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Sample records for plasma paracetamol concentrations

  1. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  2. Randomised controlled trial comparing oral and intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen) plasma levels when given as preoperative analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, J; Kuo, P Y; Reed, P W; Holder, K

    2011-03-01

    Gastric absorption of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) may be unreliable perioperatively in the starved and stressed patient. We compared plasma concentrations of parenteral paracetamol given preoperatively and oral paracetamol when given as premedication. Patients scheduled for elective ear; nose and throat surgery or orthopaedic surgery were randomised to receive either oral or intravenous paracetamol as preoperative medication. The oral dose was given 30 minutes before induction of anaesthesia and the intravenous dose given pre-induction. All patients were given a standardised anaesthetic by the same specialist anaesthetist who took blood for paracetamol concentrations 30 minutes after the first dose and then at 30 minute intervals for 240 minutes. Therapeutic concentrations of paracetamol were reached in 96% of patients who had received the drug parenterally, and 67% of patients who had received it orally. Maximum median plasma concentrations were 19 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 15 to 23 mg.l(-1)) and 13 mg.l(-1) (interquartile range 0 to 18 mg.l(-1)) for the intravenous and oral group respectively. The difference between intravenous and oral groups was less marked after 150 minutes but the intravenous preparation gave higher plasma concentrations throughout the study period. It can be concluded that paracetamol gives more reliable therapeutic plasma concentrations when given intravenously.

  3. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) protein adduct concentrations during therapeutic dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Kennon; Green, Jody L; Anderson, Victoria; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Dart, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Paracetamol protein adducts (PPA) are a biomarker of paracetamol exposure. PPA are quantified as paracetamol-cysteine (APAP-CYS), and concentrations above 1.1 μmol l(-1) have been suggested as a marker of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. However, there is little information on the range of concentrations observed during prolonged therapeutic dosing. The aim of the present study was to describe the concentration of PPA in the serum of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol for at least 16 days. Preplanned secondary aim of a prospective randomized controlled (placebo vs. 4g day(-1) paracetamol) trial. We measured subjects' serum PPA concentrations every 3 days for a minimum of 16 days. We also measured concentrations on study days 1-3 and 16-25 in subsets of patients. PPA were quantified as APAP-CYS after gel filtration and protein digestion using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Ninety per cent of subjects had detectable PPA after five doses. Median APAP-CYS concentrations in paracetamol-treated subjects increased to a plateau of 0.1 μmol l(-1) on day 7, where they remained. The highest concentration measured was 1.1 μmol l(-1) and two subjects never had detectable PPA levels. PPA were detected in the serum of 78% of subjects 9 days after their final dose. PPA are detectable in the vast majority of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol. While most have concentrations well below the threshold associated with hepatotoxicity, concentrations may approach 1.1 μmol l(-1) in rare cases. Adducts are detectable after a few doses and can persist for over a week after dosing is stopped. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol profiles of Panadol suppositories in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, K P; Nielson, H W; Schroder, M; Covino, A; Matthews, N T; Murray, R S; Van Der Walt, J H

    1998-10-01

    To determine the relative bioavailability and plasma paracetamol concentration profiles following administration of a proprietary formulation of paracetamol suppositories to postoperative children. Study A-eight children undergoing minor surgery had blood samples collected following the rectal administration of either a 250 mg or 500 mg paracetamol suppository on one day and an equivalent oral dose on the following day. A mean dose of 13 mg/kg gave a mean Cmax (Tmax) of 7.7 mg/L (1.6 h) and 4.9 mg/L (2.0 h) following oral and rectal administration, respectively. The mean relative rectal bioavailability was 78% (95% confidence interval of 55-101%). Study B-20 children undergoing tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were randomly assigned to receive a postoperative dose of 500 mg of paracetamol either as 2 x 250 mg liquid filled or 1 x 500 mg hard wax Panadol suppository. A mean dose of 25 mg/kg produced mean maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations of 13.2 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L at 2.1 and 1.9 h for the hard and liquid filled suppository, respectively. The absorption rate constants and areas under the curves suggested no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between the two formulations. Absorption of paracetamol following rectal administration of Panadol suppositories to postoperative children is slower and reduced as compared to oral therapy. The hard wax and liquid filled products have similar absorption characteristics. The usually quoted antipyretic therapeutic range for paracetamol is 10-20 mg/L, although 5 mg/L may be effective. A single rectal dose of 25 mg/kg will obtain this lower concentration within 1 h of administration and maintain it for up to 6 h. When given in an appropriate dose for analgesia, maximum plasma paracetamol concentrations would be available in the immediate postoperative period if the rectal dose was given 2 h before the planned end of the procedure.

  5. Recommendations for the paracetamol treatment nomogram and side effects of N-acetylcysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, A.; van Riel, A.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of paracetamol intoxication consists of administration of N-acetylcysteine, preferably shortly after paracetamol ingestion. In most countries, the decision to treat patients with N-acetylcysteine depends on the paracetamol plasma concentration. In the literature, different arguments are

  6. Paracetamol degradation in aqueous solution by non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloul, Yasmine; Aubry, Olivier; Rabat, Hervé; Colas, Cyril; Maunit, Benoît; Hong, Dunpin

    2017-08-01

    This study deals with paracetamol degradation in water using a non-thermal plasma (NTP) created by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The effects of the NTP operating conditions on the degradation were studied, showing that the treatment efficiency of the process was highly dependent on the electrical parameters and working gas composition in the reactor containing the aqueous solution. A conversion rate higher than 99% was reached with an energy yield of 12 g/kWh. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) measurements showed that the main species produced in water during the process were nitrogen compounds, carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds. Contribution to the topical issue "The 15th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi and Tomáš Hoder

  7. Effect of paracetamol on the plasma protein binding of quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The co-administration of antimalarial and antipyretic drugs is a common practice in the treatment of malaria. Paracetamol, which is a majorly used antipyretic drug, has proved useful in the management of some common feverish effects such as pains and headache associated with most antimalarial drugs. This study was ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol in mouse plasma by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Cifelli, Roberta; Di Legge, Cristina; Barbacane, Renato Carmine; Costa, Nicola; Fresta, Massimo; Celia, Christian; Capolupo, Carlo; Di Marzio, Luisa

    2015-04-03

    This paper reports the validation of a quantitative high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous analysis, in mouse plasma, of eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol by protein precipitation using zinc sulphate-methanol-acetonitrile. The analytes were resolved on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm; 5 μm particle size) using a gradient elution mode with a run time of 15 min, comprising re-equilibration, at 60°C (± 1°C). The method was validated over the concentration range from 0.5 to 25 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, in mouse plasma. Ciprofloxacin was used as Internal Standard. Results from assay validations show that the method is selective, sensitive and robust. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.5 μg/mL for eperisone hydrochloride and paracetamol, and matrix-matched standard curves showed a good linearity, up to 25 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r(2))≥ 0.9891. In the entire analytical range the intra and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were ≤ 1.15% and ≤ 1.46% for eperisone hydrochloride, and ≤ 0.35% and ≤ 1.65% for paracetamol. For both analytes the intra and inter-day trueness (bias%) values ranged, respectively, from -5.33% to 4.00% and from -11.4% to -4.00%. The method was successfully tested in pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration in mouse. Furthermore, the application of this method results in a significant reduction in terms of animal number, dosage, and improvement in speed, rate of analysis, and quality of pharmacokinetic parameters related to serial blood sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base. PMID:2817936

  10. Paracetamol suppositories: a comparative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, S; Kenny, D; Ward, O C; Sabra, K

    1989-01-01

    Paracetamol suppositories in two different bases were given to children who had fever after operations. Plasma concentrations and the effect on temperature were compared. There was a significant correlation between peak plasma concentrations and maximum drop in temperature. A lipophilic base produced better results than a hydrophilic base.

  11. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the solid-phase extraction of paracetamole from plasma samples, followed its determination by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azodi-Deilami, Saman; Najafabadi, Alireza Hassani; Asadi, Ebadullah; Abdouss, Majid; Kordestani, Davood

    2014-01-01

    We are presenting magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (m-MIPs) for solid-phase extraction and sample clean-up of paracetamole. The m-MIPs were prepared from magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) as the magnetic component, paracetamole as the template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and 2-(methacrylamido) ethyl methacrylate as a cross-linker. The m-MIPs were then characterized by transmission electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry. The m-MIPs were applied to the extraction of paracetamole from human blood plasma samples. Following its elution from the column loaded with the m-MIPs with an acetonitrile-buffer (9:1) mixture, it was submitted to HPLC analysis. Paracetamole can be quantified by this method in the 1 μg L −1 to 300 μg L −1 concentration range. The limit of detection and limit of quantification in plasma samples are 0.17 and 0.4 μg L −1 . The preconcentration factor of the m-MIPs is 40. The HPLC method shows good precision (4.5 % at 50 μg L −1 levels) and recoveries (between 83 and 91 %) from spiked plasma samples. (author)

  12. Paracetamol as a Post Prandial Marker for Gastric Emptying, A Food-Drug Interaction on Absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Bartholomé

    Full Text Available The use of paracetamol as tool to determine gastric emptying was evaluated in a cross over study. Twelve healthy volunteers were included and each of them consumed two low and two high caloric meals. Paracetamol was mixed with a liquid meal and administered by a nasogastric feeding tube. The post prandial paracetamol plasma concentration time curve in all participants and the paracetamol concentration in the stomach content in six participants were determined. It was found that after paracetamol has left the stomach, based on analysis of the stomach content, there was still a substantial rise in the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. Moreover, the difference in gastric emptying between high and low caloric meals was missed using the plasma paracetamol concentration time curve. The latter curves indicate that (i part of the paracetamol may leave the stomach much quicker than the meal and (ii part of the paracetamol may be relatively slowly absorbed in the duodenum. This can be explained by the partition of the homogenous paracetamol-meal mixture in the stomach in an aqueous phase and a solid bolus. The aqueous phase leaves the stomach quickly and the paracetamol in this phase is quickly absorbed in the duodenum, giving rise to the relatively steep increase of the paracetamol concentration in the plasma. The bolus leaves the stomach relatively slowly, and encapsulation by the bolus results in relatively slow uptake of paracetamol from the bolus in the duodenum. These findings implicate that paracetamol is not an accurate post prandial marker for gastric emptying. The paracetamol concentration time curve rather illustrates the food-drug interaction on absorption, which is not only governed by gastric emptying.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01335503 Nederlands Trial Register NTR2780.

  13. Effect of sodium tripolyphosphate concentration and simulated gastrointestinal fluids on release profile of paracetamol from chitosan microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Andrie; Krisanti, Elsa A.

    2018-03-01

    The problem to overcome in oral drug administration is the significant pH changes present in the human digestive system. In this study, ionotropic gelation method employing 2-8% (w/v) tripolyphosphate solutions were used to crosslink chitosan microspheres for a controlled release of paracetamol as a model drug. The release profiles of paracetamol from chitosan microspheres were determined using simulated gastrointestinal fluids having pH values of 1.2, 6.8, and 7.4. The results showed that the paracetamol loading and the encapsulation efficiency values increased with increasing concentration of tripolyphosphate solutions used in the preparation step. Paracetamol released at pH 1.2 and 6.8 buffer solutions was significantly higher than that at pH 7.4; also, more paracetamol was released in the presence of α-amylase and β-glucosidase enzymes. The release profiles showed zero-order release behaviour up to 8 hours where the highest drug release was 39% of the paracetamol loaded in the chitosan microspheres, indicating a strong crosslinking between chitosan and TPP anions. The relatively low accumulated drug release could be compensated by employing suitable enzymes, lower TPP solution concentration, and addition of other biodegradable polymer to reduce the TPP crosslink.

  14. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction between erlotinib and paracetamol: A potential risk for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbownik, Agnieszka; Szałek, Edyta; Sobańska, Katarzyna; Grabowski, Tomasz; Wolc, Anna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2017-05-01

    Erlotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor available for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Paracetamol is an analgesic agent, commonly used in cancer patients. Because these drugs are often co-administered, there is an increasing issue of interaction between them. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of paracetamol on the pharmacokinetic parameters of erlotinib, as well as the influence of erlotinib on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol. The rabbits were divided into three groups: the rabbits receiving erlotinib (I ER ), the group receiving paracetamol (II PR ), and the rabbits receiving erlotinib+paracetamol (III ER+PR ). A single dose of erlotinib was administered orally (25mg) and was administered intravenously (35mg/kg). Plasma concentrations of erlotinib, its metabolite (OSI420), paracetamol and its metabolites - glucuronide and sulphate were measured with the validated method. During paracetamol co-administration we observed increased erlotinib maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ) by 87.7% and 31.1%, respectively. In turn, erlotinib lead to decreased paracetamol AUC 0-∞ by 35.5% and C max by 18.9%. The mean values of paracetamol glucuronide/paracetamol ratios for C max were 32.2% higher, whereas paracetamol sulphate/paracetamol ratios for C max and AUC 0-∞ were 37.1% and 57.1% lower in the II PR group, when compared to the III ER+PR group. Paracetamol had significant effect on the enhanced plasma exposure of erlotinib. Additionally, erlotinib contributed to the lower concentrations of paracetamol. Decreased glucuronidation and increased sulphation of paracetamol after co-administration of erlotinib were also observed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  16. Influence of fruit drinks with or without lactobacillus Lp299v on the gastrointestinal uptake of paracetamol in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akerman, Ulrika; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical observations have revealed that patients throw up undigested paracetamol tablets several hours following intake of rosehip drink with Lp299v (Proviva). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if this translates into altered plasma levels of paracetamol in nineteen healthy...... subjects consuming 200 ml of water, Rose hip drink or Proviva together with 1.5 gram of paracetamol. FINDINGS: The concentration of paracetamol in plasma increased rapidly when the paracetamol-containing tablets were consumed together with water and after 30 minutes a median level of 90 mumol/l was reached...... (a 95% confidence interval of 57,161). The corresponding 30 minutes values of paracetamol levels in the presence of rosehip with or without Lp299v were 0 mumol/l (95% confidence intervals contain only zero for both rosehip treatments). There were significant differences in AUC, maximal paracetamol...

  17. Effects of imatinib mesylate on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in Korean patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Tan, Eugene Y; Jin, Yu; Park, Sahee; Hayes, Michael; Demirhan, Eren; Schran, Horst; Wang, Yanfeng

    2011-02-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of imatinib on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML). Patients (n = 12) received a single oral dose of acetaminophen 1000 mg on day 1 (control). On days 2-8, imatinib 400 mg was administered daily. On day 8 (treatment), another 1000 mg dose of paracetamol was administered 1 h after the morning dose of imatinib 400 mg. Blood and urine samples were collected for bioanalytical analyses. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate under control conditions was similar to that after treatment with imatinib; the 90% confidence interval of the log AUC ratio was within 0.8 to 1.25. Urinary excretion of paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate was also unaffected by imatinib. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and imatinib in Korean patients with CML were similar to previous pharmacokinetic results in white patients with CML. Co-administration of a single dose of paracetamol and multiple doses of imatinib was well tolerated and safety profiles were similar to those of either drug alone. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol and its major metabolites in the presence of imatinib were similar to those of the control conditions and the combination was well tolerated. These findings suggest that imatinib can be safely administered with paracetamol without dose adjustment of either drug. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in chicks treated with metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hussain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of metronidazole on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol were examined in chicks. Chicks were dosed orally with metronidazole at 350 mg\\kg of body weight daily (10 -13 days of age. On the last day of metronidazole dosing, chicks injected intraperitoneally with paracetamol at of 50 mg\\kg of body weight. Paracetamol appeared in chick plasma at 52.00, 45.00, 40.75, 32.75, 23.25 µg \\ml after 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours of injection respectively. A significantly decreased the concentration paracetamol at times of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 4 hours post injection and appeared at concentrations of 36.62, 35.37, 25.62, 20.50, 11.00 µg\\ml. These was reflected by changes in the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol as show by the increase elimination rate constant (48% and decrease in the half-life (32 % and increase in volume distribution (29% and increase in clearance by (96% and decrease in the area under the plasma curve (33% and decrease in the area under moment curve 65% and lack mean residence time (33%. These results indicate that oral dosing of chicks with metronidazole for four consecutive days and this effect increase in the elemination rate of paracetamol and this effect must be considered when therapy with paracetamol when given during metronidazole therapy.

  19. Developmental changes rather than repeated administration drive paracetamol glucuronidation in neonates and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekels, Elke H J; van Ham, Saskia; Allegaert, Karel; de Hoon, Jan; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2015-09-01

    Based on recovered metabolite ratios in urine, it has been concluded that paracetamol glucuronidation may be up-regulated upon multiple dosing. This study investigates paracetamol clearance in neonates and infants after single and multiple dosing using a population modelling approach. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed in NONMEM VI, based on paracetamol plasma concentrations from 54 preterm and term neonates and infants, and on paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide and paracetamol-sulphate amounts in urine from 22 of these patients. Patients received either a single intravenous propacetamol dose or up to 12 repeated doses. Paracetamol and metabolite disposition was best described with one-compartment models. The formation clearance of paracetamol-sulphate was 1.46 mL/min/kg(1.4), which was about 5.5 times higher than the formation clearance of the glucuronide of 0.266 mL/min/kg. The renal excretion rate constants of both metabolites was estimated to be 11.4 times higher than the excretion rate constant of unchanged paracetamol, yielding values of 0.580 mL/min/kg. Developmental changes were best described by bodyweight in linear relationships on the distribution volumes, the formation of paracetamol-glucuronide and the unchanged excretion of paracetamol, and in an exponential relationship on the formation of paracetamol-sulphate. There was no evidence for up-regulation or other time-varying changes in any of the model parameters. Simulations with this model illustrate how paracetamol-glucuronide recovery in urine increases over time due to the slower formation of this metabolite and in the absence of up-regulation. Developmental changes, described by bodyweight-based functions, rather than up-regulation, explain developmental changes in paracetamol disposition in neonates and infants.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) When Co-Administered with Intravenous Morphine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Robert B; Pawasauskas, Jayne; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Lu, Luke; Chen, Yin; Wu, Sutan; Jarrett, Brant; Fain, Randi; Hill, Lawrence; Devarakonda, Krishna

    2018-03-01

    Several features favor paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration by the intravenous rather than the oral route in the postoperative setting. This study compared the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of oral and intravenous paracetamol when given with or without an opioid, morphine. In this randomized, single-blind, parallel, repeat-dose study in healthy adults, subjects received four repeat doses of oral or intravenous 1000 mg paracetamol at 6-h intervals, and morphine infusions (0.125 mg/kg) at the 2nd and 3rd intervals. Comparisons of plasma pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted before, during, and after opioid co-administrations. Twenty-two subjects were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Observed paracetamol peak concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve over the dosing interval (AUC 0-6 ) were reduced when oral paracetamol was co-administered with morphine (reduced from 11.6 to 7.25 µg/mL and from 31.00 to 25.51 µg·h/mL, respectively), followed by an abruptly increased C max and AUC 0-6 upon discontinuation of morphine (to 13.5 µg/mL and 52.38 µg·h/mL, respectively). There was also a significantly prolonged mean time to peak plasma concentration (T max ) after the 4th dose of oral paracetamol (2.84 h) compared to the 1st dose (1.48 h). However, pharmacokinetic parameters of paracetamol were not impacted when intravenous paracetamol was co-administered with morphine. Morphine co-administration significantly impacted the pharmacokinetics of oral but not intravenous paracetamol. The abrupt release of accumulated paracetamol at the end of morphine-mediated gastrointestinal inhibition following oral but not intravenous administration of paracetamol suggests that intravenous paracetamol provides a better option for the management of postoperative pain. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02848729.

  1. Paracetamol poisoning and hepatotoxicity in Chinese--the Prince of Wales Hospital (Hong Kong) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T Y; Chan, A Y; Critchley, J A

    1993-08-01

    From 1989 to 1991, 104 Chinese patients were admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital with paracetamol poisoning. Only 11 subjects had a plasma paracetamol concentration above the published treatment line. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was completely effective when given within 8 hours (3 patients), while late treatment with NAC at 16 and 26 hours after overdose (2 patients) was ineffective in preventing liver damage as evidenced by elevations in plasma alanine transaminase concentrations. Of the 6 patients receiving NAC between 10 to 15 hours, two had liver damage. Two other subjects who presented late or in whom a plasma paracetamol concentration was not measured also developed liver damage. Fortunately, none of these 6 subjects developed hepatic encephalopathy. We recommend that a standard protocol be readily available for junior hospital staff to use when treating patients with paracetamol overdosage.

  2. Influence of fruit drinks with or without lactobacillus Lp299v on the gastrointestinal uptake of paracetamol in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akerman, Ulrika; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    subjects consuming 200 ml of water, Rose hip drink or Proviva together with 1.5 gram of paracetamol. FINDINGS: The concentration of paracetamol in plasma increased rapidly when the paracetamol-containing tablets were consumed together with water and after 30 minutes a median level of 90 mumol/l was reached...... concentration and in time to maximal paracetamol concentration. The median maximal paracetamol concentration was 147 mumol/l for water, which is significantly higher than the median for rosehip drink with Lp299v,113.5 mumol/l, and than the median for rosehip-drink without Lp299v, 106.5 mumol/l (p = 0.002, and p...

  3. Influence of fruit drinks with or without lactobacillus Lp299v on the gastrointestinal uptake of paracetamol in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvinsson Lars

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical observations have revealed that patients throw up undigested paracetamol tablets several hours following intake of rosehip drink with Lp299v (Proviva. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate if this translates into altered plasma levels of paracetamol in nineteen healthy subjects consuming 200 ml of water, Rose hip drink or Proviva together with 1.5 gram of paracetamol. Findings The concentration of paracetamol in plasma increased rapidly when the paracetamol-containing tablets were consumed together with water and after 30 minutes a median level of 90 μmol/l was reached (a 95% confidence interval of 57,161. The corresponding 30 minutes values of paracetamol levels in the presence of rosehip with or without Lp299v were 0 μmol/l (95% confidence intervals contain only zero for both rosehip treatments. There were significant differences in AUC, maximal paracetamol concentration and in time to maximal paracetamol concentration. The median maximal paracetamol concentration was 147 μmol/l for water, which is significantly higher than the median for rosehip drink with Lp299v,113.5 μmol/l, and than the median for rosehip-drink without Lp299v, 106.5 μmol/l (p = 0.002, and p = 0.003; there were no significant difference between rosehip drink with or without Lp299v (p > 0.3. Conclusion We have demonstrated an interaction between the uptake of paracetamol and the solvent in rosehip drink/Provia which mainly consists of long chain carbohydrates. This may in the clinic translate to the use of more drug than it is necessary.

  4. Outcomes from massive paracetamol overdose: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel J B; Dargan, Paul I; Archer, John R H; Davies, Charlotte L; Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L

    2017-06-01

    This article is commented on by Bateman DN and Dear JW. Should we treat very large paracetamol overdose differently? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2017; 83: 1163-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13279 AIMS: Treatment of paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose with acetylcysteine is standardized, with dose determined only by patient weight. The validity of this approach for massive overdoses has been questioned. We systematically compared outcomes in massive and non-massive overdoses, to guide whether alternative treatment strategies should be considered, and whether the ratio between measured timed paracetamol concentrations (APAP pl ) and treatment nomogram thresholds at those time points (APAP t ) provides a useful assessment tool. This is a retrospective observational study of all patients (n = 545) between 2005 and 2013 admitted to a tertiary care toxicology service with acute non-staggered paracetamol overdose. Massive overdoses were defined as extrapolated 4-h plasma paracetamol concentrations >250 mg l -1 , or reported ingestions ≥30 g. Outcomes (liver injury, coagulopathy and kidney injury) were assessed in relation to reported dose and APAP pl :APAP t ratio (based on a treatment line through 100 mg l -1 at 4 h), and time to acetylcysteine. Ingestions of ≥30 g paracetamol correlated with higher peak serum aminotransferase (r = 0.212, P paracetamol overdose are at higher risk of organ injury, even when acetylcysteine is administered early. Enhanced therapeutic strategies should be considered in those who have an APAP pl :APAP t  ≥ 3. Novel biomarkers of incipient liver injury and abbreviated acetylcysteine regimens require validation in this patient cohort. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Plasma leptin concentration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, E; López, I; Pérez, C; Pineda, C; Aguilera-Tejero, E

    2012-01-01

    Donkeys appear to be more predisposed than large breed horses to suffer from hyperlipemia. The reason for that predisposition is unknown but anorexia is a consistent feature of the disease. Leptin, a protein synthesized in fat tissue, is one of the major inhibitors of appetite in mammals. We hypothesized that donkeys could have elevated plasma leptin concentrations compared to horses. Blood samples were obtained from 50 donkeys for measurement of leptin, triglycerides (TGs), glucose, and insulin. Glucose/insulin ratio, modified insulin to glucose ratio, and reciprocal of the square root of insulin were calculated. Based on their body condition score (BCS), donkeys were classified as lean (n = 18), normal (n = 16), or overweight (n = 16). The results were compared with reference values from our laboratory and with a group of horses (n = 25) used as an internal control. Values of both leptin and TGs in donkeys were above the horse reference range and also significantly higher than those of the control horses: leptin (11.2 ± 1.7 versus 5.8 ± 0.5 µg/L, p donkeys had leptin (19.3 ± 2.9 µg/L) and TG (1.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L) concentrations that were significantly (p donkeys. A significant positive correlation (p Donkeys have higher plasma leptin concentrations than horses and leptin is correlated with BCS.

  6. Bioequivalence and Safety of Twice-Daily Sustained-Release Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Compared With 3- and 4-Times-Daily Paracetamol: A Repeat-Dose, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongzhou J; Collaku, Agron

    2018-01-01

    Twice-daily sustained-release (SR) paracetamol (acetaminophen) offers convenient administration to chronic users. This study investigated at steady state (during the last 24 hours of a 3-day dosing period) the pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence, and safety of twice-daily SR paracetamol compared with extended-release (ER) and immediate-release (IR) paracetamol. In this open-label, randomized, multidose, 3-way crossover study, 28 healthy subjects received paracetamol SR (2 × 1000 mg twice daily), ER (2 × 665 mg 3 times daily), and IR (2 × 500 mg 4 times daily). At steady state, twice-daily SR paracetamol was bioequivalent to ER and IR paracetamol. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric means were within the acceptance interval for SR/ER paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.973-1.033; AUC 0-24 , 0.974-1.034; AUC 0-∞ , 0.948-1.011; C max , 1.082-1.212; C av , 1.011-1.106) and SR/IR paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.969-1.029; AUC 0-24 , 0.968-1.027; AUC 0-∞ , 0.963-1.026; C max , 0.902-1.010; C av , 1.004-1.098). Given twice daily, the SR formulation demonstrated SR properties as expected. Mean time at or above a 4 μg/mL plasma concentration of paracetamol from 2 daily doses of the SR formulation was significantly longer than that from 4 daily doses of IR paracetamol. SR formulation also had a greater T max , a longer half-life, and lower C min compared with ER and IR paracetamol. All formulations were well tolerated. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF DOMESTIC INFUSION DRUGS BASED ON PARACETAMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almakaeva L.G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous form of paracetamol compared with oral more reliably supports effective drug concentration in blood plasma that promotes a higher therapeutic effect. Recent studies have confirmed that the use of the intravenous form of paracetamol to deal with postoperative pain multimodal analgesia modes results in reducing the frequency and quantity of opioids administered , and, as a consequence, its associated side effects. The drug Paracetamol , infusion solution 10 mg / ml to 100 ml glass bottles is a drug - generic . His qualitative and quantitative composition is developed from the study of literature data about the drug - similar to " Perfalhan , 10 mg / ml solution for infusion in 100 mL " company Bristol - Myers Squibb, France and experimental work. The aim of our study is development and support of the national composition of the infusion of the drug on the basis of paracetamol, selection of excipients that provide stability of the active substances. Materials and methods. The object of the study was the substance of paracetamol manufactured by Zhejiang Kangle Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd, China. During the work conducted qualitative and quantitative monitoring sample preparation for indicators of stability: pH content of the active ingredient , transparency, color, impurities , contamination by the methods described in the SFU [and nor- ral documentation to the drug . One potential factor of instability is the effect of paracetamol oxygen, due to the presence in the molecule of paracetamol and -NH possibility of oxidation. Results and Discussion. Paracetamol is derived atsetamina . Substance acetylation are p - aminophenol with acetic anhydride . Saturated aqueous solution has a pH of paracetamol - ment about 6 . Paracetamol is a crystalline white powder , sparingly soluble in water, soluble in 96% alcohol, very slightly soluble in metilenhloride . . Active substance enters in comparison drug in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Stable

  8. Plasma concentration of acetylcholine in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.; Oohata, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1+-53.1 (mean +-S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentrations of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified. 13 refs. (Author)

  9. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  10. Degradation of paracetamol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ1012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhang, Li L; Chen, Jian M; Liu, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain HJ1012 was isolated on paracetamol as a sole carbon and energy source. This organism could completely degrade paracetamol as high as 2200 mg/L. Following paracetamol consumption, a CO₂ yield rate up to 71.4% proved that the loss of paracetamol was mainly via mineralization. Haldane's equation adequately described the relationship between the specific growth rate and substrate concentration. The maximum specific growth rate and yield coefficient were 0.201 g-Paracetamol/g-VSS·h and 0.101 mg of biomass yield/mg of paracetamol consumed, respectively. A total of 8 metabolic intermediates was identified and classified into aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids, and inorganic species (nitrite and nitrate ions). P-aminophenol and hydroquinone are the two key metabolites of the initial steps in the paracetamol catabolic pathway. Paracetamol is degraded predominantly via p-aminophenol to hydroquinone with subsequent ring fission, suggesting partially new pathways for paracetamol-degrading bacteria.

  11. Effects of Paracetamol on NOS, COX, and CYP Activity and on Oxidative Stress in Healthy Male Subjects, Rat Hepatocytes, and Recombinant NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Böhmer, Anke; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Probst, Irmelin; Staerk, Ulrich; Stichtenoth, Dirk O.; Frölich, Jürgen C.

