, T.; Grulke, O.; Vogelsang, A.; Windisch, T. [Max Planck Inst. for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Reliable diagnostics of the plasma potential is one of the most important challenges in context with the production, control and confinement of a plasma. Emissive probes are readily available as direct diagnostic tools for the plasma potential with a good temporal and spatial resolution in many plasmas, even up to middle-sized fusion experiments. We present the results of investigations on the heating of lanthanum hexaboride and graphite with an infrared diode laser and on the development of a laser-heated emissive probe. Such a probe has a higher electron emission, much longer life time and better time response than a conventional emissive wire probe. We have observed that from both materials electron emission current can be achieved sufficiently strongly even for dense laboratory and experimental fusion plasmas.

  9. Simulation of plasma-surface interactions in a fusion reactor by means of QSPA plasma streams: recent results and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkusha, I. E.; Aksenov, N. N.; Byrka, O. V.; Makhlaj, V. A.; Herashchenko, S. S.; Malykhin, S. V.; Petrov, Yu V.; Staltsov, V. V.; Surovitskiy, S. V.; Wirtz, M.; Linke, J.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is devoted to plasma-surface interaction issues at high heat-loads which are typical for fusion reactors. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which is now under construction, the knowledge of erosion processes and the behaviour of various constructional materials under extreme conditions is a very critical issue, which will determine a successful realization of the project. The most important plasma-surface interaction (PSI) effects in 3D geometry have been studied using a QSPA Kh-50 powerful quasi-stationary plasma accelerator. Mechanisms of the droplet and dust generation have been investigated in detail. It was found that the droplets emission from castellated surfaces has a threshold character and a cyclic nature. It begins only after a certain number of the irradiating plasma pulses when molten and shifted material is accumulated at the edges of the castellated structure. This new erosion mechanism, connected with the edge effects, results in an increase in the size of the emitted droplets (as compared with those emitted from a flat surface). This mechanism can even induce the ejection of sub-mm particles. A concept of a new-generation QSPA facility, the current status of this device maintenance, and prospects for further experiments are also presented.

  10. Comparative Study of US Features, US-guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and Pathology Results for Eggshell Calcified Thyroid Nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yoon Nae; Kim, Dong Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate ultrasound (US) findings of eggshell calcified thyroid nodules associated with thyroid malignancy and the diagnostic usefulness for US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) of eggshell calcified thyroid nodules. We analyzed 36 eggshell calcified thyroid nodules in 35 patients who underwent thyroid US and US-FNAC from January to December of 2009. We compared the US findings and US-FNAC results with the pathologic results confirmed by surgery. Twenty eggshell calcified nodules were surgically removed in 19 patients, from which 8 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 12 hyperplasia nodules were confirmed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values, as well as accuracy for US diagnosis and US-FNAC of eggshell calcified nodules were 100% and 20%, 25% and 100%, 43.8% and 100%, 100% and 63.6%, and 55% and 66.7%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that thick peripheral hypoechoic rim and thickening of eggshell calcified nodules are significantly related to malignancy, but focal disruption of eggshell calcification is not.

  11. Proton Beam Defocusing as a Result of Self-Modulation in Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Marlene; Gschwendtner, Edda; Lotov, Konstantin; Sosedkin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The AWAKE experiment will use a \\SI{400}{GeV/c} proton beam with a longitudinal bunch length of $\\sigma_z = 12\\,\\rm{cm}$ to create and sustain GV/m plasma wakefields over 10 meters . A 12 cm long bunch can only drive strong wakefields in a plasma with $n_{pe} = 7 \\times 10^{14}\\,\\rm{electrons/cm}^3$ after the self-modulation instability (SMI) developed and microbunches formed, spaced at the plasma wavelength. The fields present during SMI focus and defocus the protons in the transverse plane \\cite{SMI}. We show that by inserting two imaging screens downstream the plasma, we can measure the maximum defocusing angle of the defocused protons for plasma densities above $n_{pe} = 5 \\times 10^{14}\\,\\rm{electrons/cm}^{-3}$. Measuring maximum defocusing angles around 1 mrad indirectly proves that SMI developed successfully and that GV/m plasma wakefields were created. In this paper we present numerical studies on how and when the wakefields defocus protons in plasma, the expected measurement results of the two screen...

  12. Effects of Solar Wind Conditions on the Plasma Wake Within a Polar Crater: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    As the solar wind sweeps horizontally past a shadowed lunar crater it simultaneously diffuses toward the surface through an ambipolar process, forming a plasma wake (e.g., Figure 1). Importantly, the resulting electric field structure diverts solar wind protons toward the cold crater floor where they may represent a source of surficial hydrogen. We present a handful of two-dimensional kinetic simulations exploring the range of wake structures and surface particle fluxes possible under various background plasma conditions.

  13. MYH11 mutations result in a distinct vascular pathology driven by insulin-like growth factor 1 and angiotensin II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Papke, Christina L.; Scherer, Steve; Liu, Yaozhong; Presley, Caroline; Guo, Dongchuan; Estrera, Anthony L.; Safi, Hazim J.; Brasier, Allan R.; Vick, G. Wesley; Marian, A.J.; Raman, C.S.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2010-01-01

    Non-syndromic thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAADs) are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner in ~20% of cases. Familial TAAD is genetically heterogeneous and four loci have been mapped for this disease to date, including a locus at 16p for TAAD associated with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). The defective gene at the 16p locus has recently been identified as the smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific myosin heavy chain gene (MYH11). On sequencing MYH11 in 93 families with TAAD alone and three families with TAAD/PDA, we identified novel mutations in two families with TAAD/PDA, but none in families with TAAD alone. Histopathological analysis of aortic sections from two individuals with MYH11 mutations revealed SMC disarray and focal hyperplasia of SMCs in the aortic media. SMC hyperplasia leading to significant lumen narrowing in some of the vessels of the adventitia was also observed. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was upregulated in mutant aortas as well as explanted SMCs, but no increase in transforming growth factor-β expression or downstream targets was observed. Enhanced expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and markers of Angiotensin II (Ang II) vascular inflammation (macrophage inflammatory protein-1α and β) were also found. These data suggest that MYH11 mutations are likely to be specific to the phenotype of TAAD/PDA and result in a distinct aortic and occlusive vascular pathology potentially driven by IGF-1 and Ang II. PMID:17666408

  14. Comparison of Transperineal Mapping Biopsy Results with Whole-Mount Radical Prostatectomy Pathology in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Katz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of transperineal mapping biopsy (TMB by comparing it to the pathology specimen of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP for localized prostate cancer. Methods. From March 2007 to September 2009, 78 men at a single center underwent TMB; 17 of 78 subsequently underwent RP. TMB cores were grouped into four quadrants and matched to data from RP whole-mount slides. Gleason score, tumor location and volume, cross-sectional area, and maximal diameter were measured; sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Results. For the 17 patients who underwent RP, TMB revealed 12 (71% had biopsy Gleason grades ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76% had bilateral disease. RP specimens showed 14 (82% had Gleason scores ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76% had bilateral disease. Sensitivity and specificity of TMB for prostate cancer detection were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–94% and 83% (95% CI 62%–95%, respectively. Four quadrants negative for cancer on TMB were positive on prostatectomy, and six positive on TMB were negative on prostatectomy. Conclusion. TMB is a highly invasive procedure that can accurately detect and localize prostate cancer. These findings help establish baseline performance characteristics for TMB and its utility for organ-sparing strategies.

  15. Thresholds of probable problematic gambling involvement for the German population: Results of the Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosowski, Tim; Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Bischof, Anja; Meyer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Consumption measures in gambling research may help to establish thresholds of low-risk gambling as 1 part of evidence-based responsible gambling strategies. The aim of this study is to replicate existing Canadian thresholds of probable low-risk gambling (Currie et al., 2006) in a representative dataset of German gambling behavior (Pathological Gambling and Epidemiology [PAGE]; N = 15,023). Receiver-operating characteristic curves applied in a training dataset (60%) extracted robust thresholds of low-risk gambling across 4 nonexclusive definitions of gambling problems (1 + to 4 + Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition [DSM-5] Composite International Diagnostic Interview [CIDI] symptoms), different indicators of gambling involvement (across all game types; form-specific) and different timeframes (lifetime; last year). Logistic regressions applied in a test dataset (40%) to cross-validate the heuristics of probable low-risk gambling incorporated confounding covariates (age, gender, education, migration, and unemployment) and confirmed the strong concurrent validity of the thresholds. Moreover, it was possible to establish robust form-specific thresholds of low-risk gambling (only for gaming machines and poker). Possible implications for early detection of problem gamblers in offline or online environments are discussed. Results substantiate international knowledge about problem gambling prevention and contribute to a German discussion about empirically based guidelines of low-risk gambling.

  16. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Sorbello, Gino; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Isernia, Tommaso; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 1011-1013 cm-3 and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called "frequency sweep" method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  17. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  18. Testicular tumors: correlation between radiological findings and pathology results; Neoplasias testiculares: aspectos ultra-sonograficos com correlacao anatomopatologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Szejnfeld, Denis; Abud, Thiago G.; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: luisronan@gmail.com; Takano, Daniela Mayumi [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia Patologica; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Setor de Geniturinario

    2005-10-15

    The aim of this study is to review the main imaging findings and the pathological and clinical features seen on patients with testicular tumors in order to define characteristics that may help in the differential diagnosis of the most frequent lesions. We performed a retrospective study of 51 patients with diagnosis of testicular tumors submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography between July 2003 to March 2004 that were referred to the Diagnostic Department of Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Hospital, Brazil. We concluded that a basic knowledge of the key imaging findings and pathological and clinical features of testicular tumor sis very helpful for an accurate diagnosis of this condition.(author)

  19. Characterizing "Adversity" of Pathology Findings in Nonclinical Toxicity Studies: Results from the 4th ESTP International Expert Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The identification of adverse health effects has a central role in the development and risk/safety assessment of chemical entities and pharmaceuticals. There is currently a need for better alignment in the toxicologic pathology community regarding how nonclinical adversity is det...

  20. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haaland

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s−1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  1. Diagnostics and results from coaxial plasma gun development for the PLX- α project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cruz, E.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from the diagnostics used during development of the contoured gap coaxial plasma guns for the PLX- α project at LANL. Plasma-jet diagnostics include fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for total plasmoid momentum, and interferometry for line integrated density. Deflectometry will be used for line integrated perpendicular density gradients. Time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector and time-integrated survey spectroscopy are used for measurements of velocity and temperature, as well as impurities. We will also use a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry, and time-integrated imaging for overall light emission. Experimental results are compared to the desired target parameters for the plasma jets (up to n 2 ×1016cm-3 , v 50km / s , mass 5gm , radius = 4cm , and length 10cm). This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  2. Plasma Discharges in Gas Bubbles in Liquid Water: Breakdown Mechanisms and Resultant Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Sarah M. N.

    The use of atmospheric pressure plasmas in gases and liquids for purification of liquids has been investigated by numerous researchers, and is highly attractive due to their strong potential as a disinfectant and sterilizer. However, the fundamental understanding of plasma production in liquid water is still limited. Despite the decades of study dedicated to electrical discharges in liquids, many physical aspects of liquids, such as the high inhomogeneity of liquids, complicate analyses. For example, the complex nonlinearities of the fluid have intricate effects on the electric field of the propagating streamer. Additionally, the liquid material itself can vaporize, leading to discontinuous liquid-vapor boundaries. Both can and do often lead to notable hydrodynamic effects. The chemistry of these high voltage discharges on liquid media can have circular effects, with the produced species having influence on future discharges. Two notable examples include an increase in liquid conductivity via charged species production, which affects the discharge. A second, more complicated scenario seen in some liquids (such as water) is the doubling or tripling of molecular density for a few molecule layers around a high voltage electrode. These complexities require technological advancements in optical diagnostics that have only recently come into being. This dissertation investigates several aspects of electrical discharges in gas bubbles in liquids. Two primary experimental configurations are investigated: the first allows for single bubble analysis through the use of an acoustic trap. Electrodes may be brought in around the bubble to allow for plasma formation without physically touching the bubble. The second experiment investigates the resulting liquid phase chemistry that is driven by the discharge. This is done through a dielectric barrier discharge with a central high voltage surrounded by a quartz discharge tube with a coil ground electrode on the outside. The plasma

  3. Analysis of structural transformation in wool fiber resulting from oxygen plasma treatment using vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hossein; Haji, Aminoddin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oxygen plasma procedure at different time treatments on wool fiber using the micro-Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive vibrational spectroscopic technique and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The amide I and III regions, Csbnd C skeletal vibration region, and Ssbnd S and Csbnd S bonds vibration regions were analyzed with the Raman microscope. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscope analysis was employed to find out the effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the cysteic acid residues content of the wool fiber sample. The results indicated that the α-helix structure was the highest component content of wool fiber. Moreover, the protein secondary structure of wool fibers was transformed from α-helical arrangement to the β-pleated sheet configuration during the oxygen plasma treatment. Also, the disulphide bonds content in the treated wool fiber reduced because they were fractured and oxidized during oxygen plasma treatment. The oxygen plasma treated samples presented higher cysteic acid compared to the untreated wool samples due to produce more cleavage of disulfide linkages.

  4. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  5. The Space Station Photovoltaic Panels Plasma Interaction Test Program: Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1989-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  6. The Space Station photovoltaic panels plasma interaction test program - Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  7. MHD Model Results of Solar Wind Plasma Interaction with Mars and Comparison with MAVEN Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Nagy, A. F.; Toth, G.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    The crustal remnant field on Mars rotates constantly with the planet, varying the magnetic field configuration interacting with the solar wind. It has been found that ion loss rates slowly vary with the subsolar longitude, anticorrelating with the intensity of the dayside crustal field source, with some time delay, using a time-dependent multispecies MHD model. In this study, we investigate in detail how plasma properties are influenced locally by the crustal field and its rotation. Model results will be compared in detail with plasma observations from MAVEN.

  8. Coal-fired open cycle MHD combustion plasmas - Chemical equilibrium and transport properties workshop results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, L. D.; Klepeis, J. E.; Coderre, W. J.; Fischer, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    For electrical power generation utilizing a high temperature alkali-seeded coal combustion plasma, the certainty of high electrical conductivity in the presence of coal ash and trace impurities is vitally important, especially for use in extrapolation of existing designs to higher power levels, as envisioned for commercial applications. The paper surveys the results of the workshop which provides an industry wide overview of the computational methods and analyses that are currently in use. Attention is given to uncertainty bands for plasma electrical conductivity. Also discussed are other issues such as coal, slag, seed, and conductivity. Finally, the paper gives suggested areas for further work.

  9. Recent results on analytical plasma turbulence theory: Realizability, intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-18

    Recent results and future challenges in the systematic analytical description of plasma turbulence are described. First, the importance of statistical realizability is stressed, and the development and successes of the Realizable Markovian Closure are briefly reviewed. Next, submarginal turbulence (linearly stable but nonlinearly self-sustained fluctuations) is considered and the relevance of nonlinear instability in neutral-fluid shear flows to submarginal turbulence in magnetized plasmas is discussed. For the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, a self-consistency loop that leads to steady-state vortex regeneration in the presence of dissipation is demonstrated and a partial unification of recent work of Drake (for plasmas) and of Waleffe (for neutral fluids) is given. Brief remarks are made on the difficulties facing a quantitatively accurate statistical description of submarginal turbulence. Finally, possible connections between intermittency, submarginal turbulence, and self-organized criticality (SOC) are considered and outstanding questions are identified.

  10. Recent results from studies of electron beam phenomena in space plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Torsten; Banks, Peter M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines selected results from experiments, performed in 1980s, involving the ejection of beams of electrons from spacecraft. Special attention is given to the basic processes associated with the spacecraft charging, passive current collection, beam-atmosphere interactions, beam-plasma interactions, and neutral gas emission. Consideration is also given to future experiments on active electron beam ejections in space.

  11. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, David M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, 1208 Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, Rick, E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Sepulveda, Rosalina [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA 02494 (United States); Kunzendorf, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, D-40882 Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Ernst, Heinrich, E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Phillips, James I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service (South Africa); Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  12. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  13. Topside Ionosphere Plasma Bubbles Seen in He+ Density: Results and Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Larisa; Filippov, Sergey

    He (+) density depletions, considered as fossil equatorial plasma bubble signatures, were involved in this study. They are usually detected in the topside ionosphere (approx. 1000 km) deeply inside the plasmasphere (L=1.3-3). a) The question about an opportunity to detect the topside plasma bubbles of equatorial origin in their separate plasma component (He (+) ) is investigated. There are the indications [Sidorova, ASR, 2004, 2007; Sidorova and Filippov, JASTP, 2012] that there is genetic connection between the He (+) density depletions and the equatorial plasma bubbles. For validation of this idea the characteristic times of the main photochemical and electro-dynamical processes, in which the plasma bubbles and their minor ion component (He (+) ) are involved, have been calculated and compared. The model estimations, obtained in SAMIS3 (3D model of equatorial spread F) and kindly presented by J. Huba (USA), are also used for the investigation. It was revealed that the plasma bubbles, reaching the “ceiling” heights, can exist within 2-3 days and that there is principal opportunity to observe them in the separate plasma component (He (+) ). (b) The longitudinal statistics of the He (+) density depletions (P), calculated for all seasons and both hemispheres (20-50(°) INVLAT), were obtained. It was revealed that the most of the P plots have “wave-like” structure with well-defining four peaks. The peaks are the most pronounced in the NH during March equinox/December solstice and in the SH during March equinox/June solstice. Similar wave number 4 longitudinal structure has recently been found in the low-latitude ionosphere density distribution [Immel et al., GRL, 2006; England et al., GRL, 2006; Jin et al., JGR, 2008]. It is assumed that the longitudinal plasma density variations appear due to the modulated vertical Е×В drift. It is supposed that solar thermal tides excited in the troposphere induce zonal perturbation electric fields, which are added to the

  14. Chaoticity threshold in magnetized plasmas: Numerical results in the weak coupling regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carati, A., E-mail: andrea.carati@unimi.it; Benfenati, F.; Maiocchi, A.; Galgani, L. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Zuin, M., E-mail: matteo.zuin@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    The present paper is a numerical counterpart to the theoretical work [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)]. We are concerned with the transition from order to chaos in a one-component plasma (a system of point electrons with mutual Coulomb interactions, in a uniform neutralizing background), the plasma being immersed in a uniform stationary magnetic field. In the paper [Carati et al., Chaos 22, 033124 (2012)], it was predicted that a transition should take place when the electron density is increased or the field decreased in such a way that the ratio ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} between plasma and cyclotron frequencies becomes of order 1, irrespective of the value of the so-called Coulomb coupling parameter Γ. Here, we perform numerical computations for a first principles model of N point electrons in a periodic box, with mutual Coulomb interactions, using as a probe for chaoticity the time-autocorrelation function of magnetization. We consider two values of Γ (0.04 and 0.016) in the weak coupling regime Γ ≪ 1, with N up to 512. A transition is found to occur for ω{sub p}/ω{sub c} in the range between 0.25 and 2, in fairly good agreement with the theoretical prediction. These results might be of interest for the problem of the breakdown of plasma confinement in fusion machines.

  15. Enhanced corrosion resistance properties of radiofrequency cold plasma nitrided carbon steel: Gravimetric and electrochemical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouanis, F.Z. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Bentiss, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination et d' Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Chouaib Doukkali, B.P. 20, M-24000 El Jadida (Morocco); Traisnel, M. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Jama, C. [Laboratoire des Procedes d' Elaboration des Revetements Fonctionnels, PERF-LSPES UMR-CNRS 8008, ENSCL, BP 90108, F-59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: charafeddine.jama@ensc-lille.fr

    2009-03-01

    Cold plasma nitriding treatment was performed to improve the corrosion resistance of C38 carbon steel. Nitriding process was conducted using a radiofrequency nitrogen plasma discharge for different times of treatment on non-heated substrates. The modification of the corrosion resistance characteristic of the C38 steel due to the treatment in acid medium (1 M HCl) were investigated by gravimetric and electrochemical tests such as potentiodynamic polarisation curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was shown that the plasma nitriding treatment improves the corrosion resistance. Indeed, in the gravimetric tests, nitrided samples showed lower weight loss and lower corrosion rate in comparison to untreated one. In the Tafel polarisation tests, the nitrided samples showed greatly reduced corrosion current densities, anodic dissolution and also retarded the hydrogen evolution reaction. Using EIS method, an adequate structural model of the interface was used and the values of the corresponding parameters were calculated and discussed. The results obtained from weight loss and electrochemical studies were in reasonable agreement. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was carried out to establish the mechanism of corrosion inhibition of nitrided C38 steel in 1 M HCl medium. The enhancement of the corrosion resistance is believed to be related to the iron nitride compound layer formed on the C38 steel surface during plasma nitriding, which protected the underlying metal from corrosive attack in the aggressive solutions.

  16. Chemical erosion of carbon at ITER relevant plasma fluxes: Results from the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, G. J.; Westerhout, J.; Brezinsek, S.; Rapp, J.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical erosion of carbon was investigated in the linear plasma device Pilot-PSI for ITER divertor relevant hydrogen plasma flux densities 10(23) < Gamma < 10(25) m(-2) s(-1). The erosion was analyzed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and post mortem by surface profilometry. The ex

  17. [Changes in the kidney and upper urinary tract in pathologic pregnancy follow-up. Results of an ultrasonic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L; Behm, A; Auge, A

    1989-09-01

    In 201 women with pathologic course of pregnancy (161 women suffering from urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis and colic, 40 women with gestosis) the kidneys and the upper urinary tract were studied by means of ultrasonography. In 86% of the 161 women with colic, urinary tract infection and septic complications a dilation of the renal collecting system was found, in 39.4% of them a marked dilation (sagittal diameter of more than 15 mm). Frequency and grade of dilation have been uncreased from the first to the third trimenon, with a significant preference of the right side. In patients suffering from gestosis a lower frequency and grade of dilation was found. Pregnant women with a sagittal diameter of the pyelon of more than 15 mm should controlled more intensively prae and post partum, but the grade of dilation is not the only criterion of therapeutic strategies.

  18. Prediction of pathological and oncological outcomes based on extended prostate biopsy results in patients with prostate cancer receiving radical prostatectomy: a single institution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaki Fumio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prediction of pathological outcomes prior to surgery remains a challenging problem for the appropriate surgical indication of prostate cancer. This study was performed to identify preoperative values predictive of pathological and oncological outcomes based on standardized extended prostate biopsies with core histological results diagrammed/mapped in patients receiving radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease. Methods In 124 patients with clinically localized or locally advanced prostate cancer (cT1c–cT3a without prior treatment, pathological outcomes on the surgical specimen including seminal vesicle involvement (SVI, positive surgical margin (PSM, and perineural invasion (PNI were studied in comparison with clinical parameters based on the results of 14-core prostate biopsies comprising sextant, laterally-directed sextant, and bilateral transition zone (TZ sampling. Results Concerning the association of pathological outcomes with oncological outcomes, patients with PSM and PNI on surgical specimens had poorer biochemical-progression-free survival than those without PSM (logrank p = 0.002 and PNI (p = 0.003; it was also poorer concerning SVI, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.120. Concerning the impact of clinical parameters on these pathological outcomes, positive TZ and multiple positive biopsy cores in the prostatic middle were independent values predictive of SVI with multivariate analyses (p = 0.020 and p = 0.025, respectively; both positive TZ and multiple positive prostatic middle biopsies were associated with larger tumor volume (p  Conclusions %positive cores and Gleason score in extended biopsies were independent values predictive of PSM and PNI in prostate cancer clinically diagnosed as localized or locally advanced disease, respectively, which were associated with poorer oncological outcomes. When

  19. The MARIA Helicon Plasma Experiment at UW Madison: Upgrade, Initial Scientific Goals Mission and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Victoria; Green, Jonathan; Hershkowitz, Noah; Schmitz, Oliver; Severn, Greg

    2015-11-01

    The versatile helicon plasma device, MARIA (Magnetized AnisotRopic Ion-distribution Apparatus), was upgraded with stronger magnetic field B planned as well as design of an ion cyclotron-heating antenna. To quantify the plasma characteristics, diagnostics including a Triple Langmuir Probe, Emissive Probe, and Laser Induced Fluorescence were established. We show first results from characterization of the device. The coupling of the helicon mode in the electron temperature and density parameter space in Argon was mapped out with regard to neutral pressure, B-field and RF power. In addition, validity of the Bohm Criterion and of the Chodura model starting in the weakly collisional regime is tested. A key goal in all efforts is to develop methods of quantitative spectroscopy based on cutting-edge models and active laser spectroscopy. This work was funded by Startup funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at UW Madison, the NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210 and NSF grant PHY-1206421.

  20. Self-Diffusion in 2D Dusty Plasma Liquids: Numerical Simulation Results

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Lu-Jing; Shukla, P K

    2008-01-01

    We perform Brownian dynamics simulations for studying the self-diffusion in two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma liquids, in terms of both mean-square displacement and velocity autocorrelation function (VAF). Super-diffusion of charged dust particles has been observed to be most significant at infinitely small damping rate $\\gamma$ for intermediate coupling strength, where the long-time asymptotic behavior of VAF is found to be the product of $t^{-1}$ and $\\exp{(-\\gamma t)}$. The former represents the prediction of early theories in 2D simple liquids and the latter the VAF of a free Brownian particle. This leads to a smooth transition from super-diffusion to normal diffusion, and then to sub-diffusion with an increase of the damping rate. These results well explain the seemingly contradictory scattered in recent classical molecular dynamics simulations and experiments of dusty plasmas.

  1. [Argon plasma surgery (APC) in the upper aerodigestive tract. Initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergler, W; Farin, G; Fischer, K; Hörmann, K

    1998-07-01

    Cold knife surgery, electrosurgery and laser surgery all offer techniques, instruments, equipment and systems for resecting and destroying mucosal lesions and for hemostasis in the upper aerodigestive tract. When used in the head and neck, argon plasma surgery (APS) offers a new, contact-free, electrosurgical technique in which high frequency current is applied through ionized, and thus electrically conductive, argon(argon plasma) to the tissue undergoing treatment. Especially noteworthy in APS are its advantages for removing a lesion and controlling bleeding: the technique is easy to control, and the depth of the thermal tissue destruction is limited to a maximum of 3 mm even in wide-area application, so that damage to adjacent or submucosal tissues can be avoided. Initial results with APS in the reduction of hyperplastic nasal turbinates, treatment of hereditary hemorrhagic teleangiectasia (Osler's disease) in the nasal mucosa, and in treating progressive juvenile papillomatosis of the larynx have shown clear advantages for APS over other methods used.

  2. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  3. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  4. First results from the plasma composition spectrometer PROMICS-3 in the Interball project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sandahl

    Full Text Available PROMICS-3 is a plasma experiment flown in the Russian project Interball. It performs three-dimensional (3D measurements of ions in the energy range 4 eV–70 keV with mass separation and of electrons in the energy range 12 eV–35 keV. The Interball project consists of two main satellites, the Tail Probe and the Auroral Probe, each with one subsatellite. The Interball Tail Probe was launched on 3 August 1995, into a 65° inclination orbit with apogee at about 30 RE. Both main satellites carry identical PROMICS-3 instruments and thus direct comparisons of the particle distributions will be possible once the Auroral Probe is launched. Furthermore, PROMICS-3-Tail is the first instrument measuring the 3D ion distribution function in the magnetospheric boundary layers at high latitudes. In this paper we describe the PROMICS-3 instrument and show initial results from the Tail probe, measurements of the magnetosheath, plasma sheet, and ring current plasmas.

  5. Results from D-T Experiments on TFTR and Implications for Achieving an Ignited Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J. and the TFTR Group

    1998-07-14

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain for achieving a magnetic fusion energy reactor. In this paper, the implications of the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  6. Results from D-T experiments on TFTR and implications for achieving an ignited plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Blanchard, W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Batha, S. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Torrance, CA (United States)] [and others

    1998-07-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enable not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. As a result of the worldwide research on tokamaks, the scientific and technical issues for achieving an ignited plasma are better understood and the remaining questions more clearly defined. The principal research topics which have been studied on TFTR are transport, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and energetic particle confinement. The integration of separate solutions to problems in each of these research areas has also been of major interest. Although significant advances, such as the reduction of turbulent transport by means of internal transport barriers, identification of the theoretically predicted bootstrap current, and the study of the confinement of energetic fusion alpha-particles have been made, interesting and important scientific and technical issues remain. In this paper, the implications for the TFTR experiments for overcoming these remaining issues will be discussed.

  7. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Wayne K.; Domen, Ronald E.

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don’t require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner’s office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum’s impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency. PMID:28913415

  8. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  9. The Titan Haze Simulation Experiment: Latest Laboratory Results and Dedicated Plasma Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Raymond, Alexander; Mazur, Eric; Salama, Farid

    2017-06-01

    In Titan’s atmosphere, a complex organic chemistry occurs between its main constituents, N2 and CH4, and leads to the production of larger molecules and solid aerosols.Here, we present the latest results on the gas and solid phase analyses in the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment, developed on the NASA Ames COSmIC simulation chamber. The THS is a unique experimental platform that allows us to simulate Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at Titan-like temperature (200K) by cooling down N2-CH4-based mixtures in a supersonic expansion before inducing the chemistry by plasma. Because of the accelerated gas flow in the expansion, the residence time of the gas in the active plasma region is less than 3 µs. This results in a truncated chemistry that enables us to monitor the first and intermediate steps of the chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways when adding, in the initial gas mixture, heavier molecules that have been detected as trace elements on Titan[1].We discuss the results of recent Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy[2] and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy studies of THS Titan tholins produced in different gas mixtures (with and without acetylene and benzene). Both studies have shown the presence of nitrogen chemistry, and differences in the level and nature of the nitrogen incorporation depending on the initial gas mixture. A comparison of THS MIR spectra to VIMS data has shown that the THS aerosols produced in simpler mixtures, i.e., that contain more nitrogen and where the N-incorporation is in isocyanide-type molecules instead of nitriles, are more representative of Titan’s aerosols.In addition, a new model has been developed to simulate the plasma chemistry in the THS. Electron impact and chemical kinetics equations for more than 120 species are followed. The calculated mass spectra are in good agreement with the experimental THS mass spectra[1], confirming that the short residence time in the plasma cavity limits the growth of

  10. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP) application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014) with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76). Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection -...

  11. Osler's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  12. [Pathological jealousy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, A

    2004-10-28

    Pathological jealousy can make life unbearable for all concerned. The proximity of this condition to obsessive-compulsive phenomena has given rise to the notion that it might respond to substances of proven value in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders. This case history exemplifies the successful treatment of pathological jealousy with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. The substance not only proved to be a successful antidepressant, but also effectively mitigated the anguish of the patient's pathological jealousy. On the basis of these findings, fluoxetine--as also other SSRIs--should always be considered as a possible effective pharmacological strategy for the treatment of pathological jealousy.

  13. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakov, S. A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics. The PECVD technology is inherently multiscale, from macroscale processes in the chemical reactor to atomic-scale surface chemistry. Our macroscale model is based on Navier-Stokes equations for a transient laminar flow of a compressible chemically reacting gas mixture, together with the mass transfer and energy balance equations, Poisson equation for electric potential, electrons and ions balance equations. The chemical kinetics model includes 24 species and 58 reactions: 37 in the gas phase and 21 on the surface. A deposition model consists of three stages: adsorption to the surface, diffusion along the surface and embedding of products into the substrate. A new model has been validated on experimental results obtained with the "Plasmalab System 100" reactor. We present the mathematical model and simulation results investigating the influence of flow rate and source gas proportion on silicon nitride film growth rate and chemical composition.

  14. Intermittent thermal plasma acceleration linked to sporadic motions of the magnetopause, first Cluster results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-A. Sauvaud

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first observations with Cluster of a very dense population of thermal ionospheric ions (H+, He+, O+ locally "accelerated" perpendicularly to the local magnetic field in a region adjacent to the magnetopause and on its magnetospheric side. The observation periods follow a long period of very weak magnetic activity. Recurrent motions of the magnetopause are, in the presented cases, unexpectedly associated with the appearance inside closed field lines of recurrent energy structures of ionospheric ions with energies in the 5 eV to  ~1000 eV range. The heaviest ions were detected with the highest energies. Here, the ion behaviour is interpreted as resulting from local electric field enhancements/decreases which adiabatically enhance/lower the bulk energy of a local dense thermal ion population. This drift effect, which is directly linked to magnetopause motions caused by pressure changes, allows for the thermal ions to overcome the satellite potential and be detected by the suprathermal CIS Cluster experiment. When fast flowing, i.e. when detectable, the density (~ 1 cm-3 of these ions from a terrestrial origin is (in the cases presented here largely higher than the local density of ions from magnetospheric/plasma sheet origin which poses again the question of the relative importance of solar and ionospheric sources for the magnetospheric plasma even during very quiet magnetic conditions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (planetary ionosphere; plasma convection Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers

  15. Recent results from experimental studies on laser-plasma coupling in a shock ignition relevant regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, P.; Antonelli, L.; Atzeni, S.; Badziak, J.; Baffigi, F.; Batani, D.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Chodukowski, T.; Consoli, F.; Cristoforetti, G.; De Angelis, R.; Folpini, G.; Gizzi, L. A.; Kalinowska, Z.; Krousky, E.; Kucharik, M.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Liska, R.; Malka, G.; Maheut, Y.; Marocchino, A.; Nicolai, P.; O'Dell, T.; Parys, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Raczka, P.; Renner, O.; Rhee, Y. J.; Ribeyre, X.; Richetta, M.; Rosinski, M.; Ryc, L.; Skala, J.; Schiavi, A.; Schurtz, G.; Smid, M.; Spindloe, C.; Ullschmied, J.; Wolowski, J.; Zaras, A.

    2013-12-01

    Shock ignition (SI) is an appealing approach in the inertial confinement scenario for the ignition and burn of a pre-compressed fusion pellet. In this scheme, a strong converging shock is launched by laser irradiation at an intensity Iλ2 > 1015 W cm-2 µm2 at the end of the compression phase. In this intensity regime, laser-plasma interactions are characterized by the onset of a variety of instabilities, including stimulated Raman scattering, Brillouin scattering and the two plasmon decay, accompanied by the generation of a population of fast electrons. The effect of the fast electrons on the efficiency of the shock wave production is investigated in a series of dedicated experiments at the Prague Asterix Laser Facility (PALS). We study the laser-plasma coupling in a SI relevant regime in a planar geometry by creating an extended preformed plasma with a laser beam at ˜7 × 1013 W cm-2 (250 ps, 1315 nm). A strong shock is launched by irradiation with a second laser beam at intensities in the range 1015-1016 W cm-2 (250 ps, 438 nm) at various delays with respect to the first beam. The pre-plasma is characterized using x-ray spectroscopy, ion diagnostics and interferometry. Spectroscopy and calorimetry of the backscattered radiation is performed in the spectral range 250-850 nm, including (3/2)ω, ω and ω/2 emission. The fast electron production is characterized through spectroscopy and imaging of the Kα emission. Information on the shock pressure is obtained using shock breakout chronometry and measurements of the craters produced by the shock in a massive target. Preliminary results show that the backscattered energy is in the range 3-15%, mainly due to backscattered light at the laser wavelength (438 nm), which increases with increasing the delay between the two laser beams. The values of the peak shock pressures inferred from the shock breakout times are lower than expected from 2D numerical simulations. The same simulations reveal that the 2D effects play a

  16. Effectiveness of an electronic health record-based intervention to improve follow-up of abnormal pathology results: a retrospective record analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxmisan, Archana; Sittig, Dean F; Pietz, Kenneth; Espadas, Donna; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Singh, Hardeep

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2009, the Veterans Health Administration (VA) implemented an electronic health record (EHR)-based intervention that required all pathology results to be transmitted to ordering providers by mandatory automated notifications. We examined the impact of this intervention on improving follow-up of abnormal outpatient pathology results. We extracted pathology reports from the EHR of 2 VA sites. From 16,738 preintervention and 17,305 postintervention reports between 09/01/2008 and 09/30/2009, we randomly selected about 5% and evaluated follow-up outcomes using a standardized chart review instrument. Documented responses to the alerted report (eg, ordering follow-up tests or referrals, notifying patients, and prescribing/changing treatment) were recorded. Primary outcome measures included proportion of timely follow-up responses (within 30 d) and median time to direct response for abnormal reports. Of 816 preintervention and 798 postintervention reports reviewed, 666 (81.6%) and 688 (86.2%) were abnormal. Overall, there was no apparent intervention effect on timely follow-up (69% vs. 67.1%; P=0.4) or median time to direct response (8 vs. 8 d; P=0.7). However, logistic regression uncovered a significant intervention effect (preintervention odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-1.0) after accounting for site-specific differences in follow-up, with a lower likelihood of timely follow-up at one site (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.7). An electronic intervention to improve test result follow-up at 2 VA institutions using the same EHR was found effective only after accounting for certain local contextual factors. Aggregating the effect of EHR interventions across different institutions and EHRs without controlling for contextual factors might underestimate their potential benefits.

  17. The results of therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with severe hyperthyroidism: a retrospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Kaynar, Leylagul; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Sivgin, Serdar; Solmaz, Musa; Pala, Cigdem; Aribas, Sulbiye; Akyol, Gulsah; Unluhizarci, Kursat; Cetin, Mustafa; Eser, Bulent; Unal, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Hyperthyroidism characterized by elevated serum levels of circulating thyroid hormones. The aim of hyperthyroidism treatment is to achieve a euthyroid state as soon as possible and to maintain euthyroid status. However, drug withdrawal and utilization of alternative therapies are needed in cases in which leucopenia or impairment in liver functions is observed during medical therapy. In the present study, we aimed to present our cases which underwent therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) due to severe hyperthyroidism. The results of 22 patients who underwent therapeutic plasma exchange due to hyperthyroidism in Apheresis Units of Erciyes University and Gaziantep University, between 2006 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. These cases had severe thyrotoxic values despite anti-thyroid drug use. After TPE, we observed a significant decrease in free thyroxin (FT4) (phyperthyroidism by TPE in 20 cases (91%). Both FT3 and FT4 levels remained above the normal limits in two of 22 patients. TPE should be considered as an effective and safe therapeutic option to achieve euthyroid state before surgery or radioactive iodine treatment. TPE is a useful option in cases with severe hyperthyroidism unresponsive to anti-thyroid agents and in those with clinical manifestations of cardiac failure and in patients with severe adverse events during anti-thyroid therapy.

  18. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV. Materials and Methods: In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months. The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic. None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8 of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Conclusion: Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  19. Plasma discharge in N2 + CH4 at low pressures - Experimental results and applications to Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Henry, Todd J.; Schwartz, Joel M.; Khare, B. N.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from laboratory continuous-flow plasma-discharge experiments designed to simulate the formation of hydrocarbons and nitriles from N2 and CH4 in the atmosphere of Titan. Gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry data were obtained in experiments lasting up to 100 h at temperature 295 K and pressure 17 or 0.24 mbar, modeling (1) cosmic-ray-induced processes in the Titan troposphere and (2) processes related to stratospheric aurorae excited by energetic electrons and ions from the Saturn magnetosphere, respectively. The results are presented in extensive tables and graphs, and the 0.24-mbar yields are incorporated into an eddy-mixing model to give stratospheric column abundances and mole fractions in good agreement with Voyager IRIS observations.

  20. First results from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beam interactions in a long scalelength plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J. D.; MacKinnon, A.; Glenzer, S. H.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Berger, R. L.; Campbell, K.; Divol, L.; Dixit, S.; Suter, L. J.; Williams, E. A.; Bahr, R.; Seka, W.

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattered light from simultaneous 527 nm and 351 nm probe beams incident on a long scalelength ignition-like plasma. These experiments are important for both determining backscattering physics mechanisms and for evaluating laser power loss expected in planned ignition experiments. The plasma is formed using 18 kJ of 351 nm light from the Omega laser in a 1 ns pulse incident on a gas-filled balloon target. The two probe beams, which are delayed 0.5 ns relative to the plasma forming beams, are separated by 42^rc, have vacuum intensity of CO2 plasma. We describe the experimental results and simulations using the LASNEX hydrodynamic code and the pF3D laser-plasma wave propagation code. Work performed under the auspicies of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number W--7405--ENG--48.

  1. A real-time lattice simulation of the thermalization of a gluon plasma: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Attems, Maximilian; Schäfer, Christian; Wagenbach, Björn; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-01-01

    To achieve an understanding of the thermalization of a quark-gluon plasma, starting from QCD without using model assumptions, is a formidable task. We study the early stage dynamics of a relativistic heavy ion collision in the framework of real time simulations of classical Yang-Mills theory in a static box with the color glass condensate as initial condition. Our study generalizes a previous one by Fukushima and Gelis from SU(2) to the realistic case of SU(3). We calculate the chromo-electric and chromo-magnetic energy densities as well as the ratio of longitudinal and transverse pressure as a function of time as probes for thermalization. Our preliminary results on coarse lattices show the occurrence of Weibel instabilities prior to thermalization.

  2. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  3. Structure of a Thyroid Gland Pathologies in a Population of Children and the Teenagers Living in Conditions Endemic Goiter of Northern Territories by Results of Ultrasonic Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Girsh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For studying structure pathologies of a thyroid gland at children and the teenagers living in northern territories Khanty-Mansiysk of autonomous region, for the period 2000–2008 the retrospective analysis of results of 3002 ultrasonic researches of a thyroid gland is lead To 32.7% of cases at children and teenagers attributes endemic goiter a craw are revealed. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, changes thyroid gland, are revealed in 4.2% of cases. The one-central and multinodal craw was made with 2.1 and 0.7%, accordingly. In 60.3% according to ultrasonic of inspection of pathology a thyroid gland it is not revealed. The basic ultrasonic models colloidal a craw, central cellular a craw and an adenoma of a thyroid gland are developed. The estimation of criteria the importance of the given models is lead, the estimation of results has allowed to consider, that the received ultrasonic models were adequate for ultrasound research.

  4. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  5. Pathology Milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stacey Klutts MD, PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available All Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited pathology residency training programs are now required to evaluate residents using the new Pathology Milestones assessment tool. Similar to implementation of the 6 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies a decade ago, there have been challenges in implementation of the new milestones for many residency programs. The pathology department at the University of Iowa has implemented a process that divides the labor of the task in rating residents while also maintaining consistency in the process. The process is described in detail, and some initial trends in milestone evaluation are described and discussed. Our experience indicates that thoughtful implementation of the Pathology Milestones can provide programs with valuable information that can inform curricular changes.

  6. A mathematical model and simulation results of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon nitride films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konakov, S.A.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model of Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) of silicon nitride thin films from SiH4-NH3-N2-Ar mixture, an important application in modern materials science. Our multiphysics model describes gas dynamics, chemical physics, plasma physics and electrodynamics.

