WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma parameter profiles

  1. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Itakura, Hirofumi; Takase, Keizou [CSK Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius {rho} on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  2. Typical Profiles and Distributions of Plasma and Magnetic Field Parameters in Magnetic Clouds at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Zhukov, A. N.; Gulisano, A. M.; Mierla, M.; Kilpua, E.; West, M.; Lacatus, D.; Paraschiv, A.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). They are important because of their simple internal magnetic field configuration, which resembles a magnetic flux rope, and because they represent one of the most geoeffective types of solar transients. In this study, we analyze their internal structure using a superposed epoch method on 63 events observed at L1 by the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE), between 1998 and 2006. In this way, we obtain an average profile for each plasma and magnetic field parameter at each point of the cloud. Furthermore, we take a fixed time-window upstream and downstream from the MC to also sample the regions preceding the cloud and the wake trailing it. We then perform a detailed analysis of the internal characteristics of the clouds and their surrounding solar wind environments. We find that the parameters studied are compatible with log-normal distribution functions. The plasma β and the level of fluctuations in the magnetic field vector are the best parameters to define the boundaries of MCs. We find that one third of the events shows a peak in plasma density close to the trailing edge of the flux ropes. We provide several possible explanations for this result and investigate if the density peak is of a solar origin ( e.g. erupting prominence material) or formed during the magnetic cloud travel from the Sun to 1 AU. The most plausible explanation is the compression due to a fast overtaking flow, coming from a coronal hole located to the east of the solar source region of the magnetic cloud.

  3. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  4. Semen parameters and seminal plasma protein and biochemical profiles of dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia after botulinum toxin type A intraprostatic injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Ferguson Motheo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of botulinum toxin type A (BT-A on semen parameters, and seminal plasma biochemical and protein profiles of dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Eighteen sexually intact male dogs with BPH were randomly divided in three groups, and received an intraprostatic injection of saline solution (control group - CG, 250UI (GI or 500UI (GII of BT-A under transabdominal ultrasound guidance. Semen was collected at baseline, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Semen parameters were determined and seminal plasma pH, total protein (TP, total chlorides (TC, calcium (Ca, potassium (K, and sodium (Na concentrations were assessed. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrilamide gel eletrophoresis (SDS- PAGE was performed to determine seminal plasma protein profile. Sperm parameters and seminal plasma pH, TP, TC, Ca and K mean values did not change significantly at any time point and among treated groups (P>0.05. The SDS-PAGE analysis of the pooled fractions identified 31 protein bands with molecular weights ranging from 3.9 to 106.2kDA in all treatment groups during the entire evaluation period. Regardless the used dose, intraprostatic BT-A injection do not alter semen parameters and seminal plasma biochemical and protein profiles of dogs with BPH.

  5. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources; Profile der Plasmaparameter und Dichte negativer Wasserstoffionen mittels Laserdetachmentmessungen in HF-angeregten Ionenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-12-20

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields ({proportional_to} 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H{sup -})=1.10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3}, which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  6. Sensor for monitoring plasma parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakov, A A; Sharma, S P; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Cruden, Brett A.; Sharma, Surendra P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectrally tunable VCSEL (vertical cavity surface-emitting laser) was used as part of sensing hardware for measurements of the radial-integrated gas temperature inside an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The data were obtained by profiling the Doppler-broadened absorption of metastable Ar atoms at 763.51 nm in argon and argon/nitrogen plasmas (3, 45, and 90% N2 in Ar) at pressure 0.5-70 Pa and inductive power of 100 and 300 W. The results were compared to rotational temperature derived from the N2 emission at the (0,0) transition of the C - B system. The differences in integrated rotational and Doppler temperatures were attributed to non-uniform spatial distributions of both temperature and thermometric species (Ar* and N2*) that varied depending on conditions. A two-dimensional, two-temperature fluid plasma simulation was employed to explain these differences. This work should facilitate further development of a miniature sensor for non-intrusive acquisition of data (temperature and densities of multipl...

  7. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  8. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.

  9. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  10. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Sonu Sen; Meenu Asthana Varshney; Dinesh Varshney

    2014-01-01

    In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have num...

  12. The effect of thermophoresis on the discharge parameters in complex plasma experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Victor; Creel, James; Schmoke, Jimmy; Cook, Mike; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2010-01-01

    Thermophoresis is a tool often applied in complex plasma experiments. One of the usual stated benefits over other experimental tools is that changes induced by thermophoresis neither directly depend on, nor directly influence, the plasma parameters. From electronic data, plasma emission profiles in the sheath, and Langmuir probe data in the plasma bulk, we conclude that this assumption does not hold. An important effect on the levitation of dust particles in argon plasma is observed as well. The reason behind the changes in plasma parameters seems to be the change in neutral atom density accompanying the increased gas temperature while running at constant pressure.

  13. The effect of electrode heating on the discharge parameters in complex plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Victor; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Creel, James; Schmoke, Jimmy; Cook, Mike; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell, E-mail: victor_land@baylor.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX, 76798-7316 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Thermophoresis is a tool often applied in complex plasma experiments. One of the usual stated benefits over other experimental tools is that electrode temperature changes required to induce thermophoresis do not directly influence the plasma parameters. From electronic data, plasma emission profiles in the sheath, and Langmuir probe data in the plasma bulk, we conclude that this assumption does not hold. An important effect on the levitation of dust particles in argon plasma is observed as well. The reason behind the changes in plasma parameters seems to be the change in neutral atom density accompanying the increased gas temperature while running at constant pressure.

  14. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  15. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (Pinfertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (Pseminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (Phormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (Pinfertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  16. Variation of plasma parameters in a modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Phukan; M K Mishra; B K Saikia; M Chakraborty

    2010-03-01

    A modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device is presented and plasma parameters are controlled in this configuration. Here plasma is produced by applying a discharge voltage between the hot filaments in the source (cathode) and the target magnetic cage (anode) of the device. In this configuration, the hot electron emitting filaments are present only in the source and the magnetic cage of this is kept at a negative bias such that due to the repulsion of the cage bias, the primary electrons can go to the grounded target and produce plasma there. The plasma parameters can be controlled by varying the voltages applied to the source magnetic cage and the separation grid of the device.

  17. Coagulation profile of liquid-state plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Robert C; Marshall, Carol; Dwyre, Denis M; Gresens, Chris; Davis, Diana; Scherer, Lynette; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Use of liquid plasma (LP) has been reported as early as the mid 1930s. Unlike fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), LP is maintained at 1 to 6°C for up to 40 days after collection and processing. Despite its approved use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the coagulation profile of LP is incompletely described. In this study we evaluate the coagulation profile of LP stored up to 30 days. LP was prepared by removing plasma from nonleukoreduced whole blood within 24 hours of collection. Three LP units from each ABO group were collected and stored at 1 to 6°C. Plasma aliquots were obtained at Postcollection Days 1 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 and then stored at -70°C. Each aliquot was tested for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. There was a significant decrease in Factor (F)V, FVII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor (VWF), protein S (PS) activity, and endogenous thrombin potential on Day 15 compared with Day 1. No significant difference was observed for PS antigen, D-dimer, or thrombin-antithrombin complex. At least 50% activity of all measured factors was noted on Day 15, compared to Day 1. Considerable heterogeneity was observed between the different blood groups for FVII, FVIII, and VWF. These data demonstrate that LP maintains at least 50% of factor activity and thrombin-generating capacity up to 15 days of refrigerated storage. It may be more appropriate to limit LP storage and supplement with FFP when used for management of massively bleeding patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Whittaker functions in beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration for a plasma with a parabolic density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, Y.; Dorranian, D., E-mail: d.dorranian@gmail.com [Laser Laboratory, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aslaninejad, M., E-mail: m.aslaninejad@ipm.ir [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    A model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a linear wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The density profile has the maximum on the axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. We have built a thorough analytical model and solved the governing equations for the wakefield acceleration of a charged particle beam. The longitudinal and radial wakefields are expressed by Whittaker functions, and for certain parameters of plasma and the beam, their behaviours in longitudinal and radial directions are investigated. It is observed that the radial electric field generated by the bunch increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  19. Whittaker functions in beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration for a plasma with a parabolic density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golian, Y.; Aslaninejad, M.; Dorranian, D.

    2016-01-01

    A model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a linear wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. The density profile has the maximum on the axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. We have built a thorough analytical model and solved the governing equations for the wakefield acceleration of a charged particle beam. The longitudinal and radial wakefields are expressed by Whittaker functions, and for certain parameters of plasma and the beam, their behaviours in longitudinal and radial directions are investigated. It is observed that the radial electric field generated by the bunch increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  20. Parameters influencing plasma column potential in a reflex discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liziakin, G. D.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Murzaev, Y. A.; Usmanov, R. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Distribution of electrostatic potential in direct current reflex discharge plasma has been studied experimentally. Measurements have been conducted by the single floating probe method. The influence of 0-0.2 T magnetic field, 1-200 mTorr pressure, 0-2 kV discharge voltage, and electrodes geometry on plasma column electrostatic potential was investigated. The possibility for the formation of a preset potential profile required for the realization of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel was demonstrated.

  1. Surface energy from order parameter profile: At the QCD phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Z.; Patkos, A.

    1989-01-01

    The order parameter profile between coexisting confined and plasma regions at the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) phase transition is constructed. The dimensionless combination of the surface energy (Sigma) and the correlation length (Zeta) is estimated to be Sigma Zeta 3 approximately equals 0.8.

  2. Parameters of atmospheric plasmas produced by electrosurgical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alexey; Canady, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Electrosurgical systems are extensively utilized in general surgery, surgical oncology, plastic and reconstructive surgery etc. In this work we study plasma parameters created by electrosurgical system SS-200E/Argon 2 of US Medical Innovations. The maximal length of the discharge plasma column at which the discharge can be sustained was determined as function of discharge power and argon flow rate. Electrical parameters including discharge current and voltage were measured. Recently proposed Rayleigh microwave scattering method for temporally resolved density measurements of small-size atmospheric plasmas was utilized. Simultaneously, evolution of plasma column was observed using intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera.

  3. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre, K.

    1993-05-01

    We are developing a profile analysis code for the statistical estimation of the parametric dependencies of the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. Our code uses advanced statistical techniques to determine the optimal fit, i.e. the fit which minimized the predictive error. For a forty TFTR Ohmic profile dataset, our preliminary results indicate that the profile shape depends almost exclusively on q[sub a][prime] but that the shape dependencies are not Gaussian. We are now comparing various shape models on the TFTR data. In the first six months, we have completed the core modules of the code, including a B-spline package for variable knot locations, a data-based method to determine the optimal smoothing parameters, self-consistent estimation of the bias errors, and adaptive fitting near the plasma edge. Visualization graphics already include three dimensional surface plots, and discharge by discharge plots of the predicted curves with error bars together with the actual measurements values, and plots of the basis functions with errors.

  4. The segmented non-uniform dielectric module design for uniformity control of plasma profile in a capacitively coupled plasma chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanxiong Xia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature plasma technique is one of the critical techniques in IC manufacturing process, such as etching and thin-film deposition, and the uniformity greatly impacts the process quality, so the design for the plasma uniformity control is very important but difficult. It is hard to finely and flexibly regulate the spatial distribution of the plasma in the chamber via controlling the discharge parameters or modifying the structure in zero-dimensional space, and it just can adjust the overall level of the process factors. In the view of this problem, a segmented non-uniform dielectric module design solution is proposed for the regulation of the plasma profile in a CCP chamber. The solution achieves refined and flexible regulation of the plasma profile in the radial direction via configuring the relative permittivity and the width of each segment. In order to solve this design problem, a novel simulation-based auto-design approach is proposed, which can automatically design the positional sequence with multi independent variables to make the output target profile in the parameterized simulation model approximate the one that users preset. This approach employs an idea of quasi-closed-loop control system, and works in an iterative mode. It starts from initial values of the design variable sequences, and predicts better sequences via the feedback of the profile error between the output target profile and the expected one. It never stops until the profile error is narrowed in the preset tolerance.

  5. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j{sub H{sup −}}, low j{sub e}) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H{sup −}, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H{sup −} density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  6. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  7. Numerical Simulation of Basic Parameters in Plasma Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范群波; 王鲁; 王富耻

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of energy balance in the plasma gas, a new, simplified but effective mathematical model is developed to predict the temperature, velocity and ionization degrees of different species at the torch exit, which can be directly calculated just by inputting the general spraying parameters, such as current, voltage, flow rates of gases, etc. Based on this method, the effects of plasma current and the flow rate of Ar on the basic parameters at the torch exit are discussed. The results show that the temperature, velocity and ionization degrees of gas species will increase with increasing the plasma current; while increasing Ar flow rate can increase the velocity at the exit but decrease the temperature and ionization degrees of plasma species. The method would be helpful to predict the temperature and velocity fields in a plasma jet in future, and direct the practical plasma spray operations.

  8. Plasma parameters controlled by remote electron shower in a double plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Phukan, A.

    2012-07-01

    The principal feature of this experiment is the electron showers consisting of three tungsten wires embedded by the plasma, which are heated up consequently emitting electrons inside the diffused plasma to control the plasma parameters in the discharge section of a double plasma device. These cold electrons emitted by the heated filament are free from maintenance of discharge which is sustained in the source section. The target plasma, where electrons are injected is produced as a result of diffusion from the source section. It is found that, plasma density and plasma potential can be effectively controlled in this way.

  9. Study of parameters of a facility generating compressive plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvi, A. Ya

    2017-05-01

    The prosperity of plasma technologies stimulates making of a facility generating compressive plasma flows at the South Ural State University. The facility is a compact-geometry magnetoplasma compressor with the following parameters: stored energy up to 15 kJ, voltage of a bank from 3 to 5 kV; nitrogen, air, and other gases can serve as its operating gas. The investigation of parameters of the facility showed the following parameters of compressive plasma flows: impulse duration of up to 120 μs, discharge current of 50-120 kA, speed of plasma flow of 15-30 km/s. By contrast to the available facilities, the parameters of the developed facility can be adjusted in a wide range of voltage from 2 kV to 10 kV, its design permits generating CPF in horizontal and vertical positions.

  10. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.

  11. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.;

    2005-01-01

    plasma parameters by the optical and Langmuir probes are presented. It is shown that the spatial profiles of the electron density, the effective electron temperature and plasma potential feature a great deal of the radial and axial uniformity compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled......A new source of low-frequency (0.46 MHz) inductively coupled plasmas sustained by the internal planar "unidirectional" RF current driven through a specially designed internal antenna configuration has been developed. The experimental results of the investigation of the optical and global argon...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  13. 95 Alteration of Plasma Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-07-15

    Jul 15, 2009 ... procumbens on the packed cell volume (PCV), daily weight gain, plasma lipid profiles and ... conditions, whether primary or secondary to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity .... (1999) Abnormalities of membrane.

  14. Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-01-01

    A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.

  15. Plasma Emission Profile Recreation using Soft X-Ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, J. W.; Mauel, M. E.; Levesque, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    With sufficient views from multiple diode arrays, soft X-ray tomography is an invaluable plasma diagnostic because it is a non-perturbing method to reconstruct the emission within the interior of the plasma. In preparation for the installation of new SXR arrays in HBT-EP, we compute high-resolution tomographic reconstructions of discharges having kink-like structures that rotate nearly rigidly. By assuming a uniform angular mapping from the kink mode rotation, Δϕ ~ ωΔ t, a temporal sequence from a single 16-diode fan array represents as many as 16 x 100 independent views. We follow the procedure described by Wang and Granetz and use Bessel basis functions to take the inverse Radon transform. This transform is fit to our data using a least-squares method to estimate the internal SXR emissivity as a sum of polar functions. By varying different parameters of the transformation, we optimize the quality of our recreation of the emission profile and quantify how the reconstruction changes with the azimuthal order of the transform. Supported by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-86ER53222.

  16. Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have numerical appreciation of the results the propagation equation for plasma is solved using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the initial plane wave front of the beam, using boundary conditions. The spot size of the laser beam decreases as the beam penetrates into the plasma and significantly adds self-focusing in plasma. This causes the laser beam to become more focused by reduction of diffraction effect, which is an important phenomenon in inertial confinement fusion and also for the understanding of self-focusing of laser pulses. Numerical computations are presented and discussed in the form of graphs for typical parameters of laser-plasma interaction.

  17. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  18. Research Into a Neon Spectral Line Profile of Dusty Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Pikalev, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    Ordered dusty structures influence plasma conditions. This influence can be revealed, when plasma spectral characteristics change, as dusty particles are injected. For example, a variation in the atomic temperature leads to a variation in the profiles of spectral lines. We studied the profile of a 585 nm neon spectral line in the dusty structures. The structures levitated in a positive column of a glow discharge at a pressure of 50-150 Pa and with a current of 1-9 mA. We scanned the profile with the use of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, by changing the air pressure between the interferometer mirrors. To process the data, a special algorithm was developed. The algorithm is resistant to a noise and a scanning speed instability. We have found an upper bound of the impact of dusty structures on the profile width. The appearance of macroparticles changes the atomic plasma temperature less than by 10 K.

  19. Modeling of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional etch profiles in high density plasma reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.J.; Kushner, M.J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Sukharev, V. [LSI Logic Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In order to model the plasma etching process from plasma generation to etch profile evolution, processes from the macroscopic reactor scale to the microscopic feature scale must be simulated. An integrated monte Carlo feature Profile Model (MCFPM) has been developed to examine the time evolution of etch profiles in high density plasma systems. By integrating the MCFPM with the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model (HPEM), the authors are able to self-consistently determine the etch profiles for specific regions on the wafer in specific reactor geometry with specified parameters for power, chemistry, gas flow, etc. The latest improvements of the model include the effects of incoming particle angle and energy on reaction and reflection based on the results of molecular dynamics simulations. Increase the specular reflection of high energy particles leads to more vertical sidewalls and corner clearing but can also cause deformation of the bottom of the profile surface. For Chlorine etching of 2D and 3D profiles in polysilicon, the model results will be compared to experimental results in an inductively couple etching reactor. The changes due to radial location as well as sub wafer and superwafer topography be examined.

  20. Interpretation of plasma amino acid profile using multiple marker approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Subbotina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis of plasma amino acid profile in a group of patients with left ventricular outflow tract pathology (n = 151 increased levels of serine, alanine, arginine, and lysine has been found. These metabolic shifts can be linked with the development of circulatory deficiency and mitochondrial dysfunction. The differentiation of the reference values intervals helps in the assessment of individual amino acid profiles.

  1. Proton Stopping Power of Different Density Profile Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Andreev, Alexander A; Schnürer, Matthias; Morales, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first one, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of an ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  2. PROTON STOPPING POWER OF DIFFERENT DENSITY PROFILE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first instance, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of a ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as a function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  3. Effect of gasification parameter on coal gasification in thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S.; Pang, X.; Bao, W.; Lo, Y.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-12-01

    The influence of several parameters such as the power input of plasma jet, vapor and air input etc on gas composition and carbon conversion from coal gasification in an air-steam plasma jet was studied. The main gaseous products are H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}4 and tar was discovered. Results show that the concentration of H{sub 2}, CO and carbon conversion increases, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} significantly decreases, when the power input of plasma jet is raised. The concentration of H{sub 2} increases when the vapor flux is increased, but excessive steam can decrease carbon conversion. The carbon conversion is enhanced by decreasing feed rate. The air flux should be reduced to improve the quality of coal gas in a certain range. The carbon conversion of Datong coal can exceed 95% at appropriate condition. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Differences between human plasma and serum metabolite profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human plasma and serum are widely used matrices in clinical and biological studies. However, different collecting procedures and the coagulation cascade influence concentrations of both proteins and metabolites in these matrices. The effects on metabolite concentration profiles have not been fully characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the concentrations of 163 metabolites in plasma and serum samples collected simultaneously from 377 fasting individuals. To ensure data quality, 41 metabolites with low measurement stability were excluded from further analysis. In addition, plasma and corresponding serum samples from 83 individuals were re-measured in the same plates and mean correlation coefficients (r of all metabolites between the duplicates were 0.83 and 0.80 in plasma and serum, respectively, indicating significantly better stability of plasma compared to serum (p = 0.01. Metabolite profiles from plasma and serum were clearly distinct with 104 metabolites showing significantly higher concentrations in serum. In particular, 9 metabolites showed relative concentration differences larger than 20%. Despite differences in absolute concentration between the two matrices, for most metabolites the overall correlation was high (mean r = 0.81±0.10, which reflects a proportional change in concentration. Furthermore, when two groups of individuals with different phenotypes were compared with each other using both matrices, more metabolites with significantly different concentrations could be identified in serum than in plasma. For example, when 51 type 2 diabetes (T2D patients were compared with 326 non-T2D individuals, 15 more significantly different metabolites were found in serum, in addition to the 25 common to both matrices. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that reproducibility was good in both plasma and serum, and better in plasma. Furthermore, as long as the same blood preparation procedure is

  5. Programmable physical parameter optimization for particle plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, Benjamin; Verboncoeur, John; Lin, Ming-Chieh

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a scheme for interactive and programmable optimization of physical parameters for plasma simulations. The simulation code Object-Oriented Plasma Device 1-D (OOPD1) has been adapted to a Python interface, allowing sophisticated user or program interaction with simulations, and detailed numerical analysis via numpy. Because the analysis/diagnostic interface is the same as the input mechanism (the Python programming language), it is straightforward to optimize simulation parameters based on analysis of previous runs and automate the optimization process using a user-determined scheme and criteria. An example use case of the Child-Langmuir space charge limit in bipolar flow is demonstrated, where the beam current is iterated upon by measuring the relationship of the measured current and the injected current.

  6. Investigation of plasma parameters in an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma used for plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Khattak, Z. I.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shabir, S.; Khan, A. W.; Zakaullah, M.

    2014-11-01

    Active screen cage-pulsed dc plasmas are widely used in the material processing applications such as plasma nitriding, carburizing and nitrocarburizing. Specifically for plasma nitriding applications, a H2-N2 mixture is used. In this article, a study of the electron number density (ne), atomic nitrogen density ([N]), electron temperature ? and the excitation temperature ? is reported in the presence of an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma. The ne and ? are determined here by a triple Langmuir probe, while [N] and ? are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The two temperatures and their ratio ? are compared for different input parameters (such as applied power, gas pressure and H2 percentage). This study is useful in active screen cage plasma nitriding applications where only few plasma diagnostic measurements have been reported.

  7. Study on Performance Parameters of the Plasma Source for a Short-Conduction-Time Plasma Opening Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weixi; ZENG Zhengzhong; WANG Liangping; LEI Tianshi; HU Yixiang; HUANG Tao; SUN Tieping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma source performance parameters, including plasma ejection density and velocity, greatly affect the operation of a short-conduction-time plasma opening switch (POS). In this paper, the plasma source used in the POS of Qiangguang I generator is chosen as the study object. At first the POS working process is analyzed. The result shows that the opening performance of the POS can be improved by increasing the plasma ejection velocity and decreasing the plasma density. The influence of the cable plasma gun structure and number on the plasma ejection parameters is experimentally investigated with two charge collectors. Finally a semi-empirical model is proposed to describe the experimental phenomenon.

  8. Profiling compact toroid plasma density on CTIX with laser deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, Samuel Joseph Erwin

    A laser deflectometer measures line-integrated plasma density gradient using laser diodes and amplified point detectors. A laser passing through an optically thin plasma is refracted by an amount proportional to the line-integrated electron density gradient. I have designed, installed, and operated a deflection diagnostic for the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX), a plasma rail gun which can create compact toroid (CT) plasmas of controllable density and velocity. The diagnostic design and motivation are discussed, as well as three experiments performed with deflectometry. Thus, my thesis consists of the design of the deflectometer diagnostic, a comparison of its accuracy to interferometer density measurements, and finally a survey of compact toroid density profiles in two dimensions conducted with an array of detectors.

  9. Effect of Substrate Potential on Plasma Parameters of Magnetic Multicusp Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Masahiro

    1998-06-01

    The effect of substrate potential on plasmas produced in a magnetic multicusp plasma source has been studied experimentally. Plasma parameters such as electron temperature and plasma potential are estimated from electron energy distribution function numerically calculated from probe current-voltage characteristics. For a substrate potential of -150 V with respect to the source chamber, which is much lower than substrate floating potentials, the plasma parameters are not affected by the application of the potential. However, for the case where the substrate is shorted with the source chamber, the high energy component of electrons significantly decreases in comparison with the floating case leading to the reduction of electron temperature. In this case, plasma potential is positive with respect to the substrate to suppress electron loss but its absolute value is only of the order of electron temperature in eV, which is much lower than the potential between the plasma and the substrate in the floating case. This discharge mode could be advantageous in significantly reducing the ion impact energy to the substrate plate.

  10. Modifications of plasma density profile and thrust by neutral injection in a helicon plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Ando, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Argon propellant is introduced from the upstream and downstream sides of a high power helicon plasma thruster. The plasma density profile and the imparted thrust are measured for various upstream and downstream argon flow rates, where the total gas flow rate of 70 sccm and the resultant vacuum chamber pressure of 0.2 mTorr are maintained. It is observed that the imparted thrust increases with an increase in the downstream gas flow rate; simultaneously an upstream-peaking profile of the plasma density observed for the upstream gas injection becomes uniform for the downstream gas injection. The difference in the thrust between the upstream and downstream gas injections is enhanced by increasing the rf power. The observed density profiles are qualitatively consistent with theoretical predictions taking a neutral depletion effect into account.

  11. Optimal Density Profile of the Plasma Layer Shielded by a Conducting Surface for the Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王舸; 曹金祥; 宋法伦

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Born approximation, we reduce the approximate analysis solution to the normal and oblique incident electromagnetic wave scattering from the weakly ionized plasma layer shielded by a conducting surface. The solution is closely related to the density profile of the plasma layer. Employing the self-consistent base function, we yield the optimal density profile for the nonuniform plasma layer with the frequencies of incident electromagnetic waves ranging from 4-10 GHz. Numerical studies illustrate the optimal density profile can "survive" wide ranges of the plasma parameters. Different from the validity condition for the Wenzell-Kramers-Brillouin-Jeffreys (WKBJ) approximation, the Born approximation is feasible even if the scale length is smaller than the wavelength.Therefore, the Born approximation is universal against the scattering problem from the weakly ionized plasma.

  12. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  13. Feature Profile Evolution of SiO2 Trenches In Fluorocarbon Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Helen; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arunachalam, Valli; Rauf, Shahid; Coronell, Dan; Carroll, Carol W. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Etching of silicon microstructures for semiconductor manufacturing in chlorine plasmas has been well characterized. The etching proceeds in a two-part process, where the chlorine neutrals passivate the Si surface and then the ions etch away SiClx. However, etching in more complicated gas mixtures and materials, such as etching of SiO2 in Ar/C4F8, requires knowledge of the ion and neutral distribution functions as a function of angle and velocity, in addition to modeling the gas surface reactions. In order to address these needs, we have developed and integrated a suite of models to simulate the etching process from the plasma reactor level to the feature profile evolution level. This arrangement allows for a better understanding, control, and prediction of the influence of equipment level process parameters on feature profile evolution. We are currently using the HPEM (Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model) and PCMCM (Plasma Chemistry Monte Carlo Model) to generate plasma properties and ion and neutral distribution functions for argon/fluorocarbon discharges in a GEC Reference Cell. These quantities are then input to the feature scale model, Simulation of Profile Evolution by Level Sets (SPELS). A surface chemistry model is used to determine the interaction of the incoming species with the substrate material and simulate the evolution of the trench profile. The impact of change of gas pressure and inductive power on the relative flux of CFx and F to the wafer, the etch and polymerization rates, and feature profiles will be examined. Comparisons to experimental profiles will also be presented.

  14. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in head and neck cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Prabhudas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. AIMS : The present study evaluated alterations in plasma lipid profile in untreated head and neck cancer patients as well as patients with oral precancerous conditions (OPC and its association with habit of tobacco consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS : This hospital-based case control study included 184 head and neck cancer patients, 153 patients with OPC and 52 controls. Plasma lipids including: (i Total cholesterol, (ii LDL cholesterol (LDLC, (iii HDL cholesterol (HDLC (iv VLDL cholesterol (VLDLC and (v triglycerides were analysed by spectrophotometric kits. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED : Student′s t-test was performed to compare mean values of the parameters. RESULTS : A significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and HDLC was observed in cancer patients (P=0.008 and P=0.000 respectively as well as in patients with OPC (P=0.014 and P=0.000, respectively as compared to the controls. The plasma VLDL and triglycerides levels were significantly lower in cancer patients as compared to the patients with OPC (P=0.04 and controls (P=0.059. The tobacco habituates showed lower plasma lipid levels than the non-habituates. Our data strengthen the evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma lipid levels and head and neck malignancies as well as OPC. CONCLUSION :The lower levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biogenesis. The findings strongly warrant an in-depth study of alterations in plasma lipid profile in head neck cancer patients.

  15. Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

  16. Plasma Processes : Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bornali Singha; A Sharma; J Chutia

    2000-11-01

    The variation of electron temperature and plasma density in a magnetized 2 plasma is studied experimentally in presence of a grid placed at the middle of the system. Plasma leaks through the negatively biased grid from the source region into the diffused region. It is observed that the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field in the diffused region whereas it decreases in the source region of the system for a constant grid biasing voltage. Also, investigation is done to see the change of electron temperature with grid biasing voltage for a constant magnetic field. This is accompanied by the study of the variation of sheath structure across the grid for different magnetic field and grid biasing voltage as well. It reveals that with increasing magnetic field and negative grid biasing voltage, the sheath thickness expands.

  17. A study on plasma parameters in Ar/SF6 inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas or Ar/SF6 mixing gas is widely used in plasma processes. However, there are a little experimental studies with various external parameters such as gas pressure and mixing ratio. In this work, a study of the plasma parameters by changing the gas mixing ratio was done in an Ar/SF6 inductively coupled plasma from the measurement of the electron energy distribution function. At a low gas pressure, as the mixing ratio of SF6 gas increased at a fixed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power, the electron density decreased and the electron temperature increased, while they were not changed drastically. At a high gas pressure, a remarkable increase in the electron temperature was observed with the decrease in the electron density. These variations are due to the electron loss reactions such as the electron attachment. It was also found that at a fixed ICP power, the negative ion creation with the diluted SF6 gas can change the discharge mode transition from an inductive mode to a capacitive mode at the high gas pressure. The electron attachment reactions remove the low energy electrons and change the mean electron energy towards higher energies with diluting SF6 gas at high pressure. The measured results were compared with the simplified global model, and the global model is in relatively good agreement with the measured plasma parameters except for the result in the case of the large portion of SF6 gas at the high pressure and the capacitive mode, which causes strong negative ion formation by the electron attachment reactions.

  18. Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.

    2016-11-01

    Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas.

  19. Evolution of plasma parameters in a He - N2/Ar magnetic pole enhanced inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Maria; Rehman, N. U.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Abrar, M.

    2016-02-01

    A magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled H e - N2/A r plasma is studied at low pressure, to monitor the effects of helium mixing on plasma parameters like electron number density (ne) , electron temperature (Te) , plasma potential (Vp ) , and electron energy probability functions (EEPFs). An RF compensated Langmuir probe is employed to measure these plasma parameters. It is noted that electron number density increases with increasing RF power and helium concentration in the mixture, while it decreases with increase in filling gas pressure. On the other hand, electron temperature shows an increasing trend with helium concentration in the mixture. At low RF powers and low helium concentration in the mixture, EEPFs show a "bi-Maxwellian" distribution with pressure. While at RF powers greater than 50 W and higher helium concentration in the mixture, EEPFs evolve into "Maxwellian" distribution. The variation of skin depth with RF power and helium concentration in the mixture, and its relation with EEPF are also studied. The effect of helium concentrations on the temperatures of two electron groups ( Tb u l k and Tt a i l ) in the "bi-Maxwellian" EEPFs is also observed. The temperature of low energy electron group ( Tb u l k) shows significant increase with helium addition, while the temperature of tail electrons ( Tt a i l) increases smoothly as compared to ( Tb u l k).

  20. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  1. Highly Multiplexed Profiling of Low Abundance Tumor Mutations in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggin, Matthew; Pel, Joel; Vysotskaia, Valentina; Broemeling, David; Marziali, Andre; Hanson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel somatic mutation enrichment methodology demonstrating multiplexed detection of tumor mutations in plasma with sensitivity as low as 0.01% compared to normal DNA. This highly sensitive detection of low abundance mutations is achieved using electrophoretic separation and enrichment of DNA fragments containing point mutations over their wild-type counterparts. Commercialized as the OnTarget platform by Boreal Genomics, the system enriches nucleic acid samples for specific targets prior to amplification and detection, enabling the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) or other detection assays for plasma or FFPE-based mutation detection and profiling. We present data demonstrating highly sensitive and multiplexed detection of panels of up to 100 mutations in plasma samples, improving the sensitivity of NGS assays to below 0.01% mutant content. We also report on concordance studies comparing low tumor content FFPE tissue and matched plasma in human samples demonstrating that OnTarget represents a robust, highly sensitive and multiplexed platform for non-invasive tumor monitoring.

  2. The effect of plasma operating parameters on analyte signals in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, G.; Tan, S. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    Utilizing the SCIEX ICP-MS an extensive study of the effects that plasma operating parameters have on analyte ion signals in ICP-MS has been carried out. Parameters studied included aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure), auxiliary flow rate, power and sampling depth (sampling position from the load coil). The two key parameters are aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure) and power. Elements can be grouped into characteristic behaviour patterns based on the overall dependence of their ion count signal on these two parameters. The nebulizer pressure-power behavior patterns allow a sensible selection of compromise operating conditions and significantly clarify single parameter observations which often indicate confusing trends in behavior. In addition to characterizing analyte ion signals the parameter behavior plots have also been used to study oxide species and plus two ions in ICP-MS. While aerosol flow rate and power appear to be the key ICP parameters in ICP-MS, ion signals are dependent on sampling depth and auxiliary flow rate and some data are also presented illustrating the signal dependence on these two parameters.

  3. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  4. Use of a probing pulsed magnetic field for determining plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A novel, simple, and readily usable method is proposed for measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of a plasma. The method is based on the interaction of the test plasma with a pulsed magnetic field. The electric signals induced by the magnetic field in the circuits of two probes (miniature solenoids), one immersed in the test plasma and the other placed outside the plasma, provide data for estimating the plasma parameters. The method was verified experimentally by determining the parameters of the plasma flows generated in the cathode spots high-current pulsed vacuum arcs that were used to form cylindrical shells of bismuth Z-pinch plasma.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics reveals strong sex effect on plasma metabolism in 17-year-old Scandinavians and correlation to retrospective infant plasma parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Duus, Jens Ø; Petersen, Bent O; Hoppe, Camilla; Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was carried out on plasma samples from a total of seventy-five 17-year-old Danes to investigate the impact of key parameters such as sex, height, weight, and body mass index on the plasma metabolite profile in a normal, healthy population. Principal component analysis identified sex to have a large impact on the NMR plasma metabolome, whereas no apparent effects of height, weight, and body mass index were found. Partial least square regression discriminant analysis and quantification of relative metabolite concentrations by integration of NMR signals revealed that the sex effect included differences in plasma lipoproteins (mainly high-density lipoprotein), glucose, choline, and amino acid content. Accordingly, the present study suggests a higher lipid synthesis in young women than young men and a higher protein turnover in young men compared with women. Data on plasma content of triglyceride, lipoprotein fractions, and cholesterol at an age of 9 months were available for selected individuals (n = 40); and partial least square regressions revealed correlations between these infant parameters and the NMR plasma metabolome at an age of 17 years. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of NMR-based metabonomics for obtaining a deeper insight into interindividual differences in metabolism and for exploring relationships between parameters measured early in life and metabolic status at a later stage.

  6. Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2010-11-01

    We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.

  7. Plasma microRNA profiles distinguish lethal injury in acetaminophen toxicity: A research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeanine Ward; Shashi Bala; Jan Petrasek; Gyongyi Szabo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate plasma microRNA (miRNA) profiles indicative of hepatotoxicity in the setting of lethal acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in mice.METHODS:Using plasma from APAP poisoned mice,either lethally (500 mg/kg) or sublethally (150 mg/kg) dosed,we screened commercially available murine microRNA libraries (SABiosciences,Qiagen Sciences,MD) to evaluate for unique miRNA profiles between these two dosing parameters.RESULTS:We distinguished numerous,unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice.Of note,many of the greatest up- and downregulated miRNAs,namely 574-5p,466g,466f-3p,375,29c,and 148a,have been shown to be associated with asthma in prior studies.Interestingly,a relationship between APAP and asthma has been previously well described in the literature,with an as yet unknown mechanism of pathology.There was a statistically significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels in the lethal compared to sublethal APAP dosing groups at the 12 h time point (P <0.001).There was 90% mortality in the lethally compared to sublethally dosed mice at the 48 h time point (P =0.011).CONCLUSION:We identified unique plasma miRNAs both up- and downregulated in APAP poisoning which are correlated to asthma development.

  8. Nonlinear Optical Parameters of Magnetoactive Semiconductor-Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Joseph, D.; Duhan, S.

    The nonlinear optical parameters (absorption coefficient and refractive index) of semiconductor-plasmas subjected to a transverse magnetic field have been investigated analytically. By employing the coupled-mode scheme, an expression of third-order optical susceptibility and resultant nonlinear absorption and refractive index of the medium are obtained. The analysis has been applied to both cases, viz., centrosymmetric (β = 0) and noncentrosymmetric (β ≠ 0) in the presence of magnetic field. The numerical estimates are made for InSb crystal at liquid nitrogen temperature duly irradiated by a 10-nanosecond pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. The influence of doping concentration and magnetic field on both the nonlinear absorption and refractive index has been explored, and the results are found to be well in agreement with theory and experiment. Analysis further establishes that absorption coefficient and refractive index can be controlled with precision in semiconductors by the proper selection of doping concentration and an external magnetic field, and hence these media may be used for fabrication of fast cubic nonlinear optical devices under off-resonant transition regime.

  9. Spectroscopic studies of the parameters of plasma jets during their propagation in the background plasma on the PF-3 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of neon and helium plasma parameters in axial jets generated in plasma focus discharge. They were obtained in the course of experiments on laboratory modeling of astrophysical jets performed at the PF-3 facility. The plasma concentration was determined according to Stark broadening of spectral lines; the ionization temperature was determined by the average ion charge. The values of the concentration and temperature of jet plasma and background plasma at two distances from the pinch are also presented. In addition, an estimation was made of the heat content losses of the neon and helium jets during their movement through the surrounding medium.

  10. Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model

    CERN Document Server

    Dnestrovskij, Yu N

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o

  11. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  12. Influence of geometrical parameters on performance of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Jia, Min; Song, Hui-min; Liang, Hua; Li, Ying-hong; Zhang, Zhi-bo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) has shown wide and promising application prospects in a high speed flow control field, due to its rapid response, high exhaust velocity, and non-moving components. In this paper, the total pressure profile of a plasma synthetic jet (PSJ) is measured and a new method is developed to evaluate the pulsed thrust of the PSJA. The influence of geometrical parameters including the electrode distance, the orifice diameter, and the throat length on PSJA performance is analyzed based on the pulsed thrust, the discharge characteristics, and the schlieren images. When varying the electrode distance, the dominant factor determining the jet intensity is the heating volume instead of the discharge energy. For the arc discharge, the electrode distance should be extended to increase both the jet velocity and the jet duration time. The design of the orifice diameter should be based on the controlled flow field. A large orifice diameter produces a strong perturbation with short time duration, while a small orifice diameter induces a lasting jet with low mass flux. In order to obtain better high frequency performance, the throat length should be shortened on the condition that the structural strength of the PSJA is maintained, while there is almost no influence of the throat length on the single cycle performance of the PSJA. Once the discharge energy is fixed, the pulsed thrust remains almost unchanged with different orifice diameters and throat lengths. These three geometrical parameters are independent to some extent and can be optimized separately.

  13. Understanding the core density profile in TCV H-mode plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Wágner, Dávid; Pitzschke, Andreas; Sauter, Olivier; Weisen, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Results from a database analysis of H-mode electron density profiles on the Tokamak \\`a Configuration Variable (TCV) in stationary conditions show that the logarithmic electron density gradient increases with collisionality. By contrast, usual observations of H-modes showed that the electron density profiles tend to flatten with increasing collisionality. In this work it is reinforced that the role of collisionality alone, depending on the parameter regime, can be rather weak and in these, dominantly electron heated TCV cases, the electron density gradient is tailored by the underlying turbulence regime, which is mostly determined by the ratio of the electron to ion temperature and that of their gradients. Additionally, mostly in ohmic plasmas, the Ware-pinch can significantly contribute to the density peaking. Qualitative agreement between the predicted density peaking by quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations and the experimental results is found. Quantitative comparison would necessitate ion temperature meas...

  14. Toothbrush probe for instantaneous measurement of radial profile in tokamak boundary plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Sengoku, Seio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    1997-04-01

    A new probe for the instantaneous measurement of radial profiles of the boundary scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma has been developed in a tokamak. Five asymmetric double-probe chips are aligned in parallel to a strong magnetic field in the boundary plasma in a tokamak. This probe is named the `toothbrush probe` and can measure the ion temperature as well as the electron temperature and the plasma density in the SOL plasma within only one tokamak plasma shot. First, only one asymmetric probe is mounted on the divertor plate and it is tried to determine the ion temperature. Then, a manufactured toothbrush probe is mounted in the SOL plasma and the radial plasma profiles are simultaneously obtained. Data on the e-folding length of the plasma profile obtained by the toothbrush probe can determine the information on the transport properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity of electrons and ions. (author)

  15. Multi-parameter gradient procedure for polarimetry data inversion in tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, J., E-mail: j.chrzanowski@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Kravtsov, Yu. A. [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Mazon, D. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache DSM/IRFM, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); JET, Culham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We use gradient procedure to fit plasma parameters to polarimetric data. ► Calculations are performed in developed by authors angular variables technique. ► Numerical results are compared with experimentally measured angular parameters. ► We observe satisfied accuracy of inversion procedure after several iterations. -- Abstract: Multi-parameter gradient procedure is suggested which allows fitting tokamak plasma model to polarimetric data. One of the simplest version of gradient procedure deals with four parameters model: maximum values of electron density, maximum value of electric current density in plasma, common radius of electron density, electric current distributions and increment of the safety factor inside plasma. Using recently developed by authors angular variables technique (AVT) in plasma polarimetry we may compute angular parameters of polarization ellipse for a given set of four plasma parameters and compare them with experimentally measured angular parameters. With angular parameters, measured in two channels polarimetric system (two azimuthal and two ellipticity angles, totally four experimental values). Applying then gradient procedure for squared difference between computed and measured parameters, we find four parameters of plasma model and thereby perform inversion of polarimetric data. Numerical simulations have approved that gradient procedure provides acceptable accuracy of inversion already after several iterations.

  16. Synthesis of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma Arc: Role of Plasma Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhart, Samir; Scott, Carl D.

    2000-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are porous objects on the molecular scale and have a low density, which gives them potential applications as adsorbent for molecular hydrogen. Their H2 absorption capacity published in the literature varies from 4 to 10% by mass according to the purity of the materials and storage conditions. Optimization of production methods of SWNTs should permit improving these new materials for storage of hydrogen. In this article, we show the potential of using SWNTs in hydrogen storage. In particular, we pose problems associated with synthesis, purification, and opening up of the nanotubes. We present an electric arc process currently used at laboratory scale to produce single wall carbon nanotubes. We discuss, in particular, operating conditions that permit growth of nanotubes and some plasma parameters that assure control of the material. Analysis of the process is carried out with the aid of local measurements of temperature and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the materials.

  17. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  18. Metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles in cows from herds with high or low mastitis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtenius, K; Persson Waller, K; Essén-Gustavsson, B; Holtenius, P; Hallén Sandgren, C

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there were differences in metabolic parameters and blood leukocyte profiles between cows in herds with high or low yearly mastitis incidence. In this study, 271 cows from 20 high yielding dairy herds were examined. According to the selection criteria, all herds had low somatic cell counts. Ten of the selected herds represented low mastitis treatment incidence (LMI) and ten herds had high mastitis treatment incidence (HMI). The farms were visited once and blood samples were taken from each cow that was in the interval from three weeks before to 15 weeks after parturition. The eosinophil count was significantly lower among cows from the HMI herds in the period from four weeks to 15 weeks after parturition. The plasma concentrations of beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, insulin and urea did not differ between groups, but the concentration of nonesterified fatty acids was significantly higher among HMI cows during the period three weeks after parturition. The concentration of the amino acid tryptophan in plasma was significantly lower among the HMI cows prior to parturition. Glutamine was significantly lower in cows from HMI herds during the first three weeks after parturition. Arginine was consistently lower in HMI cows, although the decrease was only significant during the period from four to fifteen weeks after parturition. The results suggest that there were differences in the metabolism and immune status between herds with high or low yearly mastitis treatment incidence indicating an increased metabolic stress in HMI cows.

  19. Relevant parameter space and stability of spherical tokamaks with a plasma center column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, L. G.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Farengo, R.

    2017-02-01

    A spherical tokamak (ST) with a plasma center column (PCC) can be formed inside a simply connected chamber via driven magnetic relaxation. From a practical perspective, the ST-PCC could overcome many difficulties associated with the material center column of the standard ST reactor design. Besides, the ST-PCC concept can be regarded as an advanced helicity injected device that would enable novel experiments on the key physics of magnetic relaxation and reconnection. This is because the concept includes not only a PCC but also a coaxial helicity injector (CHI). This combination implies an improved level of flexibility in the helicity injection scheme required for the formation and sustainment phases. In this work, the parameter space determining the magnetic structure of the ST-PCC equilibria is studied under the assumption of fully relaxed plasmas. In particular, it is shown that the effect of the external bias field of the PCC and the CHI essentially depends on a single parameter that measures the relative amount of flux of these two entities. The effect of plasma elongation on the safety factor profile and the stability to the tilt mode are also analyzed. In the first part of this work, the stability of the system is explained in terms of the minimum energy principle, and relevant stability maps are constructed. While this picture provides an adequate insight into the underlying physics of the instability, it does not include the stabilizing effect of line-tying at the electrodes. In the second part, a dynamical stability analysis of the ST-PCC configurations, including the effect of line-tying, is performed by numerically solving the magnetohydrodynamic equations. A significant stability enhancement is observed when the PCC contains more than the 70% of the total external bias flux, and the elongation is not higher than two.