    2014-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used analgesic drug. It interacts with various enzyme families including cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and this interplay may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). We investigated the effects of paracetamol on prostacyclin, thromboxane, nitric oxide (NO), and oxidative stress in four male subjects who received a single 3 g oral dose of paracetamol. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis was assessed by measuring their major urinary metabolites 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-6-ketoprostaglandin F1α, respectively. Endothelial NO synthesis was assessed by measuring nitrite in plasma. Urinary 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglanding F2α was measured to assess oxidative stress. Plasma oleic acid oxide (cis-EpOA) was measured as a marker of cytochrome P450 activity. Upon paracetamol administration, prostacyclin synthesis was strongly inhibited, while NO synthesis increased and thromboxane synthesis remained almost unchanged. Paracetamol may shift the COX-dependent vasodilatation/vasoconstriction balance at the cost of vasodilatation. This effect may be antagonized by increasing endothelial NO synthesis. High-dosed paracetamol did not increase oxidative stress. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, paracetamol did not affect NO synthesis/bioavailability by recombinant human endothelial NOS or inducible NOS in rat hepatocytes. We conclude that paracetamol does not increase oxidative stress in humans. PMID:24799980

  12. Quantification of acetaminophen (paracetamol) in human plasma and urine by stable isotope-dilution GC-MS and GC-MS/MS as pentafluorobenzyl ether derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trettin, Arne; Zoerner, Alexander A; Böhmer, Anke; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-08-01

    We report on the quantitative determination of acetaminophen (paracetamol; NAPAP-d(0)) in human plasma and urine by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI) mode after derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide (PFB-Br). Commercially available tetradeuterated acetaminophen (NAPAP-d(4)) was used as the internal standard. NAPAP-d(0) and NAPAP-d(4) were extracted from 100-μL aliquots of plasma and urine with 300 μL ethyl acetate (EA) by vortexing (60s). After centrifugation the EA phase was collected, the solvent was removed under a stream of nitrogen gas, and the residue was reconstituted in acetonitrile (MeCN, 100 μL). PFB-Br (10 μL, 30 vol% in MeCN) and N,N-diisopropylethylamine (10 μL) were added and the mixture was incubated for 60 min at 30 °C. Then, solvents and reagents were removed under nitrogen and the residue was taken up with 1000 μL of toluene, from which 1-μL aliquots were injected in the splitless mode. GC-MS quantification was performed by selected-ion monitoring ions due to [M-PFB](-) and [M-PFB-H](-), m/z 150 and m/z 149 for NAPAP-d(0) and m/z 154 and m/z 153 for NAPAP-d(4), respectively. GC-MS/MS quantification was performed by selected-reaction monitoring the transition m/z 150 → m/z 107 and m/z 149 → m/z 134 for NAPAP-d(0) and m/z 154 → m/z 111 and m/z 153 → m/z 138 for NAPAP-d(4). The method was validated for human plasma (range, 0-130 μM NAPAP-d(0)) and urine (range, 0-1300 μM NAPAP-d(0)). Accuracy (recovery, %) ranged between 89 and 119%, and imprecision (RSD, %) was below 19% in these matrices and ranges. A close correlation (r>0.999) was found between the concentrations measured by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS. By this method, acetaminophen can be reliably quantified in small plasma and urine sample volumes (e.g., 10 μL). The analytical performance of the method makes it especially useful in pediatrics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cui; Qu, Ruijuan; Liang, Jinyan; Yang, Xi

    2010-11-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  14. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Meng; Ruijuan, Qu; Jinyan, Liang; Xi, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-11-24

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  15. Photodegradation of Paracetamol in Nitrate Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Cui; Qu Ruijuan; Liang Jinyan; Yang Xi

    2010-01-01

    The photodegradation of paracetamol in nitrate solution under simulated solar irradiation has been investigated. The degradation rates were compared by varying environmental parameters including concentrations of nitrate ion, humic substance and pH values. The quantifications of paracetamol were conducted by HPLC method. The results demonstrate that the photodegradation of paracetamol followed first-order kinetics. The photoproducts and intermediates of paracetamol in the presence of nitrate ions were identified by extensive GC-MS method. The photodegradation pathways involving. OH radicals as reactive species were proposed.

  16. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  17. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  18. Determination of particle concentrations in multitemperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richley, E.; Tuma, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the multitemperature Saha equation (MSE) of Prigogine 1 and Patapov 2 for calculating particle concentrations in plasmas is shown to be an invalid procedure. Errors greater than one order of magnitude in the electron density in high-pressure argon and nitrogen electric arc plasmas can be easily incurred by using the multitemperature Saha equation. The alternative kinetic method for calculating concentrations is shown to be based on firm concepts. Simpliying procedures and computational techniques for calculating concentrations with the kinetic method are illustrated with examples

  19. Pathogen Inactivated Plasma Concentrated: Preparation and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    of decontamination, porcine parvovirus (PPV) was selected as a model virus; B19 is the form that infects humans. PPV is an interesting pathogen...ultrasound to cold plasma. The ultrasound generates pure ice crystals, which are then removed to leave concentrated plasma. Testing: Porcine parvovirus ...energy to “burn” any proteins that they encounter. Furthermore, as they react, they also produce multiple other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are

  20. Urinary paracetamol and time-to-pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Melissa M; Grantz, Katherine L; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, José M; Honda, Masato; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2016-09-01

    Is preconception urinary paracetamol (acetaminophen) associated with time-to-pregnancy (TTP)? Higher urinary paracetamol concentrations among male partners were associated with a longer TTP. Paracetamol is a commonly used analgesic among women and men of all ages. As metabolites of select chemicals used in the manufacturing of polyurethane foam, dyes and various industrial products, as well as a common medicinal product, paracetamol and its primary metabolite p-aminophenol, are ubiquitous in the environment. Studies investigating the relationship between adult urinary concentrations of paracetamol and TTP are lacking. This prospective cohort included 501 couples discontinuing contraception for the purposes of attempting conception during the years 2005-2009 and residing in Michigan or Texas, USA. Total urinary paracetamol, its metabolite para-aminophenol (p-aminophenol), and a summary measure of both urinary biomarkers were quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an electrospray triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Female partners used the Clearblue® digital home test to confirm pregnancy. Cox's proportional odds models for discrete survival time were used to estimate fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), urinary creatinine, preconception smoking status, race/ethnicity and household income. Models were further adjusted for hypothyroidism and hypertension as an attempt to account for possible indications of paracetamol medication use. FOR estimates paracetamol as a continuous and variable or categorized into quartiles. In light of TTP being a couple-dependent outcome, models were first performed for females and males, modeled separately, and then modeled for couples with each partner's concentrations being adjusted for the other. Among the 501 enrolled couples, 347 (69%) had an human chorionic gonadotrophin confirmed pregnancy. Urinary concentrations

  1. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  2. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  3. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  4. A review of the evidence concerning hepatic glutathione depletion and susceptibility to hepatotoxicity after paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsi SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarbjeet S Kalsi1,2, Paul I Dargan2–4, W Stephen Waring5, David M Wood2–41Emergency Department, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Clinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 3King’s Health Partners, London, UK; 4King’s College London, London, UK; 5York Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, York, UKAbstract: Paracetamol (acetaminophen poisoning is common throughout the world. The management of nonstaggered (acute paracetamol overdose is based on the plasma paracetamol concentration plotted on a treatment nomogram. In the UK there are two treatment lines on this nomogram, with the lower treatment line used for individuals felt to be at ‘high risk’ of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity either as a result of induction of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes or reduction of intrahepatic glutathione. In this article we review the risk factors that, in current guidelines, are felt to increase risk due to a reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations. Based on our review of the published literature, we feel that cystic fibrosis, acute viral illness, malnutrition, and eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa are likely to be associated with reduction in intrahepatic glutathione concentrations, and that this risk is likely to be related to malnutrition secondary to the disease. Chronic hepatitis C infection is also associated with reduced glutathione concentrations, although this appears to be independent of any associated malnutrition. Ageing and acute fasting are not associated with an increased risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity due to reductions in glutathione concentrations. Finally, the evidence for HIV infection is inconclusive, particularly as the majority of studies were conducted in the pre-anti-viral treatment (HAART era; however it is likely that patients with symptomatic HIV/AIDS have reduced glutathione concentrations due to associated malnutrition. Although

  5. Metabolism by conjugation appears to confer resistance to paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity in the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Barrass, Nigel; Gales, Sonya; Lenz, Eva; Parry, Tony; Powell, Helen; Thurman, Dale; Hutchison, Michael; Wilson, Ian D; Bi, Luke; Qiao, Junwen; Qin, Qiuping; Ren, Jin

    2015-03-01

    1. Paracetamol overdose remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in humans. This study was undertaken in cynomolgus monkeys to study the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and the potential for hepatotoxic insult from paracetamol administration as a possible model for human toxicity. 2. No adverse effects were observed for doses of up to 900 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Only minor sporadic increases in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase in a number of animals were observed, with no clear dose response. 3. Toxicokinetic analysis showed good plasma exposure, albeit with less than proportional rises in Cmax and AUC, with increasing dose. The Cmax values in monkey were up to 3.5 times those associated with human liver toxicity and the AUC approx. 1000 times those associated with liver enzyme changes in 31-44% of human subjects. 4. Metabolite profiling of urine by (1)H NMR spectroscopy revealed paracetamol and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites. Glutathione-derived metabolites, e.g. the cysteinyl conjugate, were only present in very low concentrations whilst the mercapturate was not detected. 5. These in vivo observations demonstrated that the cynomolgus monkey is remarkably resistant to paracetamol-induced toxicity and a poor model for investigating paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity in humans.

  6. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Angela L; Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper; Buckley, Nick A

    2018-02-23

    benefits and underestimation of harms). We used Trial Sequential Analysis to control risks of random errors (i.e. play of chance) and GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence and constructed 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE software. We identified 11 randomised clinical trials (of which one acetylcysteine trial was abandoned due to low numbers recruited), assessing several different interventions in 700 participants. The variety of interventions studied included decontamination, extracorporeal measures, and antidotes to detoxify paracetamol's toxic metabolite; which included methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol, or acetylcysteine. There were no randomised clinical trials of agents that inhibit cytochrome P-450 to decrease the activation of the toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine.Of the 11 trials, only two had two common outcomes, and hence, we could only meta-analyse two comparisons. Each of the remaining comparisons included outcome data from one trial only and hence their results are presented as described in the trials. All trial analyses lack power to access efficacy. Furthermore, all the trials were at high risk of bias. Accordingly, the quality of evidence was low or very low for all comparisons. Interventions that prevent absorption, such as gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or activated charcoal were compared with placebo or no intervention and with each other in one four-armed randomised clinical trial involving 60 participants with an uncertain randomisation procedure and hence very low quality. The trial presented results on lowering plasma paracetamol levels. Activated charcoal seemed to reduce the absorption of paracetamol, but the clinical benefits were unclear. Activated charcoal seemed to have the best risk:benefit ratio among gastric lavage, ipecacuanha, or supportive treatment if given within four hours of ingestion. There seemed to be no difference between gastric lavage and ipecacuanha, but gastric lavage and ipecacuanha seemed more

  7. Systemic exposure of Paracetamol (acetaminophen) was enhanced by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in Wistar rats and in vitro model: risk of liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingili, Ravindra Babu; Pawar, A Krishnamanjari; Challa, Siva R

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play an important role in the first-pass-metabolism (FPM) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of majority of drugs. Paracetamol is primarily metabolized by conjugation reactions and a little amount (∼15%) undergoes cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1)-mediated oxidative metabolism produces a hepatotoxic metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinonimine (NAPQI). Quercetin and chrysin are naturally occurring flavonoids, reported as modulators of P-gp and DMEs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin and chrysin on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol using rats and non-everted gut sacs in vitro. Paracetamol was given orally (100 mg/kg) to rats alone and in combination with quercetin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and chrysin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) once daily for 21 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected on the 1st day in single dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS) and on the 21st day in multiple pharmacokinetic studies (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paracetamol were determined by HPLC and PK parameters were calculated by using Kinetica (Version 5.1). The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0-12) of paracetamol was significantly increased by quercetin and chrysin co-administration in SDS and MDS. In non-everted rat gut sac method, the absorption of paracetamol was increased by presence of P-gp inhibitors (verapamil, quinidine and ketoconazole), quercetin and chrysin (50 μg/mL). Our findings suggested that the quercetin and chrysin might be inhibited the P-gp and metabolism of paracetamol; thereby increased the systemic exposure of paracetamol. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the quercetin or chrysin are involved in the formation of NAPQI by CYP2E1 or not on isolated rat hepatocytes or using cell lines.

  8. Risk prediction of hepatotoxicity in paracetamol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Graudins, Andis

    2017-09-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the developed world. A paracetamol treatment nomogram has been used for over four decades to help determine whether patients will develop hepatotoxicity without acetylcysteine treatment, and thus indicates those needing treatment. Despite this, a small proportion of patients still develop hepatotoxicity. More accurate risk predictors would be useful to increase the early detection of patients with the potential to develop hepatotoxicity despite acetylcysteine treatment. Similarly, there would be benefit in early identification of those with a low likelihood of developing hepatotoxicity, as this group may be safely treated with an abbreviated acetylcysteine regimen. To review the current literature related to risk prediction tools that can be used to identify patients at increased risk of hepatotoxicity. A systematic literature review was conducted using the search terms: "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen" AND "overdose" OR "toxicity" OR "risk prediction rules" OR "hepatotoxicity" OR "psi parameter" OR "multiplication product" OR "half-life" OR "prothrombin time" OR "AST/ALT (aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase)" OR "dose" OR "biomarkers" OR "nomogram". The search was limited to human studies without language restrictions, of Medline (1946 to May 2016), PubMed and EMBASE. Original articles pertaining to the theme were identified from January 1974 to May 2016. Of the 13,975 articles identified, 60 were relevant to the review. Paracetamol treatment nomograms: Paracetamol treatment nomograms have been used for decades to help decide the need for acetylcysteine, but rarely used to determine the risk of hepatotoxicity with treatment. Reported paracetamol dose and concentration: A dose ingestion >12 g or serum paracetamol concentration above the treatment thresholds on the paracetamol nomogram are associated with a greater risk of hepatotoxicity. Paracetamol elimination half

  9. Sunitinib DDI with paracetamol, diclofenac, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen shows sex-divergent effects on the tissue uptake and distribution pattern of sunitinib in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Yean; Wong, Mei Mei; Tiew, Angela Lu Wun; Choo, Yai Wen; Lim, Suat Hun; Ooi, Ing Hong; Modamio, Pilar; Fernández, Cecilia; Mariño, Eduardo L; Segarra, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic interaction of sunitinib with diclofenac, paracetamol, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen was evaluated due to their P450 mediated metabolism and OATP1B1, OATP1B3, ABCB1, ABCG2 transporters overlapping features. Male and female mice were administered 6 sunitinib doses (60 mg/kg) PO every 12 h and 30 min before the last dose were administered vehicle (control groups), 250 mg/kg paracetamol, 30 mg/kg diclofenac, 50 mg/kg mefenamic acid or 30 mg/kg ibuprofen (study groups), euthanized 6 h post last administration and sunitinib plasma, liver, kidney, brain concentrations analyzed. Ibuprofen halved sunitinib plasma concentration in female mice (p Diclofenac and paracetamol female mice showed 45 and 25 % higher plasma concentrations than male mice which were 27 % lower in mefenamic acid female mice. Paracetamol increased 2.2 (p diclofenac, paracetamol, mefenamic acid and ibuprofen (p diclofenac group in male mice (liver, brain) and female mice (liver, kidney). These results portray gender-based sunitinib pharmacokinetic differences and NSAIDs selective effects on male or female mice, with potential clinical translatability.

  10. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  11. Effect of hemodialysis on leflunomide plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, Jasmine M; Hackett, L Peter; Luxton, Grant; Illett, Kenneth F

    2002-01-01

    To report on the influence of hemodialysis on the disposition of leflunomide in a woman with end-stage renal disease. A 65-year-old white woman with a history of diabetes, end-stage renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and leg ulcers was admitted to the hospital with a flare in the symptoms of joint pain and vasculitis. Prior to admission, she had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate 7.5 mg once a week. Due to adverse effects from methotrexate and continuing painful joints, leflunomide was considered as a therapeutic alternative. A loading dose of 100 mg was followed two days later by a daily dose of 10 mg. The active metabolite of leflunomide (A771726) was measured before and after hemodialysis and between hemodialysis sessions over a period of 80 days. Pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations were compared for 17 sessions during this time. Based on the initial measured concentrations, the leflunomide dose was increased to 20 mg/d for several weeks before being reduced to 15 mg due to elevated liver enzymes. Although renal pathways are responsible in part for excretion of A771726, the concentrations achieved in this patient at doses of 10-20 mg/d were at the low end of the range reported in the literature. It was shown that pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations of A771726 did not differ significantly. Thus, the low concentrations of A771726 were not a result of the hemodialysis. Steady-state concentrations of A771726 in plasma were not affected by hemodialysis or renal impairment. Reduction of the dose of leflunomide in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis does not appear to be required.

  12. Interaction of paracetamol and 125I-paracetamol with surface groups of activated carbon. Theoretical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Hernandez-Valdes; Ulises Jauregui-Haza; Carlos Enriquez-Victorero; Melvin Arias

    2015-01-01

    The selection of activated carbon (AC) filters for water decontamination is currently carried out empirically. The low concentrations of drugs in the environment make the radioisotope labeling a valuable tool for physical and chemical studies of the adsorption process. A theoretical study of paracetamol and 125 I-paracetamol adsorption onto AC was performed to evaluate the interactions between pollutants and surface groups (SG) of AC. Paracetamol was labeled with 125 I and adsorption isotherms were obtained using radioanalytical and spectrophotometric techniques. The radioanalytical method overestimates the paracetamol adsorption. The validity of the chosen approach for qualitative assessment of SG influence over the adsorption process was demonstrated. (author)

  13. Understanding lactic acidosis in paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anoop D; Wood, David M; Dargan, Paul I

    2011-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly taken drugs in overdose in many areas of the world, and the most common cause of acute liver failure in both the UK and USA. Paracetamol poisoning can result in lactic acidosis in two different scenarios. First, early in the course of poisoning and before the onset of hepatotoxicity in patients with massive ingestion; a lactic acidosis is usually associated with coma. Experimental evidence from studies in whole animals, perfused liver slices and cell cultures has shown that the toxic metabolite of paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine, inhibits electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and thus inhibits aerobic respiration. This occurs only at very high concentrations of paracetamol, and precedes cellular injury by several hours. The second scenario in which lactic acidosis can occur is later in the course of paracetamol poisoning as a consequence of established liver failure. In these patients lactate is elevated primarily because of reduced hepatic clearance, but in shocked patients there may also be a contribution of peripheral anaerobic respiration because of tissue hypoperfusion. In patients admitted to a liver unit with paracetamol hepatotoxicity, the post-resuscitation arterial lactate concentration has been shown to be a strong predictor of mortality, and is included in the modified King's College criteria for consideration of liver transplantation. We would therefore recommend that post-resuscitation lactate is measured in all patients with a severe paracetamol overdose resulting in either reduced conscious level or hepatic failure. © 2010 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  15. Can paracetamol (acetaminophen) be administered to patients with liver impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Kelly L; Powell, Elizabeth E; Irvine, Katharine M; Martin, Jennifer H

    2016-02-01

    Although 60 years have passed since it became widely available on the therapeutic market, paracetamol dosage in patients with liver disease remains a controversial subject. Fulminant hepatic failure has been a well documented consequence of paracetamol overdose since its introduction, while short and long term use have both been associated with elevation of liver transaminases, a surrogate marker for acute liver injury. From these reports it has been assumed that paracetamol use should be restricted or the dosage reduced in patients with chronic liver disease. We review the factors that have been purported to increase risk of hepatocellular injury from paracetamol and the pharmacokinetic alterations in different pathologies of chronic liver disease which may affect this risk. We postulate that inadvertent under-dosing may result in concentrations too low to enable efficacy. Specific research to improve the evidence base for prescribing paracetamol in patients with different aetiologies of chronic liver disease is needed. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  17. Risk factors contributing to a low darunavir plasma concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daskapan, Alper; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; Bierman, Wouter F.W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Touw, Daan J.; Alffenaar, Jan Willem C.

    Darunavir is an efficacious drug; however, pharmacokinetic variability has been reported. The objective of this study was to find predisposing factors for low darunavir plasma concentrations in patients starting the once- or twice-daily dosage. Darunavir plasma concentrations from January 2010 till

  18. Degradation of paracetamol by pure bacterial cultures and their microbial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Hu, Jun; Zhu, Runye; Zhou, Qingwei; Chen, Jianmeng

    2013-04-01

    Three bacterial strains utilizing paracetamol as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source were isolated from a paracetamol-degrading aerobic aggregate, and assigned to species of the genera Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. The Stenotrophomonas species have not included any known paracetamol degraders until now. In batch cultures, the organisms f1, f2, and fg-2 could perform complete degradation of paracetamol at concentrations of 400, 2,500, and 2,000 mg/L or below, respectively. A combination of three microbial strains resulted in significantly improved degradation and mineralization of paracetamol. The co-culture was able to use paracetamol up to concentrations of 4,000 mg/L, and mineralized 87.1 % of the added paracetamol at the initial of 2,000 mg/L. Two key metabolites of the biodegradation pathway of paracetamol, 4-aminophenol, and hydroquinone were detected. Paracetamol was degraded predominantly via 4-aminophenol to hydroquinone with subsequent ring fission, suggesting new pathways for paracetamol-degrading bacteria. The degradation of paracetamol could thus be performed by the single isolates, but is stimulated by a synergistic interaction of the three-member consortium, suggesting a possible complementary interaction among the various isolates. The exact roles of each of the strains in the consortium need to be further elucidated.

  19. Clinical Pharmacology of Paracetamol in Neonates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici, MD, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Paracetamol clearance is lower in neonates than in children and adults. After metabolic conversion, paracetamol is subsequently eliminated by the renal route. The main metabolic conversions are conjugation with glucuronic acid and with sulphate. In the urine of neonates sulphated paracetamol concentration is higher than the glucuronidated paracetamol level, suggesting that sulfation prevails over glucuronidation in neonates. A loading dose of 20 mg/kg followed by 10 mg/kg every 6 hours of intravenous paracetamol is suggested to achieve a compartment concentration of 11 mg/L in late preterm and term neonates. Aiming for the same target concentration, oral doses are similar with rectal administration of 25 to 30 mg/kg/d in preterm neonates of 30 weeks’ gestation, 45 mg/kg/d in preterm infants of 34 weeks’ gestation, and 60 mg/kg/d in term neonates are suggested. The above-mentioned paracetamol doses for these indications (pain, fever are well tolerated in neonates, but do not result in a significant increase in liver enzymes, and do not affect blood pressure and have limited effects on heart rate. In contrast, the higher doses suggested in extreme preterm neonates to induce closure of the patent ductus arteriosus have not yet been sufficiently evaluated regarding efficacy or safety. Moreover, focussed pharmacovigilance to explore the potential causal association between paracetamol exposure during perinatal life and infancy and subsequent atopy is warranted.

  20. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  1. Release Properties of Paracetamol Granulationa Formulated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theobroma cacao gum, TCG was derived as a dry powder from fresh fruits of Theobroma cacao. Various granulations of paracetamol were prepared with TCG at the concentrations of 0.5 – 4% w/w. Similar formulations were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, SCMC and acacia gums as standards. In each ...

  2. Predicting outcome of paracetamol poisoning by using 14C-aminopyrine breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, J.B.; Wright, N.; Lewis, K.O.

    1980-01-01

    The 14 C-aminopyrine ( 14 C-amidopyrine) breath test, carried out within 24 to 36 hours of an overdosage of paracetamol, was used to predict the extent of liver damage in 30 seriously poisoned patients. Mean 14 C0 2 excretion was 4.4% in 20 healthy control subjects; 5.5% in six patients who escaped injury; and 2.9%, 1.5%, and 0.2% in those with mild to moderate (12 patients), severe (eight patients), and fatal (four patients) liver damage respectively. This test proved to be a more reliable predictor of the extent of liver damage than plasma paracetamol concentration or half life or the results of conventional liver function tests and may enable treatment of hepatic failure to be started at an early stage. (author)

  3. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  4. GUIDELINES FOR PARACETAMOL POISONING TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucija Sarc

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol overdose results in an accumulation of the reactive, hepatotoxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimin (NAPKQI which can cause serious liver injury. Recognition of paracetamol overdose, hepatotoxicity risk estimation and early treatment are crutial in paracetamol poisoniong management. In ingestion of potential hepatotoxic dose of paracetamol decontamination and early treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC are indicated. Both, 20-hours intravenous and 72-hurs oral regimes of NAC administration are successful. By antidote regime selection we should consider patient condition and time after paracetamol overdose. In severe hepatotoxicity, criteria for liver transplantation should be regularly evaluated and mechanisms for liver transplantation must be activated in time. 

  5. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...... groups. It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity and serum gastrin concentrations are not influenced by sham feeding in contrast to the influence of insulin hypoglycemia....... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  6. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  7. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Overdose pattern and outcome in paracetamol-induced acute severe hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Darren G N; Bates, Caroline M; Davidson, Janice S; Martin, Kirsty G; Hayes, Peter C; Simpson, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Paracetamol (acetaminophen) hepatotoxicity is the commonest cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the UK. Conflicting data regarding the outcomes of paracetamol-induced ALF resulting from different overdose patterns are reported. METHODS Using prospectively defined criteria, we have analysed the impact of overdose pattern upon outcome in a cohort of 938 acute severe liver injury patients admitted to the Scottish Liver Transplantation Unit. RESULTS Between 1992 and 2008, 663 patients were admitted with paracetamol-induced acute severe liver injury. Of these patients, 500 (75.4%) had taken an intentional paracetamol overdose, whilst 110 (16.6%) had taken an unintentional overdose. No clear overdose pattern could be determined in 53 (8.0%). Unintentional overdose patients were significantly older, more likely to abuse alcohol, and more commonly overdosed on compound narcotic/paracetamol analgesics compared with intentional overdose patients. Unintentional overdoses had significantly lower admission paracetamol and alanine aminotransferase concentrations compared with intentional overdoses. However, unintentional overdoses had greater organ dysfunction at admission, and subsequently higher mortality (unintentional 42/110 (38.2%), intentional 128/500 (25.6%), P paracetamol overdose is associated with increased mortality compared with intentional paracetamol overdose, despite lower admission paracetamol concentrations. Alternative prognostic criteria may be required for unintentional paracetamol overdoses. PMID:21219409

  9. Plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik Kapun, Alja; Salobir, Janez; Levart, Alenka; Tavčar Kalcher, Gabrijela; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Kotnik, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of vitamin E has been demonstrated in human atopic dermatitis. Data on plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) are not available. To determine vitamin E concentrations in plasma and skin of atopic dogs. Vitamin E concentrations in plasma and full-thickness skin biopsies of 15 atopic dogs were related to CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) scores and compared to the equivalent concentrations in 17 healthy dogs. Statistically significant differences of measured parameters between the two groups were determined by the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test and correlations between CADESI-03 scores and vitamin E concentrations were evaluated by the Spearman rank test. A value of P vitamin E were significantly lower in atopic dogs than in healthy dogs, with median values of 29.8 and 52.9 μmol/L, respectively. Skin vitamin E values did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls. The median concentration of skin vitamin E in atopic dogs was higher than that in healthy dogs. No significant correlations were found between CADESI-03 score and plasma vitamin E or skin vitamin E concentrations. Significantly lower plasma vitamin E concentrations in atopic dogs than in healthy controls indicate altered homeostasis of vitamin E in CAD. Further investigation into vitamin E supplementation in CAD is warranted.

  10. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  11. Low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Rennie, J; Baker, B A; Morley, R

    1988-01-01

    A major association has been found between low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in preterm neonates and their later developmental outcome. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was measured longitudinally in 280 preterm infants below 1850 g birth weight. Babies whose lowest recorded concentration was less than 0.3 nmol/l had, at 18 months' corrected age, 8.3 and 7.4 point disadvantages in Bayley mental and motor scales and a 8.6 point disadvantage on the academic scale of Developmental Profile II, even after adjusting for a range of antenatal and neonatal factors known to influence later development. Low concentrations of triiodothyronine were strongly associated with infant mortality, but not after adjusting for the presence of respiratory illness. There was no association between plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and somatic growth up to 18 months, and no association with necrotising enterocolitis or later cerebral palsy. Data on postnatal changes in plasma triiodothyronine concentrations are presented for reference purposes. While cited reference ranges for plasma triiodothyronine concentration appear suitable for well infants above 1500 g birth weight, smaller or ill babies often have very low values for many weeks. Our data are relevant to the debate on endocrine 'replacement' treatment in premature babies. PMID:2461683

  12. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0±0.6 pg/ml, 4.7±0.2 pg/ml and 6.5±1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6±2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 μmol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin

  13. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  14. Plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, P M; Bennett, R A; Harr, K E; Lock, B A

    2001-08-01

    To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas. Prospective study. 9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas. Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas. Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 +/- 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity. Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas.

  15. effects of artemether on the plasma and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Komolafe

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... degeneration of the renal tissue of rats, inability of the damaged kidneys to concentrate urine, which manifested as excessive water loss and electrolyte depletion. Key words: Artemether, electrolytes in plasma, urine concentrations, rats. INTRODUCTION. Artemether, one of the derivatives of artemisinin, is.

  16. Treatment with paracetamol in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana, A; Morton, N S; Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2001-01-01

    Paracetamol (N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol) or acetaminophen has become the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic in children. However, there is a wide discrepancy between the extent to which paracetamol is used and the limited available pharmacological data in small infants. The purpose...... of this article is to present a review of the current literature regarding the use of paracetamol in neonates and infants with a particular emphasis on pharmacological issues....

  17. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of plasma myoglobin concentrations in normal persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, S.; Milkov, V. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Plasma myoglobin concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 53 normal persons (29 women and 24 men) with ages ranging from 19 to 76 years. The average values for myoglobin concentrations in the plasma of 29 women, aged 19 to 76 years, are 4a.09 +- 4.51 ng/ml, while in 24 healthy men, aged 20 to 74 years, they are 54.39 +-4.68 ng/ml. The obtained results for the plasma myoglobin level in men are higher than the ones recorded in women at statistical significance p<0.05. In the group under study the plasma myoglobin values disclose also age-related differences, although lacking statistical significance (p>0.10).

  19. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised......Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...

  20. Development of concentric equipotential surfaces in bumpy torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Keiichi; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujiwara, Masami; Ikegami, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Radial profiles of the plasma space potential are measured in Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe. Asymmetric potential profiles owing to toroidal drift are observed in high pressure operation (C-mode). As the pressure is decreased, toroidal plasma is effectively heated (T-mode), poloidal precessional frequency overcomes the electron collision frequency and the equipotential surfaces becomes concentric inside the hot electron ring. (author)

  1. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  2. Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in severe growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R J; Abbas, A; Melby, O; Ireland, R M; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxemia induces an increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration in human fetal life and, if so, whether this response stimulates fetal erythropoiesis. The plasma erythropoietin concentration in blood samples from 33 small-for-gestational-age fetuses at 26 to 38 weeks' gestation was measured. Measurements were compared with the reference range for gestation, and associations with PO2, pH, and erythroblast and erythrocyte counts were examined. The mean plasma erythropoietin concentration in the small-for-gestational-age fetuses was significantly increased, and the degree of increase was significantly associated both with fetal acidemia and, more strongly, with fetal erythroblastosis. Erythropoietin production in response to tissue hypoxia occurs from at least 26 weeks' gestation with measurable physiologic effects on erythropoiesis. Furthermore, more accurate assessment of tissue oxygenation may be obtained by measuring the erythroblast count rather than the blood pH.