  7. Major results from the first plasma campaign of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Ali, A.; Alonso, A.; Baldzuhn, J.; Beidler, C.; Beurskens, M.; Biedermann, C.; Bosch, H.-S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Dinklage, A.; Feng, Y.; Fuchert, G.; Geiger, J.; Grulke, O.; Helander, P.; Hirsch, M.; Höfel, U.; Jakubowski, M.; Knauer, J.; Kocsis, G.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krychowiak, M.; Landreman, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laqua, H. P.; Lazerson, S.; Maaßberg, H.; Marsen, S.; Marushchenko, M.; Moseev, D.; Niemann, H.; Pablant, N.; Pasch, E.; Rahbarnia, K.; Schlisio, G.; Stange, T.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Svensson, J.; Szepesi, T.; Trimino Mora, H.; Turkin, Y.; Wauters, T.; Weir, G.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Wurden, G.; Zhang, D.; Abramovic, I.; Äkäslompolo, S.; Aleynikov, P.; Aleynikova, K.; Alzbutas, R.; Anda, G.; Andreeva, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Assmann, J.; Baek, S.-G.; Banduch, M.; Barbui, T.; Barlak, M.; Baumann, K.; Behr, W.; Benndorf, A.; Bertuch, O.; Biel, W.; Birus, D.; Blackwell, B.; Blanco, E.; Blatzheim, M.; Bluhm, T.; Böckenhoff, D.; Bolgert, P.; Borchardt, M.; Borsuk, V.; Boscary, J.; Böttger, L.-G.; Brand, H.; Brandt, Ch.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Brezinsek, S.; Brunner, K.-J.; Brünner, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buttenschön, B.; Bykov, V.; Calvo, I.; Cannas, B.; Cappa, A.; Carls, A.; Carraro, L.; Carvalho, B.; Castejon, F.; Charl, A.; Chernyshev, F.; Cianciosa, M.; Citarella, R.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Claps, G.; Cole, M.; Cole, M. J.; Cordella, F.; Cseh, G.; Czarnecka, A.; Czermak, A.; Czerski, K.; Czerwinski, M.; Czymek, G.; da Molin, A.; da Silva, A.; Dammertz, G.; Danielson, J.; de la Pena, A.; Degenkolbe, S.; Denner, P.; Dhard, D. P.; Dostal, M.; Drevlak, M.; Drewelow, P.; Drews, Ph.; Dudek, A.; Dundulis, G.; Durodie, F.; van Eeten, P.; Effenberg, F.; Ehrke, G.; Endler, M.; Ennis, D.; Erckmann, E.; Esteban, H.; Estrada, T.; Fahrenkamp, N.; Feist, J.-H.; Fellinger, J.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fontdecaba, J.; Ford, O.; Fornal, T.; Frerichs, H.; Freund, A.; Führer, M.; Funaba, T.; Galkowski, A.; Gantenbein, G.; Gao, Y.; García Regaña, J.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gates, D.; Gawlik, G.; Geiger, B.; Giannella, V.; Gierse, N.; Gogoleva, A.; Goncalves, B.; Goriaev, A.; Gradic, D.; Grahl, M.; Green, J.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Gruca, M.; Guerard, C.; Haiduk, L.; Han, X.; Harberts, F.; Harris, J. H.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Hein, B.; Heinemann, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Henneberg, S.; Hennig, C.; Hernandez Sanchez, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Hölbe, H.; Hollfeld, K. P.; Hölting, A.; Höschen, D.; Houry, M.; Howard, J.; Huang, X.; Huber, M.; Huber, V.; Hunger, H.; Ida, K.; Ilkei, T.; Illy, S.; Israeli, B.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Jenzsch, H.; Junghans, P.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatka, T.; Kallmeyer, J.-P.; Kamionka, U.; Karalevicius, R.; Kasahara, H.; Kasparek, W.; Kenmochi, N.; Keunecke, M.; Khilchenko, A.; Kinna, D.; Kleiber, R.; Klinger, T.; Knaup, M.; Kobarg, Th.; Köchl, F.; Kolesnichenko, Y.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koshurinov, J.; Koslowski, R.; Köster, F.; Koziol, R.; Krämer, M.; Krampitz, R.; Kraszewsk, P.; Krawczyk, N.; Kremeyer, T.; Krings, Th.; Krom, J.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kühner, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Kwak, S.; Lang, R.; Langish, S.; Laqua, H.; Laube, R.; Lechte, C.; Lennartz, M.; Leonhardt, W.; Lewerentz, L.; Liang, Y.; Linsmeier, Ch.; Liu, S.; Lobsien, J.-F.; Loesser, D.; Loizu Cisquella, J.; Lore, J.; Lorenz, A.; Losert, M.; Lubyako, L.; Lücke, A.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lutsenko, V.; Majano-Brown, J.; Marchuk, O.; Mardenfeld, M.; Marek, P.; Massidda, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Maurer, D.; McCarthy, K.; McNeely, P.; Meier, A.; Mellein, D.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, O.; Missal, B.; Mittelstaedt, J.; Mizuuchi, T.; Mollen, A.; Moncada, V.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Munk, R.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Náfrádi, G.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Ngo, T.; Nocentini, R.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Ogawa, K.; Ongena, J.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Orozco, G.; Otte, M.; Pacios Rodriguez, L.; Pan, W.; Panadero, N.; Panadero Alvarez, N.; Panin, A.; Papenfuß, D.; Paqay, S.; Pavone, A.; Pawelec, E.; Pelka, G.; Peng, X.; Perseo, V.; Peterson, B.; Pieper, A.; Pilopp, D.; Pingel, S.; Pisano, F.; Plaum, B.; Plunk, G.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Proll, J.; Puiatti, M.-E.; Sitjes, A. Puig; Purps, F.; Rack, M.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remppel, F.; Renard, S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Röhlinger, H.; Romé, M.; Rong, P.; Roscher, H.-J.; Roth, B.; Rudischhauser, L.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, T.; Runov, A.; Rust, N.; Ryc, L.; Ryosuke, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Satake, S.; Satheeswaran, G.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Scherer, T.; Schlaich, A.; Schlüter, K.-H.; Schmitt, J.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schmuck, S.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scholz, M.; Scholz, P.; Schrittwieser, R.; Schröder, M.; Schröder, T.; Schroeder, R.; Schumacher, H.; Schweer, B.; Shanahan, B.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Sibilia, M.; Sinha, P.; Sipliä, S.; Skodzik, J.; Slaby, C.; Smith, H.; Spiess, W.; Spong, D. A.; Spring, A.; Stadler, R.; Standley, B.; Stephey, L.; Stoneking, M.; Stridde, U.; Sulek, Z.; Surko, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tamura, N.; Terra, A.; Terry, J.; Thomas, J.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; von Thun, C. P.; Timmermann, D.; Titus, P.; Toi, K.; Travere, J. M.; Traverso, P.; Tretter, J.; Tsuchiya, H.; Tsujimura, T.; Tulipán, S.; Turnyanskiy, M.; Unterberg, B.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Vakulchyk, I.; Valet, S.; van Millingen, B.; Vela, L.; Velasco, J.-L.; Vergote, M.; Vervier, M.; Vianello, N.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vorkörper, A.; Wadle, S.; Wagner, F.; Wang, E.; Wang, N.; Warmer, F.; Wegener, L.; Weggen, J.; Wei, Y.; Wendorf, J.; Werner, A.; Wiegel, B.; Wilde, F.; Winkler, E.; Winters, V.; Wolf, S.; Wolowski, J.; Wright, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yamada, I.; Yasuhara, R.; Yokoyama, M.; Zajac, J.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeitler, A.; Zhang, H.; Zhu, J.; Zilker, M.; Zimbal, A.; Zocco, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2017-10-01

    After completing the main construction phase of Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and successfully commissioning the device, first plasma operation started at the end of 2015. Integral commissioning of plasma start-up and operation using electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and an extensive set of plasma diagnostics have been completed, allowing initial physics studies during the first operational campaign. Both in helium and hydrogen, plasma breakdown was easily achieved. Gaining experience with plasma vessel conditioning, discharge lengths could be extended gradually. Eventually, discharges lasted up to 6 s, reaching an injected energy of 4 MJ, which is twice the limit originally agreed for the limiter configuration employed during the first operational campaign. At power levels of 4 MW central electron densities reached 3  ×  1019 m-3, central electron temperatures reached values of 7 keV and ion temperatures reached just above 2 keV. Important physics studies during this first operational phase include a first assessment of power balance and energy confinement, ECRH power deposition experiments, 2nd harmonic O-mode ECRH using multi-pass absorption, and current drive experiments using electron cyclotron current drive. As in many plasma discharges the electron temperature exceeds the ion temperature significantly, these plasmas are governed by core electron root confinement showing a strong positive electric field in the plasma centre.

  8. Experimental Results on Current-Driven Turbulence in Plasmas - a Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekluiver, H.; Perepelkin, N. F.; Hirose, A.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental consequences of plasma turbulence driven by a current parallel to a magnetic field and concurrent anomalous plasma heating are reviewed, with an attempt to deduce universalities in key parameters such as the anomalous electrical conductivities observed in diverse devices. It has

  9. A Consensus for Classification and Pathologic Reporting of Pseudomyxoma Peritonei and Associated Appendiceal Neoplasia: The Results of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) Modified Delphi Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Cecil, Thomas D; Mohamed, Faheez; Sobin, Leslie H; Sugarbaker, Paul H; González-Moreno, Santiago; Taflampas, Panos; Chapman, Sara; Moran, Brendan J

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a complex disease with unique biological behavior that usually arises from appendiceal mucinous neoplasia. The classification of PMP and its primary appendiceal neoplasia is contentious, and an international modified Delphi consensus process was instigated to address terminology and definitions. A classification of mucinous appendiceal neoplasia was developed, and it was agreed that "mucinous adenocarcinoma" should be reserved for lesions with infiltrative invasion. The term "low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was supported and it was agreed that "cystadenoma" should no longer be recommended. A new term of "high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm" was proposed for lesions without infiltrative invasion but with high-grade cytologic atypia. Serrated polyp with or without dysplasia was preferred for tumors with serrated features confined to the mucosa with an intact muscularis mucosae. Consensus was achieved on the pathologic classification of PMP, defined as the intraperitoneal accumulation of mucus due to mucinous neoplasia characterized by the redistribution phenomenon. Three categories of PMP were agreed-low grade, high grade, and high grade with signet ring cells. Acellular mucin should be classified separately. It was agreed that low-grade and high-grade mucinous carcinoma peritonei should be considered synonymous with disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis, respectively. A checklist for the pathologic reporting of PMP and appendiceal mucinous neoplasms was also developed. By adopting the classifications and definitions that were agreed, different centers will be able to use uniform terminology that will allow meaningful comparison of their results.

  10. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. Aims To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. Methods PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. Results PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the

  11. Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.

    2010-01-01

    Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.

  12. Plasma rich in growth factors: preliminary results of use in the preparation of future sites for implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E

    1999-01-01

    This article presents preliminary clinical evidence of the beneficial effect of the use of plasma rich in growth factors of autologous origin. The plasma is obtained from the individual patient by plasmapheresis. The macroscopic and microscopic results obtained with bone regeneration using this technique, which uses no membrane or barrier, can be observed. The incorporation of these concepts can introduce several advantages, including the enhancement and acceleration of bone regeneration and more rapid and predictable soft tissue healing.

  13. Studies on effects of lactose on experimental Trypanosoma vivax infection in Zebu cattle. 1. Plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose at onset of infection and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Fatihu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactose in normal saline was administered intravenously to a group of Zebu cattle infected with Trypanosoma vivax to determine the bloodplasma kinetics at onset of an experimental infection and its ability to protect tissues against damage as part of preliminary studies to determine its suitability for use in the treatment of trypanosomosis. Significant (P <0.01 higher lactose concentrations were observed in the T. vivax-intecled bulls at 30 min and 1h (P< 0.05 post-infectio (p.i. and by 4 h p.i. the plasma lactose remained above the level prior to infusion, after which it fell slightly below the preinfusion level in the uninfected group. Calculated pharmacokinetic parameters revealed delayed excretion of lactose in the T. vivax-intected group soon after infection. The total body clearance (C/B was significantly (P < 0.05 reduced. The biological half-life (t1/2, elimination rate constant (kel and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were relatively decreased (P > 0.05 as a result of the T. vivax infection. Retention of lactose in the plasma was attributed to decreased plasma clearance l.t is suggested that the presence of trypanosomes in circulation rather than organic lesions could have been responsible for the delay observed in the excretion of lactose.At 12 weeks p.i., when the experiment was terminated, the group infected and given lactose infusion (despiteh igherp arasitaemia had no gross or histopathological lesions in the brain, spleen, lymphnodes, heart, kidneys, liver and testes. However, the group infected but not infused with lactose were emaciated, had pale mucosae, watery blood, general muscular atrophy, serous atrophy of coronary fat and other adiposet issue, hepatomegalys, plenomegalys, wollen and oedematous lymph nodes, all of which are suggestive of trypanosomosis. Histopathological lesions included arrowing of Bowman's space and hypercellularity of glomerular tufts in the kidneys with the mean glomerula truft nucleairn dices

  14. Preliminary Results of Plasma Flow Measurements in a 2 KW Segmented Hall Thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Dunaevsky; L. Dorf; N.J. Fisch

    2003-03-01

    A 2-kW Hall thruster was developed, built, and operated in an upgraded vacuum facility. The thruster performance and parameters of the plasma flow were measured by new diagnostics for plume measurements and plasma measurements inside the thruster channel. The thruster demonstrated efficient operation in terms of propellant and current utilization efficiencies in the input power range of 0.5-3.5 kW. Preliminary measurements of the ion energy spectra from the thruster axis region and the distribution of plasma parameters in the vicinity of the thruster exit are reported.

  15. Non-Maxwellian electron distributions resulting from direct laser acceleration in near-critical plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Toncian, T; McCary, E; Meadows, A; Arefiev, A V; Blakeney, J; Serratto, K; Kuk, D; Chester, C; Roycroft, R; Gao, L; Fu, H; Yan, X Q; Schreiber, J; Pomerantz, I; Bernstein, A; Quevedo, H; Dyer, G; Ditmire, T; Hegelich, B M

    2015-01-01

    The irradiation of few nm thick targets by a finite-contrast high-intensity short-pulse laser results in a strong pre-expansion of these targets at the arrival time of the main pulse. The targets decompress to near and lower than critical densities plasmas extending over few micrometers, i.e. multiple wavelengths. The interaction of the main pulse with such a highly localized but inhomogeneous target leads to the generation of a short channel and further self-focusing of the laser beam. Experiments at the GHOST laser system at UT Austin using such targets measured non-Maxwellian, peaked electron distribution with large bunch charge and high electron density in the laser propagation direction. These results are reproduced in 2D PIC simulations using the EPOCH code, identifying Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) as the responsible mechanism. This is the first time that DLA has been observed to produce peaked spectra as opposed to broad, maxwellian spectra observed in earlier experiments. This high-density electron...

  16. The surface chemistry resulting from low-pressure plasma treatment of polystyrene: The effect of residual vessel bound oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayal, Marshal; Alexander, Morgan R.; Bradley, James W.

    2006-09-01

    The surface chemistry of plasma treated polystyrene samples has been studied in a specially designed low-pressure argon discharge system incorporating in situ XPS analysis. By using an electrostatic grid biasing technique, the plasma source can also be used in a mode preventing ion interactions with the sample. The system, which utilizes a vacuum transfer chamber between plasma and XPS analysis has allowed us to differentiate between the level of oxygen incorporated at the polystyrene surface from residual gas during treatment and that from the exposure of the treated sample to the laboratory atmosphere. Using typical base pressures of about 5 × 10 -3 Pa (4 × 10 -5 Torr) the XPS results show that significant oxygen surface incorporation resulted from oxygen containing species in the plasma itself (i.e. water vapour with 2 × 10 -3 Pa partial pressure). The surface concentration of O was measured at 7.6 at.%. Subsequent atmospheric exposure of the treated samples resulted in only a small increase (of 0.6 at.%) in oxygen incorporation in the form of acid anhydride functionalities. XPS measurements of PS samples exposed to plasmas with no ion-surface component (i.e. exposure from VUV, UV and excited neutral species only) showed no appreciable change in oxygen incorporation compared to those with low-energy ion bombardment from the plasma (free radical sites in this discharge regime.

  17. Digital pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Sucaet, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology has experienced exponential growth, in terms of its technology and applications, since its inception just over a decade ago. Though it has yet to be approved for primary diagnostics, its values as a teaching tool, facilitator of second opinions and quality assurance reviews and research are becoming, if not already, undeniable. It also offers the hope of providing pathology consultant and educational services to under-served areas, including regions of the world that could not possibly sustain this level of services otherwise. And this is just the beginning, as its adoption b

  18. Swine plasma immunoglobulins for prevention and treatment of post-weaning diarrhoea: Safety and Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Bendix Hansen, Marie

    and minimize the on antibiotics and zinc usage. Swine immunoglobulins were isolated directly from slaughterhouse swine plasma-waste by expanded bed chromatography. It was shown that the isolated Immunoglobulin fraction bound enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Salmonella ssp. and inhibited...... of the family Enterobactericea in immunoglobulin fed piglets as compared to the control group. Thus pig slaughterhouse plasma is indicated as a potential source resource of antibodies for the control of PWD....

  19. High heat flux actively cooled plasma facing components development, realization and first results in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosman, A. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    2004-07-01

    The development, design, manufacture and testing of actively cooled high heat flux plasma facing components (PFC) has been an essential stage towards long powerful tokamak operations for Tore-Supra, it lasted about 10 years. This paper deals with the toroidal pumped limiter (TPL) that is able to sustain up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} of nominal heat flux. This device is based on hardened copper alloy heat sink structures covered by a carbon fiber composite armour, it resulted in the manufacturing of 600 elementary components, called finger elements, to achieve the 7.6 m{sup 2} TPL. This assembly has been operating in Tore-Supra since spring 2002. Some difficulties occurred during the manufacturing phase, the valuable industrial experience is summarized in the section 2. The permanent monitoring of PFC surface temperature all along the discharge is performed by a set of 6 actively cooled infrared endoscopes. The heat flux monitoring and control issue but also the progress made in our understanding of the deuterium retention in long discharges are described in the section 3. (A.C.)

  20. Bilateral quadriceps rupture: results with and without platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzetti, Riccardo Maria; Vadalà, Antonio; Morelli, Federico; Iorio, Raffaele; Ciompi, Alessandro; Vetrano, Mario; Argento, Giuseppe; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Di Sanzo, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a 46-year-old man with bilateral atraumatic quadriceps rupture that occurred while he was descending stairs. The patient underwent surgery the day after the accident. In the left knee, quadriceps reinsertion was performed using a conventional technique. In the right knee, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), both in its liquid and semisolid patterns, was added intraoperatively. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluations were performed 1, 6, and 24 months postoperatively. At 6 and 24 months postoperatively, clinical and functional evaluations also were performed. Clinical examination showed no differences between the knees, and functional scores were the same for both knees. Ultrasonographic evaluation showed bilateral persistent tendon thickening and gross echotexture abnormalities, with no side-to-side differences. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signals of vascularized granulation tissue in both knees, which was more evident in the right (PRP) knee at 1 month postoperatively, along with a better signal of scar tissue in the right knee at 6 and 24 months postoperatively. The use of PRP yielded no better clinical or functional results than the lack of its use. However, a more intense and significant reparative healing process occurred where the PRP was used, thus suggesting a more rapid completion of the healing process, although this effect seems to remain only a radiographic finding with no clinical correlation.

  1. Commissioning of the catalytic plasma exhaust clean-up facility caprice and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glugla, M.; Kraemer, R.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Le, T.L.; Simon, K.H.; Guenther, K.; Besserer, U.; Schaefer, P.; Hellriegel, W. [Research Center Karlsruhe (Germany); Geissler, H. [Kraftanlagen Heidelberg (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    A fuel clean-up process for all plasma exhaust gases from DT fusion machines, based on catalytic conversion reactions combined with permeation of hydrogen isotopes through palladium/silver, has been developed. The complete process has already been proven with relevant concentrations of tritium at laboratory scale. On the basis of the results obtained the technical facility `CAPRICE` was designed, and is now under tritium operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The facility is being used to demonstrate the process on a target throughput of 10 mol/h DT and 1 mol/h tritiated and non-tritiated impurities. Full scale experiments with hydrogen and deuterium have been completed to verify the design parameters of the facility and to gain detailed knowledge on the performance of the different subsystems under a variety of experimental conditions. Decontamination factors were obtained from these experiments as well as from first tritium runs employing about 350 Ci (0.5%) tritium in deuterium. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Inguinoscrotal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Luis; Leonard, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Infants, children, and adolescents with inguinoscrotal pathology comprise a significant proportion of emergency department and outpatient visits. Visits to the emergency department primarily comprise individuals presenting with scrotal pain due to testicular torsion or torsion of the testicular appendages. At such time, immediate urological consultation is sought. Outpatient visits comprise those individuals with undescended testes, hydroceles, and varicoceles. Rare, but important problems, such as pediatric testicular tumours, may also present in the office setting. Many of these outpatient visits are to primary care physicians, who should have an appreciation of the timing and need for referral. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the general urologist and primary care physician with these varied pathologies and give insight into their assessment and management. Some of these same conditions are seen in adult patients, but there are some significant differences in their management in the pediatric group. In addition, the utility of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, are discussed within each pathological entity. It is hoped that this overview will assist our general urology and primary care colleagues in patient management for diverse inguinoscrotal pathologies. PMID:28265317

  3. Main Directions and Recent Test Modeling Results of Lithium Capillary-Pore Systems as Plasma Facing Components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.A. Evtikhin; V. M. Korzhavin; I.E. Lyublinski; A.V. Vertkov; E.A. Azizov; S.V. Mirnov; V. B. Lazarev; S. M. Sotnikov; V. M. Safronov; A. S. Prokhorov

    2004-01-01

    At present the most promising principal solution of the divertor problem appears to be the use of liquid metals and primarily of lithium Capillary-Pore Systems (CPS) as of plasma facing materials. A solid CPS filled with liquid lithium will have a high resistance to surface and volume damage because of neutron radiation effects, melting, splashing and thermal stressinduced cracking in steady state and during plasma transitions to provide the normal operation of divertor target plates and first-wall protecting elements. These materials will not be the sources of impurities inducing an increase of Zeff and they will not be collected as dust in the divertor area and in ducts.Experiments with lithium CPS under simulating conditions of plasma disruption on a hydrogenplasma accelerator MK-200 [~ (10 - 15) MJ/m2, ~ 50 μs] have been performed. The formation of a shielding layer of lithium plasma and the high stability of these systems have been shown.The new lithium limiter tests on an up-graded T-11M tokamak (plasma current up to 100 kA,pulse length ~0.3 s) have been performed. Sorption and desorption of plasma-forming gas, lithium emission into discharge, lithium erosion, deposited power of the limiter are investigated in these experiments. The first results of experiments are presented.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of refractory Achilles tendinopathy: results at 4 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Giuseppe; Kon, Elizaveta; Di Matteo, Berardo; Di Martino, Alessandro; Tesei, Giulia; Pelotti, Patrizia; Cenacchi, Annarita; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic Achilles tendinopathy is responsible for a severe reduction in physical performance and persistent pain. There is currently a number of therapeutic options and the local administration of growth factors is an emerging treatment strategy. In particular, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a widely used way to provide a local regenerative stimulus for tendon healing. The aim of this study was to document the mid-term results obtained after treating recalcitrant Achilles tendinopathy with injections of high concentrate, leucocyte-rich PRP. Materials and methods Twenty-seven patients (mean age: 44.6 years; 22 men and 5 women) affected by chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (7 bilateral, for a total of 34 tendons), refractory to previous treatments, were enrolled. Patients were treated with three ultrasound-guided intra-tendinous injections of PRP at 2-week intervals. Patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline, and then at 2, 6, and up to a mean of 54.1 months of follow-up (minimum 30 months), using the following tools: Blanzina, VISA-A, EQ-VAS for general health, and Tegner scores. Results The VISA-A score showed a significant improvement: the baseline score of 49.9±18.1 increased to 62.9±19.8 at 2 months (p=0.002), with a further improvement at 6 months (84.3±17.1, ptendinopathy with a stable outcome up to a medium-term follow-up. Longer symptom duration was related with a more difficult return to sporting activity. PMID:24960641

  5. Activation of Raf as a result of recruitment to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, D; Macdonald, S G; Cadwallader, K; Symons, M; Hancock, J F

    1994-06-01

    The small guanine nucleotide binding protein Ras participates in a growth promoting signal transduction pathway. The mechanism by which interaction of Ras with the protein kinase Raf leads to activation of Raf was studied. Raf was targeted to the plasma membrane by addition of the COOH-terminal localization signals of K-ras. This modified form of Raf (RafCAAX) was activated to the same extent as Raf coexpressed with oncogenic mutant Ras. Plasma membrane localization rather than farnesylation or the presence of the additional COOH-terminal sequence accounted for the activation of RafCAAX. The activation of RafCAAX was completely independent of Ras; it was neither potentiated by oncogenic mutant Ras nor abrogated by dominant negative Ras. Raf, once recruited to the plasma membrane, was not anchored there by Ras; most activated Raf in cells was associated with plasma membrane cytoskeletal elements, not the lipid bilayer. Thus, Ras functions in the activation of Raf by recruiting Raf to the plasma membrane where a separate, Ras-independent, activation of Raf occurs.

  6. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mandelker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program′s core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists.

  7. New Results on Plasma Activated Bonding of Imprinted Polymer Features for Bio MEMS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, P.; Pelzer, R. L.; Glinsner, T.; Farrens, S.; Lee, D.

    2006-04-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography is a well-acknowledged low cost, high resolution, large area 3D patterning process for polymers. It includes the most promising methods: high pressure hot embossing (HE) and UV-Nanoimprint Lithography (UV-NIL). Curing of the imprinted structures is either done by cooling down below the glass transition temperature of the thermoplastic polymer in case of HE or by subsequent UV-light exposure and cross-linking in case of UV-NIL. Both techniques allow rapid prototyping for high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials. The advantages of using polymer substrates over common Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) processing materials like glass, silicon or quartz are: bio-compatible surfaces, easy manufacturability, low cost for high volume production, suitable for use in micro- and nano-fabrication, low conductivity, wide range of optical properties just to name a few. We will present experimental results on HE processes with PMMA as well as UV-NIL imprints in selected UV-curable resists. In the second part of the work we will describe the bonding techniques for packaging of the micro or nano structures. Packaging of the imprinted features is a key technology for a wide variety of field of applications: µ-TAS, biochemistry, micro-mixers, micro-reactors, electrophoresis cells, life science, micro-optical and nano-optical applications (switches) nanofluidics, data storage, etc. for features down to sub-100 nm range. Most bonding techniques for polymer use adhesives as intermediate layers. We will demonstrate a promising technique for dense and very strong bonds using plasma activation of polymers and glass. This bonding technology allows for bonding at low temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymers, which will ensure that the structures are not deformed.

  8. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    , and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). RESULTS: Using training and validation...... a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. METHODS: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR...

  9. Mutations in HNF1A result in marked alterations of plasma glycan profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kattla, Jayesh J

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma...

  10. Overview and Recent Results from the HyperV Plasma Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We present an overview of research at HyperV to develop high velocity dense plasma jets for application to fusion and HEDP. The approach uses symmetrical pulsed injection of high density plasma into a coaxial EM accelerator having a cross-section tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. Two development paths are followed to accomplish this injection step: we compare large arrays of capillary discharges to sparkgaps arranged in a toroidal configuration. Experiments on three test fixtures are described: a 2pi configuration with 64 capillary injectors, a 32 injector prototype gun designed to drive rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, and a second gun using 112 sparkgap electrodes for injection. Data is presented from visible light spectroscopy, fast optical imaging, Rogowski coils, pressure probes, Bdot probes, photodiodes, and a laser interferometer. Ballistic pendulum tests indicate plasma jets with mass 160 micrograms at 70 km/s have been achieved with plasma density above 10^15 cm-3.

  11. Plasma alpha(2) macroglobulin is increased in nephrotic patients as a result of increased synthesis alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Rabelink, TJ; Reijngoud, DJ; Gadellaa, MM; Voorbij, HAM; Stellaard, F; Kaysen, GA

    1998-01-01

    Background. alpha(2) Macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), a protease inhibitor, is often increased in plasma of patients with the nephrotic syndrome. Although it has been speculated that synthesis is increased, no direct measurements have been performed. Methods. alpha(2)M synthesis in both normal subjects (N

  12. Changing the surface properties on naval steel as result of non-thermal plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, B.; Sabău, A.; Dumitrache, C. L.; Hnatiuc, M.; Crețu, M.; Astanei, D.

    2016-08-01

    The problem of corrosion, related to Biofouling formation, is an issue with very high importance in the maritime domain. According to new rules, the paints and all the technologies for the conditioning of naval materials must fulfil more restrictive environmental conditions. In order to solve this issue, different new clean technologies have been proposed. Among them, the use of non-thermal plasmas produced at atmospheric pressure plays a very important role. This study concerns the opportunity of plasma treatment for preparation or conditioning of naval steel OL36 type. The plasma reactors chosen for the experiments can operate at atmospheric pressure and are easy to use in industrial conditions. They are based on electrical discharges GlidArc and Spark, which already proved their efficiency for the surface activation or even for coatings of the surface. The non-thermal character of the plasma is ensured by a gas flow blown through the electrical discharges. One power supply has been used for reactors that provide a 5 kV voltage and a maximum current of 100 mA. The modifications of the surface properties and composition have been studied by XPS technique (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). There were taken into consideration 5 samples: 4 of them undergoing a Mini-torch plasma, a Gliding Spark, a GlidArc with dry air and a GlidArc with CO2, respectively the fifth sample which is the untreated witness. Before the plasma treatment, samples of naval steel were processed in order to obtain mechanical gloss. The time of treatment was chosen to 12 minutes. In the spectroscopic analysis, done on a ULVAC-PHI, Inc. PHI 5000 Versa Probe scanning XPS microprobe, a monocromated Al Kα X-ray source with a spot size of 100 μm2 was used to scan each sample while the photoelectrons were collected at a 45-degree take-off angle. Differences were found between atomic concentrations in each individual case, which proves that the active species produced by each type of plasma affects

  13. Evaluation of the Melanocytic Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis (MPATH-Dx) classification scheme for diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms: Results from the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Elmore, Joann G; Zhao, Ge A; Knezevich, Stevan R; Frederick, Paul D; Reisch, Lisa M; Chu, Emily Y; Cook, Martin G; Duncan, Lyn M; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Gerami, Pedram; Landman, Gilles; Lowe, Lori; Messina, Jane L; Mihm, Martin C; van den Oord, Joost J; Rabkin, Michael S; Schmidt, Birgitta; Shea, Christopher R; Yun, Sook Jung; Xu, George X; Piepkorn, Michael W; Elder, David E; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2016-08-01

    Pathologists use diverse terminology when interpreting melanocytic neoplasms, potentially compromising quality of care. We sought to evaluate the Melanocytic Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis (MPATH-Dx) scheme, a 5-category classification system for melanocytic lesions. Participants (n = 16) of the 2013 International Melanoma Pathology Study Group Workshop provided independent case-level diagnoses and treatment suggestions for 48 melanocytic lesions. Individual diagnoses (including, when necessary, least and most severe diagnoses) were mapped to corresponding MPATH-Dx classes. Interrater agreement and correlation between MPATH-Dx categorization and treatment suggestions were evaluated. Most participants were board-certified dermatopathologists (n = 15), age 50 years or older (n = 12), male (n = 9), based in the United States (n = 11), and primary academic faculty (n = 14). Overall, participants generated 634 case-level diagnoses with treatment suggestions. Mean weighted kappa coefficients for diagnostic agreement after MPATH-Dx mapping (assuming least and most severe diagnoses, when necessary) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval 0.68-0.71) and 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.73), respectively, whereas correlation between MPATH-Dx categorization and treatment suggestions was 0.91. This was a small sample size of experienced pathologists in a testing situation. Varying diagnostic nomenclature can be classified into a concise hierarchy using the MPATH-Dx scheme. Further research is needed to determine whether this classification system can facilitate diagnostic concordance in general pathology practice and improve patient care. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation of plasma turbulence in scrape-off layer conditions: the GBS code, simulation results and code validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P.; Halpern, F. D.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Mosetto, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Theiler, C.

    2012-12-01

    Based on the drift-reduced Braginskii equations, the Global Braginskii Solver, GBS, is able to model the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma turbulence in terms of the interplay between the plasma outflow from the tokamak core, the turbulent transport, and the losses at the vessel. Model equations, the GBS numerical algorithm, and GBS simulation results are described. GBS has been first developed to model turbulence in basic plasma physics devices, such as linear and simple magnetized toroidal devices, which contain some of the main elements of SOL turbulence in a simplified setting. In this paper we summarize the findings obtained from the simulation carried out in these configurations and we report the first simulations of SOL turbulence. We also discuss the validation project that has been carried out together with the GBS development.

  15. High-temperature thermo-mechanical behavior of functionally graded materials produced by plasma sprayed coating: Experimental and modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kang Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Park, Chang Hyun; Kim, Gon-Ho; Baik, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Taehyung; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-09-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are widely used in aerospace industries to protect exterior surfaces from harsh environments. In this study, functionally graded materials (FGMs) were investigated with the aim to optimize their high temperature resistance and strength characteristics. NiCrAlY bond coats were deposited on Inconel-617 superalloy substrate specimens by the low vacuum plasma spraying technique. Functionally graded Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings with gradually varying amounts of YSZ (20%-100%) were fabricated from composite powders by vacuum plasma spraying. Heat shield performance tests were conducted using a high- temperature plasma torch. The temperature distributions were measured using thermocouples at the interfaces of the FGM layers during the tests. A model for predicting the temperature at the bond coating-substrate interface was established. The temperature distributions simulated using the finite element method agreed well with the experimental results.

  16. Healthy dietary interventions and lipoprotein (a plasma levels: results from the Omni Heart Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Increased lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] levels are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies of dietary interventions on changes in Lp(a are sparse. We aimed to compare the effects of three healthy dietary interventions differing in macronutrient content on Lp(a concentration.Secondary analysis of a randomized, 3-period crossover feeding study including 155 (89 blacks; 66 whites individuals. Participants were given DASH-type healthy diets rich in carbohydrates [Carb], in protein [Prot] or in unsaturated fat [Unsat Fat] for 6 weeks each. Plasma Lp(a concentration was assessed at baseline and after each diet.Compared to baseline, all interventional diets increased mean Lp(a by 2 to 5 mg/dl. Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Prot with a difference of 1.0 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.5, 2.5; p = 0.196 in whites and 3.7 mg/dl (95% CI, 2.4, 5.0; p < 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.008; Unsat Fat increased Lp(a less than Carb with a difference of -0.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -2.1, 0.9; p = 0.441 in whites and -1.5 mg/dl (95% CI, -0.2, -2.8; p = 0.021 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.354. Prot increased Lp(a more than Carb with a difference of 0.4 mg/dl (95% CI, -1.1, 1.9; p = 0.597 in whites and 2.2 mg/dl (95%CI, 0.9, 3.5; p = 0.001 in blacks (p-value between races = 0.082.Diets high in unsaturated fat increased Lp(a levels less than diets rich in carbohydrate or protein with greater changes in blacks than whites. Our results suggest that substitutions with dietary mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy diets may be preferable over protein or carbohydrates with regards to Lp(a.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00051350.

  17. The relationship of DSM-IV pathological gambling to compulsive buying and other possible spectrum disorders: results from the Iowa PG family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-03-30

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 controls). Compulsive buying disorder and having "any spectrum disorder" were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR=8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Relationship of DSM-IV Pathological Gambling to Compulsive Buying and other Possible Spectrum Disorders: Results from the Iowa PG Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W.; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the possible relationship between pathological gambling (PG) and potential spectrum disorders including the DSM-IV impulse control disorders (intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, pyromania, trichotillomania) and several non-DSM disorders (compulsive buying disorder, compulsive sexual behavior, Internet addiction). PG probands, controls, and their first-degree relatives were assessed with instruments of known reliability. Detailed family history information was collected on relatives who were deceased or unavailable. Best estimate diagnoses were assigned blind to family status. The results were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. The sample included 95 probands with PG, 91 controls, and 1075 first-degree relatives (537 PG, 538 control). Compulsive buying disorder, having 1–2 spectrum disorder(s), and having “any spectrum disorder” were more frequent in the PG probands and their first-degree relatives vs. controls and their relatives. Spectrum disorders were significantly more prevalent among PG relatives compared to control relatives (adjusted OR = 8.37), though much of this difference was attributable to the contribution from compulsive buying disorder. We conclude that compulsive buying disorder is likely part of familial PG spectrum. PMID:25660732

  19. Resonant scattering of central plasma sheet protons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant proton loss timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Liang, Jun; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Shi, Run; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu; Fu, Song; Liu, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    This is a companion study to Liang et al. (2014) which reported a "reversed" energy-latitude dispersion pattern of ion precipitation in that the lower energy ion precipitation extends to lower latitudes than the higher-energy ion precipitation. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the central plasma sheet (CPS) have been suggested to account for this reversed-type ion precipitation. To further investigate the association, we perform a comprehensive study of pitch angle diffusion rates induced by EMIC wave and the resultant proton loss timescales at L = 8-12 around the midnight. Comparing the proton scattering rates in the Earth's dipole field and a more realistic quiet time geomagnetic field constructed from the Tsyganenko 2001 (T01) model, we find that use of a realistic, nondipolar magnetic field model not only decreases the minimum resonant energies of CPS protons but also considerably decreases the limit of strong diffusion and changes the proton pitch angle diffusion rates. Adoption of the T01 model increases EMIC wave diffusion rates at > ~ 60° equatorial pitch angles but decreases them at small equatorial pitch angles. Pitch angle scattering coefficients of 1-10 keV protons due to H+ band EMIC waves can exceed the strong diffusion rate for both geomagnetic field models. While He+ and O+ band EMIC waves can only scatter tens of keV protons efficiently to cause a fully filled loss cone at L > 10, in the T01 magnetic field they can also cause efficient scattering of ~ keV protons in the strong diffusion limit at L > 10. The resultant proton loss timescales by EMIC waves with a nominal amplitude of 0.2 nT vary from a few hours to several days, depending on the wave band and L shell. Overall, the results demonstrate that H+ band EMIC waves, once present, can act as a major contributor to the scattering loss of a few keV protons at lower L shells in the CPS, accounting for the reversed energy-latitude dispersion pattern of proton precipitation at low

  20. Plasma selenium and risk of dysglycemia in an elderly French population: results from the prospective Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hininger-Favier Isabelle

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A preventive role of selenium on the risk of diabetes has been reported and ascribed to the "insulin-like" activity of selenium and the antioxidant properties of the selenoenzymes. By contrast, data from cross-sectional studies and clinical trials have suggested an adverse effect of high selenium status and selenium supplementation on type-2 diabetes risk. Given these controversial results, we investigated prospectively the relationship between baseline plasma selenium concentration and occurrence of dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes in an elderly French cohort. Methods The Epidemiology of Vascular Ageing (EVA study (n = 1389, 59-71 years is a 9-year longitudinal study in which, fasting plasma glucose was measured at baseline, 2, 4 and 9 years. Analyses were performed on 1162 participants with complete data. Results At baseline plasma selenium mean levels were 1.08 (0.21 μmol/l in men and 1.10 (0.20 μmol/l in women. During the 9-year follow-up, 127 cases of dysglycemia occurred. A significant interaction was found between plasma selenium and sex. Risk of dysglycemia was significantly lower in men with plasma selenium in the highest tertile (T3:1.19-1.97 compared to those in the lowest tertile (T1:0.18-1.00 [HR = 0.48 (0.25-0.92], but no significant relationship was observed in women. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, cardiovascular diseases, body mass index, hypertension and lipid profile, plasma selenium remained marginally significantly associated with occurrence of dysglycemia in men [T3 vs. T1, HR = 0.50 (0.24-1.04] and unrelated in women. Conclusions This prospective study suggests a sex-specific protective effect of higher selenium status at baseline on later occurrence of dysglycemia.

  1. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumben...

  2. Jovian Plasma Torus Interaction with Europa: 3D Hybrid Kinetic Simulation. First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, A. S.; Cooper, J. F.; Paterson, W. R.; Sittler, E. C.; Hartle, R. E.; Simpson, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    The hybrid kinetic model supports comprehensive simulation of the interaction between different spatial and energetic elements of the Europa-moon-magnetosphere system with respect to variable upstream magnetic field and flux or density distributions of plasma and energetic ions, electrons, and neutral atoms. This capability is critical for improving the interpretation of the existing Europa flyby measurements from the Galileo orbiter mission, and for planning flyby and orbital measurements, (including the surface and atmospheric compositions) for future missions. The simulations are based on recent models of the atmosphere of Europa (Cassidy etal.,2007;Shematovichetal.,2005). In contrast to previous approaches with MHD simulations, the hybrid model allows us to fully take into account the finite gyro radius effect and electron pressure, and to correctly estimate the ion velocity distribution and the fluxes along the magnetic field (assuming an initial Maxwellian velocity distribution for upstream background ions).Non-thermal distributions of upstream plasma will be addressed in future work. Photoionization,electron-impact ionization, charge exchange and collisions between the ions and neutrals are also included in our model. We consider two models for background plasma:(a) with O(++) ions; (b) with O(++) and S(++) ions. The majority of O2 atmosphere is thermal with an extended cold population (Cassidyetal.,2007). A few first simulations already include an induced magnetic dipole; however, several important effects of induced magnetic fields arising from oceanic shell conductivity will be addressed in later work.

  3. Results from colliding magnetized plasma jet experiments executed at the Trident laser facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Rasmus, A. M.; Kurnaz, C. C.; Klein, S. R.; Davis, J. S.; Drake, R. P.; Montgomery, D. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Adams, C. S.; Pollock, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of high-velocity plasma flows in a background magnetic field has applications in pulsed-power and fusion schemes, as well as astrophysical environments, such as accretion systems and stellar mass ejections into the magnetosphere. Experiments recently executed at the Trident Laser Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory investigated the effects of an expanding aluminum plasma flow into a uniform 4.5-Tesla magnetic field created using a solenoid designed and manufactured at the University of Michigan. Opposing-target experiments demonstrate interesting collisional behavior between the two magnetized flows. Preliminary interferometry and Faraday rotation measurements will be presented and discussed. This work is funded by the U.S Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-NA0001840. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  4. Optical mammography: a new technique for visualizing breast lesions in women presenting non palpable BIRADS 4-5 imaging findings: preliminary results with radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Alexandra; Vanel, Daniel; Fournier, Laure; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared breast optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 4-5 non-palpable lesions scheduled for biopsy, using pathology after core or excisional biopsy as a reference. The patient's breast was positioned onto a panel of red light-emitting diodes (640 nm). A soft membrane was inflated to exert a uniform pressure on the breast. Transmitted light was detected using a CCD camera. The entire acquisition sequence took 1 minute. Image processing generated dynamic images displayed in colour scale, to reveal time-dependent changes in the transmitted light intensity caused by the pressure change. Dynamic curves were classified in two categories: consistently decreasing intensity suspicious for malignancy, and sinusoidal increasing intensity considered as benign. Seventy-eight women consulting for non-palpable breast lesions were initially included in the study. An imaging-histology correlation was obtained for seventy-two patients, the remaining six patients were excluded for technical optical scan reasons. We experienced an overall sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 38%, the false negative results being mainly small size (<10 mm) infiltrating malignant lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). False positive results were seen in benign proliferative lesions. Dynamic optical breast imaging is a novel, low-cost, non-invasive technique yielding a new type of information about the physiology of breast lesions. Absorption is due to haemoglobin and its products, therefore reflecting the angiogenic status of breast tumours.