  20. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  1. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines. Annual progress report, June 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre, K.

    1993-05-01

    We are developing a profile analysis code for the statistical estimation of the parametric dependencies of the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. Our code uses advanced statistical techniques to determine the optimal fit, i.e. the fit which minimized the predictive error. For a forty TFTR Ohmic profile dataset, our preliminary results indicate that the profile shape depends almost exclusively on q{sub a}{prime} but that the shape dependencies are not Gaussian. We are now comparing various shape models on the TFTR data. In the first six months, we have completed the core modules of the code, including a B-spline package for variable knot locations, a data-based method to determine the optimal smoothing parameters, self-consistent estimation of the bias errors, and adaptive fitting near the plasma edge. Visualization graphics already include three dimensional surface plots, and discharge by discharge plots of the predicted curves with error bars together with the actual measurements values, and plots of the basis functions with errors.

  2. Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP in Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AN Wahida Sultana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables are associated with an increased risk of coronary diseases. Low levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and other antioxidants may enhance the production of oxidized LDL and are important independent risk factors for coronary disease. Objective: To make a comparative evaluation of lipid profile and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka between July 2011 to June 2012. Vegetarian and nonvegetarian subjects of male sex were the study population. Vegetarians were considered as cases while nonvegetarians as controls. After proper ethical consideration a total of 30 vegetarians and 40 nonvegetarians were consecutively included in the study based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Laboratory investigations were done in the Department of Biochemistry, BSMMU, Dhaka. Results: The vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol and LDLcholesterol than the nonvegetarians (p=0.000 and p=0.000 respectively. Serum HDL cholesterol was also lower among the vegetarians (p=0.002 and triglycerides were almost identical in both the groups (p=0.272. Conclusion: The study reveals lower level of total cholesterol, LDLcholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in vegetarians. No difference regarding triglycerides and AIP was found between the groups. So, the findings of this study do not indicate any superiority of vegetarian diet in control and prevention of cardiac diseases.

  3. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  4. Parameters of anaerobic physiological profile of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaerobic capacity is much less evaluated in literature compared to aerobic component. Anaerobic performance of athletes can be measured using different motoric tests, lasting 20 to 30 seconds, one of them being the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the work performed and power generated by athletes and non-athletes during a 30-second high intensity exercise, as well as to compare explosive characteristics of subjects using a new parameter of WAnT, named explosive power, or slope of power. Methods. All parameters of anaerobic power were investigated in 152 subjects classed into different groups depending on their physical fitness and sport specialties as follows: non-athletes (n=31, rowers (n=26, volleyball players (n=37, handball players (n=34 and judo players (n=24. The WAnT, as well as basic anthropometric measurements, was administrated to all participants. Results. Values of anaerobic parameters were higher in the group of athletes compared to physically inactive subjects. The highest values of the WAnT parameters were registered in the group of volleyball players (AP=1006 W; relative AP=11.4 W/ kg, AC=19.8 kJ, compared to athletes of other sport disciplines (volleyball, rowing and judo. The new parameter of the WAnT, explosive power, also showed highest values in volleyball players (EP=154 W/s; relative EP=1.74 W/s/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of laboratory tests can provide useful information on improvements in training processes. The new parameter of the WAnT could be implemented in further analyses of explosive characteristics of muscle contraction.

  5. Integral electrical characteristics and local plasma parameters of a RF ion thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masherov, P. E.; Riaby, V. A., E-mail: riaby2001@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics of the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Godyak, V. A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA and RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Comprehensive diagnostics has been carried out for a RF ion thruster based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source with an external flat antenna coil enhanced by ferrite core. The ICP was confined within a cylindrical chamber with low aspect ratio to minimize plasma loss to the chamber wall. Integral diagnostics of the ICP electrical parameters (RF power balance and coil current) allowed for evaluation of the antenna coils, matching networks, and eddy current loss and the true RF power deposited to plasma. Spatially resolved electron energy distribution functions, plasma density, electron temperatures, and plasma potentials were measured with movable Langmuir probes.

  6. Plasma Arc Cutting Dimensional Accuracy Optimization employing the Parameter Design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagias John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC is a thermal manufacturing process used for metal plates cutting. This work experimentally investigates the influence of process parameters onto the dimensional accuracy performance of the plasma arc cutting process. The cutting parameters studied were cutting speed (mm/min, torch standoff distance (mm, and arc voltage (volts. Linear dimensions of a rectangular workpiece were measured after PAC cutting following the full factorial design experimental approach. For each one of the three process parameters, three parameter levels were used. Analysis of means (ANOM and analysis of variances (ANOVA were performed in order for the effect of each parameter on the leaner dimensional accuracy to be assessed.

  7. Calibration of effective soil hydraulic parameters of heterogeneous soil profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Dam, van J.C.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.; Feddes, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Distributed hydrological models are useful tools to analyse the performance of irrigation systems at different levels. For the successful application of these models, it is imperative that effective soil hydraulic parameters at the scale of model application are known. The majority of previous

  8. Planck intermediate results: XVI. Profile likelihoods for cosmological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, J.G.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Delabrouille, J.

    2014-01-01

    mass distribution. By applying the Feldman-Cousins prescription, we again obtain results very similar to those of the Bayesian methodology. However, the profile-likelihood analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) combination (Planck+WP+highL) reveals a minimum well within the unphysical...... negative-mass region. We show that inclusion of the Planck CMB-lensing information regularizes this issue, and provide a robust frequentist upper limit σmv ≤0:26 eV (95% confidence) from the CMB+lensing+BAO data combination. © ESO 2014....

  9. Increasing plasma parameters using sheared flow stabilization of a Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Hughes, M. C.; Oberto, R. J.; Ross, M. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    The ZaP and ZaP-HD Flow Z-pinch experiments at the University of Washington have successfully demonstrated that sheared plasma flows can be used as a stabilization mechanism over a range of parameters that has not previously been accessible to long-lived Z-pinch configurations. The stabilization is effective even when the plasma column is compressed to small radii, producing predicted increases in magnetic field and electron temperature. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression has increased the accessible plasma parameters and has generated stable plasmas with radii of 0.3 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. Compressing the plasma with higher pinch currents has produced high magnetic fields (8.5 T) and electron temperatures (1 keV) with an electron density of 2 ×1017 cm-3, while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfvén times (approximately 50 μs). The results suggest that sheared flow stabilization can be applied to extend Z-pinch plasma parameters to high energy densities.

  10. Formularization of the confinement enhancement factor as a function of the heating profile for FFHR-d1 core plasma design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, J.; Goto, T.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Suzuki, C.; Funaba, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, I.; Murakami, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Peterson, B. J.; Yamada, H.; Sagara, A.; the FFHR Design Group

    2012-12-01

    A quantitative estimation of the confinement enhancement due to the heating profile effect is introduced to the helical fusion DEMO reactor design of FFHR-d1, based on the experimental results of the Large Helical Device. By applying this to the direct profile extrapolation (DPE) method, radial profiles in the reactor are extrapolated from experimental results. In reactor plasmas, the heat deposition profile of alpha heating is expected to be peaked in the core region as in the case of tangential neutral beam (NB) injection on low-density plasmas. The height of the pressure profile normalized by the gyro-Bohm-type parameter dependence increases with the power (˜0.6) of the peaking factor of the heat deposition profile, as long as the core confinement degradation observed in low-density plasmas is ignored. According to this observation, the confinement enhancement factor expected under the self-ignition condition ranges from ˜1.1 to ˜1.7, for example, depending on the used data. Degradation of the global energy confinement observed in high-density NB-heated plasmas is mitigated and the gyro-Bohm-type parameter dependence reappears after introducing the confinement enhancement due to the heating profile effect. Finally, typical example profiles in FFHR-d1 are provided by the DPE method for future analyses.

  11. Effects of the plasma profiles on photon and pair production in ultrahigh intensity laser solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y. X.; Jin, X. L., E-mail: jinxiaolin@uestc.edu.cn; Yan, W. Z.; Li, J. Q.; Li, B. [Vacuum Electronics National Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, J. Q. [Vacuum Electronics National Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    The model of photon and pair production in strong field quantum electrodynamics is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using this code, the evolution of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}) interaction with aluminum foil target is observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations. The effects of initial plasma profiles on photon and pair production, energy spectra, and energy evolution are analyzed. The results imply that one can set an optimal initial plasma profile to obtain the desired photon distributions.

  12. Measuring the parameters of a high flux plasma in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, C.; Biewer, T. M.; Cantrell, C. L.; Klemm, J. C.; Musick, R. A.; Nunley, G.; Salazar Sanchez, J. S.; Sawyer, D. J.; Ray, H.; Shaw, G.; Showers, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear, magnetically confined plasma production device, utilizing a helicon antenna. The plasma column interacts with a material target at the end of the device, creating plasma-material interaction conditions that are relevant to the conditions that are expected in future fusion reactors. Moreover, helicon antenna plasma sources have been proposed as propulsion devices for spacecraft. It has been observed that in some circumstances the Proto-MPEX plasma exerts sufficient force on the target plate to cause the target to recoil. A ballistic probe has been designed to measure the force and heat flux profile of the plasma. The probe response has been calibrated, using scales, thermocouples, and fast camera imaging. The ballistic probe has been inserted into Proto-MPEX plasmas and the heat flux profile of the plasma has been measured. Also the maximum force that is exerted on the probe has been estimated. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities ARC program.

  13. Langmuir probe Diagnostic for local parameter measurement in Magnetized Plasma using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijal Vara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, plasma technology is used by Semiconductor, thin film industries for deposit layers, etching process and surface modification. So it is necessary to understanding internal plasma parameter. Langmuir probe is one of the simplest techniques which is used to measure wide range of plasma parameter like plasma potential, floating potential, electron temperature, electron energy distribution function (EEDF etc. Langmuir current voltage characteristic is obtained by varying bias voltage of the probe. LabVIEW is most powerful Microsoft window compatible software which is used to immediate data acquisition and analysis. In this paper describes analysis of Langmuir data using LabVIEW software which automatically measure I-V Plasma probe Characteristics and obtain EEDF of plasma.

  14. Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in the Seminal Plasma of German Shepherd Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNAY, Ülgen

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of some biochemical parameters in the seminal plasma of German Shepherd dogs. Seven German Shepherd dogs were used as materials. A total of 35 ejaculates, five from each dog, were collected. The seminal plasma of each ejaculate was separated by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min. Biochemical analyses of the seminal plasma were performed. In conclusion, the average concentrations of total protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and pot...

  15. Pollution profiles and physicochemical parameters in old uncontrolled landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadío, M; Ruiz, A I; de Soto, I S; Rastrero, M Rodriguez; Sánchez, N; Gismera, M J; Sevilla, M T; da Silva, P; Procopio, J Rodríguez; Cuevas, J

    2012-03-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the geological barrier beneath municipal-waste landfills is a critical issue for soil and groundwater protection. This study examines natural clayey soils directly in contact with the waste deposited in three landfills over 12 years old in Spain. Several physicochemical and geological parameters were measured as a function of depth. Electrical conductivity (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), Cl(-), NH(4)(+), Na(+) and exchangeable NH(4)(+) and Na(+) were used as parameters to measure the penetration of landfill leachate pollution. Mineralogy, specific surface area and cationic-exchange capacities were analyzed to characterize the materials under the landfills. A principal component analysis, combined with a Varimax rotation, was applied to the data to determine patterns of association between samples and variables not evident upon initial inspection. The main factors explaining the variation in the data are related to waste composition and local geology. Although leachates have been in contact with clays for long time periods (13-24 years), WSOC and EC fronts are attenuated at depths of 0.2-1.5m within the clay layer. Taking into account this depth of the clayey materials, these natural substrata (>45% illite-smectite-type sheet silicates) are suitable for confining leachate pollution and for complying with European legislation. This paper outlines the relevant differences in the clayey materials of the three landfills in which a diffusive flux attenuation capacity (A(c)) is defined as a function (1) of the rate of decrease of the parameters per meter of material, (2) of the age and area of the landfill and (3) of the quantity and quality of the wastes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  17. Alteration of Lysophosphatidylcholine-Related Metabolic Parameters in the Plasma of Mice with Experimental Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won-Gyun; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Song, Dong-Keun

    2017-04-01

    Plasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma, i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (i.e., secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and autotaxin (ATX)), as well as plasma albumin concentration. We found that levels of LPC and albumin and enzyme activities of LCAT, ATX, and sPLA2 were decreased, whereas levels of PC, LPA, and LPCAT1-3 were increased in the plasma of mice subjected to CLP. Bacterial peritonitis led to alterations in all the measured LPC-related metabolic parameters in the plasma, which could potentially contribute to sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels. These findings could lead to the novel biomarkers of sepsis.

  18. Feature profile evolution in plasma processing using on-wafer monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Samukawa, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    This book provides for the first time a good understanding of the etching profile technologies that do not disturb the plasma. Three types of sensors are introduced: on-wafer UV sensors, on-wafer charge-up sensors and on-wafer sheath-shape sensors in the plasma processing and prediction system of real etching profiles based on monitoring data. Readers are made familiar with these sensors, which can measure real plasma process surface conditions such as defect generations due to UV-irradiation, ion flight direction due to charge-up voltage in high-aspect ratio structures and ion sheath conditions at the plasma/surface interface. The plasma etching profile realistically predicted by a computer simulation based on output data from these sensors is described.

  19. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  20. Dependence of Selected Water Quality Parameters on Flow Rates in River Profiles in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Hanslík

    2016-06-01

    The results show that in the monitored profiles, there is a direct relationship with flow rate in case of N-NO3-, suspended solids and O2. Temperature shows an inverse relationship with the flow rate. Other parameters show different relationship with the flow rate in individual monitored profiles or do not show statistically significant relation.

  1. Downstream plasma parameters in laminar shocks from ion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ion dynamics in oblique shocks is governed by the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of the shock front. In laminar shocks, these fields are time-independent and depend only on the coordinate along the shock normal. The shock ramp is narrow and the ion motion across the shock is manifestly non-adiabatic. The ion distribution just behind the ramp is significantly non-gyrotropic. Gyrotropy is achieved well behind the ramp mainly due to the gyrophase mixing. The asymptotic values of the ion density and temperature are determined by the eventual collisionless relaxation of the gyrating ion distribution. Given a distribution at the downstream edge of the ramp, the moments of the distribution after gyrophase mixing are derived using proper spatial averaging. The obtained expressions can be used for independent determination of the downstream plasma state and implementation in Rankine-Hugoniot relations.

  2. Influence of direct current plasma magnetron sputtering parameters on the material characteristics of polycrystalline copper films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.-Y. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: k.y.chan@fz-juelich.de; Luo, P.-Q.; Zhou, Z.-B. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, 200240 Shanghai (China); Tou, T.-Y.; Teo, B.-S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-03-01

    Physical vapor processes using glow plasma discharge are widely employed in microelectronic industry. In particular magnetron sputtering is a major technique employed for the coating of thin films. This paper addresses the influence of direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering parameters on the material characteristics of polycrystalline copper (Cu) thin films coated on silicon substrates. The influence of the sputtering parameters including DC plasma power and argon working gas pressure on the electrical and structural properties of the thin Cu films was investigated by means of surface profilometer, four-point probe and atomic force microscopy.

  3. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  4. Plasma Amino Acids Profiles in Children with Autism: Potential Risk of Nutritional Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Georgianne L.; Hyman, Susan L.; Mooney, Robert A.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma amino acid profiles of 10 children with autism on gluten and casein restricted diets and 26 on unrestricted diets were reviewed. There was a trend for the children on restricted diets to have an increased prevalence of essential amino acid deficiencies and lower plasma levels of essential acids. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  5. High precision measurement of fuel density profiles in nuclear fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, J.; von Hellermann, M.; Konig, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for deducing fuel density profiles of nuclear fusion plasmas in realtime during an experiment. A Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network is used to create a mapping between plasma radiation spectra and indirectly deduced hydrogen isotope densities. By combining diffe

  6. Effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, M.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on the electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas is studied by particle in cell method. Phase space diagrams show that the size of the holes, and consequently, the number of trapped particles strongly depends on the q-parameter and saturation time. Furthermore, the mechanism of the instability and exchange of energy between electron-positron and electric field is explained by the profiles of the energy density. Moreover, it is found that the q-parameter, saturation time, and electron and positron velocities affect the nonlinear evolution of the electron density which leads to the steepening of its structure. The q-nonextensive parameter or degree of nonextensivity is the relation between temperature gradient and potential energy of the system. Therefore, the deviation of q-parameter from unity indicates the degree of inhomogeneity of temperature or deviation from equilibrium. Finally, using the kinetic theory, a generalized q-dispersion relation is presented for electron-positron-ion plasma systems. It is found that the simulation results in the linear regime are in good agreement with the growth rate results obtained by the kinetic theory.

  7. Effects of feed types on plasma fatty acid profile and blood parameters of mid-lactation dairy cows%日粮类型对泌乳中期奶牛血液脂肪酸及生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 卜登攀; 李发弟; 南雪梅; 胡菡

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the changes of plasma fatty acids profile and blood pa-rameters in response to different types of dietary in dairy cows at mid-lactation.Twenty lactating Holstein cows with similar body weight,milk yield and days in milk were randomly assigned to corn straw (CS)and mixed forage (MF)groups.Before the start of the study,there was a 14-day adaptation period for cows to adjust to the treatment diets followed by a 5-week feeding period.The results showed that MF group sig-nificantly increased the contents of C18∶3,NEFA(P=0.001,P=0.04)in the vein blood and the contents of C1 6∶0,C18∶3,NEFA(P=0.03,P<0.002,P<0.05 )in the artery blood before fee,but the content t1 1C18∶1 was significantly lower than that of the CS group(P=0.02)in the vein blood.The contents of c9c12C18∶2,UFA,PUFA in the vein blood and the contents of C14∶1,C18∶3,C1 6∶1 in the artery blood were significantly higher than those of CS group(P<0.01,P=0.04,P=0.049,P=0.02,P=0.014,P<0.009)after feeding,but the content of SFA in the vein blood were lower than that of CS group (P=0.04).Compared with CS group,MF group did not affect other fatty acids and blood parameters.These re-sults indicated that high-quality mixed roughage instead part of the concentrate in the TMR had little effects on fatty acids profile of blood,but could increase the content of C18∶3 which essential for dairy cows.The two types of feed didn't affect energy metabolism of Mid-lactation dairy cows.%选用20头体质量、产奶量、泌乳日龄相近的头胎健康荷斯坦奶牛随机分为单一秸秆组(CS)和混合粗饲料组(MF),预试期2周,试验期4周.研究2种日粮类型对泌乳中期奶牛血液脂肪酸组成和血液生化指标的影响.结果表明:与CS组相比,饲喂前,MF组奶牛静脉血浆C18∶3、NEFA含量显著升高(P=0.001,P=0.04),t11C18∶1脂肪酸含量显著降低(P=0.02);动脉血液中C16∶0、C18∶3、NEFA的含量显著高于 CS组(P=0.03,P<0

  8. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  9. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  10. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  11. Kinetic effect of high energy ions on the temperature profile in the boundary plasma region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezumi, N., E-mail: ezumi@nagano-nct.ac.jp [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Hayashi, Y.; Todoroki, K. [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan); Okazaki, K. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduated School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Importance of ion dynamics in the boundary region has been discussed with experimental results of ion temperature (T{sub i}) measurements in linear plasma devices and its analytical model. Radial profiles of T{sub i} have been measured by using an ion sensitive probe in the linear devices CTP-HC and NAGDIS-II. The experiments indicate that T{sub i} is growing radially. Analytical ion-mean-energy profiles based on the ion Larmor motion are qualitatively consistent with the experimental T{sub i} profiles. These results clarify that the higher energy ions exist in the outside region of plasma flux tube.

  12. Cardiac and plasma lipid profiles in response to acute hypoxia in neonatal and young adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raff Hershel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiological and biochemical responses to acute hypoxia have not been fully characterized in neonates. Fatty acids and lipids play an important role in most aspects of cardiac function. Methods We performed comprehensive lipid profiling analysis to survey the changes that occur in heart tissue and plasma of neonatal and young adult rats exposed to hypoxia for 2 h, and following 2 h of recovery from hypoxia. Results Cardiac and plasma concentrations of short-chain acylcarnitines, and most plasma long-chain fatty acids, were decreased in hypoxic neonates. Following recovery from hypoxia, concentrations of propionylcarnitine, palmitoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine were increased in neonatal hearts, while oleylcarnitine and linoleylcarnitine concentrations were increased in neonatal plasma. The concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain acylcarnitines were increased in the hearts and plasma of hypoxic young adult rats; these metabolites returned to baseline values following recovery from hypoxia. Conclusion There are differential effects of acute hypoxia on cardiac and plasma lipid profiles with maturation from the neonate to the young adult rat. Changes to neonatal cardiac and plasma lipid profiles during hypoxia likely allowed for greater metabolic and physiologic flexibility and increased chances for survival. Persistent alterations in the neonatal cardiac lipid profile following recovery from hypoxia may play a role in the development of rhythm disturbances.

  13. Plasma cytokine profiling in sibling pairs discordant for autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective Converging lines of evidence point to the existence of immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could directly affect several key neurodevelopmental processes. Previous studies have shown higher cytokine levels in patients with autism compared with matched controls or subjects with other developmental disorders. In the current study, we used plasma-cytokine profiling for 25 discordant sibling pairs to evaluate whether these alterations occur within families with ASD. Methods Plasma-cytokine profiling was conducted using an array-based multiplex sandwich ELISA for simultaneous quantitative measurement of 40 unique targets. We also analyzed the correlations between cytokine levels and clinically relevant quantitative traits (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale in Autism (VABS) composite score, Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) total T score, head circumference, and full intelligence quotient (IQ)). In addition, because of the high phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD, we defined four subgroups of subjects (those who were non-verbal, those with gastrointestinal issues, those with regressive autism, and those with a history of allergies), which encompass common and/or recurrent endophenotypes in ASD, and tested the cytokine levels in each group. Results None of the measured parameters showed significant differences between children with ASD and their related typically developing siblings. However, specific target levels did correlate with quantitative clinical traits, and these were significantly different when the ASD subgroups were analyzed. It is notable that these differences seem to be attributable to a predisposing immunogenetic background, as no other significant differences were noticed between discordant sibling pairs. Interleukin-1β appears to be the cytokine most involved in quantitative traits and clinical subgroups of ASD. Conclusions In the present study, we found a lack of significant differences in plasma-cytokine levels between

  14. Control of plasma profile in microwave discharges via inverse-problem approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyoshi Yasaka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the manufacturing process of semiconductors, plasma processing is an essential technology, and the plasma used in the process is required to be of high density, low temperature, large diameter, and high uniformity. This research focuses on the microwave-excited plasma that meets these needs, and the research target is a spatial profile control. Two novel techniques are introduced to control the uniformity; one is a segmented slot antenna that can change radial distribution of the radiated field during operation, and the other is a hyper simulator that can predict microwave power distribution necessary for a desired radial density profile. The control system including these techniques provides a method of controlling radial profiles of the microwave plasma via inverse-problem approach, and is investigated numerically and experimentally.

  15. Evolution of the electron temperature profile of ohmically heated plasmas in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Arunasalam, V.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; McGuire, K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stauffer, F.J.

    1985-08-01

    Blackbody electron cyclotron emission was used to ascertain and study the evolution and behavior of the electron temperature profile in ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The emission was measured with absolutely calibrated millimeter wavelength radiometers. The temperature profile normalized to the central temperature and minor radius is observed to broaden substantially with decreasing limiter safety factor q/sub a/, and is insensitive to the plasma minor radius. Sawtooth activity was seen in the core of most TFTR discharges and appeared to be associated with a flattening of the electron temperature profile within the plasma core where q less than or equal to 1. Two types of sawtooth behavior were identified in large TFTR plasmas (minor radius, a less than or equal to 0.8 m) : a typically 35 to 40 msec period ''normal'' sawtooth, and a ''compound'' sawtooth with 70 to 80 msec period.

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  17. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  18. Multi-Organ Contribution to the Metabolic Plasma Profile Using Hierarchical Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Torell

    Full Text Available Hierarchical modelling was applied in order to identify the organs that contribute to the levels of metabolites in plasma. Plasma and organ samples from gut, kidney, liver, muscle and pancreas were obtained from mice. The samples were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC TOF-MS at the Swedish Metabolomics centre, Umeå University, Sweden. The multivariate analysis was performed by means of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS. The main goal of this study was to investigate how each organ contributes to the metabolic plasma profile. This was performed using hierarchical modelling. Each organ was found to have a unique metabolic profile. The hierarchical modelling showed that the gut, kidney and liver demonstrated the greatest contribution to the metabolic pattern of plasma. For example, we found that metabolites were absorbed in the gut and transported to the plasma. The kidneys excrete branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and fatty acids are transported in the plasma to the muscles and liver. Lactic acid was also found to be transported from the pancreas to plasma. The results indicated that hierarchical modelling can be utilized to identify the organ contribution of unknown metabolites to the metabolic profile of plasma.

  19. Cigarette smoking substantially alters plasma microRNA profiles in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Tatsumi, Naoyuki; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Miki, E-mail: nmiki@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2013-10-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are receiving attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases, including cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular disease. However, it is unknown whether the levels of circulating miRNAs in a healthy subject might vary with external factors in daily life. In this study, we investigated whether cigarette smoking, a habit that has spread throughout the world and is a risk factor for various diseases, affects plasma miRNA profiles. We determined the profiles of 11 smokers and 7 non-smokers by TaqMan MicroRNA array analysis. A larger number of miRNAs were detected in smokers than in non-smokers, and the plasma levels of two-thirds of the detected miRNAs (43 miRNAs) were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. A principal component analysis of the plasma miRNA profiles clearly separated smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-four of the miRNAs were previously reported to be potential biomarkers of disease, suggesting the possibility that smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease. Interestingly, we found that quitting smoking altered the plasma miRNA profiles to resemble those of non-smokers. These results suggested that the differences in the plasma miRNA profiles between smokers and non-smokers could be attributed to cigarette smoking. In addition, we found that an acute exposure of ex-smokers to cigarette smoke (smoking one cigarette) did not cause a dramatic change in the plasma miRNA profile. In conclusion, we found that repeated cigarette smoking substantially alters the plasma miRNA profile, interfering with the diagnosis of disease or signaling potential smoking-related diseases. - Highlights: • Plasma miRNA profiles were unambiguously different between smokers and non-smokers. • Smoking status might interfere with the diagnosis of disease using plasma miRNAs. • Changes of plasma miRNA profiles may be a signal of smoking-related diseases.

  20. Plasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A.; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g...

  1. Automatic measurements of plasma parameters in the PUPR mirror and cusp plasma machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S; Colmenares, F; Gonzalez-Lizardo, A; Leal-Quiros, E [Plasma Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00918 (Puerto Rico)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents an ongoing effort to develop an automatic measurement system for plasma diagnostics at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory of the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR), along with an example of its operation. The system is intended to be used with electrostatic probes such as single and double Langmuir probes, emissive probes, ion and electron energy analyzers, etc. The automatic measurement system includes automatic positioning of the probes inside the plasma chamber, automatic voltage sweep of the probes for each position, and automatic analysis of the probe I-V characteristic. The results of measurements obtained by using this automatic measurement system during a particular experiment are shown and compared with a traditional method with satisfactory results.

  2. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  3. Seminal plasma protein profiles of ejaculates obtained by internal artificial vagina and electroejaculation in Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, J P A; Moura, A A; Nouwens, A S; McGowan, M R; Boe-Hansen, G B

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate if differences exist in the seminal plasma protein profile from mature Brahman bulls using two methods of semen collection: internal artificial vagina (IAV) and electroejaculation (EEJ). Semen was collected four times from three bulls on the same day and parameters were assessed immediately post-collection. Seminal plasma proteins were evaluated by 2-D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometry. Semen volume was greater (P < 0.05) for EEJ (4.6 ± 0.35 mL) than for IAV (1.86 ± 0.24 mL) but sperm concentration was greater in IAV (1505 ± 189 × 10(6) sperm/mL) than in EEJ samples (344 ± 87 × 10(6) sperm/mL). Sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm were not different between treatments. Total concentration of seminal plasma proteins was greater for samples collected by IAV as compared to EEJ (19.3 ± 0.9 compared with 13.0 ± 1.8 mg/mL, P < 0.05; respectively). Based on 2-D gels, 22 spots had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from IAV samples, corresponding to 21 proteins identified as transferrin, albumin, epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase, among others. Thirty-three spots, corresponding to 26 proteins, had a greater volume (P < 0.05) in gels derived from EEJ samples. These proteins were identified as spermadhesin-1, Bovine Sperm Protin 1, 3 and 5 isoforms, angiogenin-1, alpha-1B-glycoprotein, clusterin, nucleobindin-1, cathepsins, spermadhesin Z13, annexins, among others. Thus, proteins in greater amounts in samples obtained by IAV and EEJ were mainly of epididymal origin and accessory sex glands, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma and brain fatty acid profiles in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasma fatty acid profiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brain fatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism.

  5. Effect of magnetic barrier on the plasma parameters in a Trimix-M galatea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. I.; Bugrova, A. I.; Bishaev, A. M.; Lipatov, A. S.; Kozintseva, M. V.

    2006-11-01

    The parameters of plasma trapped in a Trimix-M galatea with increased values of the magnetic barrier and the energy of a hydrogen plasma bunch injected in the trap have been determined. For a barrier magnetic field of B b ˜ 0.1 T, the plasma confinement time in the trap is τp ≈ 300 μs (which agrees with estimates obtained using formulas describing the classical transfer), the maximum electron density is n e ˜ 5 × 1013 cm-3, and the electron and ion temperatures are T e ≈ 20 eV and T i ˜ 2T e, respectively. The energy of trapped plasma is ˜110 J, and the ratio of the gaskinetic to magnetic pressure in the plasma is β0 ˜ 0.2.

  6. Comparative Plasma Protein Profiling of Hemoglobin H Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonlak Leecharoenkiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HbH and HbH-constant spring (HbH-CS are the most common forms of α-thalassemia detected in the Thai population. The accumulation of excess β globin chains in these diseases results in increased red cell hemolysis, and patients with HbH-CS normally have a more severe clinical presentation than patients with HbH disease. This study aimed to detect alterations in the expression of plasma proteins of HbH and HbH-CS patients as compared to normal plasma. Platelet poor plasma was separated from HbH and HbH-CS and normal subjects and differential plasma proteins were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using LC/MS/MS. A total of 14 differentially expressed proteins were detected of which 5 proteins were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins are liver secreted proteins involved in hemolysis, oxidative stress response, and hemoglobin degradation. Seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HbH and HbH-CS. Levels of haptoglobin, a hemoglobin scavenging protein, were significantly increased in HbH patients as compared to HbH-CS patients. The identification of differentially expressed proteins may lead to a better understanding of the biological events underlying the clinical presentation of HbH and HbH-CS patients and can have application as hemolytic markers or severity predictors.

  7. Plasma parameter characterization of a dc multicusp plasma chamber operating in He, Ar and Xe gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suanpoot, Pradoong; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Boonyawan, Dheerawan [Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand); Rhodes, M.W.

    1998-12-31

    A large dc multicusp plasma chamber has been constructed and installed at Chiang Mai University. The first prototype has a 31.2 cm diameter and a 42.5 cm length and is surrounded by 632 ceramic permanent magnet buttons with a maximum magnetic field of about 2.2 kG for each. The magnetic field at the stainless steel wall with a thickness of 2 mm is about 670 G. A tungsten (W) filament was used as a source of primary electrons. The estimated discharge voltage for helium gas (He), argon gas (Ar), and xenon gas (Xe) was 40 V and the discharge operating current varies from 500 mA to 1 A. Plasmas can be confined within a 20 cm diameter region which are uniformly distributed along the axial path. The plasma density was measured by a single cylindrical Langmuir probe to be between 4.8 x 10{sup 8} - 4.9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} with 650 watts of power applied to the tungsten filament and the gas pressure inside the chamber of 3.8 x 10{sup -4} Torr. Results of the ion density measurements are described. The proportionality constants in the relation between the ion current density arriving at the plasma electrode and the maximum plasma density and the ion sound speed for helium, argon and xenon are found to be 0.42 {+-} 0.07, 0.59 {+-} 0.08, and 0.46 {+-} 0.06, respectively. (author)

  8. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  9. Impact of plasma parameter on self-organization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, C.; Idomura, Y.; Maeyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.

  10. Variation of plasma parameters of vacuum arc column with gap distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic model, we studied long-gap-distance vacuum arcs in a uniform axial magnetic field and determined the effect of gap distance varying in a large range on plasma parameters. Simulation results showed that with increasing gap distance, the parameters of the plasma near the cathode are almost invariant, except for ion number density, but the parameters of the plasma in front of the anode clearly vary; meanwhile, joule heat gradually becomes the main source of energy for the arc column. In a short gap, a clear current constriction can be found in the entire arc column. Whereas when the gap distance exceeds a certain value, a sharp contraction of the current only arises in front of the anode.

  11. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-05

    Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.

  13. Integration based profile likelihood calculation for PDE constrained parameter estimation problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiger, R.; Hasenauer, J.; Hroß, S.; Kaltenbacher, B.

    2016-12-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are widely used in engineering and natural sciences to describe spatio-temporal processes. The parameters of the considered processes are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data. Due to partial observations and measurement noise, these parameter estimates are subject to uncertainty. This uncertainty can be assessed using profile likelihoods, a reliable but computationally intensive approach. In this paper, we present the integration based approach for the profile likelihood calculation developed by (Chen and Jennrich 2002 J. Comput. Graph. Stat. 11 714-32) and adapt it to inverse problems with PDE constraints. While existing methods for profile likelihood calculation in parameter estimation problems with PDE constraints rely on repeated optimization, the proposed approach exploits a dynamical system evolving along the likelihood profile. We derive the dynamical system for the unreduced estimation problem, prove convergence and study the properties of the integration based approach for the PDE case. To evaluate the proposed method, we compare it with state-of-the-art algorithms for a simple reaction-diffusion model for a cellular patterning process. We observe a good accuracy of the method as well as a significant speed up as compared to established methods. Integration based profile calculation facilitates rigorous uncertainty analysis for computationally demanding parameter estimation problems with PDE constraints.

  14. Reproductive activity in cows following parturition against values of certain parameters of metabolic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otava Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from literature indicate that there is a correlation between the values of reproductive parameters and the values of parameters of the metabolic profile, even though this cannot be confirmed in many cases. The objective of this work was to examine the connection between certain parameters of the metabolic profile and the restoration of reproductive activity in the postpartal period. Blood samples were taken from the cows involved in the experiment and values of parameters of the metabolic state were determined in 27 cows, of which 14 were primiparous and 13 multiparous. In the blood serum samples, we determined the concentration of glucose, total proteins, albumin, urea, and the activities of certain enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, ASAT and ALAT. It was established on the grounds of the obtained results that the delay in the establishment of reproductive activity in the postpartal period was in correlation with the blood concentrations of urea and albumin. .

  15. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  16. Diagnostics of recombining laser plasma parameters based on He-like ion resonance lines intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, S. N.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    While the plasma created by powerful laser expands from the target surface it becomes overcooled, i.e. recombining one. Improving of diagnostic methods applicable for such plasma is rather important problem in laboratory astrophysics nowadays because laser produced jets are fully scalable to young stellar objects. Such scaling is possible because of the plasma hydrodynamic equations invariance under some transformations. In this paper it is shown that relative intensities of the resonance transitions in He-like ions can be used to measure the parameters of recombining plasma. Intensity of the spectral lines corresponding to these transitions is sensitive to the density in the range of 1016-1020 cm-3 while the temperature ranges from 10 to 100 eV for ions with nuclear charge Zn ∼ 10. Calculations were carried out for F VIII ion and allowed to determine parameters of plasma jets created by nanosecond laser system ELFIE (Ecole Polytechnique, France) for astrophysical phenomenon modelling. Obtained dependencies are quite universal and can be used for any recombining plasma containing He-like fluorine ions.

  17. Stark profiles of forbidden and allowed transitions in a dense, laser produced helium plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'akobi, B.; George, E. V.; Bekefi, G.; Hawryluk, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Comparisons of experimental and theoretical Stark profiles of the allowed 2(1)P-3(1)D helium line at 6678 A and of the forbidden 2(1)P-3(1)P component at 6632 A in a dense plasma were carried out. The plasma was produced by optical breakdown of helium by means of a repetitive, high power CO2 laser. The allowed line shows good agreement with conventional theory, but discrepancies are found around the centre of the forbidden component. When normally neglected ion motions are taken into consideration, the observed discrepancies are partially removed. Tables of the Stark profiles for the pair of lines are given.

  18. Concurrent profiling of polar metabolites and lipids in human plasma using HILIC-FTMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoming; Li, Ruibin

    2016-11-01

    Blood plasma is the most popularly used sample matrix for metabolite profiling studies, which aim to achieve global metabolite profiling and biomarker discovery. However, most of the current studies on plasma metabolite profiling focused on either the polar metabolites or lipids. In this study, a comprehensive analysis approach based on HILIC-FTMS was developed to concurrently examine polar metabolites and lipids. The HILIC-FTMS method was developed using mixed standards of polar metabolites and lipids, the separation efficiency of which is better in HILIC mode than in C5 and C18 reversed phase (RP) chromatography. This method exhibits good reproducibility in retention times (CVs < 3.43%) and high mass accuracy (<3.5 ppm). In addition, we found MeOH/ACN/Acetone (1:1:1, v/v/v) as extraction cocktail could achieve desirable gathering of demanded extracts from plasma samples. We further integrated the MeOH/ACN/Acetone extraction with the HILIC-FTMS method for metabolite profiling and smoking-related biomarker discovery in human plasma samples. Heavy smokers could be successfully distinguished from non smokers by univariate and multivariate statistical analysis of the profiling data, and 62 biomarkers for cigarette smoke were found. These results indicate that our concurrent analysis approach could be potentially used for clinical biomarker discovery, metabolite-based diagnosis, etc.

  19. The Type of Fat Ingested at Breakfast Influences the Plasma Lipid Profile of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Morillas-Ruiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether the type of fat ingested at breakfast can modify the plasma lipid profile and other cardiovascular risk variables in postmenopausal women at risk of cardiovascular disease, a longitudinal, randomized, and crossover study was carried out with postmenopausal women at risk of CVD. They were randomly assigned to eat each type of breakfast during one month: 6 study periods (breakfast with the same composition plus butter/margarine/virgin olive oil separated by two washout periods. On the first and last days of each study period, weight, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and body mass index were recorded in fasting conditions and a blood sample was collected to measure plasma lipid profile. When comparing final values to baseline values, we only found out statistically significant differences on plasma lipid profiles. Butter-based breakfast increased total cholesterol and HDL, while margarine-based breakfast decreased total cholesterol and LDL and increased HDL. After the olive oil-based breakfast intake, a tendency towards a decrease of total cholesterol and LDL levels and an increase of HDL levels was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed in triglycerides levels, BMI, and arterial pressure in any breakfast type. The margarine-based breakfast was the only one which significantly increased the percentage of volunteers with optimal lipid profiles. The polyunsaturated fat at breakfast has improved the plasma lipid profile in the analyzed sample population, suggesting that PUFA-based breakfast can be advisable in women at risk of CVD.

  20. Analysis and modelling of the magnetic and plasma profiles during PPCD experiments in RFX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puiatti, M. E.; Cappello, S.; Lorenzini, R.; Martini, S.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Sattin, F.; Terranova, D.; Bolzonella, T.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Escande, D. F.; Garzotti, L.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Martines, E.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Valisa, M.; Zanca, P.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Bagatin, M.; Baker, W.; Barana, O.; Bettella, D.; Bettini, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chitarin, G.; Cravotta, A.; D'Angelo, F.; Dal Bello, S.; DeLorenzi, A.; Desideri, D.; Fiorentin, P.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Gaio, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Luchetta, A.; Malesani, G.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martin, P.; Masiello, A.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Murari, A.; Nielsen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pégourie, B.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Pomaro, N.; Preti, G.; Regnoli, G.; Rostagni, G.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Taliercio, C.; Telesca, G.; Toigo, V.; Vianello, N.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we analyse the main features of the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) technique, used in the reversed field pinch configuration to achieve improved confinement conditions. In the RFX experiment, PPCD corresponds to a decrease of the magnetic fluctuations, to a peaking of the temperature profile, and to a reduced transport and plasma-wall interaction. A three-dimensional MHD nonlinear code and one-dimensional time-dependent transport models have been applied to study the effect of PPCD on the magnetic and plasma profiles. The three-dimensional MHD simulations show that the external inductive drive pinches and peaks the current profile driving the configuration through a transient phase, where the spontaneous turbulent dynamo action is quenched. The one-dimensional transport codes indicate that the experimental profile modifications associated with PPCD are consistent with a reduction of the stochastic transport.

  1. Profile measurements in the plasma edge of MAST using a ball pen probe

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Allan, S; Dudson, B D; Elmore, S; Fishpool, G; Harrison, J; Kirk, A; Komm, M

    2014-01-01

    The ball pen probe (BPP) technique is used successfully to make profile measurements of plasma potential, electron temperature and radial electric field on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). The potential profile measured by the BPP is shown to significantly differ from the floating potential both in polarity and profile shape. By combining the BPP potential and the floating potential the electron temperature can be measured, which is compared with the Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Excellent agreement between the two diagnostics is obtained when secondary electron emission is accounted for in the floating potential. From the BPP profile an estimate of the radial electric field is extracted which is shown to be of the order ~1kV/m and increases with plasma current. Corrections to the BPP measurement, constrained by the TS comparison, introduce uncertainty into the ER measurements. The uncertainty is most significant in the electric field well inside the separatrix. The electric field is used to estim...

  2. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenfeng Luo; Xiaoxia Zhao; Shuyuan Lv; Haiyan Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of 1064 nm laser-induced egg shell plasma parameters are presented in this paper. Of special interests were its elemental identification and the determination of spectroscopic temperature and electron density. The electron temperature of 5956 K was inferred using an improved iterative Boltzmann plot method with six calcium atomic emission lines, and the electron number density of 6.1 × 1016 cm−3 was determined by measuring the width of Stark-broadened once-ionized calcium line at 393.37 nm. Based on the experimental results, the laser-induced egg shell plasma was verified to be optically thin and satisfy local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Furthermore, experiments also demonstrated that the loss of energy due to the reflection of the laser beam from the plasma can be neglected and the inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption was the dominant mechanism of plasma heating at the IR wavelength.

  3. Lindhard's polarization parameter and atomic sum rules in the local plasma approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Apell, P.; Oddershede, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom with nuc...

  4. Measurement Of Plasma Parameters In Micro-Discharge By Wall Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifutdinov, Almaz; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sysoev, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The increasing scientific and practical interest for glow discharge at high pressure is largely determined by the fact that their use does not require expensive and huge vacuum equipment. The analysis shows that, in contrast to the well-studied positive column (PC), the basic parameters of the plasma negative glow (NG) and Faraday dark space (FDS) of micro-discharges are studied insufficiently. The difficulties of the experimental diagnostics are associated with the fact that for the fixed values of pL with the increasing gas pressure the length of the micro-discharge decreases. And a small size is extremely difficult to diagnose spatial parameters distribution of micro discharges. Since at a small size introducing traditional Langmuir probe into the plasma capacity is not possible technically, it was proposed to use an additional measuring electrode (wall probe) disposed between the cathode and the anode for measurement of the fast EEDF. With its use we have registered EEDF fast electrons produced in the reaction of Penning ionization out of earlier reach range of high-pressure gas (from 20 to 200 Torr). In this paper by using wall probe we measured the basic parameters of NG plasma in micro-discharge in helium in a wide range of pressures. It is shown that the electrons temperature in the NG plasma is low and amounts to few fraction of 1 eV, which differs from the electron temperature in PC plasma. This allows the use of NG plasma for analysis by gas plasma electron spectroscopy. Authors thanks RNF (Grant 14-19-00311) for the support.

  5. Three-dimensional structures behind Glauert-Goldschmied profile under control of plasma actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, P.; Uruba, V.

    2016-10-01

    The effect of plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to developed boundary layer was investigated previously. It has been shown that plasma actuation can stabilize the flow near to the surface. In the case of streamlined profile, the plasma actuation is able to shift the point of separation and hence to suppress the extent of separation area. This should lead to decrease of the form drag and increasing the total efficiency. An experimental approach is suggested for investigation and time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is considered as a main measurement technique.

  6. Investigation of Normalization Methods using Plasma Parameters for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) under simulated Martian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, David; Schröder, Susanne; Hübers, H.-W.

    2017-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data need to be normalized, especially in the field of planetary exploration We investigated plasma parameters as temperature and electron density for this purpose.

  7. Influence of Plasma Jet Temperature Profiles in Arc Discharge Methods of Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Raniszewski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods of carbon nanotubes (CNTs synthesis is application of an electric-arc plasma. However, the final product in the form of cathode deposit is composed of carbon nanotubes and a variety of carbon impurities. An assay of carbon nanotubes produced in arc discharge systems available on the market shows that commercial cathode deposits contain about 10% CNTs. Given that the quality of the final product depends on carbon–plasma jet parameters, it is possible to increase the yield of the synthesis by plasma jet control. Most of the carbon nanotubes are multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs. It was observed that the addition of catalysts significantly changes the plasma composition, effective ionization potential, the arc channel conductance, and in effect temperature of the arc and carbon elements flux. This paper focuses on the influence of metal components on plasma-jet forming containing carbon nanotubes cathode deposit. The plasma jet temperature control system is presented.