  3. Diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Veríssimo, Luís M.P.; Santos, Cecilia I.A.V.; Cabral, Ana M.T.D.P.V.; Gaspar, Gualter D.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mutual diffusion coefficients of paracetamol in aqueous dilute solutions. ► Influence of the thermodynamic factors on the variation of their mutual diffusion coefficients. ► Estimation of the mutual limiting diffusion coefficients of the molecular, D m 0 , and ionized forms, D ± 0 , of this drug. - Abstract: Binary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by the Taylor dispersion method, for aqueous solutions of paracetamol (PA) at concentrations from (0.001 to 0.050) mol·dm −3 at T = 298.15 K, are reported. From the Nernst–Hartley equation and our experimental results, the limiting diffusion coefficient of this drug and its thermodynamic factors are estimated, thereby contributing in this way to a better understanding of the structure of such systems and of their thermodynamic behaviour in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  4. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  5. Enhanced degradation of paracetamol by UV-C supported photo-Fenton process over Fenton oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, B; Mahamood, S

    2011-01-01

    For the treatment of paracetamol in water, the UV-C Fenton oxidation process and classic Fenton oxidation have been found to be the most effective. Paracetamol reduction and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal are measured as the objective functions to be maximized. The experimental conditions of the degradation of paracetamol are optimized by the Fenton process. Influent pH 3, initial H(2)O(2) dosage 60 mg/L, [H(2)O(2)]/[Fe(2+)] ratio 60 : 1 are the optimum conditions observed for 20 mg/L initial paracetamol concentration. At the optimum conditions, for 20 mg/L of initial paracetamol concentration, 82% paracetamol reduction and 68% COD removal by Fenton oxidation, and 91% paracetamol reduction and 82% COD removal by UV-C Fenton process are observed in a 120 min reaction time. By HPLC analysis, 100% removal of paracetamol is observed at the above optimum conditions for the Fenton process in 240 min and for the UV-C photo-Fenton process in 120 min. The methods are effective and they may be used in the paracetamol industry.

  6. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  7. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  8. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  9. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  10. Relationship between the concentrations of plasma phospholipid stearic acid and plasma lipoprotein lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the plasma phospholipid (PL) saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (as a surrogate marker of SFA intake) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in 139 healthy Australian men aged 20-55 years old with widely varying intakes of saturated fat (vegans, n=18; ovolacto vegetarians, n=43; moderate meat eaters, n=60; high meat eaters, n=18). Both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups demonstrated significant decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol concentrations compared with both the high-meat-eater and moderate-meat-eater groups. Total SFA and individual SFA [palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and arachidic acid (20:0)] in the plasma PL were significantly lower in both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups than in both the high- and moderate-meat-eater groups, while myristic acid (14:0) was significantly lower in the vegans than in the high-meat-eaters. Bivariate analysis of the results showed that the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (P<0.0001), with r(2) values of 0.655, 0.518 and 0.43 respectively. In multiple linear regression, after controlling for potential confounding factors (such as exercise, dietary group, age, body mass index, plasma PL myristic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate and fibre intake), the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was still strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P=0.006) concentrations. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for the population to reduce their dietary total SFA intake rather than to replace other SFA with stearic acid.

  11. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... The goal of this study was to determine whether intravenously galanin injection effect on plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and milk production in the. Saanen goats. Fifteen Saanen goats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 3 in each group). Each.

  12. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were assayed for protein, fat and lactose constituents. The daily amounts of milk were determined throughout the experiment. Infusions of 1 ng 5HT did not change the plasma concentrations of the T3, T4 and GH throughout the experiment period. Infusions of 4 and 8 ng 5HT significantly (p<0.01) increased the ...

  13. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiew, Angela L; Gluud, Christian; Brok, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used non-prescription analgesic in the world. Paracetamol is commonly taken in overdose either deliberately or unintentionally. In high-income countries, paracetamol toxicity is a common cause of acute liver injury. There are various...... of paracetamol. Acetylcysteine should be given to people at risk of toxicity including people presenting with liver failure. Further randomised clinical trials with low risk of bias and adequate number of participants are required to determine which regimen results in the fewest adverse effects with the best...... was abandoned due to low numbers recruited), assessing several different interventions in 700 participants. The variety of interventions studied included decontamination, extracorporeal measures, and antidotes to detoxify paracetamol's toxic metabolite; which included methionine, cysteamine, dimercaprol...

  14. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  15. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  16. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary.

  17. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  18. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki- netic analysis in .... pers were then packed in plastic bags and stored at. 4ºC in the ..... of paracetamol and its metabolites in urine, plasma and ...

  19. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  20. Neonatal Maturation of Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Glucuronidation, Sulfation, and Oxidation Based on a Parent-Metabolite Population Pharmacokinetic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah F; Stockmann, Chris; Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; King, Amber D; Deutsch, Nina; Williams, Elaine F; Wilkins, Diana G; Sherwin, Catherine M T; van den Anker, John N

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to model the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol and its major metabolites in neonates and to identify influential patient characteristics, especially those affecting the formation clearance (CL formation ) of oxidative pathway metabolites. Neonates with a clinical indication for intravenous analgesia received five 15-mg/kg doses of paracetamol at 12-h intervals (paracetamol, paracetamol-glucuronide, paracetamol-sulfate, and the combined oxidative pathway metabolites (paracetamol-cysteine and paracetamol-N-acetylcysteine) were simultaneously modeled in NONMEM 7.2. The model incorporated 259 plasma and 350 urine samples from 35 neonates with a mean gestational age of 33.6 weeks (standard deviation 6.6). CL formation for all metabolites increased with weight; CL formation for glucuronidation and oxidation also increased with postnatal age. At the mean weight (2.3 kg) and postnatal age (7.5 days), CL formation estimates (bootstrap 95% confidence interval; between-subject variability) were 0.049 L/h (0.038-0.062; 62 %) for glucuronidation, 0.21 L/h (0.17-0.24; 33 %) for sulfation, and 0.058 L/h (0.044-0.078; 72 %) for oxidation. Expression of individual oxidation CL formation as a fraction of total individual paracetamol clearance showed that, on average, fractional oxidation CL formation increased paracetamol and its metabolites in neonates. Maturational changes in the fraction of paracetamol undergoing oxidation were small relative to between-subject variability.

  1. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  2. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  3. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W; Antoine, Daniel J

    2015-10-19

    Paracetamol directly causes around 150 deaths per year in UK. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute paracetamol poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 127 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 64 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 46 studies and the further review of 18 full publications. Of the 18 full articles evaluated, one systematic review was updated and one RCT was added at this update. In addition, two systematic reviews and three RCTs not meeting our inclusion criteria were added to the Comment sections. We performed a GRADE evaluation for three PICO combinations. In this systematic overview we categorised the efficacy for six interventions, based on information about the effectiveness and safety of activated charcoal (single or multiple dose), gastric lavage, haemodialysis, liver transplant, methionine, and acetylcysteine.

  4. Plasma intermedin concentration in patients with chronic heart faliure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohua; Du Xingbang; Zhu Yunhe; Luo Lei; Zhao Changjun; Liu Yongfeng; Ren Liangping; Ren Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma levels of intermedin (IMD), BNP and CRP in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Plasma IMD, BNP (with RIA) and CRP (with immuno-turbidity) levels were determined in 46 patients with chronic heart failure of various grades (grade I-II n=31, grade III-IV, n=15) and 42 normal controls. Results: Compared with the control group,the plasma IMD level in patients with chronic heart failure was decreased 53.2% (P<0.01), the BNP and CRP were increased 1658.5% and 80.5% respectively (each P<0.001). Compared with the grade I-II group, the plasma IMD level in grade III-IV was decreased 34.7% (P<0.05), the BNP and CRP levels in grade III-IV were increased 257.8% and 76% (all P<0.001) individually. Conclusion: Plasma intermedin concentration was significantly decreased in patients with chronic heart failure, which suggests that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. (authors)

  5. Granule properties of paracetamol made with Bombax ceiba gum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bombax ceiba gum was extracted from the calyx of the Bombax flower using both hot and cold water extraction method. The gum was used as binder to prepare paracetamol granules in concentrations of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 %. Acacia gum was used to prepare the standard at the same concentrations. The granule properties of ...

  6. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno, Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  7. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  8. Plasma galanin concentrations in obese, normal weight and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitti, C; Brunani, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Dubini, A; Bendinelli, P; Maroni, P; Cavagnini, F

    1995-05-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of eating behavior. No information is available on its concentrations in the biological fluids in human obesity, and this study aimed to clarify this. We measured plasma galanin and serum insulin levels in 30 obese, 35 normal weight and 11 anorectic women. Mean galanin values were quite similar in obese and control subjects (76.8 +/- 3.20 vs 76.1 +/- 2.33 pg/ml) and only slightly reduced in anorectic patients (67.9 +/- 2.30 pg/ml). Insulin levels were significantly increased and decreased in obese and anorectic patients, respectively, compared to controls. Insulin correlated positively with BMI in the whole group of subjects studied (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and in the obese subgroup (r = 0.56, P < 0.02). No correlations could be detected between WH ratio, insulin and galanin concentrations and between galanin and BMI. In conclusion, plasma galanin concentrations appear to be comparable in obese, normal weight and anorectic subjects. This does not exclude a role of galanin in the regulation of eating behavior since variations of the peptide in discrete brain areas may not be detectable in general circulation and peripheral sources of the peptide may contribute to its plasma levels. Also, our data suggest that galanin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in humans.

  9. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  10. Effect of a herbal extract containing curcumin and piperine on midazolam, flurbiprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volak, Laurie P; Hanley, Michael J; Masse, Gina; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Harmatz, Jerold S; Badmaev, Vladimir; Majeed, Muhammed; Greenblatt, David J; Court, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    Aims Turmeric extract derived curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) are currently being evaluated for the treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's dementia. Previous in vitro studies indicate that curcuminoids and piperine (a black pepper derivative that enhances curcuminoid bioavailability) could inhibit human CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT and SULT dependent drug metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether a commercially available curcuminoid/piperine extract alters the pharmacokinetic disposition of probe drugs for these enzymes in human volunteers. Methods A randomized placebo-controlled six way crossover study was conducted in eight healthy volunteers. A standardized curcuminoid/piperine preparation (4 g curcuminoids plus 24 mg piperine) or matched placebo was given orally four times over 2 days before oral administration of midazolam (CYP3A probe), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9 probe) or paracetamol (acetaminophen) (dual UGT and SULT probe). Plasma and urine concentrations of drugs, metabolites and herbals were measured by HPLC. Subject sedation and electroencephalograph effects were also measured following midazolam dosing. Results Compared with placebo, the curcuminoid/piperine treatment produced no meaningful changes in plasma Cmax, AUC, clearance, elimination half-life or metabolite levels of midazolam, flurbiprofen or paracetamol (α = 0.05, paired t-tests). There was also no effect of curcuminoid/piperine treatment on the pharmacodynamics of midazolam. Although curcuminoid and piperine concentrations were readily measured in plasma following glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, unconjugated concentrations were consistently below the assay thresholds (0.05–0.08 μm and 0.6 μm, respectively). Conclusion The results indicate that short term use of this piperine-enhanced curcuminoid preparation is unlikely to result in a clinically significant interaction involving CYP3A, CYP2C9 or the paracetamol conjugation enzymes. PMID:22725836

  11. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  12. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  13. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  14. Retrospective study of paracetamol poisoning in children aged zero to six years found no cases of liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan-Nielsen, S; Bisgaard, A S; Jans, S R

    2018-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on children aged zero to six years with suspected single-dose paracetamol poisoning, which has not been investigated in Denmark. We evaluated the incidence of liver injuries and the use of activated charcoal and N-acetylcysteine treatment. METHODS: Our retrospective study.......67 ± 1.05 years. Activated charcoal treatment was given in 87% of cases, but only 15% of the children received treatment within one hour of the suspected paracetamol poisoning. Although 80% of the children received N-acetylcysteine treatment, only one case (0.5%) had a toxic plasma paracetamol level...... children aged zero to six years with suspected paracetamol poisoning. Vomiting or abdominal pain was associated with elevated plasma paracetamol levels. No liver injuries were reported....

  15. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  16. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following orbital injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Pypendop, Bruno H; Newbold, Georgina; Pascoe, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    To determine plasma bupivacaine concentrations after retrobulbar or peribulbar injection of bupivacaine in cats. Randomized, crossover, experimental trial with a 2 week washout period. Six adult healthy cats, aged 1-2 years, weighing 4.6 ± 0.7 kg. Cats were sedated by intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine (36-56 μg kg -1 ) and were administered a retrobulbar injection of bupivacaine (0.75 mL, 0.5%; 3.75 mg) and iopamidol (0.25 mL), or a peribulbar injection of bupivacaine (1.5 mL, 0.5%; 7.5 mg), iopamidol (0.5 mL) and 0.9% saline (1 mL) via a dorsomedial approach. Blood (2 mL) was collected before and at 5, 10, 15, 22, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Atipamezole was administered approximately 30 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Plasma bupivacaine and 3-hydroxybupivacaine concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bupivacaine maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and time to C max (T max ) were determined from the data. The bupivacaine median (range) C max and T max were 1.4 (0.9-2.5) μg mL -1 and 17 (4-60) minutes, and 1.7 (1.0-2.4) μg mL -1 , and 28 (8-49) minutes, for retrobulbar and peribulbar injections, respectively. In both treatments the 3-hydroxybupivacaine peak concentration was 0.05-0.21 μg mL -1 . In healthy cats, at doses up to 2 mg kg -1 , bupivacaine peak plasma concentrations were approximately half that reported to cause arrhythmias or convulsive electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in cats, and about one-sixth of that required to produce hypotension. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of paracetamol in aqueous solutions by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Yu, Liya E; Ray, Madhumita B

    2008-07-01

    In this study, photo/photocatalytic oxidation of common analgesic and antipyretic drug, paracetamol (acetaminophen), was investigated to determine the optimal operating conditions for degradation in water. UVA (365 nm) radiation alone degraded negligible amount of paracetamol, whereas paracetamol concentration decreased substantially under an irradiation of UVC (254 nm) with marginal changes in total organic carbon (TOC). In the presence of TiO2, much faster photodegradation of paracetamol and effective mineralization occurred; more than 95% of 2.0mM paracetamol was degraded within 80 min. The degradation rate constant decreased with an increase in the initial concentration of paracetamol, while it increased with light intensity and oxygen concentration. The degradation rate also increased with TiO2 loading until a concentration of 0.8 g L(-1). The degradation rate slowly increased between pH 3.5 and 9.5, but significantly decreased with increasing pH between 9.5 and 11.0. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic equation describing paracetamol photocatalytic degradation with various process parameters is obtained.

  18. Plasma digoxin concentrations and urinary excretion during a 'simpler' regimen of infant digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M O; Hibble, A G; Pickering, D

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the plasma concentrations in sick neonates and infants being administered digoxin by a safer regimen. In the presence of normal renal function the plasma concentrations appear to be satisfactory. PMID:1103751

  19. A New Sensor Based on Graphite Screen Printed Electrode Modified With Cu-Nanocomplex for Determination of Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Beitollai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as an antipyretic agent for the alternative to aspirin. Conversely, the overdoses of paracetamol can cause hepatic toxicity and kidney damage. Hence, the determination of paracetamol receives much more attention in biological samples and also in pharmaceutical formulations. Here, we report a rapid and sensitive detection of the paracetamol based on screen-printed modified electrode (SPE with Cu nanocomplex (Cu in pH=7.0. The paracetamol is not stable in strong acidic and strong alkaline media, and is hydrolyzed and hydroxylated. However, it is stable in intermediate pHs due to the dimerization of paracetamol. The kinetics of the paracetamol oxidation was briefly studied and documented in the schemes. In addition, the characterization of Cu nanocomplex was probed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX. Moreover, the voltammetry determined the paracetamol with the linear concentration ranging from 10.0 to 1000.0 μM and the lower detection limit of 1.0 μM. This method was also successfully used to detect the concentration of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations and urine samples.

  20. Degradation of paracetamol and other constituents in Perfalgan®

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was used to calculate the penetration of paracetamol in Perfalgan® into the lipid layer. Results: The ..... Molar ratio derived by 1H NMR. Molecular weight .... injection volume and sample concentration were used in all the experiments this is ...

  1. Pharmacokinetics of rectal paracetamol after repeated dosing in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, T W; Henneberg, S W; Holm-Knudsen, R J

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-three children (aged between 9 weeks and 11 yr) were given paracetamol suppositories 25 mg kg-1 every 6 h (maximum 5 days) after major surgery and serum and saliva concentrations were measured. There was a good correlation (r = 0.91, P

  2. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and peripheral blood mononucleocyte cell histamine release induced by N-acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, James; Thompson, John Paul

    2010-02-01

    The treatment of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is frequently complicated by an anaphylactoid reaction to the antidote. The mechanism that underlies this reaction is unclear. We used the human mast cell line 1 (HMC-1) and human peripheral blood mononucleocytes (PBMCs) to investigate the effects of NAC and paracetamol on histamine secretion in vitro. HMC-1 and human PBMCs were incubated in the presence of increasing concentrations of NAC +/- paracetamol. Cell viability was determined by the Trypan Blue Assay, and histamine secretion was measured by ELISA. NAC was toxic to HMC-1 cells at 100 mg/mL and to PBMCs at 67 mg/mL. NAC increased HMC-1 and PBMC histamine secretion at concentrations of NAC from 20 to 50 mg/mL and 2.5 to 100 mg/mL, respectively. NAC-induced histamine secretion by both cell types was reduced by co-incubation with 2.5 mg/mL of paracetamol. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is capable of modifying histamine secretion in vitro. This may explain the clinical observation of a lower incidence of adverse reactions to NAC in vivo when higher concentrations of paracetamol are present than when paracetamol concentrations are low. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) attenuates in vitro mast cell and PBMC cell histamine release induced by NAC.

  3. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  4. Efeito da concentração do amido de milho na liberação de paracetamol de comprimidos Effect of maize starch concentration on in vitro acetaminophen release from tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Dóris de Castro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a influência da concentração de amido de milho nas características físicas e na liberação in vitro de paracetamol a partir de comprimidos. Os granulados foram analisados quanto à granulometria e densidades aparentes bruta e compactada e os comprimidos quanto ao peso médio, espessura, dureza, friabilidade, tempo de desintegração. Os comprimidos foram preparados a partir de granulados obtidos por granulação a úmido, utilizando cozimento de amido a 10% como agente granulante, segundo três formulações. Embora os comprimidos obtidos tenham apresentado características dentro dos limites farmacopéicos, os resultados indicam que variações da concentração de amido provocam diferenças nos diversos parâmetros físicos estudados. Concentração mais alta de amido em pó dá origem, provavelmente, à interação entre os componentes da fórmula, interferindo na liberação in vitro do fármaco. Isto demonstra a importância de se otimizar a concentração dos adjuvantes numa formulação de comprimidos, pois, embora uma pequena variação nesta concentração não exerça efeito significativo no tempo de desintegração, a quantidade de fármaco liberado pode ser substancialmente alterada.This paper describes the influence of maize starch concentration on the physical characteristics and on in vitro release of acetaminophen from compressed tablets. The granulates were analyzed in relation to size distribution and bulk and compacted densities, and the tablets in relation to mean weight, thickness, hardness, friability and disintegration time. The tablets were prepared from granulates made by wet granulation with 10% starch paste in three formulations. Although the tablets obtained have presented characteristics in accordance with pharmacopeial limits, the results indicate that variations on starch concentration cause differences on the several physical parameters studied. Higher starch concentration probably

  5. Improving degradation of paracetamol by integrating gamma radiation and Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-González, Germán; Rivas-Ortiz, Iram B; González-Labrada, Katia; Rapado-Paneque, Manuel; Chávez-Ardanza, Armando; Nuevas-Paz, Lauro; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises J

    2016-10-14

    Degradation of paracetamol (N-(4-hydroxiphenyl)acetamide) in aqueous solution by gamma radiation, gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes was studied. Parameters affecting the radiolysis of paracetamol such as radiation dose, initial concentration of pollutant, pH and initial oxidant concentration were investigated. Gamma radiation was performed using a (60)Co source irradiator. Paracetamol degradation and mineralization increased with increasing absorbed radiation dose, but decreased with increasing initial concentration of the drug in aqueous solution. The addition of H2O2 resulted in an increased effect on irradiation-driven paracetamol degradation in comparison with the performance of the irradiation-driven process alone: paracetamol removal increased from 48.9% in the absence of H2O2 to 95.2% for H2O2 concentration of 41.7 mmol/L. However, the best results were obtained with gamma radiation/Fenton process with 100% of the drug removal at 5 kGy, for optimal H2O2 and Fe(2+) concentrations at 13.9 and 2.3 mmol/L, respectively, with a high mineralization of 63.7%. These results suggest gamma radiation/H2O2 and gamma radiation/Fenton processes as promising methods for paracetamol degradation in polluted wastewaters.

  6. Effect of Solution pH on the Adsorption of Paracetamol on Chemically Modified Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bernal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol adsorption in acidic, neutral and basic media on three activated carbons with different chemistry surfaces was studied. A granular activated carbon (GAC was prepared from coconut shell; starting from this sample, an oxidized activated carbon (GACo was obtained by treating the GAC with a boiling solution of 6 M nitric acid, so to generate a greater number of oxygenated surface groups. In addition, a reduced activated carbon (GACr was obtained by heating the GAC at 1173 K, to remove the oxygenated surface groups. Paracetamol adsorption was higher for GACr due to the lower presence of oxygenated surface functional groups. Moreover, adsorption was highest at neutral pH. The magnitude of the interactions between paracetamol molecules and activated carbons was studied by measuring the immersion enthalpies of activated carbons in solution of paracetamol at different concentrations and pH values and by calculating the interaction enthalpy. The highest value was obtained for GACr in a paracetamol solution of 1000 mg L−1 at pH 7, confirming that paracetamol adsorption is favoured on basic activated carbons at pH values near to neutrality. Finally, the Gibbs energy changes confirmed the latter result, allowing explaining the different magnitudes of the interactions between paracetamol and activated carbons, as a function of solution pH.

  7. Energy conversion and concentration in a high-current gaseous discharge: Dense plasma spheromak in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.; Terentiev, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which verify the possibility of the self-generated transformation of the magnetic field in plasma focus discharges to give a closed, spheromak-like magnetic configuration (SLMC). The energy conversion mechanism suggests a possibility of further concentrating the plasma power density by means of natural compressing the SLMC-trapped plasma by the residual magnetic field of the plasma focus discharge

  8. [Paracetamol (acetaminophen) use in neonatology: a (re)appreciation of an old drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhendries, J-P

    2015-10-01

    In neonates, paracetamol is mainly used for its analgesic action. This drug is actually preferred by neonatologists because of its broad therapeutic index. Recently, it has been demonstrated that paracetamol is also an anti-cyclooxygenase (COX) medication through its inhibitory action on the peroxidase arm of central and peripheral COX (Boutaud et al., 2002; Toussaint et al., 2010; Graham et al., 2013; Hinz et al., 2008; Hinz and Brune, 2011). As such, this drug interferes with the synthesis of prostaglandins. This inhibition of peroxidase is, however, limited to a low concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) (around 2μM, in vitro) when the plasmatic concentration of paracetamol is experimentally 10μM, actually within the same range as compared to the therapeutic concentrations in vivo. This may partly explain its low anti-inflammatory effect as compared to ibuprofen and indomethacin, which exert their inhibition on COX whatever the AA concentrations are. This new well-demonstrated action of paracetamol on peripheral COX-2 of intact cells could explain recent observations making this drug a potential alternative in treating patent ductus arteriosus. However, the higher dosages that have been claimed by some authors in this indication still remain to be validated. This inhibition that paracetamol shows on the physiological synthesis of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) could also explain some long-term immune deviations because the physiological concentration of PGE2 is a well-known actor in the genesis of immune homeostasis in the submucosal area. Indeed, recent epidemiology studies have pointed out immune deviations in children repeatedly exposed to paracetamol earlier in life. Consequently, this is actually the new discovery of an old drug. From these new data on paracetamol, a more focused pharmacovigilance on the long-term effects of paracetamol repeatedly given in the early stage should be urgently initiated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates the assoc......Scope High enterolactone levels may have health benefits in relation to risk of noncommunicable diseases. Enterolactone is produced by the colonic microbiota after intake of lignans and treatment with antimicrobials may result in altered enterolactone production. This study investigates...... the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude...

  10. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirover, William D; Liu, Yuguan; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Benz, Robert L; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Handelman, Garry J

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid [AA]) deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease, the effect of supplemental AA on plasma AA concentrations, and the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect plasma AA concentrations in this patient population. In study 1, we compared the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on plasma AA concentrations between patients with low and high pre-HD AA concentrations. In study 2, we analyzed kinetic and nonkinetic factors for their association with increased plasma AA concentrations in patients on maintenance HD. Study 1 was performed in a single outpatient HD clinic in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Study 2 was performed in 4 outpatient HD clinics in Southern New Jersey. In study 1, we collected plasma samples from 8 adult patients on maintenance HD at various time points around their HD treatment and assayed them for AA concentration. In study 2, we enrolled 203 adult patients and measured pre-HD plasma AA concentrations. We ascertained supplemental AA use and assessed dietary AA intake. In study 1, plasma AA concentrations were compared during the intradialytic and interdialytic period. In study 2, pre-HD plasma AA concentrations were correlated with supplement use and demographic factors. Study 1 showed that over the course of a single HD treatment, the plasma AA concentration decreased by a mean (±standard deviation) of 60% (±6.6). In study 2, the median pre-HD plasma AA concentration was 15.7 μM (interquartile range, 8.7-66.8) in patients who did not take a supplement and 50.6 μM (interquartile range, 25.1-88.8) in patients who did take a supplement (P HD plasma AA concentration ≥30 μM. HD depletes plasma AA concentrations, and AA supplementation allows patients to achieve higher plasma AA concentrations. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth hormone concentrations in mammary secretions and plasma of the periparturient bitch and in plasma of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, I; Kooistra, H S; Okkens, A C; Hazewinkel, H A; Bevers, M M; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    The presence of growth hormone (GH) in mammary secretions of bitches was investigated in relation to plasma GH concentrations at about the time of parturition and during the first weeks of lactation. Plasma GH concentrations in neonates were measured during the first weeks of lactation, to determine whether GH in maternal milk contributes to plasma concentrations of GH in the neonate. Gastrointestinal uptake of GH was studied by measurement of plasma bovine GH (bGH) concentrations after intragastric administration of bGH. High concentrations of GH were found in the mammary secretions of the bitches, particularly before parturition and in colostrum, exceeding maternal plasma concentration up to 100-1000 times. GH concentrations in milk were not not significantly correlated with GH concentrations in plasma of bitches or neonates. Bovine GH could not be detected in neonatal plasma for 4 h after intragastric administration of bGH. The presence of high concentrations of canine GH (cGH) in ante-partum and colostral mammary secretions is consistent with the progesterone-induced mammary biosynthesis of GH. GH in milk is probably not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation of the newborn in its intact form.

  12. [Intentional paracetamol intoxication in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.

    2011-01-01

    As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of

  13. Electrocatalytic Study of Paracetamol at a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Nickel Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Sing Ngai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple, and sensitive method for the electrochemical determination of paracetamol was developed. A single-walled carbon nanotube/nickel (SWCNT/Ni nanocomposite was prepared and immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE surface via mechanical attachment. This paper reports the voltammetry study on the effect of paracetamol concentration, scan rate, pH, and temperature at a SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode in the determination of paracetamol. The characterization of the SWCNT/Ni/GCE was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrometer were used to examine the surface morphology and elemental profile of the modified electrode, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry showed significant enhancement in peak current for the determination of paracetamol at the SWCNT/Ni-modified electrode. A linear calibration curve was obtained for the paracetamol concentration between 0.05 and 0.50 mM. The SWCNT/Ni/GCE displayed a sensitivity of 64 mA M−1 and a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−7 M in paracetamol detection. The proposed electrode can be applied for the determination of paracetamol in real pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory performance. Results indicate that electrodes modified with SWCNT and nickel nanoparticles exhibit better electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamol.

  14. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  15. Subjective satiety and plasma PYY concentration after wholemeal pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costabile, Giuseppina; Griffo, Ettore; Cipriano, Paola; Vetrani, Claudia; Vitale, Marilena; Mamone, Gianfranco; Rivellese, Angela A; Riccardi, Gabriele; Giacco, Rosalba

    2018-06-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30±2 yrs (mean±SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p=0.04 and -23%, p=0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p=0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (ppasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Accuracy of the paracetamol-aminotransferase product to predict hepatotoxicity in paracetamol overdose treated with a 2-bag acetylcysteine regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anselm; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Gunja, Naren; McNulty, Richard; Graudins, Andis

    2018-03-01

    Paracetamol concentration is a highly accurate risk predictor for hepatotoxicity following overdose with known time of ingestion. However, the paracetamol-aminotransferase multiplication product can be used as a risk predictor independent of timing or ingestion type. Validated in patients treated with the traditional, "three-bag" intravenous acetylcysteine regimen, we evaluated the accuracy of the multiplication product in paracetamol overdose treated with a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen. We examined consecutive patients treated with the two-bag regimen from five emergency departments over a two-year period. We assessed the predictive accuracy of initial multiplication product for the primary outcome of hepatotoxicity (peak alanine aminotransferase ≥1000IU/L), as well as for acute liver injury (ALI), defined peak alanine aminotransferase ≥2× baseline and above 50IU/L). Of 447 paracetamol overdoses treated with the two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, 32 (7%) developed hepatotoxicity and 73 (16%) ALI. The pre-specified cut-off points of 1500 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 100% [95% CI 82%, 100%], specificity 62% [56%, 67%]) and 10,000 mg/L × IU/L (sensitivity 70% [47%, 87%], specificity of 97% [95%, 99%]) were highly accurate for predicting hepatotoxicity. There were few cases of hepatotoxicity irrespective of the product when acetylcysteine was administered within eight hours of overdose, when the product was largely determined by a high paracetamol concentration but normal aminotransferase. The multiplication product accurately predicts hepatotoxicity when using a two-bag acetylcysteine regimen, especially in patients treated more than eight hours post-overdose. Further studies are needed to assess the product as a method to adjust for exposure severity when testing efficacy of modified acetylcysteine regimens.

  17. Curcuminoids Lower Plasma Leptin Concentrations: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Stephen L; Katsiki, Niki; Derosa, Giuseppe; Maffioli, Pamela; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-12-01

    Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenol that has been suggested to improve several metabolic diseases. Leptin is an adipokine involved in metabolic status and appetite, with marked crosstalk with other systems. Available data suggest that curcumin may affect leptin levels; therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to evaluate this. A systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken on all randomized controlled trials of curcumin studies that included the measurement of leptin. The search included PubMed-Medline, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar databases. Quantitative data synthesis was performed by using a random-effects model, with standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval as summary statistics. A funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation, and Egger's weighted regression tests assessed the presence of publication bias. Four eligible articles comprising five treatment arms were selected for the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in plasma leptin concentrations following curcumin treatment (standardized mean difference: -0.69, 95% confidence interval: -1.16, -0.23, p = 0.003; I 2  = 76.53%). There was no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis showed that curcumin supplementation is associated with a decrease in leptin levels that may be regarded as a potential mechanism for the metabolic effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  19. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) administration during neonatal brain development affects cognitive function and alters its analgesic and anxiolytic response in adult male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Per; Gordh, Torsten; Fredriksson, Anders

    2014-03-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of pain and fever in children, both at home and in the clinic, and is now also found in the environment. Paracetamol is known to act on the endocannabinoid system, involved in normal development of the brain. We examined if neonatal paracetamol exposure could affect the development of the brain, manifested as adult behavior and cognitive deficits, as well as changes in the response to paracetamol. Ten-day-old mice were administered a single dose of paracetamol (30 mg/kg body weight) or repeated doses of paracetamol (30 + 30 mg/kg body weight, 4h apart). Concentrations of paracetamol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured in the neonatal brain, and behavioral testing was done when animals reached adulthood. This study shows that acute neonatal exposure to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) results in altered locomotor activity on exposure to a novel home cage arena and a failure to acquire spatial learning in adulthood, without affecting thermal nociceptive responding or anxiety-related behavior. However, mice neonatally exposed to paracetamol (2 × 30 mg) fail to exhibit paracetamol-induced antinociceptive and anxiogenic-like behavior in adulthood. Behavioral alterations in adulthood may, in part, be due to paracetamol-induced changes in BDNF levels in key brain regions at a critical time during development. This indicates that exposure to and presence of paracetamol during a critical period of brain development can induce long-lasting effects on cognitive function and alter the adult response to paracetamol in mice.