  5. Optical mammography: a new technique for visualizing breast lesions in women presenting non palpable BIRADS 4–5 imaging findings: preliminary results with radiologic–pathologic correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Daniel; Fournier, Laure; Balleyguier, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared breast optical absorption imaging in patients with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) 4–5 non-palpable lesions scheduled for biopsy, using pathology after core or excisional biopsy as a reference. The patient's breast was positioned onto a panel of red light-emitting diodes (640 nm). A soft membrane was inflated to exert a uniform pressure on the breast. Transmitted light was detected using a CCD camera. The entire acquisition sequence took 1 minute. Image processing generated dynamic images displayed in colour scale, to reveal time-dependent changes in the transmitted light intensity caused by the pressure change. Dynamic curves were classified in two categories: consistently decreasing intensity suspicious for malignancy, and sinusoidal increasing intensity considered as benign. Seventy-eight women consulting for non-palpable breast lesions were initially included in the study. An imaging–histology correlation was obtained for seventy-two patients, the remaining six patients were excluded for technical optical scan reasons. We experienced an overall sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 38%, the false negative results being mainly small size (<10 mm) infiltrating malignant lesions and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). False positive results were seen in benign proliferative lesions. Dynamic optical breast imaging is a novel, low-cost, non-invasive technique yielding a new type of information about the physiology of breast lesions. Absorption is due to haemoglobin and its products, therefore reflecting the angiogenic status of breast tumours. PMID:17339139

  6. ECRH on ASDEX Upgrade - System Status, Feed-Back Control, Plasma Physics Results -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamm J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ASDEX Upgrade (AUG ECRH system now delivers a total of 3.9 MW to the plasma at 140 GHz. Three new units are capable of 2-frequency operation and may heat the plasma alternatively with 2.1 MW at 105 GHz. The system is routinely used with X2, O2, and X3 schemes. For Bt = 3.2 T also an ITER-like O1-scheme can be run using 105 GHz. The new launchers are capable of fast poloidal movements necessary for real-time control of the location of power deposition. Here real-time control of NTMs is summarized, which requires a fast analysis of massive data streams (ECE and Mirnov correlation and extensive calculations (equilibria, ray-tracing. These were implemented at AUG using a modular concept of standardized real-time diagnostics. The new realtime capabilities have also been used during O2 heating to keep the first reflection of the non-absorbed beam fraction on the holographic reflector tile which ensures a well defined second pass of the beam through the central plasma. Sensors for the beam position are fast thermocouples at the edge of the reflector tile. The enhanced ECRH power was used for several physics studies related to the unique feature of pure electron heating without fueling and without momentum input. As an example the effect of the variation of the heating mix in moderately heated H-modes is demonstrated using the three available heating systems, i.e. ECRH, ICRH and NBI. Keeping the total input power constant, strong effects are seen on the rotation, but none on the pedestal parameters. Also global quantities as the stored energy are hardly modified. Still it is found that the central ion temperature drops as the ECRH fraction exceeds a certain threshold.

  7. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  8. First results from the plasma composition spectrometer PROMICS-3 in the Interball project

    OpenAIRE

    Sandahl, I.; S. Barabash; Borg, H.; Budnik, E. Yu.; Dubinin, E. M.; Eklund, U.; Johansson, H.; H. Koskinen; K. Lundin; Lundin, R.; Moström, A.; Pellinen, R.; Pissarenko, N. F.; Pulkkinen, T.; Toivanen, P.

    1997-01-01

    International audience; PROMICS-3 is a plasma experiment flown in the Russian project Interball. It performs three-dimensional (3D) measurements of ions in the energy range 4 eV?70 keV with mass separation and of electrons in the energy range 12 eV?35 keV. The Interball project consists of two main satellites, the Tail Probe and the Auroral Probe, each with one subsatellite. The Interball Tail Probe was launched on 3 August 1995, into a 65° inclination orbit with apogee at about 30 RE. Both m...

  9. 3-Hydroxybutyrate coinfused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, X.; Sanchis, D.; Gómez, G.; Casanovas, J.M.; Artigas Pérez, Francesc; Fernández López, José Antonio; Remesar Betlloch, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  10. 3-Hydroxybutyrate co-infused with noradrenaline decreases resulting plasma levels of noradrenaline in Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cañas, Xavier; Sanchís, Daniel; Gómez, Gloria; Casanovas, Josep M.; Artigas, Francesc; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    1997-01-01

    Pentobarbital-anaesthetized male Wistar rats were infused with 6microgkg-1min-1 of noradrenaline. The infusion was supplemented with 8.5 mgkg-1min-1 of D-3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHB) for 15 min in order to determine its effect on the adrenergic response of the rat. Plasma levels of noradrenaline rose to a plateau of approximately 50 nmoll-1 with infusion. In the group infused with noradrenaline alone, noradrenaline levels were maintained for 1h. Supplementation with 3-OHB induced a decrease in p...

  11. Results of the qualification test campaign of a Pulsed Plasma Thruster for Cubesat Propulsion (PPTCUP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaralli, S.; Coletti, M.; Gabriel, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsed Plasma Thruster for Cubesat Propulsion (PPTCUP) is an ablative pulsed plasma thruster designed with the aim of providing translational and orbital control to Cubesat platforms. The qualification model presented in this paper has been developed by Mars Space Ltd, Clyde Space Ltd and the University of Southampton to produce a versatile "stand-alone" module that can be bolted on the Cubesat structure, allowing the orbital control along the X or Y-axis of the satellite. An extensive and complete test campaign to qualify the unit for space flight, which includes electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) characterization, thermal cycling and mechanical tests, has been performed according to the NASA GEVS procedures. PPTCUP is characterized by an averaged specific impulse of 655±58 s and a deliverable total impulse of 48.2±4.2 Ns. Finally, it has been found that the unit is compliant with the EMC requirements and can successfully withstand the thermal and mechanical loads typical of a Cubesat space mission.

  12. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajesh; Bali, Shveta Jindal; Kumar, Chandrashekhar; Shekhar, Himanshu; Sharma, Namrata; Titiyal, Jeewan S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2013-01-01

    To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV). In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife) and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months). The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic). None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8) of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  13. Probing the Quark Gluon Plasma with Heavy Flavours: recent results from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The study of open heavy-flavour physics allows us to investigate the key properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) and the microscopic processes ongoing in the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies. Heavy quarks are produced in the early stages of heavy-ion collisions and their further production and annihilation rates in the medium are expected to be very small throughout the evolution of the system. Therefore, they serve as penetrating probes that traverse the hot and dense medium, interact with the partonic constituents of the plasma and lose energy. Understanding the interactions of heavy quarks with the medium requires precise measurements over a wide momentum range in heavy-ion collisions, but also in smaller systems like pp collisions, which also test next-to-leading order perturbative QCD calculations, and proton-nucleus collisions, which are sensitive to Cold Nuclear Matter effects (CNM), such as the modification of the parton distribution functions of nuclei, and parton ...

  14. Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions. II. Numerical methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.

    1995-05-01

    In Part I of this work and Physics of Plasmas, June 1995, the behavior of linearly stable, integrable systems of waves in a simple plasma model was described using a Hamiltonian formulation. It was shown that explosive instability arises from nonlinear coupling between modes of positive and negative energy, with well-defined threshold amplitudes depending on the physical parameters. In this concluding paper, the nonintegrable case is treated numerically. Several sets of waves are considered, comprising systems of two and three degrees of freedom. The time evolution is modelled with an explicit symplectic integration algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods. When initial wave amplitudes are large enough to support two-wave decay interactions, strongly chaotic motion destroys the separatrix bounding the stable region for explosive triplets. Phase space orbits then experience diffusive growth to amplitudes that are sufficient for explosive instability, thus effectively reducing the threshold amplitude. For initial amplitudes too small to drive decay instability, small perturbations might still grow to arbitrary size via Arnold diffusion. Numerical experiments do not show diffusion in this case, although the actual diffusion rate is probably underestimated due to the simplicity of the model.

  15. Pathology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. METHODS: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the path...

  16. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavaddat, N.; Barrowdale, D.; Andrulis, I.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Eccles, D.; Nevanlinna, H.; Ramus, S.J.; Spurdle, A.; Robson, M.; Sherman, M.; Mulligan, A.M.; Couch, F.J.; Engel, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Southey, M.C.; Terry, M.B.; Goldgar, D.; O'Malley, F.; John, E.M.; Janavicius, R.; Tihomirova, L.; Hansen, T.V.; Nielsen, F.C.; Osorio, A.; Stavropoulou, A.; Benitez, J.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Barile, M.; Volorio, S.; Pasini, B.; Dolcetti, R.; Putignano, A.L.; Ottini, L.; Radice, P.; Hamann, U.; Rashid, M.U.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Kriege, M.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Evans, D.G.; Brewer, C.; Walker, L.; Rogers, M.T.; Side, L.E.; Houghton, C.; Weaver, J.; Godwin, A.K.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Meindl, A.; Kast, K.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Sutter, C.; Deissler, H.; Gadzicki, D.; Preisler-Adams, S.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Schonbuchner, I.; Gevensleben, H.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Belotti, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Isaacs, C.; Peshkin, B.N.; Caldes, T.; Hoya, M. de la; Canadas, C.; Heikkinen, T.; Heikkila, P.; Aittomaki, K.; Blanco, I.; Lazaro, C.; Brunet, J.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Arason, A.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Dumont, M.; Simard, J.; Montagna, M.; Agata, S.; D'Andrea, E.; Yan, M.; Fox, S.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Rubinstein, W.; Tung, N.; Garber, J.E.; Wang, X.; Fredericksen, Z.; Pankratz, V.S.; Lindor, N.M.; Szabo, C.; Offit, K.; Sakr, R.; Gaudet, M.M.; Singer, C.F.; Tea, M.K.; Rappaport, C.; Mai, P.L.; Greene, M.H.; Sokolenko, A.; Imyanitov, E.; Toland, A.E.; Senter, L.; Sweet, K.; Thomassen, M.; Gerdes, A.M.; Kruse, T.; Caligo, M.; Aretini, P.; Rantala, J.; Wachenfeld, A. von; Henriksson, K.; Steele, L.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Nussbaum, R.; Beattie, M.; Odunsi, K.; Sucheston, L.; Gayther, S.A.; Nathanson, K.; Gross, J.; Walsh, C.; Karlan, B.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Easton, D.F.; Antoniou, A.C.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. METHODS: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the patholo

  17. Pathology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O'Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benitez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Canadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkila, Paivi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D'Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Robert; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A.; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the patholo

  18. Pathology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O'Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benitez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Canadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkila, Paivi; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D'Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Robert; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A.; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the patholo

  19. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Mingzhou; MENG Yuedong; SHI Jiabiao; NI Guohua; JIANG Yiman; YU Xinyao; ZHAO Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash,OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results.Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected.The distribution of heavy metals of Pb,Cd,As,and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed.Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work,carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced.Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations,a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect.The results indicate that,a.when melted,the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly;b.it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly,and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace.

  20. Genetic and environmental influences on plasma homocysteine: results from a Danish twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Petersen, Inge; Christiansen, Lene;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma homocysteine has been linked to many clinical conditions including atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. We assessed the genetic and environmental influences on homocysteine in adult twins and tested the influence of 3 candidate polymorphisms. METHODS: Homocysteine...... was analyzed in 1206 healthy twins, who were genotyped for 3 polymorphisms: MTHFR 677C>T, MTR 2756A>G, and NNMT (dbSNP: rs694539). To perform quantitative trait linkage analysis of the MTHFR locus, the genotyping was supplemented with 2 genetic markers localized on each site of the MTHFR locus. The twin data...... of the MTHFR locus is estimated to explain 53% (95% CI, 0.07-0.67) of the total phenotypic variation in persons 18-39 years old and 24% (95% CI, 0.00-0.39) in persons 40-65 years old, i.e., almost all additive genetic variance. CONCLUSIONS: Homocysteine concentrations have a high heritability that decreases...

  1. Predicting Prostate Biopsy Results Using a Panel of Plasma and Urine Biomarkers Combined in a Scoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    a scoring system to predict prostate biopsy results and the presence of high grade PCa. METHODS: Urine and plasma specimens were collected from 319 patients recommended for prostate biopsies. We measured the gene expression levels of UAP1, PDLIM5, IMPDH2, HSPD1, PCA3, PSA, TMPRSS2, ERG, GAPDH, B2M, AR......, and PTEN in plasma and urine. Patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (sPSA) level, and biomarkers data were used to develop two independent algorithms, one for predicting the presence of PCa and the other for predicting high-grade PCa (Gleason score [GS] ≥7). RESULTS: Using training and validation...... data sets, a model for predicting the outcome of PCa biopsy was developed with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.87. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were 87% and 63%, respectively. We then developed a second algorithm to identify patients...

  2. Electron Beam Focusing and Spreading due to interactions With Copropagating Plasma Waves and Lasers: Explanation of Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A.; Williams, R. L.

    2016-10-01

    Numerical simulation results suggest that a low energy electron beam, injected perpendicularly across co-propagating plasma waves and laser beams, can be compressed to a line focus under certain conditions, but under different conditions can be spread out into two main lobes on which bunching patterns are impressed. We report several explanations for these observations, and also discuss the similarity of these results to other research results previously reported in the literature. The prospects for testing these results in a laboratory will be discussed, as well as the use of these phenomena as diagnostics. Supported by the Department of Energy.

  3. Determining the effect of freezing on coagulation testing: comparison of results between fresh and once frozen-thawed plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Robert C; Dwyre, Denis W

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the results from coagulation testing can be affected by numerous preanalytic and analytic variables including the stability of the citrated sample at room temperature. Samples not tested within 2-4 h of collection should be processed and frozen for later analysis. As limited data exist about the impact of freezing samples on coagulation testing, we sought to evaluate the effect of freezing on coagulation testing. Plasma samples into 3.2% sodium citrate tubes, centrifuged to yield platelet-poor plasma, were evaluated for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin (AT) activity, factors V, VII, VIII, IX, lupus anticoagulant and anti-Xa measurements for both unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. Samples were then frozen at -70°C for at least 1 week and testing was repeated using the same lot of material. All tests strongly correlated (R > 0.85) between fresh and frozen sample results. Using paired t test analysis, significant differences between fresh and frozen tested plasma existed for PT, APTT, factors V, VIII and AT. Significant differences existed between fresh and frozen lupus anticoagulant ratios (lupus anticoagulant screen but not lupus anticoagulant confirm), and single centrifugation process underestimated the presence of lupus anticoagulant as compared to double centrifugation processing. Freezing significantly affects the results for PT, APTT, factors V and VIII activity, and AT activity, although these differences were not considered to be clinically significant. Double centrifugation is required for accurate lupus anticoagulant testing, regardless of whether platelet-poor plasma is achieved with single centrifugation.

  4. Mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery resulting from mismanagement of a pathological femur fracture due to chronic osteomyelitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwaka Erisa Sabakaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mycotic aneurysms are rarely listed among the possible complications of osteomyelitis of the long bones. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. Case presentation We present the case of a 13-year-old Ugandan boy who was referred to our hospital with chronic osteomyelitis associated with a pathological fracture of the right femur and a mycotic aneurysm of the femoral artery. He underwent a successful above-knee amputation and is currently undergoing rehabilitation. Conclusions Aneurysms associated with chronic osteomyelitis of the long bones are very rare. However, in Africa, where people often still believe in crude traditional remedies, they should be considered among the possible diagnoses especially where acute injuries of the limbs are massaged and manipulated.

  5. [Abdominal tomometry. Application to study of the liver. Experimental study, initial clinical results and perspectives in the exploration of tumour pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, J L; Bruel, J M; Dondelinger, R; Sénac, J P; Rabischong, P; Bonnel, F; Laval-Jeantet, M; Laval-Jeantet, A M

    1977-04-01

    Over a period of two months, 120 patients were studied using an Acta-Scanner tomometer for various hepatic disorders. In parallel, comparative tomometric and pathological studies were carried out in cadavers and isolated livers. These made possible the recognition of normal structures in tomometry and the identification of certain hepatic images which might be potential sources of error. Serial axial transverse sections were used to reconstruct the volume of the liver in space, thus making in possible to eliminate certain forms of pseudo-tumoural hepatomegaly. Systematic densitometric analysis was made by radiological anatomical study and in hepatic pathology. This new type of analysis led to a quantified diagnosis of certain diffuse hepatic diseases and a histological approach to tumour lesions. Hepatography using liposoluble agents in very low dosage was used in hepatic tomometry after animal experimentation. The method, free of untoward effects, makes possible the diagnosis of hepato-splenic tumor lesions less than one centimetre in diameter.

  6. Long-term outcome after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer and predictive factors for a pathologic complete remission. Results of a multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, C.; Boelke, E.; Roth, S.L. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology] [and others

    2012-09-15

    An earlier published series of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (NRT-CHX) in locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer (LABC) has now been updated with a follow-up of more than 15 years. Long-term outcome data and predictive factors for pathologic complete response (pCR) were analyzed. Patients and methods: During 1991-1998, 315 LABC patients (cT1-cT4/cN0-N1) were treated with NRT-CHX. Preoperative radiotherapy (RT) consisted of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) of 50 Gy (5 x 2 Gy/week) to the breast and the supra-/infraclavicular lymph nodes combined with an electron boost in 214 cases afterwards or - in case of breast conservation - a 10-Gy interstitial boost with {sup 192}Ir afterloading before EBRT. Chemotherapy was administered prior to RT in 192 patients, and concomitantly in 113; 10 patients received no chemotherapy. The update of all follow-up ended in November 2011. Age, tumor grade, nodal status, hormone receptor status, simultaneous vs. sequential CHX, and the time interval between end of RT and surgery were examined in multivariate terms with pCR and overall survival as end point. Results: The total pCR rate after neoadjuvant RT-CHX reached 29.2%, with LABC breast conservation becoming possible in 50.8% of cases. In initially node-positive cases (cN+), a complete nodal response (pN0) after NRT-CHX was observed in 56% (89/159). The multivariate analysis revealed that a longer time interval to surgery increased the probability for a pCR (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.31], p < 0.01). However, in large tumors (T3-T4) a significantly reduced pCR rate (HR 0.89 [95% CI 0.80-0.99], p = 0.03) was obtained. Importantly, pCR was the strongest prognostic factor for long-term survival (HR 0.28 [95% CI 0.19-0.56], p < 0.001). Conclusion: pCR identifies patients with a significantly better prognosis for long-term survival. However, a long time interval to surgery (> 2 months) increases the probability of pCR after NRT-CHX. (orig.)

  7. Design and initial results from a kilojoule level dense plasma focus with hollow anode and cylindrically symmetric gas puff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, J. L.; Falabella, S.; Tang, V.; Schmidt, A.; Guethlein, G.; Hawkins, S.; Rusnak, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and built a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Z-pinch device using a kJ-level capacitor bank and a hollow anode, and fueled by a cylindrically symmetric gas puff. Using this device, we have measured peak deuteron beam energies of up to 400 keV at 0.8 kJ capacitor bank energy and pinch lengths of ˜6 mm, indicating accelerating fields greater than 50 MV/m. Neutron yields of on the order of 107 per shot were measured during deuterium operation. The cylindrical gas puff system permitted simultaneous operation of DPF with a radiofrequency quadrupole accelerator for beam-into-plasma experiments. This paper describes the machine design, the diagnostic systems, and our first results.

  8. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in patients with pathological gambling and internet use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Panneck, Patricia; Hellweg, Rainer; Wiedemann, Klaus; Müller, Christian A

    2015-03-30

    Alterations in secretion of stress hormones within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have repeatedly been found in substance-related addictive disorders. It has been suggested that glucocorticoids might contribute to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders by facilitatory effects on behavioral responses to substances of abuse. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate HPA axis activity in patients with non-substance-related addictive disorders, i.e. pathological gambling and internet use disorder. We measured plasma levels of copeptin, a vasopressin surrogate marker, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in male patients with pathological gambling (n=14), internet use disorder (n=11) and matched healthy controls for pathological gambling (n=13) and internet use disorder (n=10). Plasma levels of copeptin, ACTH and cortisol in patients with pathological gambling or internet use disorder did not differ among groups. However, cortisol plasma levels correlated negatively with the severity of pathological gambling as measured by the PG-YBOCS. Together with our findings of increased serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in pathological gambling but not internet use disorder, these results suggest that the pathophysiology of pathological gambling shares some characteristics with substance-related addictive disorders on a neuroendocrinological level, whereas those similarities could not be observed in internet use disorder.

  10. Axial and radial preliminary results of the neutron radiation from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first step of a program to design a repetitive pulsed neutron generator for applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Neutron emission has been obtained in both devices operating in deuterium. A specific technique was necessary to develop in order to detect neutron pulsed of 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot. The maximum total neutron yield measured was of the order of 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4} neutrons per shot in the PF-400 J and PF-50 J respectively. Axial and radial measurements of the neutron emission are presented and the anisotropy is evaluated in this work. The neutrons are measured by pairs of silver activation counters, {sup 3}He detectors and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors. (authors)

  11. Design and operation results of nitrogen gas baking system for KSTAR plasma facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Tae [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Jin, E-mail: k43689@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Nam-Yong; Im, Dong-Seok; Kim, Kang-Pyo; Kim, Kyung-Min; Bang, Eun-Nam; Kim, Yaung-Soo [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahang-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong-Yeon [Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Vacuum pressure in a vacuum vessel arrived at 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar. • PFC temperature was reached maximum 250 °C by gas temperature at 300 °C. • PFC inlet gas temperature was changed 5 °C per hour during rising and falling. • PFC gas balancing was made temperature difference among them below 8.3 °C. • System has a pre-cooler and a three-way valve to save operation energy. -- Abstract: A baking system for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) plasma facing components (PFCs) is designed and operated to achieve vacuum pressure below 5 × 10{sup −7} mbar in vacuum vessel with removing impurities. The purpose of this research is to prevent the fracture of PFC because of thermal stress during baking the PFC, and to accomplish stable operation of the baking system with the minimum life cycle cost. The uniformity of PFC temperature in each sector was investigated, when the supply gas temperature was varied by 5 °C per hour using a heater and the three-way valve at the outlet of a compressor. The alternative of the pipe expansion owing to hot gas and the cage configuration of the three-way valve were also studied. During the fourth campaign of the KSTAR in 2011, nitrogen gas temperature rose up to 300 °C, PFC temperature reached at 250 °C, the temperature difference among PFCs was maintained at below 8.3 °C, and vacuum pressure of up to 7.24 × 10{sup −8} mbar was achieved inside the vacuum vessel.

  12. Recent Results on Soft Probes of the Quark-Gluon Plasma from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Przybycien, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of low-pT (< 5 GeV) particle production have provided valuable insight on the production and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. In particular, measurements of elliptic and higher order collective flow imprinted on the azimuthal angle distributions of low-pT particles directly probe the strongly-coupled dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma and test hydrodynamic model descriptions of its evolution. The large acceptance of detectors like ATLAS has made it possible to measure flow event-by-event and to determine the correlations between different harmonics. Recent measurements of low-pT particle production and multi-particle correlations in proton-lead collisions have shown features similar to the collective flow observed in Pb+Pb collisions. Results will be presented from a variety of single and multi-particle measurements in Pb+Pb and proton-Pb collisions that probe the collective dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma and possibly provide evidence for collectivity in ...

  13. Results of the first international round robin for the quantification of urinary and plasma hepcidin assays: need for standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroot, Joyce J C; Kemna, Erwin H J M; Bansal, Sukhvinder S; Busbridge, Mark; Campostrini, Natascia; Girelli, Domenico; Hider, Robert C; Koliaraki, Vasiliki; Mamalaki, Avgi; Olbina, Gordana; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Tselepis, Chris; Ward, Douglas G; Ganz, Tomas; Hendriks, Jan C M; Swinkels, Dorine W

    2009-12-01

    The recently discovered iron regulatory peptide hormone hepcidin holds promise as a novel biomarker in iron metabolism disorders. To date, various mass spectrometry and immunochemical methods have been developed for its quantification in plasma and urine. Differences in methodology and analytical performance hinder the comparability of data. As a first step towards method harmonization, several hepcidin assays were compared. Worldwide eight laboratories participated in a urinary and plasma round robin in which hepcidin was analyzed. For both urine and plasma: (i) the absolute hepcidin concentrations differed widely between methods, (ii) the between-sample variation and the analytical variation of the methods are similar. Importantly, the analytical variation as percentage of the total variance is low for all methods, indicating their suitability to distinguish hepcidin levels of different samples. Spearman correlations between methods were generally high. The round robin results inform the scientific and medical community on the status and agreement of the current hepcidin methods. Ongoing initiatives should facilitate standardization by exchanging calibrators and representative samples.

  14. Digital pathology: Attitudes and practices in the Canadian pathology community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaleni Bellis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital pathology is a rapidly evolving niche in the world of pathology and is likely to increase in popularity as technology improves. We performed a questionnaire for pathologists and pathology residents across Canada, in order to determine their current experiences and attitudes towards digital pathology; which modalities digital pathology is best suited for; and to assess the need for training in digital pathology amongst pathology residents and staff. An online survey consisting of 24 yes/no, multiple choice and free text questions regarding digital pathology was sent out via E-mail to all members of the Canadian Association of Pathologists and pathology residents across Canada. Survey results showed that telepathology (TP is used in approximately 43% of institutions, primarily for teaching purposes (65%, followed by operating room consults (46%. Seventy-one percent of respondents believe there is a need for TP in their practice; 85% use digital images in their practice. The top two favored applications for digital pathology are teaching and consultation services, with the main advantage being easier access to cases. The main limitations of using digital pathology are cost and image/diagnostic quality. Sixty-two percent of respondents would attend training courses in pathology informatics and 91% think informatics should be part of residency training. The results of the survey indicate that Pathologists and residents across Canada do see a need for TP and the use of digital images in their daily practice. Integration of an informatics component into resident training programs and courses for staff Pathologists would be welcomed.

  15. Does posterior cingulate hypometabolism result from disconnection or local pathology across preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Stefan [University of Rostock, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rostock (Germany); DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States); Grothe, Michel J. [DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) hypometabolism as measured by FDG PET is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prodromal stages, such as in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and has been found to be closely associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD dementia.We studied the effects of local and remote atrophy and of local amyloid load on the PCC metabolic signal in patients with different preclinical and clinical stages of AD. We determined the volume of the hippocampus and PCC grey matter based on volumetric MRI scans, PCC amyloid load based on AV45 PET, and PCC metabolism based on FDG PET in 667 subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative spanning the range from cognitively normal ageing through prodromal AD to AD dementia. In cognitively normal individuals and those with early MCI, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively associated with hippocampus atrophy, whereas in subjects with late MCI it was associated with both local and remote effects of atrophy as well as local amyloid load. In subjects with AD dementia, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively related to local atrophy. Our findings suggest that the effects of remote pathology on PCC hypometabolism decrease and the effects of local pathology increase from preclinical to clinical stages of AD, consistent with a progressive disconnection of the PCC from downstream cortical and subcortical brain regions. (orig.)

  16. Experimental results on the irradiation of nuclear fusion relevant materials at the dense plasma focus ‘Bora’ device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Gribkov, V. A.; Niemela, J.; Tuniz, C.; Zanolli, C.; Chernyshova, M.; Demina, E. V.; Latyshev, S. V.; Pimenov, V. N.; Talab, A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Samples of materials counted as perspective ones for use in the first-wall and construction elements in nuclear fusion reactors (FRs) with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement (W, Ti, Al, low-activated ferritic steel ‘Eurofer’ and some alloys) were irradiated in the dense plasma focus (DPF) device ‘Bora’ having a bank energy of ⩽5 kJ. The device generates hot dense (T ˜ 1 keV, n ˜ 1019 cm-3) deuterium plasma, powerful plasma streams (v ˜ 3 × 107 cm s-1) and fast (E ˜ 0.1 … 1.0 MeV) deuterons of power flux densities q up to 1010 and 1012 W cm-2 correspondingly. ‘Damage factor’ F = q × τ0.5 ensures an opportunity to simulate radiation loads (predictable for both reactors types) by the plasma/ion streams, which have the same nature and namely those parameters as expected in the FR modules. Before and after irradiation we provided investigations of our samples by means of a number of analytical techniques. Among them we used optical and scanning electron microscopy to understand character and parameters of damageability of the surface layers of the samples. Atomic force microscopy was applied to measure roughness of the surface after irradiation. These characteristics are quite important for understanding mechanisms and values of dust production in FR that may relate to tritium retention and emergency situations in FR facilities. We also applied two new techniques. For the surface we elaborated the portable x-ray diffractometer that combines x-ray single photon detection with high spectroscopic and angular resolutions. For bulk damageability investigations we applied an x-ray microCT system where x-rays were produced by a Hamamatsu microfocus source (150 kV, 500 µA, 5 µm minimum focal spot size). The detector was a Hamamatsu CMOS flat panel coupled to a fibre optic plate under the GOS scintillator. The reconstruction of three-dimensional data was run with Cobra 7.4 and DIGIX CT software while VG Studio Max 2.1, and Amira 5.3 were used for

  17. Recommendations for pathology peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Daniel; Sellers, Rani S; Barale-Thomas, Erio; Bolon, Brad; George, Catherine; Hardisty, Jerry F; Irizarry, Armando; McKay, Jennifer S; Odin, Marielle; Teranishi, Munehiro

    2010-12-01

    Pathology peer review verifies and improves the accuracy and quality of pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Pathology peer review is recommended when important risk assessment or business decisions are based on nonclinical studies. For pathology peer review conducted before study completion, the peer-review pathologist reviews sufficient slides and pathology data to assist the study pathologist in refining pathology diagnoses and interpretations. Materials to be reviewed are selected by the peer-review pathologist. Consultations with additional experts or a formal (documented) pathology working group may be used to resolve discrepancies. The study pathologist is solely responsible for the content of the final pathology data and report, makes changes resulting from peer-review discussions, initiates the audit trail for microscopic observations after all changes resulting from peer-review have been made, and signs the final pathologist's report. The peer-review pathologist creates a signed peer-review memo describing the peer-review process and confirming that the study pathologist's report accurately and appropriately reflects the pathology data. The study pathologist also may sign a statement of consensus. It is not necessary to archive working notes created during the peer-review process.

  18. Association between fasting plasma triglycerides, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Czech population. Results from the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikhart, H; Hubáček, J A; Peasey, A; Kubínová, R; Bobák, M

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the risk factor of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between the plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and total/cardiovascular mortality has not yet been analyzed in Slavs. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the fasting TG levels and all-cause/cardiovascular mortality. We have examined 3,143 males and 3,650 females, aged 58.3+/-7.1 years. 729 deaths (274 cardiovascular deaths) have been registered during up to 11.8 years of follow-up. Age-sex adjusted all-cause mortality was higher in individuals with TG values 3.01-4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.02-1.83, P=0.035) and over 4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.21-2.27, P=0.002) when compared with a reference group (TG 1.41-1.80 mmol/l). Elevated risk remains significant when adjusted for education, marital status and unemployment. When further adjusted for smoking, BMI and dyslipidemia interventions, HR for those in above 4.00 mmol/l group decreased (1.42, P=0.04). The results have been similar when cardiovascular mortality has been examined, however, results reached statistical significance only for the TG over 4.0 mmol/l (P=0.028). Our results confirmed that enhanced plasma levels of plasma triglycerides are dose dependently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, however, it seems that individuals with TG values 1.8-3.0 mmol/l are not in higher risk of death.

  19. Quasiparticle Description of the QCD Plasma, Comparison with Lattice Results at Finite T and Mu

    CERN Document Server

    Szabó, K K

    2003-01-01

    We compare our 2+1 flavor, staggered QCD lattice results with a quasiparticle picture. We determine the pressure, the energy density, the baryon density, the speed of sound and the thermal masses as a function of T and $\\mu_B$. For the available thermodynamic quantities the difference is a few percent between the results of the two approaches. We also give the phase diagram on the $\\mu_B$--T plane and estimate the critical chemical potential at vanishing temperature.

  20. Curriculum Guidelines for Pathology and Oral Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for dental school pathology courses describe the interrelationships of general, systemic, and oral pathology; primary educational goals; prerequisites; a core curriculum outline and behavioral objectives for each type of pathology. Notes on sequencing, faculty, facilities, and occupational hazards are included. (MSE)

  1. [A Case of HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer for Which Preoperative Chemotherapy with Pertuzumab Resulted in a Pathological Complete Response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Naomi; Iwanaga, Takao; Ishino, Yoshito; Sugisawa, Aya; Ide, Shozo; Kimura, Hiroko; Iwata, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideki; Yokoe, Takeshi; Ojima, Eiki; Ito, Hideki; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Tonouchi, Hitoshi; Shigemori, Chika

    2016-09-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with redness and swelling with a peau d'orange appearance in the whole right breast. Ultrasound revealed elevated subcutaneus fat density and a diffuse hypoechoic area. She was diagnosed with inflammatory breast cancer(T4dN2M0, Stage III B of the HER2 subtype). After 4 courses of EC treatment as primary systemic therapy, the hypoechoic area was still present. Subsequent chemotherapy with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel was effective, as hypoechoic area was not observed on ultrasound. She underwent mastectomy and axillary dissection, and pathological examination revealed pCR. At present, 2 years after surgery, the patient is alive with no reccurence.

  2. The WIND-HAARP Experiment: Initial Results of High Power Radiowave Interactions with Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-10

    Results from the first science experiment with the new HF Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) facility in Alaska are reported. The initial...experiments involved transmission of high frequency waves from HAARP to the NASA/WIND satellite. The objective was to investigate the effects of space

  3. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  4. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Platelet rich plasma therapy: A comparative effective therapy with promising results in plantar fasciitis

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Mukesh; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Chronic muscle & tendon injuries are one of the problems which are encountered by human being since last long time. These injuries are generally repetitive strain injuries, commonly found in athletes. There are various treatments which include conservative methods in initial stages to surgery in later stages. On minimal invasive aspect Ultrasound-guided fenestration and tenotomy surgery has been used with good results as an effective treatment of chronic tendinopathies.1,2 There are various i...

  6. The Two-Dimensional One Component Plasma in a Doubly Periodic Background: Exact Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-24

    Background: Exact Results by Francoise Cornu*, Bernard Jancovici*, and Lesser Blum** *Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, Universite Paris...87/69 November 1987 1 Laboratolre de Physique Thdorlque et Hautes Energies, Unlversltd Parls-Sud, Bit. 21 1, 91405 Orsay, France (This Laboratory Is...Micanique Quantique (Hermann, Paris, 1977). 9. B. Jancovici, J. Stat. Phys. 2& 43 (1982). 10. S.L. Carnie and D.Y.C. Chan, Chem. Phys. Lett. 77 :437 (1981

  7. Plasma corticosterone levels in laying hens from three different housing systems: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Asdrubali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical and thyroidal hormones are physiological indicators of various forms of stress in the fowl. In order to establish possible variations in corticosterone levels, blood samples were collected from ISA Brown hens reared in three different housing systems (cage, floor and organic way. Results showed that corticosterone concentrations were highest in caged hens, intermediate in organic reared hens and lowest in floor reared hens. It could be assumed that in the last one system birds have an adequate space in controlled environment that permits them to satisfy, though partially, their behavioural needs without the presence of different chronic stress factors acting in the other systems.

  8. Baseline plasma corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting and rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Jennifer E; Norton, Terry M; Andrews, Kimberly M; Nelson, Steven E; Parker, Clare E; Romero, L Michael; Mitchell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of hormonal responses to stress in reptiles relies on acquisition of baseline corticosterone concentrations; however, the stress associated with the restraint needed to collect the blood samples can affect the results. The purpose of this study was to determine a time limit for the collection of blood samples to evaluate baseline corticosterone, haematological and biochemical results in nesting (n = 11) and rehabilitating (n = 16) loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Blood samples were collected from the dorsal cervical sinus of each turtle immediately after touching the animal (t 0; 0-3 min) and 3 (t 3; 3-6 min), 6 (t 6; 6-9 min; nesting turtles only), 10 (t 10; 10-13 min) and 30 min (t 30; rehabilitating turtles only) after the initial hands-on time. Consistent between the rehabilitating and nesting turtles, there was a subtle yet significant increase in white blood cell counts over time. Despite the fact that white blood cell counts increased during the sampling period, there was no direct correlation between white blood cell count and corticosterone in the sampled turtles. In the nesting turtles, significant elevations in corticosterone were noted between t 0 and t 3 (P = 0.014) and between t 0 and t 6 (P = 0.022). Values at t 10 were not significantly different from those at t 0 (P = 0.102); however, there was a trend for the corticosterone values to continue to increase. These results suggest that sampling of nesting loggerhead sea turtles within 3 min of handling will provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in their natural environment. Significant elevations in corticosterone were also noted in the rehabilitating loggerhead sea turtles between t 0 and t 10 (P = 0.02) and between t 0 and t 30 of sampling (P = 0.0001). These results suggest that sampling of loggerhead sea turtles within 6 min of handling should provide baseline corticosterone concentrations in a rehabilitation setting. The

  9. Oral heparin results in the appearance of heparin fragments in the plasma of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, A.K.; Lund, D.P.; Langer, R.; Folkman, J.

    1986-05-01

    We have previously shown that angiogenesis inhibition and tumor regression can be accomplished by combinations of heparin or heparin fragments with cortisone. Oral heparin was also effective in combination with cortisone. We now show that a single oral dose of (/sup 35/S)heparin or (/sup 3/H)heparin (15,000 units/kg) results in continuous release of radioactive material into the bloodstream for at least 12 hr. This is associated with the presence of anti-factor Xa activity at a level of approximately equal to 0.1 unit/ml. The radioactive material is identified as oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides by its behavior in chromatographic systems, its possession of anti-factor Xa activity, and the effect of treatment with bacterial heparinase. The heparin fragments are extensively metabolized to fragments without anti-factor Xa activity that are readily subject to urinary excretion.

  10. Preliminary Results from a Coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton Study of the Jovian Aurora and Io Plasma Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Ralph; Kimura, Tomoki; Elsner, Ronald; Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella; Gladstone, Randy; Badman, Sarah Victoria; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Murakami, Go; Murray, Stephen S.; Roediger, Elke; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Yoshioka, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a coordinated Hisaki/Chandra/XMM-Newton observational campaign of the Jovian aurora and Io plasma torus. The data were taken over a three week period in April, 2014. Jupiter was observed continuously with Hisaki, six times with the Chandra/HRC instrument for roughly 12 hours per observation, and twice by XMM-Newton. The goal of this observational campaign was to understand how energy and matter are exchanged between the Jovian aurora, the IPT, and the Solar wind. X-ray observations provide key diagnostics on highly stripped ions and keV electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere. We use the temporal, spatial, and spectral capabilities of the three instruments to search for correlated variability between the Solar wind, the EUV-emitting plasma of the IPT and UV aurora, and the ions responsible for the X-ray aurora. Preliminary analysis suggests a strong 45 min periodicity in the EUV emission from the electron aurora. There is some evidence for complex variability of the X-ray auroras on scales of tens of minutes. There is also clear morphological changes in the X-ray aurora that do not appear to be correlated with either variations in the IPT or Solar wind.

  11. First results with a surface conversion H ion source based on helicon wave mode-driven plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geros, Ernest [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rouleau, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaugg, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The currently employed converter-type negative ion source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H{sup -} ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. The extracted H{sup -} beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density, which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which degrades the performance of the H{sup -} conversion surface. In order to overcome these limitations we have designed and tested a prototype of a surface conversion H{sup -} ion source, based on excitation of helicon plasma wave mode with an external antenna. The source has been operated with and without cesium injection. An H{sup -} beam current of over 12 mA has been transported through the low energy beam transport of the LANSCE ion source test stand. The results of these experiments and the effects of different source parameters on the extracted beam current are presented. The limitations of the source prototype are discussed and future improvements are proposed based on the experimental observations.

  12. LIBS detection of erosion/deposition and deuterium retention resulting from exposure to Pilot-PSI plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piip, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Hämarik, L.; Karhunen, J.; Hakola, A.; Laan, M.; Paris, P.; Aints, M.; Likonen, J.; Bystrov, K.; Kozlova, J.; Založnik, A.; Kelemen, M.; Markelj, S.

    2017-06-01

    Samples with tungsten (W) and tungsten-yttrium (Y) coatings on molybdenum were exposed to plasmas simulating the divertor conditions of ITER. The exposed surfaces were studied using in-situ laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostics (LIBS) and the results were compared to those obtained by other surface characterization methods. Our results show that LIBS is a reliable technique for in situ monitoring of erosion, deposition, and fuel retention processes under reactor-relevant conditions. In the regions of the highest gross erosion the thickness of the remaining tungsten layer is thinnest and at the central part of samples both mixing and deposition of components took place. LIBS also allowed reliable recording of D retention. D accumulation is influenced by the surface temperature as well as by the surface irregularities.

  13. Kidney shear wave speed values in subjects with and without renal pathology and inter-operator reproducibility of acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI--preliminary results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu Bob

    Full Text Available to assess the inter-operator reproducibility of kidney shear wave speed, evaluated by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI elastography, and the factors which influence it.Our prospective pilot study included 107 subjects with or without kidney pathology in which kidney shear wave speed was evaluated by means of ARFI elastography. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess ARFI elastography reproducibility.A strong agreement was obtained between kidney shear wave speed measurements obtained by the two operators: ICC = 0.71 (right kidney and 0.69 (left kidney. Smaller ICCs were obtained in "healthy subjects", as compared to patients with kidney diseases (0.68 vs. 0.75, in women as compared with men (0.59 vs. 0.78, in subjects younger than 50 years as compared with those aged at least 50 years (0.63 vs. 0.71, in obese as compared with normal weight and overweight subjects (0.36 vs. 0.66 and 0.78 and in case of measurements depth 6 cm as compared with those performed at a depth of 4-6 cm from the skin (0.32 and 0.60 vs. 0.81.ARFI elastography is a reproducible method for kidney shear wave speed assessment.

  14. [Results of the Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) on cancer diagnosis and evaluation of its impact on the perception of the pathology specialty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardair, Charlotte; Bousquet, Guilhem; de Bazelaire, Cédric; Lehmann-Che, Jaqueline; de Cremoux, Patricia; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Battistella, Maxime; Sockeel, Marie; Calvani, Julien; Peuchmaur, Michel; Molina, Thierry; Gervais, Jocelyne; Moenaert, Emilie; Pottier, Yohann; Prévaut, Laurent; Sekri, Karima; Bertheau, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Massive Open Online Course (or MOOC) "Diagnostic Strategies Cancers", was hosted in autumn 2016 on the platform "France Université Numérique" and had two levels of learners: students in the field of health and biology and the general public. Of the 5285 learners in 81 different countries, 1237 (23%) were successfully certified. This MOOC was also integrated into the teaching program of medical students of Paris Diderot University and Paris 13 University. Using anonymous questionnaires before and after MOOC, it has been shown that pathology is less known than other medical specialties. Participation in this MOOC led to a marked improvement in participants' knowledge of the place and role of the pathologist in the diagnosis of cancers. Regarding the students who have followed the MOOC as part of their university course, their comments were very positive, but it is necessary to make substantial adjustments in the amounts and contents of the campus-based courses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of 'pathologic' changes in ICG waveforms resulting from superposition of the 'preejection' and ejection waves induced by left ventricular contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermishkin, V. V.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Lukoshkova, E. V.; Sonina, R. S.