  8. XPS depth profiling of derivatized amine and anhydride plasma polymers: Evidence of limitations of the derivatization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakhov, Anton; Michlíček, Miroslav; Felten, Alexandre; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Nečas, David; Zajíčková, Lenka

    2017-02-01

    The quantitative analysis of the chemistry at the surface of functional plasma polymers is highly important for the optimization of their deposition conditions and, therefore, for their subsequent applications. The chemical derivatization of amine and carboxyl-anhydride layers is a well-known technique already applied by many researchers, notwithstanding the known drawback of the derivatization procedures like side or uncomplete reactions that could lead to "unreliable" results. In this work, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with depth profiling with argon clusters is applied for the first time to study derivatized amine and carboxyl-anhydride plasma polymer layers. It revealed an additional important parameter affecting the derivatization reliability, namely the permeation of the derivatizing molecule through the target analysed layer, i.e. the composite effect of the probe molecule size and the layer porosity. Amine-rich films prepared by RF low pressure plasma polymerization of cyclopropylamine were derivatized with trifluoromethyl benzaldehide (TFBA) and it was observed by that the XPS-determined NH2 concentration depth profile is rapidly decreasing over top ten nanometers of the layer. The anhydride-rich films prepared by atmospheric plasma co-polymerization of maleic anhydride and C2H2 have been reacted with, parafluoroaniline and trifluoroethyl amine. The decrease of the F signal in top surface layer of the anhydride films derivatized by the "large" parafluoroaniline was observed similarly as for the amine films but the derivatization with the smaller trifluoroethylamine (TFEA) led to a more homogenous depth profile. The data analysis suggests that the size of the derivatizing molecule is the main factor, showing that the very limited permeation of the TFBA molecule can lead to underestimated densities of primary amines if the XPS analysis is solely carried out at a low take-off angle. In contrast, TFEA is found to be an efficient

  9. Spatial profiles of electron density, electron temperature, average ionic charge, and EUV emission of laser-produced Sn plasmas for EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuta; Tomita, Kentaro; Tsukiyama, Syoichi; Eguchi, Toshiaki; Uchino, Kiichiro; Kouge, Kouichiro; Tomuro, Hiroaki; Yanagida, Tatsuya; Wada, Yasunori; Kunishima, Masahito; Kodama, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru

    2017-03-01

    Spatial profiles of the electron density (n e), electron temperature (T e), and average ionic charge (Z) of laser-produced Sn plasmas for EUV lithography, whose conversion efficiency (CE) is sufficiently high for practical use, were measured using a collective Thomson scattering (TS) technique. For plasma production, Sn droplets of 26 µm diameter were used as a fuel. First, a picosecond-pulsed laser was used to expand a Sn target. Next, a CO2 laser was used to generate plasmas. By changing the injection timing of the picosecond and CO2 lasers, three different types of plasmas were generated. The CEs of the three types of plasmas differed, and ranged from 2.8 to 4.0%. Regarding the different plasma conditions, the spatial profiles of n e, T e, and Z clearly differed. However, under all plasma conditions, intense EUV was only observed at a sufficiently high T e (> 25 eV) and in an adequate n e range [1024–(2 × 1025) m‑3]. These plasma parameters lie in the efficient-EUV light source range, as predicted by simulations.

  10. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  11. The effect of degeneracy parameter on Weibel instability in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M. [Physics Department, Mazandaran University, P.O. Box 47415-416 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi Azadboni, F. [Physics Department, Mazandaran University, P.O. Box 47415-416 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Club, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 48161-194 Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the role of degeneracy parameter, in both directions parallel and perpendicular with propagation direction of the laser beam in plasma, on the growth rate of Weibel instability, is studied. Calculations show that with the temperature anisotropy, β = T{sub ∥}/T{sub ⊥} = 0.2 and a 0.75 times reduction of the degeneracy parameter, the increased rate of the the Weibel instability growth rate is 72%. The degeneracy required for minimal growth rate in interaction laser plasma with a density of 1.2 × 10{sup 32}m{sup −3}, is larger than 3. The reduction of temperature and the degeneracy parameter of plasma in parallel direction will also increase growth rate about 30% more than incrossing degeneracy parameter in transverse direction. With the minimum pressure costs of cold compression, subsequent degeneracy parameters, and the minimum value of electron quiver energy, we can expect growth rate of Weibel instability order 0.01.

  12. Proteomic Profiling of Plasma and Serum in Elderly Patients With Delirium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.C. van Munster; M.J. van Breemen; P.D. Moerland; D. Speijer; S.E. de Rooij; C.J. Pfrommer; M. Levi; M.W. Hollmann; J.M. Aerts; A.H. Zwinderman; J.C. Korevaar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare plasma and serum protein profiles in elderly acute hip fracture patients with and without delirium. The spectra from surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI) using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry of 16 patients without and 16 patients with deli

  13. Multiparametric flow cytometry profiling of neoplastic plasma cells in multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Hans E; Bøgsted, Martin; Klausen, Tobias W;

    2010-01-01

    The clinical impact of multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) in multiple myeloma (MM) is still unclear and under evaluation. Further progress relies on multiparametric profiling of the neoplastic plasma cell (PC) compartment to provide an accurate image of the stage of differentiation. The primary...

  14. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for furthe

  15. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  16. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  17. Evolution of plasma parameters in an Ar-N2/He inductive plasma source with magnetic pole enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Younus; N, U. Rehman; M, Shafiq; M, Naeem; M, Zaka-Ul-Islam; M, Zakaullah

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasmas (MaPE-ICPs) are a promising source for plasma-based etching and have a wide range of material processing applications. In the present study Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy were used to monitor the evolution of plasma parameters in a MaPE-ICP Ar-N2/He mixture plasma. Electron density ({n}{{e}}) and temperature ({T}{{e}}), excitation temperature ({T}{{exc}}), plasma potential ({V}{{p}}), skin depth (δ ) and the evolution of the electron energy probability function (EEPF) are reported as a function of radiofrequency (RF) power, pressure and argon concentration in the mixture. It is observed that {n}{{e}} increases while {T}{{e}} decreases with increase in RF power and argon concentration in the mixture. The emission intensity of the argon line at 750.4 nm is also used to monitor the variation of the ‘high-energy tail’ of the EEPF with RF power and gas pressure. The EEPF has a ‘bi-Maxwellian’ distribution at low RF powers and higher pressure in a pure {{{N}}}2 discharge. However, it evolves into a ‘Maxwellian’ distribution at RF powers greater than 70 W for pure {{{N}}}2, and at 50 W for higher argon concentrations in the mixture. The effect of argon concentration on the temperatures of two electron groups in the ‘bi-Maxwellian’ EEPF is examined. The temperature of the low-energy electron group {T}{{L}} shows a decreasing trend with argon addition until the ‘thermalization’ of the two temperatures occurs, while the temperature of high-energy electrons {T}{{H}} decreases continuously.

  18. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Parameters on the Wear Resistance of Alloy Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovací, Halim; Ghahramanzadeh ASL, Hojjat; Albayrak, Çigdem; Alsaran, Akgün; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the temperature and duration of plasma nitriding on the microstructure and friction and wear parameters of Inconel 718 nickel alloy is investigated. The process of plasma nitriding is conducted in a nitrogen-hydrogen gaseous mixture at a temperature of 400, 500 and 600°C for 1 and 4 h. The modulus of elasticity of the nitrided layer, the micro- and nanohardness, the surface roughness, the friction factor and the wear resistance of the alloy are determined prior to and after the nitriding. The optimum nitriding regime providing the best tribological characteristics is determined.

  19. Effect of process parameters on induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide from tungsten metal powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten carbide deposit was made directly from tungsten metal powder through the reaction with methane in radio frequency induction plasma. Effect of major process parameters on the induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, water displacement method, and microhardness test. The results show that methane flow rate, powder feed rate, particle size, reaction chamber pressure and deposition distance have significant influences on the phase composition, density, and microhardness of the deposit. Extra carbon is necessary to ensure the complete conversion of tungsten metal into the carbide.

  20. Dynamic Optimization of Trajectory for Ramp-up Current Profile in Tokamak Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Zhigang; Ou, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider an open-loop, finite-time, optimal control problem of attaining a specific desired current profile during the ramp-up phase by finding the best open-loop actuator input trajectories. Average density, total power, and plasma current are used as control actuators to manipulate the profile shape in tokamak plasmas. Based on the control parameterization method, we propose a numerical solution procedure directly to solve the original PDE-constrained optimization problem using gradient-based optimization techniques such as sequential quadratic programming (SQP). This paper is aimed at proposing an effective framework for the solution of PDE-constrained optimization problem in tokamak plasmas. A more user-friendly and efficient graphical user interface (GUI) is designed in MATLAB and the numerical simulation results are verified to demonstrate its applicability. In addition, the proposed framework of combining existing PDE and numerical optimization solvers to solve PDE-constrained optimiz...

  1. Numerical Evaluation of Parameter Correlation in the Hartmann-Tran Line Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Erin M.; Reed, Zachary; Hodges, Joseph T.

    2017-06-01

    The partially correlated quadratic, speed-dependent hard-collision profile (pCqSDHCP), for simplicity referred to as the Hartmann-Tran profile (HTP), has been recommended as a generalized lineshape for high resolution spectroscopy. The HTP parameterizes complex collisional effects such as Dicke narrowing, speed dependent narrowing, and correlations between velocity-changing and dephasing collisions, while also simplifying to simpler profiles that are widely used, such as the Voigt profile. As advanced lineshape profiles are adopted by more researchers, it is important to understand the limitations that data quality has on the ability to retrieve physically meaningful parameters using sophisticated lineshapes that are fit to spectra of finite signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, spectra were simulated using the HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI) across a full range of line parameters. Simulated spectra were evaluated to quantify the precision with which fitted lineshape parameters can be determined at a given signal-to-noise ratio, focusing on the numerical correlation between the retrieved Dicke narrowing frequency and the velocity-changing and dephasing collisions correlation parameter. Tran, H., N. Ngo, and J.-M. Hartmann, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2013. 129: p. 89-100. Tennyson, et al., Pure Appl. Chem. 2014, 86: p. 1931-1943. Kochanov, R.V., et al., Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2016. 177: p. 15-30. Tran, H., N. Ngo, and J.-M. Hartmann, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 2013. 129: p. 199-203.

  2. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines. Final report, January 1993--January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre, K.

    1995-07-01

    In this project, we parameterize the shape and magnitude of the temperature and density profiles on JET and the temperature profiles on TFTR. The key control variables for the profiles were tabulated and the response functions were estimated. A sophisticated statistical analysis code was developed to fit the plasma profiles. Our analysis indicate that the JET density shape depends primarily on {bar n}/B{sub t} for Ohmic heating, {bar n} for L-mode and I{sub p} for H-mode. The temperature profiles for JET are mainly determined by q{sub 95} for the case of Ohmic heating, and by B{sub t} and P/{bar n} for the L-mode. For the H-mode the shape depends on the type of auxiliary heating, Z{sub eff}, N{bar n}, q{sub 95}, and P.

  3. Evolution of radiation profiles during detached plasmas and radiative collapse in LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Shwetang N., E-mail: pandya.shwetang@LHD.nifs.ac.jp [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Peterson, Byron J.; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Mukai, Kiyofumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, Ryuichi [The Graduate University for Advance Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tanaka, Hirohiko; Masuzaki, Suguru; Miyazawa, Junichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Motojima, Gen [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Ohno, Noriyasu [Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The divertor heat loads can be efficiently controlled by plasma detachment, hence it is foreseen as a suitable operational regime for divertor operation of future machines. Detachment regime is normally approached by raising the plasma density to a point where plasma detaches from the divertor. If such an approach is adapted to detach the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasma, the plasma goes to radiative collapse due to thermal instabilities. Another approach to detach LHD plasma is by intrinsic impurity seeding using Ne. The discharges detach but ultimately collapse at comparatively lower densities. The detachment is achieved and sustained at high densities by the induction of an m/n = 1/1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) in the stochastic edge of the LHD plasma. First quantitative measurements of the two-dimensional (2D) impurity radiation profiles from the three-dimensional (3D) plasma edge of LHD showing the time evolution of radiative collapse and RMP assisted detachment measured by recently upgraded and calibrated Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) are presented in this article.

  4. CORRELATION OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN WITH BLOOD PRESSURE, BMI, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCEMIC STATUS IN TYPE II D M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2014-12-01

    of type-2 diabetes mellitus. To correlate plasma fibrinogen levels in patients of type-2 diabetes mellitus with blood pressure, body mass index, lipid profile and glycemic status. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen, the immediate precursor of fibrin was frequently elevated in type-2 diabetic patients and this elevation was associated with poor glycemic control as evidenced by increased glycosylated haemoglobin levels. But not all type-2 diabetic patients had higher levels of plasma fibrinogen. The patients who had normal range of plasma fibrinogen levels had normal glycosylated haemoglobin. The other parameters which correlated with plasma fibrinogen levels were age, smoking, family history, and body mass index. But alcohol consumption was inversely correlated to plasma fibrinogen level. The females had higher fibrinogen levels compared to males and also those who had hypertension showed higher plasma fibrinogen levels than normotensives, but this difference was not significant. Though various studies asserted that serum lipids and duration of diabetes has no correlation with plasma fibrinogen level, the present study showed positive correlation between serum cholesterol level, LDL level and triglyceride level with plasma fibrinogen levels. There was inverse relation with HDL level and duration of diabetes. In view of the fact that the present study comprised of a smallgroup of patients, further studies with more number of patients may be required to evaluate our observations.

  5. Modeling a short cold cathode DC discharge device with controllable plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Adams, Steven; Demidov, Vladimir; Bogdanov, Yevgeny

    2009-11-01

    A short (without positive column) DC gas-discharge device with a cold cathode has been modeled. The device consists of the plane disk-shaped cathode and anode while the inter-electrode gap is bounded by a cylindrical wall. The cathode and anode are each 2.5 cm in diameter, and the inter-electrode gap is 12 mm. The wall is made of conducting parts divided by an insulator. The modeling has been performed for argon plasma at 1 Torr pressure. It is demonstrated in the model that spatial distributions of electron density and temperature and argon metastable atom density depend on the DC voltage applied to different conducting parts of the wall. Applied voltage can trap within the device volume energetic electrons arising from atomic and molecular processes in the plasma. This leads to a modification in the heating of slow electrons by energetic electrons and as a result modifies the controlling plasma parameters.

  6. Relativistic self-focusing of intense laser beam in thermal collisionless quantum plasma with ramped density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, S.; Yazdani, E.; Rezaee, S.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.

  7. TDLDA calculations of photoionization cross-section and asymmetry parameter profiles of alkaline-earth atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stener, M.; De Alti, G.; Fronzoni, G.; Decleva, P.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute photoionization cross-section and asymmetry parameter profiles of Be, Mg and Ca have been calculated at TDLDA and LDA level, employing a very accurate B-spline basis set and the modified Sternheimer approach. The van Leeuwen-Baerends (VLB) exchange correlation potential has been used, since its correct asymptotic behaviour is able to support virtual states and to describe core-excited resonances. The results have been compared with other calculations and experiment when available. The autoionization resonances have been successfully fitted with a suitable Fano profile. The Ca 3p → 3d 'giant-resonance' has been properly described, despite of the dramatic screening effects involved in the process. The success of the TDLDA method for describing the cross-section profiles in the present systems which display a wide range of many-body effects, seems to suggest that further efforts to apply the present method to molecules are justified.

  8. An improved empirical formulation of an ionosphere bottomside electron density profile thickness parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazo-Cuartas, K.; Radicella, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    An improved empirical formulation for the characterization of the ;base point; of the bottomside ionospheric electron density profile is proposed. The ;base point; in an ionospheric layer is defined by the electron density profile height where the gradient dN/dh reaches a maximum. The difference between the height of the maximum electron density and the height of the ;base point; is proportional to the ionospheric F2 layer thickness parameter B2. The previous empirical formula links the maximum value of dN/dh to foF2 and M(3000)F2 scaled from the ionograms. The new formulation adds a dependence on the solar zenith angle. The use of the new equation improves substantially the calculation of the B2 thickness parameter used in the NeQuick model.

  9. Parameters Optimization of Plasma Hardening Process Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gu; WANG Liu-ying; CHEN Gui-ming; HUA Shao-chun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma surface hardening process was performed to improve the performance of the AISI 1045 carbon steel.Experiments were carried out to characterize the hardening qualities.A predicting and optimizing model using genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network(GA-BP) was developed based on the experimental results.The non-linear relationship between properties of hardening layers and process parameters was established.The results show that the GA-BP predicting model is reliable since prediction results are in rather good agreement with measured results.The optimal properties of the hardened layer were deduced from GA.And through multi optimizations,the optimum comprehensive performances of the hardened layer were as follows:plasma arc current is 90 A,hardening speed is 2.2 m/min,plasma gas flow rate is 6.0 L/min and hardening distance is 4.3 mm.It concludes that GA-BP mode developed in this study provides a promising method for plasma hardening parameters prediction and optimization.

  10. Fundamental Parameter Method Applied to X-Ray Line Profile Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Florica Matei; Nicolae Aldea; Marius Rada; Ioana Pop

    2016-01-01

    Crystallite size strain effect the mechanical, electric, magnetic and optical properties of many kind of the nanomaterials. The effects of the finite crystallite size and lattice strain can be very well observed as the deformation in the shape of the X-ray line profile (XRLP). In this contribution we have used the fundamental parameter (FP) [1,2] method to evaluate the nanostructure materials assuming a theoretical model of experimental XRLP.  In this contribution we have used various distrib...

  11. Plasma Protein Profiles Differ Between Women Diagnosed with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E. Partridge

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of precancerous cells in the cervix and their clinical management is the main purpose of cervical cancer prevention and treatment programs. Cytological findings or testing for high risk (HR-human papillomavirus (HPV are inadequately sensitive for use in triage of women at high risk for cervical cancer. The current study is an exploratory study to identify candidate surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI time of flight (TOF mass spectrometry (MS protein profiles in plasma that may distinguish cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3 from CIN 1 among women infected with HR-HPV. We evaluated the SELDI-TOF-MS plasma protein profiles of HR-HPV positive 32 women with CIN 3 (cases and 28 women with CIN1 (controls. Case-control status was kept blinded and triplicates of each sample and quality control plasma samples were randomized and after robotic sample preparations were run on WCX2 chips. After alignment of mass/charge (m-z values, an iterative method was used to develop a classifier on a training data set that had 28 cases and 22 controls. The classifier developed was used to classify the subjects in a test data set that has six cases and six controls. The classifier separated the cases from controls in the test set with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity suggesting the possibility of using plasma SELDI protein profiles to identify women who are likely to have CIN 3 lesions.

  12. Life Prediction of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Temperature-Dependent Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Chen, Kuiying; Baddour, N.; Patnaik, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    The failure analysis and life prediction of atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) were carried out for a thermal cyclic process. A residual stress model for the top coat of APS-TBC was proposed and then applied to life prediction. This residual stress model shows an inversion characteristic versus thickness of thermally grown oxide. The capability of the life model was demonstrated using temperature-dependent model parameters. Using existing life data, a comparison of fitting approaches of life model parameters was performed. A larger discrepancy was found for the life predicted using linearized fitting parameters versus temperature compared to those using non-linear fitting parameters. A method for integrating the residual stress was proposed by using the critical time of stress inversion. The role of the residual stresses distributed at each individual coating layer was explored and their interplay on the coating's delamination was analyzed.

  13. Self-bias Dependence on Process Parameters in Asymmetric Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    An rf coaxial capacitively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasma is applied to processing the inner wall of superconducting radio frequency cavities. A dc self-bias potential is established across the inner electrode sheath due to the surface area difference between inner and outer electrodes of the coaxial plasma. The self-bias potential measurement is used as an indication of the plasma sheath voltage asymmetry. The understanding of the asymmetry in sheath voltage distribution in coaxial plasma is important for the modification of the inner surfaces of three dimensional objects. The plasma sheath voltages were tailored to process the outer wall by providing an additional dc current to the inner electrode with the help of an external dc power supply. The dc self-bias potential is measured for different diameter electrodes and its variation on process parameters such as gas pressure, rf power and percentage of chlorine in the Ar/Cl2 gas mixture is studied. The dc current needed to overcome the self-bias potential to make it ...

  14. The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as a modulator of hemostatic parameters of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2014-09-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well known toxic gas at high levels. However, at physiological levels, H2S may play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to study the effects of exogenous H2S on the hemostatic parameters (coagulation and fibrinolytic activity) of human plasma. Human plasma was incubated (5, 15 and 30 min) with NaHS as a H2S donor at the final concentration of 0.01-100 μM. Hemostatic factors, such as maximum velocity of clot formation, fibrin lysis half-time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) were estimated. Moreover, the aim of our study was to establish the influence of NaHS (10 μM; 5, 15 and 30 min) on the clot formation using the purified fibrinogen. We demonstrated that coagulation/fibrinolytic properties of human plasma incubated with NaHS were changed. APPT, PT and TT of plasma treated with NaHS at tested concentrations--0.01-100 μM were prolonged. We observed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) reduced fibrin polymerization in whole plasma and 10 μM NaHS also reduced polymerization of purified fibrinogen. In the presence of NaHS (at the low tested concentration--1 μM) the decrease was about 18% (in plasma, p<0.05). Our experiments also showed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) stimulated the fibrin lysis in whole plasma. However, the time-dependent (5, 15 and 30 min) reduction of fibrin/fibrinogen polymerization and stimulation of fibrin lysis by NaHS (10 μM) was not observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the anticoagulant properties of exogenous H2S in vitro.

  15. Modélisation des profils de raie dans les plasmas : PPP nouvelle version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, A.; Ferri, S.; Mossé, C.

    2006-12-01

    Le code de calcul de profils de raie PPP a été développé à l'origine avec l'objectif de synthétiser les raies spectrales émises par les plasmas et ce pour n'importe quel émetteur et n'importe quelles conditions de plasmas. Les motivations de ce travail ont été d'une part le diagnostic et d'autre part les études de la dynamique non linéaire des charges dans les plasmas. Le code numérique basé sur des modèles originaux met en jeu des algorithmes qui réalisent le meilleur compromis entre précision et rapidité. En particulier, le mouvement des charges perturbatrices est pris en compte par le Modèle de Fluctuation de Fréquences qui transforme le profil statique en profil dynamique. Ce code a été sans cesse amélioré au cours des dix dernières années avec l'aide d'une technique de simulation numérique basée sur la méthode de dynamique moléculaire qui fournit des profils dits de référence.

  16. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  17. Versatile particle collection concept for correlation of particle growth and discharge parameters in dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A. M.; von Wahl, E.; Faupel, F.; Strunskus, T.; Kersten, H.

    2015-02-01

    The feasibility of collecting nanoparticles from a dusty plasma by means of the neutral drag force is investigated. The nanoparticles are formed in a capacitively coupled asymmetric discharge running in an Ar/C2H2—mixture at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and an RF-power of 9 W. By opening a gate valve between the plasma reactor and a vacuum chamber at a lower pressure at any desired point of the growth cycle of the dust particles a neutral gas flux is induced that drags the particles out of the plasma onto a substrate. By changing the parameters of the collection process, e.g. the substrate positioning or the substrate temperature, the efficiency of the collection process can be adjusted. Information about the particle size distributions is obtained by performing ex situ SEM measurements. As the collection process creates a time stamp in the in situ recorded control parameters, e.g. the self-bias voltage or the process gas pressure, a direct and precise correlation between the control parameters and the particle size distribution is obtained.

  18. Plasma lipidomic profiling of treated HIV-positive individuals and the implications for cardiovascular risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Gerard; Trevillyan, Janine M; Fatou, Benoit; Cinel, Michelle; Weir, Jacquelyn M; Hoy, Jennifer F; Meikle, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The increased risk of coronary artery disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients is collectively contributed to by the human immunodeficiency virus and antiretroviral-associated dyslipidaemia. In this study, we investigate the characterisation of the plasma lipid profiles of treated HIV patients and the relationship of 316 plasma lipid species across multiple lipid classes with the risk of future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive patients. In a retrospective case-control study, we analysed plasma lipid profiles of 113 subjects. Cases (n = 23) were HIV-positive individuals with a stored blood sample available 12 months prior to their diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). They were age and sex matched to HIV-positive individuals without a diagnosis of CAD (n = 45) and with healthy HIV-negative volunteers (n = 45). Association of plasma lipid species and classes with HIV infection and cardiovascular risk in HIV were determined. In multiple logistic regression, we identified 83 lipids species and 7 lipid classes significantly associated with HIV infection and a further identified 74 lipid species and 8 lipid classes significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in HIV-positive subjects. Risk prediction models incorporating lipid species attained an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.78 (0.775, 0.785)) and outperformed all other tested markers and risk scores in the identification of HIV-positive subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Our results demonstrate that HIV-positive patients have significant differences in their plasma lipid profiles compared with healthy HIV-negative controls and that numerous lipid species were significantly associated with elevated cardiovascular risk. This suggests a potential novel application for plasma lipids in cardiovascular risk screening of HIV-positive patients.

  19. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sugiharto Sugiharto; Mette SHedemann; Charlotte Lauridsen

    2014-01-01

    Background:The processes of weaning and exposure to pathogenic bacteria induce stress responses, which may alter the metabolism. In this study, we investigated the changes in plasma metabolites and immune responses in piglets in response to the stress induced by weaning and Escherichia coli challenge. Results:Fecal dry matter decreased (P=0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P<0.001) on day 11 postweaning than on day 0 or 4 postweaning. The levels of white blood cells increased continuously (P<0.001) from day 0 to day 11 postweaning. Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P=0.029) and lymphocytes (P=0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4 postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower on day 4 postweaning than on day 0. Levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylcholine were either higher or lower after weaning, depending on the chain lengths or characters of these metabolites. Conclusions:Our results show a clear separation in the plasma metabolomic profiles of piglets that corresponded to the fecal responses to stress on the piglets induced by weaning or exposure to a pathogen (E. coli). These plasma metabolite profiles suggest that the challenges induced proinflammatory responses in the piglets, resulting in postweaning diarrhea, which was associated with higher concentrations of IgA in the plasma.

  20. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases or sham (controls acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia.

  1. The Effects of Body Acupuncture on Obesity: Anthropometric Parameters, Lipid Profile, and Inflammatory and Immunologic Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Hamid; Zhao, Baixiao; Darbandi, Mahsa; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Tavallaie, Shima; Rahsepar, Amir Ali; Parizadeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Safariyan, Mohammad; Nemati, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Maryam; Abbasi-Parizad, Parisa; Darbandi, Sara; Akhlaghi, Saeed; Ferns, Gordon A. A.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial in 196 obese subjects was performed to examine the effectiveness of body acupuncture on body weight loss, lipid profile and immunogenic and inflammatory markers. Subjects received authentic (cases) or sham (controls) acupuncture for 6 weeks in combination with a low-calorie diet. In the following 6 weeks, they received the low-calorie diet alone. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, 6 and 12 weeks later. Heat shock protein (Hsps)-27, 60, 65, 70 antibody titers and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were also assessed. A significant reduction in measures of adiposity and improvement in lipid profile were observed in both groups, but the levels of anti-Hsp-antibodies decreased in cases only. A reduction in anthropometric and lipid profile in cases were sustained in the second period, however, only changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Anti-Hsp-antibodies and hs-CRP levels continued to be reduced in cases but in controls only the reduction in hs-CRP remained. Changes in anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, and anti-Hsp-antibodies were more evident in cases. Body acupuncture in combination with diet restriction was effective in enhancing weight loss and improving dyslipidemia. PMID:22649299

  2. Effects of n–3 Supplementation on Plasma and Liver Phospholipid Fatty Acids Profile in Aged Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fish oil supplementation in Wistar rats are focused on cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and antioxidant status changes. We determined plasma and liver phospholipid fatty acids (FAs) status and plasma lipid concentrations in aged Wistar rats. Our results showed differences in plasma and liver FAs profiles as well as plasma chlolesterol (CHOL), triglicerides (TG), high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), CHOL/HDL ratio (risk factor for ...

  3. Modeling Approach and Analysis of the Structural Parameters of an Inductively Coupled Plasma Etcher Based on a Regression Orthogonal Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jia; ZHU Yu; JI Linhong

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher is usually considered to be an important factor for determining both plasma and process uniformity over a large wafer. During the past few decades, these parameters were determined by the "trial and error" method, resulting in wastes of time and funds. In this paper, a new approach of regression orthogonal design with plasma simulation experiments is proposed to investigate the sensitivity of the structural parameters on the uniformity of plasma characteristics. The tool for simulating plasma is CFD-ACE+, which is commercial multi-physical modeling software that has been proven to be accurate for plasma simulation. The simulated experimental results are analyzed to get a regression equation on three structural parameters. Through this equation, engineers can compute the uniformity of the electron number density rapidly without modeling by CFD-ACE+. An optimization performed at the end produces good results.

  4. Changes in Dietary Fat Content Rapidly Alters the Mouse Plasma Coagulation Profile without Affecting Relative Transcript Levels of Coagulation Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey C A Cleuren

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a hypercoagulable state and increased risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events.Establish the onset and reversibility of the hypercoagulable state during the development and regression of nutritionally-induced obesity in mice, and its relation to transcriptional changes and clearance rates of coagulation factors as well as its relation to changes in metabolic and inflammatory parameters.Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a low fat (10% kcal as fat; LFD or high fat diet (45% kcal as fat; HFD for 2, 4, 8 or 16 weeks. To study the effects of weight loss, mice were fed the HFD for 16 weeks and switched to the LFD for 1, 2 or 4 weeks. For each time point analyses of plasma and hepatic mRNA levels of coagulation factors were performed after overnight fasting, as well as measurements of circulating metabolic and inflammatory parameters. Furthermore, in vivo clearance rates of human factor (F VII, FVIII and FIX proteins were determined after 2 weeks of HFD-feeding.HFD feeding gradually increased the body and liver weight, which was accompanied by a significant increase in plasma glucose levels from 8 weeks onwards, while insulin levels were affected after 16 weeks. Besides a transient rise in cytokine levels at 2 weeks after starting the HFD, no significant effect on inflammation markers was present. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, FII, FVII, FVIII, FIX, FXI and FXII were observed in mice on a HFD for 2 weeks, which in general persisted throughout the 16 weeks of HFD-feeding. Interestingly, with the exception of FXI the effects on plasma coagulation levels were not paralleled by changes in relative transcript levels in the liver, nor by decreased clearance rates. Switching from HFD to LFD reversed the HFD-induced procoagulant shift in plasma, again not coinciding with transcriptional modulation.Changes in dietary fat content rapidly alter the mouse plasma coagulation profile, thereby preceding plasma metabolic changes, which

  5. Confinement and stability of plasmas with externally driven steady-state elevated q-profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Alexander; Stober, Joerg; Fischer, Rainer; Fable, Emiliano; Reich, Matthias [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    The helicity profile of the magnetic field lines is an important quantity for the operation of Tokamak fusion devices and can be expressed as the so-called safety factor q. It has profound influence on both the stability of the fusion plasma, as well as its confinement properties. Operation scenarios with centrally elevated and flat, or even reversed q-profiles promise fewer central instabilities and better core confinement and are thus considered potentially attractive for future fusion power plants. To verify these predictions, centrally elevated q-profiles are created using external counter current drive, with additional heating power added afterwards to explore the stability limits and transport properties of the resulting plasmas. The tailored q-profiles are calculated using magnetic equilibrium reconstruction constrained by internal motional Stark effect data to confirm to the presence of the desired helicities. They are then used as a basis for simulations of the transport properties with the gyro-Landau-fluid code TGLF. The simulation results are then compared to the experimentally measured kinetic profiles.

  6. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, M; Faus-Kessler, T; Jakobi, G; Levy, W; Henkelmann, B; Bernhöft, S; Kotalik, J; Zsolnay, A; Bassan, R; Belis, C; Kräuchi, N; Moche, W; Simoncic, P; Uhl, M; Weiss, P; Schramm, K-W

    2009-12-01

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude.

  7. An analysis of type F2 software measurement standards for profile surface texture parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todhunter, L. D.; Leach, R. K.; Lawes, S. D. A.; Blateyron, F.

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth analysis of ISO 5436 part 2 type F2 reference software for the calculation of profile surface texture parameters that has been performed on the input, implementation and output results of the reference software developed by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Surface texture parameters have been calculated for a selection of 17 test data files obtained from the type F1 reference data sets on offer from NPL and NIST. The surface texture parameter calculation results show some disagreements between the software methods of the National Metrology Institutes. These disagreements have been investigated further, and some potential explanations are given.

  8. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P changing the fermentable substrate from predominantly cellulose to arabinoxylan-rich materials resulted in an altered SCFA uptake profile....

  9. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rithiele Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, creatine-kinase (CK, creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days, respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01, while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01. Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain, carbonyl (plasma and brain and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01. Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required.

  10. Ignitor Plasma Physics Performance in the H-Regime at Various Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detragiache, P.; Coppi, B.

    2010-11-01

    The plasma physics performance of Ignitor at full (BT = 13 T, Ip = 10 MA) as well as at reduced parameters (BT = 8 T, Ip = 5 MA) in the high confinement mode (H-regime) is assessed using global 0-D modelling. At full parameters, high-Q operation is possible if the heating power (a combination of Ohmic, α and limited ICRF power) is above the threshold value Pthr for H-regime confinement. Different scaling expressions for Pthr yield significantly different results when used with Ignitor parameters. Even with the most pessimistic among the proposed scalingsootnotetextY. R. Martin et al., Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 123, 012033 (2008). the access to H-regime confinement is possible for Ignitor at full field when the ICRH system is operated at the highest frequency and the generated power is less than at lower frequencies. At reduced parameters, the lower Pthr and the augmented ICRF power available (about 10 MW) facilitate access to H-regime confinement, while the plasma performance remains respectable.

  11. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  12. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Distribution in Human Plasma: Associations with Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar M. Hammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological significance of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P transport in blood has been debated. We have recently reported a comprehensive sphingolipid profile in human plasma and lipoprotein particles (VLDL, LDL, and HDL using HPLC-MS/MS (Hammad et al., 2010. We now determined the relative concentrations of sphingolipids including S1P in the plasma subfraction containing lipoproteins compared to those in the remaining plasma proteins. Sphingomyelin and ceramide were predominantly recovered in the lipoprotein-containing fraction. Total plasma S1P concentration was positively correlated with S1P concentration in the protein-containing fraction, but not with S1P concentration in the lipoprotein-containing fraction. The percentage of S1P transported in plasma lipoproteins was positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C concentration; however, S1P transport in lipoproteins was not limited by the concentration of HDL-C in the individual subject. Thus, different plasma pools of S1P may have different contributions to S1P signaling in health and disease.

  13. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P

  14. Sensory profile development of Oaxaca cheese and relationship with physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Copado, J; Orozco-Villafuerte, J; Pedrero-Fuehrer, D; Colín-Cruz, M A

    2016-09-01

    A sensory profile of Oaxaca cheese was developed. To represent both industrial and artisanal Oaxaca cheese, 3 types of cheese were manufactured under controlled conditions: 2 with pasteurized milk using a mesophilic lactic acid bacteria culture (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and L. lactis ssp. cremoris) and a thermophilic lactic acid bacteria culture (Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus), and a third with naturally acidified raw milk. The cheeses were evaluated by a panel of 11 trained judges. Additionally, chemical composition and instrumental color parameters were determined, an instrumental texture profile analysis was performed, and volatile compounds were identified by solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The sensory profile developed includes 43 descriptors, of which 13 are discriminant among these 3 cheese types. Descriptors include visual attribute waxy; tactile (manual) attributes moist and oily; orthonasal aroma attributes empyreumatic and cow; basic taste attribute salty; mouth texture attributes chewable, gummy, adherent, fibrous, moist, and fatty; and auditory attribute squeaky. A strong correlation was found between specific sensory data and physicochemical parameters measured by instrumental and chemical methods.

  15. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  16. Effect of process parameters on coating composition of cathodic-plasma-electrolysis-treated copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASIYEH HABIBI; S MOHAMMAD MOUSAVI KHOIE; FARZAD MAHBOUBI; MUSTAFA URGEN

    2017-04-01

    Cathodic plasma electrolysis is a novel technique to form nanostructured layers on metallic surfaces by application of high voltage in a suitable aqueous electrolyte. In the present study, copper is treated by plasma electrolysisin 50 vol% ethanol electrolyte and coatings comprising carbon nanostructure and copper oxide are formed on the copper. The effect of some process parameters such as electrical conductivity, volume and temperature of electrolyte and ratio of anode to cathode surface area on current–voltage behaviour and subsequently coating compositions are investigated at 150V deposition voltage. The composition and morphology of these coatings are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Different current–voltage behaviours, temperatures of substrate and the contents and energies of radicals and ions around the substrate by changes in the mentioned parameters cause different compositions from 100 vol% copper oxide to different ratios of copper oxide to carbon, the structure changing from amorphous to graphitic structure in carbon and amorphous to cubic morphology in copper oxide on the substrate. Therefore, the understanding of cathodic plasma electrolysiscan be developed.

  17. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  18. The effect of plasma radius and profile on the development of self-modulation instability of electron bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Y. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Vieira, J.; Amorim, L. D. [GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Lisbon (Portugal); Mori, W. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Muggli, P. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Plasmas available for plasma wakefield accelerator experiments may have longitudinal and transverse density profiles that could affect the outcome of an experiment. This paper investigates the effect of plasmas with finite radius and inhomogeneous transverse density profiles on the wakefield excitation and the self-modulation instability (SMI) development in overdense plasmas. We focus here on the case of an electron bunch. Simulation results show that such plasmas generate larger focusing force for the propagating electron beam and therefore higher growth rate for the SMI. Although the initial accelerating field (E{sub z}) amplitude is lower in such plasmas, the increased focusing force can dominate the development trend of the SMI, i.e., larger saturated E{sub z} amplitude can be reached over similar plasma lengths.

  19. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

  20. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency diagnosed by clinical metabolomic profiling of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Donti, Taraka R; Cardon, Aaron L; Bacino, C A; Sun, Qin; Emrick, L; Reid Sutton, V; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism affecting the biosynthesis of serotonin, dopamine, and catecholamines. We report a case of AADC deficiency that was detected using the Global MAPS platform. This is a novel platform that allows for parallel clinical testing of hundreds of metabolites in a single plasma specimen. It uses a state-of-the-art mass spectrometry platform, and the resulting spectra are compared against a library of ~2500 metabolites. Our patient is now a 4 year old boy initially seen at 11 months of age for developmental delay and hypotonia. Multiple tests had not yielded a diagnosis until exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants of uncertain significance (VUS), c.286G>A (p.G96R) and c.260C>T (p.P87L) in the DDC gene, causal for AADC deficiency. CSF neurotransmitter analysis confirmed the diagnosis with elevated 3-methoxytyrosine (3-O-methyldopa). Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma and revealed marked elevation in 3-methoxytyrosine (Z-score +6.1) consistent with the diagnosis of AADC deficiency. These results demonstrate that the Global MAPS platform is able to diagnose AADC deficiency from plasma. In summary, we report a novel and less invasive approach to diagnose AADC deficiency using plasma metabolomic profiling.

  1. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Sato, Juichi; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10-90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrations of plasma isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine subsequently decreased after ingestion, and those of methionine and tyrosine tended to decrease. The effects of ingested leucine on other plasma amino acids were biphasic, being higher at lower doses (10-20 mg/kg body weight). Isoleucine or valine intake also caused corresponding plasma amino acid concentrations to rapidly elevate, and peaks at 30-40 min after ingestion were much higher than that of plasma leucine after leucine ingestion. However, the increase in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations essentially did not affect those of other plasma amino acids. The rate of decline among peak plasma BCAA concentrations was the highest for leucine, followed by isoleucine and valine. Oral mixed BCAAs promoted the decline in plasma isoleucine and valine concentrations. These results suggest that plasma leucine is a regulator of the plasma concentrations of BCAAs, methionine and aromatic amino acids.

  2. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Carlos; Torres, Maria Jose; Kobayashi, Miharu; Scholz-Romero, Katherin; Sobrevia, Luis; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Illanes, Sebastian E; Mitchell, Murray D; Rice, Gregory E

    2014-01-01

    Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group) were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks), second (ST, 22-24 weeks) and third (TT, 32-38 weeks) trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP), respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte). Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (pexosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (pExosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  3. A gestational profile of placental exosomes in maternal plasma and their effects on endothelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salomon

    Full Text Available Studies completed to date provide persuasive evidence that placental cell-derived exosomes play a significant role in intercellular communication pathways that potentially contribute to placentation and development of materno-fetal vascular circulation. The aim of this study was to establish the gestational-age release profile and bioactivity of placental cell-derived exosome in maternal plasma. Plasma samples (n = 20 per pregnant group were obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women in the first (FT, 6-12 weeks, second (ST, 22-24 weeks and third (TT, 32-38 weeks trimester. The number of exosomes and placental exosome contribution were determined by quantifying immunoreactive exosomal CD63 and placenta-specific marker (PLAP, respectively. The effect of exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT on endothelial cell migration were established using a real-time, live-cell imaging system (Incucyte. Exosome plasma concentration was more than 50-fold greater in pregnant women than in non-pregnant women (p<0.001. During normal healthy pregnancy, the number of exosomes present in maternal plasma increased significantly with gestational age by more that two-fold (p<0.001. Exosomes isolated from FT, ST and TT increased endothelial cell migration by 1.9±0.1, 1.6±0.2 and 1.3±0.1-fold, respectively compared to the control. Pregnancy is associated with a dramatic increase in the number of exosomes present in plasma and maternal plasma exosomes are bioactive. While the role of placental cell-derived exosome in regulating maternal and/or fetal vascular responses remains to be elucidated, changes in exosome profile may be of clinical utility in the diagnosis of placental dysfunction.

  4. Inversion of river-bottom sediment parameters using mechanically sampled specimens and subbottom profiling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yong; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Jun

    2017-06-01

    The study of river dynamics requires knowledge of physical parameters, such as porosity, permeability, and wave propagation velocity, of river-bottom sediments. To do so, sediment properties are determined on mechanically sampled specimens and from subbottom profiling. However, mechanical sampling introduces disturbances that affect test results, with the exception of grain-size distribution. In this study, we perform inversion of acoustic data using the grain-size distribution of mechanically sampled specimens and the relation between porosity and permeability from the Kozeny-Carman equation as prior information. The wave reflection coefficient of the water-silt interface is extracted from the raw subbottom profile. Based on the effective density fluid model, we combine the Kozeny-Carman equation and the wave reflection coefficient. We use experimental data from two Yellow River reservoirs to obtain the wave velocity and density of multiple sections and their spatial variations, and find that the inversion and testing results are in good agreement.

  5. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  6. High Aerobic Capacity Mitigates Changes in the Plasma Metabolomic Profile Associated with Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falegan, Oluyemi S; Vogel, Hans J; Hittel, Dustin S; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Hepple, Russ T; Shearer, Jane

    2017-02-03

    Advancing age is associated with declines in maximal oxygen consumption. Declines in aerobic capacity not only contribute to the aging process but also are an independent risk factor for morbidity, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although statistically convincing, the relationships between aerobic capacity, aging, and disease risk remain largely unresolved. To this end, we employed sensitive, system-based metabolomics approach to determine whether enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some of the changes seen in the plasma metabolomic profile associated with aging. Metabolomic profiles of plasma samples obtained from young (13 month) and old (26 month) rats bred for low (LCR) or high (HCR) running capacity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR) were examined. Results demonstrated strong profile separation in old and low aerobic capacity rats, whereas young and high aerobic capacity rat models were less predictive. Significantly differential metabolites between the groups include taurine, acetone, valine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide among other metabolites, specifically citrate, succinate, isovalerate, and proline, were differentially increased in older HCR animals compared with their younger counterparts. When interactions between age and aerobic capacity were examined, results demonstrated that enhanced aerobic capacity could mitigate some but not all age-associated alterations in the metabolomic profile.

  7. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Braakhekke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperate forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, the Netherlands, and a Cambisol with mull-type humus (Hainich, Germany. Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope 210Pbex as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied. For Loobos, the calibration results demonstrate the importance of organic matter transport with the liquid phase for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich, the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution. With the addition of 210Pbex data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which indicated that root litter input is a dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The 210

  8. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Braakhekke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM in the profile may constitute a significant factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing due to bioturbation, and organic matter leaching. In this study we quantified the contribution of these three processes using Bayesian parameter estimation for the mechanistic SOM profile model SOMPROF. Based on organic carbon measurements, 13 parameters related to decomposition and transport of organic matter were estimated for two temperature forest soils: an Arenosol with a mor humus form (Loobos, The Netherlands, and a Cambisol with mull type humus (Hainich, Germany. Furthermore, the use of the radioisotope 210Pbex as tracer for vertical SOM transport was studied.

    For Loobos the calibration results demonstrate the importance of liquid phase transport for shaping the vertical SOM profile, while the effects of bioturbation are generally negligible. These results are in good agreement with expectations given in situ conditions. For Hainich the calibration offered three distinct explanations for the observations (three modes in the posterior distribution. With the addition of 210Pbex data and prior knowledge, as well as additional information about in situ conditions, we were able to identify the most likely explanation, which identified root litter input as the dominant process for the SOM profile. For both sites the organic matter appears to comprise mainly adsorbed but potentially leachable material, pointing to the importance of organo-mineral interactions. Furthermore, organic matter in the mineral soil appears to be mainly derived from root litter, supporting previous studies that highlighted the importance of root input for soil carbon sequestration. The 210

  9. Plasma proteome profiles associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Pas, Marinus F W; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Kruijt, Leo; Calus, Mario P L; Smits, Mari A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean) diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria) diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (patho)physiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA) and diabetes (Glucose) and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes) and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases.