  20. Efficacy of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus closure may be dose dependent: evidence from human and murine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Jain, Amish; Corcoran, David; Shah, Prakesh S; Hooper, Christopher W; Brown, Naoko; Poole, Stanley D; Shelton, Elaine L; Milne, Ginger L; Reese, Jeff; McNamara, Patrick J

    2014-09-01

    We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of variable courses of paracetamol on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure and examined its effect on the in vitro term and preterm murine ductus arteriosus (DA). Neonates received one of the following three paracetamol regimens: short course of oral paracetamol (SCOP), long course of oral paracetamol (LCOP), and intravenous paracetamol (IVP) for 2-6 d. Pressure myography was used to examine changes in vasomotor tone of the preterm and term mouse DA in response to paracetamol or indomethacin. Their effect on prostaglandin synthesis by DA explants was measured by mass spectroscopy. Twenty-one preterm infants were included. No changes in PDA hemodynamics were seen in SCOP infants (n = 5). The PDA became less significant and eventually closed in six LCOP infants (n = 7). PDA closure was achieved in eight IVP infants (n = 9). On pressure myograph, paracetamol induced a concentration-dependent constriction of the term mouse DA, up to 30% of baseline (P 1 µmol/l. Indomethacin induced greater DA constriction and suppression of prostaglandin synthesis (P closure may depend on the duration of treatment and the mode of administration. Paracetamol is less potent than indomethacin for constriction of the mouse DA in vitro.

  1. Computed exercise plasma lactate concentrations: A conversion formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood lactate measurements are common as a marker of skeletal muscle metabolism in sport medicine. Due to the close equilibrium between the extracellular and intramyocellular space, plasma lactate is a more accurate estimate of muscle lactate. However, whole blood-based lactate measurements are more convenient in field use. The purpose of this investigation was therefore (1 to establish a plasma-converting lactate formula for field use, and (2 to validate the computed plasma lactate levels by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Design and methods: A total of 91 venous samples were taken from 6 individuals with type 1 diabetes during resting and exercise conditions and assessed for whole blood and plasma lactate using the YSI 2300 analyzer. A linear model was applied to establish a formula for converting whole blood lactate to plasma lactate. The validity of computed plasma lactate values was assessed by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Results: Whole blood YSI lactate could be converted to plasma YSI values (slope 1.66, intercept 0.12 for samples with normal hematocrit. Computed plasma levels compared to values determined by the laboratory standard method using Passing-Bablok regression yielded a slope of 1.03 (95%CI:0.99:1.08 with an intercept of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.18:-0.06. Conclusions: Whole blood YSI lactate values can be reliably converted into plasma values which are in line with laboratory determined plasma measurements. Keywords: Lactate, Plasma vs whole-blood, Hematocrit, Enzyme electrodes, Sample treatment

  2. Plasma concentrations of osteoprotegerin during normo- and hyperglycaemic clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, S T; Jeppesen, Peter; Poulsen, P L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) are elevated in subjects with diabetes as well as in non-diabetic subjects with cardiovascular disease. In previous studies a positive correlation was found between plasma levels of OPG and markers of glycaemic control in diabetic subjects. The aim...

  3. Stress at birth: plasma noradrenaline concentrations of women in labour and in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messow-Zahn, K; Sarafoff, M; Riegel, K P

    1978-03-15

    Radioenzymatically measured plasma noradrenaline concentrations, present at birth in umbilical veins of 19 healthy, 17 acutely asphyxiated, and 9 chronically distressed newborn infants were found to be elevated above maternal values proportional to the degree of distress and to plasma H ion concentrations.

  4. Limited sampling strategy for determining metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) models to predict the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for metformin. METHODS: Metformin plasma concentrations (n = 627) at 0-24 h after a single 500 mg dose were used for LSS development, based on all su...

  5. Plasma fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adults after prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.; Bleker, O. P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effect of maternal malnutrition during different stages of gestation on plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VII, we investigated 725 people, aged 50 years, born around the time of the Dutch famine 1944-5. After adjustment for sex, plasma fibrinogen concentrations differed by

  6. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  7. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-01-31

    Jan 31, 1990 ... initial samples, the immobilization stress response and the response to exogenous GnRH administration, for ... the sex-specific differences in plasma androgens is confounded by other variables such as the reproductive.

  8. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  9. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of the antipyretic effect of intravenous paracetamol in patients admitted to hospital with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaganos, Thomas; Tseti, Ioulia K; Tziolos, Nikolaos; Soumelas, Georgios-Stefanos; Koupetori, Marina; Pyrpasopoulou, Athina; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos; Tsokos, Nikolaos; Karagiannis, Asterios; Sympardi, Styliani; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2017-04-01

    No randomized study has been conducted to investigate the use of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for the management of fever due to infection. The present study evaluated a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. Eighty patients with a body temperature onset ≥38.5°C in the previous 24 h due to infection were randomized to a single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41), and their temperature was recorded at standard intervals. Rescue medication with 1 g paracetamol was allowed. Serum samples were collected for the measurement of APAP and its metabolites. The primary endpoint was defervescence, defined as a core temperature ≤37.1°C. During the first 6 h, defervescence was achieved in 15 (38.5%) patients treated with placebo compared with 33 (80.5%) patients treated with paracetamol 1 g (P paracetamol 1 g was 3 h. Rescue medication was given to 15 (38.5%) and five (12.2%) patients allocated to placebo and paracetamol, respectively (P = 0.007); nine (60.0%) and two (40.0%) of these patients, respectively, experienced defervescence. No further antipyretic medication was needed for patients becoming afebrile with rescue medication. Serum glucuronide-APAP concentrations were significantly greater in the serum of patients who did not experience defervescence with paracetamol. The efficacy of paracetamol was not affected by serum creatinine. No drug-related adverse events were reported. The 1 g paracetamol formulation has a rapid and sustainable antipyretic effect on fever due to infection. Its efficacy is dependent on hepatic metabolism. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, M D; Peterson, G M; Dunne, P F

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care. Using a sensitive gas chromatography with electron capture detector assay, plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured in 11 patients (median age 68 years; range 47-82 years; six females) receiving the drug by continuous subcutaneous infusion (median rate 20 mg/day; range 10-60 mg/day). While not significant, the infusion rate tended to decrease with increasing age of the patient (Spearman's p = -0.51; p = 0.11). The steady-state plasma concentration range was 10-147 ng/ml, with a median of 30 ng/ml. Infusion rates and plasma concentrations of midazolam were correlated (Spearman's p = 0.71; p < 0.05). No other significant relationships were found between plasma concentrations and the variables of age, sex and liver function.

  12. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  13. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  14. Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Methionine Containing Paracetamol Formulation on Serum Vitamins and Trace Elements in Male Rats. AA Iyanda, JI Anetor, DP Oparinde, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. Methionine is an effective antidote in the treatment of paracetamol-induced toxicity but at large doses it has been reported to induce or aggravate a ...

  15. Intravenous paracetamol overdose in a paediatric patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeks, Ilse J.; Van Roon, Eric N.; Van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; De Vries, Tjalling W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol is a widely used drug in children. In therapeutic doses, paracetamol has an excellent safety profile. Since the introduction of the intravenous form in 2004, only three reports of accidental overdose in children have been published. The low number probably is due to

  16. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2001-01-01

    Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning.......Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning....

  17. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Opioid Concentrations in Oral Fluid and Plasma in Cancer Patients With Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Tarja; Langel, Kaarina; Gunnar, Teemu; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Kalso, Eija A

    2015-10-01

    Measuring opioid concentrations in pain treatment is warranted in situations where optimal opioid analgesia is difficult to reach. To assess the usefulness of oral fluid (OFL) as an alternative to plasma in opioid concentration monitoring in cancer patients on chronic opioid therapy. We collected OFL and plasma samples from 64 cancer patients on controlled-release (CR) oral morphine, CR oral oxycodone, or transdermal (TD) fentanyl for pain. Samples were obtained on up to five separate days. A total of 213 OFL and plasma samples were evaluable. All patients had detectable amounts of the CR or TD opioid in both plasma and OFL samples. The plasma concentrations of oxycodone and fentanyl (determination coefficient R(2) = 0.628 and 0.700, respectively), but not morphine (R(2) = 0.292), were moderately well correlated to the daily opioid doses. In contrast to morphine and fentanyl (mean OFL/plasma ratio 2.0 and 3.0, respectively), the OFL oxycodone concentrations were significantly higher than the respective plasma concentrations (mean OFL/plasma ratio 14.9). An active transporter could explain the much higher OFL vs. plasma concentrations of oxycodone compared with morphine and fentanyl. OFL analysis is well suited for detecting the studied opioids. For morphine and fentanyl, an approximation of the plasma opioid concentrations is obtainable, whereas for oxycodone, the OFL/plasma concentration relationship is too variable for reliable approximation results. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Leukosit Ayam Pedaging setelah Diberikan Paracetamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suriansyah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil hematologi (total leukosit dan diferensial leukosit pada ayam pedaging yang diberikan paracetamol dalam pakan mulai umur 14 – 35 hari, Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan acak lengkap yaitu P0 (kelompok ayam pedaging yang hanya diberi pakan standar SB-11, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 1 g/kg pakan, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 2 g/kg pakan, P? (pakan standar SB-11 dan paracetamol 4 g/kg pakan masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari enam ekor ayam pedaging. Pengambilan darah pada vena brachialis dilakukan sebelum diberikan perlakuan dan pada hari ke 21 setelah diberikan perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian paracetamol dosis 1-4 g/kg pakan tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap total leukosit (P>0,05 akan tetapi hanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap monosit (P

  20. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  1. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  2. Plasma lactate concentration as a prognostic biomarker in dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Erin; Raw, Cameron; Hughes, Dez

    2014-09-01

    Initial and serial plasma lactate concentrations can be used to guide decision making in individual dogs with GDV but care is necessary in phrasing conversations with owners. Published data suggests that survival is more likely and the chance of complications less in dogs with an initial plasma lactate of 6 mmol/L makes gastric necrosis and greater expense more likely. However, because of the overlap between groups and the good overall survival rates, exploratory laparotomy should always be recommended irrespective of the plasma lactate concentration. Falls in plasma lactate of greater than ~40% after fluid resuscitation are likely to indicate better survival. If the initial plasma lactate concentration is moderately to severely increased (5->10 mmol/L) and a sustained increase in plasma lactate occurs after fluid resuscitation, the cause should be aggressively pursued. Many dogs with persistent hyperlactatemia over 24-48 hours do not survive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  4. Plasma vitamin C concentration in pregnant women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and vitamin C may prevent pre-eclampsia. Objective: To determine the association between plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This case-control study was conducted at Mulago Hospital from 1st ...

  5. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  6. Plasma Apelin Concentrations in Patients With Polyuria-Polydipsia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urwyler, Sandrine Andrea; Timper, Katharina; Fenske, Wiebke; de Mota, Nadia; Blanchard, Anne; Kühn, Felix; Frech, Nica; Arici, Birsen; Rutishauser, Jonas; Kopp, Peter; Stettler, Christoph; Müller, Beat; Katan, Mira; Llorens-Cortes, Catherine; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    Apelin and arginine vasopressin are antagonists in the regulation of body fluid and osmotic homeostasis. There are no data about apelin levels in patients with polyuria-polydipsia syndrome (PPS). To investigate plasma apelin levels and plasma apelin to copeptin ratios in patients with PPS and healthy volunteers using copeptin as a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin. We included 41 patients with PPS in this post hoc analysis of a prospective study performed in tertiary care hospitals in Switzerland and Germany and 113 healthy volunteers as a control group. Plasma apelin and copeptin levels were measured in 15 patients with complete central diabetes insipidus (DI), seven patients with complete nephrogenic DI, 19 patients with primary polydipsia (PP), and 113 healthy volunteers. Plasma apelin levels were highest in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (413 pmol/L; interquartile range, 332-504 pmol/L; P = .01) and lower in patients with PP (190 [172-215] pmol/L; P .9) was similar to healthy volunteers (57 [37-102] pmol/pmol). In contrast, the apelin to copeptin ratio was higher in patients with complete central DI (89 [73-135] pmol/pmol; P = .02) and lower in patients with complete nephrogenic DI (7 [6-10] pmol/pmol; P < .001) compared to healthy volunteers. In PP, normal plasma apelin to copeptin ratio attests a normal water homeostasis. In contrast, in patients with central or nephrogenic DI, the increased or decreased apelin to copeptin ratio, respectively, reflects a disturbed osmotic and body fluid homeostasis.

  7. Paracetamol for feverish children: parental motives and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives fo...... their GP for advice on fever treatment, paracetamol is sometimes given to children on vague indications. Clearer information for parents on when to give paracetamol as fever treatment may help regulate its use...

  8. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics between a microdose and therapeutic dose for clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen), and phenobarbital in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Graham; Shishikura, Yoko; Jochemsen, Roeline; Weaver, Richard John; Gesson, Charlotte; Brian Houston, J; Oosterhuis, Berend; Bjerrum, Ole J; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Alder, Jane; Rowland, Malcolm; Garner, Colin

    2011-06-14

    A clinical study was conducted to assess the ability of a microdose (100 μg) to predict the human pharmacokinetics (PK) following a therapeutic dose of clarithromycin, sumatriptan, propafenone, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and phenobarbital, both within the study and by reference to the existing literature on these compounds and to explore the source of any nonlinearity if seen. For each drug, 6 healthy male volunteers were dosed with 100 μg (14)C-labelled compound. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone this labelled dose was administered alone, i.e. as a microdose, orally and intravenously (iv) and as an iv tracer dose concomitantly with an oral non-labelled therapeutic dose, in a 3-way cross over design. The oral therapeutic doses were 250, 50, and 150 mg, respectively. Paracetamol was given as the labelled microdose orally and iv using a 2-way cross over design, whereas phenobarbital was given only as the microdose orally. Plasma concentrations of total (14)C and parent drug were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) or HPLC followed by AMS. Plasma concentrations following non-(14)C-labelled oral therapeutic doses were measured using either HPLC-electrochemical detection (clarithromycin) or HPLC-UV (sumatriptan, propafenone). For all five drugs an oral microdose predicted reasonably well the PK, including the shape of the plasma profile, following an oral therapeutic dose. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan, and propafenone, one parameter, oral bioavailability, was marginally outside of the normally acceptable 2-fold prediction interval around the mean therapeutic dose value. For clarithromycin, sumatriptan and propafenone, data obtained from an oral and iv microdose were compared within the same cohort of subjects used in the study, as well as those reported in the literature. For paracetamol (oral and iv) and phenobarbital (oral), microdose data were compared with those reported in the literature only. Where 100 μg iv (14)C-doses were

  10. Acetanilide and paracetamol pharmacokinetics before and during phenytoin administration: genetic control of induction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J L; Evans, D A

    1981-01-01

    1 Steady state plasma concentrations (SSPCs) of acetanilide (AA) and its metabolite, paracetamol (PL), were studied in 27 healthy volunteer subjects before and at the end of an 11-day exposure to phenytoin (DPH). Plasma concentrations of DPH were estimated. Plasma concentrations of DPH varied from 5.1 to 20.4 microgram ml-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean 12.2 +/- 0.9). 2 The SSPC of AA before exposure to DPH varied from 0.06 to 0.67 microgram ml-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean 0.24 +/- 0.02), and following exposure from 0.03 to 0.47 microgram ml-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean 0.15 +/- 0.02). 3 The SSPC of PL before exposure to DPH varied from 1.2 to 4.4 microgram ml-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean 2.7 +/- 0.13), and following exposure from 1.1 to 3.8 microgram ml-1 (mean +/- s.e.mean 2.2 +/- 0.13). 4 SSPCs of AA and of PL decreased significantly during DPH administration (P less than 0.01 for AA, P less than 0.001 for PL). 5 Correlations were observed between the SSPCs of the drugs measured, suggesting a common influence on their kinetics. 6 Similarity was observed between the changes in plasma levels of AA and PL following DPH ingestion. There was, however, wide inter-subject variability in this regard. In some subjects no change was observed even though they had DPH demonstrable in their plasma. Consequently it may be speculated that the effects of DPH may be under genetic control. PMID:7272175

  11. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-05-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were measured, and psychiatric symptoms were scored. In the NDS patients, both positive and negative symptoms improved. However, only the positive symptom scores changed in the DS patients. On day 4, pHVA concentrations of the NDS patients alone were significantly elevated. Plasma bromperidol concentrations did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that bromperidol exerts different effects on negative symptoms and pHVA concentrations between NDS and DS patients, effects that are unrelated to plasma bromperidol concentrations.

  12. Determinants of hepatotoxicity after repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion: systematic review of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Paul; Thomas, Simon H L

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of reported daily dose, age and other risk factors, and to assess the value of quantifying serum transaminase activity and paracetamol (acetaminophen) concentration at initial assessment for identifying patients at risk of hepatotoxicity following repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion (RSPI). Systematic literature review with collation and analysis of individual-level data from reported cases of RSPI associated with liver damage. In 199 cases meeting the selection criteria, severe liver damage (ALT/AST ≥1000 IU l(-1) , liver failure or death) was reported in 186 (93%) cases including 77/78 (99%) children aged ≤6 years. Liver failure occurred in 127 (64%) cases; of these 49 (39%) died. Maximum ingested daily paracetamol doses were above UK recommendations in 143 (72%) patients. US-Australasian thresholds for repeated supratherapeutic ingestions requiring intervention were not met in 71 (36%) cases; of these 35 (49%) developed liver failure and 10 (14%) died. No cases developing liver damage had paracetamol concentration Paracetamol concentrations <20 mg l(-1) with normal serum ALT/AST activity on initial assessment suggests a low risk of subsequent liver damage. These findings are, however, limited by low patient numbers, publication bias and the accuracy of the histories in reported cases. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Plasma lactate concentrations in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Henning A; Wenger, Sandra; Hvarnes, Silje; Os, Oystein; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate plasma lactate concentrations of etorphine-immobilized moose in relation to environmental, temporal and physiological parameters. Prospective clinical study. Fourteen female and five male moose (Alces alces), estimated age range 1-7 years. The moose were darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg etorphine per animal using projectile syringes and a dart gun. Once immobilized, the moose were approached, a venous blood sample was obtained and vital signs including pulse oximetry were recorded. Diprenorphine was administered to reverse the effects of etorphine. Timing of events, ambient temperature and snow depth were recorded. Blood samples were cooled and centrifuged before plasma was harvested and frozen. The plasma was thawed later and lactate analysed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. All animals recovered uneventfully and were alive 12 weeks after immobilization. Mean +/- SD plasma lactate was found to be 9.2 +/- 2.1 mmol L(-1). Plasma lactate concentrations were related positively to snow depth and negatively to time from induction of immobilization to blood sampling. The model that best described the variability in plasma lactate concentrations used induction time (time from firing the dart to the moose being immobilized). The second best model included induction time and snow depth. Plasma lactate concentrations in these etorphine-immobilized moose were in the range reported for other immobilized wild ruminants. Decreasing induction time, which may be related to a more profound etorphine effect, and increasing snow depth possibly may increase plasma lactate concentrations in etorphine-immobilized moose.

  14. Pharmacokinetics in Morbid Obesity: Influence of Two Bariatric Surgery Techniques on Paracetamol and Caffeine Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goday Arno, Albert; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Ramon, Jose M; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Papaseit, Esther; Civit, Ester; Langohr, Klaus; Lí Carbó, Marcel; Boix, David Benaiges; Nino, Olga Castañer; Le Roux, Juana Antonia Flores; Pera, Manuel; Grande, Luis; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the impact of the two most common bariatric surgery techniques on paracetamol pharmacokinetics (a marker of gastric emptying) and caffeine metabolism (a marker of liver function). In the present prospective study, we studied 24 morbid obese patients before, at 4 weeks, and 6 months after having undergone sleeve gastrectomy (n = 10) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 14). For comparative purposes, 28 healthy controls (14 normal weights and 14 overweights) were also included in the study. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics was altered in the obese participants leading to lower bioavailability. Bariatric surgery resulted in faster absorption and normalized pharmacokinetic parameters, prompting an increase in paracetamol bioavailability. No differences were found between surgical procedures. In the case of caffeine, the ratio paraxanthine/caffeine did not differ between morbid obese and healthy individuals. This ratio remained unmodified after surgery, indicating that the liver function (assessed by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity) was unaffected by obesity or bariatric surgery. Paracetamol pharmacokinetics and caffeine plasma levels are altered in severely obese patients. The two studied bariatric surgical techniques normalize paracetamol oral bioavailability without impairing the liver function (measured by cytochrome P450 1A2 activity).

  15. Paracetamol - toxicity and microbial utilization. Pseudomonas moorei KB4 as a case study for exploring degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żur, Joanna; Wojcieszyńska, Danuta; Hupert-Kocurek, Katarzyna; Marchlewicz, Ariel; Guzik, Urszula

    2018-09-01

    Paracetamol, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, is currently one of the most emerging pollutants worldwide. Besides its wide prevalence in the literature only several bacterial strains able to degrade this compound have been described. In this study, we isolated six new bacterial strains able to remove paracetamol. The isolated strains were identified as the members of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Acinetobacter and Sphingomonas genera and characterized phenotypically and biochemically using standard methods. From the isolated strains, Pseudomonas moorei KB4 was able to utilize 50 mg L -1 of paracetamol. As the main degradation products, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone were identified. Based on the measurements of specific activity of acyl amidohydrolase, deaminase and hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase and the results of liquid chromatography analyses, we proposed a mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain under co-metabolic conditions with glucose. Additionally, toxicity bioassays and the influence of various environmental factors, including pH, temperature, heavy metals at no-observed-effective-concentrations, and the presence of aromatic compounds on the efficiency and mechanism of paracetamol degradation by KB4 strain were determined. This comprehensive study about paracetamol biodegradation will be helpful in designing a treatment systems of wastewaters contaminated with paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental exposure to paracetamol causes biochemical alterations in medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    The effect and safety of prenatal and early life administration of paracetamol - routinely used over-the-counter antipyretic and analgesic medication on monoamines content and balance of amino acids in the medulla oblongata is still unknown. In this study we have determined the level of neurotransmitters in this structure in two-month old Wistar male rats exposed to paracetamol in the dose of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg b.w. (P15, n=10) during prenatal period, lactation and till the end of the second month of life. Control group received drinking water (Con, n=10). Monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids concentration in medulla oblongata of rats were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 60 postnatal day (PND60). This experiment shows that prenatal and early life paracetamol exposure modulates neurotransmission associated with serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic system in medulla oblongata. Reduction of alanine and taurine levels has also been established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Missed paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose due to confusion regarding drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, David G; Shields, Jennifer; Waring, W Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Immediate management of drug overdose relies upon the patient account of what was ingested and how much. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is involved in around 40% of intentional overdose episodes, and remains the leading cause of acute liver failure in many countries including the United Kingdom. In recent years, consumers have had increasing access to medications supplied by international retailers via the internet, which may have different proprietary or generic names than in the country of purchase. We describe a patient that presented to hospital after intentional overdose involving 'acetaminophen' purchased via the internet. The patient had difficulty recalling the drug name, which was inadvertently attributed to 'Advil', a proprietary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The error was later recognised when the drug packaging became available, but the diagnosis of paracetamol overdose and initiation of acetylcysteine antidote were delayed. This case illustrates the benefit of routinely measuring paracetamol concentrations in all patients with suspected poisoning, although this is not universally accepted in practice. Moreover, it highlights the importance of the internet as a source of medications for intentional overdose, and emphasises the need for harmonisation of international drug names to improve patient safety.

  18. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  19. PANSAID-PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective postoperative pain management is essential for the rehabilitation of the surgical patient. The PANSAID trial evaluates the analgesic effects and safety of the combination of paracetamol and ibuprofen. This paper describes in detail the statistical analysis plan for the primary...... publication to prevent outcome reporting bias and data-driven analysis results. METHODS/DESIGN: The PANSAID trial is a multicentre, randomised, controlled, parallel, four-group clinical trial comparing the beneficial and harmful effects of different doses and combinations of paracetamol and ibuprofen...... of paracetamol and ibuprofen used in a perioperative setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.org identifier: NCT02571361 . Registered on 7 October 2015....

  20. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Verhoef, P.

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  1. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  2. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  3. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  4. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S

    2015-01-01

    an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels...

  5. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  6. HPLC for simultaneous quantification of total ceramide, glucosylceramide, and ceramide trihexoside concentrations in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, Johanna E. M.; Poorthuis, Ben J. H. M.; Kuiper, Sijmen; Helmond, Mariette T. J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simple, reproducible assays are needed for the quantification of sphingolipids, ceramide (Cer), and sphingoid bases. We developed an HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of total plasma concentrations of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and ceramide trihexoside (CTH). METHODS:

  7. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  8. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  9. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  10. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  11. The Assessment of Liver Reserve Function by Spectrophotometry based on Determination of Phenacetin and Paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui; Ma, Yongmei; Ma, Wanshan; Lu, Sumei

    2015-01-01

    To establish a technical system for assessing liver reserve function based on spectrophotometry by detection of phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples. Taking detected contents of phenacetin and paracetamol by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as standard, which was proved to be able to detect drug concentrations with high resolution and accuracy, we established a technical system based on the spectrophotometric technique to assay phenacetin and paracetamol, including the color system, the maximum absorption wavelength, the influence factors of color system, and the optimal conditions for hydrolysis. Then we verified our established system compared with that under HPLC by recovery test. This study established a technical system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples using spectrophotometry. Mainly, 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid (HCl) was added to samples for hydrolysis for 30 minutes, then, adding 0.02% 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS), 1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTA) and 2% sodium hydroxide (or 3% sodium carbonate) (ratio of 1:6:1:2 or 3), and the absorbance was measured at 500 nm and 570 nm to calculate their concentrations. Using an established spectrophotometric system to detect phenacetin and paracetamol in blood samples could assess liver reserve function, which was proved comparable with HPLC in resolution and repeatability.

  12. Cerebellar level of neurotransmitters in rats exposed to paracetamol during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Joniec-Maciejak, Ilona; Jawna-Zboińska, Katarzyna; Pyrzanowska, Justyna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Wawer, Adriana; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to clarify the effect of prenatal and postnatal paracetamol administration on the neurotransmitter level and balance of amino acids in the cerebellum. Biochemical analysis to determine the concentration of neurotransmitters in this brain structure was performed on two-month-old Wistar male rats previously exposed to paracetamol in doses of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg (P15, n=10) throughout the entire prenatal period, lactation and until the completion of the second month of life, when the experiment was terminated. Control animals were given tapped water (Con, n=10). The cerebellar concentration of monoamines, their metabolites and amino acids were assayed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The present experiment demonstrates that prenatal and postnatal paracetamol exposure results in modulation of cerebellar neurotransmission with changes concerning mainly 5-HIAA and MHPG levels. The effect of paracetamol on monoaminergic neurotransmission in the cerebellum is reflected by changes in the level of catabolic end-products of serotonin (5-HIAA) and noradrenaline (MHPG) degradation. Further work is required to define the mechanism of action and impact of prenatal and postnatal exposure to paracetamol in the cerebellum and other structures of the central nervous system (CNS). Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Ghasemi, M.; Hoseini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing epidemiologic data support a relationship between elevated plasma total homocysteine levels and an increased risk for vascular disease. Higher plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels have been associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral infarction in whites. However, data regarding such associations are limited for Asians. This study examined the association between tHcy level and carotid stenosis in Iranian subjects. In this retrospective study, the subjects were 158 patients with ischemic stroke, including 105 with a normal tHcy level and 53 with a high tHcy level. We investigated the extracranial carotid arteries by ultrasonography and measured serum tHcy by ELISA method in these two groups. We found no meaningful association between a high tHcy level and carotid stenosis. The lack of any meaningful difference in carotid stenosis between patients with normal and elevated tHcy levels is probably due to the low frequency of extracranial diseases in the Asian population and to the nature of homocysteine atherosclerosis. (author)

  14. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  15. [Plasma prolactin concentration and the effect of metergoline in pseudopregnant Afghan hounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    2000-02-01

    The effects of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotinin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-psueodopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentration of prolactine in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  16. Plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and the effect of metergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-pseudopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentrations of prolactin in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  17. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  18. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  19. What is the clinical significance of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) in high anion gap metabolic acidosis following paracetamol (acetaminophen) exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, D B; Paden, M S; Schwarz, E S; Mullins, M E

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion is the most frequent pharmaceutical overdose in the developed world. Metabolic acidosis sometimes occurs, but the acidosis is infrequently persistent or severe. A growing number of case reports and case series describe high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) following paracetamol exposure with subsequent detection or measurement of 5-oxoproline (also called pyroglutamic acid) in blood, urine, or both. Typically 5-oxoprolinuria or 5-oxoprolinemia occurs in the setting of inborn genetic errors in glutathione metabolism. It is unknown whether 5-oxoprolinemia in the setting of paracetamol exposure reflects an acquired or transient derangement of glutathione metabolism or previously unrecognized genetic defects. We reviewed the published cases of 5-oxoprolinemia or 5-oxoprolinuria among patients with HAGMA in the setting of paracetamol exposure. Our goal was to identify any consistent features that might increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases. We searched the medical literature using PUBMED and EMBASE from inception to 28 August 2013 applying search terms ("oxoproline" OR "pyroglutamic acid" AND "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen"). The intersection of these two searches returned 77 articles, of which 64 involved human subjects and were in English. Two articles, one each in Spanish and Dutch, were reviewed. An additional Google Scholar search was done with the same terms. We manually searched the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify additional four relevant articles. We focused on articles including measured 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine or blood. Twenty-two articles included quantified 5-oxoproline concentrations. Several additional articles mentioned only qualitative detection of 5-oxoproline in urine or blood without concentrations being reported. Our manual reference search yielded four additional articles for a total of 24 articles describing 43 patients

  20. Powder compression properties of paracetamol, paracetamol hydrochloride, paracetamol cocrystals and coformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ann-Sofie; Ahmed, Hamzah; Velaga, Sitaram; Alderborn, Göran

    2018-03-31

    The objective was to study the relationship between crystal structure, particle deformation properties and tablet-forming ability for the monoclinic form of paracetamol (PRA), two cocrystals and a salt crystal of PRA in addition to two coformers (oxalic acid and 4,4'-bipyridine). Thus, the structure - property - performance relationship was investigated. Analytical powder compression was used for determination of effective plasticity, as inferred from the Heckel yield pressure and the Frenning parameter, and the elastic deformation was determined from in-die tablet elastic recovery. plasticity could not be linked to the crystal lattice structure as crystals containing zig-zag layers displayed similar plasticity as cThe rystals containing slip planes. In addition, crystals containing slip-planes displayed both high and low plasticity. The mechanical properties could neither be linked to the tablet-forming ability as the tablet tensile strength, unexpectedly, displayed a tendency to reduce with increased plasticity stiffness. Furthermore, the elastic deformation could not explain the tablet forming ability. It was concluded that no relationship between structure - property - performance for paracetamol and its cocrystals and salt could be established. Thus, it was indicated that to establish such a relationship an improved knowledge of crystallographic structure and inter-particle bonding during compaction is needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prior to lambing, when they were transferred to kikuyu pastures. From six weeks prior to lambing, all the ewes received 0,5 kg supplementary feeding daily. This was increased by 0,1 kg per week up to lambing. The diet consisted of 55% oaten hay, 35,6% barley, 4% fish meal, 3% Rumevite stud concentrate,. 1% bentonite,.