    2013-04-01

    The impedance cardiography (ICG) is widely used for beat-to-beat noninvasive evaluation of the left ventricular stroke volume and contractility. It implies the correct determination of the ejection start and end points and the amplitudes of certain peaks in the differentiated impedance cardiogram. An accurate identification of ejection onset by ICG is often problematic, especially in the cardiologic patients, due to peculiar waveforms. Using a simple theoretical model, we tested the hypothesis that two major processes are responsible for the formation of impedance systolic wave: (1) the changes in the heart geometry and surrounding vessels produced by ventricular contraction, which occur during the isovolumic phase and precede ejection, and (2) expansion of aorta and adjacent arteries during the ejection phase. The former process initiates the preejection wave WpE and the latter triggers the ejection wave WEj. The model predicts a potential mechanism of generating the abnormal shapes of dZ/dt due to the presence of preejection waves and explains the related errors in ICG time and amplitude parameters. An appropriate decomposition method is a promising way to avoid the masking effects of these waves and a further step to correct determination of the onset of ejection and the corresponding peak amplitudes from 'pathologically shaped' ICG signals.

  16. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) of the pancreas: clinico-pathologic results Neoplasia papilar mucinosa intraductal del páncreas: resultados clínico-patológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Cienfuegos, J.A. (Javier A.); Rotellar, F. (Fernando); P. Martí-Cruchaga; V. Valentí; G. Zozaya; Bueno, A.; N. Pedano; Lozano, M. D.; J. J. Sola; F. Pardo

    2010-01-01

    Background: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) shows a series of lesions which evolve from benign lesions -adenoma- to invasive carcinoma. Aim: to analyze the clinical and pathological results of 15 patients diagnosed of IPMN, and surgically treated according to the guidelines of International Consensus Conference. Material and methods: a retrospective analysis of 15 patients surgically treated between March 1993 and September 2009, according to the International Consensus recomme...

  17. Thermodynamics of the quark-gluon plasma at finite chemical potential: color path integral Monte Carlo results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filinov, V.S.; Fortov, V.E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13, bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bonitz, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Leibnizstrasse 15, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ivanov, Y.B. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Kurchatov Sq. 1, 123182 Moscow, Russia, National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Reseach, Joliot-Curie str. 6, Dubna, 141980, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-01

    Based on the constituent quasiparticle model of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), color quantum path-integral Monte-Carlo (PIMC) calculations of the thermodynamic properties of the QGP are performed. We extend our previous zero chemical potential simulations to the QGP at finite baryon chemical potential. The results indicate that color PIMC can be applied not only above the QCD critical temperature T{sub c} but also below T{sub c}. Besides reproducing the lattice equation of state our approach yields also valuable additional insight into the internal structure of the QGP, via the pair distribution functions of the various quasiparticles. In particular, the pair distribution function of gluons reflects the existence of gluon-gluon bound states at low temperatures and μ = 175 MeV, i.e. glueballs, while meson-like bound states are not found. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. The Danish Pathology Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B

    2011-01-01

    The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....

  19. Differential Influence of Components Resulting from Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma on Integrin Expression of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Haertel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate chronic wound healing is a major problem in medicine. A new solution might be non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma effectively inactivating microorganisms and influencing cells in wound healing. Plasma components as, for example, radicals can affect cells differently. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma (DBD/air, DBD/argon, ozone or hydrogen peroxide to find the components responsible for changes in integrin expression, intracellular ROS formation or apoptosis induction. Dependent on plasma treatment time reduction of recovered cells was observed with no increase of apoptotic cells, but breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. DBD/air plasma increased integrins and intracellular ROS. DBD/argon caused minor changes. About 100 ppm ozone did not influence integrins. Hydrogen peroxide caused similar effects compared to DBD/air plasma. In conclusion, effects depended on working gas and exposure time to plasma. Short treatment cycles did neither change integrins nor induce apoptosis or ROS. Longer treatments changed integrins as important for influencing wound healing. Plasma effects on integrins are rather attributed to induction of other ROS than to generation of ozone. Changes of integrins by plasma may provide new solutions of improving wound healing, however, conditions are needed which allow initiating the relevant influence on integrins without being cytotoxic to cells.

  20. Differential influence of components resulting from atmospheric-pressure plasma on integrin expression of human HaCaT keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Beate; Straßenburg, Susanne; Oehmigen, Katrin; Wende, Kristian; von Woedtke, Thomas; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Adequate chronic wound healing is a major problem in medicine. A new solution might be non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma effectively inactivating microorganisms and influencing cells in wound healing. Plasma components as, for example, radicals can affect cells differently. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma (DBD/air, DBD/argon), ozone or hydrogen peroxide to find the components responsible for changes in integrin expression, intracellular ROS formation or apoptosis induction. Dependent on plasma treatment time reduction of recovered cells was observed with no increase of apoptotic cells, but breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. DBD/air plasma increased integrins and intracellular ROS. DBD/argon caused minor changes. About 100 ppm ozone did not influence integrins. Hydrogen peroxide caused similar effects compared to DBD/air plasma. In conclusion, effects depended on working gas and exposure time to plasma. Short treatment cycles did neither change integrins nor induce apoptosis or ROS. Longer treatments changed integrins as important for influencing wound healing. Plasma effects on integrins are rather attributed to induction of other ROS than to generation of ozone. Changes of integrins by plasma may provide new solutions of improving wound healing, however, conditions are needed which allow initiating the relevant influence on integrins without being cytotoxic to cells.

  1. Experimental Results of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells in a Low Density LEO Plasma Environment: Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma ground testing results, conducted at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) National Plasma Interaction (N-PI) Facility, are presented for a number of thin-film photovoltaic cells. The cells represent a mix of promising new technologies identified by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) under the CYGNUS Space Science Technology Experiment (SSTE-4) Program. The current ground tests are aimed at characterizing the performance and survivability of thin film technologies in the harsh low earth orbital space environment where they will be flown. Measurements of parasitic current loss, charging/dielectric breakdown of cover-slide coatings and arcing threshold tests are performed for each individual cell. These measurements are followed by a series of experiments designed to test for catastrophic arc failure mechanisms. A special type of power supply, called a solar array simulator (SAS) with adjustable voltage and current limits on the supply s output, is employed to bias two adjacent cells at a predetermined voltage and current. The bias voltage is incrementally ramped up until a sustained arc results. Sustained arcs are precursors to catastrophic arc failure where the arc current rises to a maximum value for long timescales often ranging between 30 to 100 sec times. Normal arcs by comparison, are short lived events with a timescale between 10 to 30 sec. Sustained arcs lead to pyrolization with extreme cell damage and have been shown to cause the loss of entire array strings in solar arrays. The collected data will be used to evaluate the suitability of thin-film photovoltaic technologies for future space operations.

  2. Pulp revascularization using platelet rich plasma autologous or in conjunction with a collagen matrix as a therapeutic possibility for teeth with an open apex necrotic pulp and / or periapical pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Guevara, Paula Alejandra; Sossa Rojas, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Describe the use of the Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma or in combination with a collagen matrix as a potential revascularization therapy in teeth with open apices, necrotic pulp and/or periapical lesion. Methods: A thematic literature searchwas conducted from 2007 to 2013 using electronic means,  databases and journals with high impact on endodontic. Results: Regenerative endodontic is a biological based procedure  designed to replace structures that have been damaged, diseased or...

  3. First results from plasma density measurements in the FTU tokamak by means of a two-frequency pulsed time-of-flight refractometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, V. G.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; Markov, V. K.; Petrov, A. A. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Avino, F.; Angelis, R. de; Tudisco, O. [ENEA-UT Fusione Centro Ricerche Frascati (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    A pulsed time-of-flight refractometer was developed and tested to determine the mean plasma density in the T-11M tokamak by measuring the propagation time of nanosecond microwave pulses in plasma. Later, it was also proposed to use such an instrument to measure and control the mean plasma density in the ITER tokamak by probing the plasma with an extraordinary wave, the electric field of which is perpendicular to the magnetic field in plasma, in the transparency window at frequencies of 50-100 GHz. To avoid the effect of the density profile shape on the measurement results in the nonlinear mode of refractometer operation (near the cutoff), a system operating at two different probing frequencies was developed and tested. Such a system provides two values of the time delay, which can be used to estimate the peaking factor of the density distribution {alpha} and correctly determine the linear density Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket Nl Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket , regardless of the density profile (assuming a smooth density profile of the form of N({rho}) = N(0)(1 - {rho}{sup 2}){sup {alpha}}, where N(0) is the central plasma density and {rho} = r/a is the normalized plasma radius). The first experiments on density measurements in the FTU tokamak performed with this refractometer are described, and results from these experiments are presented. The formation of a thin dense plasma layer in the zone of a strong magnetic field (the so-called MARFE layer) at a relatively low (for FTU) plasma density of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} was detected. The thickness of this layer, determined from the refractometry data, agrees well with the data obtained using a digital camera.

  4. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  5. Association of Plasma Homocysteine with Self-Reported Sleep Apnea Is Confounded by Age: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar P. Thakre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma homocysteine are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases especially if accompanied by sleep apnea, but a direct pathogenetic link between plasma homocysteine levels and obstructive sleep apnea is debatable. This association can have far-reaching public health implications considering the inverse association between folate and plasma homocysteine. We used data from the 2005-2006 cycle of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to test the hypothesized associations. Of the 4490 subjects included in analysis, 177 reported sleep apnea. Age-standardized and design-effect-corrected prevalence rates were differential across gender, plasma homocysteine, and red cell folate status. Plasma homocysteine was positively correlated with age (r=0.38, P<0.0001. Multivariate analyses using sociodemographic and clinical covariates demonstrated that plasma homocysteine levels retained their respective associations with self-reported sleep apnea in all models except when age was included as a covariate. Our results demonstrate that the claimed association of plasma homocysteine with sleep apnea may be confounded by age.

  6. Preliminary investigation of the relationship between plasma IGFBP-6 concetration and pathological grading and prognosis in patients with cerebral gliomas%胶质瘤患者血浆IGFBP-6浓度与病理分级及预后关系的初步探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国珍; 林毅; 江涛; 王江飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:检测胶质瘤患者血浆中IGFBP-6的浓度,探讨其作为临床预测脑胶质瘤生存期标志物的可能性。方法:用酶联免疫吸附法(ELIISA)检测207例不同级别胶质瘤患者和36例正常对照者的血浆IGFBP6水平。采用方差分析(analysis of variance,ANOVA)比较胶质瘤患者与正常对照组及不同分级的胶质瘤患者的血浆IGFBP6水平,及对中位生存期的影像。结果:(1)低级别胶质瘤(Ⅱ级)患者血浆IGFBP-6平均水平(154.95±43.02ng/mL)较正常对照组(188.77±59.57ng/mL)明显降低(P<0.05),亦明显低于高级别胶质瘤(Ⅲ,Ⅳ级)(183.14.95±71.43ng/mL)(P<0.05),而高级别胶质瘤和正常对照之间无显著性差异。(2)Ⅲ级胶质瘤患者低血浆IGFBP6水平组生存期均值为711天(中位生存期,788天,95%CI,618-805)与高血浆IGFBP6水平组577天(中位生存期,607天,95%CI,510-644)相比有显著统计学差异(P<0.001)。结论:血浆IGFBP-6水平具有成为脑胶质瘤标记物的潜质,可能作为一个生物标记物来预测患者的生存期。%Objective:To investigate the possibility of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6(IGFBP6) as a po-tential prognosis predicator in the patients with cerebral glioma and the pathological grading value of its plasma concentra-tion. Methods:IGFBP-6 ELISA kit was used to measure the plasma IGFBP-6 concetrtion of 207 patients who had been newly diagnosed with cerebral glioma and 36 healthy volunteers. Grade Ⅲ glioma patients whose pathological tissue con-tained astrocytoma were compared. Results:(1)The preoperative plasma IGFBP-6 levels could significantly discriminate the surviwal of the two grade Ⅲ glioma subgroups ,with a mean survival time of 711days (the mean survival time, 788days, 95%CI,618-805) in low plasma IGFBP-6 level group versus mean survival time of 577days (the mean survival time, 607days,95%CI,510-644) in high plasma level group(P<0

  7. [Methods and methodology of pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, E F

    2016-01-01

    The lecture gives the state-of-the-art of the methodology of human pathology that is an area of the scientific and practice activity of specialists to produce and systematize objective knowledge of pathology and to use the knowledge in clinical medicine. It considers the objects and subjects of an investigation, materials and methods of a pathologist, and the results of his/her work.

  8. Experimental results of superimposing 9.9 GHz extraordinary mode microwaves on 2.45 GHz ECRIS plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiokada, Takuya, E-mail: nishiokada@nf.eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagaya, Tomoki; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi [Division of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Muramatsu, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-855 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Efficient production of multicharged ions has been investigated on the tandem-type ECRIS in Osaka University. According to the consideration of the accessibility conditions of microwaves to resonance and cutoff regions, it was suggested that the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) heating contributed to enhancement of ion beam intensity. In order to enhance multicharged ion beams efficiently, injecting higher frequency microwave with extraordinary (X-mode) toward UHR region has been tried. In this study, 2.45 GHz frequency microwaves are used for conventional ECR discharge, and 9.9 GHz frequency microwaves with X-mode are superimposed for UHR heating. The effects of additive microwave injection are investigated experimentally in terms of plasma parameters and electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measured by Langmuir probe and ion beam current. As the results show, it is confirmed that the electrons in the high energy region are affected by 9.9 GHz X-mode microwave injection from the detailed analysis of EEDF.

  9. Recent Experimental and Numerical Results on Turbulence, Flows and Global Stability Under Biasing in a Magnetized Linear Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M.; Desjardins, T. R.; Fisher, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    Ongoing experiments and numerical modeling on the effects of flow shear on electrostatic turbulence in the presence of electrode biasing are being conducted in helicon plasmas in the linear HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) device. It is found that changes in flow shear, affected by electrode biasing through Er x Bz rotation, can strongly affect fluctuation dynamics, including fully suppressing the fluctuations or inducing chaos. The fundamental underlying instability, at least in the case of low magnetic field, is identified as a hybrid resistive drift-Kelvin-Helmholtz mode. At higher magnetic fields, multiple modes (resistive drift, rotation-driven interchange and/or Kelvin-Helmholtz) are present, and interact nonlinearly. At high positive electrode bias (V >10Te), a large amplitude, global instability, identified as the potential relaxation instability is observed. Numerical modeling is also being conducted, using a 3 fluid global Braginskii solver for no or moderate bias cases, and a 1D PIC code for high bias cases. Recent experimental and numerical results will be presented. Supported by U.S. National Science Foundation Award 1500423.

  10. Electrostatic Properties of PE and PTFE Subjected to Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment; Correlation of Experimental Results with Atomistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Boucher, Derrick; Calle, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The use of an atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasma was used at KSC to increase the hydrophilicity of spaceport materials to enhance their surface charge dissipation and prevent possible ESD in spaceport operations. Significant decreases in charge decay times were observed after tribocharging the materials using the standard KSC tribocharging test. The polarity and amount of charge transferred was dependent upon the effective work function differences between the respective materials. In this study, polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to a He+O2 APGD. The pre and post treatment surface chemistry was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with some plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE, significant surface oxidation was observed, as indicated by XPS showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angle from 98.9 deg to 61.2 deg. For the PTFE, no C-O bonding appeared and the surface contact angle increased indicating the APGD only succeeded in cleaning the PTFE surface without affecting the surface structure. The calculations using the PM3 and DFT methods were performed on single and multiple oligomers to simulate a wide variety of oxidation scenarios. Calculated work function results suggest that regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =0 or a combination thereof, the experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation are unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and that its increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. The calculations for PTFE argue strongly against significant oxidation of that material, as confirmed by the XPS results.

  11. Is it possible to preserve lumbar lordosis after hybrid stabilization? Preliminary results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Matteo; Cavagnaro, Luca; Basso, Marco; Zanirato, Andrea; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a novel rigid-dynamic stabilization technique in lumbar degenerative segment diseases (DSD), expressly pointing out the preservation of postoperative lumbar lordosis (LL). Forty-one patients with one level lumbar DSD and initial disc degeneration at the adjacent level were treated. Circumferential lumbar arthrodesis and posterior hybrid instrumentation were performed to preserve an initial disc degeneration above the segment that has to be fused. Clinical and spino-pelvic parameters were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. At 2-year follow-up, a significant improvement of clinical outcomes was reported. No statistically significant difference was noted between postoperative and 2-year follow-up in LL and in disc/vertebral body height ratio at the upper adjacent fusion level. When properly selected, this technique leads to good results. A proper LL should be achieved after any hybrid stabilization to preserve the segment above the fusion.

  12. The pathological response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile in combination with fine particles compared to amosite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure: interim results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D M; Rogers, R A; Sepulveda, R; Donaldson, K; Schuler, D; Gaering, S; Kunzendorf, P; Chevalier, J; Holm, S E

    2010-09-01

    The pathological response and translocation of a commercial chrysotile product similar to that which was used through the mid-1970s in a joint compound intended for sealing the interface between adjacent wall boards was evaluated in comparison to amosite asbestos. This study was unique in that it presents a combined real-world exposure and was the first study to investigate whether there were differences between chrysotile and amosite asbestos fibers in time course, size distribution, and pathological response in the pleural cavity. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either sanded joint compound consisting of both chrysotile fibers and sanded joint compound particles (CSP) or amosite asbestos. Subgroups were examined through 1-year postexposure. No pathological response was observed at any time point in the CSP-exposure group. The long chrysotile fibers (L > 20 microm) cleared rapidly (T(1/2) of 4.5 days) and were not observed in the pleural cavity. In contrast, a rapid inflammatory response occurred in the lung following exposure to amosite resulting in Wagner grade 4 interstitial fibrosis within 28 days. Long amosite fibers had a T(1/2) > 1000 days and were observed in the pleural cavity within 7 days postexposure. By 90 days the long amosite fibers were associated with a marked inflammatory response on the parietal pleural. This study provides support that CSP following inhalation would not initiate an inflammatory response in the lung, and that the chrysotile fibers present do not migrate to, or cause an inflammatory response in the pleural cavity, the site of mesothelioma formation.

  13. Oxidation of metals by a plasma formed as a result of low-threshold breakdown of air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, I. N.; Goncharov, Yu N.; Konov, Vitalii I.; Minaev, I. M.; Skvortsov, Yu A.; Chapliev, N. I.

    1981-12-01

    The characteristics of the oxidation of copper, aluminum, and titanium were determined in the case when breakdown of air was initiated by CO2 laser pulses incident on targets made of these metals. A study was made of the influence of surface oxide films on the threshold radiation intensity necessary to produce a plasma. The dependence of the efficiency of the thermal interaction of an optical-breakdown plasma on the magnitude and sign of the charge carried by the surface of a metal target was investigated for the first time in the specific case of titanium.

  14. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  15. [Fertility results after insemination of a moderate count of cock sperm, diluted in Blumberger cock sperm diluent and homologous seminal plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G P

    1989-11-01

    Incomplete studies into artificial insemination of White Leghorn hens appear to suggest that the generally common number of cock spermatozoa per insemination can be considerably reduced without adverse consequences for reproduction results. Fertilisation rates between 89.4 and 94.9% were recorded from inseminations of as little as 20 x 10(6) spermatozoa, based on tenfold dilution of ejaculate collections in Blumberg Cock Sperma Diluent (BCSD) or homologous seminal plasma or differentiated combinations of both. Addition of increasing amounts of seminal plasma, however, caused decline in hatching rates as a result of rising embryonic mortality. Best suitability was recorded from a diluent combination of 75% of BCSD with 25% of seminal plasma, with the hatching rate being 85.0%.

  16. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  17. Plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, N.E.; Appleby, P.N.; Roddam, A.W.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N.F.; Overvad, K.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, S.; Kaaks, R.; Linseisen, J.; Trichopoulou, A.; Misirli, G.; Trichopoulos, D.; Sacerdote, C.; Grioni, S.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Barricarte, A.; Larranaga, N.; Sanchez, M.J.; Agudo, A.; Tormo, M.J.; Rodriguez, L.; Stattin, P.; Hallmans, G.; Bingham, S.; Khaw, K.T.; Slimani, N.; Rinaldi, S.; Boffetta, P.; Riboli, E.; Key, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some evidence indicates that a low selenium intake may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma selenium concentration with subsequent prostate cancer risk and to examine this association by sta

  18. Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eMerscher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are components of the lipid rafts in plasma membranes, which are important for proper function of podocytes, a key element of the glomerular filtration barrier. Research revealed an essential role of sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites in glomerular disorders of genetic and non-genetic origin. The discovery that glucocerebrosides accumulate in Gaucher disease in glomerular cells and are associated with clinical proteinuria initiated intensive research into the function of other sphingolipids in glomerular disorders. The accumulation of sphingolipids in other genetic diseases including Tay-Sachs, Sandhoff, Fabry, hereditary inclusion body myopathy 2, Niemann-Pick and nephrotic syndrome of the Finnish type and its implications with respect to glomerular pathology will be discussed. Similarily, sphingolipid accumulation occurs in glomerular diseases of non-genetic origin including diabetic kidney disease (DKD, HIV-associated nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS and lupus nephritis. Sphingomyelin metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate have also gained tremendous interest. We recently described that sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3b (SMPDL3b is expressed in podocytes where it modulates acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase activity and acts as a master modulator of danger signaling. Decreased SMPDL3b expression in post-reperfusion kidney biopsies from transplant recipients with idiopathic FSGS correlates with the recurrence of proteinuria in patients and in experimental models of xenotransplantation. Increased SMPDL3b expression is associated with DKD. The consequences of differential SMPDL3b expression in podocytes in these diseases with respect to their pathogenesis will be discussed. Finally, the role of sphingolipids in the formation of lipid rafts in podocytes and their contribution to the maintenance of a functional slit diaphragm in the glomerulus will be discussed.

  19. Clear detection of ADIPOQ locus as the major gene for plasma adiponectin: results of genome-wide association analyses including 4659 European individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Iris M.; Henneman, Peter; Hicks, Andrew; Coassin, Stefan; Winkler, Thomas; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Song, Kijoung; Hivert, Marie-France; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Richards, J. Brent; Perry, John R.B.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Amin, Najaf; Kollerits, Barbara; Pichler, Irene; Oostra, Ben A.; Thorand, Barbara; Frants, Rune R.; Illig, Thomas; Dupuis, Josée; Glaser, Beate; Spector, Tim; Guralnik, Jack; Egan, Josephine M.; Florez, Jose C.; Evans, David M.; Soranzo, Nicole; Bandinelli, Stefania; Carlson, Olga D.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Burling, Keith; Smith, George Davey; Mooser, Vincent; Ferrucci, Luigi; Meigs, James B.; Vollenweider, Peter; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Pramstaller, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Plasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are highly heritable and differ between men and women. We therefore aimed to investigate the genetics of plasma adiponectin in men and women. Methods We combined genome-wide association scans of three population-based studies including 4659 persons. For the replication stage in 13795 subjects, we selected the 20 top signals of the combined analysis, as well as the 10 top signals with p-values less than 1.0*10-4 for each the men- and the women-specific analyses. We further selected 73 SNPs that were consistently associated with metabolic syndrome parameters in previous genome-wide association studies to check for their association with plasma adiponectin. Results The ADIPOQ locus showed genome-wide significant p-values in the combined (p=4.3*10-24) as well as in both women- and men-specific analyses (p=8.7*10-17 and p=2.5*10-11, respectively). None of the other 39 top signal SNPs showed evidence for association in the replication analysis. None of 73 SNPs from metabolic syndrome loci exhibited association with plasma adiponectin (p>0.01). Conclusions We demonstrated the ADIPOQ gene as the only major gene for plasma adiponectin, which explains 6.7% of the phenotypic variance. We further found that neither this gene nor any of the metabolic syndrome loci explained the sex differences observed for plasma adiponectin. Larger studies are needed to identify more moderate genetic determinants of plasma adiponectin. PMID:20018283

  20. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  1. Plasma deposition of diamond-like carbon and fluorinated amorphous carbon and the resultant properties and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Alexander David

    Researchers first created diamondlike carbon (DLC) 50 years ago, but it has only been the subject of intense research for the last decade. DLC is a highly stressed thin film that exists as a mixture of diamond like sp 3 and graphite like sp2 bonded carbon, with 0--50% H. Many believe that high intrinsic stress states are necessary to stabilize the carbon spa content responsible for the high hardness of DLC. This author's goals include fabricating high quality fluorinated amorphous carbon (FLAC) films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), exploring the relationships between the processing parameters and the dielectric value, as well as the related material properties which limit the useful application of FLAC. An improved understanding of the fundamentals behind FLAC processing may allow workers to improve upon the properties limiting its use, such as intrinsic stress, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity. DLC and FLAC film hardness ranged from 14--16 GP and 16--18 GPa respectively. Their film stress ranged from 800 MPa to a 10 GPa. A study of the thickness dependent properties showed that only films thicker than 200 nm were able to achieve stresses greater than approximately 1.6 GPa, the room temperature transition pressure of graphite to diamond. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements also yielded different C sp3 contents for films of varying thickness deposited under the same conditions, helping to confirm a thickness dependence of film properties greater than 200 nm. Observation of the stress in real time during annealing of the films on Si wafers yielded activation energy values for the stress relief of DLC and FLAC as 0.11 and 0.24 eV respectively, and the CTE of DLC as 10.6 x 10-6 C-1. The stress relief mechanism consists of kinetically limited network arrangements that occur in highly stressed zones due heating, which are also the cause of the reduction in dielectric constant that occurs during rapid thermal annealing. Thermal

  2. Major liver resection results in a changed plasma amino acid pattern as reflected by a decreased Fischer ratio which improves by bactericidal/permeability increasing protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijveldt, RJ; Wiezer, MJ; Meijer, C; Prins, HA; Muller, MGS; Gouma, DJ; Teerlink, T; van Gulik, TM; Rinkes, IHMB; Tilanus, HW; van de Velde, CJH; Wiggers, T; Zoetmulder, FAN; Scotte, M; Cuesta, MA; Meijer, S; van Leeuwen, PAM

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims: Major liver resection results in a high morbidity and mortality, and endotoxin plays a role in post-resection hepatic failure. Severe hepatic failure as seen in hepatitis and cirrhosis may be accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy and is characterized by a typical plasma amino acid p

  3. Handheld computing in pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI, new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology.

  4. Handheld computing in pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  5. Pathology in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, S; Patsouris, E

    2015-11-01

    Pathology is the field of medicine that studies diseases. Ancient Greece hosted some of the earliest societies that laid the structural foundations of pathology. Initially, knowledge was based on observations but later on the key elements of pathology were established based on the dissection of animals and the autopsy of human cadavers. Christianized Greece under Ottoman rule (1453-1821) was not conducive to the development of pathology. After liberation, however, a series of events took place that paved the way for the establishment and further development of the specialty. The appointment in 1849 of two Professors of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens for didactical purposes proved to be the most important step in fostering the field of pathology in modern Greece. Presently in Greece there are seven university departments and 74 pathology laboratories in public hospitals, employing 415 specialized pathologists and 90 residents. The First Department of Pathology at the Medical School of Athens University is the oldest (1849) and largest in Greece, encompassing most pathology subspecialties.

  6. Chemical Phase and Valence Studies of Plasma Sprayed Coatings: EDXRD and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    powder α-Al2O3 anatase -TiO2 EDXRD –structure nano-alumina/titania feed powder α-Al2O3 anatase -TiO2 cubic-CeO2 cubic-ZrO2 EDXRD –structure ε ε ε ε ε e...Ar, N2 Plasma spray deposition (oxidizing agent) O2 α-Al2O3 anatase -TiO2 Ce3+-O !!! cubic-ZrO2 cubic-Ce4+O2 Inert gas Ar, N2 Plasma spray deposition...H2 (reducing agent) (oxidizing agent) O2 α-Al2O3 anatase -TiO2 Ce3+-O ok? cubic-ZrO2 cubic-Ce4+O2 t2g eg L3 p →d ε continuum d DOS e.g. octahedral

  7. Photon Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma at Finite Baryon Density: Complete Leading Order Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jia-Li; HE Ze-Jun; MA Yu-Gang

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate hard photon production of the near-collinear bremsstrahlung and a new process called the inelastic pair annihilation, fully including the LPM effect, in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density, and find that the effect of the system evolution on the photon production and large contribution of the bremsstrahlung make the total photon yield of the two processes as a strongly increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.

  8. [Pathological buying -- a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Reinecker, Hans; Jacobi, Corinna; Reisch, Lucia; de Zwaan, Martina

    2005-01-01

    This review summarizes the literature on pathological buying published during the past 15 years. Pathological or compulsive buying is defined as frequent preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy that are experienced as irresistible, intrusive, and/or senseless. The buying behavior causes marked distress, interferes with social functioning, and often results in financial problems. Studies on the phenomenology, diagnosis, classification, comorbidity, epidemiology, and treatment are presented. Pathological buying should be diagnosed as impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (ICD-10 F63.9). Psychiatric comorbidity is frequent, particulary mood, anxiety, substance use, eating, impulse control and obsessive-compulsive disorders. The positive results of pharmacological treatment with antidepressants (usually SSRI) and opioid antagonists could not be confirmed in controlled trials. A disorder specific cognitive-behavioral group treatment manual was published in USA. A controlled study is currently conducted in USA and since 2003 at the Department of Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy at the University Hospital Erlangen.

  9. Real-time Linux operating system for plasma control on FTU--implementation advantages and first experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, V. E-mail: vitale@frascati.enea.it; Centioli, C.; Iannone, F.; Mazza, G.; Panella, M.; Pangione, L.; Podda, S.; Zaccarian, L

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the experiment carried out at the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) on the porting of the plasma control system (PCS) from a LynxOS architecture to an open source Linux real-time architecture. The old LynxOS system was implemented on a VME/PPC604r embedded controller guaranteeing successful plasma position, density and current control. The new RTAI-Linux operating system has shown to easily adapt to the VME hardware via a VME/INTELx86 embedded controller. The advantages of the new solution versus the old one are not limited to the reduced cost of the new architecture (based on the open-source characteristic of the RTAI architecture) but also enhanced by the response time of the real-time system which, also through an optimization of the real-time code, has been reduced from 150 {mu}s (LynxOS) to 70 {mu}s (RTAI). The new real-time operating system is also shown to be suitable for new extended control activities, whose implementation is also possible based on the reduced duty cycle duration, which leaves space for the real-time implementation of nonlinear control laws. We report here on recent experiments related to the optimization of the coupling between additional radiofrequency power and plasma.

  10. The acute response of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor as a result of exercise in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Gunnar; Lira, Claudia Mallea; Johansson, Jon; Wisén, Anita; Wohlfart, Björn; Ekman, Rolf; Westrin, Asa

    2009-10-30

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other neurotrophins are believed to play an important role in affective disorders. In this study we investigated plasma-BDNF response during an incremental exercise test in 18 patients suffering from moderate major depressive disorder (MDD) and 18 controls. The patients were not treated with antidepressants or neuroleptics. Possible associations between plasma plasma-BDNF levels, dexamethasone suppression test cortisol levels and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores were also tested. No difference in basal BDNF levels between patients and controls was found. BDNF increased significantly during exercise in both male and female patients as well as in male controls, with no significant differences between the groups. BDNF levels declined after exercise, but after 60 min of rest BDNF levels showed tendencies to increase again in male patients. No correlation between BDNF and cortisol or MADRS scores was found. We conclude that unmedicated patients with moderate depression and normal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis do not have a disturbed peripheral BDNF release during exercise. The BDNF increase 60 min after interruption of exercise in male patients might indicate up-regulated BDNF synthesis, but this needs to be further investigated in future studies.

  11. Relationship between embryo collection results after superovulation treatment of Japanese Black cows and their plasma β-carotene and vitamin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Fumio; Sawai, Ken; Tanaka, Minoru; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the plasma concentrations of vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (BC) during embryo collection in Japanese Black cows that had undergone superovulation treatment and the embryo collection results. Following superovulation treatment in 116 Japanese Black cows, we collected 1317 embryos by nonsurgical means seven days after artificial insemination. The collected embryos were classified into transferable embryos, unfertilized oocytes and degenerated embryos. After embryo collection, we collected blood samples from the cows and measured the plasma concentrations of VA, VE and BC. The cows were then divided into 2 groups depending on the plasma concentration of VA (L and H: < 80 IU/dl and ≥ 80 IU/dl), VE (L and H: < 150 µg/dl and ≥ 150 µg/dl) and BC (L and H: < 150 µg/dl and ≥ 150 µg/dl). As a result, the number of collected embryos in the H group of VE was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that in L groups. Furthermore, the number of transferable embryos was higher (P<0.05) in all VA, VE and BC H groups than in the L groups. The H group for BC showed a high ratio of transferable embryos compared with the L group (P<0.05). Consequently, the present study suggests that the plasma VE and BC concentrations are positively correlated with the embryo collection results.

  12. 唇腺病理阳性判定方法对于燥综合征的诊断价值%Value of positive labial salivary glands pathology results in diagnosing Sjǎgren's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娅; 费允云; 张文; 赵岩; 张奉春

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the effect of positive labial salivary glands pathology results derived from different methods for diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome(SS).Methods From January 2009 to October 2010,21 patients with SS and positive labial salivary glands pathology were studied.Ten biopsies were focal lymphocytic sialadenitis (FLS),with focus score (FS) ≥ 1 (group A).The presence of focal infiltrates of lymphocytes in labial gland interstitial tissue was defined as positive in the other 11 biopsies (group B).Clinical data were collected,and student's t-test,chi-square test were used to evaluate the effect of positive labial glands pathology results derived from different methods for diagnosis of SS.Results 1) The positive rate of arthralgia was significantly higher in group A than group B (P < 0.01).2) Group A's left eye BUT was lower than group B,and the number of corneal fluorescein staining spot was more than that in group B,while the positive rate of left corneal staining was higher than group B (P < 0.05).3) There was no difference between two groups in positive rates of high titer ANA and anti-SSA/SSB antibodies.Conclusions The labial salivary glands pathology derived from the two methods had no obvious difference in diagnosing SS.%目的 探讨不同判定方法得出的唇腺病理阳性结果对干燥综合征(SS)诊断的影响.方法 收集2009年1月至2010年10月北京协和医院风湿免疫科诊断为SS,且唇腺病理阳性的患者21例,其中10例唇腺标本符合灶性淋巴细胞浸润性唾液腺炎(FLS)表现,灶性指数(FS)≥1(A组),余11例唇腺标本中见到≥50个淋巴细胞于间质聚集(B组).收集患者临床资料,采用独立样本t检验、卡方检验评价不同检测方法得出的唇腺病理阳性结果对SS患者疾病活动和脏器损伤的影响.结果 1)A组患者关节痛发病率显著高于B组(P<0.01),其他临床特征间无差异.2)A组患者左眼BUT低于B组,左眼角膜染色着色斑数目高于B

  13. Hip joint pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tijssen, M; van Cingel, R E H; de Visser, E

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to (a) describe the clinical presentation of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and hip labral pathology; (b) describe the accuracy of patient history and physical tests for FAI and labral pathology as confirmed by hip arthroscopy. Patients (18-6...

  14. The Features Multislice Spiral CT Results for Hepatic Angiomyolipoma and Their Pathological Basis%肝脏血管平滑肌脂肪瘤的多层螺旋CT表现特征及其病理学基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雅君; 卢春燕; 刘荣波; 张薇薇

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨肝脏血管平滑肌脂肪瘤(hepatic angiomyolipoma,HAML)的多层螺旋CT影像学表现特征及其与病理学基础的相关性,以进一步提高CT诊断的准确性.方法 收集2008年11月- 2010年12月经手术病理证实的16例HAML患者.所有患者均行螺旋CT平扫及动脉期、门脉期增强检查,重点观察HAML的分型及其相应CT表现及影像-病理的相关性.结果 16例患者共20个病灶,19个为稍低密度病灶,其中11个病灶内可见明显的脂肪密度影;1个为稍高密度病灶.动脉期所有病灶均有不同程度的强化表现,15个病灶内可见到较明显条状及扭曲的血管影.门脉期15个病灶有持续强化.结论 多层螺旋CT能准确反映HAML的分型及其病理特征,对临床表现不典型患者的诊断和鉴别诊断有较大诊断价值.%Objective To discuss the correlation between the features of multislice spiral CT results for hepatic angiomyolipoma (HAML) and their pathological basis, and to further improve the diagnostic accuracy through CT examination. Methods Sixteen HAML patients diagnosed pathologically between November 2008 and December 2010 in our hospital were enrolled in our study. All patients underwent multi-slice spiral CT scanning of pre-and post-contrast arterial phase, and portal venous phase. Focus was put on observation of HAML types and their corresponding manifestations, and the correlation between CT imaging and the pathologic basis. Results There were 20 lesions in the 16 patients. Among the 19 hypodense lesions, 11 were clearly seen with fat density shadow. One out of the 20 lesions showed as slightly hyperdense. On the arterial phase scanning, all lesions showed enhancement, and obvious vascular shadow could be seen inl5 lesions. On the portal venous phase, 15 lesions continued to strengthen. Conclusions Multi-slice spiral CT can accurately reflect the classification of HAML and its pathological features. It has a great value in the diagnosis

  15. Updates in ophthalmic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pia R; Grossniklaus, Hans E

    2017-05-01

    Ophthalmic pathology has a long history and rich heritage in the field of ophthalmology. This review article highlights updates in ophthalmic pathology that have developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. This is an exciting period in the history of ocular pathology, with cutting-edge techniques paving the way for new developments in diagnostics, therapeutics, and research. Collaborations between ocular oncologists and pathologists allow for improved and comprehensive patient care. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field.

  16. Impact of adopting a vegan diet or an olestra supplementation on plasma organochlorine concentrations: results from two pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Sánchez, Marina; Bray, George A; Lovejoy, Jennifer C; Peters, John C; Jandacek, Ronald J; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of these studies was to evaluate the potential of some nutritional approaches to prevent or reduce the body load of organochlorines (OC) in humans. Study 1 compared plasma OC concentrations between vegans and omnivores while study 2 verified if the dietary fat substitute olestra could prevent the increase in OC concentrations that is generally observed in response to a weight-reducing programme. In study 1, nine vegans and fifteen omnivores were recruited and the concentrations of twenty-six OC (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p, p'-DDE), p, p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p, p'-DDT), hexachlorobenzene, mirex, aldrin, alpha-chlordane, gamma-chlordane, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) nos. 28, 52, 99, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 156, 170, 180, 183 and 187, and aroclor 1260) were determined. In study 2, the concentrations of these twenty-six OC were measured before and after weight loss over 3 months in thirty-seven obese men assigned to one of the following treatments: standard group (33 % fat diet; n 13), fat-reduced group (25 % fat diet; n 14) or fat-substituted group (1/3 of dietary lipids substituted by olestra; n 10). In study 1, plasma concentrations of five OC compounds (aroclor 1260 and PCB 99, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were significantly lower in vegans compared with omnivores. In study 2, beta-HCH was the only OC which decreased in the fat-substituted group while increasing in the other two groups (P = 0.045). In conclusion, there was a trend toward lesser contamination in vegans than in omnivores, and olestra had a favourable influence on beta-HCH but did not prevent plasma hyperconcentration of the other OC during ongoing weight loss.

  17. First Results from ARTEMIS, a New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at ˜3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  18. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; Ergun, R. E.; Plaschke, F.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  19. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  20. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  1. [Pathology- a new revival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshack, Iris

    2013-06-01

    The field of pathology has undergone considerable change in recent years. The editor and editorial board of this journal are to be commended for their decision to devote a special issue to the field of pathology. Pathology deals with the characterization, investigation, and diagnosis of disease and disease processes and as such, has Long been considered one of the foundations of medicine. It is a rich and multi-faceted field which has retained its breadth of scope in the face of ever-increasing specialization and sub-specialization in medicine. In addition to its classic roles in autopsy, case description, and the diagnosis of pathoLogic processes, new and innovative spheres of activity are becoming integral to the field, especially in the realm of molecular pathology. Pathology is a Leading player in the new age of "personalized cancer therapy", where pathologists are responsible not only for diagnosing disease in the tissue, but also for conducting additional tests which may predict its response to specific drug therapies. In this context, moLecular pathology has become essential to the field both in the provision of cLinical service and research. To fully implement this trend, we are witness to the rise of tissue collection and tissue banking initiatives for both diagnostic and research purposes. A national tissue banking project in Israel has recently received considerable attention.

  2. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  3. Study of the Plasma Turbulence Dynamics by Measurements of Diagnostic Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission. Part II. Results of Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, E. N.; Grach, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    The data on measured dynamic characteristics of diagnostic stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) of the ionosphere are presented. Numerical simulations of the SEE evolution within the framework of a theoretical model of the broad-continuum SEE feature with the use of improved (3D) empirical model of the spatial spectrum of artificial irregularities of the HF pumped ionospheric plasma are performed and compared with the measurement data. Possible applications of such a comparison for determining the spectrum parameters and studying the evolution of the geomagnetic field-aligned artificial irregularities (striations) are discussed. It is concluded that changes in the intensity and spectrum shape of the striations, mainly for transverse scales l ⊥ 2-18 m, play the decisive role in the observed variations of the magnitude and temporal characteristics of the overshoot effect (formation of the intensity maximum followed by the suppression of the ionospheric SEE intensity).