  10. Plasma proteome profiles associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome and the early onset of metabolic syndrome in a pig model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinus F W te Pas

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diabetes are important health threatening multifactorial metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that 25% of all diabetic patients are unaware of their patho-physiological condition. Biomarkers for monitoring and control are available, but early stage predictive biomarkers enabling prevention of these diseases are still lacking. We used the pig as a model to study metabolic disease because humans and pigs share a multitude of metabolic similarities. Diabetes was chemically induced and control and diabetic pigs were either fed a high unsaturated fat (Mediterranean diet or a high saturated fat/cholesterol/sugar (cafeteria diet. Physiological parameters related to fat metabolism and diabetes were measured. Diabetic pigs' plasma proteome profiles differed more between the two diets than control pigs plasma proteome profiles. The expression levels of several proteins correlated well with (pathophysiological parameters related to the fat metabolism (cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, NEFA and diabetes (Glucose and to the diet fed to the animals. Studying only the control pigs as a model for metabolic syndrome when fed the two diets showed correlations to the same parameters but now more focused on insulin, glucose and abdominal fat depot parameters. We conclude that proteomic profiles can be used as a biomarker to identify pigs with developing metabolic syndrome (prediabetes and diabetes when fed a cafeteria diet. It could be developed into a potential biomarkers for the early recognition of metabolic diseases.

  11. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3...

  12. Real-time control of the plasma density profile on ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Alexander

    2010-07-20

    The tokamak concept currently is the most promising approach to future power generation by controlled thermonuclear fusion. The spatial distribution of the particle density in the toroidally confined fusion plasma is of particular importance. This thesis work therefore focuses on the question as to what extent the shape of the density profile can be actively controlled by a feedback loop in the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade. There are basically two essential requirements for such feedback control of the density profile, which has been experimentally demonstrated within the scope of this thesis work: On the one hand, for this purpose the density profile must be continuously calculated under real-time constraints during a plasma discharge. The calculation of the density profile is based on the measurements of a sub-millimeter interferometer, which provides the line-integrated electron density along 5 chords through the plasma. Interferometric density measurements can suffer from counting errors by integer multiples of 2{pi} when detecting the phase difference between a probing and a reference beam. As such measurement errors have severe impact on the reconstructed density profile, one major part of this work consists in the development of new readout electronics for the interferometer, which allows for detection of such measurement errors in real-time with high reliability. A further part of this work is the design of a computer algorithm which reconstructs the spatial distribution of the plasma density from the line-integrated measurements. This algorithm has to be implemented on a computer which communicates the measured data to other computers in real-time, especially to the tokamak control system. On the other hand, a second fundamental requirement for the successful implementation of a feedback controller is the identification of at least one actuator which enables a modification of the density profile. Here, electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) has

  13. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  14. Penentuan Efektifitas Oksitetrasiklin Melalui Parameter Farmakokinetik/farmakodinamik pada Plasma dan Jaringan Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Dwi Wijayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxytetracycline on the basis of itspharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD parameters in the plasma and tissues of broiler following a50 mg/kg single dose of intravenous administration. The male broiler were injected with oxytetracycline attarsal medial venous. The blood, liver, kidney and abdominal muscle were collected at 14 points of timesamplings. Blood was centrifuged to obtain plasma and all tissues were extracted with Mc Ilvine buffer.Drug concentration in samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCusing AOAC standard reference for tetracycline. The pharmacokinetic parameters of oxytetracycline werecalculated using non compartment method. The results were as follows. For plasma: the AUC was 790,615,5 ?g/mL minute , Clearance was 63,242 mL/min/kg bb, Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/0,7 ?g/mL, T1/2elimination was 6,4, hours, Vd was 37 L/kg. For liver ; AUC was 36418,89, minute , Tmax/Cmax was 16hours/17,15 ?g/g, and T1/2 elimination was 24,5, hours. For kidney; AUC6808,41 ?g/g minute , Tmax/Cmax 1 minute/16,73 ?g/g, , T1/2 elimination was 11,55 hours. For muscle; AUC was 3502 ?g/g minute,Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/2,58 ?g/g, T1/2 elimination was 167,39 hours. The ratio of AUC/MIC inplasma and tissues appeared to a good pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter to determine theeffectiveness of oxytetracycline.

  15. Fundamental Parameter Method Applied to X-Ray Line Profile Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Matei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crystallite size strain effect the mechanical, electric, magnetic and optical properties of many kind of the nanomaterials. The effects of the finite crystallite size and lattice strain can be very well observed as the deformation in the shape of the X-ray line profile (XRLP. In this contribution we have used the fundamental parameter (FP [1,2] method to evaluate the nanostructure materials assuming a theoretical model of experimental XRLP.  In this contribution we have used various distribution functions such as normal, lognormal, Gumbel, Maxwell and Student. The best values of the crystallite size of nanostructued materials are chosen by analysis of root mean squares of residuals and by correlation matrix of the fit parameters. The entire procedure was implemented in the GnuPlot script.

  16. EFFECT OF PROPOLIS IN CHICKEN DIET ON SELECTED PARAMETERS OF MINERAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kolesárová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to monitor the effect of propolis extract on selected parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorides of Hubbard JV chickens. Chickens were divided into five groups (C, control; E1 – E4, experimental groups. Experimental chickens (n=10 in each group received propolis in feed mixture in various doses as follows: E1 – 150 mg.kg-1; E2 – 450 mg.kg-1; E3 – 600 mg.kg-1; E4 – 800 mg.kg-1. Feeding period lasted 42 days. Propolis preparation caused a significant (P<0.05 decrease of serum phosphorus and magnesium content. Other parameters were not influenced (P>0.05 after propolis treatment.

  17. Selenium, copper and zinc in seminal plasma of men with varicocele, relationship with seminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, María Isabel; Abdala, Lyzeth; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Greaves, Eduardo D

    2011-12-01

    Varicocele has been associated with decrease in seminal parameters. Selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are trace elements essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and play a critical role as antioxidant defense system enzymes. Se, Cu, and Zn are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. However, there is little information about Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations in semen in patients with varicocele and its association with seminal parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of Se, Cu, and Zn in semen of patients with varicocele and the relationship with seminal parameters. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used for the fist time in the seminal fluid analysis. The concentration of selenium in men with varicocele was smaller than the normozoospermic group, while no differences were observed for both concentrations of zinc and copper. A significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium concentration was observed. Selenium in seminal plasma correlates with a good spermatozoa concentrations, motility, and morphology. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between zinc levels and sperm count. In conclusion, a decrease in selenium concentration was associated with detriment of seminal parameters. A study should be conducted to evaluate the benefits of both zinc and selenium supplementation to improve seminal parameters in patients with varicocele.

  18. Influence of plasma pedestal profiles on access to ELM-free regimes in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, S. Yu.; Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.; Konovalov, S. V.; Polevoi, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of current density and pressure gradient profiles in the pedestal on the access to the regimes free from edge localized modes (ELMs) like quiescent H-mode in ITER is investigated. Using the simulator of MHD modes localized near plasma boundary based on the KINX code, calculations of the ELM stability were performed for the ITER plasma in scenarios 2 and 4 under variations of density and temperature profiles with the self-consistent bootstrap current in the pedestal. Low pressure gradient values at the separatrix, the same position of the density and temperature pedestals and high poloidal beta values facilitate reaching high current density in the pedestal and a potential transition into the regime with saturated large scale kink modes. New version of the localized MHD mode simulator allows one to compute the growth rates of ideal peeling-ballooning modes with different toroidal mode numbers and to determine the stability region taking into account diamagnetic stabilization. The edge stability diagrams computations and sensitivity studies of the stability limits to the value of diamagnetic frequency show that diamagnetic stabilization of the modes with high toroidal mode numbers can help to access the quiescent H-mode even with high plasma density but only with low pressure gradient values at the separatrix. The limiting pressure at the top of the pedestal increases for higher plasma density. With flat density profile the access to the quiescent H-mode is closed even with diamagnetic stabilization taken into account, while toroidal mode numbers of the most unstable peeling-ballooning mode decrease from n = 10-40 to n = 3-20.

  19. Long-term high fructose and saturated fat diet affects plasma fatty acid profile in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice TRANCHIDA; Léopold TCHIAKPE; Zo RAKOTONIAINA; Valérie DEYRIS; Olivier RAVION; Abel HIOL

    2012-01-01

    As the consumption of fructose and saturated fatty acids (FAs) has greatly increased in western diets and is linked with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome,the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a moderate (10 weeks) and a prolonged (30 weeks) high fructose and saturated fatty acid (HFS) diet on plasma FA composition in rats.The effects of a few weeks of HFS diet had already been described,but in this paper we tried to establish whether these effects persist or if they are modified after 10 or 30 weeks.We hypothesized that the plasma FA profile would be altered between 10 and 30 weeks of the HFS diet.Rats fed with either the HFS or a standard diet were tested after 10 weeks and again after 30 weeks.After 10 weeks of feeding,HFS-fed rats developed the metabolic syndrome,as manifested by an increase in fasting insulinemia,total cholesterol and triglyceride levels,as well as by impaired glucose tolerance.Furthermore,the plasma FA profile of the HFS group showed higher proportions of monounsaturated FAs like palmitoleic acid [16:1(n-7)] and oleic acid [18:1(n-9)],whereas the proportions of some polyunsaturated n-6 FAs,such as linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and arachidonic acid [20:4(n-6)],were lower than those in the control group.After 30 weeks of the HFS diet,we observed changes mainly in the levels of 16:1(n-7) (decreased)and 20:4(n-6) (increased).Together,our results suggest that an HFS diet could lead to an adaptive response of the plasma FA profile over time,in association with the development of the metabolic syndrome.

  20. Evolution of the THz Beam Profile from a Two-Color Air Plasma Through a Beam Waist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam.......We experimentally measure the profile of a THz beam generated by a two-color air plasma as it passes through a beam waist, and show that it can be approximated as a Bessel-Gauss beam....

  1. Consideration of slice profiles in inversion recovery Look-Locker relaxation parameter mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Gia, Johannes; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Bley, Thorsten A; Köstler, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    To include the flip angle distribution caused by the slice profile into the model used for describing the relaxation curves observed in inversion recovery Look-Locker FLASH T1 mapping for a more accurate determination of the relaxation parameters. For each inversion time, the flip angle dependent signal of the mono-exponential relaxation model is integrated across the slice profile. The resulting Consideration of Slice Profiles (CSP) relaxation curves are compared to the mono-exponential signal model in numerical simulations as well as in phantom and in-vivo experiments. All measured relaxation curves showed systematic deviations from a mono-exponential curve increasing with flip angle and T1 but decreasing with repetition time. Additionally, the accuracy of T1 was found to be largely dependent on the temporal coverage of the relaxation curve. All these systematic errors were largely reduced by the CSP model. The proposed CSP model represents a useful extension of the conventionally used mono-exponential relaxation model. Despite inherent model inaccuracies, the mono-exponential model was found to be sufficient for many T1 mapping situations. However, if only a poor temporal coverage of the relaxation process is achievable or a very precise modeling of the relaxation course is needed as in model-based techniques, the mono-exponential model leads to systematic errors and the CSP model should be used instead. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Order Parameter Profile in AN Adsorbed Binary Liquid Mixture Near Criticality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossman, Mark Loren

    Adsorption of a binary liquid mixture near criticality onto a solid glass substrate can be studied using light reflected off the glass/liquid boundary. In Part 1, reflectivity data analyzed with a modified Landau-Ginzburg theory using a contact wall interaction are shown to be consistent with an exponential decay of the order parameter into the bulk. This analysis provides a measure of h_{1 }, the effective glass/liquid interaction strength. The reflectivity can also be expressed as an expansion in the moments of the order parameter profile. For the data presented and an exponential profile the expansion can be truncated at the first order moment, M_{1} . We assume an exponential form of the profile to express the zeroth moment as a function of M _{1}. The first moment is fitted as a power law in t, the reduced temperature. Analysis of these data yields an exponent p = 0.88 +/- 0.10 that is consistent with the prediction p = 2nu - beta from the scaling law of Fisher and de Gennes. To further explore the profile an AC ellipsometer which used a photoelastic modulator was constructed. An unusual thermostat without traditional windows allowed the angle of incidence at the glass/liquid boundary to be varied over a large range. This allowed a large region in k -space to be explored, where k is twice the transmitted momentum wave vector perpendicular to the glass/liquid boundary. Excellent temperature control (0.1 mK/several hours) allowed the quantity kxi to be as large as kxi cong 15, where xi is the bulk correlation length. This should have allowed us to explore the power law region of the profile. During the investigation of the adsorption, certain anomalous data far above T _{c} (the critical temperature) were discovered. Temperature dependent hysteresis and very long equilibration times characterize the data. Until resolved, these features restrict progress in understanding the data closer to T_{c}. The data remain unexplained and are discussed, along with the

  3. ROLE OF FCA WELDING PROCESS PARAMETERS ON BEAD PROFILE, ANGULAR AND BOWING DISTORTION OF FERRITIC STAINLESS STEEL SHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VENKATESAN M. V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of flux cored arc welding (FCAW process parameters such as welding current, travel speed, voltage and CO2 shielding gas flow rate on bead profile, bowing distortion and angular distortion of 409 M ferritic stainless steel sheets of 2 mm thickness. The bowing and angular distortions of the welded plates were measured using a simple device called profile tracer and Vernier bevel protractor respectively. The study revealed that the FCAW process parameters have significant effect on bead profile, and distortion. The relationship between bead profile and distortions were analyzed. Most favorable process parameters that give uniform bead profile and minimum distortion for the weld are recommended for fabrication.

  4. Pistachio diet improves erectile function parameters and serum lipid profiles in patients with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldemir, M; Okulu, E; Neşelioğlu, S; Erel, O; Kayıgil, O

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Antep pistachio on International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores, penile color Doppler ultrasound (PCDU) parameters and serum lipid levels in patients with ED. A total of 17 married male patients with ED for at least 12 months were included in this prospective study. Patients were put on a 100 g pistachio nuts diet for 3 weeks. IIEF and PCDU were evaluated before and after the pistachio diet. In addition, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were measured before and after dietary modifications from all subjects. Mean IIEF-15 score was 36 ± 7.5 before the diet and 54.2 ± 4.9 after the diet (P=0.001). Similarly, an increase in all five domains of IIEF was observed after the diet (Ppistachio diet were 35.5 ± 15.2 and 43.3 ± 12.4 cm s(-1), respectively (P=0.018). After the pistachio diet, TC and LDL levels decreased significantly, whereas HDL level increased (P=0.008, 0.007 and 0.001, respectively). We demonstrated that a pistachio diet improved IIEF scores and PCDU parameters without any associated side effects in patients with ED. Furthermore, the lipid parameters showed statistically significant improvements after this diet.

  5. Does creatine supplementation improve the plasma lipid profile in healthy male subjects undergoing aerobic training?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scagliusi Fernanda B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We aimed to investigate the effects of creatine (Cr supplementation on the plasma lipid profile in sedentary male subjects undergoing aerobic training. Methods Subjects (n = 22 were randomly divided into two groups and were allocated to receive treatment with either creatine monohydrate (CR (~20 g·day-1 for one week followed by ~10 g·day-1 for a further eleven weeks or placebo (PL (dextrose in a double blind fashion. All subjects undertook moderate intensity aerobic training during three 40-minute sessions per week, over 3 months. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TAG, fasting insulin and fasting glycemia were analyzed in plasma. Thereafter, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA was calculated. Tests were performed at baseline (Pre and after four (Post 4, eight (Post 8 and twelve (Post 12 weeks. Results We observed main time effects in both groups for HDL (Post 4 versus Post 8; P = 0.01, TAG and VLDL (Pre versus Post 4 and Post 8; P = 0.02 and P = 0.01, respectively. However, no between group differences were noted in HDL, LDL, CT, VLDL and TAG. Additionally, fasting insulin, fasting glycemia and HOMA did not change significantly. Conclusion These findings suggest that Cr supplementation does not exert any additional effect on the improvement in the plasma lipid profile than aerobic training alone.

  6. Ambient low temperature plasma etching of polymer films for secondary ion mass spectrometry molecular depth profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Shin; Staymates, Matthew E; Brewer, Tim M; Gillen, Greg

    2012-12-18

    The feasibility of a low temperature plasma (LTP) probe as a way to prepare polymer bevel cross sections for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) applications was investigated. Poly(lactic acid) and poly(methyl methacrylate) films were etched using He LTP, and the resulting crater walls were depth profiled using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to examine changes in chemistry over the depth of the film. ToF-SIMS results showed that while exposure to even 1 s of plasma resulted in integration of atmospheric nitrogen and contaminants to the newly exposed surface, the actual chemical modification to the polymer backbone was found to be chemistry-dependent. For PLA, sample modification was confined to the top 15 nm of the PLA surface regardless of plasma exposure dose, while measurable change was not seen for PMMA. The confinement of chemical modification to 15 nm or less of the top surface suggests that LTP can be used as a simple method to prepare cross sections or bevels of polymer thin films for subsequent analysis by surface-sensitive molecular depth profiling techniques such as SIMS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and other spatially resolved mass spectrometric techniques.

  7. A Study of DC Surface Plasma Discharge in Absence of Free Airflow: Ionic Wind Velocity Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study we are interested with the DC (Direct Current electric corona discharge created between two wire electrodes. We present experimental results related to some electroaerodynamic actuators based on the DC corona discharge at the surface of a dielectric material. We used different geometrical forms of dielectric surface such as a plate, a cylinder and a wing of aircraft of type NACA 0015. We present the current density-electric filed characteristics for different cases in order to determine the discharge regimes. The corona discharge produces non-thermal plasma so that it is called plasma discharge. Plasma discharge creates a tangential ionic wind above the surface at the vicinity of the wall. We have measured the ionic wind induced by the corona discharge in absence of free external airflow, we give the ionic wind velocity profiles for different surface forms and we compare the actuators effect based on the span of the ionic wind velocity values. We notice that the maximum ionic wind velocity is obtained with the NACA profile, which shows the effectiveness of this actuator for the airflow control.

  8. An experimental study of a plasma actuator in absence of free airflow: Ionic wind velocity profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestiri, R.; Hadaji, R.; Ben Nasrallah, S.

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we are interested in the direct current electrical corona discharge created between two wire electrodes. The experimental results are related to some electroaerodynamic actuators based on the direct current corona discharge at the surface of a dielectric material. Several geometrical forms are selected for the dielectric surface, such as a plate, a cylinder, and a NACA 0015 aircraft wing. The current density-electric field characteristics are presented for different cases in order to determine the discharge regimes. The corona discharge produces nonthermal plasma, so it is called plasma discharge. Plasma discharge creates a tangential ionic wind above the surface at the vicinity of the wall. The ionic wind induced by the corona discharge is measured in absence of free external airflow. The ionic wind velocity profiles and the maximum induced tangential force are given for different surface forms, so it is possible to compare the actuators effect based on the span of the ionic wind velocity and thrust values. The higher ionic wind velocity is obtained with the NACA profile, which shows the effectiveness of this actuator for the airflow control.

  9. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  10. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  11. Plasma arc cutting optimization parameters for aluminum alloy with two thickness by using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnasser, B.; Bhuvenesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    Manufacturing companies define the qualities of thermal removing process based on the dimension and physical appearance of the cutting material surface. The surface roughness of the cutting area for the material and the material removal rate being removed during the manual plasma arc cutting process were importantly considered. Plasma arc cutter machine model PS-100 was used to cut the specimens made from aluminium alloy 1100 manually based on the selected parameters setting. Two different thicknesses of specimens, 3mm and 6mm were used. The material removal rate (MRR) was measured by determining the difference between the weight of specimens before and after the cutting process. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured by using MITUTOYO CS-3100 machine and analysis was conducted to determine the average roughness (Ra) value, Taguchi method was utilized as an experimental layout to obtain MRR and Ra values. The results indicate that the current and cutting speed is the most significant parameters, followed by the arc gap for both rate of material removal and surface roughness.

  12. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  13. Potential of polarization lidar to provide profiles of CCN- and INP-relevant aerosol parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the potential of polarization lidar to provide vertical profiles of aerosol parameters from which cloud condensation nucleus (CCN and ice nucleating particle (INP number concentrations can be estimated. We show that height profiles of number concentrations of aerosol particles with radius > 50 nm (APC50, reservoir of favorable CCN and with radius > 250 nm (APC250, reservoir of favorable INP, as well as profiles of the aerosol particle surface area concentration (ASC, used in INP parameterization can be retrieved from lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficients (AEC with relative uncertainties of a factor of around 2 (APC50, and of about 25–50 % (APC250, ASC. Of key importance is the potential of polarization lidar to identify mineral dust particles and to distinguish and separate the aerosol properties of basic aerosol types such as mineral dust and continental pollution (haze, smoke. We investigate the relationship between AEC and APC50, APC250, and ASC for the main lidar wavelengths of 355, 532 and 1064 nm and main aerosol types (dust, pollution, marine. Our study is based on multiyear Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness and column-integrated particle size distribution at Leipzig, Germany, and Limassol, Cyprus, which cover all realistic aerosol mixtures of continental pollution, mineral dust, and marine aerosol. We further include AERONET data from field campaigns in Morocco, Cabo Verde, and Barbados, which provide pure dust and pure marine aerosol scenarios. By means of a simple relationship between APC50 and the CCN-reservoir particles (APCCCN and published INP parameterization schemes (with APC250 and ASC as input we finally compute APCCCN and INP concentration profiles. We apply the full methodology to a lidar observation of a heavy dust outbreak crossing Cyprus with dust up to 8 km height and to a case during which anthropogenic pollution dominated.

  14. Characterization of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.

    2011-10-01

    Previous experiments with Nike KrF laser (λ = 248 nm , Δν ~ 1 THz) observed LPI signatures near quarter critical density (nc / 4) in CH plasmas, however, detailed measurement of the temperature (Te) and density (ne) profiles was missing. The current Nike LPI campaign will perform experimental determination of the plasma profiles. A side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) is the main diagnostic to resolve Te and ne in space taking 2D snapshots of probe laser (λ = 266 nm , Δt = 8 psec) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at laser peak time. Ray tracing of the beamlets through hydrodynamically simulated (FASTRAD3D) plasma profiles estimates the refractometer may access densities up to ~ 0 . 2nc . With the measured Te and ne profiles in the plasma corona, we will discuss analysis of light data radiated from the plasmas in spectral ranges relevant to two plasmon decay and convective Raman instabilities. Validity of the (Te ,ne) data will also be discussed for the thermal transport study. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and ONR and performed at NRL.

  15. [Association between systemic inflammation and autoimmunity parameters and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Liu, Wen-ling; Sun, Yi-hong; Ding, Rong-jing; Hu, Da-yi

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the association between inflammation status/autoimmune antibodies and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 402 RA patients were admitted into our hospital during January 2008 to March 2009 and 225 RA patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected to perform a full lipid profile examination including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), anti-keratin antibody (AKA), anti-perinuclear factor autoantibody (APF) and complement (C) were also evaluated. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was calculate by the formula Log (TG/HDL-C). (1) There were 12.9%, 10.2% and 14.2% patients with elevated TC, LDL-C and TC respectively, patients with reduced HDL-C accounted for 43.6%. (2) C(3) was higher in elevated TC group than normal TC group (P elevated LDL-C group than in normal LDL-C group (P anti-CCP were positively correlated with LDL-C (R(2) = 0.129, P antibodies. Moreover, ESR and C(4) were predictors of increased AIP in this cohort.

  16. Effects of high-fat diet on plasma profiles of eicosanoid metabolites in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weicang; Yang, Jun; Yang, Haixia; Sanidad, Katherine Z; Hammock, Bruce D; Kim, Daeyoung; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem in the US and is associated with increased risks of various human diseases. To date, the mechanisms by which obesity increases the risks of a wide range of human diseases are not well understood. Here we used a LC-MS/MS-based lipidomics, which can analyze >100 bioactive lipid mediators produced by cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and cytochrome P450 enzymes, to analyze plasma profiles of lipid mediators in high-fat diet induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that the plasma concentrations of epoxyoctadecenoic acids (EpOMEs, also termed as leukotoxins) are significantly increased in plasma of high-fat diet-fed mice, in addition, EpOMEs are among the most abundant lipid mediators detected in mouse plasma. Since substantial studies have shown that EpOMEs and their metabolites have a large array of detrimental effects on health, enhanced levels of EpOMEs could contribute to the pathology of obesity.

  17. Therapeutic effect of probiotic dahi on plasma, aortic, and hepatic lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod Kumar; Shah, Dilip; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Manoj; Gautam, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Birbal; Behare, Pradip Vishnu

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the effects of probiotic dahi prepared by Lactobacillus plantarum Lp9 and dahi culture in buffalo milk on lowering cholesterol in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic basal diet. Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and fed with probiotic dahi, dahi, or buffalo milk for 120 days. Following the consumption of supplements (probiotic dahi, dahi or buffalo milk), the animals were fed a basal hypercholesterolemic diet. Plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides (TAGs) were decreased by 35% and 72% in rats fed with probiotic dahi group, while cholesterol levels increased by 70% and TAGs increased by 97% in buffalo milk and 59% in dahi fed groups. Supplementation of probiotic dahi further lowered plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) + very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)- cholesterol by 59%, while it elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 116%. As a result, atherogenic index, the ratio of HDL to LDL + VLDL was markedly improved. Deposition of cholesterol and TAGs in liver and aorta were significantly reduced in rats fed with probiotic dahi. These observations suggest that probiotic dahi may have therapeutic potential to decrease plasma, hepatic and aortic lipid profile, and attenuate diet-induced hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Plasma metabolomic profiles and immune responses of piglets after weaning and challenge with E. coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    challenge. Results Fecal dry matter decreased (P = 0.003) and nearly half (44.4%) the piglets developed diarrhea on day 2 and 3 postweaning. The concentration of plasma immunoglobulin A was higher (P blood cells increased...... continuously (P Differences in the percentages of neutrophils (P = 0.029) and lymphocytes (P = 0.022) were seen, but the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio did not differ in the period after weaning. A clear separation of the metabolomic profile data for day 0 and day 4...... postweaning was observed with a principal components analysis (PCA) scores plot, and the data for day 11 were located between those for day 0 and day 4 postweaning. The plasma levels of proline, taurine, and carnitine were higher, whereas those of betaine, creatine, L-arginine and acetylcarnitine were lower...

  19. Solar wind plasma profiles during interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs): Consistent with charged-dust pickup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-06-01

    The solar wind contains many magnetic structures, and most of them have identifiable correlated changes in the flowing plasma. However, the very characteristic rise and fall of the magnetic field in an interplanetary field enhancement has no clear solar wind counterpart. It appears to be a pure magnetic ``barrier'' that transfers solar wind momentum to charged dust produced in collisions of interplanetary bodies in the size range of tens to hundreds of meters. This transfer lifts the fine scale dust out of the Sun's gravitational well. We demonstrate the lack of field-plasma correlation with several examples from spacecraft records as well as show an ensemble average velocity profile during IFEs which is consistent with our IFE formation hypothesis.

  20. Proteomic Profiling of Nonenzymatically Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma and Erythrocyte Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this report, a thorough proteomic profiling of glycated proteins was attempted by using phenylboronate affinity chromatography to enrich glycated proteins and glycated, tryptic peptides from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, and 76 and 31 proteins were confidently identified as glycated from human plasma and erythrocyte membrane, respectively. It was observed that most of the glycated proteins can be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, although samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus have slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites identified.

  1. Profile control of advanced tokamak plasmas in view of continuous operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazon, D.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of the tokamak is a very good candidate to lead to a fusion reactor. In fact, certain regimes of functioning allow today the tokamaks to attain performances close to those requested by a reactor. Among the various scenarios of functioning nowadays considered for the reactor option, certain named 'advanced scenarios' are characterized by an improvement of the stability and confinement in the plasma core, as well as by a modification of the current profile, notably thank to an auto-generated 'bootstrap' current. The general frame of this paper treats the perspective of a real-time control of advanced regimes. Concrete examples will underline the impact of diagnostics on the identification of plasma models, from which the control algorithms are constructed. Several preliminary attempts will be described.

  2. Presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma: ultrastructural characteristics, protein profile and enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species.

  3. INFLUENCE OF THE SCORER PARAMETER PROFILE ON THE WAVELENGTH OF TRAPPED LEE WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZANG Zeng-liang; ZHANG Ming; HUANG Hong

    2007-01-01

    A three-layer theoretical model was established, in which the atmosphere is divided into three layers based on the Scorer parameter l2 , which is large in the middle layer and small in the other two layers. The wave number formula of lee waves was deduced with this theoretical model, and a typical example for the lee wave was calculated. Thus, the influence of changes in the thickness of every layer and values of the Scorer parameter in every layer was examined. The results show that the wavelength decreases with an increase in the thickness of the lower and the middle layers and is more sensitive to the changes in the middle layer. Therefore, if the changes in these two layers are different, the changes in the middle layer will dominate the changes in the wavelength. The results also show that the wavelength decreases with the increase in the value of l2 in every layer, among which the sensitivity to the l2 in the upper layer is the most striking. The calculation results reasonably can explain the influence of diurnal changes on the wavelength. The example was simulated using Advanced Regional Prediction System model, and the sensitivity experiments were performed to confirm the effects of the Scorer parameter profiles on the wavelengths. The simulated results are consistent with the calculated results.

  4. Autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters in recurrent spontaneous abortion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Shankarkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An autoimmune cause and related immunological alterations resulting in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA have been suggested in patients with unknown etiology. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the autoantibody profile and other immunological parameters among RSA patients and normal pregnant women from Mumbai western India. Fifty RSA patients with unknown cause and greater than three consecutive abortions along with 50 normal pregnant women were studied for various auto antibodies such as ANA, anti-dsDNA, ANCA, AECA, 2 micro globulin, anti-HLA antibodies and ACLA using immunofluorescence microlymphocytotoxicity and ELISA. Immunological parameters such as HLA class I monoclonal antibody expression, CD3 (T cell, CD19 (B cell, and CD56 (NK cell were estimated by flow cytometry. Results: The results revealed 34% positivity of all auto antibodies tested among patients. ANA(12%, ANCA (20%, AECA (24%, ACLA (8%, anti-dsDNA(0%, β2 microglobulin (14%, and anti-HLA antibodies(10% among RSA patients were identified. An increased expression of HLA class I specific monoclonal antibody (10% with HLA A3 (16% specificity were found to correlate with shared HLA alleles among the RSA couples. Among normal pregnant (control group ANA (2%, ANCA (2%, AECA (3%, ACLA (4% and increased expression of CD56 with reduced HLA class I monoclonal were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a possible role of various autoantibodies along with the related immunological parameters underlying RSA.

  5. Vertical distribution of organochlorine pesticides in humus along Alpine altitudinal profiles in relation to ambiental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M., E-mail: kirchner@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Faus-Kessler, T.; Jakobi, G.; Levy, W.; Henkelmann, B.; Bernhoeft, S.; Kotalik, J.; Zsolnay, A. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bassan, R. [Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto (Italy); Belis, C. [Regional Agency for Environmental Protection of Lombardy (Italy); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (Switzerland); Moche, W. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Simoncic, P. [Slovenian Forestry Institute (Slovenia); Uhl, M.; Weiss, P. [Federal Environment Agency Ltd. (Austria); Schramm, K.-W. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, GmbH, Institutes of Ecological Chemistry, Developmental Genetics and Soil Ecology, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In forest soils along vertical profiles located in different parts of the Alps, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and mirex, were measured. Though local characteristics of the sites are influenced by numerous factors like orographic and meteorological parameters, forest stand characteristics and humus parameters, we ascertained a marked vertical increase of concentrations of some organochlorine compounds in the soil. On the basis of climatological values of each site, we found that the contamination increase with altitude can be ascribed to a certain 'cold condensation effect'. In addition, the perennial atmospheric deposition of POPs is controlled by precipitation. Other key parameters explaining the accumulation of POPs are the soil organic carbon stocks, the turnover times, the re-volatilisation and degradation processes, which vary with altitude. - Caused by temperature-dependent processes regarding deposition, re-volatilization and decomposition of POPs, the concentration of organochlorine pesticides varies in the Alpine region with altitude.

  6. GeV electron acceleration by a Gaussian field laser with effect of beam width parameter in magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotra, Harjit Singh; Kant, Niti

    2017-01-01

    Electron acceleration due to a circularly polarized (CP) Gaussian laser field has been investigated theoretically in magnetized plasma. A Gaussian laser beam possesses trapping forces on electrons during its propagation through plasma. A single particle simulation indicates a resonant enhancement of electron acceleration with a Gaussian laser beam. The plasma is magnetized with an axial magnetic field in same direction as that of laser beam propagation. The dependence of laser beam width parameter on electron energy gain with propagation distance has been presented graphically for different values of laser intensity. Electron energy gain is relatively high where the laser beam parameter is at its minimum value. Enhanced energy gain of the order of GeV is reported with magnetic field under 20 MG in plasma. It is also seen that the axial magnetic field maintains the electron acceleration for large propagation distance even with an increasing beam width parameter.

  7. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  8. Plasma microRNA profiles in rat models of hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yamaura

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNA molecules that function to modulate the expression of target genes, playing important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. The miRNAs in body fluids have received considerable attention as potential biomarkers of various diseases. In this study, we compared the changes of the plasma miRNA expressions by acute liver injury (hepatocellular injury or cholestasis and chronic liver injury (steatosis, steatohepatitis and fibrosis using rat models made by the administration of chemicals or special diets. Using miRNA array analysis, we found that the levels of a large number of miRNAs (121-317 miRNAs were increased over 2-fold and the levels of a small number of miRNAs (6-35 miRNAs were decreased below 0.5-fold in all models except in a model of cholestasis caused by bile duct ligation. Interestingly, the expression profiles were different between the models, and the hierarchical clustering analysis discriminated between the acute and chronic liver injuries. In addition, miRNAs whose expressions were typically changed in each type of liver injury could be specified. It is notable that, in acute liver injury models, the plasma level of miR-122, the most abundant miRNA in the liver, was more quickly and dramatically increased than the plasma aminotransferase level, reflecting the extent of hepatocellular injury. This study demonstrated that the plasma miRNA profiles could reflect the types of liver injury (e.g. acute/chronic liver injury or hepatocellular injury/cholestasis/steatosis/steatohepatitis/fibrosis and identified the miRNAs that could be specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver injury.

  9. Stress-induced changes of neurosteroid profiles in rat brain and plasma under immobilized condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myeong Hyeon; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Kim, In Sook; Choi, Min Sun; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-05-10

    In this study, various neurosteroids in brain and plasma were simultaneously determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and their profile changes in a stress-induced rats were investigated. The investigated neurosteroids are as follows: progesterone (P4), 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), 5β-dihydroprogesterone, estrone, androstenedione (AE), cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone (CORT), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pregnanolone (3α,5β-THP), allopregnanolone (ALLO), 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), 11-deoxycortisol, pregnenolone (PREG), and 5α/5β-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (5α/5β-THDOC). Brain and plasma samples were processed using solid-phase extraction with methanol and acetic acid (99:1), and derivatized with a hydroxylamine reagent. Separation was achieved within 13min at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min with a C18 column (3.0×50mm, 2.7μm). The triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Using this method, the neurosteroid level variation was quantitated and investigated in the brain and plasma upon immobilization stress in rats. As a result, AE, CORT, DOC, P4, 5α-DHP, 5α/5β-THDOC, DHEA, 3α,5β-THP, ALLO, and PREG levels were significantly altered in both the brain and plasma samples when stress was induced. These findings demonstrated that stress leads to the alteration of the GABAergic neurosteroid profile. The present results will be helpful for furthering an understanding of the role of neurosteroids in stressed conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samman, Samir; Crossett, Ben; Somers, Miles; Bell, Kirstine J; Lai, Nicole T; Sullivan, David R; Petocz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid (AA) status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM) or chicken (CM), and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014), with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001). Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the postprandial state. The sustained increase in histidine following the consumption of a PM is consistent with the reported effects of lean pork on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  11. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  12. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  13. Changes in the Plasma Sex Hormone Profile in Males with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of

  14. New density profile and structural parameters of the complex stellar system Terzan 5

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Mucciarelli, A; Beccari, G; Miocchi, P; Bellazzini, M; Rich, R M; Origlia, L; Valenti, E; Rood, R T; Ransom, S

    2010-01-01

    Terzan 5 is a globular cluster-like stellar system in the Galactic Bulge which has been recently found to harbor two stellar populations with different iron content and probably different ages (Ferraro et al. 2009). This discovery suggests that Terzan 5 may be the relic of a primordial building block which contributed to the formation of the Galactic Bulge. Here we present a re-determination of the structural parameters (center of gravity, density and surface brightness profiles, total luminosity and mass) of Terzan 5, as obtained from the combination of high-resolution (ESO-MAD and HST ACS-WFC) and wide-field (ESO-WFI) observations. We find that Terzan 5 is significantly less concentrated and more massive than previously thought. Still it has the largest collision rate of any stellar aggregate in the Galaxy. We discuss the impact of these findings on the exceptional population of millisecond pulsars harbored in this stellar system.

  15. A STUDY OF METABOLIC PARAMETER AND MORBIDITY PROFILE AMONG ELDERLY POPULATION IN RURAL COASTAL ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global population ageing is an important challenge and opportunity faced by all countries. With advances in medicine helping more people to live longer lives, the number of people over age 60 years is expected to double by 2050 and will require radical social change according to a new report released by the WHO for the international day. Present study is designed to evaluate metabolic parameter and morbidity profile in elderly people in rural coastal Andhra Pradesh; 30% of male and 31% of the female was diabetic; 26.4% of the male and 37.5% of the female was having osteoarthritis; 41.18% of the male and 37.5% of the female have acid peptic disease; 10.1% of male and 12.75% of the female have ischemic heart disease. So it is required to provide promotional, preventive, curative and rehabilitative services in an integrated manner for the elderly

  16. Characterization of Impurities in Tokamak Divertor Plasmas from Analysis of Spectral Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, R. C.; Brooks, N. H.; Zaniol, B.

    2002-12-01

    Studies of the production, transport, and radiative losses of impurities in present-day tokamak divertors provide input necessary for the design of future burning- plasma machines. Several types of information rely on detailed analysis of emission profiles. These include ion temperatures, ion flows along field lines, and impurity production mechanisms. Temperatures and flows are determined from Doppler broadening and shifts by comparing measured line shapes to theoretical profiles that include the nonlinear Zeeman/Paschen-Back effect. The two major production mechanisms for atomic carbon are physical and chemical sputtering. These processes can be distinguished by comparing atomic and molecular fluxes, which requires modeling the band emissions of CD and C2. They can also be differentiated from measurements of effective temperatures of C I (best profile fits to thermal distributions). Careful inspection of profiles that give high effective temperatures reveals that they are not actually Gaussian but have asymmetries and shifts that can be correlated to energy distributions expected for physical sputtering. Examples of all these applications are discussed in this review.

  17. Genetic parameters and crossbreeding effects of fat deposition and fatty acid profiles in Iberian pig lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Escriche, N; Magallón, E; Gonzalez, E; Tejeda, J F; Noguera, J L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic and environmental parameters and crossbreeding effects on fatty acid and fat traits in the Iberian pig. Our final goal is to explore target selection traits and define crossbreeding strategies. The phenotypes were obtained under intensive management from 470 animals in a diallelic experiment involving Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado lines. The data set was composed of backfat thickness at the fourth rib (BFT), intramuscular fat (IMF) in the longissimus thoracis (LT), and the fatty acid profile for IMF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) traits. Data were analyzed through a Bayesian bivariate animal model by using a reparameterization of Dickerson's model. The results obtained showed an important genetic determinism for all traits analyzed with heritability ranging from 0.09 to 0.67. The common environment litter effect also had an important effect on IMF (0.34) and its fatty acid composition (0.06-0.53) at slaughter. The additive genetic correlation between BFT and IMF (additive genetic correlation [] = 0.31) suggested that it would be possible to improve lean growth independent of the IMF with an appropriate selection index. Furthermore, the high additive genetic correlation ( = 0.68) found between MUFA tissues would seem to indicate that either the LT or SCF could be used as the reference tissue for MUFA selection. The relevance of the crossbreeding parameters varied according to the traits analyzed. Backfat thickness at the fourth rib and the fatty acid profile of the IMF showed relevant differences between crosses, mostly due to line additive genetic effects associated with the Retinto line. On the contrary, those for IMF crosses were probably mainly attributable to heterosis effects. Particularly, heterosis effects were relevant for the Retinto and Entrepelado crosses (approximately 16% of the trait), which could be valuable for a crossbreeding system involving these lines.

  18. Spaceborne cloud-profiling radar: instrument parameter optimization for resolving highly layered cloud structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Tinel, Claire; Caillault, Karine; Testud, Jacques; Caubet, Eric

    2003-04-01

    EarthCARE, a candidate Earth Explorer Core mission of ESA, aims to improve our knowledge of the impact of clouds and aerosols on the Earth's radiative budget. The satellite will carry two nadir sounding active instruments: a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) and a backscatter lidar. In addition, a multispectral cloud-imager, a Fourier transform spectrometer and a broadband radiometer complement the payload. The objective of the present study was to optimize the parameters of the CPR for retrieving accurate radiative profiles for highly layered cloud structures. Realistic cloud scenarios taken from ground-based experiments have been used for simulating the radar response to cloud layers. A radar simulator was developed initially for one-dimensional simulation of the radar echos. The cloud microphysical properties were retrieved using a model as a function of the reflectivity factor and temperature, based on information from in-situ measurements. An extensive parametric analysis was performed for various vertical resolutions and sensitivities which have direct impacts on the radar design and necessary resources on-board the satellite. The analysis demonstrated that the proposed radar characteristics will meet the top-of-the-atmosphere radiative flux density estimation accuracy of 10 W/m2 as recommended by WCRP.

  19. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  20. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  1. Optimal control of a class of nonlinear parabolic PDE systems arising in fusion plasma current profile dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yongsheng

    control) but also to modify the resistivity of the plasma (diffusivity control). Motivated by the current profile control problem in nuclear fusion reactors, we study in this thesis a particular class of nonlinear parabolic PDEs that admit interior, boundary and diffusivity actuation. We make in this way theoretical and practical contributions to control systems and nuclear fusion respectively. First, a simplified dynamic PDE model describing the evolution of the poloidal flux, and therefore the q profile, during the inductive phase of the discharge is introduced. Simulation results show qualitative agreement with experiments. Then, a multi-parameter, extremum-seeking, non-model-based, open-loop, optimal controller is designed, successfully tested in simulations, and implemented experimentally in the DIII-D tokamak, to match a desired q profile within a predefined time window during the flattop phase of the tokamak discharge. The controller is shown to be effective to deal with an optimal control problem defined for a nonlinear PDE system subject to many constraints in its actuators. Next, using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Galerkin Projection techniques, we derive a finite dimensional ODE (Ordinary Differential Equation) dynamical system that preserves the dominant dynamics of the original infinite dimensional PDE system. This low dimensional model is used to design several closed-loop controllers, which have been tested successfully in simulations and are being implemented in the DIII-D tokamak: (i) we propose a convergent successive scheme based on the quasi-linear approximation to compute an optimal tracking control for the reduced order system; (ii) we formulate the problem as an abstract bilinear-quadratic regulator (BQR) problem. A receding horizon control (RHC) algorithm to solve the problem based on the infinite-dimensional system is proposed and stability of the algorithm for the solution of the BQR problem is studied; (iii) we present a robust

  2. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  3. Plasma polymers deposited in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Katja, E-mail: k.fricke@inp-greifswald.de [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5 (Canada); Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wertheimer, Michael R. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2016-03-31

    We present results on the deposition of plasma polymer (PP) films in a dielectric barrier discharge system fed with mixtures of argon or nitrogen carrier gas plus different hydrocarbon precursors, where the latter possess different carbon-to-hydrogen ratios: CH{sub 4} < C{sub 2}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 4} = C{sub 3}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The influence of precursor gas mixture and flow rate, excitation frequency, and absorbed power on PP film compositions and properties has been investigated. The discharge was characterized by electrical measurements, while the chemical compositions and structures of coatings were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, total combustion, and elastic recoil detection analyses, the latter two for determining carbon-to-hydrogen ratios. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the coatings' morphology, and profilometry for evaluating deposition rates. - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit organic hydrocarbon films. • High deposition rates can be achieved by varying the power and/or gas mixture ratio. • Process parameters affect the films' surface chemical composition and morphology. • Deposited films are not soluble in aqueous environment. • No delamination of coatings produced from argon plasma.

  4. Plasma microRNAs expression profile in female workers occupationally exposed to mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Enmin; Zhao, Qiuni; Bai, Ying; Xu, Ming; Pan, Liping; Liu, Qingdong; Wang, Bosheng; Song, Xianping; Wang, Jun; Chen, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions. Several studies have examined the potential effects of mercury exposure on miRNAs expression profiles of general population environmentally exposed to mercury. The objective is to identify mercury-related miRNAs of female workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Methods In this case-control study, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles in pooled plasma samples between (I) chronic mercury poisoning group; (II) mercury absorbing group and (III) control group in the discovery stage. Each group has ten individuals. In addition, we conducted a validation of eight candidate miRNAs in the same 30 workers by quantitative real-time PCR. Results In the discovery stage, eight miRNAs were conformed following our selection criteria. In the validation stage, RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation of miR-92a and miR-486 in the mercury poisoned group (P<0.05) compared to the other two groups. The results were consistent with the microarray analysis. Conclusions Plasma miR-92a-3p and miR-486-5p might prove to be potential biomarkers to indicate responses to mercury exposure. However, further studies are necessary to prove the causal association between miRNAs changes and mercury exposure, and to determine whether these two miRNAs are clear biomarkers to mercury exposure. PMID:27162656

  5. Untargeted plasma metabolite profiling reveals the broad systemic consequences of xanthine oxidoreductase inactivation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Chen

    Full Text Available A major challenge in systems biology is integration of molecular findings for individual enzyme activities into a cohesive high-level understanding of cellular metabolism and physiology/pathophysiology. However, meaningful prediction for how a perturbed enzyme activity will globally impact metabolism in a cell, tissue or intact organisms is precluded by multiple unknowns, including in vivo enzymatic rates, subcellular distribution and pathway interactions. To address this challenge, metabolomics offers the potential to simultaneously survey changes in thousands of structurally diverse metabolites within complex biological matrices. The present study assessed the capability of untargeted plasma metabolite profiling to discover systemic changes arising from inactivation of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in purine degradation. Using LC-MS coupled with a multivariate statistical data analysis platform, we confidently surveyed >3,700 plasma metabolites (50-1,000 Da for differential expression in XOR wildtype vs. mice with inactivated XOR, arising from gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition. Results confirmed the predicted derangements in purine metabolism, but also revealed unanticipated perturbations in metabolism of pyrimidines, nicotinamides, tryptophan, phospholipids, Krebs and urea cycles, and revealed kidney dysfunction biomarkers. Histochemical studies confirmed and characterized kidney failure in xor-nullizygous mice. These findings provide new insight into XOR functions and demonstrate the power of untargeted metabolite profiling for systemic discovery of direct and indirect consequences of gene mutations and drug treatments.