  2. Platelet concentration of plateletrich plasma from dogs, obtained through three centrifugation speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Couto de Magalhães Ferraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The platelets release at least 4 growth factors (Platelet Derived Growth Factor. ²1 and ²2 Transforming Growth Factors and Insulin-like Growth Factor which are responsible for the migration and activation of cells that will start the reparation of soft tissues and bones. The Platelet Rich Plasma is an autogenous source for Growth Factors, obtained by platelet concentration by centrifuging total blood. This study aimed the comparison of platelet concentrations in plasma centrifuged in three different centrifugation speeds (1300, 1600 e 3200rpm, for the production of platelet rich plasma. Blood was drowned from 15 dogs, 40ml of each, and these were divided into four groups and centrifuged at 800rpm. Then the first group was centrifuged at 1300rpm, the second at 1600rpm, the third at 3200rpm and the last was used as control, named plasma. The mean percentage increase in the platelet concentration for each technique was: 1300 - 183%, 1600 - 210% and 3200 - 222%. But in centrifugation at 3200 rpm, platelets presented altered morphology and different sizes in every sample studied, which was understood as severe cell damage. It was concluded that the best technique for the preparation of the platelet rich plasma in dogs consisted of the previous centrifugation of the blood at 800rpm for ten minutes, and then the plasma should be separated. This plasma is then submitted to a second centrifugation of 1600rpm for 10 minutes, and the platelet poor plasma is separated and discharged.

  3. Hyperamylasaemia and acute pancreatitis in paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Dalhoff, K

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperamylasaemia and even acute pancreatitis have been reported in patients with paracetamol poisoning. AIMS: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic implications of hyperamylasaemia in paracetamol poisoning. PATIENTS: Six hundred and two patients transferred...... to a specialized unit with severe paracetamol poisoning and 212 unselected patients admitted from the local region. METHODS: Retrospective study based on hospital charts. The optimum threshold of serum amylase to discriminate non-survivors was identified. RESULTS: An elevated serum amylase (>100 U/L) occurred...... in 28 of the unselected patients (13%), in 218 of the transferred patients (36%), and in 118 of 148 patients (80%) with fulminant hepatic failure. Only 33 cases of paracetamol-associated acute pancreatitis were diagnosed. A threshold serum amylase of 150 U/L to discriminate non-survivors had sensitivity...

  4. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  5. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  6. First evidence of the conversion of paracetamol to AM404 in human cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma CV

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chhaya V Sharma,1 Jamie H Long,2 Seema Shah,1 Junia Rahman,1 David Perrett,3 Samir S Ayoub,4 Vivek Mehta1 1Pain & Anaesthesia Research Centre, St Bartholomew’s and The Royal London Hospitals, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK; 2Barts & The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; 3BioAnalytical Science, Barts & The London School of Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK; 4School of Health, Sport and Bioscience, Medicines Research Group, University of East London, London, UK Abstract: Paracetamol is arguably the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drug worldwide, however its mechanism of action is still not fully established. It has been shown to exert effects through multiple pathways, some actions suggested to be mediated via N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404. AM404, formed through conjugation of paracetamol-derived p-aminophenol with arachidonic acid in the brain, is an activator of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1, and inhibits the reuptake of the endocannabinoid, anandamide, into postsynaptic ­neurons, as well as inhibiting synthesis of PGE2 by COX-2. However, the presence of AM404 in the central nervous system following administration of paracetamol has not yet been demonstrated in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood were collected from 26 adult male patients between 10 and 211 minutes following intravenous administration of 1 g of paracetamol. Paracetamol was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. AM404 was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. AM404 was detected in 17 of the 26 evaluable CSF samples at 5–40 nmol⋅L–1. Paracetamol was measurable in CSF within 10 minutes, with a maximum measured concentration of 60 μmol⋅L–1 at 206 minutes. This study is the first to report on the presence of AM404 in human CSF following paracetamol administration. This may represent an important finding in our understanding of

  7. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  8. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ADM concentrations in hyperthyroid patients complicated with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiqin; Zhang Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients with or without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Plasma ADM levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 30 hyperthyroid patients without pulmonary hypertension, (2) 27 hyperthyroid patients with pulmonary, hypertension, and (3) 32 controls. Results: (1) In this study, 27 of the 57 hyperthyroid patients were complicated with pulmonary hypertension (47.37%), (2) Plasma ADM concentrations in the patients with pulmonary hypertension were significantly higher than those in patients without pulmonary hypertension and controls (P 3 , T 4 (thyroid hormones) were positively correlated with those of ADM while there were no correlations in controls. Conclusion: Plasma ADM concentrations increased in hyperthyroid patients, especially in those complicated with pulmonary hypertension. The clinicians should look for pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroid patients with substantially elevated levels of ADM. (authors)

  9. Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Mave

    Full Text Available We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration. We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment.

  10. Do plasma concentrations of apelin predict prognosis in patients with advanced heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Jackson, Colette E; Chong, Kwok S; McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is an endogenous vasodilator and inotrope, plasma concentrations of which are reduced in advanced heart failure (HF). We determined the prognostic significance of plasma concentrations of apelin in advanced HF. Plasma concentrations of apelin were measured in 182 patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The predictive value of apelin for the primary end point of all-cause mortality was assessed over a median follow-up period of 544 (IQR: 196-923) days. In total, 30 patients (17%) reached the primary end point. Of those patients with a plasma apelin concentration above the median, 14 (16%) reached the primary end point compared with 16 (17%) of those with plasma apelin levels below the median (p = NS). NT-proBNP was the most powerful prognostic marker in this population (log rank statistic: 10.37; p = 0.001). Plasma apelin concentrations do not predict medium to long-term prognosis in patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  11. Morphological effect of BiVO4 catalysts on degradation of aqueous paracetamol under visible light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changying; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Yaqi; Chen, Acong; Bian, Zhaoyong; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Morphological effect of bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) on visible light-driven catalytic degradation of aqueous paracetamol was carefully investigated using four monoclinic BiVO4 catalysts. The catalysts with different morphologies were controllably prepared by a hydrothermal method without any additions. The prepared catalysts were fully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Under the visible light irradiation, these catalysts with different morphology were investigated to degrade aqueous paracetamol contaminant. The degradation effects were evaluated based on the catalyst morphology, solution pH, initial paracetamol concentration, and catalyst dosage. Cube-like BiVO4 powders exhibited excellent photocatalytic performance. The optimal photocatalytic performance of the cube-like BiVO4 in degrading paracetamol was achieved.

  12. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  13. Paracetamol-induced spindle disturbances in V79 cells with and without expression of human CYP1A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K G; Poulsen, H E; Doehmer, J

    1996-01-01

    Spindle disturbing effects in terms of c-mitosis and cytotoxicity of paracetamol were investigated in two Chinese hamster V79 cell lines, one of which (V79MZh1A2) was transfected with human CYP1A2. This enzyme catalyses the oxidative formation of the reactive paracetamol metabolite, NAPQI, believed...... to initiate hepatoxicity by covalent binding to proteins after overdose. In the native V79 cell line paracetamol increased c-mitosis frequency in a concentration dependent manner from 8.7 + or - 3.5% (control) to 66 + or - 18% at 20 mM. A significant increase to 13.3 + or - 3.5% was first seen at 2.5 m......M in the native cell line (Pparacetamol. At 5 mM paracetamol the c-mitosis frequency was 14.4 + or - 5.0% and 19.0 + or - 3...

  14. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  15. Voltammetric sensing of paracetamole, dopamine and 4-aminophenol at a glassy carbon electrode coated with gold nanoparticles and an organophillic layered double hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, H.; Shang, K.; Meng, X.; Ai, S.

    2011-01-01

    A differential pulse voltammetric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of paracetamole, 4-aminophenol and dopamine at pH 7.0 using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) coated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a layered double hydroxide sodium modified with dodecyl sulfate (SDS-LDH). The modified electrode displays excellent redox activity towards paracetamole, and the redox current is increased (and the corresponding over-potential decreased) compared to those of the bare GCE, the AuNPs-modified GCE, and the SDS-LDH-modified GCE. The modified electrode enables the determination of paracetamole in the concentration range from 0.5 to 400 μM, with a detection limit of 0.13 μM (at an S/N of 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of paracetamole and dopamine, and of paracetamole and 4-aminophenol, respectively, in pharmaceutical tablets and in spiked human serum samples. (author)

  16. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  17. The effect of paracetamol on 5 fluorouracil and bovine serum albumin interaction: A biophysical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Vandana; Pal, Samanwita

    2018-05-01

    Serum Albumin is a major carrier protein and its binding with drugs is important to examine the change in pharmacokinetic properties due to interaction amongst drugs. In the present study we have attempted to understand the relevant drug-drug interaction (DDI) between two common drugs viz, paracetamol, an anti-inflammatory and fluorouracil, an anti-cancer drug. In-vitro spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence quenching and UV-vis absorption have been employed for the drug-bovine serum albumin (BSA) complexes studies. The binding parameters and quenching constants have been determined for BSA-Paracetamol and BSA-5Fluorouracil complex according to literature models. It is also predicted from the quenching studies that BSA-5Fluorouracil is a stronger complex than BSA-Paracetamol. On the other hand paracetamol can alter binding affinity of 5Fluorouracil towards BSA. Hence it becomes clear that although the drugs could be administered simultaneously but they influence each other's binding with protein in a concentration dependent fashion. Further these results also indicate that availability of free 5Fluorouracil in blood may increase in presence of paracetamol.

  18. Effect of quercetin on paracetamole-induced liver disjunction in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayat, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing attention has been given to the role of free radicals generated through oxidation stress. Persons subjected to radiation, such as radiotherapy, consuming analgesic drugs such as paracetamole which accumulates at relatively high concentration in liver, are in need to be investigated to explore the synergetic effects of these stresses. Many radical scavengers, interestingly naturally occurring antioxidants, have been found to be effective in inhibiting the oxidative damage Quercetin, the well known phenolic compound widely present in the plant kingdom, has been investigated for its possible protection effect against gamma irradiation and paracetamole-induced hepatic damage. Data revealed serious effects of oral administration of sublethal dose of paracetamole (500 mg/kg) and/or exposure to 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation on liver. This damage is reflected by increased hepatic levels of MDA, carbonyl content and ALT activity, associated by decrease in hepatic SOD, catalase and GSH when compared with respective control values. The combination of quercetin with paracetamole and/or gamma irradiation have clearly reduced liver damage. It was noticed that the restoration of peroxides and carbonyls rates has occurred. Quercetin seems to act by activation of the turnover of SOD, catalase and GSH and permitting the capitation of reactive metabolites of paracetamole as well as its ability in quenching free radicals induced by exposure of rats to gamma irradiation, thus improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  19. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  20. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  1. Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiya; Hori, Yasutomo; Chimura, Syuuichi

    2014-06-01

    The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r(2)=0.61, P764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs.

  2. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  3. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  4. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  6. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  7. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  8. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  9. Colorimetric determination of a paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usifoh, C.O; Adelusi, S.A.; Adebambo, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and simple method is proposed for the determination of p-acetaminophen (paracetamole) in raw material, tablets and syrups. The method is based on measuring the intensity of the yellow color that developed when acute acetaminophen is allowed to react with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 2M HCl after heating. The color which absorbs in the visible region of gamma 450 nm is stable for several hours and the intensity is directly proportional to the concentration of the drug, that is, Beer lambert law is obeyed. The method can be used to analyse paracetamole in raw material and in pharmaceutical dosage forms. (author)

  10. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  11. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  12. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  13. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role of hypoadipone......Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...

  14. Risk factors associated with high linezolid trough plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, L; De la Calle, C; Gómez-Cerquera, J M; Manzanedo, L; Casals, G; Brunet, M; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Martínez, J A; Mensa, J; Soriano, A

    2016-06-01

    The major concern of linezolid is the adverse events. High linezolid trough serum concentration (Cmin) has been associated with toxicity. The aim of this study was to analyze factors associated with high Cmin. Main clinical characteristics of 104 patients treated with 600 mg/12 hours of linezolid were retrospectively reviewed. Samples were obtained just before the next dose after at least three doses and within the first 8 days of treatment. High Cmin was considered when it was >8 mg/L. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. 34.6% patients had a Cmin >8 mg/L, and they were older and had more frequently an estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD 8 was the renal function. Patients with an eGF 80 mL/min (OR: 4.273) and there was a trend towards a high Cmin in patients with eGF between 40-80 mL/min (OR: 2.109). High Cmin were frequent, especially in patients with MDRD <40 mL/min. Therapeutic drug monitoring could be useful to avoid toxicity in patients with renal dysfunction.

  15. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 are elevated in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wang, Jianye; Wang, Haiyu; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, which is critical to normal tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. In patients with endometriosis, increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 have been observed in ectopic endometrium, but the plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis and their relation to disease severity have not been clear. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma and peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Jinan Military General Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Fifty patients with proven endometriosis and 26 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with endometriosis were evaluated and divided into moderate/severe endometriosis group (stage I-II, n = 26) and minimal/mild endometriosis group (stage III-IV, n = 24) according to the revised criteria of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Blood samples and peritoneal fluid were obtained from both patients and controls. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma and peritoneal fluid. The concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 between different groups was compared and its correlation to disease severity was analysed. Plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis were higher than that in controls. In addition, those patients with moderate/severe endometriosis had significantly higher plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to those with minimal/mild endometriosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid were both positively correlated with severity of endometriosis and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9

  17. Paracetamol and salicylic acid removal from contaminated water by microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escapa, C; Coimbra, R N; Paniagua, S; García, A I; Otero, M

    2017-12-01

    The biomass growth, pharmaceutical removal and light conversion efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana under the presence of paracetamol (PC) and salicylic acid (SaC) were assessed and compared at two different concentrations of these pharmaceuticals (I: 25 mg l -1 , II: 250 mg l -1 ). Microalgae were resistant to these concentrations and, moreover, their growth was significantly stimulated (p ≤ 0.05) under these drugs (biomass concentration increased above 33% PCI, 35% SaCI, 13% PCII and 45% SaCII, as compared with the respective positive controls). At the steady state of the semicontinuous culture, C. sorokiniana showed removal efficiencies above 41% and 69% for PCI and PCII, respectively; and above 93% and 98% for SaCI and SaCII, respectively. Under an irradiance of 370 μE m -2  s -1 , higher quantum yields were reached by microalgae under the presence of drugs, either at dose I or II, than by the respective positive controls. These results point to C. sorokiniana as a robust strain for the bioremediation of paracetamol and salicylic acid concentrated wastewaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  19. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  20. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-01-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were m...

  1. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Snel, Marieke; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Mattijssen, Frits; Mudde, Karin; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations after various nutritional

  2. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.; Mudde, K.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, S.; Rensen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  3. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, van der R.; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.B.J.; Mudde, C.M.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, de A.; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, A.H.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. Objective: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  4. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma

  5. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in the critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, A.D.; Hunfeld, N.G.; Touw, D.J.; Melief, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (PCM) is a drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Despite its frequent use, little is known about its efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) when intravenously administered in the critically ill patient. A previous study suggests that therapeutic concentrations are not

  6. Effect of physiological determinants and cardiac disease on plasma adiponectin concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, C; Merveille, A-C; Krafft, E; Da Costa, A M; Gomart, S; Jespers, P; Michaux, C; Clercx, C; Verhoeven, C; Mc Entee, K

    2014-01-01

    In humans, a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile whereas, in patients with heart failure (HF), a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a less favorable prognosis. To evaluate the physiological determinants of plasma adiponectin concentration in dogs and the influence of heart disease, myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). One hundred and fourteen client-owned dogs and 9 Beagles from the research colony of the Clinical Veterinary Unit of the University of Liège. We prospectively measured circulating adiponectin concentration in healthy control dogs (n = 77), dogs with MMVD (n = 22) and dogs with DCM (n = 15) of various degrees of severity. Diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Plasma adiponectin concentration was measured by a canine-specific sandwich ELISA kit. An analysis of covariance showed an association between adiponectin concentration and age, neuter status, and heart disease. No association between adiponectin concentration and class of HF, sex, body condition score, body weight, circadian rhythm, or feeding was found. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with age (P = .001). Adiponectin was lower in neutered (P = .008) compared to intact dogs. Circulating adiponectin concentration was increased in dogs with DCM compared to healthy dogs (P = .018) and to dogs with MMVD (P = .014). Age and neutering negatively influence circulating adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration increased in dogs with DCM. Additional research is required to investigate if this hormone is implicated in the pathophysiology of DCM and associated with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (PTH > 300 pg/ml) plasma sclerostin and serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Serum PTH concentration decreased after 3 and 6 month of treatment from 1138 (931-1345) pg/ml to 772 (551-992) pg/ml and to 635 (430-839) pg/ml, respectively. Mean serum calcium and phosphate concentrations remained stable. Plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.66 (1.35-1.96) ng/ml, to 1.77 (1.43-2.12) ng/ml and to 1.87 (1.50-2.25) ng/ml, respectively. In 42 patients with cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.51 (1.19-1.84) ng/ml to 1.59 (1.29-1.89) ng/ml and to 1.75 (1.42-2.01) ng/ml, respectively. Contrary, in the 16 patients without cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration was stable. Plasma sclerostin concentrations correlated inversely with serum PTH concentrations at the baseline and also after 6 months of treatment. 1. In hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration 2. This effect seems to be related to decrease of serum PTH concentration.

  8. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  9. Correlation of plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration with hemodynamic recovery after intralipid infusion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Hoggett, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Drug sequestration to an expanded plasma lipid phase has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action for lipid emulsions in lipophilic cardiotoxin overdose. The authors set out to document plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration after resuscitation with lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of clomipramine-induced hypotension. Twenty sedated mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were allocated to receive either 12 mL/kg 20% Intralipid or 12 mL/kg saline solution, following clomipramine infusion to 50% baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Hemodynamic parameters and serum clomipramine concentration were determined to 59 minutes. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% Intralipid or saline solution was evaluated for clomipramine concentration. Mean arterial pressure was greater in lipid-treated animals as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[1,14] = 6.84; p = 0.020). Lipid infusion was associated with elevated plasma clomipramine concentration and reduced initial volume of distribution (Vd; 5.7 [+/-1.6] L/kg lipid vs. 15.9 [+/-7.2] L/kg saline; p = 0.0001). Peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration was greater in lipid-treated animals (366.2 [+/-186.2] microg/L lipid vs. 37.7 [+/-13.8] microg/L saline; p = 0.002). Amelioration of clomipramine-induced hypotension with lipid infusion is associated with reduced initial Vd and elevated plasma clomipramine concentration consistent with intravascular drug-lipid sequestration. Concomitant peritoneal dialysis with lipid emulsion enhances clomipramine extraction.

  10. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  11. Paracetamol for feverish children: parental motives and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.F.; Tonnesen, L.L.; Söderström, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The sale of paracetamol products for children is increasing, and more children are accidentally given overdoses, even though the use of paracetamol against fever is still under discussion. This study explores Danish parents' use of paracetamol for feverish children and their motives...

  12. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  13. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  14. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  15. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-05

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs.

  16. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  17. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  18. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  19. Decreased plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-09-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a non organic, secondary amenorrhea related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays an important role in the growth, development, maintenance and function of several neuronal systems. The aim of the study was the evaluation of plasma BDNF concentrations in patients with the diagnosis of FHA. We studied 85 subjects diagnosed with FHA who were compared with 10 healthy, eumenorrheic controls with normal body mass index. Plasma BDNF and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Significantly lower concentration of plasma BDNF was found in FHA patients (196.31 ± 35.26 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (407.20 ± 25.71 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). In the control group, there was a strong positive correlation between plasma BDNF and serum E2 concentrations (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) but in FHA group it was not found. Role of BDNF in FHA is not yet fully understood. There could be found studies concerning plasma BDNF concentrations in humans and animals in the literature. However, our study is one of the first projects which describes decreased plasma BDNF concentration in patients with diagnosed FHA. Therefore, further studies on BDNF in FHA should clarify the role of this peptide.

  20. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Ko, Kwang Suk; Fascetti, Andrea J; Kittleson, Mark D; Macdonald, Kristin A; Maggs, David J; Berg, John R; Rogers, Quinton R

    2006-10-01

    Although taurine is not dietarily essential for dogs, taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are sporadically reported in large-breed dogs. Taurine status and husbandry were examined in 216 privately owned Newfoundlands, a giant dog breed with high incidence of idiopathic DCM (1.3-2.5%). Plasma taurine concentration was positively correlated (P ine (r = 0.37) and methionine (r = 0.35) concentrations and was similar across age, sex, neutering status, body weight, and body-condition scores. Plasma taurine concentration was low (ine, tryptophan, and alpha-amino-n-butyric acid concentrations than the other dogs (P ine and blood glutathione, lower (P < 0.01) de novo taurine synthesis (59 +/- 15 vs. 124 +/- 27 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)), and greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/g). Newfoundlands would appear to have a higher dietary sulfur amino acid requirement than Beagles, a model breed used in nutrient requirement determinations.

  2. Toxic plasma concentration of ropivacaine after a paravertebral block in a patient suffering from severe hypoalbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    A case of systemic ropivacaine toxicity from a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient who received a lobectomy is presented. The catheter was placed by the surgeon. Eleven hours after the start of the infusion, the patient experienced an arrhythmia leading to death. The total venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine was high (3.2 μg/mL). Furthermore, the patient had severe hypoalbuminemia (albumin 24 g/L), which resulted in the increase of the unbound ropivacaine plasma concentration that was responsible for the toxic side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P < 0.05). The total steady-state plasma concentrations of fentanyl ranged between 0.1 and 9 ng ml-1, with a median of 1 ng m...

  4. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-12-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P Infusion rates and both total and unbound plasma concentrations of fentanyl were correlated (Spearman rho = 0.92, P infusion in the palliative care setting, which necessitates careful titration of dosage according to individual clinical response.

  5. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

  6. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  7. Hemostatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, J; Moritz, A; Kramer, M; Bauer, N

    2015-01-01

    Prospective characterization of hemostastatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Coagulation variables (platelets, prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], fibrinogen, antithrombin [AT], protein C [PC], protein S [PS], D-dimers), plasma lactate concentration and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell [WBC] count, lymphocyte and neutrophil numbers) were assessed in 20 dogs with GDV presented between 2011 and 2012. Blood was taken preoperatively and at days 1 and 3 postoperatively. The prognostic value of these variables before and after surgery was evaluated as well as the behavior of variables during the study. Overall, 7/20 (35%) dogs did not survive; two dogs (29%) were euthanized during surgery due to severe gastric necrosis and 5 (71%) dogs after surgery due to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Prior to surgery, median plasma lactate concentration was significantly (p = 0.01) lower in survivors (6.2 mmol/l, range 1.9-9.7 mmol/l) when compared to non-survivors (11.8 mmol/l, range 7.5-16.2 mmol/l). In dogs dying after surgery, significantly higher plasma lactate concentration, coagulation times and D-dimer concentration were present as well as lower fibrinogen concentration and activity of PC and AT compared to survivors. At discharge, activity of AT, PC and PS were markedly below the reference interval in 6/13 (46%), 11/13 (85%), and 8/13 (62%) dogs, respectively. Only lactate plasma concentration was of preoperative prognostic value. After surgery, severe abnormalities of coagulation variables, especially the endogenous anticoagulants were present in most of the dogs. The severity of the abnormalities was associated with survival.

  8. Correlations between plasma noradrenaline concentrations, antioxidants, and neutrophil counts after submaximal resistance exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Wagner, K; Elmadfa, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate noradrenaline concentrations, neutrophil counts, plasma antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products before and after acute resistance exercise. Methods: 17 male participants undertook a submaximal resistance exercise circuit (10 exercises; 75% of the one repetition maximum; mean (SD) exercise time, 18.6 (1.1) minutes). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma antioxidants, noradrenaline, neutrophils, and lipid oxidation products. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for calculations. Results: Neutrophils, noradrenaline, fat soluble antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products increased after exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations were associated with higher antioxidant concentrations. Neutrophils were related to higher concentrations of conjugated dienes. Conclusions: Submaximal resistance exercise increases plasma antioxidants. This might reflect enhanced antioxidant defence in response to the oxidative stress of exercise, though this is not efficient for inhibiting lipid oxidation. The correlation between noradrenaline concentrations and plasma antioxidants suggests a modulating role of the stress hormone. Neutrophils are a possible source of oxidative stress after resistance exercise. PMID:15388566

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentration in patients diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk, Adam; Filipowicz, Dorota; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Ptas, Paula; Piestrzynska, Malgorzata; Smolarczyk, Roman; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-05-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a cessation of function of ovaries in women younger than 40 years old. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in neuronal growth and metabolism. BDNF also has been shown to be important regulator of oocyte maturation. Recent data show that BDNF can be potentially involved in POI pathology. The aim of the study was to assess the BDNF plasma concentrations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic POI. 23 women diagnosed with POI (age 31 ± 7 years) and 18 (age 31 ± 3) controls were included to the study, matched according to age and body mass index. The BDNF concentrations were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured in all individuals, in controls in late follicular phase. The POI group demonstrated lower mean plasma concentrations of BDNF (429.25 ± 65.52 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (479.75 ± 34.75 pg/ml, p = 0.0345). The BDNF plasma concentration correlated negatively (R = -0.79, p BDNF and progesterone in controls. In conclusion, POI patients show significantly lower BDNF plasma concentration and it correlates with the duration of amenorrhea. This observation brings important potential insights to the pathology of POI.

  10. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  11. Effect of Postural Change on Plasma Insulin Concentration in Normal Volunteer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Koh, Joo Whan; Joo, Jong Koo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jang Kyu [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The concentrations of some blood constituents are known to be influenced by the postural change. The blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, first, in the supine, and then (30 minutes later) in the erect positions under the fasting state. The effects of a duretic, furose-mide, were also studied under the same condition for 5 consecutive days. The materials were 5 healthy volunteers aging 20-29 years old with out any diabetic past, or family histories. The blood glucose was measured by the Nelson's method, and plasma insulin by the radioimmunoassay method. Following are the results; 1) The plasma insulin concentration in the erect position is slightly higher than in the supine position, however, the increase is statistically insignificant because of the notable individual variations in the values of the supine position. 2) Four out of 5 cases show the increase of about 80% of plasma insulin in the erect position, which is statistically significant if analyzed on the basis of frequency distribution. 3) The blood glucose concentration showed no postural changes. 4) The increase of the plasma insulin concentration in the erect position seems to the result of limited extra vasation of insulin in the lower extremities.

  12. A novel approach for estimating ingested dose associated with paracetamol overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlinden, Todd J; Heard, Kennon; Reisfeld, Brad

    2016-04-01

    In cases of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) overdose, an accurate estimate of tissue-specific paracetamol pharmacokinetics (PK) and ingested dose can offer health care providers important information for the individualized treatment and follow-up of affected patients. Here a novel methodology is presented to make such estimates using a standard serum paracetamol measurement and a computational framework. The core component of the computational framework was a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model developed and evaluated using an extensive set of human PK data. Bayesian inference was used for parameter and dose estimation, allowing the incorporation of inter-study variability, and facilitating the calculation of uncertainty in model outputs. Simulations of paracetamol time course concentrations in the blood were in close agreement with experimental data under a wide range of dosing conditions. Also, predictions of administered dose showed good agreement with a large collection of clinical and emergency setting PK data over a broad dose range. In addition to dose estimation, the platform was applied for the determination of optimal blood sampling times for dose reconstruction and quantitation of the potential role of paracetamol conjugate measurement on dose estimation. Current therapies for paracetamol overdose rely on a generic methodology involving the use of a clinical nomogram. By using the computational framework developed in this study, serum sample data, and the individual patient's anthropometric and physiological information, personalized serum and liver pharmacokinetic profiles and dose estimate could be generated to help inform an individualized overdose treatment and follow-up plan. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Acute liver failure in a term neonate after repeated paracetamol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bucaretchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Severe hepatotoxicity caused by paracetamol is rare in neonates. We report a case of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure in a term neonate. Case description: A 26-day-old boy was admitted with intestinal bleeding, shock signs, slight liver enlargement, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis (pH=7.21; bicarbonate: 7.1mEq/L, hypoglycemia (18mg/dL, increased serum aminotransferase activity (AST=4,039IU/L; ALT=1,087IU/L and hyperbilirubinemia (total: 9.57mg/dL; direct: 6.18mg/dL after receiving oral paracetamol (10mg/kg/dose every 4 hours for three consecutive days (total dose around 180mg/kg; serum concentration 36-48 hours after the last dose of 77µg/ mL. Apart from supportive measures, the patient was successfully treated with intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion during 11 consecutive days, and was discharged on day 34. The follow-up revealed full recovery of clinical and of laboratory findings of hepatic function. Comments: The paracetamol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in neonates and infants differ substantially from those in older children and adults. Despite the reduced rates of metabolism by the P-450 CYP2E1 enzyme system and the increased ability to synthesize glutathione - which provides greater resistance after overdoses -, it is possible to produce hepatotoxic metabolites (N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone that cause hepatocellular damage, if glutathione sources are depleted. Paracetamol clearance is reduced and the half-life of elimination is prolonged. Therefore, a particular dosing regimen should be followed due to the toxicity risk of cumulative doses. This report highlights the risk for severe hepatotoxicity in neonates after paracetamol multiple doses for more than two to three days.

  14. Conjoint regulation of glucagon concentrations via plasma insulin and glucose in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-04-01

    Insulin and glucagon are glucoregulatory hormones that contribute to glucose homeostasis. Plasma insulin is elevated during normoglycemia or hyperglycemia and acts as a suppressor of glucagon secretion. We have investigated if and how insulin and glucose contribute to the regulation of glucagon secretion through long term (48 h) elevated insulin concentrations during simultaneous hypoglycemia or euglycemia in mid-lactating dairy cows. Nineteen Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: an intravenous insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5) to decrease plasma glucose concentrations (2.5 mmol/L), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study effects of insulin at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations (EuG, n = 6) and a 0.9% saline infusion (NaCl, n = 8). Plasma glucose was measured at 5-min intervals, and insulin and glucose infusion rates were adjusted accordingly. Area under the curve of hourly glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations on day 2 of infusion was evaluated by analysis of variance with treatments as fixed effect. Insulin infusion caused an increase of plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC)/h in HypoG (41.9 ± 8.1 mU/L) and EuG (57.8 ± 7.8 mU/L) compared with NaCl (13.9 ± 1.1 mU/L; P insulin infusion induces elevated glucagon concentrations during hypoglycemia, although the same insulin infusion reduces glucagon concentrations at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations. Thus, insulin does not generally have an inhibitory effect on glucagon concentrations. If simultaneously glucose is low and insulin is high, glucagon is upregulated to increase glucose availability. Therefore, insulin and glucose are conjoint regulatory factors of glucagon concentrations in dairy cows, and the plasma glucose status is the key factor to decide if its concentrations are increased or decreased. This regulatory effect can be important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis if insulin secretion is upregulated by other factors than high

  15. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  16. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pfoods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  18. Relationship between plasma dabigatran concentration and activated partial thromboplastin time in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Shimomura

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT. Additionally, in daily clinical practice in Japan, plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT reached a peak in the 4-h post administration range. Considering the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran, aPTT can be used as an index for risk screening for excess dabigatran concentrations in Japanese patients with NVAF.