  4. Pathology Imagebase - A Reference Image Database for Standardization of Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egevad, Lars; Cheville, John; Evans, Andrew J; Hörnblad, Jonas; Kench, James G; Kristiansen, Glen; Leite, Katia R M; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Pan, Chin-Chen; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Srigley, John R; True, Lawrence; Zhou, Ming; Clements, Mark; Delahunt, Brett

    2017-07-19

    Despite efforts to standardize histopathology practice through the development of guidelines, the interpretation of morphology is still hampered by subjectivity. We here describe Pathology Imagebase, a novel mechanism for establishing an international standard for the interpretation of pathology specimens. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) established a reference image database through the input of experts in the field. Three panels were formed, one each for prostate, urinary bladder and renal pathology, consisting of 24 international experts. Each of the panel members uploaded microphotographs of cases into a non-public database. The remaining 23 experts were asked to vote from a multiple-choice menu. Prior to and while voting panel members were unable to access the results of voting by the other experts. When a consensus level of at least 2/3 or 16 votes was reached, cases were automatically transferred to the main database. Consensus was reached in a total of 287 cases across five projects on the grading of prostate, bladder and renal cancer and classification of renal tumours and flat lesions of the bladder. The full database is available to all ISUP members at www.isupweb.org. Non-members may access a selected number of cases. It is anticipated that the database will assist pathologists in calibrating their grading and will also promote consistency in the diagnosis of difficult cases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. On the formation of sharp gradients in electron density resulting from an ice-plasma feedback instabilities in the polar summer mesosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, J.; Bahcivan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSEs) have commonly been attributed to scattering from (1) volume-filled electron density turbulence and (2) extremely sharp (meter-scale) gradients in electron density. In-situ sounding rockets have measured both extended regions of turbulence as well as electron density ledges. Unlike the turbulence theory, which has been extensively studied, a theory on the formation of sharp edges has yet to be explored. In this study, we reconsider the study of Gumbel et al. [2002] on the influences of ice particles on the ion chemistry and propose a theory of ice-plasma feedback instability in order to explain the origin of sharp electron density gradients. A one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of a multi-constituent weakly-ionized plasma has been developed to capture the physics of proton-hydrates (H+[H20]n), ice, and plasma interactions on a spatial grid of approximately 25 m. The simulation captures (1) the development of the proton-hydrate chain starting at n=4 via Thomson's model and Natanson's recombination scheme, (2) the formation of ice nucleation on large cluster proton-hydrates (n > 73), (3) the attachment of electrons (and ions) to ice particles, and resulting depletion of the plasma density, which significantly accelerates the proton-hydrate chain and ionic nucleation of new ice particles, (4) and the development of an ice-plasma feedback instability whereby the repeated process of developing new ice particles leads to capture of even more electrons and further depletion of existing regions of lower plasma density. Since this feedback instability process is faster than typical aerosol diffusion rates in this region, existing gradients steepen to produce electron density ledges. Although ionic nucleation is not feasible as the major mesospheric nucleation process, it can become efficient locally, near the coldest parts of the mesosphere because the proton-hydrate chain development is extremely sensitive to ambient

  6. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  7. Self-consistent kinetic simulations of lower hybrid drift instability resulting in electron current driven by fusion products in tokamak plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O

    2010-01-01

    We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a regime relevant to tokamak fusion plasmas, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes under conditions approximating the outer mid-plane edge in a large tokamak, through which there pass confined centrally born fusion products on banana orbits that have large radial excursions. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the in...

  8. Soluble fractalkine in the plasma of fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN J. GARCIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a form of non-articular rheumatism in which inflammatory cytokines seem to be involved. However, there is still no analytical specific diagnostic criterion for this disease. The aim was to examine a possible role of fractalkine as a biomarker in fibromyalgia. Plasma levels of soluble fractalkine were compared between women diagnosed with fibromyalgia (n=17 and healthy women (n=10 as controls. Fractalkine released by monocytes was also evaluated. Fibromyalgia patients showed lower plasma fractalkine than healthy women. Since most inflammatory pathologies show elevated plasma levels of soluble fractalkine, the results may contribute towards a differential diagnosis for fibromyalgia.

  9. Bipolar Plasma Enucleation of the Prostate (B-TUEP) in Benign Prostate Hypertrophy Treatment. 3-Year Results".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianelli, Roberto; Gentile, Barbara Cristina; Mirabile, Gabriella; Albanesi, Luca; Tariciotti, Paola; Rizzo, Giorgio; Buscarini, Maurizio; Falavolti, Cristina

    2017-05-30

    To numerous endoscopic techniques have been described for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (BPE). The plasma-button enucleation of the prostate (B-TUEP) is a successful treatment option because the large surface creates a fast enucleation process, vaporization and concomitant haemostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bipolar button electrode transurethral adenoma enucleation (B-TUEP) in saline solution. The second endpoint was to determine the change of IPSS, PVR, IEFF-5, TrUS and PSA. Between July 2011 and March 2012, 50 consecutive patients underwent B-TUEP in our facility, all performed by a single surgeon (R.G.). All patients were pre-operatively assessed with maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), single-question quality of life (QoL) assessment, International Prostate Symptoms Score (I.P.S.S.) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaires, Transrectal Ultrasound gland volume evaluation (TrUS), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and post-void residual urine (PVR). We observed a significant improvement at 12, 24 and 36 months in terms of Qmax (22.3 ± 4.74 mL/s, 23.2 ± 0.30 mL/sec and 23.6 ± 1.26 mL/sec, respectively, pprostate-specific postoperative antigen level was 0.76±0.61 ng/mL, 0.7±0.51 ng/mL and 0.62±0.18 ng/mL, at 12, 24 and 36 months respectively. Two patients (4%) had persistent BOO requiring reoperation. After 3-yr follow-up, B-TUEP represents an effective, durable and safe form of surgical intervention. B-TUEP is an alternative treatment for symptomatic BPE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Eponyms in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nečas, Pavel; Hejna, Petr

    2012-12-01

    The phenomenon of eponymous terms in forensic pathology is described in this paper. The authors analyzed representative textbooks (monographs) dealing with forensic pathology in both English and German and identified several eponymous terms. The paper aims to present to the reader the most important eponymous terms in forensic pathology. Included in the paper are the following terms: Beckwith's Sign, Casper's Rule, Krönlein's Shot, Lichtenberg's Figures, Nysten's Law, Paltauf's Spots, Puppe's Rule, Sehrt's Sign, Simon's Sign, Sveshnikov's Sign, Tardieu's Spots, Wischnewski Spots, Wydler's Sign. The spread of eponymous terms throughout various languages is mentioned. The linguistic basis of such terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages in specialist fields, and indeed in even wider circles, is discussed. The authors state that the main function of these terms is to facilitate the open flow of unambiguous information among scholars. Eponymous terms in forensic pathology are characteristic for the German speaking countries and for all countries influenced by the German school of forensic pathology. Their usage in the Anglo-Saxon world is much less widespread, meaning they do not occur very often in English monographs and textbooks.

  11. Bioactive glass 45S5 powders: effect of synthesis route and resultant surface chemistry and crystallinity on protein adsorption from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahniuk, Markian S; Pirayesh, Hamidreza; Singh, Harsh D; Nychka, John A; Unsworth, Larry D

    2012-12-01

    Despite its medical applications, the mechanisms responsible for the osseointegration of bioactive glass (45S5) have yet to be fully understood. Evidence suggests that the strongest predictor for osseointegration of bioactive glasses, and ceramics, with bone tissue as the formation of an apatitic calcium phosphate layer atop the implanted material, with osteoblasts being the main mediator for new bone formation. Most have tried to understand the formation of this apatitic calcium phosphate layer, and other bioresponses between the host and bioactive glass 45S5 using Simulated Body Fluid; a solution containing ion concentrations similar to that found in human plasma without the presence of proteins. However, it is likely that cell attachment is probably largely mediated via the adsorbed protein layer. Plasma protein adsorption at the tissue bioactive glass interface has been largely overlooked. Herein, we compare crystalline and amorphous bioactive glass 45S5, in both melt-derived as well as sol-gel forms. Thus, allowing for a detailed understanding of both the role of crystallinity and powder morphology on surface ions, and plasma protein adsorption. It was found that sol-gel 45S5 powders, regardless of crystallinity, adsorbed 3-5 times as much protein as the crystalline melt-derived counterpart, as well as a greater variety of plasma proteins. The devitrification of melt-cast 45S5 resulted in only small differences in the amount and variety of the adsorbed proteome. Surface properties, and not material crystallinity, play a role in directing protein adsorption phenomena for bioactive glasses given the differences found between crystalline melt-cast 45S5 and sol-gel derived 45S5.

  12. Long-term study of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinogenesis in sheep with marginal vs. sufficient nutritional selenium supply: results from computed tomography, pathology, immunohistochemistry, JSRV-PCR and lung biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther; Renko, Kostja; Bruegmann, Michael L; Devi, Vemuri Rama; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Andreae, Arnim; Ganter, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The impact of selenium (Se) in carcinogenesis is still debatable due to inconsistent results of observational studies, recent suspicion of diabetic side effects and e.g. dual roles of glutathione peroxidases (GPx). Previously, our group introduced long-term studies on lung carcinogenesis using the jaagtsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) induced ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) as an innovative animal model. The present report describes the results of sufficient (0.2 mg Se/kg dry weight (dw)) vs. marginal (CT) evaluation of lung cancer progression, final pathological examination, evidence of pro-viral JSRV-DNA in lung, lymph nodes and broncho-alveolar lavage cells as well as biochemical analysis of Se, GPx1 and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity in lung tissue were recorded. Additionally, immunohistochemical determination of GPx1 expression in unaffected and neoplastic lung cells was implemented. The feeding regime caused significant differences in Se concentration and GPx1 activity in lung tissue between groups, whereas TrxR activity remained unaffected. JSRV was evident in broncho-alveolar lavage cells, lung tissue and lung lymph nodes. Quarterly executed CT could not demonstrate differences in lung cancer proliferation intensity. Necropsy and histopathology substantiated CT findings. Immunohistochemical analysis of GPx1 in lung tissue suggested a coherency of GPx1 immunolabelling intensity in dependence of tumour size. It was concluded that the model proved to be suitable for long-term studies of lung cancer proliferation including the impact of modifiable nutritional factors. Proliferation of OPA was unaffected by marginal vs. sufficient nutritional Se supply.

  13. Trends in pathology graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C B

    2001-07-01

    Comprehensive data show trends in graduate medical education in pathology with regard to the numbers of accredited programs, persons certified from those programs, and demographics of the population of first year-trainees in pathology. Experience with US seniors and foreign-trained physicians in the PGY match process for pathology from 1991 through 2000 is presented, along with data on the types of medical schools generating pathology trainees for the PGY-1 year and the top medical schools of origin of US medical graduates who completed the program and became certified in pathology between 1995 and 1999. The impact of reimbursement of the credentialing year is also addressed through data collected from the PRODS Survey 2000, and those results are reviewed. Finally, turnover rates among pathology program directors of combined AP/CP programs and subspecialty programs since 1994 are presented. An analysis of these trends is provided, along with suggestions to improve both the perception of careers in pathology and the actual choice of a career in pathology.

  14. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN of the pancreas: clinico-pathologic results Neoplasia papilar mucinosa intraductal del páncreas: resultados clínico-patológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Cienfuegos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN shows a series of lesions which evolve from benign lesions -adenoma- to invasive carcinoma. Aim: to analyze the clinical and pathological results of 15 patients diagnosed of IPMN, and surgically treated according to the guidelines of International Consensus Conference. Material and methods: a retrospective analysis of 15 patients surgically treated between March 1993 and September 2009, according to the International Consensus recommendation. Demographic, diagnostic tools, surgical report, pathologic database and actuarial survival were analyzed with a follow-up from one and a half month through nine years. Results: 6 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies, 4 total pancreatectomies, 2 body or central pancreatectomies, 2 partial pancreatectomies (enucleation and 1 distal pancreatectomy. A morbidity of 46 and 0% hospital mortality were assessed, with a median length hospital stay of 10 days. In five cases, the IPMN was combined type (both main and branch pancreatic ducts involved in four main duct-type and branch duct-type in the another six as well. Several atypia (IPMN carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 patients and invasive carcinoma with negative lymph nodes was identified in 3 patients. A patient without invasive carcinoma died at 66 months of follow-up for pancreas adenocarcinoma. The actuarial survival up to recurrence or death was 105,133 months with a range of follow-up from 1 month and a half until 9 years. Conclusions: IPMN main duct or mixed type warrants complete resection due to its incidence of invasive carcinoma or precursor lesions of malignancy as well. Due to its multifocal pattern, patients should be followed in long-term surveillance. The management of asymptomatic IPMN type branch less than 3 cm is controversial.Introducción: la neoplasia papilar mucinosa intraductal (NPMI del páncreas comprende una serie de lesiones que evolucionan desde lesiones benignas

  15. Formation of a strong electric field resulting in the excitation of microplasma discharges at the edge of a dielectric film on a metal in a plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Sakharov, A. S.; Konyzhev, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    Results are presented from experimental and analytical studies of the processes resulting in the excitation of microplasma discharges (MPDs) on a metal surface partially covered with a thin dielectric film under the action of an external plasma flow in vacuum. It is shown experimentally that MPDs are excited at the interface between the open metal surface and the region covered by the dielectric film. The probability of MPD excitation is investigated as a function of the thickness of the dielectric film deposited on the metal. It is found that, for a film thickness of 1 μm, the probability of MPD excitation is close to unity. As the film thickness decreases below ~10 nm or increases above ~10 μm, the probability of MPD excitation is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. A two-dimensional kinetic numerical code is developed that allows one to model the processes of Debye sheath formation and generation of a strong electric field near the edge of a finite-thickness dielectric film on a metal surface in a plasma flow for different configurations of the film edge. It is shown that the maximum value of the tangential component of the electric field is reached at the film edge and amounts to E max ≈ |φ0|/2 d (where φ0 qualitative idea about the mechanism of the formation of a strong electric field resulting in the excitation of MPDs at the edge of a dielectric film on a metal surface in a plasma flow and agree with experimental data.

  16. Delivering a pathology curriculum in an integrated medical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Norman J; Olmos, Martin; Bushnell, John

    2008-10-01

    Modern integrated medical curricula usually do not include a separate pathology course. Consequently, there is a risk that important pathological principles may be omitted. We aimed to ensure that pathology is properly represented by developing a core pathology curriculum created in consultation with local pathologists. Appropriate information technology to track the delivery of this material within the integrated curriculum structure was developed using a learning content management system in which a metadata schema was constructed. This allows a sophisticated view of where and how pathology appears in the course and can also increase the visibility of the subject by demonstrating the central place of pathology in medicine. In conclusion, a core curriculum in pathology that can be tracked by information technology with sufficient power and flexibility is a solution to the potential loss of pathology from integrated medical courses. We believe the result is superior to a stand-alone pathology course.

  17. High-resolution ionospheric observations and modeling over Belgium during the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 including first results of ionospheric tilt and plasma drift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Tobias G. W.; Sapundjiev, Danislav; Stankov, Stanimir M.

    2016-06-01

    The ionospheric behavior over Belgium during the partial solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 is analyzed based on high-resolution solar radio flux, vertical incidence sounding, and GPS TEC measurements. First results of ionosonde-based ionospheric plasma drift and tilt observations are presented and analyzed, including some traveling ionospheric disturbances caused by the eclipse. Also, collocated ionosonde and GPS measurements are used to reconstruct the time evolution of the vertical electron density distribution using the Royal Meteorological Institute (RMI) ionospheric specification system, called Local Ionospheric Electron Density profile Reconstruction (LIEDR).

  18. Pharmacological Treatments in Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    demonstrated mixed results in controlled clinical trials. Although limited information is available, opioid antagonists and glutamatergic agents have demonstrated efficacious outcomes, especially for individuals with PG suffering from intense urges to engage in the behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Given that several......AIMS: Pathological gambling (PG) is a relatively common and often disabling psychiatric condition characterized by intrusive urges to engage in deleterious gambling behavior. Although common and financially devastating to individuals and families, there currently exist no formally approved...... pharmacotherapeutic interventions for this disorder. This review seeks to examine the history of medication treatments for PG. METHODS: A systematic review of the 18 double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacotherapy studies conducted for the treatment of pathological gambling was conducted. Study outcome and the mean...

  19. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  20. Next-Generation Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  1. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  2. Accuracy of Teledentistry for Diagnosing Dental Pathology Using Direct Examination as a Gold Standard: Results of the Tel-e-dent Study of Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queyroux, Alain; Saricassapian, Bernard; Herzog, Daniel; Müller, Karin; Herafa, Isabelle; Ducoux, Dorothée; Marin, Benoît; Dantoine, Thierry; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Tchalla, Achille

    2017-06-01

    Dental neglect and high levels of unmet dental needs are becoming increasingly prevalent among elderly residents of long-term care facilities, although frail, elderly, and dependent populations are the most in need of professional dental care. Little is known about the validity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology in nursing home residents. To evaluate the accuracy of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology, assessing the rehabilitation status of dental prostheses, and evaluating the chewing ability of older adults living in nursing homes (using direct examination as a gold standard). Multicenter diagnostic accuracy study performed in France and Germany. Eight nursing homes in France and Germany. Nursing home residents with oral or dental complaints, self-reported or reported by caregivers, willing to receive oral or dental preventive care. In total, 235 patients were examined. The mean age was 84.4 ± 8.3 years, and 59.1% of the subjects were female. The patients were examined twice. Each patient was his or her own control. First, the dental surgeon established a diagnosis by reviewing a video recorded in the nursing home and accessed remotely. Second, within a maximum of 7 days, patients were examined conventionally (face-to-face) by the same surgeon who established the initial diagnosis. All residents received a comprehensive clinical examination in their home by a trained geriatrician and underwent a dental hygiene evaluation that used the Silness-Loe and Greene-Vermillion dental hygiene assessment indices. The diagnoses established via the video recording and in the face-to-face setting were compared. The main outcome measure was number of dental pathologies. In total, 128 (55.4%) patients had a dental pathology. The sensitivity of teledentistry for diagnosing dental pathology was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 90.7-96.9), and the specificity was 94.2% (95% CI 91.2-97.2). Among the 128 cases of dental pathology identified by

  3. Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of steam turbine K-25-0.6 GEO with ion-plasma coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachalin, G. V.; Mednikov, A. F.; Tkhabisimov, A. B.; Arkad'ev, D. A.; Temkin, S. G.; Senina, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Fatigue test results of the rotating steel blades of the fourth stage of the K-25-0.6 low pressure cylinder Geo steam turbine manufactured in the Kaluga Turbine Plant (hereinafter, KTP) with the ion-plasma coating were presented. Coating formation was carried out at the National Research University (MPEI) on the Gefest vacuum pilot plant by the magnetron sputtering method. Characteristics of the obtained coating were analyzed with the use of the scientific-research equipment of the National Research University (MPEI). Fatigue tests of the rotating blades and determination of the fatigue strength of the material with the ion-plasma coating were carried out on the electrodynamic vibration machines VEDS-400A in the KTP structural laboratory. The following characteristics were obtained after tests: Ti-TiN composition, 10-11 μm thickness, 1200 HV 0.05 microhardness. Fatigue tests showed that destruction, regardless of availability or nonavailability of the coating, took place by cross-section in the root zone both on the leading and trailing edges of the blade, i.e., in the most stressed zones. It was found out that the maximum stresses during tests were revealed in the root section along the trailing edge on the blade pressure side, and the less stresses were on the leading edge. Fatigue strength of the working blades after coating formation increased by 12% minimum. Results of the fatigue tests prove the previously obtained data concerning 10-12% increase of the fatigue strength of the blade steel with the ion-plasma coating and allow claiming that the process of their formation exerts the positive influence on the fatigue characteristics of the blade materials.

  4. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Ziyade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained by PCR, which is the gold standard method in assessing HBV infection. Methods: The HBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results: When compared with the gold standard method PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortem ELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such as PCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison of ELISA and PCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  5. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihan Ziyade; Sermet Koc; Fatih Abali

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained byPCR, which is the gold standard method in assessingHBV infection. Methods: TheHBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results:When compared with the gold standard methodPCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortemELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such asPCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison ofELISA andPCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  6. [Results obtained using de "Meckrognost Harnstoff" strip method in estimating plasma urea concentrations in dogs (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyne, J J

    1977-09-01

    The "Merckognost Harntoff" strip method described in a previous paper was recently modified by the manufactures. An important alterations consisted in the method by which samples were applied to the strips, viz. using micropipetters rather than by dipping. In view of the findings in the comparative study reported, the results obtained on dipping are regarded as superior, the method also being easier to handle. However, the prescribed correction factor should be used.

  7. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura eEl Khoury

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF. NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD.Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99% is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease.Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting on Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia.

  8. [The individual fatty acids in blood plasma, erythrocytes and lipoproteins. The comparison of tests results of patients with ischemic heart disease and volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N; Aripovskiĭ, A V; Kaba, S I; Kolesnik, P O; Vezhdel, M I; Shiriaeva, Iu K

    2012-07-01

    According to the generally accepted theory, the atherosclerosis is a kind of disorder of metabolism of lipids which chemically are the ethers of fatty lipids with spirits. Hence, the atherosclerosis is fatty acids pathology. In conformity with the biologic classification, among fatty acids it is functionally valid to distinguish saturated fatty acids without double bonds; monoenic fatty acids with one double bond; unsaturated fatty acids with two or three double bonds and polyenic fatty acids with four of six double bonds in chain. The saturated and monenic fatty acids are the substrates for cells to groundwork energy, ATP The unsaturated fatty acids in vivo are needed to form membranes. The polyenic fatty acids are essential since they are precursors of cell synthesis of humoral regulators--eicosanoids (prostanoids and leukotrienes). To clarify the pathogenesis of the "metabolic pandemics" most prevalent in human population, the quantitative determination of individual fatty acids in blood plasma and erythrocytes using gas chromatography technique is needed. It is necessary to evaluate the content of medium chain fatty acids; palmitic and stearic saturated fatty acids; oleic monoenic fatty acid and its transforms--linoleic, linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic unsaturated fatty acids; essential polyenic omega-6 arachidonic, omega-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids. The higher is in food the content of palmitic saturated fatty acid, palmitoleic and trans-vaccenic monoenic fatty acids, the more is in patient diet of beef meat and products of fat cow's milk. The higher is ratio of palmitic/oleic fatty acids the lower is the risk of formation of atheromatosis of arteries intima and development of ischemic heart disease and vice versa. The decrease of ratio of omega-3/omega-6 essential polyenic fatty acids is undesirable in prognostic sense. The metabolism of these acids differs and functional activity of omega-3 eicosanoid type 3 is higher In case of

  9. Results of the NA49 experiment on the search for the quark-gluon plasma at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Seyboth, P

    2001-01-01

    Experiment NA49 at the CERN SPS has performed large acceptance measurements of hadron production in Pb+Pb collisions at 40 and 158 A.GeV beam energies. These data allowed a study of the space-time evolution, the hadro-chemical composition and event-by-event fluctuations of average event properties of the created hadron system. Results at top SPS energy are consistent with the existence of a transient deconfined phase in the early stage of the reaction. (22 refs).

  10. Electrostatic Properties of Polymers Subjected to Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment; Correlation of Experimental Results with Atomistic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, S.; Boucher, D.; Calle, C. I.

    2007-01-01

    this study, PE, PTFE, PS and PMMA were exposed to a He+O2, APGD and pre and post treatment surface chemistries were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Semi-empirical and ab-initio calculations were performed to correlate the experimental results with sonic plausible molecular and electronic structure features of the oxidation process. For the PE and PS, significant surface oxidation showing C-O, C=O, and O-C=O bonding, and a decrease in the surface contact angles was observed. For the PTFE and PM MA, little change in the surface composition was observed. The molecular modeling calculations were performed on single and multiple oligomers and showed regardless of oxidation mechanism, e.g. -OH, =O or a combination thereof, experimentally observed levels of surface oxidation were unlikely to lead to a significant change in the electronic structure of PE and PS, and that the increased hydrophilic properties are the primary reason for the observed changes in its electrostatic behavior. Calculations for PTFE and PMMA argue strongly against significant oxidation of those materials, as confirmed by the XPS results.

  11. MRI and pathology in persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Jensen, Karl-Erik; Fiirgaard, Bente

    2009-01-01

    groins versus unoperated and pain-free groins. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was poor, ranging from kappa = 0.24 to 0.55 ("fair" to "moderate") except for "contrast enhancement in groin" (kappa = 0.69, substantial). Pathologic changes in the form of "contrast enhancement in groin," "edema......: Interobserver agreement is low and MRI-assessed pathology unspecific for persistent postherniotomy pain. Additional studies are required on interobserver agreement for pathology before MRI can be recommended as guidance and indication for surgical treatment of persistent postherniotomy pain....

  12. Lung Pathology in Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Reshetnyak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional lesions of organs depend on the size of a diseased vessel and frequently require the use of intensive therapy methods. The commonest manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE.Objective: to estimate the frequency of lung lesions in primary APS (PAPS, secondary (in the presence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and catastrophic APS and to assess a relationship between lung pathology and other clinical and laboratory manifestations of the disease.Subjects and methods. The study covered 372 patients followed up at the Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, since 1990, of whom 290 and 82 patients had SLE and PAPS, respectively. Among the 290 patients with SLE, there were 96 males and 194 females. At the moment of the study, the patients’ age was 31.2±11.1 years and the duration of the disease was 8.6±7.2 years. The group of patients with PAPS comprised 20 males and 62 females. Their mean age was 35.6±9.9 years and the duration of the disease was 11.9±8.5 years. Thrombotic events were verified only by instrumental studies. Lung pathology was instrumentally confirmed; all the patients underwent lung X-ray study, if required, scintigraphy and computed tomography.Results. Lung lesion associated with the pathology of vessels was revealed in 28% of the examined patients (105/372. There were prevalent patients with PTE, followed by the development of lung infarcts, which was present in 96 (91% of the 105 patients with pulmonary vascular pathology. Autopsy revealed pulmonary microangiopathy was in 12 patients, which was concurrent with focal pneumonia in 7 of them, with pneumonitis and exudative pleuritis in 5. Hemorrhagic alveolitis detected at autopsy in combination with occlusions of the pulmonary arterioles was in 3 patients who had been diagnosed as having thromboembolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery. Thrombosis of the

  13. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gildenburg, V B

    2016-01-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  14. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenburg, V. B.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as the geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability, this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  15. Feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The main pathologies of the oral cavity are of utmost importance, not only by the number of exposed individuals, but also by the consequences which stems. With the development of this work, we intend to conduct a brief approach to the same, since, specifically affecting domestic felines. Feline Lymphoplasmatic Gingivostomatitis (GELF), the Feline Odontoclastic Reabsorption Lesions (LROF) Complex and gingivitis-stomatitis-pharyngitis, have been studied, some of which are considered an enigma i...

  16. Envy's pathology: Historical contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minou, Lina

    2017-01-01

    This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur. The discussion begins by acknowledging the status of envy as a 'disease' and looks to the specific ways in which the discourse of envy conveys this sense. I find that in the early modern discourse envy is always pathological, that is, it is experienced as disease and signifies disease in general and several diseases in particular. Moreover, envy is uniquely placed to convey pathology on account of its being connected to inherently pathogenic elements of the humoural theory. Specifically, envy is physiologically connected to melancholy, and the way it is presented comes close to attributes assigned to black bile. In addition, envy realizes pathology, the occurrence of disease in the body, by impairing the vital process of digestion and thus depriving the person from proper nourishment and sustenance. The analysis further considers how this impairment of the body fits with the physiological manifestation of envy as 'corrosion' and 'consumption'. Finding commonalities with other maladies mediated by these physiological signs the article concludes by considering the function of pathology in the conception of early modern envy.

  17. Effects of Meloxicam on Hematologic and Plasma Biochemical Analyte Values and Results of Histologic Examination of Kidney Biopsy Specimens of African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Andres; Ardiaca, Maria; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2015-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of meloxicam administered at 0.5 mg/kg IM q12h for 14 days on hematologic and plasma biochemical values and on kidney tissue in 11 healthy African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Before treatment with meloxicam, blood samples were collected and renal biopsy samples were obtained from the cranial portion of the left kidney from each of the birds. On day 14 of treatment, a second blood sample and biopsy from the middle portion of the left kidney were obtained from each bird. All birds remained clinically normal throughout the study period. No significant differences were found between hematologic and plasma biochemical values before and after 14 days of treatment with meloxicam, except for a slight increase in median beta globulin and corresponding total globulin concentrations, and a slight decrease in median phosphorus concentration. Renal lesions were absent in 9 of 10 representative posttreatment biopsy samples. On the basis of these results, meloxicam administered at the dosage used in this study protocol does not appear to cause renal disease in African grey parrots.

  18. Performance of a plasma window for a high pressure differentially pumped deuterium gas target for mono-energetic fast neutron production - Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A. de; Hershcovitch, A.; Franklyn, C.B.; Straaten, S. van; Guzek, J. E-mail: jguzek@debeers.co.za

    2000-09-01

    The reactions D(d,n){sup 3}He and T(d,n){sup 4}He are frequently used for production of the mono-energetic or quasi mono-energetic neutron beams but successful applications are often limited by the intensity of the generated neutron beams. The development of a suitable neutron source for such applications as studies of resonance phenomena, fast neutron radiography, selective fast neutron activation, explosives and contraband detection and others, depends on the output ion current of the accelerator and the design of the target system. A practical solution for a high pressure gas target was previously developed and successfully implemented at De Beers Diamond Research Laboratory in Johannesburg (Guzek et al., 1999), but it is limited to applications using low (<20%) duty cycle accelerators. The concept of a plasma window for the separation of a high pressure gas target region and accelerator vacuum, that was originally developed by Hershcovitch (1995) for electron welding applications, may be suitable for operation with continuous wave accelerators at high particle current output. Preliminary test results, which have been performed with various gases (argon, helium and deuterium), indicate that implementation of the plasma window into a gas target system, for the production of intense mono-energetic fast neutron beams will be achievable.

  19. Masochism and pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    That all pathological gamblers have an "unconscious wish to lose," an idea first expressed by Freud and Bergler, is neither true nor useful; wrong as well, however, are the reasons for neglecting masochism in relation to gambling. There is a small but clinically significant subgroup of pathological gamblers who are masochistic. I present clinical vignettes and a more extended treatment account to illustrate its importance. Masochism has been a confusing concept. As used here it refers to the deliberate seeking of pain, loss, suffering, or humiliation. There may be pleasure in pain, or an obligatory combining of pleasure and pain. A sense of power and control may be achieved through suffering. The case material illustrates clinically useful types (sexual masochism, masochistic personality disorder, moral masochism, relational masochism) as well as some common masochistic dynamics encountered in the treatment of pathological gamblers. These masochistic patterns are often identifiable during the initial evaluation. Distinguishing features may include a reversal of normal attitudes about winning and losing, the absence of an early winning phase, sometimes a memorable early loss. Gamblers may sabotage opportunities for success or create unnecessary obstacles for themselves. Losing may be more comfortable than winning or may be overtly sexualized.

  20. Discordant results between fetal karyotyping and non-invasive prenatal testing by maternal plasma sequencing in a case of uniparental disomy 21 due to trisomic rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Li, Fa Tao; Li, Yan; Jiang, Fu Man; Li, Dong Zhi; Lau, Tze Kin; Liao, Can

    2013-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) is an uncommon chromosome condition, but UPD involving chromosome 21 is rarely reported. We reported here a case who had first trimester screening test for Down syndrome, chorionic villus sampling for fetal karyotyping, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR), as well as non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) by maternal plasma sequencing. There were discordant results between fetal karyotyping and NIPT due to UPD 21combined with confined placental mosaicism of trisomy 21. This demonstrated that it is possible to detect placental mosaicism by NIPT, but further studies are required to confirm its sensitivity. Therefore, all positive NIPT results must be confirmed by conventional invasive test and karyotyping. QF-PCR has the additional benefit in diagnosing UPD.

  1. Cortical myoclonus and cerebellar pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Thom, M; Ellison, DW; Wilkins, P; Barnes, D; Thompson, PD; Brown, P

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the electrophysiologic and pathologic findings in three patients with cortical myoclonus. In two patients the myoclonic ataxic syndrome was associated with proven celiac disease. Background: The pathologic findings in conditions associated with cortical myoclonus commonly involve

  2. Pulp revascularization using platelet rich plasma autologous or in conjunction with a collagen matrix as a therapeutic possibility for teeth with an open apex necrotic pulp and / or periapical pathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo Guevara, Paula Alejandra; Sossa Rojas, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objetivo: describir el uso del plasma rico en plaquetas autólogo o en combinación con una matriz colágena como posibilidades terapéuticas de revascularización en dientes con ápices abiertos, pulpa necrótica y/o lesión periapical. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda temática de la literatura entre los años 2007 y 2013, por medios electrónicos, bases de datos, revistas y journals con alto impacto en endodoncia. Resultados: la endodoncia regenerativa es un procedimiento biológico diseñado para reem...

  3. Pathology of cell nucleus in the experimental morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maradi A. Burduli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There was conducted an experiment on the underbred stray dog. There was used blood plasma of a dog as a food area. The spermatids received from the dog’s seed are arranged in the food area. Under the pressure there is received their mutual assimilation. The received hibridoma is entered in the seed parks, which are previously sewed. After two weeks from starting of experiment, on the front wall of the stomach there are fixed some dense knots of different size. After 3 weeks from the beginning of experiment there was adopted the material, which was learned by electron microscopy method. As a result, there are received the morphogenesis by organizmodal growth tendency, there is characterized a tumor-specific cellular pathology.

  4. Simulation results for PLATO: a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector with a low energy threshold for fusion plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Menouni, M.; Pangaud, P.; Fenzi, C.; Colledani, G.; Moureau, G.; Escarguel, A.; Morel, C.

    2017-01-01

    PLATO is a prototype hybrid X-ray photon counting detector that has been designed to meet the specifications for plasma diagnostics for the WEST tokamak platform (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) in southern France, with potential perspectives for ITER. PLATO represents a customized solution that fulfills high sensitivity, low dispersion and high photon counting rate. The PLATO prototype matrix is composed of 16 × 18 pixels with a 70 μm pixel pitch. New techniques have been used in analog sensitive blocks to minimize noise coupling through supply rails and substrate, and to suppress threshold dispersion across the matrix. The PLATO ASIC is designed in CMOS 0.13 μm technology and was submitted for a fabrication run in June 2016. The chip is designed to be bump-bonded to a silicon sensor. This paper presents pixel architecture as well as simulation results while highlighting novel solutions.

  5. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  6. Biomineralization and matrix vesicles in biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Ellis E

    2011-09-01

    In normal healthy individuals, mineral formation is restricted to specialized tissues which form the skeleton and the dentition. Within these tissues, mineral formation is tightly controlled both in growth and development and in normal adult life. The mechanism of calcification in skeletal and dental tissues has been under investigation for a considerable period. One feature common to almost all of these normal mineralization mechanisms is the elaboration of matrix vesicles, small (20-200 nm) membrane particles, which bud off from the plasma membrane of mineralizing cells and are released into the pre-mineralized organic matrix. The first crystals which form on this organic matrix are seen in and around matrix vesicles. Pathologic ectopic mineralization is seen in a number of human genetic and acquired diseases, including calcification of joint cartilage resulting in osteoarthritis and mineralization of the cardiovasculature resulting in exacerbation of atherosclerosis and blockage of blood vessels. Surprisingly, increasing evidence supports the contention that the mechanisms of soft tissue calcification are similar to those seen in normal skeletal development. In particular, matrix vesicle-like membranes are observed in a number of ectopic calcifications. The purpose of this review is to describe how matrix vesicles function in normal mineral formation and review the evidence for their participation in pathologic calcification.

  7. Clinical pathology of amphibians: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J; Heatley, Jill; Russell, Karen E; Horney, Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Amphibian declines and extinctions have worsened in the last 2 decades. Partly because one of the main causes of the declines is infectious disease, veterinary professionals have increasingly become involved in amphibian research, captive husbandry, and management. Health evaluation of amphibians, free-living or captive, can benefit from employing the tools of clinical pathology, something that is commonly used in veterinary medicine of other vertebrates. The present review compiles what is known of amphibian clinical pathology emphasizing knowledge that may assist with the interpretation of laboratory results, provides diagnostic recommendations for common amphibian diseases, and includes RIs for a few amphibian species estimated based on peer-reviewed studies. We hope to encourage the incorporation of clinical pathology in amphibian practice and research, and to highlight the importance of applying veterinary medicine principles in furthering our knowledge of amphibian pathophysiology. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Pathology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, Sandrine; Terris, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCC) is a primary carcinoma of the liver with increasing significance and major pathogenic, clinical and therapeutic challenges. Classically, it arises from malignant transformation of cholangiocytes bordering small portal bile duct (BD) to second-order segmental large BDs. It has three major macroscopic growth pattern [mass-forming (MF), periductal infiltrative (PI), and intraductal growth (IG)] and histologically is a desmoplastic stroma-rich adenocarcinoma with cholangiocyte differentiation. Recent data pointed out noteworthy degree of heterogeneity in regards of their epidemiology and risk factors, pathological and molecular features, pathogenesis, clinical behaviors and treatment. Notably, several histological variants are described and can coexist within the same tumor. Several different cells of origin have also been depicted in a fraction of iCCs, amongst which malignant transformation of ductules, of hepatic stem/progenitor cells, of periductal glands or through oncogenic reprogramming of adult hepatocytes. A degree of pathological overlap with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be observed in a portion of iCC. A series of precursor lesions are today characterized and emphasize the existence of a multistep carcinogenesis process. Overall, these new data have brought up in proposal of new histological or molecular classifications, which could soon replace current anatomic-based classification and could have major impact on establishment of prognosis and on development of novel target treatment approaches. PMID:28261592

  9. [(Impending) pathological fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P M; Regazzoni, P

    2002-01-01

    Pathological fractures will be encountered in increasing frequency due to more patients with cancer, surviving a longer period. The skeleton is the third most frequent localization for metastases. Breast cancer is still the most common primary tumor, but bone metastases from lung cancer seem to be diagnosed more and more. Despite of finding metastases most often in the spinal column, fractures are seen mostly at the femoral site. A pathological fracture and, in almost all cases, an impending fracture are absolute indication for operation. An exact definition of an "impending fracture" is still lacking; it is widely accepted, that 50 per cent of bone mass must be destroyed before visualization in X-ray is possible, thus defining an impending fracture. The score system by Mirels estimates the fracture risk by means of four parameters (localization, per cent of destructed bone mass, type of metastasis, pain). Improving quality of life, relieving pain, preferably with a single operation and a short length of stay are the goals of (operative) treatment. For fractures of the proximal femur, prosthetic replacement, for fractures of the subtrochanteric region or the shaft, intramedullary nails are recommended. Postoperative radiation therapy possibly avoids tumor progression. In patient with a good long term prognosis, tumor should be removed locally aggressive.

  10. Impact of Plasma Kynurenine Level on Functional Capacity and Outcome in Heart Failure - Results From Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ebner, Nicole; Springer, Jochen; Schefold, Joerg C; Doehner, Wolfram; Dschietzig, Thomas Bernd; Anker, Stefan D; von Haehling, Stephan

    2016-12-22

    Kynurenine is a circulating metabolite from the essential amino acid tryptophan. Accelerated degradation of kynurenine in skeletal muscle has been reported to provide an anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between blood kynurenine and muscle mass/function in patients with heart failure (HF), in whom diseased muscle mass/function plays a pathophysiological role.Methods and Results:Plasma kynurenine was assessed in 249 patients with HF (67±11 years, 21% women) and in 45 controls from the SICA-HF study. Kynurenine was higher in 173 HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and in 76 patients with preserved EF than controls (3.5±1.5, 3.4±1.3, and 2.4±1.1 μmol/L, P<0.001). In HF patients, kynurenine had an inverse association with handgrip strength (r=-0.26, P<0.01), peak oxygen consumption (r=-0.29, P<0.01), 6-min walk distance (r=-0.23, P<0.01), and had a positive association with kidney and liver function parameters. No correlation was observed between kynurenine and lean mass. On multivariable linear regression analysis, a significant association was noted between kynurenine and peak oxygen consumption even after adjustment for age, gender, BMI, and hemoglobin (β=-0.23, P<0.001). Patients with higher kynurenine were at higher risk of death (adjusted HR, 1.46 per 1 μmol/L, P<0.01). In stable HF patients, plasma kynurenine was inversely correlated with muscle strength and functional capacity as well as with liver and kidney function.

  11. Pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Foer, Bert [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: bert.defoer@GZA.be; Kenis, Christoph [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: christophkenis@hotmail.com; Van Melkebeke, Deborah [Department of Neurology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Deborah.vanmelkebeke@Ugent.be; Vercruysse, Jean-Philippe [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: jphver@yahoo.com; Somers, Thomas [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Thomas.somers@GZA.be; Pouillon, Marc [Department of Radiology, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: marc.pouillon@GZA.be; Offeciers, Erwin [University Department of ENT, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Erwin.offeciers@GZA.be; Casselman, Jan W. [Department of Radiology, AZ Sint-Jan AV Hospital, Ruddershove 10, Bruges (Belgium); Consultant Radiologist, Sint-Augustinus Hospital, Oosterveldlaan 24, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Academic Consultent, University of Ghent (Belgium)], E-mail: jan.casselman@azbrugge.be

    2010-05-15

    There is a large scala of pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the investigation of pathology of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Congenital pathology mainly consists of agenesis or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Tumoral pathology affecting the vestibulocochlear nerve is most frequently located in the internal auditory canal or cerebellopontine angle. Schwannoma of the vestibulocochlear nerve is the most frequently found tumoral lesion followed by meningeoma, arachnoid cyst and epidermoid cyst. The most frequently encountered pathologies as well as some more rare entities are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Clear detection of ADIPOQ locus as the major gene for plasma adiponectin: Results of genome-wide association analyses including 4659 European individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Heid (Iris); P. Henneman (Peter); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); S. Coassin (Stefan); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Fuchsberger (Christian); K. Song (Kijoung); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); D. Waterworth (Dawn); N. Timpson (Nicholas); J.B. Richards (Brent); J.R.B. Perry (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); N. Amin (Najaf); B. Kollerits (Barbara); I. Pichler (Irene); B.A. Oostra (Ben); B. Thorand (Barbara); R.R. Frants (Rune); T. Illig (Thomas); J. Dupuis (Josée); B. Glaser (Beate); T.D. Spector (Timothy); J.M. Guralnik (Jack); J.M. Egan (Josephine); J.C. Florez (Jose); D.M. Evans (David); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); O.D. Carlson (Olga); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); K.A. Burling (Keith); G.D. Smith; V. Mooser (Vincent); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J.B. Meigs (James); P. Vollenweider (Peter); K.W.v. Dijk; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); F. Kronenberg (Florian); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Plasma adiponectin is strongly associated with various components of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are highly heritable and differ between men and women. We therefore aimed to investigate the genetics of plasma adiponectin in m

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors administered in combination with metformin result in an additive increase in the plasma concentration of active GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migoya, E M; Bergeron, R; Miller, J L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, of metformin, and of the combination of the two agents, on incretin hormone concentrations. Active and inactive (or total) incretin plasma concentrations, plasma DPP-4 activity, and preproglucagon (...

  14. Effect of volume replacement during combined experimental hemorrhagic shock and traumatic brain injury in prostanoids, brain pathology and pupil status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the main cause of trauma-related deaths. Systemic hypotension and intracranial hypertension causes cerebral ischemia by altering metabolism of prostanoids. We describe prostanoid, pupilar and pathological response during resuscitation with hypertonic saline solution (HSS in TBI. Method Fifteen dogs were randomized in three groups according to resuscitation after TBI (control group; lactated Ringer’s (LR group and HSS group, with measurement of thromboxane, prostaglandin, macroscopic and microscopic pathological evaluation and pupil evaluation.Result Concentration of prostaglandin is greater in the cerebral venous blood than in plasma and the opposite happens with concentration of thromboxane. Pathology revealed edema in groups with the exception of group treated with HSS.Discussion and conclusion There is a balance between the concentrations of prostaglandin and thromboxane. HSS prevented the formation of cerebral edema macroscopically detectable. Pupillary reversal occurred earlier in HSS group than in LR group.