  6. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  7. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  8. Potential of polarization lidar to provide profiles of CCN- and INP-relevant aerosol parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Ansmann, Albert

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the potential of polarization lidar to provide vertical profiles of aerosol parameters from which cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) and ice nucleating particle (INP) number concentrations can be estimated. We show that height profiles of particle number concentrations n50, dry considering dry aerosol particles with radius > 50 nm (reservoir of CCN in the case of marine and continental non-desert aerosols), n100, dry (particles with dry radius > 100 nm, reservoir of desert dust CCN), and of n250, dry (particles with dry radius > 250 nm, reservoir of favorable INP), as well as profiles of the particle surface area concentration sdry (used in INP parameterizations) can be retrieved from lidar-derived aerosol extinction coefficients σ with relative uncertainties of a factor of 1.5-2 in the case of n50, dry and n100, dry and of about 25-50 % in the case of n250, dry and sdry. Of key importance is the potential of polarization lidar to distinguish and separate the optical properties of desert aerosols from non-desert aerosol such as continental and marine particles. We investigate the relationship between σ, measured at ambient atmospheric conditions, and n50, dry for marine and continental aerosols, n100, dry for desert dust particles, and n250, dry and sdry for three aerosol types (desert, non-desert continental, marine) and for the main lidar wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. Our study is based on multiyear Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) photometer observations of aerosol optical thickness and column-integrated particle size distribution at Leipzig, Germany, and Limassol, Cyprus, which cover all realistic aerosol mixtures. We further include AERONET data from field campaigns in Morocco, Cabo Verde, and Barbados, which provide pure dust and pure marine aerosol scenarios. By means of a simple CCN parameterization (with n50, dry or n100, dry as input) and available INP parameterization schemes (with n250, dry and sdry as input) we finally compute

  9. Novel biomarkers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastasis risk identified by reverse phase protein array based tumor profiling with consideration of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Su, Bojin; Huang, Peiyu; Wei, Weihong; Deng, Yanming; Sehgal, Vasudha; Wang, Donghui; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Guoyi; Li, Anfei; Yang, Huiling; Claret, Francois X

    2017-05-01

    In patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), intertumor heterogeneity causes interpatient heterogeneity in the risk of distant metastasis. We aimed to identify novel biomarkers of metastasis risk using reverse phase protein array (RPPA) profiling of NPC patients at risk for metastasis and considering plasma EBV DNA load. A total of 98 patients with NPC with and without metastasis after treatment, matched with respect to clinical parameters, are enrolled. Total protein expression is measured by RPPA, and protein functions are analyzed by pathway bioinformatics. The RPPA analysis revealed a profile of 70 proteins that are differentially expressed in metastatic and nonmetastatic tumors. Plasma EBV DNA load after treatment correlated with protein expression level better than plasma EBV DNA load before treatment did. The biomarkers of NPC metastasis identified by proteomics regulate signaling pathways involved in cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The authors identified 26 biomarkers associated with 5-year distant failure-free survival in univariate analysis; five biomarkers remained significant in multivariate analysis. A comprehensive RPPA profiling study is warranted to identify novel metastasis-related biomarkers and further examine the activation state of signaling proteins to improve estimation of metastasis risk for patients with EBV-associated NPC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Radial Density Profile in the SSX Plasma Wind Tunnel using a Double Langmuir Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, D. L.; Flanagan, K.; Gray, T.; Brown, M. R.

    2011-10-01

    We present preliminary results from a moveable double Langmuir probe in the present plasma wind tunnel configuration of SSX. The probe is designed to measure radial profiles of electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) across the midplane with a 1 cm resolution. Line-averaged densities from He-Ne interferometry show densities of 1 - 5 ×1015 cm-3 . In addition to mean values, we will also present electrostatic fluctuations and correlations with magnetic field measurements. The double Langmuir probe also measures local Te. Line-averaged measurements from VUV spectroscopy indicate Te ~ 10 eV . The Langmuir probe stalk diameter measures 6 . 5 mm and tip spacing is 1 . 1 mm . The SSX plasma wind tunnel has dimensions L ≅ 1 m and R = 0 . 08 m . Plasma flow speeds are v >= 50 km / s . The cylindrical copper boundary and probe surfaces are baked and cleaned in a He glow discharge to maintain excellent vacuum and surface conditions. Electrostatic measurements during merging will be presented if available. Work supported by US DOE and CMSO.

  11. Metabolite profiling of (14)C-omacetaxine mepesuccinate in plasma and excreta of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijenhuis, Cynthia M; Lucas, Luc; Rosing, Hilde; Robertson, Philmore; Hellriegel, Edward T; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, And Jos H

    2016-12-01

    Omacetaxine mepesuccinate (hereafter referred to as omacetaxine) is a protein translation inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance and/or intolerance to two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The objective was to investigate the metabolite profile of omacetaxine in plasma, urine and faeces samples collected up to 72 h after a single 1.25-mg/m(2) subcutaneous dose of (14)C-omacetaxine in cancer patients. High-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (MS) (high resolution) in combination with off-line radioactivity detection was used for metabolite identification. In total, six metabolites of omacetaxine were detected. The reactions represented were mepesuccinate ester hydrolysis, methyl ester hydrolysis, pyrocatechol conversion from the 1,3-dioxole ring. Unchanged omacetaxine was the most prominent omacetaxine-related compound in plasma. In urine, unchanged omacetaxine was also dominant, together with 4'-DMHHT. In feces very little unchanged omacetaxine was found and the pyrocatechol metabolite of omacetaxine, M534 and 4'-desmethyl homoharringtonine (4'-DMHHT) was the most abundant metabolites. Omacetaxine was extensively metabolized, with subsequent renal and hepatic elimination of the metabolites. The low levels of the metabolites found in plasma indicate that the metabolites are unlikely to contribute materially to the efficacy and/or toxicity of omacetaxine.

  12. Solar Cluster: multipoint magnetic field and plasma parameter measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.

    This paper has the objective to discus the technical-scientific feasibility of a deep space mission to be proposed to the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB). This mission will be proposed to study the interplanetary magnetic field and the plasma structure of the solar wind. It will consist of a set of identical spacecraft flying in formation in the inner heliosphere during the ascending and maximum phase of the solar cycle 24. It is know that the primary cause of magnetic storms are intense, long duration southward interplanetary magnetic field structures which interconnect with the earth's magnetic field and allow solar wind energy transport into the Earth's magnetotail/magnetosphere. During the most active phase of the solar cycle, solar maximum, the sun's activity is dominated by flares and disappearing filaments, and their concomitant Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Coronal Holes are present, but the holes are small and do not extend from the poles to the equator as often happens in the descending phase of the solar cycle. The fast (>500 km/s) CMEs coming from the sun into the interplanetary space are the solar/coronal features that contain high magnetic fields. These intense southward magnetic fields are observed in the sheath, in the ejection itself and in the rear of the ejection. The interaction between CMEs and the background solar wind, fast co rotating streams and other CMEs are also very important sources of intense southward magnetic fields. In order to study the interplanetary origin of intense geomagnetic storms, several studies have analyzed plasma parameters, composition, ionization state and the interplanetary magnetic field measured by instruments on board of spacecraft as ISEE3, IMP8, Helios, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO and ACE. Great advance on the understanding of the CME structure and interaction with the background solar wind have been reached. However, the spatial scale of these structures could be greater than 0.2 AU, and this kind of observation usually

  13. Comparison of the effect of low-glycemic index versus low-Fat diet on the body weight and plasma lipid profile in obeses women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mazloom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 15 Jun, 2008; Accepted 14 Feb, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: The rate of carbohydrate absorption after a meal, as quantified by glycemic index, has an effect on postprandial hormonal and metabolic response.The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of low-glycemic index diet, versus low-fat diet on the body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio and plasma lipid profile of obese patients.Materials and methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the effect of two dietary treatments (low glycemic index & low fat in 46 adults, ages 18 to 55 years old, BMI >27, who proceeded to Motahary Clinic in Shiraz, Iran. Body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio, fast and post-prandial Plasma lipid profile (Triacylglycerol, total Cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C concentration level of obese women were measured at the beginning and end of 6 weeks.Results: Changes in Body weight, BMI, WHR (waist/hip ratio and Plasma lipid profile (Triacylglycerol, total Cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C concentration were significant in both dietary groups. But no significant differences were observed in any parameter measured between two groups, except for the post-prandial HDL-C in which significant difference were observed.Conclusion: From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain can utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution.Both diets can equally be effective in decreasing the body weight and Plasma lipid profile.J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(68:40-47 (Persian

  14. Analytical estimation of particle shape formation parameters in a plasma-chemical reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Ilya A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical estimation of particle shape formation parameters in a plasma-chemical reactor implementing the process of thermochemical decomposition of liquid droplet agents (precursors in the flow of a high-temperature gaseous heat-transfer medium was obtained. The basic factor which determines the process is the increase of concentration of a dissolved salt precursor component at the surface of a liquid particle due to solvent evaporation. According to the physical concept of the method of integral balance the diffusion process of concentration change is divided into two stages: the first stage is when the size of gradient layer does not reach the center of a spherical droplet and the second stage when the concentration at the center of a liquid droplet begins to change. The solutions for concentration fields were found for each stage using the method of integral balance taking into account the formation of salt precipitate when the concentration at the surface of the droplet reaches certain equilibrium value. The results of estimation of the influence of various reactor operation parameters and characteristics of initial solution (precursor on the morphology of particles formed – mass fraction and localization of salt precipitate for various levels of evaporation.

  15. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profiles in Japanese adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Manabu; Imaizumi, Akira; Ando, Toshihiko; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The plasma free amino acid (PFAA) profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N) or high protein meal (meal H) at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  16. The overnight effect of dietary energy balance on postprandial plasma free amino acid (PFAA profiles in Japanese adult men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Nishioka

    Full Text Available The plasma free amino acid (PFAA profile is affected by various nutritional conditions, such as the dietary energy balance. Regarding the clinical use of PFAA profiling, it is of concern that differences in food ingestion patterns may generate systematic errors in a plasma amino acid profile and constitute a confounding factor in assessment. In this study, the overnight impact of the dietary energy balance on the postprandial plasma amino acid profile was investigated to elucidate in particular the effects of high protein meals typical in Japanese cuisine. We conducted diet-controlled, crossover trials in eleven healthy male volunteers aged 40-61 y. They consumed either a normal meal (meal N or high protein meal (meal H at dinner. Forearm venous blood was collected, and plasma amino acid concentrations were measured before dinner and the next morning. We found that a high protein meal in the evening that contained 40% energy would significantly increase the PFAA concentration the next morning, even more than 12 hours after the meal. Among amino acids, the most significant difference was observed in the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs and in some urea-cycle related compounds. If the subject consumed the high protein diet at dinner, the PFAA profile after overnight fasting might be still affected by the meal even 12 hours after the meal, suggesting that the PFAA profile does not reflect the subject's health condition, but rather the acute effect of high protein ingestion.

  17. Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  18. Altered Plasma Profile of Antioxidant Proteins as an Early Correlate of Pancreatic β Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Taiyi; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; McGraw, Timothy E; Accili, Domenico

    2016-04-29

    Insulin resistance and β cell dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Unlike insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction remains difficult to predict and monitor, because of the inaccessibility of the endocrine pancreas, the integrated relationship with insulin sensitivity, and the paracrine effects of incretins. The goal of our study was to survey the plasma response to a metabolic challenge in order to identify factors predictive of β cell dysfunction. To this end, we combined (i) the power of unbiased iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) mass spectrometry with (ii) direct sampling of the portal vein following an intravenous glucose/arginine challenge (IVGATT) in (iii) mice with a genetic β cell defect. By so doing, we excluded the effects of peripheral insulin sensitivity as well as those of incretins on β cells, and focused on the first phase of insulin secretion to capture the early pathophysiology of β cell dysfunction. We compared plasma protein profiles with ex vivo islet secretome and transcriptome analyses. We detected changes to 418 plasma proteins in vivo, and detected changes to 262 proteins ex vivo The impairment of insulin secretion was associated with greater overall changes in the plasma response to IVGATT, possibly reflecting metabolic instability. Reduced levels of proteins regulating redox state and neuronal stress markers, as well as increased levels of coagulation factors, antedated the loss of insulin secretion in diabetic mice. These results suggest that a reduced complement of antioxidants in response to a mixed secretagogue challenge is an early correlate of future β cell failure.

  19. Effect of plasma parameters on characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited by single and dual frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, B. B.; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films using various low-temperature plasmas. Utilizing radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 320 MHz) powers, different plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes are conducted in the mixture of reactive N2/NH3/SiH4 gases. The processes are extensively characterized using different plasma diagnostic tools to study their plasma and radical generation capabilities. A typical transition of the electron energy distribution function from single- to bi-Maxwellian type is achieved by combining RF and ultra-high powers. Data analysis revealed that the RF/UHF dual frequency power enhances the plasma surface heating and produces hot electron population with relatively low electron temperature and high plasma density. Using various film analysis methods, we have investigated the role of plasma parameters on the compositional, structural, and optical properties of the deposited films to optimize the process conditions. The presented results show that the dual frequency power is effective for enhancing dissociation and ionization of neutrals, which in turn helps in enabling high deposition rate and improving film properties.

  20. Measurements of Electron Temperature and Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2012-10-01

    ExperimentsfootnotetextJ. Oh, et al, GO5.4, APS DPP (2010).^,footnotetextJ. L. Weaver, et al, GO5.3, APS DPP (2010). using Nike KrF laser observed LPI signatures from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜1x10^15 W/cm^2. Knowing spatial profiles of temperature (Te) and density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (0 Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR)footnotetextR. S. Craxton, et al, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4419 (1993). is being deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. The GIR will resolve Te and ne in space taking a 2D snapshot of probe laser (λ= 263 nm, δt = 10 psec) beamlets (50μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera will simultaneously monitor light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay (TDP) instabilities. The experimental study of effects of the plasma profiles on the LPI initiation will be presented.

  1. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  2. Effects of Low pH on Photosynthesis, Related Physiological Parameters, and Nutrient Profiles of Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, An; Zhang, Jiang; Yang, Lin-Tong; Ye, Xin; Lai, Ning-Wei; Tan, Ling-Ling; Lin, Dan; Chen, Li-Song

    2017-01-01

    Seedlings of “Xuegan” (Citrus sinensis) and “Sour pummelo” (Citrus grandis) were irrigated daily with a nutrient solution at a pH of 2.5, 3, 4, 5, or 6 for 9 months. Thereafter, the following responses were investigated: seedling growth; root, stem, and leaf concentrations of nutrient elements; leaf gas exchange, pigment concentration, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity and chlorophyll a fluorescence; relative water content, total soluble protein level, H2O2 production and electrolyte leakage in roots and leaves. This was done (a) to determine how low pH affects photosynthesis, related physiological parameters, and mineral nutrient profiles; and (b) to understand the mechanisms by which low pH may cause a decrease in leaf CO2 assimilation. The pH 2.5 greatly inhibited seedling growth, and many physiological parameters were altered only at pH 2.5; pH 3 slightly inhibited seedling growth; pH 4 had almost no influence on seedling growth; and seedling growth and many physiological parameters reached their maximum at pH 5. No seedlings died at any given pH. These results demonstrate that citrus survival is insensitive to low pH. H+-toxicity may directly damage citrus roots, thus affecting the uptake of mineral nutrients and water. H+-toxicity and a decreased uptake of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium) and water were likely responsible for the low pH-induced inhibition of growth. Leaf CO2 assimilation was inhibited only at pH 2.5. The combinations of an impaired photosynthetic electron transport chain, increased production of reactive oxygen species, and decreased uptake of nutrients and water might account for the pH 2.5-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation. Mottled bleached leaves only occurred in the pH 2.5-treated C. grandis seedlings. Furthermore, the pH 2.5-induced alterations of leaf CO2 assimilation, water-use efficiency, chlorophylls, polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients and

  3. Staircase temperature profiles and plasma transport self-organisation in a minimum kinetic model of turbulence based on the trapped ion mode instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Drouot, T.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.

    2014-11-01

    A minimum model of plasma turbulence in a kinetic framework is presented. It is based on trapped ion turbulence, gyro and bounce averaged, and implemented in the versatile and efficient code TERESA. Zonal flow - streamer interplay are readily shown to be key players that govern the confinement properties of the model. The parameter space of the model is explored with brute force numerics. A generic result is either a streamer dominated pattern with large transport, or a staircase temperature profile with very marked corrugations and quenched transport. A case with off-axis heating is found to exhibit quasiperiodic relaxation events relevant to investigate dynamical turbulence self-organisation.

  4. Comparison Analysis of Dysregulated LncRNA Profile in Mouse Plasma and Liver after Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Luo, Yanjin; Yang, Weili; Ding, Liwei; Wang, Junpei; Tu, Jian; Geng, Bin; Cui, Qinghua; Yang, Jichun

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been believed to be the major transcripts in various tissues and organs, and may play important roles in regulation of many biological processes. The current study determined the LncRNA profile in mouse plasma after liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) using microarray technology. Microarray assays revealed that 64 LncRNAs were upregulated, and 244 LncRNAs were downregulated in the plasma of liver IRI mouse. Among these dysregulated plasma LncRNAs, 59-61% were intergenic, 22-25% were antisense overlap, 8-12% were sense overlap and 6-7% were bidirectional. Ten dysregulated plasma LncRNAs were validated by quantitative PCR assays, confirming the accuracy of microarray analysis result. Comparison analysis between dysregulated plasma and liver LncRNA profile after liver IRI revealed that among the 308 dysregulated plasma LncRNAs, 245 LncRNAs were present in the liver, but remained unchanged. In contrast, among the 98 dysregulated liver LncRNAs after IRI, only 19 were present in the plasma, but remained unchanged. LncRNA AK139328 had been previously reported to be upregulated in the liver after IRI, and silencing of hepatic AK139328 ameliorated liver IRI. Both microarray and RT-PCR analyses failed to detect the presence of AK139328 in mouse plasma. In summary, the current study compared the difference between dysregulated LncRNA profile in mouse plasma and liver after liver IRI, and suggested that a group of dysregulated plasma LncRNAs have the potential of becoming novel biomarkers for evaluation of ischemic liver injury.

  5. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  6. Simulation of wave propagation in boreholes and radial profiling of formation elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shihong

    Modern acoustic logging tools measure in-situ elastic wave velocities of rock formations. These velocities provide ground truth for time-depth conversions in seismic exploration. They are also widely used to quantify the mechanical strength of formations for applications such as wellbore stability analysis and sand production prevention. Despite continued improvements in acoustic logging technology and interpretation methods that take advantage of full waveform data, acoustic logs processed with current industry standard methods often remain influenced by formation damage and mud-filtrate invasion. This dissertation develops an efficient and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of wave propagation in fluid-filled boreholes in the presence of complex, near-wellbore damaged zones. The algorithm is based on the generalized reflection and transmission matrices method. Assessment of mud-filtrate invasion effects on borehole acoustic measurements is performed through simulation of time-lapse logging in the presence of complex radial invasion zones. The validity of log corrections performed with the Biot-Gassmann fluid substitution model is assessed by comparing the velocities estimated from array waveform data simulated for homogeneous and radially heterogeneous formations that sustain mud-filtrate invasion. The proposed inversion algorithm uses array waveform data to estimate radial profiles of formation elastic parameters. These elastic parameters can be used to construct more realistic near-wellbore petrophysical models for applications in seismic exploration, geo-mechanics, and production. Frequency-domain, normalized amplitude and phase information contained in array waveform data are input to the nonlinear Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Validation of both numerical simulation and inversion is performed against previously published results based on the Thomson-Haskell method and travel time tomography, respectively. This exercise indicates that the

  7. Behavior of Plasma and Field Parameters and their Relationship with Geomagnetic Indices during Intense Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 23

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Pande, Seema; Pande, Bimal; Pandey, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    A correlative study between the geomagnetic indices and the peak values of various plasma and field parameters during rising, maximum and decay phases as well as during complete solar cycle 23 have been presented. We have also presented the lag/lead analysis between the maximum of Dst and peak values of plasma and field parameters and found that peak values of lag/lead time lies in the +/-10 hr interval. Three geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and associated solar sources observed during these phases of this solar cycle have also been studied and found that GMSs are associated with large flares and halo CMEs.

  8. ESTIMATING RATIO OF PEAK TO UNIFORM VALUES OF VARIOUS PROFILES OF RELEVANCE TO PLASMA FOCUS PINCH COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHONG PERK LIN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Lee Model code for radiative plasma focus computation, both the density profile and the temperature profile (versus anode radius of the pinch column are approximated by step functions with uniform values across the column radius. This means that the computed density and temperatures will be lower than the physical situation where the density and temperature profiles will certainly have peak values higher than the uniform (with radius values of the step function. It has been shown that the density profile is side-peaked (somewhat shell-shaped or like the shape of a volcanic crater with the assumption of no reflected shock wave; whereas the temperature profile is centre-peaked somewhat like a Gaussian shape. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of higher degree mathematical function, where the crater-shaped profile can be well represented, to pproximate the plasma focus density profile. Two different approximated functions will be discussed: namely Gaussian distribution function and Bézier function. From these profiles we obtain the likely ratio of the profiled peak temperature to the step function uniform temperature and the peak density to the step function uniform density. In this manner we are able to suggest correction factors to the temperature and density computed by the Lee Model code.

  9. Metabolic profiling of plasma amino acids shows that histidine increases following the consumption of pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Samir Samman,1 Ben Crossett,2 Miles Somers,1 Kirstine J Bell,1 Nicole T Lai,1,3 David R Sullivan,3 Peter Petocz4 1Discipline of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2Discipline of Proteomics and Biotechnology, School of Molecular Bioscience, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Amino acid (AA status is determined by factors including nutrition, metabolic rate, and interactions between the metabolism of AA, carbohydrates, and lipids. Analysis of the plasma AA profile, together with markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, will shed light on metabolic regulation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the acute responses to the consumption of meals containing either pork (PM or chicken (CM, and to identify relationships between plasma AA and markers of glycemic and lipemic control. A secondary aim was to explore AA predictors of plasma zinc concentrations. Ten healthy adults participated in a postprandial study on two separate occasions. In a randomized cross-over design, participants consumed PM or CM. The concentrations of 21 AA, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and zinc were determined over 5 hours postprandially. The meal composition did not influence glucose, insulin, triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, or zinc concentrations. Plasma histidine was higher following the consumption of PM (P=0.014, with consistently higher changes observed after 60 minutes (P<0.001. Greater percentage increases were noted at limited time points for valine and leucine + isoleucine in those who consumed CM compared to PM. In linear regression, some AAs emerged as predictors of the metabolic responses, irrespective of the meal that was consumed. The present study demonstrates that a single meal of PM or CM produces a differential profile of AA in the

  10. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in seminal plasma and their relationship with seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarghami Nosratollah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS play a key role in male infertility. The aim of the present study was to assess seminal plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC, free 8-Isoprostane and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males. Methods The patients consisted of 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n = 15, asthenoteratozoospermic (n = 16 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n = 15. The control group consisted of 16 healthy males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Levels of TAC and SOD were measured by commercially available colorimetric assays. Level of free 8-Isoprostane was assessed by commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA method. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman's correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value Results Levels of catalase and TAC were significantly lower in patients than the control group. No significant changes were seen in SOD activities. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in patients than the control group. Furthermore, asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic groups had significantly lower values of catalase activity and TAC when compared to normozoospermic males. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in all patients subgroups than the control group. Levels of catalase and TAC were positively correlated with sperm motility and morphology. Free 8-Isoprostane levels showed an inverse correlation with sperm motility and morphology. Conclusion

  11. Safety Profile of Meswak Root Extract on Liver, Kidney, Sexual Hormones and Hematological Parameters of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the safety profile of Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae aqueous alcoholic root extract by carrying out acute and sub-chronic toxicity assessment in order to find out any side effect of the traditionally using of these root sticks. Regarding to acute toxicity test, mice were administered the extract up to 5 g kg-1, intraperitoneally. Animals were then observed for behavioural changes; signs of toxicity, and mortality within 24 h. Surviving mice were monitored for 7 days for signs of delayed toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity test, rats were daily treated with the extract at a dose of 400 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, for 30 days. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. In the acute toxicity test, the extract was practically non-toxic showing no mortality and visible signs of delayed toxicity. The LD50, given intraperitoneally, was estimated to be 4 g kg-1. Administration of extract (at a dose of 400 mg Kg-1 b.wt. to male and female rats for 30 days did not produce any significant (P < 0.05 effect on hematological and most biochemical parameters also vital organs weights. The root extract showed adverse effects on sexual hormones, by increasing estrogen secretion and reducing testosterone level in male rats. At the same time, the extract reduces progesterone level in female satellite group. Overall, Meswak aqueous extract is safe concerning liver and kidney functions and hematological assessments; however, it induces reversal effect on sexual hormones levels determined in sera.

  12. Final Technical Report: Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Transport Control via Shaping of Radial Plasma Flow Profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, Eugenio

    2014-05-02

    The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.

  13. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between groups. No differences were observed between groups in the

  14. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O.; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. Methods The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49±20 years; BMI: 31±5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90±10 mg/dl) after 2H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r=0.625,p=0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r=0.798,pHDL (r=−0.765,pHDL (r=−0.629, p=0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r=0.822,p=0.023; L-HDL: r=0.892,p=0.007; I-HDL: r=−0.927,p=0.003) but not men. Conclusions Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. PMID:27323227

  15. Pharmacokinetic Profile of Meropenem, Administered at 500 Milligrams Every 8 Hours, in Plasma and Cantharidin-Induced Skin Blister Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Maglio, Dana; Teng, Renli; Thyrum, Per T.; Nightingale, Charles H.; Nicolau, David P.

    2003-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described. Peak meropenem concentrations in blister fluid lagged behind peak meropenem concentrations in plasma, while a lower elimination rate from blister fluid was also noted. The mean penetration of meropenem into blister fluid was 67%. The pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in blister fluid supports the utility of this dose in the management of skin and sof...

  16. Pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem, administered at 500 milligrams every 8 hours, in plasma and cantharidin-induced skin blister fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Dana; Teng, Renli; Thyrum, Per T; Nightingale, Charles H; Nicolau, David P

    2003-05-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of meropenem, administered at 500 mg every 8 h, in plasma and cantharidin-induced blister fluid is described. Peak meropenem concentrations in blister fluid lagged behind peak meropenem concentrations in plasma, while a lower elimination rate from blister fluid was also noted. The mean penetration of meropenem into blister fluid was 67%. The pharmacokinetic profile of meropenem in blister fluid supports the utility of this dose in the management of skin and soft tissue infections.

  17. The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features is investigated by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8 and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis that both plasma parameters, i.e., excitation temperature and electron number density initially increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. With further increase in laser fluence, a decreasing trend followed by saturation is observed which is attributable to shielding effect and self-regulating regime. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm-3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm-3 in the presence of the blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of the blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters

  18. Effect of Gas Accretion Disc Profile on Orbital Parameters of the Accreted Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet T.; Panamarev, Taras P.; Naurzbaeva, Aisha Zh.; Kalambay, Mukhagali T.; Makukov, Maxim A.; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil Y.; Omarov, Chingis T.; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    The results of studies of the effect of the gas disk and its profile on the dynamics of active galactic nuclei are presented. The study was conducted with a numerical model of galactic nucleus based on phiGRAPE+GPU comprising three subsystems - a central supermassive black hole, gaseous accretion disc, and compact stellar cluster. The evolution of the compact stellar cluster is modeled with direct integration (N-body simulation), while the black hole and gaseous disc are represented phenomenologically: the black hole is introduced as an external potential (fixed in space but variable in time due to black hole mass growth), and the gaseous disc is introduced as spatial time-independent density distribution. We examined and compared with each other orbital parameters of accreting stars for model of the galactic nucleus with gas disc of constant and variable thickness, as well as without gas. It was found that in the presence of a gaseous disk almost half of the accreted particles interact strongly with the gas and are captured by the disc before accretion, while more than 85% of particles are affected to some extent by the disc prior to accretion. This suggests that interaction of the stellar cluster with the gas disk in the galactic nucleus might lead to the formation of stellar disk in the central part of the nucleus.

  19. Transmission integral analysis of Mössbauer spectra displaying hyperfine parameter distributions with arbitrary profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klencsár, Zoltán, E-mail: z.klencsar@mosswinn.hu [Pitvar u. 11., Budapest 1141 (Hungary)

    2014-10-27

    Accurate quantitative analysis of Mössbauer spectra displaying thickness effects requires the consideration of the so-called transmission integral when modeling the spectral shape. Whereas this is straightforward when the correct model for the decomposition of the absorber's nuclear resonance absorption cross-section into individual components is a priori known, in the absence of such knowledge and notably in the presence of hyperfine parameter distributions with an unknown profile, the so-called model-independent evaluation methods could be used to fit the spectra. However, the methods available for this purpose were developed for the analysis of spectra for which the thin absorber approximation is valid, and thus they do not take the sample thickness and related effects into account. Consequently, in order to use them for spectra displaying thickness effects, their usage needs to be generalized by combining them with transmission integral fitting. A new algorithm realizing such a generalized version of the Hesse-Rübartsch model-independent evaluation method was developed recently as an integral part of the MossWinn program. In the present work, the working principle of the newly developed algorithm is described in details along with examples illustrating the capabilities of the method for the case of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  20. Influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V., E-mail: galya-ostr@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G., E-mail: annfrank@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium plasma in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations with X-type singular lines is studied by the methods of holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Significant differences in the structures of plasma and current sheets formed at close parameters of the initial plasma and similar configurations of the initial magnetic fields are revealed.

  1. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Free oligosaccharides (FOS are unbound structural analogs of glycans of glycoconjugates. There are several sources of them inside the cell: 1 multistep pathways of N-glycosylation, 2 the cell quality control and endoplastic reticulum-associated degradation of mis-glycosylated and/or misfolded glycoproteins, 3 lysosomal degradation of mature glycoconjugates. Some of these FOS are the earliest indicators of potential glycosylation alterations that would be revealed in the course of the cell quality control and the endoplastic reticulum-associated degradation. Ischemia and hypertension cause stress of intracellular organelles leading to disruption of their functions. The main objective of the work was the characterization of free oligosaccharides (FOS in plasma obtained from patients with cardiovascular diseases compared to those from healthy subjects to evaluate the potential of these compounds for diagnostics. Chromatographic profiles of FOS composed of 4–12 monosaccharides were obtained and analyzed for quantitative and qualitative differences between the samples. After plasma deproteinization and FOS purification the oligosaccharides were labelled with anthranilic acid (2-AA, separated into the neutral and charged with QAE Sephadex (Q25-120 chromatography and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Glucose unit values were determined following comparison with a 2-AA-labelled glucose oligomer ladder derived from a partial hydrolysate of dextran as an external standard. The data were collected and processed using Empower software. The charged FOS were digested with the sialidase from Arthrobacter ureafaciens. 2-AA – labelled free oligosaccharides from transferrin were used as an external standard for the structure decoding. The profiles obtained were compared with intracellular free oligosaccharides of known structures and with the glycan structures and their descriptions in the databases GlycoBase and EUROCarbDB. These

  2. Detection of Independent Associations of Plasma Lipidomic Parameters with Insulin Sensitivity Indices Using Data Mining Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmann, Kai; Xu, Aimin; Schulte, Klaus-Martin; Simeonovic, Charmaine J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Graessler, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glucolipotoxicity is a major pathophysiological mechanism in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We aimed to detect subtle changes in the circulating lipid profile by shotgun lipidomics analyses and to associate them with four different insulin sensitivity indices. Methods The cross-sectional study comprised 90 men with a broad range of insulin sensitivity including normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 33), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 32) and newly detected T2D (n = 25). Prior to oral glucose challenge plasma was obtained and quantitatively analyzed for 198 lipid molecular species from 13 different lipid classes including triacylglycerls (TAGs), phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen/ether (PC O-s), sphingomyelins (SMs), and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs). To identify a lipidomic signature of individual insulin sensitivity we applied three data mining approaches, namely least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Random Forests (RF) for the following insulin sensitivity indices: homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), glucose insulin sensitivity index (GSI), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and disposition index (DI). The LASSO procedure offers a high prediction accuracy and and an easier interpretability than SVR and RF. Results After LASSO selection, the plasma lipidome explained 3% (DI) to maximal 53% (HOMA-IR) variability of the sensitivity indexes. Among the lipid species with the highest positive LASSO regression coefficient were TAG 54:2 (HOMA-IR), PC O- 32:0 (GSI), and SM 40:3:1 (ISI). The highest negative regression coefficient was obtained for LPC 22:5 (HOMA-IR), TAG 51:1 (GSI), and TAG 58:6 (ISI). Conclusion Although a substantial part of lipid molecular species showed a significant correlation with insulin sensitivity indices we were able to identify a limited number of lipid metabolites of particular importance based on the LASSO approach. These

  3. Clinical, hematological, total plasma protein and fibrinogen parameters of magellanic penguins ( Spheniscus magellanicus pre- and post-rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Coraiola

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus usually arrive in poor body conditions at Brazilian beaches during the winter. Hematology provides valuable information about clinical and immunity status of the animals. The aims of this study were to determine the hematologic, total plasma protein (TPP and fibrinogen profiles of young and adult magellanic penguins in PROAMAR and CETAS-SC, relating these results with the state of health and survival possibility of the animals. In Paraná 14 animals were evaluated in pre and eight in post-rehabilitation and 29 animals were evaluated in Santa Catarina after rehabilitation. Before rehabilitation, all animals showed weakness. In hematological exams of these animals, we found that anemia was present in 83% of the penguins that died and 50% of those which survived. The heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L ratio was 3.87±0.57 in animals that died, significantly higher than the average of 2.20±0.30 for animals that survived. These two parameters are useful to assess the survival possibility of animals to rehabilitation. The body condition score was positively correlated with hematocrit and TPP, and negatively correlated with H/L ratio. After rehabilitation, the values were similar to other animals of the family Spheniscidae, with averages ranging from 1.64 to 1.90x106 erythrocytes/μL; 43.38 to 48.80% of hematocrit; 12.45 to 13.52g/dL of hemoglobin; 8,684 to 14,011 leukocytes/μL; 4,767 to 8,041 heterophils/μL; 3,215 to 4,951 lymphocytes/μL; 95 to 655 eosinophils/μl; 179.8 to 277.9 monocytes/μL; 141 to 184.9 basophils/μL; and 1.26 to 1.74 of H/L ratio. These parameters can therefore be used as reference values and release parameters for young and adult Magellanic penguins in captivity on the rehabilitation centers.

  4. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  5. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  6. Prolonged niacin treatment leads to increased adipose tissue PUFA synthesis and anti-inflammatory lipid and oxylipin plasma profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Dharuri, Harish K; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Jónasdóttir, Hulda S; Kloos, Dick-Paul; Giera, Martin; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Prolonged niacin treatment elicits beneficial effects on the plasma lipid and lipoprotein profile that is associated with a protective CVD risk profile. Acute niacin treatment inhibits nonesterified fatty acid release from adipocytes and stimulates prostaglandin release from skin Langerhans cells, but the acute effects diminish upon prolonged treatment, while the beneficial effects remain. To gain insight in the prolonged effects of niacin on lipid metabolism in adipocytes, we used a mouse model with a human-like lipoprotein metabolism and drug response [female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (apoE3 Leiden cholesteryl ester transfer protein) mice] treated with and without niacin for 15 weeks. The gene expression profile of gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) from niacin-treated mice showed an upregulation of the "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" pathway, which was corroborated by quantitative PCR and analysis of the FA ratios in gWAT. Also, adipocytes from niacin-treated mice secreted more of the PUFA DHA ex vivo. This resulted in an increased DHA/arachidonic acid (AA) ratio in the adipocyte FA secretion profile and in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Interestingly, the DHA metabolite 19,20-dihydroxy docosapentaenoic acid (19,20-diHDPA) was increased in plasma of niacin-treated mice. Both an increased DHA/AA ratio and increased 19,20-diHDPA are indicative for an anti-inflammatory profile and may indirectly contribute to the atheroprotective lipid and lipoprotein profile associated with prolonged niacin treatment.

  7. Experimental measurements of the hollow cathode DC glow discharge parameters in Ar and He plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Iraji, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we focus on some of the fundamental parameters of SS316L hollow cathode glow discharge. Four SS316L samples are placed at different locations on the cathode surface and the current passed through them is measured in Ar and He glow discharge plasmas. The wall current densities of Ar and He are in the range of 8-25 µA cm-2 and 8-35 µA cm-2, respectively. Results also show that with decreasing working pressure, the ion flux and current density distribution on the wall surface becomes more uniform. The ion flux of the Ar and He is in the range of 1013 to 1014 ~\\text{ion} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} . Total energy losses of Ar and He are measured at the pressure range of 1.4-5.5  ×  10-2 torr and 3.2-7.1  ×  10-1, respectively. In both Ar and He, total energy losses decreased with increasing pressure. The secondary electron emission coefficients of Ar and He, which are evaluated for the hallow cathode configuration, are about 0.42 and 0.26, respectively, and are higher in comparison with the plate cathode configuration.

  8. Characteristics and plasma parameters of a short-wavelength low-pressure discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Malinina, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the working optical characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of a short-wavelength, electric discharge exciplex-halogen UV-VUV lamp employing a mixture of argon and chlorine with a total pressure of P = 0.5 10 kPa. The lamp operates on a system of broadened electron-vibrational bands of ArCl (175 nm) and chlorine (200, 258 nm) molecules, which overlap to form a continuum in the spectral range of 160 260 nm. It is established that the optimum mixtures are those with p(Ar) - p(Cl2) = (2 4)-(0.15 0.30) kPa. The average output power of the short-wavelength radiation is 1 2 W at an efficiency of ˜5%. The electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) and the discharge plasma parameters have been calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation for a gas mixture with the experimentally determined optimum composition in the range of E/ P values from 1 to 200 V/(cm Torr), where E is the electric field strength and P is the total gas pressure. Using the obtained EDFs, the electron transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for the main elementary processes, and rate constants of electron processes are determined.

  9. Parameter Study of Plasma-Induced Atmospheric Sputtering and Heating at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Leblanc, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Atoms and molecules in Mars’ upper atmosphere are lost predominately through sputtering, caused by the impact of ions into the exosphere, dissociative recombination, and thermal escape. While all three processes are thought to occur on Mars, a detailed understanding must ascertain the relative importance of each process, due to time variations in pick-up and solar wind ions. In this project, using case studies of an oxygen atmosphere modeled with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo techniques, we have endeavored to categorize when the momentum transfer or thermal escape is more likely to occur. To do this, we vary the incident plasma flux and energy based on models of the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. We first repeat the heating and sputtering rates due to a flux of pick-up O+ examined previously (Johnson et al. 2000; Michael and Johnson 2005; Johnson et al 2013). We have used multiple examples of particle fluxes for various solar wind conditions, from steady solar wind conditions (Luhmann et al. 1992; Chaufray et al. 2007) to more extreme cases (Fang et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014), which are thought to increase escape by several orders of magnitude. The goal is to explore the escape parameter space in preparation for the expected data from MAVEN on hot atoms and molecules in the Martian exosphere.

  10. Profiling metals in Cordyceps sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Hankun; Zheng, Baogeng; Arslan, Zikri; Huang, Hung-Chung; Mao, Weidong; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2017-01-28

    Cordyceps sinensis (C. sinensis) is a natural product that has diverse nutritional and medicinal values. Since the availability of natural C. sinensis becomes limited its authentication and quality control is of high significance. Herein we report on profiling of metals in C. sinensis by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The analysis reveals that C. sinensis contains a wide array of essential elements, including P, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, etc. Toxic metals detected are Cd, Pb, and As. In all five samples analyzed Pb contents are below 2.0 ppm. Arsenic level in C. sinensis caterpillar is significantly higher than that in its mycelium and varies from 3.0 to 32 ppm likely due to soil contamination. It's for the first time demonstrated in this work that clustering analysis on the proposed metal profiles consisting of 24 elements is very useful to identify "abnormal" C. sinensis samples, thus adding another dimension to the effective means for authentication and quality assessment of this highly demanded previous natural product.

  11. Plasma metabolomic profiles enhance precision medicine for volunteers of normal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lining; Milburn, Michael V; Ryals, John A; Lonergan, Shaun C; Mitchell, Matthew W; Wulff, Jacob E; Alexander, Danny C; Evans, Anne M; Bridgewater, Brandi; Miller, Luke; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Caskey, C Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Precision medicine, taking account of human individuality in genes, environment, and lifestyle for early disease diagnosis and individualized therapy, has shown great promise to transform medical care. Nontargeted metabolomics, with the ability to detect broad classes of biochemicals, can provide a comprehensive functional phenotype integrating clinical phenotypes with genetic and nongenetic factors. To test the application of metabolomics in individual diagnosis, we conducted a metabolomics analysis on plasma samples collected from 80 volunteers of normal health with complete medical records and three-generation pedigrees. Using a broad-spectrum metabolomics platform consisting of liquid chromatography and GC coupled with MS, we profiled nearly 600 metabolites covering 72 biochemical pathways in all major branches of biosynthesis, catabolism, gut microbiome activities, and xenobiotics. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable range of variation and potential metabolic abnormalities across the individuals in this cohort. Examination of the convergence of metabolomics profiles with whole-exon sequences (WESs) provided an effective approach to assess and interpret clinical significance of genetic mutations, as shown in a number of cases, including fructose intolerance, xanthinuria, and carnitine deficiency. Metabolic abnormalities consistent with early indications of diabetes, liver dysfunction, and disruption of gut microbiome homeostasis were identified in several volunteers. Additionally, diverse metabolic responses to medications among the volunteers may assist to identify therapeutic effects and sensitivity to toxicity. The results of this study demonstrate that metabolomics could be an effective approach to complement next generation sequencing (NGS) for disease risk analysis, disease monitoring, and drug management in our goal toward precision care.

  12. Control of core argon impurity profile by ECH in KSTAR L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joohwan; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Juhyung; Seon, C. R.; Lee, S. G.; Park, G. Y.; Lee, K. D.; Henderson, S. S.; Lee, H. Y.; Park, Jae Sun; Jang, Juhyeok; Jang, Siwon; Jeon, Taemin; O'Mullane, M.; Choe, Wonho

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on trace argon impurity transport in L-mode discharges were performed on Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) with electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH). Ar emission was measured by soft x-ray (SXR) arrays and vacuum UV (VUV) diagnostics. A significant reduction in the core Ar emissivity was observed with core ECH. The reduction was the largest with on-axis heating and became smaller with outward heating positions. The diffusivity and convection velocity of Ar were obtained by analysis of the SXR data with the SANCO impurity transport code for the on-axis ECH and the non-ECH shots. In the on-axis ECH case, both diffusivity and convection velocity increased. Furthermore, the convection changed its direction from inward to outward in the plasma core (r/a < 0.3), resulting in a hollow profile of the total Ar density. Together with the reduction in the SXR signals, the hollow impurity profile in the core and the reversal of the convection velocity consistently confirm that ECH can reduce impurity accumulation in the core region. Neoclassical impurity transport and linear stability of micro-turbulence were calculated and discussed in relation to the possible transport mechanism.

  13. Profiles of amino acids and biogenic amines in the plasma of Cri-du-Chat patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle Zildeana Sousa; de Moura Leite, Fernando Brunale Vilela; Barreto, Cleber Nunes; Faria, Bernadete; Jedlicka, Leticia Dias Lima; de Jesus Silva, Elisângela; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Assunção, Nilson Antonio

    2017-03-21

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CDCS) is a rare innate disease attributed to chromosome 5p deletion characterized by a cat-like cry, craniofacial malformation, and altered behavior of affected children. Metabolomic analysis and a chemometric approach allow description of the metabolic profile of CDCS as compared to normal subjects. In the present work, UHPLC/MS was employed to analyze blood samples withdrawn from CDCS carriers (n=18) and normal parental subjects (n=18), all aged 0-34 years, aiming to set up a representative CDCS profile constructed from 33 targeted amino acids and biogenic amines. Methionine sulfoxide (MetO) was of particular concern with respect to CDCS redox balance. Increased serotonin (3-fold), methionine sulfoxide (2-fold), and Asp levels, and a little lower Orn, citrulline, Leu, Val, Ile, Asn, Gln, Trp, Thr, His, Phe, Met, and creatinine levels were found in the plasma of CDCS patients. Nitrotyrosine and Trp did not differ in normal and CDCS individuals.The accumulated metabolites may reflect, respectively, disturbances in the redox balance, deficient purine biosynthesis, and altered behavior, whereas the amino acid abatement in the latter group may affect the homeostasis of the urea cycle, citric acid cycle, branched chain amino acid synthesis, Tyr and Trp metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. The identification of enzymatic deficiencies leading to the amino acid burden in CDCS is further required for elucidating its molecular bases and eventually propose specific or mixed amino acid supplementation to newborn patients aiming to balance their metabolism.