  19. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-09-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily.

  20. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Newby, David E; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations predict prognosis in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), but it is unclear whether this directly relates to disease severity. We assessed the relationship between BNP and echocardiographic measures of disease severity in patients with VHD. Methods Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and isolated VHD (mitral regurgitation (MR), n=33; aortic regurgitation (AR), n=39; aortic stenosis (AS), n=34; mitral stenosis (MS), n=30), and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n=39) immediately prior to exercise stress echocardiography. Results Compared with controls, patients with VHD had elevated plasma BNP concentrations (MR median 35 (IQR 23–52), AR 34 (22–45), AS 31 (22–60), MS 58 (34–90); controls 24 (16–33) pg/mL; p<0.01 for all). LV end diastolic volume index varied by valve lesion; (MR (mean 77±14), AR (91±28), AS (50±17), MS (43±11), controls (52±13) mL/m2; p<0.0001). There were no associations between LV volume and BNP. Left atrial (LA) area index varied (MR (18±4 cm2/m2), AR (12±2), AS (11±3), MS (19±6), controls (11±2); p<0.0001), but correlated with plasma BNP concentrations: MR (r=0.42, p=0.02), MS (r=0.86, p<0.0001), AR (r=0.53, p=0.001), AS (r=0.52, p=0.002). Higher plasma BNP concentrations were associated with increased pulmonary artery pressure and reduced exercise capacity. Despite adverse cardiac remodelling, 81 (60%) patients had a BNP concentration within the normal range. Conclusions Despite LV remodelling, plasma BNP concentrations are often normal in patients with VHD. Conversely, mild elevations of BNP occur with LA dilatation in the presence of normal LV. Plasma BNP concentrations should be interpreted with caution when assessing patients with VHD. PMID:27175283

  1. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  2. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  3. Dissociation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, M J; Morovat, A; Rudd, B T; Shakespear, R A

    1990-09-01

    The relation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been examined in young, growing pigs under controlled conditions of energy intake. Compared with euthyroid controls, plasma levels of IGF-I were significantly elevated (P less than 0.005) both in hypothyroid animals on the same food intake and in hyperthyroid animals on double the food intake. There was however no increase in IGF-I in a hyperthyroid group on the control level of intake. Contrary to previous reports in which energy intake was not controlled, it is concluded that there is no simple correlation between plasma concentrations of T4 and IGF-I.

  4. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  5. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  6. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, K.M.; Raila, J.; Henze, A.; Blouin, K.; Schneider, A.; Schmiedeke, D.; Krane, V.; Pilz, S.; Schweigert, F.J.; Hocher, B.; Wanner, C.; Drechsler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabetic

  7. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomi...

  8. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  9. Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, E; Hampl, H; Steudle, V; Nündel, M

    1996-01-01

    Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to 24 malnourished hemodialysis patients for 1 year leads to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 53.6 +/- 18.3 (compared to a healthy control group: 87.5 +/- 27.3) to 71.1 +/- 15.9 mumol/l (p calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration.

  10. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  11. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  12. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  13. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two n...

  14. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  15. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  16. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 t...

  17. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  18. Plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, M; Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S; Mol, J A; M M Bevers; Taverne, M A M

    2007-11-01

    While oxytocin is widely used in the treatment of dystocia in dogs, there is little information about its secretion before and during normal unassisted whelping. We therefore measured plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and the expulsive stage of parturition. Blood samples were collected from eight dogs at 3-min intervals during a 42-min period between the 2nd and 14th day before whelping and during parturition after the birth of 1-3 pups. The litters consisted of 5-15 pups and the progression of the expulsive stage was linear and nearly parallel in the eight bitches. The overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration during late pregnancy was 3.6+/-2.1pg/ml. Mean values in individual dogs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 pg/ml, but the intra-animal variation was rather small. During the expulsive stage the overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration was 12.9+/-13.9 pg/ml, with mean values in individual dogs ranging from 3.5 to 46 pg/ml. The mean area under the oxytocin curve for parturient dogs was significantly higher (Pdogs. During the expulsive stage, the peak plasma oxytocin level in individual dogs ranged between 10 and 117 pg/ml. In six of the eight dogs a pup was born during blood collection and in five of these animals the plasma oxytocin concentration increased temporarily during periods of abdominal straining and expulsion. However, straining efforts and expulsion were not consistently associated with a rise in the circulating oxytocin level. It is concluded that in the dog plasma oxytocin levels are higher and more variable during the expulsive stage of parturition than during late pregnancy. Interrelationships between the secretion pattern of oxytocin, the level of uterine contractility, and the progress of fetal expulsion in dogs need further exploration.

  19. Characteristics and outcomes of paracetamol poisoning cases at a general hospital in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zain, Z; Fathelrahman, A I; Ab Rahman, A F

    2006-02-01

    Paracetamol is available as an over-the-counter medication in many countries including Malaysia. This drug has been implicated in many poisoning cases admitted to hospitals throughout the country. We conducted a three-year retrospective review of 165 medical records of patients admitted to the Penang General Hospital for acute paracetamol poisoning. Cases were identified according to the discharge diagnosis documented in their medical records. Acute paracetamol poisoning occurred in all major ethnic groups. About 70 percent of our patients were female. There was minimal involvement of children. Admissions were more likely to be due to deliberate ingestions rather than accidental poisoning. In most cases, serum concentrations data plotted on the Rumack-Matthew nomogram predicted the majority of cases to be unlikely to be hepatotoxic, which were consistent with their mild clinical courses. Patients who acutely ingested more than 140 mg/kg or predicted to be hepatotoxic, based on their serum concentrations, had a significantly longer hospital stay. Although acute paracetamol poisoning was common, the outcome was generally good.

  20. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma selenium concentrations are frequent in critically ill patients. However, whether this is due to systemic inflammation, a deficient nutritional state or both is still not clear. We aimed to determine the factors associated with low plasma selenium in critically ill children while considering the inflammatory response and nutritional status. Method A prospective study was conducted in 173 children (median age 34 months) with systemic inflammatory response who had plasma selenium concentrations assessed 48 hours after admission and on the 5th day of ICU stay. The normal reference range was 0.58 μmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. The outcome variable was ‘low plasma selenium’, which was defined as plasma selenium values below the distribution median during this period. The main explanatory variables were age, malnutrition, sepsis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical severity scores. The data were analyzed using a Binomial Generalized Estimating Equations model, which includes the correlation between admission and 5th day responses. Results Malnutrition and CRP were associated with low plasma selenium. The interaction effect between these two variables was significant. When CRP values were less than or equal to 40 mg/L, malnutrition was associated with low plasma selenium levels (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 7.63, P = 0.007; OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.06, P = 0.013; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.17, P = 0.049, for CRP = 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, respectively). This effect decreased as CRP concentrations increased and there was loose significance when CRP values were >40 mg/L. Similarly, the effect of CRP on low plasma selenium was significant for well-nourished patients (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22, P selenium. This interaction should be considered when interpreting plasma concentrations as an index of selenium status in patients with systemic inflammation as well as in the decision

  1. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  2. Population prevalence of high dose paracetamol in dispensed paracetamol/opioid prescription combinations: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally considered a safe medication, but is associated with hepatotoxicity at doses above doses of 4.0 g/day, and even below this daily dose in certain populations. Methods The Nova Scotia Prescription Monitoring Program (NSPMP) in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia is a legislated organization that collects dispensing information on all out-of-hospital prescription controlled drugs dispensed for all Nova Scotia residents. The NSPMP provided data to track all paracetamol/opioids redeemed by adults in Nova Scotia, from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2010. Trends in the number of adults dispensed these prescriptions and the numbers of prescriptions and tablets dispensed over this period were determined. The numbers and proportions of adults who filled prescriptions exceeding 4.0 g/day and 3.25 g/day were determined for the one-year period July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Data were stratified by sex and age (paracetamol/opioid prescription was lower in each successive one-year period. From July 2009 to June 2010, one in 12 adults (n = 59,197) filled prescriptions for over 13 million paracetamol/opioid tablets. Six percent (n = 3,786) filled prescriptions that exceeded 4.0 g/day and 18.6% (n = 11,008) exceeded 3.25 g/day of paracetamol at least once. These findings exclude non-prescription paracetamol and paracetamol–only prescribed medications. Conclusions A substantial number of individuals who redeem prescriptions for paracetamol/opioid combinations may be at risk of paracetamol-related hepatotoxicity. Healthcare professionals must be vigilant when prescribing and dispensing these medications in order to reduce the associated risks. PMID:22709372

  3. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monique; Loucif, Yacine; Methot, Julie; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-02-03

    Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW) and 98 menopausal women (MW)). Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p salivary pH (R2) was 10.8% (p salivary pH quartiles (p = 0.005). These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  4. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  5. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  7. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  8. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  9. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  10. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  12. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma dispositions and concentrations of ivermectin in eggs following treatment of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, V Y; Aksit, D; Cihan, H; Gokbulut, C

    2018-05-01

    To determine the plasma disposition and concentrations of ivermectin (IVM) in eggs produced by laying hens following S/C, oral and I/V administration. Twenty-four laying hens, aged 37 weeks and weighing 1.73 (SD 0.12) kg were allocated to three groups of eight birds. The injectable formulation of IVM was administered either orally, S/C, or I/V, at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg liveweight, following dilution (1:5, v/v) with propylene glycol. Heparinised blood samples were collected at various times between 0.25 hours and 20 days after drug administration. Eggs produced by hens were also collected daily throughout the study period. Samples of plasma and homogenised egg were analysed using HPLC. Maximum concentrations of IVM in plasma and mean residence time of IVM were lower after oral (10.2 (SD 7.2) ng/mL and 0.38 (SD 0.14) days, respectively) than after S/C (82.9 (SD 12.4) ng/mL and 1.05 (SD 0.24) days, respectively) administration (pV administration, and until 15 days after S/C administration. Peak concentrations of IVM were 15.7, 23.3 and 1.9 µg/kg, observed 2, 5 and 4 days after I/V, S/C and oral administration, respectively. The low plasma bioavailability of IVM observed after oral administration in laying hens could result in lower efficacy or subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of parasitic drug resistance. Due to high IVM residues in eggs compared to the maximum residue limits for other food-producing animal species, a withdrawal period should be necessary for eggs after IVM treatment in laying hens.

  15. EXTENDED STORAGE OF BUFFY-COAT PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR A PLATELET ADDITIVE SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482

  16. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  17. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women with controlled folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnette, R E; Caudill, M A; Boddie, A M; Hutson, A D; Kauwell, G P; Bailey, L B

    1998-08-01

    To assess the effects of folate intake and pregnancy on plasma total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy compared with young, healthy nonpregnant women. The diet provided either 450 or 850 microg of folate per day. These levels are approximately the current (400 microg/day) and previous (800 microg/day) Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in pregnant women. Folate was provided as both food folate (120 microg/day) and supplemental folic acid (either 330 or 730 microg/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma homocyst(e)ine (sum of free and protein-bound homocysteine), serum folate, and erythrocyte folate concentrations were determined weekly. Homocyst(e)ine concentrations were lower in pregnant women during the second trimester of normal pregnancy than in nonpregnant controls, independent of dietary folate intake. The overall mean (+/- standard deviation) homocyst(e)ine concentration of the pregnant subjects (5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) was significantly lower than that observed in the nonpregnant control group (8.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/L) (P ine concentrations remained constant throughout the 12 weeks of the investigation. The folate intakes in this investigation were adequate to maintain constant homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. The lower homocyst(e)ine concentrations observed in pregnant subjects compared with nonpregnant controls may be a physiologic response to pregnancy.

  18. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  19. Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Rozanski, E R; Shofer, F S; Laster, L L; Drobatz, K J

    1999-04-01

    To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs. 60 healthy dogs. Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, PO2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration. Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and PCO2, but correlation coefficients were low. Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs.

  20. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  1. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, László; Tóth, Tünde; Homlok, Renáta; Takács, Erzsébet; Wojnárovits, László

    2012-01-01

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O 2 is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2–3 times higher in the presence of O 2 due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: ► Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. ► Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. ► Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  2. Radiolysis of paracetamol in dilute aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Toth, Tuende [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Homlok, Renata [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Takacs, Erzsebet [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Wojnarovits, Laszlo [Institute of Isotopes, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-09-15

    Using radiolytic experiments hydroxyl radical (main reactant in advanced oxidation processes) was shown to effectively destroy paracetamol molecules. The basic reaction is attachment to the ring. The hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical produced in the further reactions may transform to hydroxylated paracetamol derivatives or to quinone type molecules and acetamide. The initial efficiency of aromatic ring destruction in the absence of dissolved O{sub 2} is c.a. 10%. The efficiency is 2-3 times higher in the presence of O{sub 2} due to its reaction with intermediate hydroxy-cyclohexadienyl radical and the subsequent ring destruction reactions through peroxi radical. Upon irradiation the toxicity of solutions at low doses increases with the dose and then at higher doses it decreases. This is due to formation of compounds with higher toxicity than paracetamol (e.g. acetamide, hidroquinone). These products, however, are highly sensitive to irradiation and degrade easily. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Paracetamol is easily degraded in aqueous solution by low dose irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main degradation products are hydroxylated molecules, acetamide and hydroquinone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Toxicity of solutions goes through a maximum as a function of dose.

  3. Paracetamol suppository induced allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaraj Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol, a para-aminophenol derivative given systemically can produce allergic reactions and has been reported so far, but allergic reaction due to suppositories is very rare. A 4 month old male child brought by his mother with complaints of raised dark coloured skin lesions over the perianal region for the past 3 days. The child had history of (H/o of fever for 4 days back for which paracetamol suppository was prescribed following which the child developed the lesion over the perianal region On examination a well defined hyperpigmented plaque of size 5*3 cms extending from anal verge posteriorly and anteriorly upto the beginning of scrotum with lateral extensions from the centre to the gluteals. In our case, the paracetamol suppository used caused an allergic reaction which made the child very irritable and the child developed an allergic contact dermatitis in the site where the suppository was kept and the surrounding area. We report this case because paracetamol suppository as such without preservative causing allergic contact dermatitis has not been reported so far and the treating doctor should keep in mind such type of reactions that might occur when used.

  4. PANSAID - PAracetamol and NSAID in combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Kasper Højgaard; Hägi-Pedersen, Daniel; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2017-01-01

    compared to monotherapy. The objective of this trial is to investigate the analgesic effects and safety of paracetamol and ibuprofen alone and in combination in different dosages after THA. METHODS: PANSAID is a placebo-controlled, parallel four-group, multicentre trial with centralised computer......-generated allocation sequence and allocation concealment and with varying block size and stratification by site. Blinding of assessor, investigator, caregivers, patients and statisticians. Patients are randomised to four groups: (A) paracetamol 1 g × 4 and ibuprofen 400 mg × 4, (B) paracetamol 1 g × 4 and placebo, (C......) placebo and ibuprofen 400 mg × 4 and (D) paracetamol 0.5 g × 4 and ibuprofen 200 mg. The two co-primary outcomes are 24-h consumption of morphine and number of patients with one or more serious adverse events within 90 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes are pain scores during mobilisation and at rest...

  5. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  6. Plasma Aluminum Concentrations in Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Kosar, Christina; Campbell, Alison; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W; Steinberg, Karen; Harrison, Debra; Chambers, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at increased risk of aluminium (Al) toxicity because of bypass of the gastrointestinal tract during PN infusion. Complications of Al toxicity include metabolic bone disease (MBD), Al-associated encephalopathy in adults, and impaired neurological development in preterm infants. Unlike the United States, there are no regulations regarding Al content of large- and small-volume parenterals in Canada. We, therefore, aimed to present our data on plasma Al concentration and Al intake from our cohort of pediatric patients receiving long-term PN. Plasma Al concentration was retrospectively gathered from the patient charts of all 27 patients with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term PN at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, and compared with age- and sex-matched controls recruited for comparison. In addition, Al concentration was measured in PN samples collected from 10 randomly selected patients with IF and used to determine their Al intake. The plasma Al concentration of patients with IF receiving long-term PN was significantly higher than that of control participants (1195 ± 710 vs 142 ± 63 nmol/L; P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations.A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days.Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively.Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  8. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account

  9. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account.

  10. Silymarin nanoparticle prevents paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Suvadra Das, Partha Roy, Runa Ghosh Auddy, Arup MukherjeeDepartment of Chemical Technology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, IndiaAbstract: Silymarin (Sm is a polyphenolic component extracted from Silybum marianum. It is an antioxidant, traditionally used as an immunostimulant, hepatoprotectant, and dietary supplement. Relatively recently, Sm has proved to be a valuable chemopreventive and a useful antineoplastic agent. Medical success for Sm is, however, constrained by very low aqueous solubility and associated biopharmaceutical limitations. Sm flavonolignans are also susceptible to ion-catalyzed degradation in the gut. Proven antihepatotoxic activity of Sm cannot therefore be fully exploited in acute chemical poisoning conditions like that in paracetamol overdose. Moreover, a synchronous delivery that is required for hepatic regeneration is difficult to achieve by itself. This work is meant to circumvent the inherent limitations of Sm through the use of nanotechnology. Sm nanoparticles (Smnps were prepared by nanoprecipitation in polyvinyl alcohol stabilized Eudragit RS100® polymer (Rohm Pharma GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany. Process parameter optimization provided 67.39% entrapment efficiency and a Gaussian particle distribution of average size 120.37 nm. Sm release from the nanoparticles was considerably sustained for all formulations. Smnps were strongly protective against hepatic damage when tested in a paracetamol overdose hepatotoxicity model. Nanoparticles recorded no animal death even when administered after an established paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Preventing progress of paracetamol hepatic damage was traced for an efficient glutathione regeneration to a level of 11.3 µmol/g in hepatic tissue due to Smnps.Keywords: silymarin, paracetamol, nanoparticle, glutathione, mouse hepatotoxicity

  11. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  12. Bone marrow concentrate and platelet-rich plasma differ in cell distribution and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Jennifer M; Kennedy, John G; Ross, Keir A; Fraser, Ethan J; Goodale, Margaret B; Fortier, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are used extensively in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the cellular composition and cytokine concentrations of BMC and PRP and to compare two commercial BMC systems in the same patient cohort. Patients (29) undergoing orthopaedic surgery were enrolled. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was processed to generate BMC from two commercial systems (BMC-A and BMC-B). Blood was obtained to make PRP utilizing the same system as BMC-A. Bone marrow-derived samples were cultured to measure colony-forming units, and flow cytometry was performed to assess mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. Cellular concentrations were assessed for all samples. Catabolic cytokines and growth factors important for cartilage repair were measured using multiplex ELISA. Colony-forming units were increased in both BMCs compared to BMA (p BMC-A and PRP, but there were differences in leucocyte concentrations. TGF-β1 and PDGF were not different between BMC-A and PRP. IL-1ra concentrations were greater (p = 0.0018) in BMC-A samples (13,432 pg/mL) than in PRP (588 pg/mL). The IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio in all BMC samples was above the value reported to inhibit IL-1β. The bioactive factors examined in this study have differing clinical effects on musculoskeletal tissue. Differences in the cellular and cytokine composition between PRP and BMC and between BMC systems should be taken into consideration by the clinician when choosing a biologic for therapeutic application. Clinical, Level II.

  13. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  14. Treatment failure of nelfinavir-containing triple therapy can largely be explained by low nelfinavir plasma concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, David M.; Hugen, Patricia W. H.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Hoetelmans, Richard M. W.; Jambroes, Marielle; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schreij, Gerrit; Schneider, Margriet M. E.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and virologic treatment failure was investigated to determine the minimum effective concentration of nelfinavir. Plasma samples were prospectively collected from treatment-naive patients who began taking nelfinavir, 1,250 mg BID + two

  15. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  16. Saliva oxytocin measures do not reflect peripheral plasma concentrations after intranasal oxytocin administration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Andreassen, Ole A; Djupesland, Per G

    2018-05-16

    Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of this approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men. We found that intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU) administration increased saliva oxytocin concentrations in comparison to saliva oxytocin concentration levels after intravenous and placebo administration. Additionally, we found that saliva oxytocin concentrations were not significantly associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations after either intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration. Altogether, we suggest that saliva oxytocin concentrations do not accurately index peripheral oxytocin after intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration, at least in men. The data indicates that elevated oxytocin saliva levels after nasal delivery primarily reflect exogenous administered oxytocin that is cleared from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx, and is therefore a weak surrogate for peripheral blood measurements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  18. About the 'enlightenment' of nonideal hydrogen-oxygen plasma at a electron concentration Ne19 cm-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental determination of the emissivity of the hydrogen-oxygen plasma pulsed discharge in water and their comparison with calculations. It is shown that when concentrations nonideal plasma N e >3 centre dot 10 18 cm -3 , is observed 'enlightenment' of plasma. The reduction of a emitting ability . can be more order in the N e =3 centre dot 10 19 cm -3 and increases with increasing electron concentration.

  19. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  20. Plasma concentrations, behavioural and physiological effects following intravenous and intramuscular detomidine in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, K R; Grimsrud, K; Snell, T; Stanley, S

    2009-11-01

    Detomidine hydrochloride is used to provide sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in horses, but a lack of information pertaining to plasma concentration has limited the ability to correlate drug concentration with effect. To build on previous information and assess detomidine for i.v. and i.m. use in horses by simultaneously assessing plasma drug concentrations, physiological parameters and behavioural characteristics. Systemic effects would be seen following i.m. and i.v. detomidine administration and these effects would be positively correlated with plasma drug concentrations. Behavioural (e.g. head position) and physiological (e.g. heart rate) responses were recorded at fixed time points from 4 min to 24 h after i.m. or i.v. detomidine (30 microg/kg bwt) administration to 8 horses. Route of administration was assigned using a balanced crossover design. Blood was sampled at predetermined time points from 0.5 min to 48 h post administration for subsequent detomidine concentration measurements using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were summarised as mean +/- s.d. for subsequent analysis of variance for repeated measures. Plasma detomidine concentration peaked earlier (1.5 min vs. 1.5 h) and was significantly higher (105.4 +/- 71.6 ng/ml vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4 ng/ml) after i.v. vs. i.m. administration. Physiological and behavioural changes were of a greater magnitude and observed at earlier time points for i.v. vs. i.m. groups. For example, head position decreased from an average of 116 cm in both groups to a low value 35 +/- 23 cm from the ground 10 min following i.v. detomidine and to 64 +/- 24 cm 60 min after i.m. detomidine. Changes in heart rate followed a similar pattern; low value of 17 beats/min 10 min after i.v. administration and 29 beats/min 30 min after i.m. administration. Plasma drug concentration and measured effects were correlated positively and varied with route of administration following a single dose of detomidine. Results support a

  1. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  2. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  3. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  4. Dietary supplementation with cysteine prevents adverse metabolic outcomes of repeated cures with paracetamol in old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Carole; Pourpe, Charlène; Voyard, Guillaume; Rémond, Didier; Migné, Carole; Centeno, Delphine; Dardevet, Dominique; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Papet, Isabelle

    2017-12-01

    Cysteine (Cys), a conditionally indispensable amino acid, is required for the detoxification of paracetamol (acetaminophen, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol, 4-hydroxy-acetanilide, APAP), a drug of widespread use in older persons. We recently reported that repeated APAP cures could worsen sarcopenia in old rats, likely to be due to the impairment of Cys/GSH homoeostasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a dietary Cys supplementation during APAP cures could improve Cys/GSH homoeostasis and thus preserve skeletal muscle. Male 21·5-month-old Wistar rats received three 2-week-long cures of APAP (1 % of diet) alone or with extra Cys (0·5 % of diet), intercalated with washout periods of 2 weeks (APAP and APAP-Cys groups, respectively). They were compared with untreated control rats (CT group). CT and APAP-Cys groups were pair-fed to the APAP group. Dietary Cys supplementation was efficient to prevent increase in liver mass (P<0·0001), decrease in liver GSH (P<0·0001), increase in blood GSH concentration (P<0·0001), and to some extent, decrease in plasma free Cys concentration (P<0·05), all induced by repeated APAP cures. The addition of Cys to APAP cures decreased plasma alanine transaminase (P<0·05), the fractional synthesis rate of liver proteins (P<0·01), and increased masses of extensor digitorum longus (P<0·01), and soleus (P<0·05), compared with the APAP group. Cys supplementation prevented alteration in Cys/GSH homoeostasis and increased some muscle masses in old rats under repeated cures with a non-toxic dose of APAP.

  5. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  6. Quality control of the paracetamol drug by chemometrics and imaging spectroscopy in the near infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptistao, Mariana; Rocha, Werickson Fortunato de Carvalho; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2011-09-01

    In this work, it was used imaging spectroscopy and chemometric tools for the development and analysis of paracetamol and excipients in pharmaceutical formulations. It was also built concentration maps to study the distribution of the drug in the tablets surface. Multivariate models based on PLS regression were developed for paracetamol and excipients concentrations prediction. For the construction of the models it was used 31 samples in the tablet form containing the active principle in a concentration range of 30.0-90.0% (w/w) and errors below to 5% were obtained for validation samples. Finally, the study of the distribution in the drug was performed through the distribution maps of concentration of active principle and excipients. The analysis of maps showed the complementarity between the active principle and excipients in the tablets. The region with a high concentration of a constituent must have, necessarily, absence or low concentration of the other one. Thus, an alternative method for the paracetamol drug quality monitoring is presented.

  7. Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration for diagnosis of acute heart failure with renal insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Atik Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background : Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP is the diagnostic tool for acute heart failure (AHF.This natriu­retic peptide level depends on renal function, through renal metabolism and excretion. Therefore we examined the effect ofrenal impairment on plasma BNP level during diagnosis of AHF.Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effect of renal dysfunction on plasma BNP level and to determine appropriate cutoff value of plasma BNP to diagnose the patients of AHF with renal insufficiency.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Depart­ment of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU. The study was done among 90 AHF patients selected from cardiology emergency department during the period of July 2012 to June 2013. After enrollment plasma BNP concentration was measured and eGFR was estimated from serum creatinine by the four parameter Modifica­tion of Diet and Renal Disease (MORD equation and then grouped into two groups on the basis of empirical cut off value of eGFR 60 ml/min/1.73 m2Results: In this study a significant negative correlation was found between plasma BNP evel and eGFR (P<0.001 , with higher BNP levels observed as eGFR declined. The optimal BNP cutoff value for diagno­sis of AHF patients with renal insufficiency was 824 pg/ml. At this cutoff level AHF with renal insufficiency could be diagnosed with sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 71 %, respectively.Conclusions: By adjusting the cutoff value, plasma BNP can be used to diagnose AHF with renal insufficiency with an acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  8. Insulin and adenosine regulate the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, F L; Sykes, E; Artiss, J D

    1995-01-01

    Blockade of adenosine receptors by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or degradation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase increased the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes, an effect which was suppressed by the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase inhibitor, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, and reversed by the adenosine analogue, N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. For example, the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine to adenosine deaminase pretreated plasma membranes rapidly lowered the concentration of phosphatidylcholine by 171 nmol/mg at 30 seconds compared to control. Insulin-induced stimulation of phospholipid methylation in membranes treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or adenosine deaminase was achieved only after the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. These results suggest that adenosine receptor occupancy inhibits phospholipid methylation, is required for insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation, and may perhaps activate a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  9. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... the two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient...

  10. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  11. Effect of temperature on the concentration of plasma gonadotropine and spermatogenesis of the goldfish Carassius auratus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillet, C.; Billard, R.; Breton, B.

    1977-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoreactive plasma gonadotropin (c-GtH) were measured for goldfish kept at conditions of temperature held constant or increasing between 10 and 30/sup 0/C, between February and July. At temperatures of 17/sup 0/C or above the levels of plasma c-GtH were significantly (P < 0.005) higher during April and May than at 10/sup 0/C. In April the pituitary concentration of c-GtH was maximum for fish held at 17/sup 0/C or above and the minimum for fish held below 17/sup 0/C, but in June the situation was reversed. A study of the gonads showed that spermatogenesis is faster at 17--24/sup 0/C than at 10/sup 0/C, but at 30/sup 0/C spermatogenic activity was inhibited.

  12. Lack of effect of laboratory-provoked anxiety on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemishlany, Z; Davidson, M

    1996-08-15

    The present study was undertaken to investigate if acute anxiety can affect plasma concentrations of homovanillic acid (pHVA). Since elevated pHVA levels have been associated with severity of schizophrenic symptoms, the results of this study will help determine if the pHVA elevations are directly related to psychosis or if anxiety is also a contributory factor. Anxiety was provoked in 10 young normal subjects by a combined paradigm of mental arithmetic task and threat of electrical shock. A significant increase in self-ratings of anxiety, blood pressure, and plasma levels of norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol and growth hormone indicated that the paradigm used was effective in provoking anxiety; however, anxiety did not affect pHVA concentrations. The results may support the notion that increased pHVA levels in severely ill schizophrenic patients are related to the schizophrenic pathophysiology rather than to anxiety.

  13. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during storage or synthesis under normal conditions (temperature, pH, etc.. Also, 4-chloroacetanilid may be observed as an impurity in the raw material of paracetamol synthesis. Benzyl alcohol is a preservative that used in Paracetamol for injection. It will be very important if there are analytical techniques to measuring paracetamol and its degradation products accurately and easily. Undoubtedly the most important and widely used, separation technique is chromatography. There are several reports about separation and quantitative determination of paracetamol lonely or simultaneous determination of paracetamol and 4-aminophenol. In this paper investigated simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-aminophenol, 4-chloroacetanilid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, and EDTA in paracetamol for injection ampoules by high performance liquid chromatography. By changing the ratio of mixing methanol and acetonitrile as mobile phase at the wavelength of 215 nm and pH=3 separation of all compounds were completely done.

  14. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigat...

  15. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  16. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  18. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  19. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  20. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  2. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  3. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da

    2013-01-01

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  4. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  5. Plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Di Loria, Antonio; Gunay, Necati; Masucci, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys. 12 donkeys naturally infected with strongyle nematodes. The pour-on formulation of eprinomectin approved for use in cattle was administered topically to donkeys at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. Heparinized blood samples and hair samples were collected at various times between 1 hour and 40 days after administration. Samples were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Fecal strongyle egg counts were performed by use of a modified McMaster technique before and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. Plasma concentration and systemic availability of eprinomectin were relatively higher in donkeys, compared with values reported for other animal species. Concerning the anthelmintic efficacy against strongyle nematodes, eprinomectin was completely effective (100%) on days 7 and 14 and highly effective (> 99%) until the end of the study at 56 days after treatment. No abnormal clinical signs or adverse reactions were observed for any donkeys after treatment. Eprinomectin had excellent safety. The relatively high plasma concentration after topical administration could result in use of eprinomectin for the control and treatment of parasitic diseases in donkeys.