  15. Predicting pathology in impacted mandibular third molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveek Mukherji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rising incidence of the impacted mandibular third molars and their association with pathologies is now considered a public health problem. Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the position of impacted mandibular third molars that are prone to developing pathologies and to determine the frequency and type of pathological conditions associated with these impacted teeth to facilitate planning for their prophylactic removal. Materials and Methods: Consecutive panoramic radiographs and clinical examination of 300 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were collected. They were segregated according to Pell and Gregory’s classification, Winter’s classification, and according to their state of eruption. These were correlated with associated pathologies based on clinical and radiological criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included computation of percentages, mean, and standard deviations. The statistical test applied for the analysis was Pearson’s Chi-square test (χ2. For this test, confidence interval and P value were set at 93% and ≤0.03, respectively. Results: The pathology most commonly associated with impacted third molars was pericoronitis, which had the highest frequency of occurrence in partially erupted, distoangular, and IA positioned (as per Pell and Gregory classification impacted teeth. Impacted mandibular third molars, which were in IA position, placed mesially, and partially erupted, were prone to develop pathologies such as dental caries and periodontitis. Conclusion: The clinical and radiographical features of impacted third molar may be correlated to the development of their pathological complications. The partially impacted mandibular third molars with mesioangularly aligned in IA position have the highest potential to cause pathological complications.

  16. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  17. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  18. No pain, no pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Devesh; Govind, Abha

    2012-10-26

    A 22-year-old girl who had a background of reflux nephropathy and urinary tact infection presented during the night with renal angle pain and vomiting. She was treated on the emergency department (ED) pyelonephritis protocol and admitted to the short stay ward. When reviewed the next morning she was aymptomatic and feeling better. It seemed likely that she would be discharged but an ED ultrasound showed right-sided hydronephrosis and some fluid between the liver and the right kidney. CT examination confirmed the suspicion of renal tract obstruction and ruptured calyx. An 8 mm calculus was found to be the cause of the pathology. Urgent urological review was organised and the system formally decompressed with a J-J stent inserted cystoscopically later that day.

  19. MRS对前列腺疾病的诊断价值及与病理对照研究%An investigation on the feasibility of using MRS for the diagnosis of prostate diseases by comparing MRS with pathological results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴道清; 陈自谦

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of using 3.0 T magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the diagnosis of peripheral prostate cancer and the possibility of using MRS to evaluate the proliferation and angiogenesis of prostate diseases. Methods 20 healthy volunteers and 53 patients with prostate diseases were scanned with conventional MR imaging and MRS. The diagnosis of all 53 cases were confirmed by pathology. The (Cho + Cr)/ Ci values were analyzed for each group and ROC analysis was performed to get the threshold value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. hematoxylin and eosin(HE)staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed on 22 prostate cancer and 22 BPH among all the patients. The expression of microvascular density(MVD)and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)in prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia was compared to find whether there was any difference. The correlation between MRS results and the cell proliferation, microvascular density and the expression of VEGF were analyzed. Results The average ratios of(Cho + Cr)/ Ci, from high to low, were prostate cance(2.47 ± 1.71), BPH(0.52 ± 0.37), nancancerous regions of PCa(0.47 ± 0.33)and the normal peripheral zone(0.25 ± 0.24), P = 0. 000.Using 1.005 as the threshold, the sensitivity, specificity and Az for the diagnosis of PZPC were 95﹪, 84﹪ and 96.1﹪respectively. Positive correlation was found between the(Cho + Cr)/Ci value and clinic stagin(r = 0.542, P = 0.003), as well as(Cho + Cr)/Ci value and gleason score(r = 0.651, P = 0.000). Difference was found between prostate cancer and BPH in MVD(P = 0.004)and VEGF(P = 0.005). The study indicates that MVD (VEGF)Ki-67 and cellular density are closely related to the(Cho + Cr)/Ci value. Conclusion MRS with only external surface coil at 3.0 T can be used to evaluate the metabolic level of prostate diseases and can be used to evaluate the proliferation and angiogenesis of prostate cancer.%目的:  探讨3.0 T MRS对前

  20. Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation in Management of Different Pathologic Types Colorectal Polyps%氩离子凝固术治疗不同病理类型结直肠息肉的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵曙光; 王旭霞; 黄裕新; 闻勤生; 赵保民

    2008-01-01

    目的:氩离子凝固术(Argon-plasma coagulation,APC)可以有效地治疗结直肠息肉,对不同病理类型息肉的疗效是否存在差异,目前尚不清楚.本文比较APC治疗不同病理类型结直肠息肉的效果.方法:对62例结直肠息肉患者共112枚结肠息肉行APC治疗,其中17例亚蒂和74例扁平息肉仅用APC治疗;21例有蒂息肉电切治疗后用APC处理息肉残基,治疗结束后1个月进行结肠镜随访.结果:112枚结直肠息肉经一次APC治疗均成功清除,随访期间共有4例(6.5%)患者出现复发,均为直肠腺瘤性息肉,经再次APC治疗后彻底清除.单纯APC治疗组复发3枚(3.3%);电切后用APC处理残端组术后复发1枚(4.7%),两组间复发率无显著差别(P>0.05),腺瘤性息肉的复发率显著高于其他两种病理类型(P<0.05).1例直肠有蒂息肉经圈套器切除后APC处理残端时出现黏膜下气肿,3例患者出现了短暂的腹痛,未经处理缓解,其余患者无特殊并发症.结论:APC是一种安全有效的结直肠息肉治疗方法,但对腺瘤性息肉APC治疗后应加强随访,以确保治疗成功.

  1. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  2. Plasma Cell Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-12-01

    Plasma cell disorders are benign, premalignant, and malignant conditions characterized by the presence of a monoclonal paraprotein detected in serum or urine. These conditions are biologically, pathologically, and clinically heterogeneous. There have been major advances in the understanding of the biology of these diseases, which are promoting the development of therapies with novel mechanisms of action. Novel agents such as proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs, and monoclonal antibodies have gained approval in the United States and Europe for the treatment of plasma cell disorders. Such therapies are translating into higher rates of response and survival and better toxicity profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The covalent immobilization of heparin to pulsed-plasma polymeric allylamine films on 316L stainless steel and the resulting effects on hemocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhilu; Wang, Jin; Luo, Rifang; Maitz, Manfred F; Jing, Fengjuan; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2010-03-01

    For an improved hemocompatibility of 316L stainless steel (SS), we develop a facile and effective approach to fabricating a pulsed-plasma polymeric allylamine (P-PPAm) film that possesses a high cross-linking degree and a high density of amine groups, which is used for subsequent bonding of heparin. The P-PPAm film as a stent coating shows good resistance to the deformation behavior of compression and expansion of a stent. Using deionized water as an aging medium, it is demonstrated that the heparin-immobilized P-PPAm (Hep-P-PPAm) surface has a good retention of heparin. The systematic in vitro hemocompatibility evaluation reveals lower platelet adhesion, platelet activation and fibrinogen activation on the Hep-P-PPAm surface, and the activated partial thromboplastin time prolongs for about 15 s compared with 316L SS. The P-PPAm surface significantly promotes adhesion and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs). For the Hep-P-PPAm, although EC adhesion and proliferation is slightly suppressed initially, after cultivation for 3 days, the growth behavior of ECs is remarkably improved over 316L SS. In vivo results indicate that the Hep-P-PPAm surface successfully restrain thrombus formation by growing a homogeneous and intact shuttle-like endothelium on its surface. The Hep-P-PPAm modified 316L SS shows a promising application for vascular devices.

  4. Administration of commercial Rhodococcus equi specific hyperimmune plasma results in variable amounts of IgG against pathogenic bacteria in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M G; Oliveira, A F; Page, A; Horohov, D W

    2014-11-15

    Rhodococcus equi is the most common cause of pneumonia in young foals. A vaccine is not available and the use of R equi-specific hyperimmune plasma (HIP) is common. Despite its widespread use, the efficacy of HIP in preventing disease remains controversial. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the virulence associate protein A (VapA)-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in commercially available R equi HIP and (2) to evaluate serum VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclasses in foals following administration of commercial R equi HIP. Three different lots from four commercial R equi HIP were sampled. VapA-specific IgG and IgG subclasses were evaluated in all samples using an ELISA. Serum was collected from newborn foals either after commercial R equi HIP was administered (n=97) or not (n=70). Serum was also collected from each mare. Administration of HIP significantly (P<0.001) increased VapA-specific IgGs in recipient foals, however, there was a marked variation in VapA-specific IgGs in foals receiving the same product. VapA-specific IgGs were significantly different (P<0.001) between products and varied between lots, with coefficients of variation ranging from 17 to 123 per cent. These results may explain previously reported disparities in HIP efficacy. British Veterinary Association.

  5. [Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokauskas, Norbertas; Satkeviciūte, Regina; Burba, Benjaminas

    2003-01-01

    In this article the peculiarities of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling were investigated. The authors were based both on the data of many foreign scientists and on their own one. Our data on 77 cases of pathological gambling were collected based on interviews of Lithuanian psychiatrists and psychotherapists about their patients with gambling addiction in period from 1991 to 2001. The data that we publish and analyze allows us to make conclusions that pathological gambling can reveal together with very wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders, but more often with alcoholism and depression. The mechanism of psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gambling is very complex.

  6. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  7. CT in vascular pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Neri, E.; Caramella, D. [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department of Oncology, University of Pisa, Via Roma 67, I-56100 Pisa (Italy)

    1998-06-02

    Since the introduction of helical scanners, CT angiography (CTA) has achieved an essential role in many vascular applications that were previously managed with conventional angiography. The performance of CTA is based on the accurate selection of collimation width, pitch, reconstruction spacing and scan delay, which must be modulated on the basis of the clinical issue. However, the major improvement of CT has been provided by the recent implementation of many post-processing techniques, such as multiplanar reformatting, shaded surface display, maximum intensity projections, 3D perspectives of surface and volume rendering, which simulate virtual intravascular endoscopy. The integration of the potentialities of the scanner and of the image processing techniques permitted improvement of: (a) the evaluation of aneurysms, dissection and vascular anomalies involving the thoracic aorta; (b) carotid artery stenosis; (c) aneurysms of abdominal aorta; (d) renal artery stenosis; (e) follow-up of renal artery stenting; and (f) acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. Our experience has shown that the assessment of arterial pathologies with CTA requires the integration of 3D post-processing techniques in most applications. (orig.) With 4 figs., 34 refs.

  8. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A cross-sectional analysis. United Kingdom. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

  9. Placental pathology in pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold

    2011-02-01

    Among pregnancy pathologies preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. For both syndromes, the etiologies are still unclear in many facets. For the development of preeclampsia the presence of the placenta is a prerequisite, while for FGR a variety of other factors may be decisive. Cases with a combination of FGR and preeclampsia are the most severe cases and need clinical intervention. Studies on such cases have misled scientists and clinicians to hypothesize that a failure of trophoblast invasion is a specific feature of the early onset type of preeclampsia. Recent development in preeclampsia specific biomarkers and the intense use of Doppler ultrasound measurements already in the first trimester of pregnancy has resulted in a new understanding of the pathways leading to preeclampsia or FGR.

  10. Diagnosis of breast cancer by polarization cartography of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of polarization-optical diagnostics of plasma protein structures changes, which are connected with the breast pathologies, were investigated. As the main investigation object it has been used the coordinate structure of polarization states distributions of blood plasma images. The results were obtained by means of novel technique of digital polarimetry. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological state of the organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  11. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 regional consortium R and D project. Regional consortium energy field / Development of the plasma use surface treatment process by in-situ control (first fiscal year); 1997 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Chiiki consortium energy bun`ya / in-situ seigyo ni yoru plasma riyo hyohi shori process no kaihatsu (daiichi nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper described the fiscal 1997 result of the development. To know of in-plasma phenomena such as carburization and nitriding, a basic plasma experimental device was fabricated for quantitative measurement of reaction activity species. For the study of reaction control between plasma and substrate, a rotary analyzer type ellipsometer was fabricated as a method to detect composition and thickness of the deposit on the substrate surface. For He gas cooling after carburization and hardening, basic specifications for He gas refining/circulating system were confirmed. For perfect non-hazardous processing of exhaust gas from plasma carburization furnace, conducted was the thermodynamic computation of the process. Priority in order of the functions to be possessed as specifications for basic design of mini plant is plasma carburization, He gas cooling, and in-situ measurement. To make the most of the plasma use surface treatment as substitutes for expensive alloy elements, sliding parts/die-cast mold raw materials were carburized to measure the hardness. The Cr carbide coating technology by plasma CVD is also under study as an application example except carburization. 47 refs., 59 figs., 31 tabs.

  12. Clinical and Pathological Features of Riedel's Thyroiditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lu; Feng Gu; Wei-xin Dai; Wu-yi Li; Jie Chen; Yu Xiao; Zheng-pei Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and pathological features of Riedel's thyroiditis (RT), and current diagnostic and treatment methods for that disease.Methods Five RT cases identified by surgery and pathological examinations at Peking Union Medi-cal College Hospital from 1985 to 2009 were analyzed and compared with the cases reported in the litera-ture in terms of clinical and pathological features. Immunohistochemical staining of kappa and lambda light chains was carried out for RT tissues from all the five patients.Results All the five cases were females, aged 45-55 years. Elevation of serum thyroid autoantibodies was found in only one patient, who had longer disease duration than the others. Pathological examination re-vealed invasive fibrosclerosis of the thyroid follicles, thyroid capsule, and the surrounding tissues. In RT tis-sues, the number of cells containing lambda chains was a little higher than those containing kappa chains.Conclusions RT is a rare disease which might be more common in middle-aged females than in other populations. Pathological features include the destruction of thyroid follicle, extension into surround-ing tissues by inflammatory cells and fibrous tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of kappa and lambda chains could help diagnose RT.

  13. Anencephaly: A pathological study of 41 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Panduranga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Anencephaly is a lethal neural tube defect which is due to the defective closure of rostral pore of neural tube. In more than 50% of cases it is associated with other systemic anomalies. Hence this study was undertaken to assess pathological parameters associated with anencephaly in particular attention to associated systemic anomalies. Materials and Methods: It is a study on 41 anencephaly fetuses conducted in the Department of Pathology. The period of study is from January 2001 to December 2011. Results: Out of 41 cases, 30 (73% cases showed presence of systemic anomalies, 48.5% of the cases were observed in primigravida. Most common associated anomaly was spina bifida followed by gastrointestinal anomalies. Conclusion: Pathological examination of the abortus is essential to document the associated anomalies.

  14. Inflammatory breast carcinoma: pathological or clinical entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, R S; Angel, C D; Ana, L H; Antonio, L C; Vicente, M S; Carlos, F M; Vicente, G P

    2000-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) diagnosis is usually based in the presence of typical clinical symptoms (redness and edema in more than 2/3 of the breast), which are not always associated with pathologic characteristics (subdermal lymphatics involvement). Whether exclusively pathologic findings without clinical symptoms are sufficient for IBC diagnosis remains controversial. A retrospective analysis of 163 clinically diagnosed IBC (CIC) either with dermal lymphatics invasion or not, was compared with another group of 99 patients with dermal lymphatics invasion without clinical symptoms (occult inflammatory carcinoma) (OIC). The following clinical and pathological characteristics have been analyzed and compared: age, menopausal status, clinical axillar node involvement, symptoms duration before diagnosis, grade, estrogen receptors, presence of metastases at diagnosis, local recurrence, metastasic dissemination, disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Median age was younger in CIC (52.3 vs. 63.8 years; p Prognosis of CIC patients is poorer, so this two entities should be clearly differentiated when therepeutic results are reported.

  15. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  16. The Role of Metacognition in Pathological Gambling: A Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Pennelli, Michele; De Palo, Valeria; Monacis, Lucia; Sinatra, Maria; De Caro, Maria Fara

    2016-03-01

    Pathological gambling involves multitudinous costs related to financial, legal, and public health care aspects, as well as to specific psychological disorders. Despite the overall evidence suggesting that comorbid disorders represent a risk factor for pathological gambling, there is scant evidence on the appropriate treatments for gamblers with such disorders. In this context, metacognitive therapy is an interesting approach because it considers psychological disorders as a result of the activation of perseverative cognitive processes and attentional strategies in response to inner events. Several studies report that metacognition is associated with different psychological problems. This study investigated the relationship among comorbid disorders, metacognition, and pathological gambling. 69 pathological gamblers at the first hospital admission and 58 controls drawn from general population (matched for age, gender, education) completed a battery of self report instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-R, Metacognition Questionnaire 30, South Oaks Gambling Scale. Compared to controls, pathological gamblers showed higher level of comorbid symptomatology and metacognition. Correlation analyses showed that: comorbid symptomatology and metacognition were positively and significantly correlated with pathological gambling; metacognition was positively and significantly associated with comorbid symptomatology. Mediation analysis indicated that dysfunctional metacognitive strategies could have an indirect effect on pathological gambling mediated by concurrent psychological disorders. These findings provide some implications for gambling treatment programs: pathological gamblers should be screened for psychiatric disorders, and metacognitive therapy could be considered a correct treatment of pathological gamblers. Metacognitive therapy might lead to the reduction of the pathological gambling by the diminishing of the concurrent psychological disorders.

  17. Summary of the 4th nordic symposium on digital pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Lundström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nordic symposium on digital pathology (NDP was created to promote knowledge exchange across stakeholders in health care, industry, and academia. In 2016, the 4th NDP installment took place in Linköping, Sweden, promoting development and collaboration in digital pathology for the benefit of routine care advances. This article summarizes the symposium, gathering 170 attendees from 13 countries. This summary also contains results from a survey on integrated diagnostics aspects, in particular radiology-pathology collaboration.

  18. Plasma Diagnostics and Plasma-Surface Interactions in Inductively Coupled Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Titus, Monica Joy

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry's continued trend of manufacturing device features on the nanometer scale requires increased plasma processing control and improved understanding of plasma characteristics and plasma-surface interactions. This dissertation presents a series of experimental results for focus studies conducted in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system. First novel "on-wafer" diagnostic tools are characterized and related to plasma characteristics. Second, plasma-polymer interactio...

  19. Pathological Examples Using the TI-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruthirds, John; Dodd, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Provides pathological examples for which graphing calculators sometimes give surprising, misleading, or incorrect results. Investigates some of the more interesting of these examples encountered while using the TI-85 in a variety of undergraduate courses including calculus and matrix theory. (DDR)

  20. Pathological Examples Using the TI-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruthirds, John; Dodd, Fred

    1997-01-01

    Provides pathological examples for which graphing calculators sometimes give surprising, misleading, or incorrect results. Investigates some of the more interesting of these examples encountered while using the TI-85 in a variety of undergraduate courses including calculus and matrix theory. (DDR)

  1. The intake of long chain omega 3 fatty acids through fish versus capsules results in greater increments of their plasma levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visioli Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Omega 3 fatty acids from fish appear to be more cardioprotective than equivalent amounts provided as capsules. We gave volunteers, for six weeks, either 100 g\\\\day of salmon, providing 383 mg of EPA and 544 mg of DHA or one or three capsules of fish oil\\\\day, providing 150 mg of EPA and 106 mg of DHA or 450 mg of EPA and 318 mg of DHA. We also re-evaluated data from a previous study carried out with the same design. Marked increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentrations (μg\\\\mg total lipid and percentages of total fatty acids were recorded at the end of either treatment. Such increments were linearly and significantly correlated with the dose after capsule administration. Notably, increments in plasma EPA and DHA concentration after salmon intake were significantly higher than after administration of capsules. In fact, the same increments would be obtained with at least two- and nine-fold higher doses of EPA and DHA, respectively, if administered with capsules rather than salmon. In turn, we provide experimental evidence that omega 3 fatty acids from fish are more effectively incorporated into plasma lipids than when administered as capsules and that increments in plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA given as capsules are linearly correlated with their intakes.

  2. The application of cold-plasma coagulation on the visceral pleura results in a predictable depth of necrosis without fistula generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Martin; Ulrich, Anita; Schloericke, Erik; Limmer, Stefan; Habermann, Jens Karsten; Wolken, Heike; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Kujath, Peter

    2012-03-01

    A technique for the safe transfer of electric energy to the pulmonary surface for the potential evaporation of malignant tumours is non-existent to date. By conducting the current study, we wanted to generate data on the potential beneficiary effects and complications of using cold-plasma coagulation on the pulmonary surface. Cold-plasma coagulation was applied to the pulmonary surface in eight female mini-pigs via a thoracoscopic access. After 12 days, we performed a re-thoracoscopy on the contralateral side. After a further 12 days, we performed a median sternotomy and did cold-plasma coagulation on previously untreated areas of either lung. No pulmonary fistulas were detected. In two of the eight pigs, we found a localized chronic pneumonia. None of the pigs died during the course of the study. Morbidity was also low with two pigs refusing food intake, one pig with dyspnoea after difficult intubation and one pig coughing. All events were self-limited and occurred only on post-operative Day 1. The treatment effect was almost linear and correlated to the generator energy applied. The differences between the effects reached statistical significance (P < 0.05). The application of cold-plasma coagulation to the pulmonary surface is safe in pigs. A potential clinical application of this technique is treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

  3. Physical activity and amyloid-β plasma and brain levels: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B M; Peiffer, J J; Taddei, K; Lui, J K; Laws, S M; Gupta, V B; Taddei, T; Ward, V K; Rodrigues, M A; Burnham, S; Rainey-Smith, S R; Villemagne, V L; Bush, A; Ellis, K A; Masters, C L; Ames, D; Macaulay, S L; Szoeke, C; Rowe, C C; Martins, R N

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies suggest physical activity improves cognition and lowers Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. However, key AD pathogenic factors that are thought to be influenced by physical activity, particularly plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) and Aβ brain load, have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if plasma Aβ and amyloid brain deposition are associated with physical activity levels, and whether these associations differed between carriers and non-carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele. Five-hundred and forty six cognitively intact participants (aged 60-95 years) from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing (AIBL) were included in these analyses. Habitual physical activity levels were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Serum insulin, glucose, cholesterol and plasma Aβ levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A subgroup (n=116) underwent (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) scanning to quantify brain amyloid load. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P=0.037), and lower insulin (Pphysical activity. Conversely, lower levels of PiB SUVR (standardised uptake value ratio) were observed in higher exercising APOE ε4 carriers. Lower plasma Aβ1-42/1-40 and brain amyloid was observed in those reporting higher levels of physical activity, consistent with the hypothesis that physical activity may be involved in the modulation of pathogenic changes associated with AD.

  4. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index : Results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Baumert (Jens); J. Huang (Jian); B. McKnight (Barbara); M. Sabater-Lleal (Maria); M. Steri (Maristella); A.Y. Chu (Audrey); S. Trompet (Stella); Lopez, L.M. (Lorna M.); Fornage, M. (Myriam); A. Teumer (Alexander); W. Tang (Weihong); A.R. Rudnicka (Alicja); A. Mälarstig (Anders); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); M. Kavousi (Maryam); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); P.-E. Morange (P.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Basu (Saonli); A. Rumley (Ann); D.J. Stott (David. J.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); A.J. de Craen (Anton); S. Sanna (Serena); G. Masala (Giovanna); R. Biffar (Reiner); G. Homuth (Georg); A. Silveira (Angela); B. Sennblad (Bengt); A. Goel (Anuj); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Rückerl, R. (Regina); K.D. Taylor (Kent); Chen, M.-H. (Ming-Huei); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); A. Palotie (Aarno); G. Davies (Gail); D.S. Siscovick (David); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.H. Wild (Sarah); Song, J. (Jaejoon); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); I. Ford (Ian); N. Sattar (Naveed); D. Schlessinger (David); A. Grotevendt (Anne); M. Franzosi; Illig, T. (Thomas); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); T. Lumley (Thomas); G.H. Tofler (Geoffrey); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); K. Räikkönen (Katri); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); G.D.O. Lowe (Gordon); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); F. Cucca (Francesco); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); U. Seedorf (Udo); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); J.C. Bis (Joshua); K. Mukamal (Kenneth); Van Dongen, J. (Jenny); E. Widen (Elisabeth); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.M. Starr (John); K.Y. Liu; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); O. Polasek (Ozren); J.F. Wilson (James F); T. Oudot-Mellakh (Tiphaine); H. Campbell (Harry); P. Navarro (Pau); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); Eriksson, J. (Johan); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Dehghan (Abbas); R. Clarke (Robert); A. Hamsten (Anders); Boerwinkle, E. (Eric); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); S. Naitza (Silvia); P.M. Ridker (Paul); H. Völzke (Henry); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); A. Reiner (Alexander); D.-A. Tregouet (David-Alexandre); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); D.P. Strachan (David); A. Peters (Annette); Smith, N.L. (Nicholas L.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPlasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with

  5. Sleep Pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter; de Bruin, Gabriela S.; Wang, Leo H.; Ward, Beth A.; Ances, Beau M.; Lim, Miranda M.; Bucelli, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Associations between sleep and neurodegenerative diseases have become increasingly evident. This study aims to characterize the prevalence and type of sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease. Methods: In this observational cross-sectional cohort study, we performed a retrospective analysis of sleep signs and symptoms in a consecutive group of patients with definite CJD at a tertiary care medical center (n = 28). Polysomnography was performed in 14 patients. Results: Although only 5 of 28 patients carried a premorbid sleep diagnosis, signs/symptoms of sleep pathology were present in 25 patients. Eleven reported hypersomnia whereas 13 reported insomnia. Seven had restless legs symptoms and/or periodic limb movements of sleep, and nine reported parasomnias. Of the 14 patients who underwent polysomnography, 1 did not show sleep, 9 (69%) had poorly formed or absent sleep spindles and/or K-complexes, and 10 (77%) had sleep-disordered breathing. Of the 8 patients who experienced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep during the polysomnography, 3 (38%) showed REM sleep without atonia, and 2 patients met criteria for REM sleep behavior disorder. Median total sleep time was 226 (interquartile range [IQR] = 195–282) min. Median sleep efficiency was 58.5% (IQR = 41–65.5 %). Median REM time was 0.35% (IQR = 0–7.125%). Five patients (38%) demonstrated periodic limb movements during polysomnography. One case is presented. Conclusions: Sleep pathology is common in CJD, and screening for sleep pathology is indicated in the evaluation of patients with rapidly progressive dementias. Early identification and treatment of sleep pathology may provide an intervenable target for CJD. Citation: Kang P, de Bruin GS, Wang LH, Ward BA, Ances BM, Lim MM, Bucelli RC. Sleep pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1033–1039. PMID:27250807

  6. A method for normalizing pathology images to improve feature extraction for quantitative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, Allison [Stanford Institutes of Medical Research Program, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Barker, Jocelyn [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Rubin, Daniel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Medicine (Biomedical Informatics Research), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: With the advent of digital slide scanning technologies and the potential proliferation of large repositories of digital pathology images, many research studies can leverage these data for biomedical discovery and to develop clinical applications. However, quantitative analysis of digital pathology images is impeded by batch effects generated by varied staining protocols and staining conditions of pathological slides. Methods: To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel, fully automated stain normalization method to reduce batch effects and thus aid research in digital pathology applications. Their method, intensity centering and histogram equalization (ICHE), normalizes a diverse set of pathology images by first scaling the centroids of the intensity histograms to a common point and then applying a modified version of contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization. Normalization was performed on two datasets of digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of different tissue slices from the same lung tumor, and one immunohistochemistry dataset of digitized slides created by restaining one of the H&E datasets. Results: The ICHE method was evaluated based on image intensity values, quantitative features, and the effect on downstream applications, such as a computer aided diagnosis. For comparison, three methods from the literature were reimplemented and evaluated using the same criteria. The authors found that ICHE not only improved performance compared with un-normalized images, but in most cases showed improvement compared with previous methods for correcting batch effects in the literature. Conclusions: ICHE may be a useful preprocessing step a digital pathology image processing pipeline.

  7. Plasma cell leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández de Larrea, C; Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M

    2013-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic......-pathological entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10(9)/l) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds...... regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding...

  8. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  9. Internet images of the speech pathology profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nicole

    2017-06-05

    Objective The Internet provides the general public with information about speech pathology services, including client groups and service delivery models, as well as the professionals providing the services. Although this information assists the general public and other professionals to both access and understand speech pathology services, it also potentially provides information about speech pathology as a prospective career, including the types of people who are speech pathologists (i.e. demographics). The aim of the present study was to collect baseline data on how the speech pathology profession was presented via images on the Internet.Methods A pilot prospective observational study using content analysis methodology was conducted to analyse publicly available Internet images related to the speech pathology profession. The terms 'Speech Pathology' and 'speech pathologist' to represent both the profession and the professional were used, resulting in the identification of 200 images. These images were considered across a range of areas, including who was in the image (e.g. professional, client, significant other), the technology used and the types of intervention.Results The majority of images showed both a client and a professional (i.e. speech pathologist). While the professional was predominantly presented as female, the gender of the client was more evenly distributed. The clients were more likely to be preschool or school aged, however male speech pathologists were presented as providing therapy to selected age groups (i.e. school aged and younger adults). Images were predominantly of individual therapy and the few group images that were presented were all paediatric.Conclusion Current images of speech pathology continue to portray narrow professional demographics and client groups (e.g. paediatrics). Promoting images of wider scope to fully represent the depth and breadth of speech pathology professional practice may assist in attracting a more diverse group

  10. [Quality Management System in Pathological Laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyatsu, Junichi; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Even compared to other clinical laboratories, the pathological laboratory conducts troublesome work, and many of the work processes are also manual. Therefore, the introduction of the systematic management of administration is necessary. It will be a shortcut to use existing standards such as ISO 15189 for this purpose. There is no standard specialized for the pathological laboratory, but it is considered to be important to a pathological laboratory in particular. 1. Safety nianagement of the personnel and environmental conditions. Comply with laws and regulations concerning the handling of hazardous materials. 2. Pre-examination processes. The laboratory shall have documented procedures for the proper collection and handling of primary samples. Developed and documented criteria for acceptance or rejection of samples are applied. 3. Examination processes. Selection, verification, and validation of the examination procedures. Devise a system that can constantly monitor the traceability of the sample. 4. Post-examination processes. Storage, retention, and disposal of clinical samples. 5. Release of results. When examination results fall within established alert or critical intervals, immediately notify the physicians. The important point is to recognize the needs of the client and be aware that pathological diagnoses are always "the final diagnoses".

  11. MLE's bias pathology motivates MCMLE

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Maximum likelihood estimates are often biased. It is shown that this pathology is inherent to the traditional ML estimation method for two or more parameters, thus motivating from a different angle the use of MCMLE.

  12. Absence of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Increases Amyloid β-Protein Pathology in Tg-5xFAD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Kotarba, Ann Marie E.; Van Nostrand, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The abnormal accumulation, assembly and deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are prominent pathological features of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. A number of factors in the brain can influence Aβ accumulation and associated pathologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of deleting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, the endothelial form of NOS, in Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of parenchymal AD-like amyloid pathology. Methods Tg-5xFAD mice were bred with NOS3−/− mice. Cohorts of Tg-5xFAD mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/NOS3−/− mice were aged to six months followed by collection of the blood and brain tissues from the mice for biochemical and pathological analyses. Results ELISA analyses show that the absence of NOS3 results in elevated levels of cerebral and plasma Aβ peptides in Tg-5xFAD mice. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the absence of NOS3 increased the amount of parenchymal Aβ deposition and fibrillar amyloid accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice. The elevated levels of Aβ were not due to changes in the expression levels of transgene encoded human amyloid precursor protein (APP), endogenous β-secretase, or increased proteolytic processing of APP. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the loss of NOS3 activity enhances Aβ pathology in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings are similar to previous studies of NOS2 deletion suggesting that reduced NOS activity and NO levels enhance amyloid-associated pathologies in human APP transgenic mice. PMID:24159423

  13. Systemic disorders affecting dental pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a congenital dental developmental disorders, (b chromosomal anomalies, (c radiations, (d immune disorders, (e intoxications, (f neurological alterations, (g gastrointestinal diseases, (h osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i skin diseases, (j metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital general malformations. The associated dental pathology is described in each case.

  14. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  15. Pathologic mitoses and pathology of mitosis in tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RG Steinbeck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gist of my hypothesis (.. is a certain abnormal chromatin constitution. Each process, which brings about this chromatin constitution, would result in the origin of a malignant tumour. Certainly, I consider irregularities with mitosis as the normal mode of the origin of an incorrectly assembled nucleus. This statement by Boveri (1914 has considered earlier observations of asymmetric divisions in human cancers (Hansemann, 1890. The hypothesis is based on the understanding of mitosis as an equational bipartition of the hereditary substance (Flemming, 1879; Roux, 1883. Latest since it was known that genes are located on chromosomes (Sturtevant, 1913, their balanced transport in anaphase appeared as a condition of correct somatic proliferation. True mitoses guarantee the constancy of terminally differentiated tissues. Politzer (1934 has performed X-ray experiments to investigate abnormal karyokinesis with regard to anomalous chromatin condensation, chromosome breakage, spindle malformation, and failure in cytokinesis. On the basis of light microscopy, further significant progress in understanding the pathology of mitosis was not possible. Tumour cases with reduced chromosome numbers seduced to the idea that mitotic activity is rather under cytoplasmic than under nuclear control (Koller, 1947.

  16. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  17. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  18. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  19. [Pathological changes of the cornea in rabbits with hyphema and concurrent ocular hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-yun; Lu, Xiao-he; Zhang, Cai-xia; Bai, Lang; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Yan-yan; Wang, Shuang-shuang

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of hyphema secondary to high intraocular pressure on corneal pathology in rabbits. Thirty adult New Zealand rabbit were randomized into 3 equal groups, and in each rabbit, one eye served as the experimental eye with the other as the control eye. In the experimental eye, autoblood was injected into the anterior chamber to induce high intraocular pressure maintained for 3, 5, or 8 days. Only saline was injected into the control eye. After the injections, the cornea was observed with slit-lamp microscopy, and at 3, 5, or 8 days, the experimental and control eyes were taken from the 3 groups for microscopic examination of the corneas to detect the occurrence of cornea bloodstain with prolonged high intraocular pressure. Corneal edema, elastic fibers changes, growth of new blood vessels, changes of eosinophils, fibroblasts, lymphocytes and plasma cells, as well as the pathological changes of the corneal layers were observed and compared between the experimental and control eyes. Maintenance of high intraocular pressure for 8 days resulted in the most severe corneal edema and thickening, and histopathologically, the corneal stroma showed widened space between the elastic fibers and obvious fiber distortion. Neovascularization was seen in the marginal cornea where eosinophil infiltration occurred with a small number of lymphocytes, plasma cells and fiber cells. All the three groups showed more obvious edema in the posterior than in the anterior cornea. Prolonged hyphema with ocular hypertension results in aggravation of corneal edema, and corneal blood staining does not occur until 8 days of high intraocular pressure but corneal elastic fiber disruption can be seen, suggesting the impending irreversible pathological changes of cornea.

  20. Panning artifacts in digital pathology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Lanciault, Christian; Espig, Kathryn S.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2017-03-01

    In making a pathologic diagnosis, a pathologist uses cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, and search (Pena and Andrade-Filho, 2009). Typically, this involves focus while panning from one region of a slide to another, using either a microscope in a traditional workflow or software program and display in a digital pathology workflow (DICOM Standard Committee, 2010). We theorize that during panning operation, the pathologist receives information important to diagnosis efficiency and/or correctness. As compared to an optical microscope, panning in a digital pathology image involves some visual artifacts due to the following: (i) the frame rate is finite; (ii) time varying visual signals are reconstructed using imperfect zero-order hold. Specifically, after pixel's digital drive is changed, it takes time for a pixel to emit the expected amount of light. Previous work suggests that 49% of navigation is conducted in low-power/overview with digital pathology (Molin et al., 2015), but the influence of display factors has not been measured. We conducted a reader study to establish a relationship between display frame rate, panel response time, and threshold panning speed (above which the artifacts become noticeable). Our results suggest visual tasks that involve tissue structure are more impacted by the simulated panning artifacts than those that only involve color (e.g., staining intensity estimation), and that the panning artifacts versus normalized panning speed has a peak behavior which is surprising and may change for a diagnostic task. This is work in progress and our final findings should be considered in designing future digital pathology systems.

  1. IMAGING OF HIP JOINT PATHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Dutta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hip joint is a large and complex articulation and can be involved by numerous pathologic conditions like congenital and developmental, infective, arthritic, and neoplastic. Early diagnosis and characterisation of pathology has vital role in proper management and follow up of the disease for the clinicians. Present study was conducted in 45 patients who underwent clinical, radiological, and pathological examination in GMCH. Maximum no of patient between age group of 10-30 yrs. male-female ratio was 1.8:1 and 30% cases are unilateral. FSE STAIR images were most useful in delineating pathologies. Gadolinium-enhanced scan were used to evaluate the extent of the disease and the pattern of involvement. AVN was the most common pathology detected comprising 29%. The next common abnormality detected was infective arthritis found in 26% of cases. In case of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, there was abnormal linear increase in the signal intensity at junction of the epiphyseal cartilage. Ultrasonography is useful for the screening of paediatric hip cases and also for guided aspiration for histopathology. CT scan shows better resolution of soft tissue then the radiograph. The importance of early diagnosis can be gauzed from the fact that early initiation of treatment creates the difference between a responsible, worthwhile life, and a cripple handicapped life. The role of imaging can never be undermined considering the fact that early suspicion and detection is within the realms of imaging.

  2. Fellowship trends of pathology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagwinski, Nikolaj; Hunt, Jennifer L

    2009-09-01

    Recent changes in pathology residency education have included a decrease in the program length (from 5 years to 4 years for combined anatomic and clinical pathology training) and a national mandate for programs to assess 6 general competencies of trainees. These have undoubtedly led to changes in program curricula and in residents' desires to seek fellowship training. This study was designed to gather information about what residents are seeking from fellowship training programs. This study used an online survey to assess attitudes of residents in training programs toward fellowship training. The survey instrument had 26 questions pertaining to fellowship choices, motivations for pursuing fellowships, expectations of the fellowships, and postresidency concerns. There were 213 respondents from a mix of program types and representing each postgraduate year. Most residents will seek at least 1 or 2 fellowships after residency training. The most popular first-choice fellowship was surgical pathology (26%), followed by cytopathology (16%), hematopathology (15%), gastrointestinal pathology (10%), dermatopathology (8%), and forensic pathology (5%). The most common reasons for pursuing fellowship training were to "increase marketability" (43%) or to "become an expert in a particular area" (33%). Most trainees got their information about fellowship training programs from Internet sources. Fellowship programs will benefit from an optimally designed Web site because residents seek information predominantly from the Internet. Residents seeking fellowships are particularly concerned with selecting programs that provide job connections, an increase in their marketability, and the opportunity to develop diagnostic expertise.

  3. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  4. Laser statistical polarimetry optical anisotropy of blood plasma of the patients with hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Bodnar, B. M.; Vatamanesku, L. I.

    2012-01-01

    Proposed in this work is a novel method of early laser polarimetric diagnostics of vessels pathologies and hemangioma formation. The generalized model of formation processes of polarization inhomogeneous laser images of experimental samples of biological tissues is presented. It was performed the experimental measurements of polarization states of both biological tissues laser images points and the hemangioma liquids. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of histological sections of hemangioma, hemangioma blood smears and blood plasma with vascular system pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of hemangioma nascency are determined.

  5. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  6. Multispectral image segmentation of breast pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornak, Joseph P.; Blaakman, Andre; Rubens, Deborah; Totterman, Saara

    1991-06-01

    The signal intensity in a magnetic resonance image is not only a function of imaging parameters but also of several intrinsic tissue properties. Therefore, unlike other medical imaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the imaging scientist to locate pathology using multispectral image segmentation. Multispectral image segmentation works best when orthogonal spectral regions are employed. In MRI, possible spectral regions are spin density (rho) , spin-lattice relaxation time T1, spin-spin relaxation time T2, and texture for each nucleus type and chemical shift. This study examines the ability of multispectral image segmentation to locate breast pathology using the total hydrogen T1, T2, and (rho) . The preliminary results indicate that our technique can locate cysts and fibroadenoma breast lesions with a minimum number of false-positives and false-negatives. Results, T1, T2, and (rho) algorithms, and segmentation techniques are presented.

  7. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  8. Blood-based biomarkers of microvascular pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ewers, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) is a genetically complex and chronically progressive neurodegenerative disorder with molecular mechanisms and neuropathologies centering around the amyloidogenic pathway, hyperphosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein, and neurofibrillary degeneration. While cerebrovascular changes have not been traditionally considered to be a central part of AD pathology, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that they may, in fact, be a characteristic feature of the AD brain as well. In particular, microvascular abnormalities within the brain have been associated with pathological AD hallmarks and may precede neurodegeneration. In vivo assessment of microvascular pathology provides a promising approach to develop useful biological markers for early detection and pathological characterization of AD. This review focuses on established blood-based biological marker candidates of microvascular pathology in AD. These candidates include plasma concentration of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) that are increased in AD. Measures of endothelial vasodilatory function including endothelin (ET-1), adrenomedullin (ADM), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), as well as sphingolipids are significantly altered in mild AD or during the predementia stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), suggesting sensitivity of these biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. In conclusion, the emerging clinical diagnostic evidence for the value of blood-based microvascular biomarkers in AD is promising, however, still requires validation in phase II and III diagnostic trials. Moreover, it is still unclear whether the described protein dysbalances are early or downstream pathological events and how the detected systemic microvascular alterations relate to cerebrovascular and neuronal pathologies in the AD brain.

  9. The Preliminary Report of Pathological Changes of Epiretinal Membranes and Internal Limiting Membrane Removed during Idiopathic Macular Hole Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaqing Li; Shibo Tang; Yan Luo; Jie Zhang; Shaofen Lin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the pathological changes of epiretinal membranes(ERM)and internal limiting membrane (ILM) removed during idiopathic macular hole surgery.Methods:Ten consecutive patients with a unilateral idiopathic macular hole underwent pars plana vitrectomy(PPV) with the surgical removal of the ERMs overlying the hole and ILM surrounding the hole. The pathological features of the excised tissues were examined under the microscope. Results:According to the morphological changes, four ERMs showed cellular elements which looked like glia cells, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibroblast cells. Two of the ILM appeared as transparent membranes without cellular elements. The other eight ILM showed cellular elements on the transparent membranes.Conclusion: Our study supports the hypothesis that the tangential traction of vitreous and proliferative cellular elements on the inner surface of ILM causes idiopathic macular holes. Removal of the posterior cortical vitreous, ILM and proliferative cellular tissue is a valid treatment for IMH.

  10. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...