  14. Diagnosis of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency by metabolomic profiling in plasma reveals a phenotypic spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraka R. Donti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder that presents with a broad-spectrum of neurological and physiological symptoms. The ADSL gene produces an enzyme with binary molecular roles in de novo purine synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling. The biochemical phenotype of ADSL deficiency, accumulation of SAICAr and succinyladenosine (S-Ado in biofluids of affected individuals, serves as the traditional target for diagnosis with targeted quantitative urine purine analysis employed as the predominate method of detection. In this study, we report the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency using an alternative method, untargeted metabolomic profiling, an analytical scheme capable of generating semi-quantitative z-score values for over 1000 unique compounds in a single analysis of a specimen. Using this method to analyze plasma, we diagnosed ADSL deficiency in four patients and confirmed these findings with targeted quantitative biochemical analysis and molecular genetic testing. ADSL deficiency is part of a large a group of neurometabolic disorders, with a wide range of severity and sharing a broad differential diagnosis. This phenotypic similarity among these many inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs has classically stood as a hurdle in their initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The findings presented here demonstrate the clinical utility of metabolomic profiling in the diagnosis of ADSL deficiency and highlights the potential of this technology in the diagnostic evaluation of individuals with neurologic phenotypes.

  15. Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the quartz window of a low pressure surface wave discharge produced in O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakao, S.; Stamate, Eugen; Sugai, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a low density, microwave discharge produced in 0, at 915 N/FHz are investigated by a spherical probe and optical emission spectroscopy while the microwave field distribution is measured by a spectrum analyzer. The electron energy...

  16. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Gürdeniz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact of TFA intake on plasma metabolites. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, 52 overweight postmenopausal women received either partially hydrogenated soybean oil, providing 15.7 g/day of TFA (trans18:1 or control oil with mainly oleic acid for 16 weeks. Subsequent to the intervention period, the subjects participated in a 12-week dietary weight loss program. Before and after the TFA intervention and after the weight loss programme, volunteers participated in an oral glucose tolerance test. PLSDA revealed elevated lipid profiles with TFA intake. NMR indicated up-regulated LDL cholesterol levels and unsaturation. LC-MS profiles demonstrated elevated levels of specific polyunsaturated (PUFA long-chain phosphatidylcholines (PCs and a sphingomyelin (SM which were confirmed with a lipidomics based method. Plasma levels of these markers of TFA intake declined to their low baseline levels after the weight loss program for the TFA group and did not fluctuate for the control group. The marker levels were unaffected by OGTT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that intake of TFA affects phospholipid metabolism. The preferential integration of trans18:1 into the sn-1 position of PCs, all containing PUFA in the sn-2 position, could be explained by a general up-regulation in the formation of long-chain PUFAs after TFA intake and/or by specific mobilisation of these fats into PCs. NMR supported these findings by revealing increased unsaturation of plasma lipids in the TFA group. These specific changes in membrane lipid species may be related to the mechanisms of TFA-induced disease but

  17. Plasma protein-binding parameters of prednisolone in immune disease patients receiving long-term prednisone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J G; Wexler, D; Ağabeyoğlu, I T; Bergstrom, R F; Sakmar, E; Kay, D R

    1981-04-01

    Prednisone and prednisolone bind in plasma to albumin and transcortin. In am attempt to determine whether prednisone side effects and/or type of disease correlated with prednisolone plasma protein binding, multiple plasma samples from 17 patients (three asthma, eight SLE, three RA, two PSS, one PAN) receiving long-term prednisone therapy were monitored during an interval between two prednisone doses. Prednisolone plasma protein binding was nonlinear and exhibited large intrapatient and interpatient variability. For the group, mean association constants of the prednisolone-albumin complex and the prednisolone-transcortin complex were 2.3 X 10(3) M-1 and 2.9 X 10(7) M-1, with coefficients of variation of 82% and 127%, respectively. SLE patients tended to have lower mean prednisolone association constants for albumin and transcortin than did other patients. The presence of corticosteroid side effects did not correlate with prednisolone plasma protein-binding parameters. The wide range of prednisolone free fraction noted in plasma from patients who achieved comparable total prednisolone plasma concentrations implies that administration of a uniform prednisone dose will not lead to a predictable clinical response.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Some Antioxidants on Liver Antioxidant Status and Plasma Biochemistry Parameters of Heat-Stressed Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Sarıca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the dietary supplementation of oleuropein (O and α-tocopherol acetate (TA alone or with organic selenium (Se on liver antioxidant status and some plasma biochemistry parameters in Japanese quails reared under heat stress (HS. A total of 800, two-weeks old quails were kept in wire cages in the temperature-controlled rooms at either 22°C or 34°C for 8 h/d and fed on a basal diet (NC or the diets supplemented with TA (TA200 or O (O200 at 200 mg/kg alone or with OSe (TA200+OSe and O200+OSe to the NC diet. HS decreased the total antioxidant status (TAS and increased the total oxidative stress (TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI of liver compared to thermoneutral temperature (TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets increased TAS and decreased TOS of liver compared to those of quails fed NC. OSI was decreased by the TA200, O200 and TA200+OSe diets compared to NC and O200+OSe diets. HS reduced plasma albumin (A and total protein (TP concentrations, on the other hand, increased plasma glucose (G, total cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG levels compared to TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets reduced plasma total CHO and TG levels and increased plasma A level. The TA200 and TA200+OSe diets reduced plasma G level and increased plasma TP levels compared to those of quails fed the other diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of vitamin E and oleuropein alone or with organic selenium is necessary to remove the negative effects of heat stress on liver antioxidant status and some plasma parameters of quails.

  19. Effect of Pyramidal Training on Plasma Lipid Profile and Fibrinogen, and Blood Viscosity of Untrained Young Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of progressive exercise (pyramidal short-term program on plasma fibrinogen, lipid profile and blood viscosity in untrained young men. Changes and imbalances in homeostasis lead to cause of heart attacks. There is conflicting information about the effect of exercise on these factors. 19 young healthy untrained men were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n = 10 and controls (n = 9 groups. Exercise training group with increasing severity of heart maximum 25 to 100 percent began to run the practice (pyramid in 42-minute sessions, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. There was no significant difference between the parameters of body composition, control, and training groups. Levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein density and viscosity of the blood significantly decreased in the training group compared with the control group (p value, respectively is 0.001, 0.001 and 0.035. The changes in the concentration of fibrinogen, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides in both groups are not significant in both groups (p value, respectively is 0.645, 0.993 and 0.421. The present results show that it is possible that progressive training (pyramidal short-term program changed the levels of cardiovascular risk factors by reducing blood viscosity.

  20. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas; Influencia de los parametros basicos del laser sobre la hidrodinamica de plasmas para microfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanmartin, J. A.; Barrero, A.

    1976-07-01

    The quasi neutral, one dimensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n{sub 0}, by the absorption, In a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area {phi} - {phi}{sub 0}t/{tau}, 0< t {<=} {tau}, is considered; the analysis allows for thermal conduction and viscosity of ions and electrons, their energy exchange, and an electron thermal flux limiter. The motion is found to be self similar and governed by single non dimensional parameter {alpha} similar{sub t}o(n{sup 2}{sub 0} {tau}/{phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/3. Detailed asymptotic results are obtained for both {alpha}<<1and {alpha}>>1; the general (behaviour of the solution for arbitrary {alpha} is discussed. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. (Author) 51 refs.

  1. Laser depth profiling of diffusion and alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite: testing the fundamental parameters of apatite (U-Th)/He dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soest, M. C.; Monteleone, B. D.; Boyce, J. W.; Hodges, K.

    2009-12-01

    Since its development (e.g. Zeitler et al., 1987, Lippolt et al., 1994, Farley et al., 1996, Wolf et al., 1996) as a viable low temperature thermochronological method (U-Th)/He dating of apatite has become a popular and widely applied low temperature thermochronometer. The method has been applied with success to a great variety of geological problems, and the fundamental parameters of the method: the bulk diffusion parameters of helium in apatite, and the calculated theoretical helium stopping distance in apatite used to correct the ages for the effects of alpha ejection appear sound. However, the development of the UV laser microprobe technique for the (U-Th)/He method (Boyce et al., 2006) allows for in-situ testing of the helium bulk diffusion parameters (Farley, 2000) and can provide a direct measurement of the alpha ejection distance in apatite. So, with the ultimate goal of further developing the in-situ (U-Th)/He dating method and micro-analytical depth profiling techniques to constrain cooling histories in natural grains, we conducted a helium depth profiling study of induced diffusion and natural alpha ejection profiles in Durango apatite. For the diffusion depth profiling, a Durango crystal was cut in slabs oriented parallel and perpendicular to the crystal c-axis. The slabs were polished and heated using different temperature and time schedules to induce predictable diffusion profiles based on the bulk helium diffusion parameters in apatite. Depth profiling of the 4He diffusion profiles was done using an ArF excimer laser. The measured diffusion depth profiles at 350°, 400°, and 450° C coincide well with the predicted bulk diffusion curves, independent of slab orientation, but the 300° C profiles consistently deviate significantly. The possible cause for this deviation is currently being investigated. Alpha ejection profiling was carried out on crystal margins from two different Durango apatite crystals, several faces from each crystal were analyzed

  2. A summary report on the search for current technologies and developers to develop depth profiling/physical parameter end effectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Q.H.

    1994-09-12

    This report documents the search strategies and results for available technologies and developers to develop tank waste depth profiling/physical parameter sensors. Sources searched include worldwide research reports, technical papers, journals, private industries, and work at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) at Richland site. Tank waste physical parameters of interest are: abrasiveness, compressive strength, corrosiveness, density, pH, particle size/shape, porosity, radiation, settling velocity, shear strength, shear wave velocity, tensile strength, temperature, viscosity, and viscoelasticity. A list of related articles or sources for each physical parameters is provided.

  3. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  4. Stereolithography based method of creating custom gas density profile targets for high intensity laser-plasma experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, S W; He, Z; McGuffey, C; Schumaker, W; Krushelnick, K; Thomas, A G R

    2012-07-01

    Laser based stereolithography methods are shown to be useful for production of gas targets for high intensity laser-plasma interaction experiments. A cylindrically symmetric nozzle with an opening of approximately 100 μm and a periodic attachment of variable periodicity are outlined in detail with associated density profile characterization. Both components are durable within the limits of relevant experiments.

  5. Specific features of the radial distributions of plasma parameters in the initial segment of a supersonic jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchina, A. S.; Efimov, A. V.; Chinnov, V. F.; Ageev, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Results are presented from spectroscopic studies of the initial segment of a supersonic plasma jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge with an ablative carbon-containing polymer wall. Specific features of the spatial distributions of the electron density and intensities of spectral components caused, in particular, by the high electron temperature in the central zone, much exceeding the normal temperature, as well as by the high nonisobaricity of the initial segment of the supersonic jet, are revealed. Measurements of the radiative properties of the hot jet core (the intensity and profile of the Hα and Hβ Balmer lines and the relative intensities of C II lines) with high temporal (1-50 μs) and spatial (30-50 μm) resolutions made it possible to determine general features of the pressure and temperature distributions near the central shock. The presence of molecular components exhibiting their emission properties at the periphery of the plasma jet allowed the authors to estimate the parameters of the plasma in the jet region where "detached" shock waves form.

  6. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  7. Effects of dietary methionine on feed utilization, plasma amino acid profiles and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine

    (EAA) compared to dietary requirements. Supplementation with amino acids in crystalline from (CAA) is a common practice to balance the dietary amino acid profile to achieve high growth performances. However, complete substitution of fish meal using plant proteins and CAAs often results in poorer growth...... are presented in Paper I and show that the protein source itself (fish meal or plant based) does not affect the plasma EAA profiles, but rather that plasma EAA levels reflect the dietary level. Supplementation with histidine, lysine and threonine in crystalline form to a plant based diet was, on the other hand...... as an apparent “accumulation” in the plasma, compared to fish fed similar dietary level but in protein bound form. The study further showed that the nitrogen excretion resulting from feeding an AA deficient diet was higher than for the fish meal control diet. Supplementation of the plant meal diet...

  8. Simulation of Main Plasma Parameters of a Cylindrical Asymmetric Capacitively Coupled Plasma Micro-Thruster using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eGreig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a radio-frequency (13.56 MHz electro-thermal capacitively coupled plasma (CCP micro-thruster have been performed using the commercial CFD-ACE+ package. Standard operating conditions of a 10 W, 1.5 Torr argon discharge were used to compare with previously obtained experimental results for validation. Results show that the driving force behind plasma production within the thruster is ion-induced secondary electrons ejected from the surface of the discharge tube, accelerated through the sheath to electron temperatures up to 33.5 eV. The secondary electron coefficient was varied to determine the effect on the discharge, with results showing that full breakdown of the discharge did not occur for coefficients coefficients less than or equal to 0.01.

  9. Effects of dietary lysine levels on plasma free amino acid profile in late-stage finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Naresh; Wang, Taiji; Crenshaw, Mark A; Rude, Brian J; Wu, Guoyao; Liao, Shengfa F

    2016-01-01

    Muscle growth requires a constant supply of amino acids (AAs) from the blood. Therefore, plasma AA profile is a critical factor for maximizing the growth performance of animals, including pigs. This research was conducted to study how dietary lysine intake affects plasma AA profile in pigs at the late production stage. Eighteen crossbred (Large White × Landrace) finishing pigs (nine barrows and nine gilts; initial BW 92.3 ± 6.9 kg) were individually penned in an environment controlled barn. Pigs were assigned randomly to one of the three dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with sex as block and pig as experiment unit (6 pigs/treatment). Three corn- and soybean meal-based diets contained 0.43 % (lysine-deficient, Diet I), 0.71 % (lysine-adequate, Diet II), and 0.98 % (lysine-excess, Diet III) l-lysine, respectively. After a 4-week period of feeding, jugular vein blood samples were collected from the pigs and plasma was obtained for AA analysis using established HPLC methods. The change of plasma lysine concentration followed the same pattern as that of dietary lysine supply. The plasma concentrations of threonine, histidine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine, arginine, and citrulline of pigs fed Diet II or III were lower (P pigs fed Diet I. The plasma concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and glycine of pigs fed Diet II or III were higher (P pigs fed Diet I. The change of plasma leucine and asparagine concentrations followed the patterns similar to that of plasma lysine. Among those affected AAs, arginine was decreased (P pigs may be further increased with a lysine-excess diet if the plasma concentration of arginine can be increased through dietary supplementation or other practical nutritional management strategies.

  10. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Wutzler, T.; Beer, C.; Kattge, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Ahrens, B.; Schoning, I.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.; Reichstein, M.

    2013-01-01

    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute an important factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing du

  11. Modeling the vertical soil organic matter profile using Bayesian parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.C.; Wutzler, T.; Beer, C.; Kattge, J.; Schrumpf, M.; Schöning, I.; Hoosbeek, M.R.; Kruijt, B.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    The vertical distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) in the profile may constitute a significant factor for soil carbon cycling. However, the formation of the SOM profile is currently poorly understood due to equifinality, caused by the entanglement of several processes: input from roots, mixing d

  12. Influence of plasma parameters on the growth and properties of magnetron sputtered CNx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Niklas; Macák, Karol; Broitman, Esteban; Johansson, Mats P.; Hultman, Lars; Sundgren, Jan-Eric

    2000-07-01

    Carbon nitride CNx thin films were grown by unbalanced dc magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in a pure N2 discharge, and with the substrate temperature Ts kept between 100 and 550 °C. A solenoid coil positioned in the vicinity of the substrate was used to support the magnetic field of the magnetron, so that the plasma could be increased near the substrate. By varying the coil current and gas pressure, the energy distribution and fluxes of N2+ ions and C neutrals could be varied independently of each other over a wide range. An array of Langmuir probes in the substrate position was used to monitor the radial ion flux distribution over the 75-mm-diam substrate, while the flux and energy distribution of neutrals was estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. The structure, surface roughness, and mechanical response of the films are found to be strongly dependent on the substrate temperature, and the fluxes and energies of the deposited particles. By controlling the process parameters, the film structure can thus be selected to be amorphous, graphite-like or fullerene-like. When depositing at 3 mTorr N2 pressure, with Ts>200 °C, a transition from a disordered graphite-like to a hard and elastic fullerene-like structure occurred when the ion flux was increased above ˜0.5-1.0 mA/cm2. The nitrogen-to-carbon concentration ratio in the films ranged from ˜0.1 to 0.65, depending on substrate temperature and gas pressure. The nitrogen film concentration did, however, not change when varying the nitrogen ion-to-carbon atom flux ratios from ˜1 to 20.

  13. Derivation of the Fano profile from time-dependent density-functional theory for local thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Shuji

    2007-04-01

    We give the derivation of the Fano profile (the resonance energy position, the resonance width Γ , and q value) from the time-dependent nonrelativistic density-functional theory (DFT) and propose a scheme for calculating the photoabsorption cross section of hot dense plasmas. As a consequence of this derivation, we show the line profile is obtained as a superposition of Fano and Lorentz profiles when the competition of two optically allowed bound-bound and bound-free transitions occurs. We also show the results of the photoabsorption cross section by applying our scheme to an Fe plasma (density is 7.85g/cm3 , temperature is 100eV ), where the calculation is carried out without numerical divergence for any photon energy. The calculated results are in good agreement with those of Grimaldi.

  14. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  15. Fast Sausage Modes in Magnetic Tubes with Continuous Transverse Profiles: Effects of a Finite Plasma Beta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xiong, Ming; Yu, Hui; Guo, Ming-Zhe

    2016-12-01

    While standing fast sausage modes in flare loops are often invoked to interpret quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in solar flares, it is unclear as to how they are influenced by the combined effects of a continuous transverse structuring and a finite internal plasma beta ({β }{{i}}). We derive a generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage waves in straight magnetic tubes for which plasma pressure is not negligible, and the density and temperature inhomogeneities of essentially arbitrary form take place in a layer of arbitrary width. Focusing on fast modes, we find that {β }{{i}} only weakly influences {k}{{c}}, the critical longitudinal wavenumber separating the leaky from trapped modes. Likewise, for both trapped and leaky modes, the periods P in units of the transverse fast time depend only weakly on {β }{{i}}, which is compatible with the fact that the effective wave vectors of fast sausage modes are largely perpendicular to the background magnetic field. However, a weak {β }{{i}} dependence of the damping times τ is seen only when the length-to-radius ratio L/R is ∼50% larger than some critical value π /({k}{{c}}R), which itself rather sensitively depends on the density contrast, profile steepness, as well as on how the transverse structuring is described. In the context of QPPs, we conclude that the much simpler zero-beta theory can be employed for trapped modes, as long as one sees the deduced internal Alfvén speed as actually being the fast speed. In contrast, effects due to a finite beta in flare loops should be considered when leaky modes are exploited.

  16. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S.; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Morris, Penelope J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR p<0.05). Pathway Enrichment Analysis also identified significant effects in 20 pathways, dominated by amino acid, sterol and fatty acid metabolism. Most changes were interpretable within the context of male sexual development, and changed following neutering in the CN group. Felinine metabolism in CN cats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion. PMID:27942045

  17. Deuterium Depth Profile in Neutron-Irradiated Tungsten Exposed to Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masashi Shimada; G. Cao; Y. Hatano; T. Oda; Y. Oya; M. Hara; P. Calderoni

    2011-05-01

    The effect of radiation damage has been mainly simulated using high-energy ion bombardment. The ions, however, are limited in range to only a few microns into the surface. Hence, some uncertainty remains about the increase of trapping at radiation damage produced by 14 MeV fusion neutrons, which penetrate much farther into the bulk material. With the Japan-US joint research project: Tritium, Irradiations, and Thermofluids for America and Nippon (TITAN), the tungsten samples (99.99 % pure from A.L.M.T., 6mm in diameter, 0.2mm in thickness) were irradiated to high flux neutrons at 50 C and to 0.025 dpa in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Subsequently, the neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to a high-flux deuterium plasma (ion flux: 1021-1022 m-2s-1, ion fluence: 1025-1026 m-2) in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). First results of deuterium retention in neutron-irradiated tungsten exposed in TPE have been reported previously. This paper presents the latest results in our on-going work of deuterium depth profiling in neutron-irradiated tungsten via nuclear reaction analysis. The experimental data is compared with the result from non neutron-irradiated tungsten, and is analyzed with the Tritium Migration Analysis Program (TMAP) to elucidate the hydrogen isotope behavior such as retention and depth distribution in neutron-irradiated and non neutron-irradiated tungsten.

  18. Plasma Biomarker Profiles Differ Depending on Breast Cancer Subtype but RANTES is Consistently Increased

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, Rachel M.; Daly, Don S.; Tan, Ruimin; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-07-01

    Background: Current biomarkers for breast cancer have little potential for detection. We determined if breast cancer subtypes influence circulating protein biomarkers. Methods: A sandwich-ELISA microarray platform was used to evaluate 23 candidate biomarkers in plasma samples that were obtained from subjects with either benign breast disease or invasive breast cancer. All plasma samples were collected at the time of biopsy, after a referral due to a suspicious screen (e.g., mammography). Cancer samples were evaluated based on breast cancer subtypes, as defined by the HER2 and estrogen receptor statuses. Results: Ten proteins were statistically altered in at least one breast cancer subtype, including four epidermal growth factor receptor ligands, two matrix metalloproteases, two cytokines, and two angiogenic factors. Only one cytokine, RANTES, was significantly increased (P<0.01 for each analysis) in all four subtypes, with areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82, depending on cancer subtype. The best AUC values were observed for analyses that combined data from multiple biomarkers, with values ranging from 0.70 to 0.99, depending on the cancer subtype. Although the results for RANTES are consistent with previous publications, the multi-assay results need to be validated in independent sample sets. Conclusions: Different breast cancer subtypes produce distinct biomarker profiles, and circulating protein biomarkers have potential to differentiate between true and false positive screens for breast cancer. Impact: Subtype-specific biomarker panels may be useful for detecting breast cancer or as an adjunct assay to improve the accuracy of current screening methods.

  19. Canonical sound speed profile and related ray acoustic parameters in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, B.P.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, canonical parameters (i.e., B the stratification scale and epsilon the perturbation coefficient) in adiabatic ocean are obtained using SOFAR channel parameters (i.e., C sound velocity at the channel axis, Z sub(1...

  20. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  1. The Effect of Renal Denervation on Plasma Adipokine Profile in Patients with Treatment Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Eikelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN to lower blood pressure (BP at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. A number of adipocyte-derived factors are implicated in BP control in obesity.Aim: The aim of this study was to examine whether RDN may have salutary effects on the adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH.Methods: Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN program have been included in this study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2, mean ± SEM. Throughout the study, the patients were on an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 antihypertensive drugs. Automated seated office BP measurements and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, adiponectin and resistin were assessed at baseline and the 3 months after RDN.Results: There was a significant reduction in mean office systolic (168.75 ± 2.57 vs. 155.23 ± 3.17 mmHg, p < 0.001 and diastolic (90.68 ± 2.31 vs. 83.74 ± 2.36 mmHg, p < 0.001 BP 3 months after RDN. Body weight, plasma leptin and resistin levels and heart rate remained unchanged. Fasting insulin concentration significantly increased 3 months after the procedure (20.05 ± 1.46 vs. 29.70 ± 2.51 uU/ml, p = 0.002. There was a significant drop in circulating NEFA at follow up (1.01 ± 0.07 vs. 0.47 ± 0.04 mEq/l, p < 0.001. Adiponectin concentration was significantly higher after RDN (5,654 ± 800 vs. 6,644 ± 967 ng/ml, p = 0.024.Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that RDN is associated with potentially beneficial effects on aspects of the adipokine profile. Increased adiponectin and reduced NEFA production may contribute to BP reduction via an effect on metabolic pathways.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00483808, NCT00888433.

  2. Measurements of electron density and temperature profiles in plasma produced by Nike KrF laser for laser plasma instability research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L. Y.

    2015-08-01

    A grid image refractometer (GIR) has been implemented at the Nike krypton fluoride laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory. This instrument simultaneously measures propagation angles and transmissions of UV probe rays (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) refracted through plasma. We report results of the first Nike-GIR measurement on a CH plasma produced by the Nike laser pulse (˜1 ns FWHM) with the intensity of 1.1 × 1015 W/cm2. The measured angles and transmissions were processed to construct spatial profiles of electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) in the underdense coronal region of the plasma. Using an inversion algorithm developed for the strongly refracted rays, the deployed GIR system probed electron densities up to 4 × 1021 cm-3 with the density scale length of 120 μm along the plasma symmetry axis. The resulting ne and Te profiles are verified to be self-consistent with the measured quantities of the refracted probe light.

  3. The influence of electrode configuration on light emission profiles and electrical characteristics of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletić, Dejan; Puač, Nevena; Malović, Gordana; Đorđević, Antonije; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we focus on the influence of the type of electrodes, their dimensions and inter-electrode gap on the formation of a helium plasma jet. Plasma emission profiles are recorded by an ICCD camera simultaneously with volt–ampere characteristics for three different copper electrode configurations. The delivered power was up to 6.5 W, but it may be set and controlled to 0.1 W. This study shows how the electrode configuration shapes and controls temporal and spatial plasma development as well as electrical characteristics of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. It is shown that, in our system, the width of the grounded electrode has no significant influence on the formation and properties of pulsed atmospheric-pressure streamers (PAPS) outside the tube, while the width of the powered electrode is crucial in their formation.

  4. Effect of applying static electric field on the physical parameters and dynamics of laser-induced plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Elhassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the LIBS technique – in particular its sensitivity, reproducibility and limit of detection – we studied the effect of applying a static electric field with different polarities on the emission spectra obtained in a typical LIBS set-up. The physical parameters of the laser-induced plasma, namely the electron density Ne and the plasma temperature Te, were studied under such circumstances. In addition to the spectroscopic analysis of the plasma plume emission, the laser-induced shock waves were exploited to monitor the probable changes in the plasma plume dynamics due to the application of the electric field. The study showed a pronounced enhancement in the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio of different Al, neutral and ionic lines under forward biasing voltage (negative target and positive electrode. On the other hand, a clear deterioration of the emission line intensities was observed under conditions of reversed polarity. This negative effect may be attributed to the reduction in electron-ion recombinations due to the stretched plasma plume. The plasma temperature showed a constant value in the average with the increasing electric field in both directions. This effect may be due to the fact that the measured values of Te were averaged over the whole plasma emission volume. The electron density was observed to decrease slightly in the case of forward biasing while no significant effect was noticed in the case of reversed biasing. This slight decrease in Ne can be interpreted in view of the increase in the rate of electron–ion recombinations due to the presence of the electric field. No appreciable effects of the applied electric field on the plasma dynamics were noticed.

  5. Changes of plasma fasting carnitine ester profile in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Judit Bene; Mária Figler; Katalin Komlósi; Viktória Havasi; Gábor Talián; Beáta Gasztonyi; Krisztina Horváth; Gyula Mózsik; Béla Hunyady; Béla Melegh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the plasma carnitine ester profile in adult patients with ulcerative culitis (UC) and compared with healthy control subjects.METHOD: Using ESI triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, the carnitine ester profile was measured in 44 patients with UC and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the fasting free carnitine level between the patients with UC and the healthy controls. The fasting propionyl(0.331 ±0.019 vs0.392 ± 0.017 μmol/L), butyryl(0.219 ± 0.014 vs 0.265± 0.012), and isovalerylcarnitine (0.111 ± 0.008 vs 0.134± 0.008) levels were decreased in the UC patients. By contrast, the level of octanoyl- (0.147 ± 0.009 vs 0.114 ± 0.008),decanoyl- (0.180 ± 0.012 vs 0.137 ± 0.008), myristoyl(0.048 ± 0.003 vs 0.039 ± 0.003), palmitoyl- (0.128 ± 0.006vs 0.109 ± 0.004), palmitoleyl- (0.042±0.003vs 0.031 ± 0.002) and oleylcarnitine (0.183 ± 0.007vs 0.163 ± 0.007; P < 0.05 in all comparisons) were increased in the patients with UC.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest selective involvement of the carnitine esters in UC patients, probably due to their altered metabolism.

  6. Spatial profiles of interelectrode electron density in direct current superposed dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, Yoshinobu; Ishikawa, Kenji; Komuro, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2017-04-01

    We present experimentally determined spatial profiles of the interelectrode electron density (n e) in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas in which the negative direct current (dc) bias voltage (V dc) is superposed; in the experiment, 13 MHz (P low) was applied to the lower electrode and 60 MHz (P high) to the upper electrode. The bulk n e increased substantially with increases in the external power, P high, P low, and with increases in V dc. When P low was insufficient, the bulk n e decreased as the V dc bias increased. The bulk n e increased due to its dependence on V dc, especially for |V dc|  >  500 V. This may correspond to the sheath voltages (V s) of the lower electrode. The n e values in front of the upper electrode were coupled with the V dc: the V dc dependence first decreased and then increased. The dc currents (I dc) of the upper electrode were collected when a large P low was applied. The value of I dc at the threshold value of V dc  ≈  V s (e.g.  ‑500 V) increased with an increase in n e. When |V dc| exceeded the threshold, the spatial n e profile and the I dc dependence were changed relative to the electrical characteristics of the dc superposition; this led to a change in the location of the maximum n e, the width of the area of n e depletion in front of the electrodes, and a transition in the electron heating modes.

  7. Peptidome profiling of umbilical cord plasma associated with gestational diabetes-induced fetal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Lan; Ding, Hongjuan; Huo, Ran; Shi, Zhonghua

    2016-04-29

    Fetal macrosomia, defined as a birth weight ≥4000g, may affect 15-45% of newborns of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The associations between endogenous peptides and gestational diabetes-induced macrosomia have not been investigated extensively by peptidome analysis. Here, we analyzed the umbilical cord plasma by combining ultrafiltration using molecular weight cut-off filters and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to investigate potential associations of GDM with macrosomia. As macrosomic babies have increased susceptibility to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in later life, we also aimed to identify specific biomarkers to detect these future diseases. Thirty pairs of GDM mothers and controls were randomly divided into three subgroups. We identified 235 peptides of around 1000-3000Da, originating from 115 proteins. Analyzing the cleavage sites revealed that these peptides were cleaved in regulation, which may reflect the protease activity and distribution in umbilical cord plasma. Four identified peptides, of 2471.7, 1077.2, 1446.5 and 2372.7Da, were significantly differentially expressed in the GDM macrosomia groups compared with controls, whose precursors may play a critical role in developing GDM macrosomia. We provide for the first time a validated GDM macrosomia peptidome profile and identify potential biomarkers linking the effects of macrosomia to later-life diseases. Fetal macrosomia is the predominant adverse outcome of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), which is a frequent medical condition during pregnancy. Till now, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying gestational diabetes-induced macrosomia are still not elucidated. With high detection sensitivity and high throughput of peptidome technology, it is now possible to systemically identify peptides possibly involved in the umbilical cord plasma of GDM induced macrosomia cases. With LC-MS/MS based quantification, totally, we identified 235

  8. TIME EVOLUTION OF PLASMA PARAMETERS DURING THE RISE OF A SOLAR PROMINENCE INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Trujillo Bueno, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Díaz, A. J., E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2014-04-10

    We present high-spatial resolution spectropolarimetric observations of a quiescent hedgerow prominence taken in the He I 1083.0 nm triplet. The observation consisted of a time series in sit-and-stare mode of ∼36 minutes duration. The spectrograph's slit crossed the prominence body and we recorded the time evolution of individual vertical threads. Eventually, we observed the development of a dark Rayleigh-Taylor plume that propagated upward with a velocity, projected onto the plane of the sky, of 17 km s{sup –1}. Interestingly, the plume apex collided with the prominence threads pushing them aside. We inferred Doppler shifts, Doppler widths, and magnetic field strength variations by interpreting the He I Stokes profiles with the HAZEL code. The Doppler shifts show that clusters of threads move coherently while individual threads have oscillatory patterns. Regarding the plume we found strong redshifts (∼9-12 km s{sup –1}) and large Doppler widths (∼10 km s{sup –1}) at the plume apex when it passed through the prominence body and before it disintegrated. We associate the redshifts with perspective effects while the Doppler widths are more likely due to an increase in the local temperature. No local variations of the magnetic field strength associated with the passage of the plume were found; this leads us to conclude that the plumes are no more magnetized than the surroundings. Finally, we found that some of the threads' oscillations are locally damped, what allowed us to apply prominence seismology techniques to infer additional prominence physical parameters.

  9. Study of correlation of thyroid profile and clinical parameters in patients with infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kameswaramma K.

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Every infertile woman with ovulatory dysfunction should also investigated thyroid profile along with other investigations, to open better prospects for such desperate infertile women. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1410-1413

  10. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  11. The effect of various copper sources on the trace elements profile in the hair, plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jančíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment with 20 mares (3.6–19.8 years old divided into 3 groups we evaluated the effect of supplementation with various sources of copper on the trace elements profile in the hair, blood plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses. The horses were stabled in box stalls (similar dimension with feeding pump, with the access to a paddock or walker. All mares received the same basic feed ration that was supplemented with various form of copper (Cu in the organic form – proteinate - Bioplex Cu vs. Cu in the inorganic form – CuSO4.5H2O in amount of 120 mg per day for the mares in experimental groups. The contents of trace elements in hair and faeces were established using the atomic absorption spectrometry; in the plasma using direct colorimetric determination.Significant difference between mares receiving copper in organic and inorganic form (P The mares receiving Bioplex-Cu excreted lower amount of copper in the faeces. These had well-balanced levels of Cu in the plasma and deposited less Cu in the hair than the mares with addition of copper sulphate. In our experiment, it seems to be better available copper in the organic form than in the inorganic form for the organism of horses.Nevertheless, interpretation of these results is very difficult. Evaluation the impact of various sources of copper on the elements profile; assessed using skin derivates, plasma or other parameters should be subjected to further observation.

  12. Plasma lipids profile and erythrocytes system in patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.

    2006-08-01

    Erythrocytes system study can provide a framework for detailed exploration of blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions, one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. Our objective was to explore erythrocytes system in patients with stable angina pectoris II f.c. (Canadian classification). The participants (N = 56, age 40 - 55 years) without obesity, glucose tolerance violations, lipid lowering drugs treating, heart failure of II and more functional classes (NYHA), coronary episode at least 6 months before study were involved in the study. Blood samples were incubated with glucose solutions of increasing concentrations (from 2.5% to 20% with 2.5% step) during 60 mm (36° C). In prepared blood smears erythrocyte's sizes were studied. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels were also measured. Received data were approximated by polynomials of high degree, with after going first and second derivations. Erythrocytes system "behavior" was studied by means of phase pattern constructing. By lipids levels all the patient were divided into five groups: 1) patients with normal lipids levels, 2) patients with borderline total cholesterol level, 3) patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia, 4) patients with isolated hypertriglyceridemia and 5) patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Erythrocytes size lowering process was of set of "stages", which characteristics differ significantly (p > 0.05) in all five groups. Their rate and acceleration characteristics allow us to detect type of lipid profile in patients. Erythrocyte system disturbing by glucose concentration increase show to be most resistant in group of patients with isolated hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Neutral-depletion-induced asymmetric plasma density profile and momentum transport in a helicon thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takao, Yoshinori; Chiba, Aiki; Ando, Akira

    2016-09-01

    Axial momentum lost to a lateral wall of a helicon source is directly measured by using a pendulum force balance, where only the lateral wall is attached to the balance immersed in 60-cm-diam and 1.4-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 300-400 L/s). When operating the source with highly ionized krypton and xenon, the strong density decay along the axis is observed inside the source tube, which seems to be due to the neutral depletion. Under such a condition, a non-negligible loss of the axial momentum to the lateral wall is detected. The presently detected loss of the axial momentum indicates the presence of the ions which are axially accelerated by the electric field in the plasma core and then lost to the lateral wall. Furthermore, the helicon thruster immersed in 1-m-diam and 2-m-long vacuum tank (pumping speed of 4000-5000 L/s) is operated at high rf power up to 5 kW in argon, to demonstrate the neutral-depletion-induced axially asymmetric density profile. Combination between the Langmuir probe and the optical diagnosis indicates that the neutral density at the axial center of the source is reduced to 20% of the initial neutral density. This work is partially supported by grant-in-aid for scientific research (16H04084 and 26247096) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  14. Elevation profile influence at key contractual performance parameters for LDS (Leak Detection Systems) based on compensated volume balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebenberg, Lieb [TRANSNET Pipeline, Durban (South Africa); Bueno, David; Passos, Rafaela [KANOPUS Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses procedures and correlations to estimate performance parameters for Leak Detection Systems based on Compensation Volume Balance, at the portions not usually covered by international standards (like, API RP 1130). These parameters include: minimum acceptable leakage to be detected, under steady state conditions, based on flow measurement uncertainty, observed for both pipeline head and tail; an actual flow rate uncertainty against the one informed by the flow meter manufacturer documentation; the reference flow rate for steady state conditions; and the sensitivity one may expect for the system against a given probability of false alarms (i.e., the ways to correlate reliability, the main performance parameter as per API RP 1130 and sensitivity, the second one). A question usually not considered is: how the elevation profile may affect some of these parameters. That is the second main objective addressed herein, with actual examples employed in a South African multi product pipeline. (author)

  15. Effect of magnetic configuration on plasma parameters in the H-1 heliac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, B.D.; Pretty, D.G.; Harris, J.H.; Howard, J.; Shats, M.G.; Collis, S.M.; Gardner, H.J.; Michael, C.A.; Punzmann, H. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering Australian National University, ACT (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The H-1 heliac is a current-free stellarator with a helical magnetic axis which twists around the machine axis (a circular ring conductor, radius 1m) three times in one toroidal rotation. It us a ''flexible'' heliac composed almost entirely of circular coils with the exception of the helical control winding, which also wraps around the ring conductor, in phase with the magnetic axis of the plasma, but with a smaller swing radius (95 mm c.f. {proportional_to} 230 mm). In addition to indicating particle confinement times, this phenomenon may be sensitive to plasma generation efficiency. There may be some interaction between configuration and impurity generation, as plasma boundaries and strike points are varied. Various plasma conditions and formation techniques are compared. (orig.)

  16. Influence of instrumental parameters on the kinetic energy of ions and plasma temperature for a hexapole collision/reaction-cell-based inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Georges; Brennetot, René; Chartier, Frédéric; Tortajada, Jeanine

    2009-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in inorganic analytical chemistry for element and/or isotope ratio measurements. The presence of interferences, which is one of the main limitations of this method, has been addressed in recent years with the introduction of collision/reaction cell devices on ICP-MS apparatus. The study of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase then became of great importance for the development of new analytical strategies. Knowing the kinetic energy and the electronic states of the ions prior to their entrance into the cell, i.e., just before they react, thereby constitutes crucial information for the interpretation of the observed reactivities. Such studies on an ICP-MS commonly used for routine analyses require the determination of the influence of different instrumental parameters on the energy of the ions and on the plasma temperature from where ions are sampled. The kinetic energy of ions prior to their entrance into the cell has been connected to the voltage applied to the hexapole according to a linear relationship determined from measurements of ion energy losses due to collisions with neutral gas molecules. The effects of the plasma forward power, sampling depth, and the addition of a torch shield to the ICP source were then examined. A decrease of the plasma potential due to the torch shielding, already mentioned in the literature, has been quantified in this study at about 3 V.

  17. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. Aims To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. Methods PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. Results PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the

  18. An improved model to analyze Langmuir probe assisted photo-detachment signal for measuring electronegative plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirse, Nishant; Oudini, Noureddine; Bendib, Abderrezeg; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2016-09-01

    A diagnostic technique for measuring negative ion parameters based on Langmuir probe assisted laser photo-detachment relies on a theoretical model which relates the rise in the electron saturation current to electronegativity in the plasma. The existing model depend on various assumptions and neglect electrostatic potential barrier formed between the laser column (electropositive column) and the surrounding electronegative plasma in order to prevent the outward flow of electrons from the electropositive plasma column. These assumptions leads to erroneous estimation of the plasma electronegativity. In the present work, we present an analytical model to analyze Langmuir probe assisted photo-detachment signal in order to improve the accuracy of measured electronegativity and extended this technique for measuring electron temperature and charged species density. The analytical model is validated using both experiments and particle-in-cell simulation. The results shows improved accuracy in the measured parameters when compared to existing model. This work was supported by the Korea Institute for the Advancement of Technology and Ministry of Knowledge Economy (L-2010-1438-000), Republic of Korea, Enterprise Ireland and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under NSRF 2007-2013.

  19. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  20. Real time measurement of plasma macroscopic parameters on RFX-mod using a limited set of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Ondrej; Zanca, Paolo; Finotti, Claudio; Marchiori, Giuseppe; Cavazzana, Roberto; Marrelli, Lionello

    2015-10-01

    A method to estimate the plasma boundary and global parameters such as βp+li/2 and the edge safety factor q95 is described. The method is based on poloidal flux extrapolation in the vacuum region between the plasma and the magnetic measurements, and it is efficient and accurate even if a limited set of sensors is used. The discrepancy between the plasma boundary provided by this method and the boundary computed by the Grad-Shafranov solver MAXFEA is lower than 8 mm in all the considered cases. Moreover, the method is robust against the noise level present in the RFX-mod measurements. The difference between the estimated global parameters and the MAXFEA simulation results is lower than 4%. The method was finally implemented in the RFX-mod shape control system, working at 5 kHz cycle frequency, to provide a reliable set of plasma-wall distances (gaps) used as feedback signals. Experimental results obtained in one year of RFX-mod operation are shown.

  1. Parameter analysis of a photonic crystal fiber with raised-core index profile based on effective index method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarz E. Seraji; Mahnaz Rashidi; Vajieh Khasheie

    2006-01-01

    @@ Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with a stepped raised-core profile and one layer equally spaced holes in the cladding are analyzed. Using effective index method and considering a raised step refractive index difference between the index of the core and the effective index of the cladding, we improve the characteristic parameters such as numerical aperture and V-parameter, and reduce its bending loss to about one tenth of a conventional PCF. Implementing such a structure in PCFs may be one step forward to achieve low loss PCFs for communication applications.

  2. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  3. Haematological parameters, serum lipid profile, liver function and fatty acid profile of broiler chickens fed on diets supplemented with pomegranate seed oil and linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manterys, A; Franczyk-Zarow, M; Czyzynska-Cichon, I; Drahun, A; Kus, E; Szymczyk, B; Kostogrys, R B

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine effect of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) and linseed oil (LO) on haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes as well as fatty acids profile of adipose tissue in broilers. Broilers (n = 400) were fed on diets containing graded PSO levels (0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%) with or without 2% LO. After 6 weeks of feeding, 6 male broilers from each group were slaughtered and abdominal fat, liver and blood samples were collected. Mixtures of pomegranate seed oil (0.5%, 1%) with linseed oil increased white blood cell level in broilers. Total cholesterol was elevated after LO supplementation whereas administration of PSO (1.5%) significantly decreased this parameter. PSO administration caused c9,t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration-dependent deposition in adipose tissue. By LO addition α-linolenic acid (ALA) content was enhanced, decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio. PSO and ALA also affected oleic acid proportion in adipose tissue. Neither pomegranate seed oil nor linseed oil had any effect on liver parameters. Pomegranate seed oil had no negative effects on broiler health status and can be considered as a functional poultry meat component.

  4. Influence of argon fraction on plasma parameters in H2-N2 mixture discharge with cathodic cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Zaka-ul-Islam, Mujahid; Khattak, Zahid Iqbal; Shafiq, Muhammad; Zakaullah, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure H2-N2 mixture pulsed DC plasmas with a cathodic cage (active screen) are widely used for plasma nitriding applications. In this study, the low-pressure H2-N2 mixture plasma with a cathodic cage generated by 50 Hz pulsed DC source is investigated with triple Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The electron temperature (TeLP T e LP ) and electron number density (ne) are measured using a triple Langmuir probe (TLP). The excitation temperature (TexcOES T e xc OES ) is calculated spectroscopically using Boltzmann plot method whereas nitrogen dissociation fraction is estimated using actinometry as well as the intensity ratio method (IN (746.83 nm)/IN2(337.1 nm)). The results show that the electron and excitation temperatures, electron density and nitrogen atomic species density [N] all increase with the argon admixture, however, the important molecular ionized species density [N2+ N 2 + ] significantly decreases beyond 30% addition. This study provides useful information about the influence of the argon addition on plasma parameters and active species generation. As a result it helps to optimize the plasma nitriding system as a function of argon admixture to avoid random trials in the processing.

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL PROVISION OF ACCURACY AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF INTRICATE PROFILE PARTS AT HIGH-SPEED MULTI-COORDINATE MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sheleg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers requirements to CAM-systems for provision of high-speed multi-coordinate milling, principles of generation and recommendations on trajectory programming for high-speed machining, influence of vibration and balancing of the technological system on parameters of  the machining accuracy, characteristics of a cutting tool, types of tool coatings that is rather actual for improvement of accuracy and quality of intricate profile parts.

  6. XML The Impact of High Intensity Interval Training On Lipid Profile, Inflammatory Markers and Anthropometric Parameters in Inactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Zaer Ghodsi (MSc); Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari; Amir Fattah (MSc)

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a recently proposed exercise protocol, which is time-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIIT for 8 weeks on the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and anthropometric parameters of young women who do not exercise. Methods: In this study, 20 young physically inactive women performed HIIT workouts for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The training protocol cons...

  7. Numerical analysis of the effect of electrode spacing on deposition rate profiles in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June

    2016-12-01

    The effect of reactor dimension on deposition rate profiles is analyzed with a two-dimensional (2D) fluid simulation of a capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) reactor to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film with a SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture. We focus on the complex function of electrode spacing to reveal the physical relation between reactor geometry and deposition rate profiles. The simulation demonstrates that the localization of electron density is concentrated close to the powered electrode periphery for electrode spacing of 9 mm. However, the plasma distribution becomes bulk dominated with electrode spacing of 15 mm by relaxing the localization. As a result, the increase in the electrode spacing creates a more uniform electron power density profile, and the deposition rate profile of SiN x H y film changes from convex to concave in a radial direction. The change in the deposition rate profile is validated through comparison with the experimental observation, which agrees well with the simulation results with errors of less than 5%. The deposition rate profile with electrode spacing of 9 mm is very sensitive to the non-uniform gas density condition applied to the showerhead inlet. However, the deposition rate profile with electrode spacing of 15 mm is not sensitive to the inlet gas profile because of the increasing residence time. The increase of the electrode spacing promotes molecule-molecule gas phase reactions and consequently weakens the effect of the inlet boundary condition.