  6. Maternal plasma concentrations of beta-lipotrophin, beta-endorphin and gamma-lipotrophin throughout pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, A J; Butt, W R; Lynch, S S; Shakespear, R A

    1983-12-01

    Plasma beta-LPH, beta-EP and gamma-LPH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay in 10 pregnant women from 12 weeks gestation until term and in nine women in the early follicular phase of the cycle. There was a progressive and significant rise in the concentration of all three peptides throughout pregnancy and by 32 weeks the concentrations of beta-LPH and beta-EP were greater than the corresponding concentrations in the follicular phase: gamma-LPH was greater than in the follicular phase by the end of pregnancy in those women who were delivered after 40 weeks. The ratio of beta-LPH to gamma-LPH did not change significantly throughout pregnancy, but there was a progressive fall in the beta-LPH/beta-EP ratio. The possible presence of a 'big LPH' to explain this finding is discussed.

  7. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    , the impact of hemoglobin status on proBNP concentrations has not been established in the general population. METHODS: In the 4th examination in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we performed a nested case-control study of 6238 individuals from a Danish general population. Of these, 3497 randomly selected...... participants also underwent an echocardiographic examination. The population was stratified into groups depending on health and hemoglobin status. Correlations between hemoglobin and proBNP concentrations were examined by simple and multiple regression analyses, adjusted for variables known to influence...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P hemoglobin on pro...

  8. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Availability of Paracetamol Sold Over-the-Counter in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Due to the risk of hepatotoxicity when excessive amounts of paracetamol are consumed, Poisons Information Centers (PICs) frequently receive paracetamol-related enquiries. This study examined how widely pack size restrictions of paracetamol sold over-the-counter have been implemented in Europe...... and also availability of paracetamol through non-pharmacy outlets and their possible associations with frequency of poisoning enquiries. A cross-sectional European multicentre questionnaire study was performed using a questionnaire to identify the extent and nature of paracetamol pack size restrictions......, non-pharmacy outlet sales and the frequency of paracetamol-related enquiries to PICs. In total, 21 European countries participated. All PICs provided telephone hotline services. In 14 (67%) countries, pack size restrictions had been implemented in pharmacies (range: 8-30 grams). No significant...

  10. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagundes, B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  11. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  12. Plasma pharmacokinetics and synovial concentrations of S-flurbiprofen plaster in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yataba, Ikuko; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsushita, Isao; Kamezawa, Miho; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sasaki, Sigeru; Uebaba, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics and deep tissue penetration capability of the newly developed S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) in humans. Study 1: SFPP tape-type patch (2-60 mg) was applied to the lower back for 24 h in healthy adult volunteers. S-flurbiprofen (SFP) plasma concentration was measured over time to examine SFP pharmacokinetics. Study 2: SFPP (20 mg) was applied for 12 h to the affected knee of osteoarthritis (OA) patients who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty. Deep tissues (synovial tissue and synovial fluid) were collected during surgery to compare SFP concentrations after application of SFPP or a commercially available flurbiprofen (FP) gel-type patch. Study 1: The plasma concentration of SFP was sustained during 24-h topical application of the SFPP, showing a high percutaneous absorption ratio of 51.4-72.2 %. Cmax and AUC0-∞ were dose-proportional. Study 2: After application of the SFPP for 12 h, SFP concentrations in the synovial tissue and synovial fluid were 14.8-fold (p = 0.002) and 32.7-fold (p < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those achieved by the FP patch. Sustained plasma concentration of SFP and high percutaneous absorption ratio was observed after 24-h topical application of the SFPP. Compared to the FP patch, the SFPP showed superior percutaneous absorption and greater tissue penetration of SFP into the synovial tissue. Greater tissue penetration of the SFPP seemed to be primarily due to its formulation. Thus, SFPP is expected to show higher efficacy for the treatment of knee OA.

  13. Associations between marine food consumption and plasma concentrations of POPs in a Norwegian coastal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Brustad, Magritt

    2009-02-01

    There are strong indications that a moderate intake of fatty fish decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its content of omega-3 fatty acids. Other studies indicate that fatty fish consumption increase the body burden of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and may thereby increase the risk of negative health effects. Many of the latter studies are based on POP analysis of fatty fish, from which a recommended daily intake for humans has been calculated based on the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from animal studies. Studies investigating associations between human plasma concentrations of POPs and intake of marine food show deviating results. In this study we investigated associations between self-reported intake of marine food (fatty fish, fish liver, fish liver oil, seagull eggs and halibut) and plasma concentrations of POPs. The study group consisted of 44 women and 16 men from northern Norway with a marine based diet. In addition to donate blood samples, the participants answered a detailed food frequency questionnaire with special emphasis on marine food consumption. Concentrations of 25 different POPs were measured in plasma. PCB 153 and p'p-DDE were the most ubiquitous PCB and chlorinated pesticide and the geometric mean concentrations were 73 ng/g lipids and 116 ng/g lipids respectively. The main findings in this study were that age, gender and intake of fresh fish liver oil were significant predictors of three of the most common PCBs and trans-Nonachlor in this study group. In addition, intake of seagull eggs influenced the concentration of PCB 180. However, even though the participants had a high intake of marine food they did not have elevated levels of POPs compared to other study groups. Intake of fatty fish did not significantly affect the body burden of POPs in this study group.

  14. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  15. Voluntary intake of paracetamol-enriched drinking water and its influence on the success of embryo transfer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Thea; Arras, Margarete; Sauer, Mareike; Saleh, Lanja; Rülicke, Thomas; Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-04-01

    Embryo transfer (ET) in mice is a key technique in biomedical research, and is carried out mostly via surgery by transferring founder embryos into pseudo-pregnant recipient females. To cover post-operative analgesic requirements in surrogate mothers, oral self-administration of painkillers has several advantages, but its effectiveness has also been criticized as voluntary ingestion of the drug can be uncertain. Additionally, concerns about potential negative side effects of analgesics on embryo viability and development have been raised. In this regard, we investigated the impact of orally administered analgesia by comparing the outcome of ET with and without paracetamol in the drinking water (3.5mg/ml) of surrogate mothers. Water intake increased significantly when paracetamol, as a sweet-tasting formulation (children's syrup), was added to the drinking water. Measurements of paracetamol concentrations in blood serum confirmed reasonable drug uptake. Success rate of ETs and the body weight of newborn offspring were not different whether paracetamol was administered for two days after surgery or not. In conclusion, paracetamol in drinking water was consumed voluntarily in substantial doses, without detectable side-effects, by freshly operated surrogate mothers, and can therefore be recommended as a feasible method for providing analgesic treatment for surgical ET in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Proceeding: Production rate, metabolic clearance rate and mean plasma concentration of cortisol in hyperthyroidism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquette, M; Lefebvre, J; Racadot, A; Cappoen, J P

    1975-01-01

    The adrenocortical function was studied in 23 patients with hyperthyroidism and compared with a group of 15 normal subjects. Parameters of adrenal function were determined with 1,2(3)H-cortisol. The half-life of cortisol is significantly shortened in hyperthyroidism, as compared to normal subjects (49,5 +/- 6,6 min vs 68,3 +/- 10,5 min) and metabolic clearance rate is increased (418,5 +/- 89,5 L/24 h vs 237,5 +/- 48,5 L/24 h, for normal subjects). The production rate of cortisol, calculated from specific and cumulate activities of THE and THF is increased in hyperthyroidism expressed as mg/24 h or mg/m2/24 h (respectively : 26,7 +/- 7,8 mg/24 h vs 15,7 +/- 3 mg/24 h and 16,9 +/- 4,6 mg/m2/24 h vs 9,5 +/- 1,8 mg/m2/24 h). The mean plasma concentration, calculated as the radio (see article) is not statiscally different in hyperthyroid and normal subjects (6,8 +/- 2,1 microg/100 ml vs 7,3 +/- 1,9 microg/100 ml). 7 patients were reinvestigated after treatment of thyrotoxicosis when they were clinically and biologically in euthyroid state. All the values were normalized, without statistically significant difference from control (T 1/2 = 65,4 +/- 18 min, Metb Cl. Rate : 255 +/- 64,5 L/24 h, production rate : 15,6 +/- 1,8 mg/24 h and 9 +/- 1,4 mg/m2/24 h. mean plasma concentration : 6,8 +/- 2,8 microg/100 ml). Shortened cortisol half life, increased metabolic clearance rate and production rate, and normal mean plasma concentration have been reported in hyperthyroidism (Peterson, Copinschi, Gallagher). These changes, secondary to thyroid hormone excess, are the consequences of increased hepatic catabolism of cortisol. The activity of 11 OH steroid deshydrogenase is increased, as demonstrated by increased ratio (see article) in normal subjects (0,001 less than p less than 0,005). There is a high proportion of 17 kéto metabolites (E, DHE, THE) whose feed-back effect is weak as compared to 17 OH metabolites (F, DHF, THF). The hypothalamo-hypophyso-adrenal system is

  17. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in multimodal analgesia after hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Ciğdem; Cakan, Türkay; Baltaci, Bülent; Başar, Hülya

    2013-10-01

    [corrected] We aimed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, opioid-sparing, and opioid-related adverse effects of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in combination with iv morphine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status Classification I-II patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled to this double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, and prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups as paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, and placebo (0.9% NaCl) due to their post-operative analgesic usage. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia morphine was used as a rescue analgesic in all groups. Pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and side-effects were evaluated. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were not statistically significantly different among the groups in all evaluation times, but decrease in VAS scores was statistically significant after the evaluation at 12(th) h in all groups. Total morphine consumption (morphine concentration = 0.2 mg/ml) in group paracetamol (72.3 ± 38.0 ml) and dexketoprofen trometamol (69.3 ± 24.1 ml) was significantly lower than group placebo (129.3 ± 22.6 ml) (P dexketoprofen trometamol after surgery and the increase in global satisfaction score was significant only in group placebo. Dexketoprofen trometamol and Paracetamol didn't cause significant change on pain scores, but increased patients' comfort. Although total morphine consumption was significantly decreased by both drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar among the groups. According to results of the present study routine addition of dexketoprofen trometamol and paracetamol to patient controlled analgesia morphine after hysterectomies is not recommended.

  18. Comparison of analgesic efficacy of intravenous Paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in multimodal analgesia after hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Ünal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: We aimed to evaluate analgesic efficacy, opioid-sparing, and opioid-related adverse effects of intravenous paracetamol and intravenous dexketoprofen trometamol in combination with iv morphine after total abdominal hysterectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status Classification I-II patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled to this double-blinded, randomized, placebo controlled, and prospective study. Patients were divided into three groups as paracetamol, dexketoprofen trometamol, and placebo (0.9% NaCl due to their post-operative analgesic usage. Intravenous patient controlled analgesia morphine was used as a rescue analgesic in all groups. Pain scores, hemodynamic parameters, morphine consumption, patient satisfaction, and side-effects were evaluated. Results: Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were not statistically significantly different among the groups in all evaluation times, but decrease in VAS scores was statistically significant after the evaluation at 12 th h in all groups. Total morphine consumption (morphine concentration = 0.2 mg/ml in group paracetamol (72.3 ± 38.0 ml and dexketoprofen trometamol (69.3 ± 24.1 ml was significantly lower than group placebo (129.3 ± 22.6 ml (P < 0.001. Global satisfaction scores of the patients in group placebo was significantly lower than group dexketoprofen trometamol after surgery and the increase in global satisfaction score was significant only in group placebo. Conclusion: Dexketoprofen trometamol and Paracetamol didn′t cause significant change on pain scores, but increased patients′ comfort. Although total morphine consumption was significantly decreased by both drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting were similar among the groups. According to results of the present study routine addition of dexketoprofen trometamol and paracetamol to patient controlled analgesia morphine after hysterectomies is not

  19. Elevated GM3 plasma concentration in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A lipidomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B Chan

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease whose pathological hallmark is the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. Lipid metabolism dysregulation may play a significant role in PD pathogenesis; however, large plasma lipidomic studies in PD are lacking. In the current study, we analyzed the lipidomic profile of plasma obtained from 150 idiopathic PD patients and 100 controls, taken from the 'Spot' study at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Our mass spectrometry based analytical panel consisted of 520 lipid species from 39 lipid subclasses including all major classes of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids and sterols. Each lipid species was analyzed using a logistic regression model. The plasma concentrations of two lipid subclasses, triglycerides and monosialodihexosylganglioside (GM3, were different between PD and control participants. GM3 ganglioside concentration had the most significant difference between PD and controls (1.531±0.037 pmol/μl versus 1.337±0.040 pmol/μl respectively; p-value = 5.96E-04; q-value = 0.048; when normalized to total lipid: p-value = 2.890E-05; q-value = 2.933E-03. Next, we used a collection of 20 GM3 and glucosylceramide (GlcCer species concentrations normalized to total lipid to perform a ROC curve analysis, and found that these lipids compare favorably with biomarkers reported in previous studies (AUC = 0.742 for males, AUC = 0.644 for females. Our results suggest that higher plasma GM3 levels are associated with PD. GM3 lies in the same glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway as GlcCer, a substrate of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which has been associated with PD. These findings are consistent with previous reports implicating lower glucocerebrosidase activity with PD risk.

  20. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2012-01-01

    of these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR spectroscopy...... for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  1. One-pot synthesis of a graphene oxide coated with an imprinted sol–gel for use in electrochemical sensing of paracetamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Jing; Cong, Jiaojiao; Fang, Ruixue; Fei, Xiaoma; Liu, Xiaoya

    2014-01-01

    A route is described for the preparation of a composite consisting of graphene oxide and a molecularly imprinted sol–gel polymer (GO/MIPs) through one-pot room temperature polymerization in aqueous solution. The material was obtained by mixing graphene oxide with the monomers (phenyltriethoxysilane and tetramethoxysilane) and the template paracetamole, followed by sol–gel copolymerization and extraction. The monomer and template concentrations and the incubation time were optimized. The composite was characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD, Raman spectroscopy and SEM. It was then deposited as a thin film acting as a molecular recognition element on a glassy carbon electrode to obtain an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole. The electrode displayed an excellent recognition capacity toward paracetamole compared to its analogs. The peak current is linearly proportional to the concentration of paracetamole in the 0.1 μM to 80 μM range, and the detection limit is 20 nM (at an SNR of 3). Hence, this electrode possesses a wider response range and lower detection limit compared to most previously reported electrochemical sensors for paracetamole. It also exhibits excellent stability and has been successfully used to determine paracetamole in tablets and spiked human urine samples. (author)

  2. Estimation of paracetamol in urine to assess the diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Chandro Bhowmik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diurnal variation of the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol by estimating the urinary free paracetamol level after single oral administration of paracetamol (500 mg tablet to 24 healthy male volunteers (students of a Medical College. The volunteers were given paracetamol tablet at 0800, 1400 and 2000 hours in three different days (two weeks apart and the urine samples of the volunteers were collected at just before and four hours after paracetamol administration. The samples were analyzed for free paracetamol using HPLC. The mean age was 21.1 ± 1.3 years and the body weight was 63.9 ± 10.9 kg. Three peaks were detected in the HPLC and one of them was identified for free paracetamol (RT= 4.7 min. The urine volume was nearly similar in all three times. After administration at 0800 hour, total free paracetamol excretion was significantly more than at 1400 and 2000 hours (p<0.001. The present study indicates that the dose reduction of paracetamol is required at morning than the afternoon or evening dose. 

  3. Anaphylaxis following intravenous paracetamol: the problem is the solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S S; Green, S; Rose, M

    2015-11-01

    Paracetamol is a ubiquitous analgesic and antipyretic that is widely administered, including by anaesthetists. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions to intravenous paracetamol are particularly rare. We report two cases involving four separate episodes of anaphylaxis to intravenous paracetamol in different perioperative settings without a past history of intolerance to the oral form. The allergological investigations are described, during which it became evident that both patients were allergic to an excipient (mannitol) present in the formulation and that neither was allergic to the principal agent (paracetamol). The importance of referral and investigation of perioperative drug reactions is underscored by these two cases.

  4. Treatment with clozapine and its effect on plasma homovanillic acid and norepinephrine concentrations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Kahn, R S; Stern, R G; Hirschowitz, J; Apter, S; Knott, P; Davis, K L

    1993-02-01

    Measurement of plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA), is an indirect tool to assess changes in dopamine turnover. Levels of pHVA have been reported to decrease during treatment with conventional antidopaminergic, neuroleptics, with the decrement correlating with symptomatic improvement in schizophrenic symptoms. Clozapine, an atypical neuroleptic, is the only drug proved to be effective in treatment-refractory patients. However, the mechanism mediating this unique efficacy has not been fully elucidated. This study examined the effect of clozapine on pHVA concentrations in schizophrenic patients. Since clozapine potently binds to alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, plasma norepinephrine (pNE) concentrations were also measured. Twenty-eight treatment-refractory schizophrenic patients (24 men, 4 women) were treated with clozapine (up to 600 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after a minimum 1-week drug-free period. Symptomatology and pHVA and pNE concentrations were measured at the last drug-free day and weekly for 5 weeks. Fourteen patients responded to clozapine treatment, while an equal number did not. Mean pHVA concentrations did not significantly change during treatment with clozapine. Although clozapine tended to lower pHVA concentrations in treatment responders, the effect was small and not significant. Clozapine treatment significantly raised pNE concentrations, but this did not differentiate responders from nonresponders to clozapine. These findings suggest that clozapine's effect on DA turnover is small and that clozapine may be effective in treatment-refractory schizophrenia by mechanisms other than, or in addition to, dopamine receptor blockade. However, since about one-third of NE is metabolized into HVA, the clozapine-induced increase in pNE may have overshadowed a possible lowering effect of clozapine on pHVA.

  5. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Plasma L-tryptophan concentration in major depressive disorder: new data and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Fujii, Takashi; Koga, Norie; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Noda, Takamasa; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the precursor to serotonin and is metabolized mainly by the kynurenine pathway. Both serotonin and kynurenine have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, plasma tryptophan concentration in patients with MDD has not unequivocally been reported to be decreased, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis on previous studies and our own data. We searched the PubMed database for case-control studies published until August 31, 2013, using the search terms plasma AND tryptophan AND synonyms for MDD. An additional search was performed for the term amino acid instead of tryptophan. We obtained our own data in 66 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 82 controls who were recruited from March 2011 to July 2012. The majority of the patients were medicated (N = 53). Total plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. We scrutinized 160 studies for eligibility. Original articles that were written in English and documented plasma tryptophan values in patients and controls were selected. We included 24 studies from the literature and our own data in the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 744 patients and 793 controls. Data on unmedicated patients (N = 156) and their comparison subjects (N = 203) were also extracted. To see the possible correlation between tryptophan concentrations and depression severity, meta-regression analysis was performed for 10 studies with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item version score. In our case-control study, mean (SD) plasma tryptophan level was significantly decreased in the MDD patients versus the controls (53.9 [10.9] vs 57.2 [11.3] μmol/L; P = .03). The meta-analysis after adjusting for publication bias showed a significant decrease in patients with MDD with a modest effect size (Hedges g, -0.45). However, analysis on unmedicated subjects yielded a large effect (Hedges g, -0.84; P = .00015). We

  7. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  8. Association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and acetaminophen (paracetamol: Friend or foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdel-Daim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen (paracetamol or APAP is an analgesic and antipyretic drug that can induce oxidative stress-mediated hepatotoxicity at high doses. Several studies reported that antioxidant nutraceuticals, in particular phenolic phytochemicals from dietary food, spices, herbs and algae have hepatoprotective effects. Others, however, suggested that they may negatively impact the metabolism, efficacy and toxicity of APAP. The aim of this review is to discuss the pros and cons of the association of antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP by reviewing the in vivo evidence, with particular reference to APAP pharmacokinetics and hepatotoxicity. Results from the murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity showed amelioration of liver damage with nutraceuticals coadministration, as well as reductions in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and serum levels of hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides and inflammatory cytokines. On the other hand, both increased and decreased APAP plasma levels have been reported, depending on the nutraceutical type and route of administration. For example, studies showed that repeated administration of flavonoids causes down-regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes and up-regulation of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT. Moreover, nutraceuticals can alter the levels of APAP metabolites, such as mercapturate glucuronide, sulfate and cysteine conjugates. Overall, the reviewed in vivo studies indicate that interactions between APAP and nutraceuticals or plant foods exist. However, the majority of data come from animal models with doses of phytochemicals far from dietary ones. Human studies should investigate gene-diet interactions, as well as ethnic variability in order to clarify the pros and cons of co-administering antioxidant nutraceuticals and APAP. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Antioxidants, Food-drug interaction, Nutraceuticals, Paracetamol

  9. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol, 4-Aminophenol, 4-Chloroacetanilid, Benzyl alcohol,Benzaldehyde and EDTA by HPLC methodin paracetamol injection ampoule

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Merrikhi Khosroshahi; Fereydoon Aflaki; Nader Saemiyan; Assem Abdollahpour; Ramin Asgharian

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol that is known as acetaminophen have the most consume as an analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world. That is formulated in single compound or mixture at many forms such as tablets, syrups, suspensions and drops. The last form is intravenous injections. Paracetamol derived from 4-minophenol which is synthesized by acylated the P-acetaminophenol and acetic anhydride. 4-aminophenol is the main impurity at manufacturing of paracetamol which could produce by hydrolysis during sto...

  10. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan.A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening.Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses.We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  12. Conformational and vibrational reassessment of solid paracetamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Ana M.; Azevedo, Celeste; Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo J. A.

    2017-08-01

    This work provides an answer to the urge for a more detailed and accurate knowledge of the vibrational spectrum of the widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug commonly known as paracetamol. A comprehensive spectroscopic analysis - including infrared, Raman, and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) - is combined with a computational approach which takes account for the effects of intermolecular interactions in the solid state. This allows a full reassessment of the vibrational assignments for Paracetamol, thus preventing the propagation of incorrect data analysis and misassignments already found in the literature. In particular, the vibrational modes involving the hydrogen-bonded Nsbnd H and Osbnd H groups are correctly reallocated to bands shifted by up to 300 cm- 1 relatively to previous assignments.

  13. Citalopram and escitalopram plasma drug and metabolite concentrations: genome-wide associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Schaid, Daniel J; Desta, Zeruesenay; Kubo, Michiaki; Batzler, Anthony J; Snyder, Karen; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Ogburn, Evan; Hall-Flavin, Daniel; Flockhart, David; Nakamura, Yusuke; Mrazek, David A; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2014-08-01

    Citalopram (CT) and escitalopram (S-CT) are among the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). We applied a genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in plasma concentrations of CT or S-CT and their metabolites in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT. Our genome-wide association study was performed using samples from 435 MDD patients. Linear mixed models were used to account for within-subject correlations of longitudinal measures of plasma drug/metabolite concentrations (4 and 8 weeks after the initiation of drug therapy), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modelled as additive allelic effects. Genome-wide significant associations were observed for S-CT concentration with SNPs in or near the CYP2C19 gene on chromosome 10 (rs1074145, P = 4.1 × 10(-9) ) and with S-didesmethylcitalopram concentration for SNPs near the CYP2D6 locus on chromosome 22 (rs1065852, P = 2.0 × 10(-16) ), supporting the important role of these cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in biotransformation of citalopram. After adjustment for the effect of CYP2C19 functional alleles, the analyses also identified novel loci that will require future replication and functional validation. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the biotransformation of CT to monodesmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram is mediated by CYP isozymes. The results of our genome-wide association study performed in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT have confirmed those observations but also identified novel genomic loci that might play a role in variation in plasma levels of CT or its metabolites during the treatment of MDD patients with these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  15. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Data on final calcium concentration in native gel reagents determined accurately through inductively coupled plasma measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Viviano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present data on the concentration of calcium as determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP measurements. Calcium was estimated in the reagents used for native gel electrophoresis of Neuronal Calcium Sensor (NCS proteins. NCS proteins exhibit calcium-dependent mobility shift in native gels. The sensitivity of this shift to calcium necessitated a precise determination of calcium concentrations in all reagents used. We determined the calcium concentrations in different components used along with the samples in the native gel experiments. These were: 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, loading dye and running buffer, with distilled water as reference. Calcium determinations were through ICP measurements. It was found that the running buffer contained calcium (244 nM over the blank. Keywords: Neuronal calcium sensor proteins, Electrophoresis, Mobility shift, Calcium, Magnesium

  17. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p gender-matched controls (32.8+/-11.4 microg/ml). Six severely demented centenarians had an even......Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to all amyloid fibrils including those in the plaques and tangles of Alzheimer patients. To investigate whether the plasma SAP concentration correlated to cognitive impairment, we measured SAP levels in blood samples from 41 centenarians and compared...... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...

  18. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  19. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  20. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  1. SEGURIDAD DEL PARACETAMOL EN CUBA. 2003 - 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Chao Cardeso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available n observational, descriptive and retrospective study was realized to characterize the behavior of the adverse reactions related to paracetamol, including in the data base of the National Coordinating Unit of Pharmacovigilance, in the period included from January of the 2003 to December of the 2008.Once identified the main's adverse reactions associated to the use of paracetamol and organs' systems more affected it was determined his distribution by sex and groups of ages. In addition, severity and causality were classified accordantly to the avoidable reactions and their causes.Of the 612 notified reactions, the cutaneous eruptions were those of greater quantity (52.2%, corresponding this result with the system of organs more affected, then it was the skin (54.4%. Feminine sex and the group of age between the 16 and 39 years, presented/displayed the majors percents of undesirable effects, with 62.9% and 30.2%, respectively. The behavior, as far as severity and causality, was not different from what it was reported in other studies because the slight reactions predominated (56.7% and probable (80.2%. As far as the avoidable, the 69.1% of the reactions were catalogued like no avoidable, in as much, the errors in the indication of paracetamol constituted the main evitable cause.

  2. The relation between paracetamol use and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaheen, S; Potts, J; Gnatiuc, L

    2008-01-01

    Studies from the UK and the USA suggest that frequent use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) may increase the risk of asthma, but data across Europe are lacking.As part of a multi-centre case-control study organised by the GA(2)LEN network we have examined whether frequent paracetamol use is associated...... with adult asthma across Europe. The network compared 521 cases with a diagnosis of asthma and reporting asthma symptoms in the last 12 months with 507 controls with no diagnosis of asthma and no asthmatic symptoms in the last 12 months across 12 European centres. All cases and controls were selected from...... the same population defined by age (20-45 years) and place of residence.In a random effects meta-analysis, after controlling for confounders, the adjusted odds ratio for asthma associated with weekly use of paracetamol, compared with less frequent use, was 2.87 (95% CI: 1.49 to 5.37), P=0...

  3. Lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits administered coconut water as antidote to paracetamol overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidi Uzoma Igwe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of coconut water intake on lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices of albino rabbits overdosed with paracetamol using standard methods. Methods: Thirty-five albino rabbits weighing between 800–1200 g and aged between 2 and 3 months, were divided into 7 groups (I–VII of 5 animals each. Groups I, II and III were orally administered distilled water (20 mL/kg body weight, coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 7 days. Groups IV and V were administered coconut water (20 mL/kg body weight and silymarin (35 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 6 days, then paracetamol (1000 mg/kg body weight on the 7th day. Groups VI and VII were administered distilled water for 6 days, paracetamol on the 7th day, then coconut water and silymarin, respectively, after 3 h. Results: The results showed that paracetamol overdose significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the mean body weight of the animals, increased the concentrations of serum total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and the atherogenic predictor indices but reduced the serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration of the animals relative to the control. The observed changes in the lipid profile and atherogenic predictor indices were countered more by post- than pre-treatment with coconut water and silymarin. Conclusions: The results indicated that coconut water acted as an effective antidote to paracetamol overdose-induced lipid abnormality in animals.

  4. Simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V by square-wave voltammetry at a bare boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švorc, Ľubomír; Sochr, Jozef; Tomčík, Peter; Rievaj, Miroslav; Bustin, Dušan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unmodified BDD electrode = sensitive electrochemical sensor for drugs determination. ► No special pretreatment of samples except simple dilution. ► Selective method, common compounds present in urine do not interfere in high excess. ► Simultaneous determination of PAR and PEN has yet not been published in literature. - Abstract: A simple, sensitive and selective square-wave voltammetry method for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V on a bare (unmodified) boron-doped diamond electrode has been developed. The good potential separation of about 0.35 V between the oxidation peak potentials of both drugs present in mixture was found. It was found by cyclic voltammetry that paracetamol gave quasireversible wave and penicillin V provided irreversible oxidation peak. The effect of supporting electrolyte, pH and scan rate on voltammetric response of both drugs was studied to select the optimum experimental conditions. The optimal conditions for quantitative simultaneous determination were obtained in acetate buffer solution at pH 5.0. The oxidation peak of paracetamol and penicillin V showed a systematic increase in peak currents with increase of their concentration. The calibration curves for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V exhibited the good linear responses within the concentration range from 0.4 to 100 μM for both drugs. The detection limit was established to 0.21 and 0.32 μM for paracetamol and penicillin V, respectively. The method proved the good sensitivity, repeatability (RSD of 1.5 and 2.1% for mixture solution of 10 μM PCM and PEN) and selectivity when influence of interferents commonly existing in human urine was negligible. The practical analytical utility of proposed method was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of paracetamol and penicillin V in human urine samples, with results similar to those obtained using a high-performance liquid chromatography method as an

  5. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  6. Diagnostics of PF-1000 facility operation and plasma concentration on the basis of spectral measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Scholz, M.; Tsarenko, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    The paper concerns the monitoring of the operation of high-current pulse discharges and the determination of the plasma concentration within the dense magnetized plasma column by means of optical spectroscopy methods. In experiments performed within the large PF-1000 facility, which is operated at IPPLM in Warsaw, particular attention was paid to possibility of the determination of correctness of the operational mode. In order to measure the visible radiation (VR), as emitted from the collapsing current sheath and the dense pinch region, the use was made of the MECHELLE R 900-optical-spectrometer, which was equipped with a CCD measuring head. The spectral measurements were performed at an angle of about 650 to the symmetry axis of the PF electrode system, through an optical window and a special collimator coupled with the quartz optical-cable. The observed VR emission originated from a part of the inner- and outer-electrode surfaces, the collapsing current-sheath layer and a portion of the dense plasma pinch-region (located a distance of 40-50 mm from the electrode ends). Considerable differences were found in the optical spectra recorded for so-called good shots and for cases of some failures. In the case of a breakdown (damage) of the main insulator there were observed different Al-lines, which originated from the eroded insulator material. At so-called bad vacuum conditions there were recorded various C-lines, and at an uncontrolled air-leakage into the experimental chamber there appeared numerous N-lines. The appearance of these characteristic spectral lines made possible to determine whether the operation of the PF-1000 facility was correct or incorrect. The paper reports also on estimates of plasma concentration values, which have been performed on the basis of a quantitative analysis of the Stark broadening of the selected spectral lines. (author)

  7. Measurement of plasma gentamicin concentrations postchemical ciliary body ablation in dogs with chronic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Amy J; Lanuza, Rick; KuKanich, Butch; Crumley, William C; Pucket, Jonathan D; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of gentamicin into the plasma after an intravitreal injection in dogs and to report the success rate of this procedure in lowering the intraocular pressure. Twenty-four client-owned dogs with chronic, end-stage glaucoma. Dogs received a unilateral (22) or bilateral (2) intravitreal injection of 25-40 mg of gentamicin (mean ± SD dose 2.57 ± 1.65 mg/kg and range 0.61-7.50 mg/kg) and 1 mg of dexamethasone per eye. Blood samples were collected at various time points following the intravitreal injection. Plasma concentrations of gentamicin were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total plasma concentration of gentamicin ranged from 0.21 to 9.71 μg/mL (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 2.03). The mean gentamicin CMAX was 2.29 μg/mL at 2.54 h with a terminal half-life of 9.8 h. The success rate of the chemical ablation procedure was 86.4% (19/22 eyes) in dogs that had at least 1 month of follow-up. Intravitreal injection of gentamicin in eyes with chronic glaucoma resulted in detectable plasma levels in dogs and was successful in lowering the intraocular pressure in 86.4% of the eyes after the first procedure. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  9. Plasma potassium concentration and content changes after banana ingestion in exercised men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Individuals prone to exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs) are instructed to eat bananas because of their high potassium (K(+)) concentration and carbohydrate content and the perception that K(+) imbalances and fatigue contribute to the genesis of EAMCs. No data exist about the effect of bananas on plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)](p)) or plasma glucose concentration ([glucose](p)) after exercise in the heat. To determine whether ingesting 0, 1, or 2 servings of bananas after 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise in the heat alters [K(+)](p) or [glucose](p) and whether changes in [K(+)](p) result from hypotonic fluid effluxes or K(+) ion changes. Crossover study. Laboratory. Nine euhydrated men (age = 27 ± 4 years, height = 180.3 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 84.9 ± 26.1 kg, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.006) without EAMCs volunteered. On 3 separate days, participants completed 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous cycling (temperature = 36.4°C ± 1.1°C, relative humidity = 19.4% ± 2.5%) and then ate 0 g (0 servings), 150 g (1 serving), or 300 g (2 servings) of bananas. Blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes postingestion. The [K(+)](p), changes in plasma K(+) content, plasma volume changes, and [glucose](p). The [K(+)](p) differed between conditions at 60 minutes; 2 servings (4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.6 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) was greater than 1 serving (4.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.5 ± 0.2 mEq/L]) and 0 servings (4.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.4 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) (P banana ingestion on EAMCs is unknown; however, these data suggested bananas are unlikely to relieve EAMCs by increasing extracellular [K(+)] or [glucose](p). The increases in [K(+)](p) were marginal and within normal clinical values. The changes in [K(+)](p), plasma K(+) content, and [glucose](p) do not occur quickly enough to treat acute EAMCs, especially if they develop near the end of competition.