  11. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  12. Pathologies sociales de la communication

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    La communication, dans sa généralité et dans la perspective des travaux récents de l'Ecole de Francfort, est généralement pensée comme solution à diverses pathologies sociales (isolement, malentendus réciproques, aliénation, etc.). Le présent article l'envisage comme un vecteur de pathologies spécifiques : anomie, censure, propagande, production d'idéologèmes divers. Peer reviewed

  13. [Copper pathology (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, B; Romette, J; Di Costanzo, J D

    1982-01-30

    Copper is an essential dietary component, being the coenzyme of many enzymes with oxidase activity, e.g. ceruloplasmin, superoxide dismutase, monoamine oxidase, etc. The metabolism of copper is complex and imperfectly known. Active transport of copper through the intestinal epithelial cells involves metallothionein, a protein rich in sulfhydryl groups which also binds the copper in excess and probably prevents absorption in toxic amounts. In hepatocytes a metallothionein facilitates absorption by a similar mechanism and regulates copper distribution in the liver: incorporation in an apoceruloplasmin, storage and synthesis of copper-dependent enzymes. Metallothioneins and ceruloplasmin are essential to adequate copper homeostasis. Apart from genetic disorders, diseases involving copper usually result from hypercupraemia of varied origin. Wilson's disease and Menkes' disease, although clinically and pathogenetically different, are both marked by low ceruloplasmin and copper serum levels. The excessive liver retention of copper in Wilson's disease might be due to increased avidity of hepatic metallothioneins for copper and decreased biliary excretion through lysosomal dysfunction. Menkes' disease might be due to low avidity of intestinal and hepatic metallothioneins for copper. The basic biochemical defect responsible for these two hereditary conditions has not yet been fully elucidated.

  14. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  15. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  16. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    concentration (median, 19 months versus 35 months; P <0.001. In addition, a similar result was observed in 194 early stage NSCLC (stage I -IIIA (P <0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of fibrinogen (FIB≥4.20 g/L, age, distant metastases and pathological types were positively associated with shorter overall survival (OS. 3 In addition, there was a significant link between the elevation by more than 15% in the plasma fibrinogen level after receiving short-term chemotherapy and shorter overall survival (OS. Conclusion: 1 This study shows high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with lymph nodes or distant organ metastases in lung cancer. 2 Furthermore, our results indicate a significant relevance between high pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen concentration and poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. 3 In addition, we find that the patients with a low plasma fibrinogen level will have a shorter OS if the plasma fibrinogen level increases significantly after receiving short-term chemotherapy. Interestingly, we also find that the patients with a high plasma fibrinogen level will have a longer OS if the plasma fibrinogen level decreases significantly after receiving short-term chemotherapy, which indicate the change of the plasma fibrinogen level after receiving short-term chemotherapy may be used as an independent prognostic factor.

  17. Forensic Pathology Education in Pathology Residency: A Survey of Current Practices, a Novel Curriculum, and Recommendations for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Amanda; Ross, Wayne K; Domen, Ronald E

    2017-01-01

    Forensic pathology is a fundamental part of anatomic pathology training during pathology residency. However, the lack of information on forensic teaching suggests the highly variable nature of forensic education. A survey of pathology residency program directors was performed to determine key aspects of their respective forensic rotations and curriculum. A total of 38.3% of programs from across the country responded, and the survey results show 5.6% don't require a forensic pathology rotation. In those that do, most forensic pathology rotations are 4 weeks long, are done at a medical examiner's office, and require set prerequisites. A total of 21.1% of responding programs have residents who are not receiving documented evaluations for this rotation. While 39.6% of programs have a defined forensics curriculum, as many as 15% do not. Furthermore, nearly 43% of programs place no limit on counting forensic autopsies when applying for pathology board examinations. Our survey confirmed the inconsistent nature of forensic pathology training in resident education. Additionally, our curriculum was reorganized to create a more robust educational experience. A pre- and post-forensic lecture quiz and Resident In-Service Examination scores were analyzed to determine our curriculum's impact and effectiveness. Analysis of our pre- and post-lecture quiz showed an improved overall average as well as an increase in Resident In-Service Examination scores, indicating improved general forensic pathology knowledge. Using this knowledge, along with changes in our curriculum, we generated a number of recommendations for improving forensic pathology education in pathology residency.

  18. Bone pathology inpsoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Badokin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study different variants of osteolysis in pts with psoriatic arthritis (PA and to reveal their relationship with other clinico-radiological features of joint damage. Material and methods. 370 pts with definite PA having different variants of joint damage were included. Radiological examination of bones and joints (in some cases large picture frame was performed. Morphological evaluation of synovial biopsies was done in 34 pts with PA and 10 pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Results. Different types of osteolysis were revealed in 80 (21,6% pts. Osteolytic variant of joint damage was present in 29 pts. 33 pts had acral, 48 — intra-articular osteolysis and 16 - true bone atrophy. Frequency and intensity of bone resorption were associated with severity of PA. Acral osteolysis correlated with arthritis of distal interphalangeal joints and onychodystrophy. Intra-articular osteolysis was most often present in distal interphalangeal joints of hands and metacarpophalangeal joints (39,6% and 41,7% respectively. Characteristic feature of PA was combination of prominent resorption with formation of bone ankylosis and periosteal reaction. Ankylosis was present in 33,3% of pts with intra-articular osteolysis and in 60% of pts with combination of different osteolysis variants. Systemic reaction of microcirculation in synovial biopsies was most prominent in osteolytic variant: marked thickening of capillary and venule basal membrane with high level of acid phosphatase, increased capillary and precapillary blood flow with stasis features, vascular lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, productive vasculitis with annular wall thickening, thrombovasculitis and villi deep layer sclerosis. Conclusion. Different variants of osteolysis show bone involvement in PA. Acral and intra- articular osteolysis association with bone ankylosis and periostitis proves their common pathogenetic entity.

  19. Acoustic analysis assessment in speech pathology detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panek Daria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic detection of voice pathologies enables non-invasive, low cost and objective assessments of the presence of disorders, as well as accelerating and improving the process of diagnosis and clinical treatment given to patients. In this work, a vector made up of 28 acoustic parameters is evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA, kernel principal component analysis (kPCA and an auto-associative neural network (NLPCA in four kinds of pathology detection (hyperfunctional dysphonia, functional dysphonia, laryngitis, vocal cord paralysis using the a, i and u vowels, spoken at a high, low and normal pitch. The results indicate that the kPCA and NLPCA methods can be considered a step towards pathology detection of the vocal folds. The results show that such an approach provides acceptable results for this purpose, with the best efficiency levels of around 100%. The study brings the most commonly used approaches to speech signal processing together and leads to a comparison of the machine learning methods determining the health status of the patient

  20. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism.

  1. Pathological gambling and couple: towards an integrative systemic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana; Relvas, Ana Paula

    2014-06-01

    This article is a critical literature review of pathological gambling focused in the family factors, particularly in the couple dynamics. Its main goal is to develop an explicative integrative systemic model of pathological gambling, based in these couple dynamics. To achieve that aim, a bibliography search was made, using on-line data bases (e.g., EBSCO Host) and recognized books in pathological gambling subject, as well as in the systemic approach in general. This process privileged the recent works (about 70 % of the reviewed literature was published in the last decade), however, also considered some classic works (the oldest one dates back to 1970). The guiding focus of this literature search evolves according to the following steps: (1) search of general comprehension of pathological gambling (19 references), (2) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and family" (24 references), (3) search specification to the subject "pathological gambling and couple"(11 references), (4) search of systemic information which integrates the evidence resulted in the previous steps (4 references). The developed model is constituted by different levels of systemic complexity (social context, family of origin, couple and individual) and explains the problem as a signal of perturbation in the marital subsystem vital functions (e.g., power and control) though the regularities of marital dynamics of pathological gamblers. Furthermore, it gives theoretical evidence of the systemic familiar intervention in the pathological gambling.

  2. Space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  3. No evidence for genome-wide interactions on plasma fibrinogen by smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index: results from meta-analyses of 80,607 subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Baumert

    Full Text Available Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2 × 10(-8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations.

  4. Mathematical Pathologies as Pathways into Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; Dickman, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the role of mathematical pathologies as a means of fostering creativity in the classroom is discussed. In particular, it delves into what constitutes a mathematical pathology, examines historical mathematical pathologies as well as pathologies in contemporary classrooms, and indicates how the Lakatosian heuristic can be used to…

  5. Pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Huang; Chun-Mei Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Xiao-Wen Dai; Li Fang; Jia-Ji Yang; Hua Yu; Jun Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma.METHODS: All tissues were obtained during surgery or gastroscopy. Tissue specimens for examination by light microscope were 1 cm×1 cm×1 cm in size, fixed in 40 g/L neutral buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The fresh tissues obtained for electron microscopy were 1 mm×1 mm×1 mm in size,and fixed in phosphate buffered 30 g/L glutaraldehyde,postfixed in 10 g/L osmium tetroxide and dehydrated in graded alcohol, embebbed in Epon 812. Ultrathin sections of 50 nm were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined under a JEM-2000 EX transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: The most important histopathological feature of leiomyoblastoma was the predominance of large, rounded or polygonal cells with characteristic perinuclear clear zone in cytoplasms. The tumor cells arranged in patch, cell junction or junctional complex could be found occasionally between cells under electron microscope. Most of the neoplastic cytoplasms were filled with myofilaments, dense bodies, and dense patches. Rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatated as lakes, and large quantities of protein secretions of intermediate electron density were found in the dilated cisternae. Intracisternal segregation could also be found.The nuclei were round or oval, and anomalous nuclei were found in part of cells.CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of gastric leiomyoblastoma can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The clear appearance of tumor cells is due to the dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, not fat droplets, glycogens or mucus in cytoplasm.

  6. Comparison of Test Results of HBsAg in Serum and Plasma by Automatic ELISA Analysis%血清与血浆中HBsAg在全自动酶免分析检测结果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小溪; 李筱涵; 郭晓东; 李波; 孙志强

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆取代血清检测乙肝标志物的检测结果以及临床意义.方法:选取我科检测乙肝标志物的血样30份,分别放在抗凝剂管和普通干燥试管,采用全自动酶免疫分析仪检测HBsAg,将检测结果进行OD及S/CO值统计处理,并进行比较分析.结果:血清与二种血浆检测结果相关系数均0.99,二种血浆与血清结果相关关系良好(P>0.0 5),无显著性差异.结论:血浆代替血清完全可以用于全自动酶标分析仪进行检测,既可以节省预处理时间,又可以减少标本在分离吸移血清过程中出现差错,值得临床推广和应用.%Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the plasma instead of the serum in the detection ofHBV markers.Methods: A total of 30 blood samples were selected and detected HbsAg by automatic enzyme immunoassay analyzer, The test results were statistically treated and comparatively analyzed. Results: Serum and plasma results of two correlation coefficients were 0.99, two kinds of relationship between plasma and serum results well (P>0.05), no significant difference. Conclusion: Plasma instead of serum enzyme fully automated analyzer can be used to detect both pre-save time and reduce the serum specimens in the process of separation pipette errors and is worthy of promotion and application.

  7. SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING DENTAL PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic R. Milan; Andjelic S. Gordana; Knezevic M. Milena

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective overview of systemic disorders which might be associated with dental pathology is made. They are grouped as follows: (a) congenital dental developmental disorders, (b) chromosomal anomalies, (c) radiations, (d) immune disorders, (e) intoxications, (f) neurological alterations, (g) gastrointestinal diseases, (h) osteodystrophy and associated conditions, (i) skin diseases, (j) metabolic and endocrine disorders, (k) craniofacial malformation syndromes and other congenital g...

  8. Giving your heart to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Jim

    2015-10-17

    Jim KIaassen recently joined Axiom Veterinary Laboratories as a clinical pathologist. During his career, Dr Klaassen has worked in small animal practice, lectured in clinical pathology, undertaken preclinical research and held senior roles in commercial veterinary laboratories in the USA, including as chief medical officer of Antech Diagnostics.

  9. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Clinical and experimental pathology of Moyamoya disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶明俐; 张海鸥; 刘群; 张淑琴; 胡林森; 邓方

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology, pathology, and mechanism of pathogenesis of Moyamoya disease.Methods A total of 15 human autopsies were analyzed. In addition, in order to create an animal model of the disease, 21 Japanese rabbits were divided randomly into two groups and subjected to injections of horse serum either intravenously or locally in the area of the sympathetic ganglia. Pathological and immunohistochemical characteristics were observed.Results The pathological features of the autopsies and the animal models both involved intima hyperplasia and stenosis or even occlusion of the lumen in the terminal ends of the internal carotid artery and the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Disconnections or even breakages of the inner layer of the lumen were also observed, without an obvious inflammatory response. Hyperplasic smooth muscle cells of the medial membrane had extended inward through broken portions of the internal elastic lamina, with intima cell hyperplasia resulting in lumen stenosis. The hyperplastic vascular walls were positive for IgG and IgM.Conclusions The etiology of Moyamoya disease may involve allergic angiitis. A possible mechanism is that proximal portions of the circle of Willis first develop chronic stenosis or occlusion, leading to compensatory small vessel proliferation, which perforates into the cerebral parenchyma.

  12. Pathological conditions associated with rhinitis medicamentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dušanka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinitis medicamentosa (nose-drop-nose" is a term used for pathological condition of the nasal mucous membrane that results from long-term abuse with intranasal vasoconstrictors. The aim of this work was to examine what lead the patients with nosedropnose rhinitis to the initial usage of intranasal vasoactive drugs, in this prospective study, 92 patients with rhinitis medicamentosa were included. The evaluation of all study subjects comprised the history, ORL, microbiological and radiological examination, skin prick tests with a battery of routine respiratory and nutritive allergens and nasal cytology. The results of this study showed that the pathological conditions for initial use of intranasal vasoactive drugs were: acute upper respiratory infections in 293%, vasomotor rhinitis in 21.7%, allergic rhinitis in 16.3%, deviated nasal septum in 13.0%, nasal polyposis in 12%, rhinitis induced by mechanical trauma in 4.4%, and hormonal rhinitis in 3.3% of patients with rhinitis medicamentosa. In conclusion, the most common pathological conditions for developing rhinitis medicamentosa were chronic inflammatory and structural diseases manifested by permanent nasal obstruction as well as acute upper respiratory infections are.

  13. Tripartite motif 32 prevents pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Huang, Jia; Ji, Yanxiao; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wang, Pixiao; Deng, Keqiong; Jiang, Xi; Ma, Genshan; Li, Hongliang

    2016-05-01

    TRIM32 (tripartite motif 32) is widely accepted to be an E3 ligase that interacts with and eventually ubiquitylates multiple substrates. TRIM32 mutants have been associated with LGMD-2H (limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H). However, whether TRIM32 is involved in cardiac hypertrophy induced by biomechanical stresses and neurohumoral mediators remains unclear. We generated mice and isolated NRCMs (neonatal rat cardiomyocytes) that overexpressed or were deficient in TRIM32 to investigate the effect of TRIM32 on AB (aortic banding) or AngII (angiotensin II)-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiography and both pathological and molecular analyses were used to determine the extent of cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent fibrosis. Our results showed that overexpression of TRIM32 in the heart significantly alleviated the hypertrophic response induced by pressure overload, whereas TRIM32 deficiency dramatically aggravated pathological cardiac remodelling. Similar results were also found in cultured NRCMs incubated with AngII. Mechanistically, the present study suggests that TRIM32 exerts cardioprotective action by interruption of Akt- but not MAPK (mitogen-dependent protein kinase)-dependent signalling pathways. Additionally, inactivation of Akt by LY294002 offset the exacerbated hypertrophic response induced by AB in TRIM32-deficient mice. In conclusion, the present study indicates that TRIM32 plays a protective role in AB-induced pathological cardiac remodelling by blocking Akt-dependent signalling. Therefore TRIM32 could be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Resultados do controle de qualidade de produtos hemoderivados: análise sanitária Results of quality control of plasma derivatives products: sanitary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa C. Adati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde - INCQS, unidade técnico-científica da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz, desempenha seu papel no controle de qualidade pericial, de bens e serviços sujeitos ao regime de Vigilância Sanitária, em particular medicamentos denominados de hemoderivados. Este trabalho fundamentou-se na análise de 3.100 lotes de hemoderivados, no período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2004, assim distribuídos: 31,6% (n=980 de albumina humana, 28,7% (n=890 de fator VIII, 21,4% (n=662 de imunoglobulina humana, 8,3% (n=257 de fator IX, 7,1% (n=220 de imunoglobulinas específicas como anti-Rho (D, antitetânica, anti-rábica, anti-Hepatite B e antivaricela zoster e 2,9% (n=91 de complexo protrombínico. As amostras foram recebidas para análise oriundas dos segmentos: portos, aeroportos e fronteiras de Brasília, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo e de apreensões realizadas pelos estados de Pernambuco, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro e Rio Grande do Sul. Quanto à modalidade de análise: 92,3% correspondem à análise controle, 5,9% fiscal, 1,4% orientação e 0,4% análise prévia. Da internalização dos hemoderivados importados: 40,0% ocorreram pelo aeroporto de Brasília, 26,9% por São Paulo e 25,2% pelo Rio de Janeiro. Concluindo, dos lotes de hemoderivados analisados, 99,1% apresentaram resultados satisfatórios e 0,9% foram insatisfatórios quanto ao ensaio de inspeção visual, solubilidade, ensaio de estabilidade e químico, e quanto ao teste de pirogênio e toxicidade inespecífica. Desta forma, monitorar a qualidade dos produtos hemoderivados é um instrumento fundamental no exercício das ações de Vigilância Sanitária.The technical scientific unit of the National Institute of Quality Control in Health (INCQS, part of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, has a role of investigational quality control of products and services related to health surveillance, in particular medicines denominated plasma

  15. Pathology smorgasboard: Biocontrol, pathogen movement, and recent fumigation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on soilborne pathogens, disease control, and new forest diseases of interest were presented at the Western Forest and Conservation Nursery Association meeting in 2016. Research topics included reduced-rate soil fumigation, Pythium diversity and biocontrol, pathogen movement among nurseries,...

  16. Dementia Resulting from Traumatic Brain Injury: What Is the Pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    asymmetric pyramidal lesions, and disequilibrium to severe disability with ataxias , rigidity, tremor, and demen- tia. Of the 224 former boxers examined, 37...453-463. 46. Ruff RL, Ruff SS, Wang X-F. Neurological deficits and post-traumatic stress dis- order (PTSD) are related to the number of episodes of

  17. Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1998-09-14

    OAK B188 Plasma Colloquium Travel Grant Program. The purpose of the Travel Grant Program is to increase the awareness of plasma research. The new results and techniques of plasma research in fusion plasmas, plasma processing space plasmas, basic plasma science, etc, have broad applicability throughout science. The benefits of these results are limited by the relatively low awareness and appreciation of plasma research in the larger scientific community. Whereas spontaneous interactions between plasma scientists and other scientists are useful, a focused effort in education and outreach to other scientists is efficient and is needed. The academic scientific community is the initial focus of this effort, since that permits access to a broad cross-section of scientists and future scientists including undergraduates, graduate students, faculty, and research staff.

  18. Pathological study of female reproductive organs of local zebus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pathological study of female reproductive organs of local zebus in Adamawa Region. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... Results of this study indicated that lesions of the female reproductive system represent a significant ...

  19. Stroboscopy for benign laryngeal pathology in evidence based health care

    OpenAIRE

    Printza, A; Triaridis, S; Themelis, C; Constantinidis, J

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Voice disorders are common. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of stroboscopy for voice disorders related with benign pathology and apply results in evidence based health care.

  20. Quantitative analysis of pathological nails using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, S; Khleifia, R; Jaïdane, N; Ben Lakhdar, Z

    2011-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used as a potential method for simultaneous measurement of the elements Ca, Na, and K, for normal and pathological nails. We compared the measured LIBS spectra of these elements for normal and pathological nails. The B²∑+ --> X²∑+ violet band emission spectrum of CN was used for the estimation of the transient temperature of the plasma plume and consequently of the sample surface considering thermodynamic equilibrium.

  1. Plasma lipidomics discloses metabolic syndrome with a specific HDL phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Cabré, Rosanna; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. In this study, we have performed an in-depth lipidomic analysis of human plasma from healthy individuals and subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to determine the lipidomic profile that allows prognosis of a pathological subpopulation with altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The MetS population was categorized as having pathological or nonpathological HDL. Anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk markers, and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and low-density lipoproteins were also evaluated. Lipidomic analysis revealed 357 differential molecules that were clustered (k means) in the two groups. The molecules identified in the whole lipidome showed that MetS subjects presented lower levels of glycerolipids and higher levels of glycerophospholipids with respect to control subjects. In contrast, when only statistically differential lipids were taken into account, differences were found between the two groups in almost cases. Furthermore, levels of saturated fatty acids were higher in patients with pathological HDL levels than in controls, whereas levels of unsaturated fatty acids were lower. These results highlight the potential of lipidomics as a clinical tool for risk assessment and monitoring of disease.

  2. Use of contextual inquiry to understand anatomic pathology workflow: Implications for digital pathology adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhan Ho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For decades anatomic pathology (AP workflow have been a highly manual process based on the use of an optical microscope and glass slides. Recent innovations in scanning and digitizing of entire glass slides are accelerating a move toward widespread adoption and implementation of a workflow based on digital slides and their supporting information management software. To support the design of digital pathology systems and ensure their adoption into pathology practice, the needs of the main users within the AP workflow, the pathologists, should be identified. Contextual inquiry is a qualitative, user-centered, social method designed to identify and understand users′ needs and is utilized for collecting, interpreting, and aggregating in-detail aspects of work. Objective: Contextual inquiry was utilized to document current AP workflow, identify processes that may benefit from the introduction of digital pathology systems, and establish design requirements for digital pathology systems that will meet pathologists′ needs. Materials and Methods: Pathologists were observed and interviewed at a large academic medical center according to contextual inquiry guidelines established by Holtzblatt et al. 1998. Notes representing user-provided data were documented during observation sessions. An affinity diagram, a hierarchal organization of the notes based on common themes in the data, was created. Five graphical models were developed to help visualize the data including sequence, flow, artifact, physical, and cultural models. Results: A total of six pathologists were observed by a team of two researchers. A total of 254 affinity notes were documented and organized using a system based on topical hierarchy, including 75 third-level, 24 second-level, and five main-level categories, including technology, communication, synthesis/preparation, organization, and workflow. Current AP workflow was labor intensive and lacked scalability. A large number

  3. Shear and Bulk Viscosities of a Weakly Coupled Quark Gluon Plasma with Finite Chemical Potential and Temperature---Leading-Log Results

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Song, Yu-Kun; Wang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the shear (eta) and bulk (zeta) viscosities of a weakly coupled quark gluon plasma at the leading-log order with finite temperature T and quark chemical potential mu. We find that the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s increases monotonically with mu and eventually scales as (mu/T)^2 at large mu. In contrary, zeta/s is insensitive to mu. Both eta/s and zeta/s are monotonically decreasing functions of the quark flavor number N_f when N_f \\geq 2. This property is also observed in pion gas systems. Our perturbative calculation suggests that QCD becomes the most perfect (i.e. with the smallest eta/s) at mu=0 and N_f = 16 (the maximum N_f with asymptotic freedom). It would be interesting to test whether the currently smallest eta/s computed close to the phase transition with mu=0 and N_f = 0 can be further reduced by increasing N_f.

  4. Spatial and temporal variations of small-scale plasma turbulence parameters in the equatorial electrojet: HF and VHF radar observational results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Manju

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of various parameters associated with plasma wave turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ at the magnetic equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E; dip 0.5° N are studied for the first time, using co-located HF (18MHz and VHF (54.95MHz coherent backscatter radar observations (daytime in the altitude region of 95-110km, mostly on magnetically quiet days. The derived turbulence parameters are the mean electron density irregularity strength (δn/n, anomalous electron collision frequency (νe* and the corrected east-west electron drift velocity (Vey. The validity of the derived parameters is confirmed using radar data at two different frequencies and comparing with in-situ measurements. The behaviour of δn/n in relation to the backscattered power during weak and strong EEJ conditions is also examined to understand the growth and evolution of turbulence in the electrojet.

  5. The loss of plasma membrane lysopip and an increase of PIP sub 2 result from treatment of carrot cells with fungal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The plasma membranes of carrot cells grown in suspension culture are enriched with PIP, lysoPIP, and PIP{sub 2}. To determine whether or not these lipids are involved in signal transduction, we have challenged the cells with a mixture of fungal cellulases, Driselase, and monitored the changes in the phosphoinositides and in the phosphoinositide kinase activity. With cell prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol, two major changes are observed: (1) lysoPIP decreases 30% compared to the sorbitol control and (2) PIP{sub 2} doubles. There is no increase in IP, IP{sub 2}, or IP{sub 3}. In vitro phosphorylation studies using ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicate that the increase in PIP{sub 2} is due in part to activation of the PIP kinase. These data suggest that the role of the polyphosphoinositides in signal transduction in plants may involve activation of the PIP kinase and/or activation of A type phospholipases rather than C type phospholipases.

  6. Plasma flow in peripheral region of detached plasma in linear plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    A plasma flow structure is investigated using a Mach probe under detached plasma condition in a linear plasma device NAGDIS-II. A reverse flow along the magnetic field is observed in a steady-state at far-peripheral region of the plasma column in the upstream side from the recombination front. These experimental results indicate that plasma near the recombination front should strongly diffuse across the magnetic field, and it should be transported along the magnetic field in the reverse flow direction. Furthermore, bursty plasma density fluctuations associated with intermittent convective plasma transport are observed in the far-peripheral region of the plasma column in both upstream and downstream sides from the recombination front. Such a nondiffusive transport can contribute to the intermittent reverse plasma flow, and the experimental results indicate that intermittent transports are frequently produced near the recombination front.

  7. Interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism: a social relations analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowitsky, Mark R; Pincus, Aaron L

    2013-01-01

    Impairments in self and interpersonal functioning are core features of personality pathology. Clinical theory and research indicate that compromised self-awareness and distorted interpersonal perceptions are particularly prominent in individuals exhibiting pathological narcissism and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Therefore we conducted a study to gain a better understanding of interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. A large sample (N=437) of moderately acquainted individuals assigned to 1 of 93 small mixed-sex groups completed self- and informant ratings on the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) in a round-robin design. The social relations model (SRM) was used to partition the variance in dyadic ratings to investigate several hypotheses about interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. SRM analyses demonstrated evidence of assimilation (the tendency to perceive and rate others similarly) and consensus (the extent to which multiple observers form similar impressions of another person) in interpersonal perception of pathological narcissism. Results also indicated modest self-other agreement and assumed similarity (the tendency for people to perceive others as similar to themselves) for PNI higher order factors and subscale ratings. Finally, results suggested that individuals high in pathological narcissism had some awareness of how peers would rate them (metaperception) but believed that others would rate them similarly to how they rated themselves.

  8. Switch Function and Pathological Dissociation in Acute Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-De Chiu

    Full Text Available Swift switching, along with atypical ability on updating and inhibition, has been found in non-clinical dissociators. However, whether swift switching is a cognitive endophenotype that intertwines with traumatisation and pathological dissociation remains unknown. Unspecified acute psychiatric patients were recruited to verify a hypothesis that pathological dissociation is associated with swift switching and traumatisation may explain this relationship. Behavioural measures of intellectual function and three executive functions including updating, switching and inhibition were administered, together with standardised scales to evaluate pathological dissociation and traumatisation. Our results showed superior control ability on switching and updating in inpatients who displayed more symptoms of pathological dissociation. When all three executive functions were entered as predictors, in addition to intellectual quotient and demographic variables to regress upon pathological dissociation, switching rather than updating remained the significant predictor. Importantly, the relationship between pathological dissociation and switching became non-significant when the effect of childhood trauma were controlled. The results support a trauma-related switching hypothesis which postulates swift switching as a cognitive endophenotype of pathological dissociation; traumatisation in childhood may explain the importance of swift switching.

  9. Statistical analysis of polarizing maps of blood plasma laser images for the diagnostics of malignant formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  10. The singular approach for processing polarization-inhomogeneous laser images of blood plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, P. O.; Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.; Bodnar, G. B.; Koval, G.; Trifonyuk, L.

    2013-04-01

    We present in this work the results of an investigation to analyse the coordinate distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization (polarization maps) in laser images of blood plasma layers for three groups of patients: healthy (group 1), mastopathy (group 2) and breast cancer (group 3). To characterize polarization maps for all groups of samples we use three groups of parameters: statistical moments of the first to fourth orders, autocorrelation functions and logarithmic dependences for power spectra related to distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization inherent to laser images of blood plasma. We ascertain the criteria for diagnosis and differentiation of pathological changes of the breast.

  11. Thorax thermographic simulator for breast pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel A. Avila-Castro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New diagnostic techniques for breast cancer detection have been developed and improved, in order to increase patient life expectancy. These techniques were emphasized in early detection of tumors with smaller dimensions, providing a better prognosis. Along with these new methods, it is necessary to propose training devices or tools to support health professionals to use them and rely on them. Our purpose is to develop a device to support thermographic analyses for early breast pathology detection. A programmable thorax was developed with the aim of simulating hyperthermic characteristics of breast pathologies in a defined area. Temperature distributions of breast tissue with a cancerous lesion were mathematically modeled using Pennes's equation, and a thermo-visual control system was built within the physical model in order to simulate a local thermal pattern of a patient's thermal image with infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Our results showed a good approximation of simulated thermal patterns to real images from a patient. In consequence we archived to obtain a thorax simulator device as first step in training health professionals in thermography techniques and to impulse the use of this method for early detection of breast pathologies.

  12. Talc pneumoconiosis: a pathologic and mineralogic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, A E; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Mitha, R; Craighead, J E; Ruttner, J R

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen cases of "talc pneumoconiosis" were examined pathologically and mineralogically to ascertain whether a true talc pneumoconiosis existed and also to compare these results in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures. Mineralogic analyses were performed on wet tissue or tissue blocks by a variety of techniques, including analytical transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Overall, the pathologic appearance of the tissues was similar in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures, although ferruginous bodies and foreign body giant cells were not always present in cases caused by secondary exposures. Mixed dust fibrotic lesions were found in two cases in which there were substantial quantities of quartz present. There was great variation in the minerals found within the lung tissues. Several cases showed significant quantities of mica and kaolin in addition to talc. One case consisted predominantly of mica and in fact could be regarded as "mica pneumoconiosis"; this diagnosis was correctly attributed because of the mineralogic findings. Tremolite fibers were found in only two cases. Substantial quantities of crocidolite and amosite fibers were found in one case. This study shows that "talcosis" frequently represents disease associated with a variety of minerals and that talc is a common denominator. It shows also the usefulness of lung dust mineral analysis, particularly in secondary industries, for evaluating the cause of a pathologic reaction when exposures are especially complex.

  13. Pathological study on severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎振为; 张立洁; 张世杰; 孟忻; 李俊强; 宋晨朝; 孙琳; 周育森

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the pathological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and its relationship to clinical manifestation. Methods Tissue specimens from 3 autopsies of probable SARS cases were studied by microscope, and the clinical data was reviewed.Results The typical pathological changes of lungs were diffuse hemorrhaging on the surface. A combination of serous, fibrinous and hemorrhagic inflammation was seen in most of the pulmonary alveoli with the engorgement of capillaries and detection of micro-thrombosis in some of these capillaries. Pulmonary alveoli thickened with interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates, suffered diffuse alveolar damage, experienced desquamation of pneumocytes and had hyaline-membrane formation, fibrinoid materials, and erythrocytes in alveolar spaces. There were thromboembolisms in some bronchial arteries. Furthermore, hemorrhagic necrosis was also evident in lymph nodes and spleen with the attenuation of lymphocytes. Other atypical pathological changes, such as hydropic degeneration, fatty degeneration, interstitial cell proliferation and lesions having existed before hospitalization were observed in the liver, heart, kidney and pancreas.Conclusion Severe damage to the pulmonary and immunological systems is responsible for the clinical features of SARS and may lead to the death of patients.

  14. Unexpected cellular players in Rett syndrome pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, James C; Derecki, Noel C; Litvak, Vladimir; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Rett syndrome is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily caused by mutations of methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Although the genetic cause of disease was identified over a decade ago, a significant gap still remains in both our clinical and scientific understanding of its pathogenesis. Neurons are known to be primary players in pathology, with their dysfunction being the key in Rett syndrome. While studies in mice have demonstrated a clear causative - and potential therapeutic - role for neurons in Rett syndrome, recent work has suggested that other tissues also contribute significantly to progression of the disease. Indeed, Rett syndrome is known to present with several common peripheral pathologies, such as osteopenia, scoliosis, gastrointestinal problems including nutritional defects, and general growth deficit. Mouse models assessing the potential role of non-neuronal cell types have confirmed both roles in disease and potential therapeutic targets. A new picture is emerging in which neurons both initiate and drive pathology, while dysfunction of other cell types and peripheral tissues exacerbate disease, possibly amplifying further neurologic problems, and ultimately result in a positive feedback loop of progressively worsening symptoms. Here, we review what is known about neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, and discuss how this new, integrative understanding of the disease may allow for additional clinical and scientific pathways for treating and understanding Rett syndrome.

  15. Clinical pathology services: remapping our strategic itinerary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckaert, Norbert

    2010-07-01

    Both technological advances and economic drivers have led to major changes in clinical laboratories across the world, with vastly improved testing productivity. However, the production process capability advances have far outpaced the clinical pathologists' success in assuring optimal test utilization and interpretation. While productivity of 'commodity' testing increases, our healthcare value productivity decreases. Such developments constitute a serious threat to our clinical pathology specialty, not only because pathologists may lose direct control of the commodity testing production activities, but also because the present evolution exposes a failure of our core clinical activities, the pathologist's knowledge processes that translate 'commodity' results into medical outcomes optimization. At a time when a revolution in health care organization is inescapable in the years ahead, clinical pathology must proceed from a merely reactive strategy (to fulfill the 'more with less' demands) to a proactive strategy where we build excellence and visibility in knowledge services on a strong foothold of operational excellence. Based on a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats analysis, we argue that clinical pathology should safeguard and expand its healthcare value productivity by assuming leadership in building integrated laboratory services networks. We also suggest that the core knowledge processes deserve a system approach, for example, by applying a risk-based quality management system.

  16. Pathology Laboratories Productivity Evaluation in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutsal YÖRÜKOĞLU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Efficiency criteria and automation in pathology laboratories have been set in a limited number of studies usually originated from the United States. A questionnaire has been prepared to determine the situation and define the criteria for adaptation in our country.Material and Method: The survey was sent to all pathology laboratories and, 302 responded. The survey questionned of pathology laboratories efficiencies, staff workloads, methods applied, devices used, and physical conditions. Work flow productivity was obtained by dividing the annual number of blocks to working hours multiplied by the number of technicians. The hospitals were categorized to 3 groups according to providing training or not and privacy, and to 4 groups according to the annual biopsy numbers. The data entered through the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program, analysis of distribution criteria, significance of the difference between means tests were used.Results: The annual biopsy numbers were significantly higher in education units, but below the limit of productivity levels for all laboratories. The device hardware and automation correlated with annual biopsy numbers. However, the laboratories of limited capacity have redundant automation. Histochemical and immunohistochemical staining numbers were high. Liquid-based cytology techniques were used more significantly in private hospitals. Archiving times were not standard. A serious shortage of working space in service hospitals was noted. Work flow productivity in education units was at the border, and low in other units.Conclusion: All pathology laboratories in our country should define and improve their productivities. Formalizing of archiving times is very important for future malpractice lawsuits.

  17. Lingual tonsil hypertrophy causing severe dysphagia: treatment with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Sarah E; Ament, Marvin; Shapiro, Nina L

    2010-03-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy is an uncommon cause of upper aerodigestive tract pathology. We present the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed severe dysphagia and subsequent weight loss as a result of lingual tonsil hypertrophy. He was successfully treated with plasma-mediated radiofrequency-based ablation (Coblation). In the past, traditional surgical procedures for lingual tonsil hypertrophy were difficult to perform and recovery was difficult, but the introduction of Coblation has made lingual tonsillectomy much easier.

  18. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  19. Repair of Segmental Load-Bearing Bone Defect by Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Plasma-Derived Fibrin Impregnated Ceramic Block Results in Early Recovery of Limb Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO. Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32, MIC (1.28 ± 0.24, and negative controls (0. Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1% compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5% and MIC (26% ± 5.2%. Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa. In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  20. Results of high heat flux testing of W/CuCrZr multilayer composites with percolating microstructure for plasma-facing components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greuner, Henri, E-mail: henri.greuner@ipp.mpg.de; Zivelonghi, Alessandro; Böswirth, Bernd; You, Jeong-Ha

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Improvement of the performance of plasma-facing components made of W and CuCrZr. • Functionally graded composite at the interface of W and CuCrZr to mitigate the CTE. • A three-layer composite system (W volume fraction: 70/50/30%) was developed. • Design of water-cooled divertor components up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} heat load for e.g. DEMO. • HHF tests up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} were successfully performed. - Abstract: Reliable joining of tungsten to copper is a major issue in the design of water-cooled divertor components for future fusion reactors. One of the suggested advanced engineering solutions is to use functionally graded composite interlayers. Recently, the authors have developed a novel processing route for fabricating multi-layer graded W/CuCrZr composites. Previous characterization confirmed that the composite materials possess enhanced strength compared to the matrix alloy and shows reasonable ductility up to 300 °C indicating large potential to extend the operation temperature limit. Furthermore, a three-layer composite system (W volume fraction: 70/50/30%) was developed as a graded interlayer between the W armour and CuCrZr heat sink. In this study, we investigated the structural performance of the graded joint. Three water-cooled mock-ups of a flat tile type component were fabricated using electron beam welding and thermally loaded at the hydrogen neutral beam test facility GLADIS. Cycling tests at 10 MW/m{sup 2} and screening tests up to 20 MW/m{sup 2} were successfully performed and confirmed the expected thermal performance of the compound. The measured temperature values were in good agreement with the prediction of finite element analysis. Microscopic investigation confirmed the structural integrity of the newly developed functionally graded composite after these tests.

  1. Pathological Gambling in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Linnet, Jakob; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer

    Pathological Gambling in Parkinson’s Disease Mette Buhl Callesen, Jakob Linnet, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Albert Gjedde, Arne Møller PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital and Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University.   The neurotransmitter dopamine is central to many...... aspects of human functioning, e.g., reward, learning, and addiction, including Pathological Gambling (PG), and its loss is key to Parkinson’s Disease (PD). PD is a neurodegenrative disorder caused by progressive loss of dopamine-producing cells in the midbrain [1]. One type of treatment of PD symptoms...... is medication that binds to dopamine receptors in the brain, i.e., dopamine agonists [1]. Unfortunately, for some PD patients a very serious side effect to this specific kind of treatment is developing PG. PG is an Impulse Control Disorder characterized by recurrent maladaptive behavior associated with personal...

  2. Innovations in teaching plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G L

    2003-01-01

    The teaching environment for plant pathology is changing in both positive and negative ways. Teaching expectations are increasing and resources are decreasing, but recent educational research and instructional technology offer new approaches to meet these challenges. Plant pathologists are teaching courses that may attract new students to the discipline or at least improve agricultural awareness. The Internet offers rapid access to information and images for both students and instructors. Instructional technology provides new tools for classroom presentations, communication with students, reaching new audiences, and distance learning, but using these new tools to enhance learning requires skilled and creative instructors. In the past, many plant pathology instructors worked in relative isolation, but new communication technologies and publishing opportunities for teaching scholarship should improve the sharing of instructional resources and methods.

  3. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  4. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment.

  5. Pathological fear of cot death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weightman, H; Dalal, B M; Brockington, I F

    1998-01-01

    Cot death (sudden infant death syndrome) is one of the most common causes of death in the first year of life. Four cases with a pathological fear of cot death are presented. All the patients were depressed and in 2 cases the fear of cot death had an obsessional quality. In all cases there were complications during pregnancy (miscarriage, threatened abortion, recurrent vomiting in last trimester). In 1 case, the patient knew 3 mothers who had suffered cot deaths; in another, the infant was gravely ill in the neonatal period. Pathological fear of cot death can be recognised by the presence of two central features - overvigilance and excessive nocturnal checking of the baby's breathing. Therapeutic interventions are discussed.

  6. Informational pathologies and interest bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt

    2017-01-01

    This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....

  7. Canine and feline oral pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, S.; Pais, B.; Almeida, D.; Simões, J.; Mega, A. C.; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to present a brief review of the main conditions affecting the oral cavity of dogs and cats. In recent years there has been increased attention with regard to veterinary dentistry, being several and frequent the pathologies located in the oral cavity of our pets. These diseases mainly affect the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, and may, in chronic cases, also affect vital organs. This condition could have different causes, including hereditary, conge...

  8. [The normal and the pathological].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, B

    1995-12-10

    The main problem of modern health care is to express its goals and its limits. To do this it is necessary to answer the fundamental question: what is normal and what is pathological? The French physician and philosopher Georges Canguilhem has tried to answer this question. He claims that for medicine, the difference between these fundamentals is determined by normativity and not by science. In doing this he wishes to save the autonomy of the individual patient and to delimit medicine from science.

  9. Optical properties of cluster plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Downer, M.C.

    1998-03-01

    It is shown that unlike a gas plasma or an electron plasma in a metal, an ionized clustered material (`cluster plasma`) permits propagation below the plasma cut-off of electromagnetic (EM) waves whose phase velocity is close to but below the speed of light. This results from the excitation of a plasma oscillation mode (and/or polarization mode) through the cluster surface which does not exist in usual gaseous plasma. The existence of this new optical mode, cluster mode, is confirmed via numerical simulation. (author)

  10. Overview of the HUPO Plasma Proteome Project: Results from the pilot phase with 35 collaborating laboratories and multiple analytical groups, generating a core dataset of 3020 proteins and a publicly-available database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omenn, Gilbert; States, David J.; Adamski, Marcin; Blackwell, Thomas W.; Menon, Rajasree; Hermjakob, Henning; Apweiler, Rolf; Haab, Brian B.; Simpson, Richard; Eddes, James; Kapp, Eugene; Moritz, Rod; Chan, Daniel W.; Rai, Alex J.; Admon, Arie; Aebersold, Ruedi; Eng, Jimmy K.; Hancock, William S.; Hefta, Stanley A.; Meyer, Helmut; Paik, Young-Ki; Yoo, Jong-Shin; Ping, Peipei; Pounds, Joel G.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Qian, Xiaohong; Wang, Rong; Wasinger, Valerie; Wu, Chi Yue; Zhao, Xiaohang; Zeng, Rong; Archakov, Alexander; Tsugita, Akira; Beer, Ilan; Pandey, Akhilesh; Pisano, Michael; Andrews, Philip; Tammen, Harald; Speicher, David W.; Hanash, Samir M.

    2005-08-13

    . These PPP results on complexity, dynamic range, incomplete sampling, false-positive matches, and integration of diverse datasets for plasma and serum proteins lay a foundation for development and validation of circulating protein biomarkers in health and disease.

  11. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed.