  8. Cytogenetic profiles in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a study in highly purified aberrant plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hieber, Martin; Gutiérrez, María Laura; Pérez-Andrés, Martin; Paiva, Bruno; Rasillo, Ana; Tabernero, Maria Dolores; Sayagués, José Maria; Lopez, Antonio; Bárcena, Paloma; Sanchez, María Luz; Gutiérrez, Norma C; San Miguel, Jesus F; Orfao, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Cytogenetic studies in clonal plasma cell disorders have mainly been done in whole bone marrow or CD138(+) microbead-enriched plasma cells and suggest that recurrent immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations - e.g. t(4;14) -are primary oncogenetic events. The aim of this study was to determine cytogenetic patterns of highly purified aberrant plasma cells (median purity ≥ 98%) in different clonal plasma cell disorders. We analyzed aberrant plasma cells from 208 patients with multiple myeloma (n=148) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=60) for the presence of del(13q14), del(17p13) and t(14q32) using multicolor interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Additionally, immunoglobulin heavy chain gene arrangements were analyzed and complementarity determining region 3 was sequenced in a subset of patients and combined multicolor interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization/immunofluorescent protein staining analyses were performed in selected cases to confirm clonality and cytogenetic findings. At diagnosis, 96% of cases with multiple myeloma versus 77% of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance cases showed at least one cytogenetic alteration and/or hyperdiploidy. The cytogenetic heterogeneity of individual cases reflected coexistence of cytogenetically-defined aberrant plasma cell clones, and led to the assumption that karyotypic alterations were acquired stepwise. Cases of multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance frequently showed different but related cytogenetic profiles when other cytogenetic alterations such as deletions/gains of the immunoglobulin heavy chain or the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 were additionally considered. Interestingly, in 24% of multiple myeloma versus 62% of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients with an immunoglobulin heavy chain translocation, aberrant plasma cells with and without t(14q32) coexisted in the same patient. Our data suggest that

  9. The characteristic shape of emission profiles of plasma spokes in HiPIMS: the role of secondary electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Hecimovic, A; Brinkmann, R -P; Böke, M; Winter, J

    2013-01-01

    A time resolved analysis of the emission of HiPIMS plasmas reveals inhomogeneities in the form of rotating spokes. The shape of these spokes is very characteristic depending on the target material. The localized enhanced light emission has been correlated with the ion production. Based on these data, the peculiar shape of the emission profiles can be explained by the localized generation of secondary electrons, resulting in an energetic electron pressure exceeding the magnetic pressure. This general picture is able to explain the observed emission profile for different target materials including gas rarefaction and second ionization potential of the sputtered elements.

  10. Discrimination of type 2 diabetes mellitus corresponding to different traditional Chinese medicine syndromes based on plasma fatty acid profiles and chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Liangxiao; Huang, Yuhong; Yang, Qianxu; Xiao, Hongbin; Zhang, Deqin

    2012-09-28

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history and particular advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Syndrome differentiation is the foundation and essence of TCM theories. The aims of the study are to discriminate T2DM corresponding to different syndromes (Qi-deficiency, Qi and Yin-deficiency and Damp heat) and discover syndrome-related biomarkers using metabolomics technology. Plasma fatty acid profiles of 85 clinical samples were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, some of the lipid parameters, including total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were obtained through clinical testing methods. Orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares (OSC-PLS) and uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis (ULDA) were employed to establish two-class models for three different syndromes. Compared with the plasma fatty acid profiles of healthy controls, the characteristic fatty acids of three TCM syndromes were discovered (pdiabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Solubility parameter of drugs for predicting the solubility profile type within a wide polarity range in solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, M A; Reíllo, A; Escalera, B; Bustamante, P

    2006-09-14

    The solubility enhancement produced by two binary mixtures with a common cosolvent (ethanol-water and ethyl acetate-ethanol) was studied against the solubility parameter of the mixtures (delta1) to characterize different types of solubility profiles. Benzocaine, salicylic acid and acetanilide show a single peak in the least polar mixture (ethanol-ethyl acetate) at delta1=22.59, 21.70 and 20.91 MPa1/2, respectively. Phenacetin displays two solubility maxima, at delta1=25.71 (ethanol-water) and at delta1=23.30 (ethyl acetate-ethanol). Acetanilide shows an inflexion point in ethanol-water instead of a peak, and the sign of the slope does not vary when changing the cosolvent. The solubility profiles were compared to those obtained in dioxane-water, having a solubility parameter range similar to that covered with the common cosolvent system. All the drugs reach a maximum at about 90% dioxane (delta1=23 MPa1/2). A modification of the extended Hildebrand method is applicable for curves with a single maximum whereas a model including the Hildebrand solubility parameter delta1 and the acidic partial solubility parameter delta1a is required to calculate more complex solubility profiles (with inflexion point or two maxima). A single equation was able to fit the solubility curves of all drugs in the common cosolvent system. The polarity of the drug is related to the shape of the solubility profile against the solubility parameter delta1 of the solvent mixtures. The drugs with solubility parameters below 24 MPa1/2 display a single peak in ethanol-ethyl acetate. The drugs with delta2 values above 25 MPa1/2 show two maxima, one in each solvent mixture (ethanol-water and ethanol-ethyl acetate). The position of the maximum in ethanol-ethyl acetate shifts to larger polarity values (higher delta1 values) as the solubility parameter of the drug delta2 increases.

  12. Interaction of CLAM Steel with Plasma in HT-7 Tokamak During High Parameter Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunjing; HUANG Qunying; FENG Yan; LI Jiangang; KONG Mingguang

    2007-01-01

    A Plasma Surface Interaction(PSI)experiment on China Low Activation Martensitic(CLAM)steel was done to check if CLAM steel could be used as a Plasma Facing Material (PFM).A specimen with a diameter of 45 mm was exposed to 897 shots of deuterium plasmas with a total duration of 712 sec at a minor radius of 30 cm in HT-7 tokamak.During the exposure experiment,no observable influence Was found on plasma performance.After exposure,the surface of the specimen seemed as smooth as before but with some colour change at the margin of the specimen.Even though some micro-damage,such as dense blisters,melting,splashing,depositions,and dust,Was found on local surfaces with Scanning Electron Microscopic(SEM)observation.The reflectivity of the specimen decreased only slightly.All of these shows CLAM steel has good stability and irradiation resistance.With further optimization,it could possibly be used as the first mirror material for plasma diagnostics in tokamaks.

  13. Measurements of Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) and Electron Density/Temperature Profiles in Plasmas Produced by the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    We will present results of simultaneous measurements of LPI-driven light scattering and density/temperature profiles in CH plasmas produced by the Nike krypton fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm). The primary diagnostics for the LPI measurement are time-resolved spectrometers with absolute intensity calibration in spectral ranges relevant to the optical detection of stimulated Raman scattering or two plasmon decay. The spectrometers are capable of monitoring signal intensity relative to thermal background radiation from plasma providing a useful way to analyze LPI initiation. For further understanding of LPI processes, the recently implemented grid image refractometer (Nike-GIR)a is used to measure the coronal plasma profiles. In this experiment, Nike-GIR is equipped with a 5th harmonic probe laser (λ = 213 nm) in attempt to probe into a high density region over the previous peak density with λ = 263 nm probe light ( 4 ×1021 cm-3). The LPI behaviors will be discussed with the measured data sets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  14. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  15. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  16. Changes in growth, photosynthetic activities, biochemical parameters and amino acid profile of Thompson Seedless grapes (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuwar, R G; Bahetwar, Anita; Khan, I; Satisha, J; Ramteke, S D; Itroutwar, Prerna; Bhongale, Aarti; Oulkar, Dashrath

    2014-11-01

    The study on photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters in Thompson Seedless grapes grafted on Dog Ridge rootstock and its impact on growth, yield and amino acid profile at various stages of berry development was conducted during the year 2012-2013. Leaf and berry samples from ten year old vines of Thompson Seedless were collected at different growth and berry developmental stages. The analysis showed difference in photosynthetic activity, biochemical parameters and amino acid status with the changes in berry development stage. Higher photosynthetic rate of 17.39 umol cm(-2) s(-1) was recorded during 3-4mm berry size and the lowest (10.08 umol cm(-2) s(-1)) was recorded during the veraison stage. The photosynthetic activity showed gradual decrease with the onset of harvest while the different biochemical parameters showed increase and decrease from one stage to another in both berry and leaves. Changes in photosynthetic activity and biochemical parameters thereby affected the growth, yield and amino acid content of the berry. Positive correlation of leaf area and photosynthetic rate was recorded during the period of study. Reducing sugar (352.25 mg g(-1)) and total carbohydrate (132.52 mg g(-1)) was more in berries as compared to leaf. Amino acid profile showed variations in different stages of berry development. Marked variations in photosynthetic as well as biochemical and amino acid content at various berry development stages was recorded and thereby its cumulative effect on the development of fruit quality.

  17. Beam Matching to a Plasma Wake Field Accelerator Using a Ramped Density Profile at the Plasma Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Kenneth; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Huang Cheng Kun; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Krejcik, Patrick; Lu, Wei; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert; Walz, Dieter; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2005-01-01

    An important aspect of plasma wake field accelerators (PWFA) is stable propagation of the drive beam. In the under dense regime, the drive beam creates an ion channel which acts on the beam as a strong thick focusing lens. The ion channel causes the beam to undergo multiple betatron oscillations along the length of the plasma. There are several advantages if the beam size can be matched to a constant radius. First, simulations have shown that instabilities such as hosing are reduced when the beam is matched. Second, synchrotron radiation losses are minimized when the beam is matched. Third, an initially matched beam will propagate with no significant change in beam size in spite of large energy loss or gain. Coupling to the plasma with a matched radius can be difficult in some cases. This paper shows how an appropriate density ramp at the plasma entrance can be useful for achieving a matched beam. Additionally, the density ramp is helpful in bringing a misaligned trailing beam onto the drive beam axis. A plas...

  18. Growth Hormone, Insulin Resistance Index, Lipid Profile, and Cardiorespiratory Function in Obese and Lean Inactive Young Men: Correlations with Plasma Acylated Ghrelin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plasma ghrelin is influenced by nutritional status and is thought to play a role in acute and chronic regulating of food intake and body weight. The purpose of this study was to compare GH, insulin resistance index, lipid profile, and cardiorespiratory function in obese and lean inactive young men and determine their relationships with plasma acylated ghrelin levels. Methods: Study design of this research was causal-comparative. Obese (n=19, BMI: 31.0 kg/m2 and lean (n=19, BMI: 18.5 kg/m2 young men, without experience of regular physical activity during the previous six months, were selected. After 12 h fasting (at 8 a.m., blood samples were collected to determine blood parameter levels. Also, maximal oxygen uptake (as indicator of cardiorespiratory function of subjects was assessed. Results: Insulin levels and HOMA-IR (insulin resistance index were higher, and GH, acylated ghrelin and maximal oxygen uptake levels were lower in obese men compared to lean men (P0.01. Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated to body mass, body fat percent, body mass index, insulin and HOMA-IR, and positively correlated to GH levels and maximal oxygen uptake (P0.01.Conclusion: Obese and lean inactive young men had different levels of acylated ghrelin, GH, insulin, insulin resistance index, cardiorespiratory function and body fat percent. Body fat percent, insulin, and GH levels appear to be the strongest determinant factors of acylated ghrelin levels.

  19. Instability Parameters of Optical Oscillation Frequency in Plasma Central Discharge and Periphery Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-Wen; M.A.LIEBERMAN; Sungjin KIM

    2006-01-01

    @@ We have observed relaxation oscillations in a capacitive discharge in Ar gas, connected to a peripheral ground chamber. The plasma oscillations observed from time-varying optical emission from the main discharge chamber show, for example, a high frequency (75.37kHz) relaxation oscillation, at 100mTorr and 8 W absorbed power,and a low frequency (2.72 Hz) relaxation oscillation, 100mTorr and 325 W absorbed power. Time-varying optical emission intensity and plasma density are also detected with a Langmuir probe. The theoretical result agrees well with experiments.

  20. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  2. 1H NMR-based metabolite profiling of plasma in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ae Kim

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is characterized by the gradual loss of the kidney function to excrete wastes and fluids from the blood. (1H NMR-based metabolomics was exploited to investigate the altered metabolic pattern in rats with CKD induced by surgical reduction of the renal mass (i.e., 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx, particularly for identifying specific metabolic biomarkers associated with early of CKD. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in CKD rats (at 4- or 8-weeks after 5/6 Nx compared to sham-operated rats. Principle components analysis (PCA, partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA score plots showed a significant separation between the groups. The resulting metabolic profiles demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of organic anions, including citrate, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and formate in CKD. Moreover, levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate were significantly higher. These changes were likely to be associated with complicated metabolic acidosis in CKD for counteracting systemic metabolic acidosis or increased protein catabolism from muscle. In contrast, levels of VLDL/LDL (CH2n and N-acetylglycoproteins were decreased. Taken together, the observed changes of plasma metabolite profiles in CKD rats provide insights into the disturbed metabolism in early phase of CKD, in particular for the altered metabolism of acid-base and/or amino acids.

  3. An evaluation method of the profile of plasma-induced defects based on capacitance-voltage measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yukimasa; Ono, Kouichi; Eriguchi, Koji

    2017-06-01

    Aggressive shrinkage and geometrical transition to three-dimensional structures in metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) lead to potentially serious problems regarding plasma processing such as plasma-induced physical damage (PPD). For the precise control of material processing and future device designs, it is extremely important to clarify the depth and energy profiles of PPD. Conventional methods to estimate the PPD profile (e.g., wet etching) are time-consuming. In this study, we propose an advanced method using a simple capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement. The method first assumes the depth and energy profiles of defects in Si substrates, and then optimizes the C-V curves. We applied this methodology to evaluate the defect generation in (100), (111), and (110) Si substrates. No orientation dependence was found regarding the surface-oxide layers, whereas a large number of defects was assigned in the case of (110). The damaged layer thickness and areal density were estimated. This method provides the highly sensitive PPD prediction indispensable for designing future low-damage plasma processes.

  4. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-01-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism. PMID:26104400

  5. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  6. Study of the recombination-parameter profile of proton irradiated silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, Yu.V.; Ignatova, E.A.; Kuznetsov, N.V.; Yatsenko, L.A.

    1984-09-01

    The technique of measuring the diffusion length profile of minority charge carriers, L(x), in silicon is described. It is based on the photovoltaic effect on a contact of the metallic probe-semiconductor system. The technique is used to investigate the profiles of radiation-damaged layers in n-type silicon created by irradiation with 6.3 MeV and 500 keV protons. It is shown that in case of irradiating with high energy protons the experimental dependences, L(x), agree with the calculated dependences, L(x), obtained with account of the available knowledge on the spatial distribution of radiation defects along the proton path in silicon.

  7. A Multi-Parameter Optimization of Plasma Density for an Advanced Linear Collider*

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P; Hillenbrand, S

    2011-01-01

    Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments showed that an accelerating gradient as high as 50 GV/m can be driven and sustained over a meter-long plasma [1]. Based on this result, a straw man design for a future, multi-stage, PWFA-based electron/positron collider with an energy gain of ~ 25 GeV/stage has been generated [2]. However, the choice of plasma density remains open. On one hand, high density means large accelerating gradients and possibly a shorter collider. On the other it means that the accelerating structure dimensions become very small, on the order of the plasma wavelength. Operating at high gradient and with such small structure imposes very strong constraints on the particle bunches: small dimensions and spacing, large current or limited charge, etc. These constraints result is challenges in producing the bunches (compression, shaping for optimum loading, etc.) and could limit the achievable collider luminosity. We explore the global implications of operating at a lower accelerating...

  8. The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    in the scrape-off layer (SOL) taking into account these fluctuations is presented. Plasma transport in the SOL along the magnetic field between two targets is calculated by a one-dimensional fluid code in order to estimate the response to transient conditions along the SOL and the attention is given...

  9. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the expanding laser ablation plume of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.;

    2002-01-01

    The angular and radial variation of the ion density and electron temperature in the plasma plume produced by laser ablation of silver at fluences of 0.8-1.3 J cm(-2) at 355 nm have been studied using a time-resolving Langmuir probe. The angular dependence of the electron temperature and the magni...

  10. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Plasma Parameters in the Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Schulz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities (GOES and Polar/MFE) and ion densities (LANL/MPA and Polar/CAMMICE) to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 11 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a constant magnetopause location. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times agree fairly well with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O’Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) and on the Polar satellite. Agreement between the simulated and observed magnetic intensities tends to agree better on the nightside than on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. In particular, the model cannot account for observed drops in the dayside magnetic intensity during decreases in the solar wind pressure. We will modify the RCM-E to include a time-varying magnetopause location to simulate compressions and expansions associated with variations in the solar wind pressure. We investigate whether this will lead to improved agreement between the simulated and model magnetic intensities.

  11. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  12. Influence of Discharge Parameters on Tuned Substrate Self-Bias in an Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhenfeng; Sun Jingchao; Wang Younian

    2005-01-01

    The tuned substrate self-bias in an rf inductively coupled plasma source is controlled by means of varying the impedance of an external LC network inserted between the substrate and the ground. The influencing parameters such as the substrate axial position, different coupling coils and inserted resistance are experimentally studied. To get a better understanding of the experimental results, the axial distributions of the plasma density, electron temperature and plasma potential are measured with an rf compensated Langmuir probe; the coil rf peak-to-peak voltage is measured with a high voltage probe. As in the case of changing discharge power, it is found that continuity, instability and bi-stability of the tuned substrate bias can be obtained by means of changing the substrate axial position in the plasma source or the inserted resistance. Additionally,continuity can not transit directly into bi-stability, but evolves via instability. The inductance of the coupling coil has a substantial effect on the magnitude and the property of the tuned substrate bias.

  13. Maximum profile likelihood estimation of differential equation parameters through model based smoothing state estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D A; Chkrebtii, O

    2013-12-01

    Statistical inference for biochemical models often faces a variety of characteristic challenges. In this paper we examine state and parameter estimation for the JAK-STAT intracellular signalling mechanism, which exemplifies the implementation intricacies common in many biochemical inference problems. We introduce an extension to the Generalized Smoothing approach for estimating delay differential equation models, addressing selection of complexity parameters, choice of the basis system, and appropriate optimization strategies. Motivated by the JAK-STAT system, we further extend the generalized smoothing approach to consider a nonlinear observation process with additional unknown parameters, and highlight how the approach handles unobserved states and unevenly spaced observations. The methodology developed is generally applicable to problems of estimation for differential equation models with delays, unobserved states, nonlinear observation processes, and partially observed histories.

  14. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  15. Comparison between measured scrape-off layer plasma parameters and 2D model calculations for JET X-point discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loarte, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Chankin, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Clement, S. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Corrigan, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Harbour, P. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Horton, L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Janeschitz, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Lingertat, J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Matthews, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Simonini, R. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Tagle, J.A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Taroni, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Vlases, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Modelling with the EDGE2D/U-NIMBUS code of the measured scrape-off layer plasma parameters for JET divertor discharges is presented. Model results agree with the experiment if very small values (< or {approx}0.1 m{sup 2}/s in H-modes and low power L-modes) for the anomalous particle transport diffusion coefficient in the SOL are used. While the assumption of the power flow out of the main plasma being carried equally by the electrons and the ions describes satisfactorily the global power balance for Ohmic and L-mode discharges, more power flowing out through the ion channel is consistent with the power balance in hot ion H-modes. Some sensitivity studies of the code results on the modelling hypothesis are discussed. ((orig.)).

  16. Effects of Endurance and Circuit Resistance Trainings on Lipid Profile, Heart Rate, and Hematological Parameters in Obese Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mogharnasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that different exercise ways are of the most important factors that affect cardiovascular risk factors and hematological parameters. This present paper aims to study the effects of two methods of endurance and resistance training on lipid profiles, heart rate, and hematological parameters in obese male students. 36 obese students were purposefully selected and randomly divided into three groups of 12 including endurance exercise, resistance exercise, and control. Exercise program was performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks, with a specific duration and intensity in both endurance and resistance exercise groups. Blood sampling was done after 14 fasting before the trial and 48 hours after the last training session. Results showed that both resistance and endurance exercises significantly increased HDL-C, Hct, and Hb and significantly decreased TC, TG, and resting heart rate (P>0.05. Also, Resistance exercise significantly increased the PLT and decreased LDL-C (P>0.05. However, WBC and RBC showed no significant change in the resistance and endurance exercise groups (P>0.05. In addition, no significant difference was observed between endurance and resistance exercise (P>0.05. In general, both endurance and resistance exercises can affect the lipid profile and hematological parameters and also reduce the resting heart rate. Therefore, they can be considered as an appropriate and non-medication approaches to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity-related disorders in obese male adolescents.

  17. Mechanism and operation parameters of a plasma-driven micro-particle accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JianGuo; FENG ChunHua; HAN dianWei; LI HongWei; CAI MingHui; LI XiaoYin; ZHANG ZhenLong; CHEN ZhaoFeng; WANG Long; YANG XuanZong

    2009-01-01

    There is a large amount of micro debris ranging between millimeters and micrometers in space, which has significant influence on the reliability and life of spacecrafts through long-duration integrated im-pacts and has to be considered in designing a vehicle's suitability to the space environment. In order to simulate the micro-impacts on exposed materials, a plasma-driven micro-particle accelerator was de-veloped. The major processes, including the acceleration, compression and ejection of plasmas, were modeled. By comparing the theoretical simulations with the experimental results, the acceleration mechanism was clarified. Moreover, through a series of experiments, the optimum operation range was investigated, and the acceleration ability was primarily determined.

  18. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-08-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of Hα and the Hβ lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  19. Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.

  20. Plasma Oxytocin in Children with Autism and Its Correlations with Behavioral Parameters in Children and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Husarova, Veronika Marcincakova; Lakatosova, Silvia; Pivovarciova, Anna; Babinska, Katarina; Bakos, Jan; Durdiakova, Jaroslava; Kubranska, Aneta; Ondrejka, Igor; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) etiology. We aimed to find out the differences in plasma OT levels between children with autism and healthy children, the associations of OT levels with particular autism symptoms and the associations of particular parental autistic traits with their ASD children OT levels. Methods We included 19 boys with autism and 44 healthy age-matched boys. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Chi...

  1. Characterization Of Real Laser Beam Profiles With Few Parameters For Metallurgical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jacques; Dietz, Jean; Oliveira, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    In first approximation the material induced effects after laser beam interaction are function of the whole transmitted energy and of the local "irradiance" (in W.cm-2) levels and gradients. Consequently 3 informations may be able to describe this beam : carried power, shape and dimensions in the interaction zone. Thus shape and dimensions of a real beam would be simply and universaly described. If we are interested by the induced effects in the straight of the beam axis, 3 parameters are sufficient to describe the beam : the incident power P, an equivalent radius r+, and an axial "spread" factor of energy distribution g(E). These parameters have been mathematically defined but they are also experimentally measurable (in particular from transmitted power through a small aperture or a slit localised in the vicinity of the work zone). The experimental characterization of a 4 kW c.w. CO2 laser (CILAS CI 4000) has been carried out for several powers (between 200 W and 3 kW). When the power increases it has been find that r+ increases and g(E) stays nearly constant in spite of mode evolution. Presently the real-time evaluation of these parameters is investigating. Moreover these 3 parameters can be directly introduced in simplified analytical tridimensional thermal model, and so the behaviour expectation and the working parameters fluctuations effects (for example "mode" changes) become easier. At last this approach may be able to carry out "objective" comparison between the various high power lasers in different laboratories.

  2. Determination of Stark parameters by cross-calibration in a multi-element laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate a Stark broadening analysis of the electron density Ne and temperature Te in a laser-induced plasma (LIP), using a model free of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The method relies on Stark parameters determined also without assuming LTE, which are often unknown and unavailable in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that the necessary values can be obtained in situ by cross-calibration between the spectral lines of different charge states, and even different elements, given determinations of Ne and Te based on appropriate parameters for at least one observed transition. This approach enables essentially free choice between species on which to base the analysis, extending the range over which these properties can be measured and giving improved access to low-density plasmas out of LTE. Because of the availability of suitable tabulated values for several charge states of both Si and C, the example of a SiC LIP is taken to illustrate the consistency and accuracy of the procedure. The cross-calibrated Stark parameters are at least as reliable as values obtained by other means, offering a straightforward route to extending the literature in this area.

  3. The effects of process parameters on yield and properties of iron nanoparticles from ferrocene in a low-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, V.; Lahoti, G.; Bhandarkar, U.; Neergat, M.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of process parameters on iron nanoparticle formation and properties while using ferrocene as a precursor in a low-pressure capacitively coupled plasma are investigated. The L18 array of the Taguchi method, followed by the L4 array, is used with the notional objective of increasing the yield of nanoparticles. A study of the size, shape and composition of the particles (using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, CHON and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis) gives an insight into the role played by various process parameters. Pressure is the most critical parameter in increasing nanoparticle yield, whereas hydrogen flow plays a key role in determining the nanoparticle size and composition. Atomic hydrogen helps in removing amorphous carbon and reducing the nanoparticle size. RF power plays an important role in the dissociation of ferrocene thus also affecting the composition. Nanoparticles obtained using optimized conditions are a mixture of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 with cluster size 25-40 nm in diameter that are further made up of 2-4 nm crystallites. Magnetic property measurements indicate that the nanoparticles are super-paramagnetic in nature.

  4. The effects of process parameters on yield and properties of iron nanoparticles from ferrocene in a low-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, V; Neergat, M [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Lahoti, G; Bhandarkar, U, E-mail: bhandarkar@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2011-08-31

    The effects of process parameters on iron nanoparticle formation and properties while using ferrocene as a precursor in a low-pressure capacitively coupled plasma are investigated. The L{sub 18} array of the Taguchi method, followed by the L{sub 4} array, is used with the notional objective of increasing the yield of nanoparticles. A study of the size, shape and composition of the particles (using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, CHON and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis) gives an insight into the role played by various process parameters. Pressure is the most critical parameter in increasing nanoparticle yield, whereas hydrogen flow plays a key role in determining the nanoparticle size and composition. Atomic hydrogen helps in removing amorphous carbon and reducing the nanoparticle size. RF power plays an important role in the dissociation of ferrocene thus also affecting the composition. Nanoparticles obtained using optimized conditions are a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with cluster size 25-40 nm in diameter that are further made up of 2-4 nm crystallites. Magnetic property measurements indicate that the nanoparticles are super-paramagnetic in nature.

  5. VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER): H I photoionization rate at z<0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Gaikwad, Prakash; Choudhury, Tirthankar Roy; Khaire, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a parallel code called "VoIgt profile Parameter Estimation Routine (VIPER)" for automatically fitting the H I Ly-$\\alpha$ forest seen in the spectra of QSOs. We obtained the H I column density distribution function (CDDF) and line width ($b$) parameter distribution for $z < 0.45$ using spectra of 82 QSOs obtained using Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and VIPER. Consistency of these with the existing measurements in the literature validate our code. By comparing this CDDF with those obtained from hydrodynamical simulation, we constrain the H I photoionization rate ($\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$) at $z < 0.45$ in four redshift bins. The VIPER, together with the Code for Ionization and Temperature Evolution (CITE) we have developed for GADGET-2, allows us to explore parameter space and perform $\\chi^2$ minimization to obtain $\\Gamma_{\\rm HI}$. We notice that the $b$ parameters from the simulations are smaller than what are derived from the observations. We show the observed $b$ parameter distribution and...

  6. Profiling clinical platelet and plasma use to inform blood supply and contingency planning: PUPPY, the prospective utilization of platelets and plasma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Pasquale L; Polizzotto, Mark N; Grigoriadis, George; Waters, Neil; Comande, Mary; Borosak, Marija; Portbury, David; Wood, Erica M

    2016-10-01

    Demand for platelet (PLT) and plasma transfusions is increasing. Improved clinical supply and contingency planning requires greater understanding of usage profiles and urgency of clinical requirement. This study was a random-sample survey of PLT and plasma units produced in Victoria, Australia, to determine product disposition, recipient demographics, clinical indications for transfusion, and urgency (or "deferability") of need. PLTs and fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) were tagged with a case report form before distribution. A total of 1252 PLT and 1837 FFP units were tagged, comprising 8.3 and 13.3% of all products issued during the study period. The fate of 1243 PLT and 1808 FFP units was determined. Of products issued, 72.2% of PLTs and 87.8% of FFP were transfused. Hematologic and oncologic disorders accounted for 63.9% of PLT transfusions, with acute myeloid leukemia alone accounting for 26%. Conversely, surgical patients received the largest proportion of FFP (40.4%), predominantly for cardiothoracic, solid organ transplant, and vascular surgery. Approximately 15% of PLT transfusions and 35% of plasma transfusions were required within 1 hour, and 80% of PLT transfusions and 90% of FFP transfusions were required within 24 hours. Wastage rates were higher in regional blood banks. The PUPPY study is a comprehensive and detailed population-based assessment of PLT and plasma usage, including urgency of use. It identifies specific clinical areas with high demand for PLT and FFP transfusion and demonstrates the high urgency of need for both products. These data inform clinical supply and contingency planning activities. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Effects of magnesium on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and some of plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium acts as an essential cofactor for the activity of many enzymes. It regulates the work of cardiovascular system. The activity of sodium–lithium countertransport (SLC and the concentrations of plasma biochemical parameters such as VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine are changed in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium on SLC activity and some of the plasma biochemical parameters. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (weighed 1350 ± 50g were chosen for these experiments. This study was conducted through two in vitro and in vivo techniques. Through in vitro method, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on SLC activity were investigated. In order to conduct in vivo method, the rabbits were divided into two groups (5 /group. One group was treated by MgSo4 (40 mg/kg body weight through peritoneum for two weeks. For the second group, deionized water was used. The activity of SLC and mentioned biochemical parameters were determined. Results: The results of both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that magnesium can significantly decrease the SLC activity and also causes an increase in Km and decreased Vmax/Km of the system and plasma concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Magnesium may cause a reduction in blood pressure through decreasing the SLC activity and affecting the concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides and so improvement the cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Lipoprotein lipase and lipid profiles in plasma and placenta from normal pregnancies compared with patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Z M; Ye, Y F; Zhang, Y K; Yang, S F; Ye, X L

    2016-08-01

    To analyse lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression and lipid levels in placenta and plasma of patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies. This prospective study included 30 patients with ICP and 30 gestational-age-matched pregnancies without any complications. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate plasma LPL levels from 28 weeks of gestation, at 4-weekly intervals, to 38 weeks of gestation, and data were assessed longitudinally. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to detect placental LPL expression and activity. Placental triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were also analysed. The clinical data related to ICP and lipid profiles were collected retrospectively. Plasma LPL concentration increased with gestational age in both groups, but the increase was limited in the ICP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed LPL staining mainly in syncytiotrophoblasts, and 3,3'-diamino-benzidine tetrahydrochloride wt% was lower in ICP placenta compared with normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL protein and mRNA expression in ICP placenta were significantly lower than in normal placenta (p<0.01). LPL activity was not significantly different in both groups. Correlation analysis indicated that the plasma LPL level was negatively associated with the corresponding concentration of total bile acid (r=-0.57) in the ICP group. Reduced LPL expression in placenta, limited increase in LPL level in maternal plasma, and abnormal lipid profiles were found in patients with ICP. LPL was possibly related to ICP by participating abnormal lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  10. Correlation between the physical parameters of the i-nc-Si absorber layer grown by 27.12 MHz plasma with the nc-Si solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Mondal, Praloy

    2017-09-01

    Growth of highly conducting nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films of optimum crystalline volume fraction, involving dominant crystallographic preferred orientation with simultaneous low fraction of microstructures at a low substrate temperature and high growth rate, is a challenging task for its promising utilization in nc-Si solar cells. Utilizing enhanced electron density and superior ion flux densities of the high frequency (∼27.12 MHz) SiH4 plasma, improved nc-Si films have been produced by simple optimization of H2-dilution, controlling the ion damage and enhancing supply of atomic-hydrogen onto the growing surface. Single junction nc-Si p-i-n solar cells have been prepared with i-nc-Si absorber layer and optimized. The physical parameters of the absorber layer have been systematically correlated to variations of the solar cell parameters. The preferred alignment of crystallites, its contribution to the low recombination losses for conduction of charge carriers along the vertical direction, its spectroscopic correlation with the dominant growth of ultra-nanocrystalline silicon (unc-Si) component and corresponding longer wavelength absorption, especially in the neighborhood of i/n-interface region recognize scientific and technological key issues that pave the ground for imminent advancement of multi-junction silicon solar cells.

  11. LIPID PROFILE, PLASMA FIBRINOGEN, AND PLATELET COUNT AS MARKERS OF CARDIO VASCULAR DISEASE IN SMOKERS DUE TO FREE RADICAL GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kannan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking & tobacco chewing are risk factors not only for oral and lung tumours but also for the development of systemic disorders like atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen and platelet count in male smokers, compared with healthy non smokers in rural area of south India, Out of 100 male healthy volunteers, 50 members were healthy smokers and 50 healthy non smokers, subjects were divided in both groups in age around 30 to 45yrs, with no past history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hepatic disorders and were neither on anti hypertensive, lipid lowering drugs were included in the study. Lipid profile, plasma fibrinogen and platelet count were analyzed by standard methods. Our results showed mean platelet count for smokers is 2, 86,345per mm3 and for non-smokers 2, 04,484.6per mm3. The mean plasma fibrinogen concentration for smokers is 3.48gm/dl and for non smokers is 3.12gm/dl. The platelet count and plasma fibrinogen concentration shows a higher value for smokers when compared to non- smokers. This is statistically significant. The mean total cholesterol level for smokers (186±30.10 mg/dl and non smokers (166.3±24.26 mg/dl and the mean triglyceride level for smokers (175±59.43 mg/dl and non smokers (132.09±+33.80 mg/dl are also statistically significant. The mean HDL level for smokers (40.4±4.13 mg/dl and for non smokers (44.68±4.13 mg/dl, the mean LDL level for smokers (105.8±28.16 mg/dl and non smokers (89.68±16.50 mg/dl and the mean VLDL level for smokers (28.4± 8.16 mg/dl and non smokers (14.3.±3.2 mg/dl indicate that the Lipid profile also is statistically significant between the two groups. We concluded that there is an elevated lipid profile; plasma fibrinogen and platelet count in smokers when compared to non smokers, which shows that smokers have high risk of prevalence of cardiovascular and vessel wall

  12. Ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit on plasma ethanol level in a mouse model assessed with 1H-NMR based metabolic profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So-Hyun; K. Cho, Somi; Min, Tae-Sun; Kim, Yujin; Yang, Seung-Ok; Kim, Hee-Su; Hyun, Sun-Hee; Kim, Hana; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2011-01-01

    The ameliorating effects of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) flesh and peel samples on plasma ethanol level were investigated using a mouse model. Mango fruit samples remarkably decreased mouse plasma ethanol levels and increased the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The 1H-NMR-based metabolomic technique was employed to investigate the differences in metabolic profiles of mango fruits, and mouse plasma samples fed with mango fruit samples. The partial least squar...

  13. Dynamics of target-mediated drug disposition: characteristic profiles and parameter identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Lambertus A; Gabrielsson, Johan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical analysis of the basic model for target mediated drug disposition (TMDD). Assuming high affinity of ligand to target, we give a qualitative characterisation of ligand versus time graphs for different dosing regimes and derive accurate analytic approximations of different phases in the temporal behaviour of the system. These approximations are used to estimate model parameters, give analytical approximations of such quantities as area under the ligand curve and clearance. We formulate conditions under which a suitably chosen Michaelis-Menten model provides a good approximation of the full TMDD-model over a specified time interval.

  14. Feature Profile Evolution During Etching of SiO2 in Radio-Frequency or Direct-Current Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqiang; Dai, Zhongling; Wang, Younian

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a plasma etching simulator to investigate the evolution of pattern profiles in SiO2 material under different plasma conditions. This model focuses on energy and angular dependent etching yield (physical sputtering in this paper), neutral and ion angular distributions, and reflection of ions or neutrals on the surface of a photoresist or SiO2. The effect of positive charge accumulation on the surface of insulated mask or SiO2 is studied and the charge accumulation contributes to a deflection of ion trajectory. The wafer profile evolution has been simulated using a cellular-automata-like method under radio-frequency (RF) bias and direct-current (DC) bias, respectively. On the basis of the critical role of angular distribution of ions or neutrals, the wafer profile evolution has been simulated for different variances of angles. Observed microtrenching has been well reproduced in the simulator. The ratio of neutrals to ions has been considered and the result shows that because the neutrals are not accelerated by an electric field, their energy is much lower compared with ions, so they are easily reflected on the surface of SiO2, which makes the trench shallower.

  15. Optimization of plasma parameters for the production of silicon nano-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chaabane, N; Vach, H; Cabarrocas, P R I

    2003-01-01

    We use silane-hydrogen plasmas to synthesize silicon nano-crystals in the gas phase and thermophoresis to collect them onto a cooled substrate. To distinguish between nano-crystals formed in the plasma and those grown on the substrate, as a result of surface and subsurface reactions, we have simultaneously deposited films on a conventional substrate heated at 250 deg. C and on a second substrate cooled down to 90 deg. C. A series of samples deposited at various discharge pressures, in the range of 400 mTorr to 1.2 Torr, have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. At low pressure (400-500 mTorr), the films are amorphous on the cold substrate and micro-crystalline on the hot one. As pressure increases, gas phase reactions lead to the formation of nano-crystalline particles which are attracted by the cold substrate due to thermophoresis. Consequently, we obtain nano-crystalline silicon thin films on the cold substrate and amorphous thin films on the heated one in the pressure range of 600-900...

  16. CPT Profiling and Laboratory Data Correlations for Deriving of Selected Geotechnical Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulko, Roman; Drusa, Marián; Vlček, Jozef; Mečár, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, can be seen a new trend in engineering geological survey, where laboratory analysis are replaced by in situ testing methods, which are more efficient and cost effective, and time saving too. A regular engineering geological survey cannot be provided by simple core drillings, macroscopic description (sometimes very subjective), and then geotechnical parameters are established based on indicative standardized values or archive values from previous geotechnical standards. The engineering geological survey is trustworthy if is composed of laboratory and in-situ testing supplemented by indirect methods of testing, [1]. The prevalence of rotary core drilling for obtaining laboratory soil samples from various depths (every 1 to 3 m), cannot be a more enhanced as continues evaluation of strata and properties e.g. by CPT Piezocone (every 1 cm). Core drillings survey generally uses small amounts of soil samples, but this is resulting to a lower representation of the subsoil and underestimation of parameters. Higher amounts of soil samples make laboratory testing time-consuming and results from this testing can be influenced by the storage and processing of the soil samples. Preference for geotechnical surveys with in situ testing is therefore a more suitable option. In situ testing using static and dynamic penetration tests can be used as a supplement or as a replacement for the (traditional) methods of surveying.

  17. CPT Profiling and Laboratory Data Correlations for Deriving of Selected Geotechnical Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulko Roman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, can be seen a new trend in engineering geological survey, where laboratory analysis are replaced by in situ testing methods, which are more efficient and cost effective, and time saving too. A regular engineering geological survey cannot be provided by simple core drillings, macroscopic description (sometimes very subjective, and then geotechnical parameters are established based on indicative standardized values or archive values from previous geotechnical standards. The engineering geological survey is trustworthy if is composed of laboratory and in-situ testing supplemented by indirect methods of testing, [1]. The prevalence of rotary core drilling for obtaining laboratory soil samples from various depths (every 1 to 3 m, cannot be a more enhanced as continues evaluation of strata and properties e.g. by CPT Piezocone (every 1 cm. Core drillings survey generally uses small amounts of soil samples, but this is resulting to a lower representation of the subsoil and underestimation of parameters. Higher amounts of soil samples make laboratory testing time-consuming and results from this testing can be influenced by the storage and processing of the soil samples. Preference for geotechnical surveys with in situ testing is therefore a more suitable option. In situ testing using static and dynamic penetration tests can be used as a supplement or as a replacement for the (traditional methods of surveying.

  18. Analytical solution to transient Richards' equation with realistic water profiles for vertical infiltration and parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    A general analytical model for one-dimensional transient vertical infiltration is presented. The model is based on a combination of the Brooks and Corey soil water retention function and a generalized hydraulic conductivity function. This leads to power law diffusivity and convective term for which the exponents are functions of the inverse of the pore size distribution index. Accordingly, the proposed analytical solution covers many existing realistic models in the literature. The general form of the analytical solution is simple and it expresses implicitly the depth as function of water content and time. It can be used to model infiltration through semi-infinite dry soils with prescribed water content or flux boundary conditions. Some mathematical expressions of practical importance are also derived. The general form solution is useful for comparison between models, validation of numerical solutions and for better understanding the effect of some hydraulic parameters. Based on the analytical expression, a complete inverse procedure which allows the estimation of the hydraulic parameters from water content measurements is presented.

  19. MATCHING THE DARK MATTER PROFILES OF dSph GALAXIES WITH THOSE OF SIMULATED SATELLITES: A TWO-PARAMETER COMPARISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Vera-Ciro, Carlos, E-mail: breddels@astro.rug.nl [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 2535 Sterling Hall, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53076 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We compare the dark matter halos’ structural parameters derived for four Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies to those of subhalos found in cosmological N-body simulations. We confirm that estimates of the mass at a single fixed radius are fully consistent with the observations. However, when a second structural parameter such as the logarithmic slope of the dark halo density profile measured close to the half-light radius is included in the comparison, we find little to no overlap between the satellites and the subhalos. Typically the right mass subhalos have steeper profiles at these radii than measurements of the dSph suggest. Using energy arguments we explore if it is possible to solve this discrepancy by invoking baryonic effects. Assuming that feedback from supernovae (SNe) can lead to a reshaping of the halos, we compute the required efficiency and find entirely plausible values for a significant fraction of the subhalos and even as low as 0.1%. This implies that care must be taken not to exaggerate the effect of SNe feedback as this could make the halos too shallow. These results could be used to calibrate and possibly constrain feedback recipes in hydrodynamical simulations.

  20. Psychological profiles of gender and personality traces of Brazilian professional athletes of futsal, and their influence on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento MGB

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Guimarães Boia do Nascimento,1,2 Sérgio Adriano Gomes,1 Márcio Rabelo Mota,1,2 Renata Aparecida,1 Gislane Ferreira de Melo21Physical Education Department, Universitary Center of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Physical Education Department, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil Abstract: The present study aimed to identify the psychological profiles of professional futsal players in terms of the gender schema and to evaluate the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and fatigue index of these athletes according to their gender profiles and relative to their positions on the court. The Masculine Inventory of the Self-concept Gender Schemas was used to classify the sample into typological groups, and the Running Anaerobic Sprint Test was used to measure the physiological parameters (speed, acceleration, strength, and power and the fatigue index. The study sample was composed of 64 male professional futsal players who competed in the National Indoor Soccer league in 2013; the subjects had an average weight of 76.00±6.7 kg. Among the athletes studied, 23 (35.9% were classified as heteroschematic female, 22 (34.4% as heteroschematic male, and 19 (29.7% as isoschematic. Regarding their positions on the court, eleven were goalkeepers (17.2%, 13 (20.3% were defenders, 28 (43.8% were midfielders, and 12 (18.8% were attackers. The players had similar weights even when belonging to different typological groups and having different positions in the court. However, it is worth noting that male heteroschematic players had a greater mean weight (77.11±5.93 kg and that the goalkeeper was, on average, the heaviest player (79.36±8.14 kg. The results of the physiological parameter analysis relative to typological group showed that, on average, high-level soccer players presented similar performance profiles in different rounds, as statistically significant differences were not found in any of the studied

  1. Erythrocyte fatty acid profiles and plasma homocysteine, folate and vitamin B6 and B12 in recurrent depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assies, Johanna; Mocking, Roel J T; Lok, Anja

    2015-01-01

    controls, we simultaneously measured key components of one-carbon metabolism in plasma (homocysteine, folate, vitamins B6 and B12), and of FA-metabolism in red blood cell membranes [main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA...... between B-vitamins and FA-parameters were non-significant, but also similar in patients and controls. Homocysteine and DHA were significantly less negatively associated in patients than in controls. In conclusion, these data indicate similarities but also differences in associations between parameters...

  2. INFLUENCE OF MIXING PARAMETERS ON THE RHEOLOGICAL AND SURFACE APPEARANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF RUBBER COMPOUNDS UNSHAPED PROFILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence the degree of dispersion of the carbon black on the rheological characteristics of the surface appearance and rubber mixtures based on ethylene-propylene rubber EPDM-50 was investigated. Effect of mixing time on the degree of dispersion of the carbon black elastic-viscous and extrusion characteristics of rubber compounds were found. Component tangent of the angle of mechanical losses tgδ to evaluate the rheological and technological properties of the rubber compounds used. Relationship changes tgδ valuesand properties of rubber compounds in the preparation of the compositions of rubber with carbon black was shown. On the curves of the length of the mixing tgδ rubber filler identified three main areas of change in the rheological and techno-logical properties of rubber compounds. This allows you to monitor and make adjustments to the mode of preparation of the compositions in the real world of production. evaluation of the quality of mixing in surface appearance characteristics unshaped profiles was conducted. The resulting patterns formed the basis for the development of recommendations for the selection of optimal blending modes in the production and quality control of production of rubber compounds.

  3. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  4. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  5. Plasma proteome profiles of White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Athabasca River within the oil sands deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Denina B D; Sherry, James P

    2016-09-01

    There are questions about the potential for oil sands related chemicals to enter the Athabasca River, whether from tailing ponds, atmospheric deposition, precipitation, or transport of mining dust, at concentrations sufficient to negatively impact the health of biota. We applied shotgun proteomics to generate protein profiles of mature male and female White Sucker (Catostomus commersonii) that were collected from various sites along the main stem of the Athabasca River in 2011 and 2012. On average, 399±131 (standard deviation) proteins were identified in fish plasma from each location in both years. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to determine the proteins' core functions and to compare the datasets by location, year, and sex. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine if variation in the number of proteins related to a core function among all male and female individuals from both sampling years was affected by location. The core biological functions of plasma proteins that were common to both sampling years for males and females from each location were also estimated separately (based on Ingenuity's Knowledge Base). PCA revealed site-specific differences in the functional characteristics of the plasma proteome from white sucker sampled from downstream of oil sands extraction facilities compared with fish from upstream. Plasma proteins that were unique to fish downstream of oil sands extraction were related to lipid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, vitamin and mineral metabolism, endocrine system disorders, skeletal and muscular development and function, neoplasia, carcinomas, and gastrointestinal disease.

  6. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  7. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  8. LC-QTOF/MS metabolomic profiles in human plasma after a 5-week high dietary fiber intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Barri, Thaer; Ulmius, Matilda

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n¿=¿25) aged 58.6 (1.1)¿years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5)¿kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet......, in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected...

  9. Radial profile measurements of plasma pressure-like fluctuations with the heavy ion beam diagnostic on the tokamak ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques, R. B., E-mail: rhenriques@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Malaquias, A.; Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Silva, C.; Coelho, R.; Figueiredo, H.; Fernandes, H. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    The Heavy Ion Beam Diagnostic (HIBD) on the tokamak ISTTOK (Instituto Superior Técnico TOKamak) has been modified, in terms of signal conditioning, to measure the local fluctuations of the n{sub e}σ{sub 1,2}(T{sub e}) product (plasma density times the effective ionization cross-section) along the tokamak minor diameter, in 12 sample volumes in the range of −0.7a < r < 0.7a, with a maximum delay time of 1 μs. The corresponding signals show high correlation with the magnetic Mirnov coils in the characteristic MHD frequency range of ISTTOK plasmas and enable the identification of tearing modes. This paper describes the HIBD signal conditioning system and presents a preliminary analysis of the radial profile measurements of local n{sub e}σ{sub 1,2}(T{sub e}) fluctuations.

  10. Effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on sperm parameters, seminal plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental prospective study, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient scrotal hyperthermia on the male reproductive organs, from the perspective of sperm parameters, semen plasma biochemical markers, and oxidative stress, to evaluate whether different frequencies of heat exposure cause different degrees of damage to spermatogenesis. Two groups of volunteers (10 per group received testicular warming in a 43°C water bath 10 times, for 30 min each time: group 1: 10 consecutive days; group 2: once every 3 days. Sperm parameters, epididymis and accessory sex gland function, semen plasma oxidative stress and serum sex hormones were tested before treatment and in the 16-week recovery period after treatment. At last, we found an obvious reversible decrease in sperm concentration (P = 0.005 for Group 1 and P= 0.008 for Group 2 when the minimums were compared with baseline levels, the same below, motility (P = 0.009 and 0.021, respectively, the hypoosmotic swelling test score (P = 0.007 and 0.008, respectively, total acrosin activity (P = 0.018 and 0.009, respectively, and an increase in the seminal plasma malondialdehyde concentration (P = 0.005 and 0.017, respectively. The decrease of sperm concentration was greater for Group 2 than for Group 1 (P = 0.031. We concluded that transient scrotal hyperthermia seriously, but reversibly, negatively affected the spermatogenesis, oxidative stress may be involved in this process. In addition, intermittent heat exposure more seriously suppresses the spermatogenesis compared to consecutive heat exposure. This may be indicative for clinical infertility etiology analysis and the design of contraceptive methods based on heat stress.

  11. Determination of ion-exchanged channel waveguide profile parameters by mode-index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M N; Srivastava, R

    1995-01-20

    We report a method for characterizing ion-exchanged channel waveguides in terms of the diffusion depth, width, and surface-index change from mode-index measurements. The method is then used to study the effect of the diffusion time and the mask width on these parameters in K(+)-Na(+)-exchanged guides in BK7 glass. It is observed that the mask width affects the waveguide dimensions in ways not reported in earlier studies. Our results reveal that the diffusion depth depends on the mask opening and saturates with time to a maximum value for a given mask width. The lateral-diffusion rate and the side diffusion beneath the mask are independent of the mask width, which indicates that the lateral electric field associated with the metallic mask plays an important role in such diffusion. We discuss the implications of this behavior to modeling and fabricating integrated optical devices.

  12. Proteomic profiling of human plasma exosomes identifies PPARgamma as an exosome-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, Christopher; Yui, David; Leung, Lester; Ingham, Matthew; Kaler, Maryann; Yao, Xianglan; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Daniels, Mathew P; Levine, Stewart J

    2009-01-16

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from cells as a mechanism of cell-free intercellular communication. Only a limited number of proteins have been identified from the plasma exosome proteome. Here, we developed a multi-step fractionation scheme incorporating gel exclusion chromatography, rate zonal centrifugation through continuous sucrose gradients, and high-speed centrifugation to purify exosomes from human plasma. Exosome-associated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and 66 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, which included both cellular and extracellular proteins. Furthermore, we identified and characterized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, as well as immune and inflammatory cell functions, as a novel component of plasma-derived exosomes. Given the important role of exosomes as intercellular messengers, the discovery of PPARgamma as a component of human plasma exosomes identifies a potential new pathway for the paracrine transfer of nuclear receptors.

  13. Optimization of the parameters of plasma liners with zero-dimensional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2013-11-01

    The efficiency of conversion of the energy stored in the capacitor bank of a high-current pulse generator into the kinetic energy of an imploding plasma liner is analyzed. The analysis is performed by using a model consisting of LC circuit equations and equations of motion of a cylindrical shell. It is shown that efficient energy conversion can be attained only with a low-inductance generator. The mode of an "ideal" load is considered where the load current at the final stage of implosion is close to zero. The advantages of this mode are, first, high efficiency of energy conversion (80%) and, second, improved stability of the shell implosion. In addition, for inertial confinement fusion realized by the scheme of a Z pinch dynamic hohlraum, not one but several fusion targets can be placed in the cavity on the pinch axis due to the large length of the liner.

  14. Biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing of products containing micronized or nanosized fenofibrate with a view to predicting plasma profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juenemann, Daniel; Jantratid, Ekarat; Wagner, Christian; Reppas, Christos; Vertzoni, Maria; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2011-02-01

    The ability of in vitro biorelevant dissolution tests to predict the in vivo performance of nanosized fenofibrate (Lipidil 145 ONE®) and microsized fenofibrate (Lipidil - Ter®) was evaluated in this study. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP apparatus 2 (paddle method) with updated biorelevant media to simulate the pre- and postprandial states. Membrane filters with different pore sizes were evaluated for their ability to hold back undissolved, nanosized drug particles. It was shown that filters with pore sizes of 0.1 μm and 0.02 μm were able to separate molecularly dissolved drug from colloidal and undissolved particles. In vitro results obtained with a suitable filter were used to generate simulated plasma profiles in combination with two different models using STELLA® software: (a) under the assumption of no permeability restrictions to absorption and (b) under the assumption of a permeability restriction. The simulated plasma profiles were compared to in vivo data for the nanosized and the microsized formulation in the fasted and fed states. The first model approach resulted in good correlation for the microsized fenofibrate formulation, but the plasma profile of the formulation containing nanosized fenofibrate was overpredicted in the fasted state. The second model successfully correlated with in vivo data for both formulations, regardless of prandial state. Comparison of simulations with the two models indicates that in the fasted state, absorption of fenofibrate from the nanosized formulation is at least partly permeability-limited, while for the microsized formulation the dissolution of fenofibrate appears to be rate-determining. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma microRNA profile as a predictor of early virological response to interferon treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaonan; Chen, Cuncun; Wu, Min; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jiming; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhanqin; Wu, Jingdi; Wang, Jiefei; Chen, Xiaorong; Huang, Tao; Chen, Lixiang; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2012-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) treatment of chronic hepatitis B leads to a sustained virological response in a limited proportion of patients and has considerable side effects. To find novel markers associated with prognosis of IFN therapy, we investigated whether a pretreatment plasma microRNA profile could be used to predict early virological response to IFN. We performed microRNA microarray analysis of plasma samples from 94 patients with chronic hepatitis B who received IFN therapy. The microRNA profiles from 13 liver biopsy samples were also measured. The OneR feature ranking and incremental feature selection method were used to rank and optimize the number of features in the model. Support vector machine prediction engine and jack-knife cross-validation were used to generate and evaluate the prediction model. The optimized model consisting of 11 microRNAs yielded a 74.2% overall accuracy in the training group and was independently confirmed in the test group (71.4% accuracy). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses confirmed its independent association with early virological response (OR=7.35; P=2.12×10(-5)). Combining the microRNA profile with the alanine aminotransferase level improved the overall accuracy from 73.4% to 77.3%. Co-transfection of an HBV replicative construct with microRNA mimics revealed that let-7f, miR-939 and miR-638 were functionally associated with the HBV life cycle. The 11 microRNA signatures in plasma, together with basic clinical variables, might provide an accurate method to assist in medication decisions and improve the overall sustained response to IFN treatment.

  16. Vertical profiles of ozone, VOCs and meteorological parameters in within and outside of Mexico City during the MILAGRO field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, C.; Greenberg, J.; Bueno, E.; Bernabe, R.; Aguilar, J.; Blanco, S.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; Guenther, A.; Cardenas, B.; Turnipseed, A.

    2007-05-01

    High ozone levels with maxima over 250 ppb have been an air quality problem in Mexico City for more than a decade. This ozone is produced in the daytime by photochemical reactions, initiated by its precursors, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation. The objective of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the evolution of these air pollutants at different heights of the boundary layer by means of vertical profile measurements. Ozone, VOCs and meteorological vertical profiles were determined in Northern Mexico City (T0 site) using a tethered balloon for 10 days during the MILAGRO field Campaign 2006, between 4 AM and 4 PM. Measurements were done up to 1000 meter above ground (ozone and meteorological parameters) and up to 200 m above ground for VOCs. VOCs samples were collected during 4 minutes in canisters and analyzed with GC-FID to identify 13 species (ethane, propane, propylene, butane, acetylene, pentane, hexane, heptane, benzene, octane, toluene, nonane and o-xylene). For 4 of the days, VOC integrated samples were also taken using personal pumps and absorbent cartridges at height between 200 and 1000 m. Sample cartridges were analyzed by GC-MS for volatile organic compounds (n-butane, i-pentane, n- pentane, benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, o-xylene, m&p-xylene, 1,2,4-tri-methyl-benzene and C3-benzenes). Ozone vertical profiles, frequently presented high concentrations above 400 m in the early morning. During the daytime, more homogeneous profiles indicate an increased vertical mixing. VOCs profiles show similar concentrations for all heights at dawn. In the morning, highest concentrations were determined at a height of about 100 meter, whereas at noon and in the afternoon concentrations decreased with height. Comparing VOC concentrations during the course of a day, highest values are measured in the morning. The highest VOC concentrations were propane, butane, and toluene. For some

  17. Plasma oxidative stress parameters in men and women with early stage Alzheimer type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M; Cobo, M P; Carrera, M P; Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, indicating that may play a key role in this disease. In our study, we measured the levels of oxidative stress indicators (TBARS and protein carbonyls content) and the non-enzymatic (glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) defense systems in the plasma of 46 patients diagnosed of ATD and 46 age-matched controls. We found decreased levels in total GSH in ATD patients, although healthy control women showed lower levels of total GSH than healthy control men. On the contrary, we found increased levels of TBARS and carbonyl groups content in ATD patients in both genders. The activity of the plasma antioxidant enzymes showed no changes for SOD activity in ATD patients, independently of the gender, although western blot analysis showed an increase in SOD-1 protein. CAT activity was also decreased in ATD patients, although this decrease is mainly due to the decrease found in men but not in women. However, western blot analysis did not show differences in CAT protein between controls and ATD patients. Finally, a decrease of GPx activity was found in ATD patients in both genders. However, as with CAT protein, western blot analysis did not show differences in GPx protein between controls and ATD patients. Our results suggest that there is a defect in the antioxidant defense system that is incapable of responding to increased free radical production, which may lead to oxidative damage and the development of the pathological alterations that characterize the neurodegenerative disorder of patients with ATD. Thus, oxidative damage could be one important aspect for the onset of ATD and oxidative stress markers could be useful to diagnose the illness in their earliest stages through both non-invasive, reliable and cost-affordable methods.

  18. Statistics on the parameters of nonisothermal ionospheric plasma in large mesospheric electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynenko, S.; Rozumenko, V.; Tyrnov, O.; Manson, A.; Meek, C.

    The large V/m electric fields inherent in the mesosphere play an essential role in lower ionospheric electrodynamics. They must be the cause of large variations in the electron temperature and the electron collision frequency at D region altitudes, and consequently the ionospheric plasma in the lower part of the D region undergoes a transition into a nonisothermal state. This study is based on the databases on large mesospheric electric fields collected with the 2.2-MHz radar of the Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan, Canada (52°N geographic latitude, 60.4°N geomagnetic latitude) and with the 2.3-MHz radar of the Kharkiv V. Karazin National University (49.6°N geographic latitude, 45.6°N geomagnetic latitude). The statistical analysis of these data is presented in Meek, C. E., A. H. Manson, S. I. Martynenko, V. T. Rozumenko, O. F. Tyrnov, Remote sensing of mesospheric electric fields using MF radars, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, in press. The large mesospheric electric fields is experimentally established to follow a Rayleigh distribution in the interval 0 plasma.

  19. Formulation parameters affecting the performance of coated gelatin capsules with pulsatile release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, T; Bodmeier, R

    2003-11-28

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system based on soft gelatin capsules with or without a swelling layer and an external water-insoluble but -permeable polymer coating, which released the drug after a lag time (rupturing of the external polymer coating). The swelling of the gelatin capsule itself was insufficient to rupture the external polymer coating, an additional swelling layer was applied between the capsule and the polymer coating. Croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was more effective as a swelling agent than low and high molecular weight hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; E5 or K100M). Brittle polymers, such as ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAPr), led to a better rupturing and therefore more complete drug release than the flexible polymer coating, Eudragit RS. The lag time of the release system increased with higher polymer coating levels and decreased with the addition of a hydrophilic pore-former, HPMC E5 and also with an increasing amount of the intermediate swelling layer. The water uptake of the capsules was linear until rupture and was higher with CAPr than with EC. Soft gelatin capsule-based systems showed shorter lag times compared to hard gelatin capsules because of the higher hardness/filling state of the soft gelatin capsules. The swelling pressure was therefore more directed to the external polymer coating with the soft gelatin capsules. Typical pulsatile drug release profiles were obtained at lower polymer coating levels, while the release was slower and incomplete at the higher coating levels. CAPr-coated capsules resulted in a more complete release than EC-coated capsules.

  20. Soliton and Shock Profiles in Electron-positron-ion Degenerate Plasmas for Both Nonrelativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Md. Masum

    2016-12-01

    An attempt has been taken to find a general equation for degenerate pressure of Chandrasekhar and constants, by using which one can study nonrelativistic as well as ultra-relativistic cases instead of two different equations and constants. Using the general equation, ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been studied and compared, numerically and graphically, the two cases in same situation of electron-positron-ion plasmas. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and KdV-Barger equations have been derived as well as their solution to study the soliton and shock profiles, respectively.

  1. Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C on Lipid Profile Parameters in Paraquat treated Male Rats (Rattus Norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N. Okolonkwo

    2013-01-01

    . The TG values obtained indicated a significant reduction (P ≤ 0.001 in the test sub- groups (B1, B2, C1, C2, D1 and D2 when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2, and the re- duction correlated with time of exposure only. This same trend was observed in the values obtained the results of HDL and LDL. The values obtained showed that vitamin C treatment did not in any way affect the toxicity effect of PQ on lipid parameters estimated.CONCLUSIONThe results obtained indicates that PQ toxicity causes a reduction in the lipid parameters studied and that vitamin C given did not in any way, positively or negatively, affect the trend the toxicity fol- lowed. Meaning that vitamin C, within the scope of this study, cannot ameliorate the toxicity of PQ on lipid parameters.

  2. Influence of atmospheric plasma spray parameters on YSZ coatings obtained from micro and nano structured feedstocks; Influencia de los parametros de proyeccion por plasma atmosferico en recubrimientos de YSZ obtenidos a partir de polvos micro y nanoestructurados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, P.; Bannier, E.; Borrell, A.; Salvador, M. d.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, the influence of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) parameters on the deposition of two commercial YSZ feedstocks, one conventional and one non-conductor's, has been studied. First the study focused on how the variability of the different parameters affects the particle behaviour during spraying. For this purpose, a sensor which enables to measure the particle temperature and velocity inside the plasma was used. Once the spraying parameters influence was known, both powders were deposited by APS onto stainless steel substrates modifying the higher influencing parameters. These coatings have been characterised and the influence of the particle behaviour on the coating microstructure and properties has been analysed. This work concludes the spraying parameters variation affects on the particle velocity and temperature inside the plasma plume and this behaviour influences, in turn but in a different way, on the final coating characteristics when using different powders (micro- and nano structured). (Author)

  3. Improved density profile measurements in the C-2U advanced beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.

    2016-11-01

    In the prior C-2 experiment, electron density was measured using a two-color 6-chord CO2/HeNe interferometer. Analysis shows that high-frequency common mode phase noise can be reduced by a factor of 3 by constructing a reference chord. In the system upgrade from C-2 to C-2U a 4-chord far-infrared laser interferometer was developed, which demonstrated superior sensitivity (1 × 1016 m-2 at >1 MHz bandwidth) and solved the under spatial sampling issue of the C-2 interferometer system. Improved density-profile measurement results are presented in this paper, including evidence of fast-ion modified density profile and stabilization of the n = 1 plasma wobble mode.

  4. Prebiotics, Prosynbiotics and Synbiotics: Can They Reduce Plasma Oxidative Stress Parameters? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra

    2017-01-03

    This study assessed the effectiveness of presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics on reducing serum oxidative stress parameters. PubMed/Medline, Ovid, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS were searched up to September 2016. English language randomized clinical trials reporting the effect of presybiotics, prosybiotics or synbiotic interventions on serum oxidative stress parameters in human adults were included. Twenty-one randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for systematic review. Two studies investigated prebiotics, four studies synbiotics and fifteen studies probiotics. According to our systematic review, prebiotic could decrease malondialdehyde and increase superoxidative dismutase, but evidence is not enough. In comparison with fructo-oligosaccharide, inulin is much more useful for oxidative stress reduction. Using probiotics with dairy products could reduce oxidative stress significantly, but probiotic in form of supplementation did not have any effect on oxidative stress. There is limited but supportive evidence that presybiotics, prosybiotics and synbiotics are effective for reducing oxidative stress parameters. Further randomized clinical trials with longer duration of intervention especially on population with increased oxidative stress are needed to provide more definitive results before any recommendation for clinical use of these interventions.

  5. Sensitivity of transport and stability to the current profile in steady-state scenario plasmas in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, F.; Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Holcomb, C. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Turnbull, A. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); White, A. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Brennan, D. P. [University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74104 (United States); Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton 08543, New Jersey (United States); In, Y. [Far-Tech, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have provided the first systematic data on the impact of the current profile on the transport and stability properties of high-performance, steady-state scenario plasmas. In a future tokamak, to achieve 100% noninductive conditions and produce net power, the current profile J must be sustained by a large fraction of bootstrap current J{sub BS}, which is nonlinearly coupled with the kinetic profiles. Systematic scans of q{sub min} and q{sub 95} were performed to determine empirically the best alignment of the noninductive currents with J and the variation of the transport properties with q. Transport analysis indicates that {chi}{sub e} and {chi}{sub i} are sensitive to the details of J in a way that makes the pressure profile peaking and J{sub BS} scale nonlinearly with both q and {beta} in the experiment. Drift wave stability analysis yields linear growth rates that do not reproduce experimental trends in {chi} with q{sub min} and q{sub 95}. At high beta, necessary to maximize f{sub BS}, the plasma duration is often limited by n=1 tearing modes, whose stability also depends on the J profile. Broadly deposited electron cyclotron (EC) current at mid-radius was found to supply part of the required noninductive current and to positively affect the tearing stability. The modes appear when J{sub EC} is turned off for stable cases and always appear when the EC deposition is shifted outwards. The variation in the EC scan results is consistent with PEST3 calculations, showing that the tearing stability becomes extremely sensitive to small perturbations of the equilibrium in wall-stabilized plasmas run close to the ideal MHD limit. These modeling results are being used to design new experiments with higher ideal and tearing limits. A new capability for off-axis neutral beam injection system will be used to explore higher q{sub min} scenarios and different current alignments.

  6. Impact of nutrient excess and endothelial nitric oxide synthase on the plasma metabolite profile in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Sansbury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An increase in calorie consumption is associated with the recent rise in obesity prevalence. However, our current understanding of the effects of nutrient excess on major metabolic pathways appears insufficient to develop safe and effective metabolic interventions to prevent obesity. Hence, we sought to identify systemic metabolic changes caused by nutrient excess and to determine how endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS—which has anti-obesogenic properties—affects systemic metabolism by measuring plasma metabolites. Wild-type (WT and eNOS transgenic (eNOS-TG mice were placed on low fat or high fat diets for six weeks, and plasma metabolites were measured using an unbiased metabolomic approach. High fat feeding in WT mice led to significant increases in fat mass, which was associated with significantly lower plasma levels of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, lysophospholipids, 3-dehydrocarnitine, and bile acids, as well as branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and their metabolites. Plasma levels of several lipids including sphingomyelins, stearoylcarnitine, dihomo-linoleate and metabolites associated with oxidative stress were increased by high fat diet. In comparison with low fat-fed WT mice, eNOS-TG mice showed lower levels of several free fatty acids, but in contrast, the levels of bile acids, amino acids, and BCAA catabolites were increased. When placed on a high fat diet, eNOS overexpressing mice showed remarkably higher levels of plasma bile acids and elevated levels of plasma BCAAs and their catabolites compared with WT mice. Treatment with GW4064, an inhibitor of bile acid synthesis, decreased plasma bile acid levels but was not sufficient to reverse the anti-obesogenic effects of eNOS overexpression. These findings reveal unique metabolic changes in response to high fat diet and eNOS overexpression and suggest that the anti-obesity effects of eNOS are likely independent of changes in the bile acid pool.

  7. XML The Impact of High Intensity Interval Training On Lipid Profile, Inflammatory Markers and Anthropometric Parameters in Inactive Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Zaer Ghodsi (MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT is a recently proposed exercise protocol, which is time-effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HIIT for 8 weeks on the lipid profile, C-reactive protein (CRP, fasting blood sugar (FBS and anthropometric parameters of young women who do not exercise. Methods: In this study, 20 young physically inactive women performed HIIT workouts for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. The training protocol consisted of 10-times treadmill running for 15 seconds at maximum effort and then 30 seconds of resting. Blood samples were taken while fasting, a day before and after the training and then the considered parameters were measured. Wilcoxon test was used to compare the obtained data. Results: HIIT significantly reduced FBS, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein /cholesterol ratio and CRP while increasing the HDL levels. There was a significant difference in the weight, body fat percentage, waist circumference, abdominal circumference and chest circumference of the subjects before and after the training (p <0.05. Conclusion: HIIT can improve lipid, inflammatory and anthropometric parameters, thus it can be considered as a suitable alternative to time-consuming exercises, especially for physically inactive women who like to spend less time to achieve optimal physical wellness and body fitness.

  8. Initial measurements of plasma current and electron density profiles using a polarimeter/interferometer (POINT) for long pulse operation in EAST (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. Q.; Qian, J. P.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Li, W. M.; Lian, H.; Wang, S. X.; Yang, Y.; Zeng, L.; Lan, T.; Yao, Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development). Reliability of both the polarimetric and interferometric measurements is demonstrated in 25 s plasmas with H-mode and 102 s long-pulse discharges. Current density, safety factor (q), and electron density profiles are reconstructed using equilibrium fitting code (EFIT) with POINT constraints for the plasma core.

  9. Global parameter optimization of Mather type plasma focus in the framework of the Gratton-Vargas two-dimensional snowplow model

    CERN Document Server

    Auluck, S K H

    2014-01-01

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is known to produce highly energetic ions, electrons and plasma environment which can be used for breeding of short-lived isotopes, plasma nanotechnology and other material processing applications. Commercial utilization of DPF in such areas would need a design tool which can be deployed in an automatic search for the best possible device configuration for a given application. The recently revisited [S K H Auluck, Physics of Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013)] Gratton-Vargas (GV) two-dimensional analytical snowplow model of plasma focus provides a numerical formula for dynamic inductance of a Mather type plasma focus fitted to thousands of automated computations, which enables construction of such design tool. This inductance formula is utilized in the present work to explore global optimization, based on first-principles optimality criteria, in a 4-dimensional parameter-subspace of the zero-resistance GV model. The optimization process is shown to reproduce the empirically observed constancy ...

  10. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  11. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F. J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M. A.; Laserna, J. J.

    2013-11-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2-8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%.

  12. Association between plasma metabolites and gene expression profiles in five porcine endocrine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassols Anna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine tissues play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis of plasma metabolites such as non-esterified fatty acids and glucose, the levels of which reflect the energy balance or the health status of animals. However, the relationship between the transcriptome of endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites has been poorly studied. Methods We determined the blood levels of 12 plasma metabolites in 27 pigs belonging to five breeds, each breed consisting of both females and males. The transcriptome of five endocrine tissues i.e. hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, gonads and backfat tissues from 16 out of the 27 pigs was also determined. Sex and breed effects on the 12 plasma metabolites were investigated and associations between genes expressed in the five endocrine tissues and the 12 plasma metabolites measured were analyzed. A probeset was defined as a quantitative trait transcript (QTT when its association with a particular metabolic trait achieved a nominal P value Results A larger than expected number of QTT was found for non-esterified fatty acids and alanine aminotransferase in at least two tissues. The associations were highly tissue-specific. The QTT within the tissues were divided into co-expression network modules enriched for genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or gene ontology categories that are related to the physiological functions of the corresponding tissues. We also explored a multi-tissue co-expression network using QTT for non-esterified fatty acids from the five tissues and found that a module, enriched in hypothalamus QTT, was positioned at the centre of the entire multi-tissue network. Conclusions These results emphasize the relationships between endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites in terms of gene expression. Highly tissue-specific association patterns suggest that candidate genes or gene pathways should be investigated in the context of specific tissues.

  13. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes.

  14. Quantitative Metabolite Profiling of an Amino Group Containing Pharmaceutical in Human Plasma via Precolumn Derivatization and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sanwang; Klencsár, Balázs; Balcaen, Lieve; Cuyckens, Filip; Lynen, Frederic; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2017-02-07

    Quantitative determination of the candidate drug molecule and its metabolites in biofluids and tissues is an inevitable step in the development of new pharmaceuticals. Because of the time-consuming and expensive nature of the current standard technique for quantitative metabolite profiling, i.e., radiolabeling followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with radiodetection, the development of alternative methodologies is of great interest. In this work, a simple, fast, sensitive, and accurate method for the quantitative metabolite profiling of an amino group containing drug (levothyroxine) and its metabolites in human plasma, based on precolumn derivatization followed by HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), was developed and validated. To introduce a suitable "heteroelement" (defined here as an element that is detectable with ICPMS), an inexpensive and commercially available reagent, tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) was used for the derivatization of free NH2-groups. The presence of a known number of I atoms in both the drug molecule and its metabolites enabled a cross-validation of the newly developed derivatization procedure and quantification based on monitoring of the introduced Br. The formation of the derivatives was quantitative, providing a 4:1 stoichiometric Br/NH2 ratio. The derivatives were separated via reversed-phase HPLC with gradient elution. Bromine was determined via ICPMS at a mass-to-charge ratio of 79 using H2 as a reaction gas to ensure interference-free detection, and iodine was determined at a mass-to-charge ratio of 127 for cross-validation purposes. The method developed shows a fit-for-purpose accuracy (recovery between 85% and 115%) and precision (repeatability <15% RSD). The limit of quantification (LoQ) for Br was approximately 100 μg/L.

  15. Density profile in shock wave fronts of partially ionized xenon plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Reinholz, H; Morozov, I; Mintsev, V; Zaparoghets, Y; Fortov, V; Wierling, A

    2003-01-01

    Results for the reflection coefficient of shock-compressed dense xenon plasmas at pressures of 1.6-20 GPa and temperatures around 30 000 K are interpreted. In addition to former experiments using laser beams with lambda = 1.06 mu m, measurements at lambda = 0.694 mu m have been performed recently. Reflectivities typical for metallic systems are found at high densities. Besides free carriers, the theoretical description also takes into account the influence of the neutral component of the plasma on the reflectivity. A consistent description of the measured reflectivities is achieved only if a finite width of the shock wave front is considered.

  16. Effects of the electrical parameters and gas flow rate on the generation of reactive species in liquids exposed to atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Eun Jeong; Joh, Hea Min; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet was fabricated and studied for plasma-liquid interactions. The plasma jet consists of a quartz-covered pin electrode and outer quartz tube with a tapered nozzle. Using the current-voltage (I-V) and optical emission characteristics of the plasma jet, the plasma density and the speed of the plume were investigated. The optical emission spectra clearly indicated the excited NO, O, OH, N2, and N2+ in the plasma plumes. Then the plasma jets were applied to the deionized water. We investigated the effects of the operating parameters such as applied voltage, pulse frequency, and gas flow rate on the generation of reactive species in the gas and liquid phases. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were obtained at the plasma-liquid surface and inside the plasma-treated liquids using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy and chemical probe method. The nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. The data are very suggestive that there is a strong correlation among the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in the plasmas and liquids.

  17. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.

  18. Bioactive constituents from "triguero" asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; De la Puerta, Rocío; Garcia Gimenez, María Dolores; Fernández-Arche, María Angeles; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-10-24

    We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. "triguero" variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day), saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day) and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day) on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF), the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA), fiber fraction (FF), and flavonoid fraction (FVF) to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that "triguero" asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Bioactive Constituents from “Triguero” Asparagus Improve the Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Antioxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Guillén-Bejarano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the Andalusian-cultivated Asparagus officinalis L. “triguero” variety produces hypocholesterolemic and hepatoprotective effects on rats. This asparagus is a rich source of phytochemicals although we hypothesized there would be some of them more involved in these functional properties. Thus, we aimed to study the effects of asparagus (500 mg/kg body weight (bw/day and their partially purified fractions in flavonoids (50 mg/kg bw/day, saponins (5 mg/kg bw/day and dietary fiber (500 mg/kg bw/day on oxidative status and on lipid profile in rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet. After 5 weeks treatment, plasma lipid values, hepatic enzyme activities and liver malondialdehyde (MDA concentrations were measured. With the exception of the saponin fraction (SF, the administration of lyophilized asparagus (LA, fiber fraction (FF, and flavonoid fraction (FVF to hypercholesterolemic rats produced a significant hypolipidemic effect compare to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD. In addition, the LA and FVF groups exhibited a significant increase in enzyme activity from multiple hepatic antioxidant systems including: superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione reductase/peroxidase as well as a decrease in MDA concentrations compared to HCD group. These results demonstrate that “triguero” asparagus possesses bioactive constituents, especially dietary fiber and flavonoids, that improve the plasma lipid profile and prevent hepatic oxidative damage under conditions of hypercholesterolemia.

  20. Broadening of the Spectral Atomic Lines Analysis in High Density Argon Corona Plasma by Using Voigt Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Atrazhev, V. M.

    2015-06-01

    Studies of spectrum emission from high density argon plasma corona has been done. The analysis of the boardening of spectral atomic lines of Ar-I profile has been curried out by using an empirical approximation based on a Voigt profile. Full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm has been determined from atmospheric pressure until liquid state. The study liquid argon was curried out in a variation of temperature from K to 151.2 K and hydrostatics pressure from 2.1 MPa to 6.4 MPa. These pressure gives the densities N∞ (i.e. density very far from ionization zone) a variation from 1.08 1022 to 2.11 1022 cm-3. FWHM of Voigt approximation (Wv) of the line 763,5 nm of 'Ar I for: the emission lamp very low pressure (Wv = 0,160 nm) and our corona discharge at a pressure of MPa (Wv = 0,67 nm) and at a pressure of 9,5 MPa (Wv = 1,16 nm). In gas, corona plasma has been generated from 0.1 MPa to 9.5 MPa. We found that the broadening spectral line increase by increasing densities both for. the spectral-lines of 763.5 nm and 696.5 nm. We concluded that broadening of spectrum cause of Van der Waals force.

  1. Investigation Of The Effects Of Reflow Profile Parameters On Lead-free Solder Bump Volumes And Joint Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalu, E. H.; Lui, Y. T.; Ekere, N. N.; Bhatti, R. S.; Takyi, G.

    2011-01-01

    The electronics manufacturing industry was quick to adopt and use the Surface Mount Technology (SMT) assembly technique on realization of its huge potentials in achieving smaller, lighter and low cost product implementations. Increasing global customer demand for miniaturized electronic products is a key driver in the design, development and wide application of high-density area array package format. Electronic components and their associated solder joints have reduced in size as the miniaturization trend in packaging continues to be challenged by printing through very small stencil apertures required for fine pitch flip-chip applications. At very narrow aperture sizes, solder paste rheology becomes crucial for consistent paste withdrawal. The deposition of consistent volume of solder from pad-to-pad is fundamental to minimizing surface mount assembly defects. This study investigates the relationship between volume of solder paste deposit (VSPD) and the volume of solder bump formed (VSBF) after reflow, and the effect of reflow profile parameters on lead-free solder bump formation and the associated solder joint integrity. The study uses a fractional factorial design (FFD) of 24-1 Ramp-Soak-Spike reflow profile, with all main effects and two-way interactions estimable to determine the optimal factorial combination. The results from the study show that the percentage change in the VSPD depends on the combination of the process parameters and reliability issues could become critical as the size of solder joints soldered on the same board assembly vary greatly. Mathematical models describe the relationships among VSPD, VSBF and theoretical volume of solder paste. Some factors have main effects across the volumes and a number of interactions exist among them. These results would be useful for R&D personnel in designing and implementing newer applications with finer-pitch interconnect.

  2. Agronomical Parameters, Sugar Profile and Antioxidant Compounds of “Catherine” Peach Cultivar Influenced by Different Plum Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Font i Forcada

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seven plum rootstocks (Adesoto, Monpol, Montizo, Puebla de Soto 67 AD, PM 105 AD, St. Julien GF 655/2 and Constantí 1 on individual and total sugars, as well as on antioxidant content in fruit flesh of “Catherine” peaches, was evaluated for three years. Agronomical and basic fruit quality parameters were also determined. At twelve years after budding, significant differences were found between rootstocks for the different agronomic and fruit quality traits evaluated. The Pollizo plum rootstocks Adesoto and PM 105 AD seem to induce higher sweetness to peach fruits, based on soluble solids content, individual (sucrose, fructose and sorbitol and total sugars. A clear tendency was also observed with the rootstock Adesoto, inducing the highest content of phenolics, flavonoids, vitamin C and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC. Thus, the results of this study demonstrate the significant effect of rootstock on the sugar profile and phytochemical characteristics of peach fruits. In addition, this work shows the importance of the sugar profile, because specific sugars play an important role in peach flavour quality, as well as the studied phytochemical compounds when looking for high quality peaches with enhanced health properties.

  3. Contribution of various lipid profile parameters in determining creatine kinase-MB levels in unstable angina patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagale, Kiran R; Ingle, Avinash S; Choudhary, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    In India, the correlation of severity of minor myocardial damage with dyslipidemia has rarely been studied in patients of unstable angina (UA). Dyslipidemia is proven to be a major risk factor for developing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but still there is doubt about the type of lipoproteins involved in causing minor myocardial damage occurring in UA patients of ACS. The aim of our study was to find out the contribution of various types of lipoproteins to predict the severity of minor myocardial damage occurring in the patients of UA. Correlation design was used for the study. A single group of individuals was selected. Data were collected on dependent variable creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and independent variables (lipid profile parameters). The study comprised fifty patients admitted in cardiac care unit with typical history of UA with electrocardiogram showing no ST-segment elevation. The severity of myocardial damage was assessed from on admission CK-MB levels. The lipid profile was estimated from fasting blood samples of all the patients. For the purpose of the study, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis methods were applied. The triacylglycerol (TAG), very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) showed significant positive correlation whereas HDL was negatively correlating with CK-MB levels. The TAG, VLDL, and TC/HDL were found to be significantly affecting the severity of myocardial damage in the patients of UA.

  4. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (plipid revealed that the total blood cholesterol content of rats fed with either low dosage (1.39 ± 0.08 mmol/L), medium dosage (1.40 ± 0.08 mmol/L) or high dosage (1.42 ± 0.07 mmol/L) of SLs contains C8:0 for 56 days was significantly lower (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile

  5. Optimization of nitrogen plasma source parameters by measurements of emitted light intensity for growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klosek, K.; Sobanska, M.; Tchutchulashvili, G.; Zytkiewicz, Z.R., E-mail: zytkie@ifpan.edu.pl; Teisseyre, H.; Klopotowski, L.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive analysis of operating parameters of Addon RF nitrogen plasma source was made in order to determine how a ratio of different active nitrogen species depends on operating parameters of the source such as supplied power and nitrogen flow. We show that output signal of the optical sensor that measures intensity of the light emitted by the plasma is a direct measure of the amount of active nitrogen available for growth. Results of optical emission spectroscopy and measurements of growth kinetics show that nitrogen excited metastable molecules are the species mainly contributing to the growth of GaN under Ga-rich conditions. A procedure is presented allowing to find an optimal conditions of the plasma cell for high-quality GaN growth. Under these conditions the nitrogen flux contains maximum amount of excited metastable molecules and minimal amount of ionic and atomic nitrogen species to minimize GaN lattice damage, even at high growth rates. - Highlights: ► Operating parameters of Addon radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source studied ► Their influence on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaN analyzed ► MBE growth rate of GaN well correlates with output of the plasma emission sensor. ► Optical emission spectroscopy measurements of the nitrogen plasma made ► Nitrogen excited molecules mainly contribute to plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN.

  6. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Saikia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te, electron density (ne, ion density (ni, degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  7. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    children who developed islet autoimmunity (n = 29) and autoantibody-negative control children (n = 29) with the HLA DR4-DQ8/DR3-DQ2 genotype were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for detection of small polar metabolites. Results: Plasma...

  8. Mutations in HNF1A result in marked alterations of plasma glycan profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanabalasingham, Gaya; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kattla, Jayesh J

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma...

  9. Seldi-tof MS Profiling of Plasma Proteins in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Pai Wu

    2006-03-01

    Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrates that the combined technology of SELDI-TOF MS and artificial intelligence is effective in distinguishing protein expression between normal and ovarian cancer plasma. The identified protein peaks may be candidate proteins for early detection of ovarian cancer or evaluation of therapeutic response.

  10. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on LC-MS and NMR plasma profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Rago, Daniela; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of high levels of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA) has been related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and sudden cardiac death but the causal mechanisms are not well known. In this study, NMR and LC-MS untargeted metabolomics has been used as an approach to explore the impact ...... of TFA intake on plasma metabolites....

  11. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses.

  12. In depth fusion flame spreading with a deuterium-tritium plane fuel density profile for plasma block ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fuel ignition was given by Chu and Bobin according to the hydrodynamic theory at x =0 qualitatively.A high threshold energy flux density,i.e.,E* =4.3 x 1012 J/m2,has been reached.Recently,fast ignition by employing clean petawatt-picosecond laser pulses was performed.The anomalous phenomena were observed to be based on suppression of prepulses.The accelerated plasma block was used to ignite deuterium-tritium fuel at solid-state density.The detailed analysis of the thermonuclear wave propagation was investigated.Also the fusion conditions at x ≠ 0 layers were clarified by exactly solving hydrodynamic equations for plasma block ignition.In this paper,the applied physical mechanisms are determined for nonlinear force laser driven plasma blocks,thermonuclear reaction,heat transfer,electron-ion equilibration,stopping power of alpha particles,bremsstrahlung,expansion,density dependence,and fluid dynamics.New ignition conditions may be obtained by using temperature equations,including thc dcnsity profile that is obtained by the continuity equation and expansion velocity.The density is only a function of x and independent of time.The ignition energy flux density,E*t,for the x ≠ 0 layers is 1.95 × 1012 J/m2.Thus threshold ignition energy in comparison with that at x =0 layers would be reduced to less than 50 percent.

  13. Chemical compositions and plasma parameters of planetary nebulae with Wolf-Rayet and wels type central stars

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, P; Acker, A

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Chemical compositions and other properties of planetary nebulae around central stars of spectral types [WC], [WO], and wels are compared with those of `normal' central stars, in order to clarify the evolutionary status of each type and their interrelation. Methods: We use plasma diagnostics to derive from optical spectra the plasma parameters and chemical compositions of 48 planetary nebulae. We also reanalyze the published spectra of a sample of 167 non-WR PN. The results as well as the observational data are compared in detail with those from other studies of the objects in common. Results: The central star's spectral type is clearly correlated with electron density, temperature and excitation class of the nebula, [WC] nebulae tend to be smaller than the other types. All this corroborates the view of an evolutionary sequence from cool [WC 11] central stars inside dense, low excitation nebulae towards hot [WO 1] stars with low density, high excitation nebulae. The wels PN, however, appear to be a separ...

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Different Plasma-Nitriding Parameters on the Properties of Low-Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravecká, Eva; Slota, Ján; Solfronk, Pavel; Kolnerová, Michaela

    2017-07-01

    This work is concerned with the surface treatment (ion nitriding) of different plasma-nitriding parameters on the characteristics of DIN 1.8519 low-alloy steel. The samples were nitrided from 500 to 570 °C for 5-40 h using a constant 25% N2-75% H2 gaseous mixture. Lower temperature (500-520 °C) favors the formation of compound layers of γ' and ɛ iron nitrides in the surface layers, whereas a monophase γ'-Fe4 N layer can be obtained at a higher temperature. The hardness of this layer can be obtained when nitriding is performed at a higher temperature, and the hardness decreases when the temperature increases to 570 °C. These results indicate that pulsed plasma nitriding is highly efficient at 550 °C and can form thick and hard nitrided layers with satisfactory mechanical properties. The results show the optimized nitriding process at 540 °C for 20 h. This process can be an interesting means of enhancing the surface hardness of tool steels to forge dies compared to stamped steels with zinc coating with a reduced coefficient of friction and improving the anti-sticking properties of the tool surface.

  15. The influence of active screen plasma nitriding parameters on corrosion behavior of a low-alloy steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahangarani, Sh., E-mail: ahangarani@irost.i [Department of Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabour, A.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboubi, F. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-18

    This work presents a comparative study of low-alloy steel nitriding for different possible techniques. Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a successful surface modification method that has many advantages over the conventional DC plasma nitriding (CPN). The corrosion behavior of 30CrNiMo8 low-alloy steel has been examined using anodic polarization tests in 3.5% NaCl solution under varying conditions of ASPN and CPN processes. The process variables included active screen setup parameters, treatment temperature (550 and 580 deg. C), gas mixture (25/75 and 75/25 of N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}) and treatment time (5 and 10 h) in 500 Pa pressure. The structure and phases composition of the compound layer was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness tests, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was observed that ASPN treated samples surface enhanced corrosion resistance while the temperature and/or hole size of screen setup increased.

  16. Plasma amino acid profiling identifies specific amino acid associations with cardiovascular function in patients with systolic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihiko Hakuno

    Full Text Available The heart has close interactions with other organs' functions and concomitant systemic factors such as oxidative stress, nitric oxide (NO, inflammation, and nutrition in systolic heart failure (HF. Recently, plasma amino acid (AA profiling as a systemic metabolic indicator has attracted considerable attention in predicting the future risk of human cardiometabolic diseases, but it has been scarcely studied in HF.Thirty-eight stable but greater than New York Heart Association class II symptomatic patients with left ventricular (LV ejection fraction <45% and 33 asymptomatic individuals with normal B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP value were registered as the HF and control groups, respectively. We analyzed fasting plasma concentrations of 41 AAs using high-performance liquid chromatography, serum NO metabolite concentration, hydroperoxide and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein measurements, echocardiography, and flow-mediated dilatation.We found that 17 AAs and two ratios significantly changed in the HF group compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05. In the HF group, subsequent univariate and stepwise multivariate analyses with clinical variables revealed that Fischer ratio and five specific AAs, ie, monoethanolamine, methionine, tyrosine, 1-methylhistidine, and histidine have significant correlation with BNP, LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic volume index, inferior vena cava diameter, the ratio of early diastolic velocity of the mitral inflow to mitral annulus, and BNP, respectively (p < 0.05. Interestingly, further exploratory factor analysis categorized these AAs into hepatic-related (monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio and skeletal muscle-related (histidine, methionine, and 1-methylhistidine components. Some categorized AAs showed unique correlations with concomitant factors: monoethanolamine, tyrosine, and Fischer ratio with serum NO concentration; histidine with serum albumin; and 1-methylhistidine with flow

  17. Altered micro-ribonucleic acid expression profiles of extracellular microvesicles in the seminal plasma of patients with oligoasthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Halima, Masood; Ludwig, Nicole; Hart, Martin; Leidinger, Petra; Backes, Christina; Keller, Andreas; Hammadeh, Mohamad; Meese, Eckart

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether microRNA (miRNA) expression profile is different in extracellular microvesicles collected from seminal plasma of men with oligoasthenozoospermia, to gain further insight into molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility. Microarray with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction validation and Western blot analysis confirmation. University research and clinical institutes. A total of 24 men, including 12 oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men and 12 normozoospermic men. None. Statistically significant altered miRNA expression profiles in oligoasthenozoospermic subfertile men compared with normozoospermic fertile men. Extracellular microvesicles including exosomes were isolated from seminal