  12. Fellowship training in pediatric pathology: a guide for program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Raja M; Somers, Gino R; Comstock, Jessica M; Buchino, John J; Timmons, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has provided guidance for specialty and subspecialty fellowship training programs by defining 6 core competencies that must be met. Furthermore, the ACGME has defined several program requirements for pathology training, including those applicable to several pathology subspecialties. However, the requirements are broad and lack specific details, particularly as they pertain to the unique nature of pediatric pathology. The Fellowship Committee of the Society for Pediatric Pathology examined the ACGME requirements and interpreted the guidelines with respect to their application to training in pediatric pathology. The Committee worked within the ACGME guidelines to provide an expanded and more comprehensive set of guidelines for use by pediatric pathology fellowship directors and trainees. The resultant document lists the educational goals, core competencies, and program requirements with specific application to pediatric pathology. In addition, methods for assessing and documenting the progress of the individual trainees as they progress through each requirement are provided. It is to be emphasized that many of the guidelines set forthwith are flexible, and allowances should be made for individual differences of each training program.

  13. Accuracy of Physical Examination in Distinguish Pathologic Murmur of non Pathologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Tanasan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Cardiac auscultation is one of the most useful investigative tools that the physician may use at the bedside to detect alterations in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology. However, the sensitivity and specificity vary substantially with the expertise of the examiner. The aim of this study comparing the initial evaluations of heart murmurs in neonates between neonatologist and pediatric cardiologist. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 108 neonates admitted in Be’sat and Fatemieh Hospitals of Hamadan, Iran, in 2010. First, a neonatologist recorded their clinical evaluation (Pathologic, Likely pathologic, Innocent. Then, a Pediatric cardiologist recorded the infants’ clinical evaluation. Finally, echocardiography study was performed by the cardiologists for final diagnosis. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 16 and the using Chi-square. Results: In this study, 67 patients (62% had pathologic murmur. Clinical findings of pathological murmur by neonatologist and cardiologist are 98% sensitivity versus 87/2% 84/2% specificity vs. 100% 94/1% the positive predictive value vs. 100% and 94% negative predictive value vs. 85.4%, respectively. Conclusion: Evaluations of examination show no significant difference between neonatologists and cardiologists. Hence, echocardiography is the standard for establishing the cause of murmur. Key words: Murmur, Echocardiogram, Physical Examination

  14. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351

  15. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  16. 7 Tesla MRI demonstrates vascular pathology in Balo's concentric sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, M; Schlamann, M U; Maderwald, S; Grams, A E; Kaps, M; Ladd, M E; Gizewski, E R

    2013-01-01

    Baló's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease related to multiple sclerosis; its underlying pathology remains unclear. At 7 T MRI in a 19-year-old female BCS patient, microhaemorrhages and ectatic veins were found in T2 hyperintense regions, features which have not been previously reported in conjunction with BCS, and these findings may support the view that vascular pathology plays a role in BCS. MRS data suggest that neuron loss and lipid turnover still took place months after a remission. Plasma exchange was effective in treating a relapse with severe motor deficits, and the off-label use of natalizumab was successful in maintaining remission in this patient.

  17. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J.; Kane, Robert T.; Rees, Clare S

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on...

  18. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Linah Wafai; Aladin Zayegh; John Woulfe; Syed Mahfuzul Aziz; Rezaul Begg

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standar...

  19. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  20. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  1. Extensive renovation the pathology of heritage buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures.......The pathology of heritage buildings is often related to renovation initiatives typically initiated by implementing energy savings measures....

  2. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  3. Personality dimensions and disorders in pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling.......This review presents the most current research in personality dimensions and disorders with respect to pathological gambling....

  4. Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, D.

    1995-09-01

    The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.

  5. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  6. The marker of cobalamin deficiency, plasma methylmalonic acid, correlates to plasma creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Juul, S; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the two diagnostic tests, plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins, and their association with plasma creatinine, age and sex. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of simultaneous laboratory measurements. SETTING: County of Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS......: Records on 1689 patients who had their first plasma methylmalonic acid measurement during 1995 and 1996, and who had a simultaneous measurement of plasma cobalamins. Plasma creatinine values measured within a week of measurements of plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins were available for 1255...... of the patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictors of variation in plasma methylmalonic acid; plasma cobalamins, plasma creatinine, age and sex. RESULTS: Plasma methylmalonic acid was positively correlated with plasma creatinine, even for plasma creatinine within the normal range. These associations remained...

  7. Hydatidiform mole clinical and pathological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco D., José; Instituto de Patología, UNMSM; Instituto de Medicina Legal; Alegre, Jaime; Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú; Paniagua, Gissela; Instituto de Patología de la UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine clinical and pathological findings in hydatidiform mole. Design: Descriptive retrospective study. Material and methods: All cases de molar pregnancy attended at Dos de Mayo National Hospital (HNDM) between 1998 and 2001 were reviewed. Results: Twenty-four cases of hydatidiform mole were attended; mean age was 26,4 years ± 6,4 and gestational age 13,1 weeks ± 3,3. Past history only showed 1 and 3 cases of hyperemesis gravidarum and previous abortions, respectively; 18 p...

  8. Microwave Probing of Air-Plasma and Plasma Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katherine; Rock, Ben; Helle, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Plasma metamaterials are of recent interest due to their unique ability to be engineered with specific electromagnetic responses. One potential metamaterial architecture is based on a `forest' of plasma rods that can be produced using intense laser plasma filaments. In our work, we use a continuous microwave source at 26.5 GHz to measure a single air plasma filament characteristics generated from a 5 mJ laser pulse within a cylindrical hole in a Ka-band waveguide. Preliminary results show the air plasma produces a strong shock and acts to reflect microwave radiation. A computational comparison using 3D EM modeling is performed to examine the reflection and transmission properties of a single plasma rod, and further, to investigate an array of plasma rods as a potential plasma based metamaterial.

  9. The feto-placental endothelium in pregnancy pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsack, Christian; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

    2012-05-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the aspects of endothelial and vascular dysfunction in the feto-placental vasculature occurring in pregnancy pathologies. This endothelium is continuous with the fetal circulation. Its function and potential dysfunction in pathologies will have a profound impact on fetal development. Gestational diabetes mellitus represents one of these pathologies, in which its associated metabolic derangements will alter feto-placental endothelial functions. These, in turn, may result in functional changes of the placenta, which may entail impaired fetal development. By contrast, changes in the feto-placental vasculature observed in cases of fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia may be causative (fetal growth restriction) or secondary (preeclampsia) for the pathology.

  10. A HMM-Based Method for Vocal Fold Pathology Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Majidnezhad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic analysis is a proper method in vocal fold pathology diagnosis so that it can complement and in some cases replace the other invasive, based on direct vocal fold observations methods. There are different approaches for vocal fold pathology diagnosis. This paper presents a method based on hidden markov model which classifies speeches into two classes: the normal and the pathological. Two hidden markov models are trained based on these two classes of speech and then the trained models are used to classify the dataset. The proposed method is able to classify the speeches with an accuracy of 93.75%. The results of this algorithm provide insights that can help biologists and computer scientists design high-performance system for detection of vocal fold pathology diagnosis.

  11. Atopic dermatitis severity in the patients with hepatobilliary pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Melnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to define severity of atopic dermatitis (AtD in the patients with hepatobiliary pathology. 221 patients with AtD were under investigation. 51 of them had associated biliary dyskinesia, 45 patients had chronic viral hepatitis (CVH without replecative kinesis, 65 patients had chronic viral hepatitis (CVH with replecative kinesis, and 50 patients had no hepatobiliary pathology. The results obtained showed marked effect of the hepato-biliary system pathology on the severity of the AtD pathology. The patients with biliary dyskinesia have a lichenoid kind of AtD and patients with deep-rooted viral hepatitis have an eczematous kind of AtD.

  12. Ethics and Professionalism in Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Baral

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists spend most of their professional lives beyond direct view of the public, mostly inside the four walls of the lab. It is the clinicians who face the wrath of the public when something goes wrong. However, with the growing awareness of the public into the decisive role played by the Pathologists in the definitive diagnosis of the disease, the pathologists will soon be the target of the aggrieved patients and relatives.1 The issue of ethics can be dealt when professionalism comes before profession. "Professionalism in medicine requires that physician serve the interests of the patient above his or her own selfinterest." Professionalism aspires to philanthropy, answerability, excellence, duty, service and respect for others. "Professionalism in Pathology is based on the same tenets, but has additional dimensions."The qualities of professionalism for pathologists include 1. Communication with the patients and the clinicians. A small phone call with the clinician will solve most of the clinical mysteries not written in the lab requisition forms; 2. Empathy and Compassion towards patients', colleagues', and laboratory personnel's culture, age, gender, and disabilities; 3. Demonstration of passion, respect and understanding towards the patients; 4. Adherence to guidelines and regulations of the regulatory and accrediting bodies; and 5.Profeciency and knowledge in one's work is valued by the patients more than the credentials, which also enables one to identify deficiencies in peer performance. The basic competencies of professionalism are vital to every pathology report, which in turn is the mirror of the ethics practiced by the pathologist. Evaluating oneself is perhaps the most important tool in maintaining professionalism in the practice of pathology. One colleague recently defined professionalism as “all the things one does when no one is watching,” thus placing personal integrity at the top of the list.

  13. 42 CFR 493.853 - Condition: Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Pathology. 493.853 Section 493.853 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.853 Condition: Pathology. The specialty of pathology includes, for purposes...

  14. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Attention problems and pathological gaming: resolving the 'chicken and egg' in a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Ceranoglu, T Atilla

    2014-03-01

    Pathological gaming (PG) behaviors are behaviors which interfere with other life responsibilities. Continued debate exists regarding whether symptoms of PG behaviors are a unique phenomenon or arise from other mental health problems, including attention problems. Development of attention problems and occurrence of pathological gaming in 144 adolescents were followed during a 1-year prospective analysis. Teens and their parents reported on pathological gaming behaviors, attention problems, and current grade point average, as well as several social variables. Results were analyzed using regression and path analysis. Attention problems tended to precede pathological gaming behaviors, but the inverse was not true. Attention problems but not pathological gaming predicted lower GPA 1 year later. Current results suggest that pathological gaming arises from attention problems, but not the inverse. These results suggest that pathological gaming behaviors are symptomatic of underlying attention related mental health issues, rather than a unique phenomenon.

  16. Human Plasma-Derived, Nanofiltered, C1-Inhibitor Concentrate (Cinryze®), a Novel Therapeutic Alternative for the Management of Hereditary Angioedema Resulting from C1-Inhibitor Deficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farkas, Henriette; Varga, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (HAE-C1-INH) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by paroxysmal episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal edema...

  17. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  18. Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.

    2016-08-01

    Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.

  19. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  20. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debra Ouyang; Deepti Dhall; Run Yu

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults,which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery.α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia.Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge.Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels,and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  1. Dopamine Agonists and Pathologic Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J. Kelley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine agonists ropinirole and pramipexole exhibit highly specific affinity for the cerebral dopamine D3 receptor. Use of these medications in Parkinson’s disease has been complicated by the emergence of pathologic behavioral patterns such as hypersexuality, pathologic gambling, excessive hobbying, and other circumscribed obsessive-compulsive disorders of impulse control in people having no history of such disorders. These behavioral changes typically remit following discontinuation of the medication, further demonstrating a causal relationship. Expression of the D3 receptor is particularly rich within the limbic system, where it plays an important role in modulating the physiologic and emotional experience of novelty, reward, and risk assessment. Converging neuroanatomical, physiological, and behavioral science data suggest the high D3 affinity of these medications as the basis for these behavioral changes. These observations suggest the D3 receptor as a therapeutic target for obsessive-compulsive disorder and substance abuse, and improved understanding of D3 receptor function may aid drug design of future atypical antipsychotics.

  2. Fibroadenomas: Sonographic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Eun Ah; Lee, Sun Wha; Sung, Soon Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To correlate sonographic appearance and histopathologic findings of fibroadenomas. Forty-one biopsy-proven fibroadenomas were retrospectively evaluate for sonographic-pathologic correlation. The fibroadenomas were histologically classified into sclerotic, myxoid, glandular and mixed type. The stromal cellularity and fibrosis were also classified into mild and severe. The internal echotexture and posterior acoustic enhancement of mass in ultrasonogram were correlated with histopathologic findings. The pathologic types of fibroadenomas were sclerotic in sixteen, myxoid in thirteen, and glandular or mixed in each of six cases. Most of the sclerotic type showed hypoechoic internal echotexture (68.8%) and myxoid and glandular types showed isoechoic internal echotexture (84.6%, 83.3% respectively). The hypoechoic masses showed 12 cases of mild (75.0%) and 4 cases of severe (25.0%) in cellularity and 3 cases of mild (18.7%) and 13 cases (81.3%) of sever degree in fibrosis. Most of the myxoid type (77%) showed posterior enhancement, and most of the sclerotic type (87.5%) did not show posterior enhancement on ultrasonogram. Posterior enhancement was absent in 22 cases, in which 4 cases (18.2%) showed mild and 18 cases (81.2%) showed severe degree of fibrosis. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis on histopathology showed hypoechogenicity on ultrasonogram; whereas myxoid and glandular types were predominantly isoechoic. Most of the myxoid type showed posterior enhancement. Sclerotic type with mild cellularity and severe fibrosis did not show posterior enhancement.

  3. Pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Debra; Dhall, Deepti; Yu, Run

    2011-01-01

    Pathologic hyperplasia of various pancreatic endocrine cells is rare but has been long known. β cell hyperplasia contributes to persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, which is commonly caused by mutations in the islet ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and to non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia in adults, which may or may not be associated with bariatric surgery. α cell hyperplasia may cause glucagonoma syndrome or induce pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. An inactivating mutation of the glucagon receptor causes α cell hyperplasia and asymptomatic hyperglucagonemia. Pancreatic polypeptide cell hyperplasia has been described without a clearly-characterized clinical syndrome and hyperplasia of other endocrine cells inside the pancreas has not been reported to our knowledge. Based on morphological evidence, the main pathogenetic mechanism for pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia is increased endocrine cell neogenesis from exocrine ductal epithelium. Pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia should be considered in the diagnosis and management of hypoglycemia, elevated islet hormone levels, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Further studies of pathologic pancreatic endocrine cell hyperplasia will likely yield insights into the pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. PMID:21245985

  4. The Norm___ and the Pathological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Gotkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I read The Normal and the Pathological by French philosopher Georges Canguilhem for what it can offer disability theory. I examine how the field has already taken up the text but further, I argue for The Normal and the Pathological as a keystone of disability theory (currently taken up with curiously reserved energy. I start with a précis on the text before offering a condensed citation analysis of the book. In the latter part of the paper, I suggest how the monograph might inform current conversations and I offer possibilities for it to deepen and complicate core notions about disability, including the social model, norms, normalcy, and the normate. I conclude by suggesting that Canguilhem’s philosophical intervention can be understood as "propulsive atavism" – an excavation of medical epistemology in order to map and reconfigure its legacies – and I propose this as one methodological template for disability scholarship.

  5. Anatomical pathology is dead? Long live anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, John M; Francis, Glenn D

    2011-10-01

    The standard diagnostic instrument used for over 150 years by anatomical pathologists has been the optical microscope and glass slide. The advent of immunohistochemistry in the routine laboratory in the 1980s, followed by in situ hybridisation in the 1990s, has increased the armamentaria available to the diagnostic pathologist, and this technology has led to changed patient management in a limited number of neoplastic diseases. The first decade of the 21 century has seen an increasing number of publications using proteomic technologies that promise to change disease diagnosis and management, the traditional role of an anatomical pathologist. Despite the plethora of publications on proteomics and pathology, to date there are actually limited data where proteomic technologies do appear to be of greater diagnostic value than the standard histological slide. Though proteomic techniques will become more prevalent in the future, it will need the expertise of an anatomical pathologist to dissect out and validate this added information.

  6. PLASMA CELL LEUKEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larrea, Carlos Fernandez; Kyle, Robert A.; Durie, Brian GM; Ludwig, Heinz; Usmani, Saad; Vesole, David H.; Hajek, Roman; Miguel, Jésus San; Sezer, Orhan; Sonneveld, Pieter; Kumar, Shaji K.; Mahindra, Anuj; Comenzo, Ray; Palumbo, Antonio; Mazumber, Amitabha; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; Caers, Jo; Cavo, Michele; LeLeu, Xavier; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Chim, CS; Schots, Rik; Noeul, Amara; Fantl, Dorotea; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Landgren, Ola; Chanan-Khan, Asher; Moreau, Philippe; Fonseca, Rafael; Merlini, Giampaolo; Lahuerta, JJ; Bladé, Joan; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Shah, Jatin J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of myeloma characterized by the presence of circulating plasma cells. It is classified as either primary PCL occurring at diagnosis or as secondary PCL in patients with relapsed/refractory myeloma. Primary PCL is a distinct clinic-pathologic entity with different cytogenetic and molecular findings. The clinical course is aggressive with short remissions and survival duration. The diagnosis is based upon the percentage (≥ 20%) and absolute number (≥ 2 × 10 9/L) of plasma cells in the peripheral blood. It is proposed that the thresholds for diagnosis be reexamined and consensus recommendations are made for diagnosis, as well as, response and progression criteria. Induction therapy needs to begin promptly and have high clinical activity leading to rapid disease control in an effort to minimize the risk of early death. Intensive chemotherapy regimens and bortezomib-based regimens are recommended followed by high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDT/ASCT) if feasible. Allogeneic transplantation can be considered in younger patients. Prospective multicenter studies are required to provide revised definitions and better understanding of the pathogenesis of PCL. PMID:23288300

  7. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light With Neurodegeneration in Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Niklas; Andreasson, Ulf; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj

    2017-05-01

    Existing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or imaging (tau positron emission tomography) biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive or expensive. Biomarkers based on standard blood test results would be useful in research, drug development, and clinical practice. Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) has recently been proposed as a blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in dementias. To test whether plasma NFL concentrations are increased in AD and associated with cognitive decline, other AD biomarkers, and imaging evidence of neurodegeneration. In this prospective case-control study, an ultrasensitive assay was used to measure plasma NFL concentration in 193 cognitively healthy controls, 197 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 180 patients with AD dementia from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The study dates were September 7, 2005, to February 13, 2012. The plasma NFL analysis was performed in September 2016. Associations were tested between plasma NFL and diagnosis, Aβ pathologic features, CSF biomarkers of neuronal injury, cognition, brain structure, and metabolism. Among 193 cognitively healthy controls, 197 patients with mild cognitive impairment, and 180 patients with AD with dementia, plasma NFL correlated with CSF NFL (Spearman ρ = 0.59, P disease. This finding implies a potential usefulness for plasma NFL as a noninvasive biomarker in AD.

  8. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  9. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings. PMID:21785637

  10. Clowns benefit children hospitalized for respiratory pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Mario; Isola, Elena; Paolone, Giuseppe; Curcio, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG) and 22 children to the control group (CG). During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings.

  11. Clowns Benefit Children Hospitalized for Respiratory Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bertini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at evaluating health-generating function of humor therapy in a hospital ward hosting children suffering from respiratory pathologies. The main scope of this study is to investigate possible positive effects of the presence of a clown on both the clinical evolution of the on-going disease, and on some physiological and pain parameters. Forty-three children with respiratory pathologies participated in the study: 21 of them belonged to the experimental group (EG and 22 children to the control group (CG. During their hospitalization, the children of the EG interacted with two clowns who were experienced in the field of pediatric intervention. All participants were evaluated with respect to clinical progress and to a series of physiological and pain measures both before and after the clown interaction. When compared with the CG, EG children showed an earlier disappearance of the pathological symptoms. Moreover, the interaction of the clown with the children led to a statistically significant lowering of diastolic blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature in the EG as compared with the control group. The other two parameters of systolic pressure and heart frequency yielded results in the same direction, without reaching statistical significance. A similar health-inducing effect of clown presence was observed on pain parameters, both by self evaluation and assessment by nurses. Taken together, our data indicate that the presence of clowns in the ward has a possible health-inducing effect. Thus, humor can be seen as an easy-to-use, inexpensive and natural therapeutic modality to be used within different therapeutic settings.

  12. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Botella, Juan; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Cabras, Emilia; Schettini, Rocío; Tárraga, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential). To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55–75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90–102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 “Normal”, 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer’s disease [AD] patients) were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey). The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD) can be expressed in a metric of “years of normal decline by age”; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from “normal” groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the “normal” group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75–89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively). PMID:22291469

  13. Impaired self-awareness in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    Lack of self-awareness of one's decisions remains an understudied and elusive topic in the addiction literature. The present study aimed at taking a first step towards addressing this difficult subject through the use of a combination of behavioral procedures. Here, we explored the association between a metacognitive process (the ability to reflect and evaluate the awareness of one's own decision) and poor performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in a group of pathological gamblers (PG; n = 30), and in a comparison group (n = 35). This metacognitive process was assessed during the IGT with the post-decision wagering procedure, while a number of potential confounds (i.e., reward/loss sensitivity, dual-tasking) were controlled for. Results showed that: (1) Initial performance enhancement of the control group on IGT occurred without explicit knowledge of the task, thus confirming its implicit character; (2) compared to controls, performance of PG on the IGT failed to increase during the task; (3) taking into account increased reward sensitivity and decreased loss sensitivity as well as poorer dual-tasking in pathological gamblers, PG tended to exhibit a bias in evaluating their own performance on the IGT by maximizing their wagers independently of selecting advantageous decks. Our findings suggest that biased metacognition may affect pathological gamblers, leading to disadvantageous post-decision wagering, which is in turn linked to impaired decision making under ambiguity. Perhaps this deficit reflects the impaired insight and self-awareness that many addicts suffer from, thus providing a novel approach for capturing and measuring this impairment, and for investigating its possible causes.

  14. Cognitive plasticity in normal and pathological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío; Botella, Juan; Zamarrón, María Dolores; Molina, María Ángeles; Cabras, Emilia; Schettini, Rocío; Tárraga, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of the present study is to examine to what extent age and cognitive impairment contribute to learning performance (cognitive plasticity, cognitive modifiability, or learning potential). To address this question, participants coming from four studies (Longitudinal Study of Active Aging, age range, 55-75 years, N = 458; Longitudinal Study in the very old [90+], age range, 90-102, N = 188, and Cognitive Plasticity within the Course of Cognitive Impairment, 97 "Normal", 57 mild cognitive impairment [MCI], and 98 Alzheimer's disease [AD] patients) were examined through a measure of verbal learning (developed from Rey). The results show that all age, MCI, and AD groups learned across the five learning trials of that test, but significant differences were found due to age, pathology, and education. The effects of pathology (MCI and AD) can be expressed in a metric of "years of normal decline by age"; specifically, being MCI means suffering an impairment in performance that is equivalent to the decline of a normal individual during 15 years, whereas the impact of AD is equivalent to 22.7 years. Likewise, the improvement associated with about 5 years of education is equivalent to about 1 year less of normal aging. Also, the two pathological groups significantly differed from "normal" groups in the delayed trial of the test. The most dramatic difference is that between the "normal" group and the AD patients, which shows relatively poorer performance for the AD group in the delayed trial than in the first learning trial. The potential role of this unique effect for quick detection purposes of AD is assessed (in the 75-89 years age range, sensitivity and specificity equal 0.813 and 0.917, respectively).

  15. Human Plasma-Derived, Nanofiltered, C1-Inhibitor Concentrate (Cinryze®), a Novel Therapeutic Alternative for the Management of Hereditary Angioedema Resulting from C1-Inhibitor Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, Henriette; Varga, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema resulting from the deficiency of the C1 inhibitor (HAE-C1-INH) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by paroxysmal episodes of subcutaneous or submucosal edema. Early diagnosis is essential. Management is aimed at the prompt elimination of full-fledged attacks, as well as at the prevention of edematous episodes. The most straightforward means for therapy is supplementation with the deficient C1-INH protein. Placebo-controlled and open clinica...

  16. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Test Results for Al-Li 2195 Parent Metal, Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welds and Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Wagner, John A.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2000-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth rate of aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy 2195 plate and weldments was determined at 200-F, ambient temperature and -320-F. The effects of stress ratio (R), welding process, orientation and thickness were studied. Results are compared with plate data from the Space Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank (SLWT) allowables program. Data from the current series of tests, both plate and weldment, falls within the range of data generated during the SLWT allowables program.

  17. Slot Machine Response Frequency Predicts Pathological Gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob; Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Møller, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Slot machines are among the most addictive forms of gambling, and pathological gambling slot machine players represent the largest group of treatment seekers, accounting for 35% to 93% of the population. Pathological gambling sufferers have significantly higher response frequency (games / time......) on slot machines compared with non-problem gamblers, which may suggest increased reinforcement of the gambling behavior in pathological gambling. However, to date it is unknown whether or not the increased response frequency in pathological gambling is associated with symptom severity of the disorder....... This study tested the hypothesis that response frequency is associated with symptom severity in pathological gambling. We tested response frequency among twenty-two pathological gambling sufferers and twenty-one non-problem gamblers on a commercially available slot machine, and screened for pathological...

  18. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  19. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Arslan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. RESULTS: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88% of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The masses ranged from 0.4 to 7.0 cm in diameter. While conventional cystoscopy could not evaluate interior part of the diverticulum, virtual CT cystoscopy could demonstrate clearly within it. There were no false-positive findings in our series. CONCLUSION: Virtual CT cystoscopy is a promising technique to be used in the detection of bladder lesions. It should be considered especially at the evaluation of bladder diverticula. In the future, it may be possible or even advantageous to incorporate into the imaging algorithm for evaluation of bladder lesion.

  20. Virtual computed tomography cystoscopy in bladder pathologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Halil; Ceylan, Kadir; Harman, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Yuksel; Temizoz, Osman; Can, Saban [Yuzuncu Yil University School of Medicine, Van (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology and Urology]. E-mail: drhalilarslan@hotmail.com

    2006-03-15

    Objective: assessed the usefulness of virtual cystoscopy performed with multidetector computed tomography (CT) in patients with different urinary bladder pathologies compared to the conventional cystoscopy.Materials and methods: eighteen patients with different bladder pathologies, which consisted of 11 tumors, 3 diverticula, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones, were assessed with conventional cystoscopy and virtual CT cystoscopy. The results of virtual CT cystoscopy were compared with the findings of conventional cystoscopy. We determined the detection rate and positive predictive value of CT imaging based virtual cystoscopy in the diagnosis of urinary bladder lesions. Results: CT scanning was well tolerated by all patients, and no complications occurred. Images in 16 (88%) of the 18 virtual cystoscopic examinations were either of excellent or good quality. All tumors except one, 2 trabecular changes and 2 stones were characterized with similar findings in the both of methods. The masses ranged from 0.4 to 7.0 cm in diameter. While conventional cystoscopy could not evaluate interior part of the diverticulum, virtual CT cystoscopy could demonstrate clearly within it. There were no false-positive findings in our series. Conclusion: virtual CT cystoscopy is a promising technique to be used in the detection of bladder lesions. It should be considered especially at the evaluation of bladder diverticula. In the future, it may be possible or even advantageous to incorporate into the imaging algorithm for evaluation of bladder lesion. (author)

  1. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized.

  2. Nevirapine, sodium concentration and HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and plasma among HIV-infected women receiving short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Chiduo, Mercy G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 from mother to child include high plasma and breast milk viral load, low maternal CD4 count and breast pathology such as mastitis. Objective To determine the impact of nevirapine and subclinical mastitis on HIV-1 RNA in maternal plasma...... and breast milk after intrapartum single-dose nevirapine combined with either 1-week tail of Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) or single-dose Truvada (tenofovir/emtricitabine). Methods Maternal plasma and bilateral breast milk samples were collected between April 2008 and April 2011 at 1, 4 and 6 weeks...... postpartum from HIV-infected Tanzanian women. Moreover, plasma samples were collected at delivery from mother and infant. Results HIV-1 RNA was quantified in 1,212 breast milk samples from 273 women. At delivery, 96% of the women and 99% of the infants had detectable nevirapine in plasma with a median...

  3. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  4. State of the art and trends for digital pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rojo, Marcial

    2012-01-01

    Anatomic pathology is a medical specialty where both information management systems and digital images systems paly a most important role. Digital pathology is a new concept that considers all uses of this information, including diagnosis, biomedical research and education. Virtual microscopy or whole slide imaging, resulting in digital slides, is an outreaching technology in anatomic pathology. Limiting factors in the expansion of virtual microscopy are formidable storage dimension, scanning speed, quality of image and cultural change. Anatomic pathology data and images should be an important part of the patient electronic health records as well as of clinical data warehouse, epidemiological or biomedical research databases, and platforms dedicated to translational medicine. Integrating anatomic pathology to the "healthcare enterprise" can only be achieved using existing and emerging medical informatics standards like Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM®1), Health Level Seven (HL7®), and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT®), following the recommendations of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE®). The consequences of the full digitalization of pathology departments are hard to foresee, but short term issues have arisen that imply interesting challenges for health care standards bodies.

  5. The ins and outs of molecular pathology reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Véronique; Dufraing, Kelly; Deans, Zandra C; van Krieken, Han J; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C

    2017-03-26

    The raid evolution in molecular pathology resulting in an increasing complexity requires careful reporting. The need for standardisation is clearer than ever. While synoptic reporting was first used for reporting hereditary genetic diseases, it is becoming more frequent in pathology, especially molecular pathology reports too. The narrative approach is no longer feasible with the growing amount of essential data present on the report, although narrative components are still necessary for interpretation in molecular pathology. On the way towards standardisation of reports, guidelines can be a helpful tool. There are several guidelines that focus on reporting in the field of hereditary diseases, but it is not always feasible to extrapolate these to the reporting of somatic variants in molecular pathology. The rise of multi-gene testing causes challenges for the laboratories. In order to provide a continuous optimisation of the laboratory testing process, including reporting, external quality assessment is essential and has already proven to improve the quality of reports. In general, a clear and concise report for molecular pathology can be created by including elements deemed important by different guidelines, adapting the report to the process flows of the laboratory and integrating the report with the laboratory information management system and the patient record.

  6. Striatal dopamine release codes uncertainty in pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnet, Jakob; Mouridsen, Kim; Peterson, Ericka; Møller, Arne; Doudet, Doris Jeanne; Gjedde, Albert

    2012-10-30

    Two mechanisms of midbrain and striatal dopaminergic projections may be involved in pathological gambling: hypersensitivity to reward and sustained activation toward uncertainty. The midbrain-striatal dopamine system distinctly codes reward and uncertainty, where dopaminergic activation is a linear function of expected reward and an inverse U-shaped function of uncertainty. In this study, we investigated the dopaminergic coding of reward and uncertainty in 18 pathological gambling sufferers and 16 healthy controls. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the tracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure dopamine release, and we used performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to determine overall reward and uncertainty. We hypothesized that we would find a linear function between dopamine release and IGT performance, if dopamine release coded reward in pathological gambling. If, on the other hand, dopamine release coded uncertainty, we would find an inversely U-shaped function. The data supported an inverse U-shaped relation between striatal dopamine release and IGT performance if the pathological gambling group, but not in the healthy control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of dopaminergic sensitivity toward uncertainty, and suggest that dopaminergic sensitivity to uncertainty is pronounced in pathological gambling, but not among non-gambling healthy controls. The findings have implications for understanding dopamine dysfunctions in pathological gambling and addictive behaviors.

  7. Effects of mood state on impulsivity in pathological buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Darancó, Stefaniá; Moshagen, Morten

    2016-10-30

    Pathological buying is characterized by irrepressible buying behaviour and its negative consequences. A possible mechanism contributing to its development and maintenance is that buying episodes act as a maladaptive strategy to cope with negative emotions. Accordingly, pathological buying has been repeatedly associated with impulsivity, in particular with the tendency to experience strong reactions under negative affect. Relying on an experimental mood induction procedure, the present study tested in a sample of 100 individuals (a) whether individuals with pathological buying symptoms respond more impulsively in the Go/No-Go Task (as a measure of the behavioural inhibition aspect of impulsivity) and (b) whether this association is more pronounced in a negative mood. While controlling for comorbidities, the results show that pathological buying is associated with faster responses and a larger number of commission errors. Moreover, a significant interaction indicated that the association between pathological buying and performance the Go/No-Go Task was stronger in the negative mood condition. The present study thus shows that pathological buying is associated with deficits in the behavioural inhibition component of impulsivity. These deficits are most pronounced when mood is negative; in turn, this provides an explanation for the occurrence of excessive buying episodes following negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetized Plasma Experiments Using Thermionic- Thermoelectronic Plasma Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Cheng, C. Z.; Fujikawa, Nobuko; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Peng, Albert

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a magnetic mirror device, which is the first magnetized plasma device in Taiwan, to explore basic plasma sciences relevant to fusion, space and astrophysical plasmas. Our research subjects include electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), Alfven wave physics, and plasma turbulence. A large diameter (> 200 mm) plasma emitter1, which utilizes thermionic- thermoelectronic emission from a mixture of LaB6 (Lanthanum-hexaboride) and beta-eucryptite (lithium type aluminosylicate) powders, is employed as a plasma source because of its production ability of fully ionized plasma and controllability of plasma emission rate. The plasma emitter has been installed recently and investigation of its characteristics will be started. The employment of beta-eucryptite in plasma emitter is the first experimental test because such investigation of beta-eucryptite has previously been used only for Li+-ion source2. Our plan for magnetized plasma experiments and results of the plasma emitter investigation will be presented. 1. K. Saeki, S. Iizuka, N. Sato, and Y. Hatta, Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 1980, pp. 37-38. 2. M. Ueda, R. R. Silva, R. M. Oliveira, H. Iguchi, J. Fujita and K. Kadota, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 30 1997, pp. 2711--2716.

  9. Radiological, pathological and DNA remission in recurrent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony TC

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA (EBV-DNA is a sensitive and specific marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. The mainstay of treatment of metastatic NPC is systemic chemotherapy and resection for solitary metastasis. Despite high response rate to chemotherapy, complete remission is uncommonly seen. Case Presentation We report a case of recurrent metastatic NPC in a 43-year-old man, who achieved complete remission three times with chemotherapy and surgery. Serial plasma EBV-DNA levels were measured during the course of disease. The patient had three episodes of recurrences of NPC manifested as distant metastasis. Both time, rise in the plasma EBV-DNA level preceded detection of recurrences by imaging. Following systemic chemotherapy, he achieved complete remission each time, of which was confirmed by 18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and hepatectomy pathology. The plasma EBV-DNA level dropped to zero copy/ml at the time of each remission. Conclusion This case highlights the high chemosensitivity of NPC by illustrating a rare occurrence of complete response of metastatic NPC to chemotherapy. This case also underscores the usefulness of EBV-DNA as a useful tool in monitoring NPC by its ability to detect early recurrence and excellent correlation with treatment response.

  10. Radiological, pathological and DNA remission in recurrent metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephen L; Hui, Edwin P; Leung, Sing F; Chan, Anthony TC; Ma, Brigette BY

    2006-01-01

    Background Circulating plasma Epstein Barr Virus DNA (EBV-DNA) is a sensitive and specific marker of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The mainstay of treatment of metastatic NPC is systemic chemotherapy and resection for solitary metastasis. Despite high response rate to chemotherapy, complete remission is uncommonly seen. Case Presentation We report a case of recurrent metastatic NPC in a 43-year-old man, who achieved complete remission three times with chemotherapy and surgery. Serial plasma EBV-DNA levels were measured during the course of disease. The patient had three episodes of recurrences of NPC manifested as distant metastasis. Both time, rise in the plasma EBV-DNA level preceded detection of recurrences by imaging. Following systemic chemotherapy, he achieved complete remission each time, of which was confirmed by 18-flourodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and hepatectomy pathology. The plasma EBV-DNA level dropped to zero copy/ml at the time of each remission. Conclusion This case highlights the high chemosensitivity of NPC by illustrating a rare occurrence of complete response of metastatic NPC to chemotherapy. This case also underscores the usefulness of EBV-DNA as a useful tool in monitoring NPC by its ability to detect early recurrence and excellent correlation with treatment response. PMID:17076893

  11. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  12. Effect of plasma processing reactor circuitry on plasma characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, S.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1997-12-31

    It is well known that external circuitry greatly influences the performance of plasma processing reactors. Simulation of external circuits difficult since the time in which the external circuit attains the steady-state is several orders of magnitude longer than typical plasma simulation time scales. In this paper, the authors present a technique to simulate the external circuit concurrently with the plasma, and implement it into the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM). The resulting model is used to investigate the influence of external circuitry on plasma behavior.

  13. Relationships between Pathological Patterns and Quality of Life: Pathway Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Woong Cho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of our study was to examine the relationships between pathological patterns and self-rated quality of life (QoL. Methods. A total of 426 Korean subjects participated in this study (male : female = 154 : 272. The subjects were asked to complete Yin Deficiency (YD, Qi Deficiency (QD, Food Stagnation (FS, Blood Stasis (BS, Phlegm, and Seven Emotions Impairment (SEI pattern Questionnaires and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. We formed a pathway model consisting of pathological patterns and QoL questionnaire scores and examined which pathological patterns resulted in decreased QoL using path analysis. Results. Our pathway model had satisfactory fitness levels (GFI = 0.975, NFI = 0.984, and CFI = 0.984 and showed that Phlegm and SEI patterns directly resulted in decreased QoL, whereas QD, YD, FD, and BS indirectly resulted in decreased QoL. The pathway model suggested that the severity or stage of decreased QoL may be estimated by pathological patterns: QD and YD patterns are associated with the early stage; FS and BS patterns are associated with the middle stage; Phlegm and SEI are associated with the later stage of decreased QoL. Conclusion. Our results suggest that pathological patterns directly or indirectly affect decreases in QoL.

  14. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    -mentioned early studies has witnessed a considerable and exciting growth in terms of new phenomena observed, new physics and chemistry uncovered, new plasma jet sources conceived, and new applications developed. Examples include the observations of plasma bullets on a nanosecond scale [16], the similarity of plasma bullets to streamers [17], arrays of plasma jets as metamaterials [18], and a rapid increase of applications in biomedicine [19]. However the considerable growth in the research of plasma jets has not been adequately supported, so far, by a sound fundamental underpinning, partly resulting from a somewhat underdevelopment of effective diagnostics and modelling tools. Recognizing the critical importance of basic science for future growth of low-temperature plasma jet technology, this special issue on plasma jets and bullets aims to address some of the most important fundamental questions. Many of the special issue papers continue the established line of investigation to characterize the formation of plasma bullets, using typically ultrafast imaging, electrical detection including electric field and plasma conductivity measurement, and optical emission spectrometry [20]-[26]. These offer strong experimental evidence for the well-known hypothesis that a plasma jet is a form of streamer, and that the ionization wave plays a critical role in their formation. The interaction of two parallel plasma jets [27] and manipulation of plasma jet characteristics [28, 29] are also reported using a similar combination of experimental techniques. Some of the common characteristics of plasma jets are summarized in a review paper in this special issue [30]. A somewhat different line of investigation is employed in a detailed experimental characterization of deterministic chaos in atmospheric plasma jets [31], one of the few non-bullet modes of plasma jets. Although chaos in ionized gases have been observed in other types of discharge plasmas, their applications have not so far been linked

  15. Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis: assessment of clinical, CT, and pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S., E-mail: shigekimiyo@luck.ocn.ne.j [Department of Technical Radiology, Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Nagasaka, T. [Department of Pathology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Suzuki, K.; Satake, H.; Ota, T.; Naganawa, S. [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Aim: To assess the clinical, computed tomography (CT), and pathological findings in patients with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis. Materials and methods: Fifteen consecutive patients (four women and 11 men, mean age 71 years) with lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis and without the characteristic features of underlying disorders causing benign biliary strictures were retrospectively recruited. Two radiologists evaluated multiphase contrast-enhanced CT images acquired with 0.5 or 1-mm collimation. One pathologist performed all histological examinations, including IgG4 immunostaining. Results: The intrahepatic biliary ducts showed dilatation in all 15 patients, but only seven presented with jaundice. Although laboratory data were not available in all patients, serum gammaglobulin and IgG levels were elevated in five of six patients and six of eight patients, respectively. Anti-nuclear antibody was detected in three of six patients. The involved biliary ducts showed the following CT findings: involvement of the hilar biliary duct (14/15), a mean wall thickness of 4.9 mm, a smooth margin (10/15), a narrow but visible lumen (6/15), hyper-attenuation during the late arterial phase (9/15), homogeneous hyper-attenuation during the delayed phase (11/11), and no vascular invasion (14/15). Abnormal findings in the pancreas and urinary tract were detected in eight of 15 patients. In 13 patients with adequate specimens, moderate to severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltration associated with dense fibrosis was observed. Infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells was moderate or severe in nine patients and minimal or absent in four patients. Conclusion: Lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholangitis exhibits relatively characteristic clinical and CT findings, although they are not sufficiently specific for differentiation from other biliary diseases.

  16. Effects of oral administration of titanium dioxide fine-sized particles on plasma glucose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ning; Hu, Hailong; Guo, Qian; Jin, Sanli; Wang, Changlin; Oh, Yuri; Feng, Yujie; Wu, Qiong

    2015-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is an authorized additive used as a food colorant, is composed of nano-sized particles (NP) and fine-sized particles (FP). Previous study reported that oral administration of TiO2 NPs triggers an increase in plasma glucose of mice. However, no previous studies have focused on toxic effects of TiO2 FPs on plasma glucose homeostasis following oral administration. In the current study, mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs greater than 100 nm in size (64 mg/kg body weight per day), and effects on plasma glucose levels examined. Our results showed that titanium levels was not changed in mouse blood, livers and pancreases after mice were orally administered TiO2 FPs. Biochemical analyzes showed that plasma glucose and ROS levels were not affected by TiO2 FPs. Histopathological results showed that TiO2 FPs did not induce pathology changes in organs, especially plasma glucose homeostasis regulation organs, such as pancreas and liver. Western blotting showed that oral administration of TiO2 FPs did not induce insulin resistance (IR) in mouse liver. These results showed that, TiO2 FPs cannot be absorbed via oral administration and affect plasma glucose levels in mice.

  17. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  18. Study on user interface of pathology picture archiving and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dasueran; Kang, Peter; Yun, Jungmin; Park, Sung-Hye; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Park, Peom

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the pathology workflow. A workflow task analysis was performed using a pathology picture archiving and communication system (pathology PACS) in order to propose a user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience. An interface analysis of the Pathology PACS in Seoul National University Hospital and a task analysis of the pathology workflow were performed by observing recorded video. Based on obtained results, a user interface for the Pathology PACS was proposed. Hierarchical task analysis of Pathology PACS was classified into 17 tasks including 1) pre-operation, 2) text, 3) images, 4) medical record viewer, 5) screen transition, 6) pathology identification number input, 7) admission date input, 8) diagnosis doctor, 9) diagnosis code, 10) diagnosis, 11) pathology identification number check box, 12) presence or absence of images, 13) search, 14) clear, 15) Excel save, 16) search results, and 17) re-search. And frequently used menu items were identified and schematized. A user interface for the Pathology PACS considering user experience could be proposed as a preliminary step, and this study may contribute to the development of medical information systems based on user experience and usability.

  19. Plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfei Zhu; Ling Cai; Haoxian Yang; Yinsheng Wen; Junye Wang; Tiehua Rong; Lanjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The plasma fibrinogen levels had not only been used as an independent prognostic parameter for thepatients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but also as a promising biomarker for evaluating the efficacy of chemotherapy.