  10. Methodological issues in assessing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sina; Comeau, Kathryn; Agellon, Sherry; Vanstone, Catherine; Sharma, Atul; Jones, Glenville; L'abbé, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Although no gold standard exists, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a precise and accurate method for the analysis of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Immunoassays are more readily available and require small volume sampling, ideal for infant testing. The objective was to compare two commercially available immunoassays for measuring circulating 25(OH)D concentration in infant plasma against LC-MS/MS. Capillary blood samples from 103 infants were analyzed for plasma 25(OH)D using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Octeia, IDS Ltd.) and radioimmunoassay (RIA, DiaSorin). Plasma 25(OH)D(3), C-3 epimer of 25(OH)D(3) (3-epi-25(OH)D(3)) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)(2)D(3)) were measured on the same samples using LC-MS/MS. To establish whether plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) interferes with these immunoassay results, the zero 25(OH)D calibrator from each assay kit was spiked with increasing amounts of 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Classifying infants below the common vitamin D status targets of 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L respectively, 58% and 99% fell below using the RIA, 19% and 56% with the EIA and 31% and 76% with LC-MS/MS. Compared to LC-MS/MS, both immunoassays showed poor Bland-Altman limits of agreement for 25(OH)D concentrations (RIA: limits of agreement -27 to +13%; EIA: -12 to +41%), and mountain plots (folded cumulative distribution) depicted significant skew and bias. Spiked 24,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, but not 3-epi-25(OH)D3, appeared as >100% of known values on the EIA but not on the RIA thus, suggesting that the EIA may cross-react with 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) to a greater extent than 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Two common immunoassays resulted in very different classifications of vitamin D status possibly related to the interference of other vitamin D metabolites. Based on these data, LC-MS/MS assessment of vitamin D status is recommended in young infants (4-6 weeks of age). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: Tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, D.R.; Høgh, B; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or IgA-antibodi......The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...... spectrometric detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5x10(9)/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was ... efficacy is still a concern, since progression of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations...

  12. Plasma vs heart tissue concentration in humans - literature data analysis of drugs distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylutki, Zofia; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-03-12

    Little is known about the uptake of drugs into the human heart, although it is of great importance nowadays, when science desires to predict tissue level behavior rather than to measure it. Although the drug concentration in cardiac tissue seems a better predictor for physiological and electrophysiological changes than its level in plasma, knowledge of this value is very limited. Tissue to plasma partition coefficients (Kp) come to rescue since they characterize the distribution of a drug among tissues as being one of the input parameters in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. The article reviews cardiac surgery and forensic medical studies to provide a reference for drug concentrations in human cardiac tissue. Firstly, the focus is on whether a drug penetrates into heart tissue at a therapeutic level; the provided values refer to antibiotics, antifungals and anticancer drugs. Drugs that directly affect cardiomyocyte electrophysiology are another group of interest. Measured levels of amiodarone, digoxin, perhexiline and verapamil in different sites in human cardiac tissue where the compounds might meet ion channels, gives an insight into how these more lipophilic drugs penetrate the heart. Much data are derived from postmortem studies and they provide insight to the cardiac distribution of more than 200 drugs. The analysis depicts potential problems in defining the active concentration location, what may indirectly suggest multiple mechanisms involved in the drug distribution within the heart. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  14. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycerol concentrations in the postmature rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, A C; Roux, J F; Shapiro, M I

    1980-02-15

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, and glucose concentrations were measured in term and postmature rabbits. The data show that the term and postmature mothers have significantly higher glycemia than their fetuses. However, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are lower in the postmature mother than in her fetus. Postmature fetuses are characterized by very high plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The results demonstrate that postmaturity is accompanied by maternal and fetal lipid metabolic changes related to a decrease in the transfer of maternal fatty acids through the placenta and to a diminution in fetal liver glucose utilization. The postmature fetus is then in a relative state of fasting and must rely on its own supply of fuel (glycogen and lipids) to provide cells for growth and survival. The maternal metabolic changes can possibly be explained by a decreased utilization of maternal substrates by the fetus, the placenta becoming insufficient. The close interrelationship of fetal and maternal lipid metabolism with the activity of the placenta suggests that an accurate knowledge of the metabolic changes taking place in the fetus during alteration of the maternal environment is indispensable to the understanding of the short- and long-term effects of maternal disease on the fetus.

  15. Ghrelin plasma concentration does not covary with energy demand in adult laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhne, A; Schrader, L; Weigend, S; Petow, S

    2017-10-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is suggested to be involved in food intake regulation in young growing chicken. Whether ghrelin is involved in the regulation of energetic balance associated with laying performance in adult laying hens was studied by use of 4 chicken lines that differ in laying performance and phylogeny (4 lines; 16 hens per line). As housing conditions are also known to affect energy demand, half of the hens per line were housed in single cages and the other half of hens were maintained in a floor housing system. Plasma samples were collected at 17 to 19, 33 to 35, 49 to 51, and 72 wk of age and analyzed with a chicken ghrelin ELISA Kit. From caged hens, individual food consumption and laying performance additionally was recorded. Due to its function in growth and its relationship with ghrelin, also GH plasma concentrations were analyzed. Ghrelin concentrations did not differ between the 4 lines at any of the test periods (all P > 0.05). Ghrelin was negatively related to food consumption only in the growing period of the high-performing lines (both P ghrelin concentrations compared with caged hens (P ghrelin is not involved in regulating energy intake related to laying performance but rather seems to be related to body growth and housing condition before start of lay, the latter possibly due to differences in hens' behavioral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group. Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses. Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women. Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  17. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Studies of radioimmunoassay for plasma aldosterone concentration by immunologic purification and extraction procedure without chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Hisamitsu

    1975-01-01

    After the aldosterone fraction of plasma was specifically absorbed using highly concentrated anti-aldosterone serum(i.e. Ab-II; diluted to 1:50,000), it was applied to the radioimmunoassay: and the separation of the free from the bound fractions was performed by the saturated ammonium sulfate method. Reasonable and satisfactory standard curves were obtained, but attention should be given to environmental factors at measurement, especially to the room temperature in summer. According to our results the mean final recovery for 58 specimens was 41.8+-6.4(SD)% through the overall extraction procedure, and the minimum detectable sensitivity of the standard curve was 10pg. The mean water blank value was 7.02+-2.62 (SD) pg/tube. Possible reasons for the higher blank value than others may have been the reagent or the solvent blank, and/or the insufficient process of immunologic purification by Ad-II for the tritium-labelled aldosterone which was used for recovery and immunoassay. The precision was from 9.4 to 25.3% coefficient of variations; the accuracy and recovery rate were almost satisfactory. In our clinical application, the plasma aldosterone concentration indicated high values in the peripheral and affected adrenal venous blood of patients with primary aldosteronism. In a patient with Bartter's syndrome, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism were observed. Almost all of the patients with Addison's disease and with total adrenalectomy indicated the lowest or undetectable levels. A high level of plasma aldosterone concentration was measured in a patient with edema and chronic renal failure and one with juvenile hypertension associated with an orbital tumor. (JPN)

  19. Studies of radioimmunoassay for plasma aldosterone concentration by immunologic purification and extraction procedure without chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, H [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-07-01

    After the aldosterone fraction of plasma was specifically absorbed using highly concentrated anti-aldosterone serum(i.e. Ab-II; diluted to 1:50,000), it was applied to the radioimmunoassay: and the separation of the free from the bound fractions was performed by the saturated ammonium sulfate method. Reasonable and satisfactory standard curves were obtained, but attention should be given to environmental factors at measurement, especially to the room temperature in summer. According to our results the mean final recovery for 58 specimens was 41.8+-6.4(SD)% through the overall extraction procedure, and the minimum detectable sensitivity of the standard curve was 10pg. The mean water blank value was 7.02+-2.62 (SD) pg/tube. Possible reasons for the higher blank value than others may have been the reagent or the solvent blank, and/or the insufficient process of immunologic purification by Ad-II for the tritium-labelled aldosterone which was used for recovery and immunoassay. The precision was from 9.4 to 25.3% coefficient of variations; the accuracy and recovery rate were almost satisfactory. In our clinical application, the plasma aldosterone concentration indicated high values in the peripheral and affected adrenal venous blood of patients with primary aldosteronism. In a patient with Bartter's syndrome, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism were observed. Almost all of the patients with Addison's disease and with total adrenalectomy indicated the lowest or undetectable levels. A high level of plasma aldosterone concentration was measured in a patient with edema and chronic renal failure and one with juvenile hypertension associated with an orbital tumor.

  20. Elevation of plasma milrinone concentrations in stage D heart failure associated with renal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Zachary L; Calcutt, Marion W; Morrison, Thomas B; Akers, Wendell S; Davis, Mary Beth; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    To determine steady state milrinone concentrations in patients with stage D heart failure (HF) with and without renal dysfunction We retrospectively identified patients with stage D HF at a single medical center on continuous milrinonein fusion at the time of plasma collection for entry into a research registry database. Milrinone was prescribed and titrated to improve hemodynamic and clinical status by a cardiologist. Plasma samples were obtained at steady state milrinone concentrations. Patients were stratified by creatinine clearance (CrCl) into 4 groups: group 1 (CrCl >60 mL/min), group 2 (CrCl 60-30 mL/min), group 3 (CrCl milrinone hemodynamic changes by cardiac catheterization and electrophysiologic changes by implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) interrogation. A total of 29 patients were identified: group 1 (n=14), group 2 (n=10), group 3(n=3), and group 4 (n = 2). The mean infusion rate (0.391+0.08 mg/kg/min) did not differ between groups (P=0.14). The mean milrinone concentration was 451+243 ng/mL in group 1, 591+293 ng/mL in group 2, 1575+962 ng/mL in group 3, and 6252+4409 ng/mL in group 4 (Pmilrinone hemodynamic improvements between the groups (P=0.41). The ICD interrogation revealed limited comparisons, but 6 of the 8 post milrinone ventricular tachycardia episodes requiring defibrillation occurred in group 4 patients. Patients with stage D HF having severe renal dysfunction have elevated milrinone concentrations. Future studies of milrinone concentrations are warranted to investigate the potential risk of life-threatening arrhythmias and potential dosing regimens in renal dysfunction.

  1. Comparison of point-of-care methods for preparation of platelet concentrate (platelet-rich plasma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibrich, Gernot; Kleis, Wilfried K G; Streckbein, Philipp; Moergel, Maximilian; Hitzler, Walter E; Hafner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the concentrations of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which are likely to depend on the method used for its production. The cellular composition and growth factor content of platelet concentrates (platelet-rich plasma) produced by six different procedures were quantitatively analyzed and compared. Platelet and leukocyte counts were determined on an automatic cell counter, and analysis of growth factors was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The principal differences between the analyzed PRP production methods (blood bank method of intermittent flow centrifuge system/platelet apheresis and by the five point-of-care methods) and the resulting platelet concentrates were evaluated with regard to resulting platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels. The platelet counts in both whole blood and PRP were generally higher in women than in men; no differences were observed with regard to age. Statistical analysis of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) showed no differences with regard to age or gender. Platelet counts and TGF-β1 concentration correlated closely, as did platelet counts and PDGF-AB levels. There were only rare correlations between leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels, but comparison of leukocyte counts and PDGF-AB levels demonstrated certain parallel tendencies. TGF-β1 levels derive in substantial part from platelets and emphasize the role of leukocytes, in addition to that of platelets, as a source of growth factors in PRP. All methods of producing PRP showed high variability in platelet counts and growth factor levels. The highest growth factor levels were found in the PRP prepared using the Platelet Concentrate Collection System manufactured by Biomet 3i.

  2. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  3. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  4. Changes of iron concentrations in skin and plasma of patients with hemochromatosis along therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Alves, L.C.; Neres, M.; Pinheiro, T.; Barreiros, A.; Fleming, R.; Silva, J.N.; Filipe, P.; Silva, R.

    2009-01-01

    Skin as a manageable organ can provide direct or indirect information of tissue iron overload resulting from inherited disorders as hemochromatosis. Patients with hemochromatosis were evaluated at three consecutive phases along the therapy programme. Nuclear microprobe techniques were used to assess skin iron and Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence to determine the plasma iron concentrations. Results showed that iron pools were differently correlated at the three therapy phases. These variations highlighted the value of skin iron content to assess organ iron deposition and therapy efficacy. Skin iron content can be used for a better management of patients with iron overload pathologies. (author)

  5. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V.

    1995-01-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali metal concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Measurements will be performed during 1995 and 1996 at different stages of the research programme. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali metal vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  6. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamole based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xue; Wang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Ya-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2014-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The functionalized nanospheres were prepared by a chemical route and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were anchored on the dopamine nanosphere via a chemical reduction of the gold precursor. The stepwise fabrication of the modified electrode and its electrochemical response to paracetamole were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode displayed improved electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamole, a lower oxidation potential (371 mV), and a larger peak current when compared to a bare electrode or other modified electrodes. The kinetic parameters governing the electro-oxidation of paracetamole were studied, and the analytical conditions were optimized. The peak current was linearly related to the concentration of paracetamole in 0.8–400 μM range, and the detection limit was 50 nM (at an SNR of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamole in spiked human urine samples and gave recoveries between 95.3 and 105.2 %. (author)

  7. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    .73). Plasma pro-ANP levels were highest on the day of delivery (5580 pmol/L [4320-6786] decreasing to 2484 pmol/L [1602-2898] after 72 hours, P tissue were immature, ie, unprocessed pro...... the transition from fetal to neonate circulation. However, the cardiac gene expression does not explain plasma concentrations....

  8. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  9. Concentration of plasma thyroglobulin and urinary excretion of iodinated material in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders in congenital hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, M. H.; Kok, J. H.; Tegelaers, W. H.; de Vijlder, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we describe methods for the early aetiological diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism, using beside the classical T4, T3 and TSH plasma concentrations, four additional parameters in plasma and urine. The first one is thyroglobulin (Tg). In normal children of more than one year of age

  10. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free progesterone concentration in plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Paoletti, A.M.; Mariani, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of free steroids would be preferable with respect to total hormone plasma content, since it yields more reliable information about the most biologically active form of circulating steroids. The authors report a method for the determination of apparent free progesterone concentration (AFPC) in plasma, by means of direct radioimmunoassay of dialyzed progesterone after equilibrium dialysis. (Auth.)

  11. Endothelin-1 and -3 plasma concentrations in patients with cirrhosis: role of splanchnic and renal passage and liver function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbes, A L; Møller, S; Gülberg, V

    1995-01-01

    of splanchnic and renal passage and of liver function on plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls. Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 8 normotensive controls of similar age were investigated. Arterial and venous plasma samples were...

  12. Can Saliva and Plasma Methadone Concentrations Be Used for Enantioselective Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies in Patients With Advanced Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rani; Haywood, Alison; Good, Phillip; Hennig, Stefanie; Khan, Sohil; Norris, Ross; Hardy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Methadone is a potent analgesic used to treat refractory cancer pain. It is administered as a racemic mixture, with the l-enantiomer being primarily a μ-receptor agonist, whereas the d-enantiomer is an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist and inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Dose requirements vary greatly among patients to achieve optimal pain control and to avoid the risk of adverse effects. The relationship between plasma and saliva methadone enantiomer concentrations was investigated to determine if saliva could be a substitute for plasma in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies for clinical monitoring and dose optimization of methadone in patients with advanced cancer. Patients with advanced cancer who were prescribed varying doses of oral methadone for pain management were recruited to obtain paired plasma and saliva samples. Pain scores were recorded at the time of sampling. The total and unbound plasma and saliva concentrations of the l- and d-enantiomers of methadone were quantified by using an HPLC-MS/MS method. The relationship between plasma (total and unbound) and saliva concentrations were compared. The saliva-to-plasma concentration ratio was compared versus the dose administered and the time after dosing for both enantiomers. The association of methadone concentrations with reported pain scores was compared by using a Mann-Whitney U test for significance. Fifty patients receiving a mean dose of 11mg/d of methadone provided 151 paired plasma and saliva samples. The median age of the population was 61 years with an interquartile range of 53-71 years with total body weight ranging from 59-88 kg. Median (interquartile) total plasma concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 50.78 ng/mL (30.6-113.0 ng/mL) and 62.0 ng/mL (28.7-116.0 ng/mL), respectively. Median (interquartile range) saliva concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 81.5 ng/mL (28.0-203.2 ng/mL) and 44.2 (16.2-149.7 ng/mL). No relationship could be established between

  13. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.; Arieff, Zainunisha; Kaur, Mandeep; Seier, Jü rgen V.

    2014-01-01

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African

  14. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  15. Changes in plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists in response to adrenaline infusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Ostrowski, K.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of adrenaline in the response of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonists (ra) to extreme physiological conditions such as trauma and exercise, we examined the concentrations in the plasma of these cytokines during an adrenaline infusion. Given the fact...... that HIV infected patients have elevated levels of IL-6 in plasma, 12 HIV seropositive subjects and 6 HIV seronegative control subjects received a 1-h adrenaline infusion. Baseline concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1ra were higher in the HIV patients compared with the controls (P...), being most pronounced in the untreated subgroup of HIV infected patients (n = 6). The plasma concentration of adrenaline had increased 24-fold after 15 min of adrenaline infusion. The plasma concentration of IL-6 had increased by two- to threefold after 45 min of adrenaline infusion (P

  16. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  17. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin in African grey parrots treated with medicated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K; Aucoin, D P; Whitt, D A; Prus, S A

    1990-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin were measured four times during a 7-day treatment period in African grey parrots that were fed with enrofloxacin-medicated drinking water. Water medicated at doubling doses of 0.09, 0.19, 0.38, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/ml achieved mean concentrations (+/- SEM) of 0.10 (+/- 0.05), 0.12 (+/- 0.05), 0.12 (+/- 0.03), 0.15 (+/- 0.05), 0.30 (+/- 0.11), and 0.20 (+/- 0.06) micrograms/ml, respectively. A portion of the administered enrofloxacin was metabolized to an equipotent metabolite, ciprofloxacin. Mean ciprofloxacin concentrations paralleled enrofloxacin concentrations but were lower, ranging from 0.04 to 0.27 micrograms/ml. Acceptance of medicated water was adequate at lower doses; however, at doses of 1.5 and 3.0 mg/ml, acceptance was unsatisfactory, and mean weight loss in these groups was significantly higher than the control group. Based on the concentrations achieved in these preliminary trials and the susceptibility patterns of gram-negative bacteria isolated from psittacine birds, drinking water medicated with enrofloxacin at 0.19-0.75 mg/ml might be effective for treating highly susceptible gram-negative bacterial infections in African grey parrots.

  18. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  19. Paracetamol in the environment and its degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Jianmeng

    2012-11-01

    Paracetamol (4'-hydroxyacetanilide, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, acetaminophen, and paracetamol) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug. Paracetamol and structural analogs are ubiquitous in the natural environment and easily accumulate in aquatic environment, which have been detected in surface waters, wastewater, and drinking water throughout the world. Paracetamol wastewater is mainly treated by chemical oxidation processes. Although these chemical methods may be available for treating these pollutants, the harsh reaction conditions, the generation of secondary pollutants, and the high operational cost associated with these methods have often made them not a desirable choice. Biodegradation of paracetamol is being considered as an environmentally friendly and low-cost option. The goal of this review is to provide an outline of the current knowledge of biodegradation of paracetamol in the occurrence, degrading bacteria, and proposed metabolic/biodegrading pathways, enzymes and possible intermediates. The comprehensive understanding of the metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the utilization of paracetamol means will be helpful for optimizing and allowing rational design of biodegradation systems for paracetamol-contaminated wastewater.

  20. An assessment of the quality of various brands of paracetamol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the seriousness of the global counterfeiting problem, we quantified the amount of active ingredient present in paracetamol tablets by various official and non-official methods. Eight brands of Paracetamol 500mg tablets were assessed using the quality control parameters of weight uniformity, active ingredient ...

  1. Evaluation of Palm Oil-Based Paracetamol Suppositories by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The suppository base was prepared by mixing hydrogenated palm oil and palm kernel ... DSC can be used to predict drug release in paracetamol suppository formulations. Keywords: Palm oil, Liquefaction time, Paracetamol, Suppositories, Thermal analysis. ..... Drug Evaluation & Research (CDER), Food and.

  2. The majority of sick children receive paracetamol during the winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertmann, Ruth; Møller, Janne Julie; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2012-01-01

    Even though fever is a common symptom in childhood, it often worries parents and they may try to reduce discomfort by giving the child paracetamol, which is currently the most commonly sold over-the-counter medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate parent-administered paracetamol...

  3. Effects of co-administration of chloroquine with paracetamol or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of co-administration of oral chloroquine with paracetamol or with ibuprofen on renal function were studied using 6 groups of New Zealand White rabbits. Group 1, the control group received only feed and water. The other groups (Groups 2-6) either received single therapies of paracetamol (10 mg/kg of body ...

  4. Plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in newborn kids and female Baladi goats during late pregnancy and onset of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, S A; Azab, M E

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of blood lipids and some lipoproteins were investigated in normal female Baladi goats during late pregnancy, parturition and onset of lactation as well as in their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life. A total number of 60 herparinized blood samples was collected from does at 4, 3, 2 and 1 weeks pre-partum, day of parturition and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks postpartum. In addition, blood samples were also collected from their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life (day of birth, 1 and 2 weeks of age). Plasma was separated and analyzed for concentration of total lipid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and some lipoproteins as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The obtained results revealed that there was a significant decrease in plasma level of total lipids at one week after parturition. Plasma level of triaclyglycerols was significantly higher at 4, 3 and 2 weeks before parturition. This increase became very highly significant at one week before parturition. Meanwhile, plasma phospholipid concentrations showed a significant decrease at 3 weeks before parturition, followed by an significant increase at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition and highly significant increase at 4 weeks after parturition. The concentration of plasma NEFA showed a significant increase at 4 weeks before parturition followed by a very highly significant increase at 2 and 1 week before parturition. On the other hand plasma NEFA was non detected at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-partum when compared with the value reported at day of parturition. Regarding plasma lipoprotein concentrations the obtained results showed that there was a significant increase in plasma HDL-C level at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition, followed by a very highly significant decrease at the fourth week post-partum. However, plasma LDL-C level showed a significant decrease at 3, 2 and 1 weeks

  5. The effect of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Dehghan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Applied Exercise Physiology focuses on the physiological effects of exercise training on physiological processes, health, and physical well-being. The aim of this study was investigation of effects of 8-week low impact aerobic exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in old women. Fibrinogen is one of the most important inflammation factors and a prediction index in cardio vascular diseases. Iranian women especially older ones are generally sedentary because of their traditional and religious believes. Samples were 23 healthy and enable to do physical activity old women of Shahrekord (Chaharmahal va bakhtiary province, Iran retirement home. Subjects were randomly divided to two groups including experimental (n=14 individuals and control (n=11 individuals. First, for assessment of fibrinogen level, 5cc blood samples were obtained after 8 hours nightly fasting from anterior vein in resting condition. Experimental group was participated in 8 week (three times a week LIA training program (15 min in first day with 40% of maximum heart rate until 40 min in last day with 65% of maximum heart rate. All of mentioned measurements repeated at the end of 8 week training. The obtained results showed that 8 week LIA program has significant effect on reduction of old women plasma fibrinogen level (P=0.02. It seems that use of 8 week LIA training has positive effects on improvement of cardiovascular health and prevention of inflammation disease related to plasma fibrinogen level in Iranian old women. Key words: aerobic exercises, old women, fibrinogen.

  6. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in eclamptic and preeclamptic African women postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, A; Mahomed, K; Malinow, M R; Sorenson, T K; Woelk, G B; Williams, M A

    1999-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of eclampsia and preeclampsia among sub-Saharan African women who delivered at Harare Maternity Hospital in Zimbabwe. We ran a hospital-based, case-control study at Harare Maternity Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe comprising 33 pregnant women with eclampsia and 138 with preeclampsia. Controls were 185 normotensive pregnant women. Plasma was collected postpartum and homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia had significantly higher mean homocyst(e)ine levels than normotensive controls (12.54 or 12.77 micromol/L versus 9.93 micromol/L, respectively, Pine distribution (median 13.9 micromol/L) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 6.2 micromol/L). The corresponding OR for preeclampsia was 4.57. Nulliparas with elevated homocyst(e)ine had a 12.90 times higher risk of preeclampsia compared with multiparas without elevated homocyst(e)ine. Postpartum plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are higher among Zimbabwean women with eclampsia and preeclampsia compared with normotensive women.

  7. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower...... of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations within expected therapeutic limits....

  8. Concentrated ion beam emitted from an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-28

    An enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator with an outlet diameter of 150 mm is experimentally demonstrated to produce a concentrated ion beam, especially at a high discharge voltage, with a high current utilization efficiency of up to {approx}0.9. Numerical investigation based on the three-dimensional particle-in-cell method is performed to study the ion dynamics and elucidate the origin of the ion beam characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the equipotential lines play an important role in the surface near the anode emitting the ions. The ion emitting surface is determined by the magnetic field lines near the anode and the magnetic mirror contributes to the concentrated beam significantly. The high current utilization efficiency results from the appropriate obliquity of the magnetic mirror.

  9. Evidence of small-scale magnetic concentrations dragged by vortex motion of solar photospheric plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaceda, L.; Vargas Domínguez, S.; Palacios, J.; Cabello, I.; Domingo, V.

    2010-04-01

    Vortex-type motions have been measured by tracking bright points in high-resolution observations of the solar photosphere. These small-scale motions are thought to be determinant in the evolution of magnetic footpoints and their interaction with plasma and therefore likely to play a role in heating the upper solar atmosphere by twisting magnetic flux tubes. We report the observation of magnetic concentrations being dragged towards the center of a convective vortex motion in the solar photosphere from high-resolution ground-based and space-borne data. We describe this event by analyzing a series of images at different solar atmospheric layers. By computing horizontal proper motions, we detect a vortex whose center appears to be the draining point for the magnetic concentrations detected in magnetograms and well-correlated with the locations of bright points seen in G-band and CN images.

  10. Increments in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations after neuroleptic discontinuation are associated with worsening of schizophrenic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R S; Amin, F; Powchik, P; Knott, P; Goldstein, M; Apter, S; Kerman, B; Jaff, S; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Thirty-two male schizophrenic patients participated in this study. 2. Plasma concentrations of the dopamine metabolite, homovanillic acid (pHVA) were assessed once on neuroleptic medication and twice a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation. 3. Psychiatric symptomatology was assessed once on neuroleptic medication and once a week for a maximum of six weeks after its discontinuation, using the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS). 4. pHVA and total BPRS score increased significantly after discontinuation of neuroleptic as compared to baseline. 5. The magnitude of pHVA and BPRS increments after discontinuation of neuroleptic correlated significantly. 6. Results of this study suggest that worsening of schizophrenic symptoms after discontinuation of neuroleptic treatment is associated with increased pHVA concentrations.

  11. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  12. Lack of respiratory depression in paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppell, Simon P E; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2017-06-01

    Codeine containing analgesics are commonly taken in overdose, but the frequency of respiratory depression is unknown. We investigated whether paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses caused respiratory depression more than paracetamol alone. We reviewed deliberate self-poisoning admissions with paracetamol (>2 g) and paracetamol-codeine combinations presenting to a tertiary toxicology unit (1987-2013). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment (naloxone, length of stay [LOS], mechanical ventilation) were extracted from a prospective database. Primary outcome was naloxone requirement or ventilation for respiratory depression. From 4488 presentations, 1376 admissions were included with paracetamol alone (929), paracetamol-codeine combinations (346) or paracetamol-codeine-doxylamine combinations (101) without co-ingestants. Median age was 23 years (12-89 years); 1002 (73%) were female. Median dose was 12 g (interquartile range [IQR]: 7.5-20 g). Median LOS was 16 h (IQR: 6.5-27 h) and 564 (41%) were given acetylcysteine. Significantly larger paracetamol doses were ingested and more acetylcysteine given in paracetamol alone versus paracetamol combination overdoses. Seven out of 1376 patients were intubated or received naloxone (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.2-1.1%), three intubated, three given naloxone and one both. Three out of 929 patients ingesting paracetamol alone (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1-1%) required intubation or naloxone, compared to two out of 346 ingesting paracetamol-codeine combinations (0.6%; 95% CI: 0.1-2.3%; absolute difference, 0.26%; 95% CI: -0.7-1.2%; P = 0.62). Two out of 101 patients ingesting paracetamol-codeine-doxylamine combinations (2%; 95% CI: 0.3-8%) required intubation or naloxone. Four patients were intubated for reasons other than respiratory depression: hepatotoxicity (2), retrieval (1), no data (1). Two out of 929 (0.2%) paracetamol alone overdoses had a Glasgow coma score depression, with only two given naloxone and none intubated for

  13. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  14. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intake of paracetamol and risk of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Skadhauge, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Intake of paracetamol has been associated with development of asthma. The aim of this study was to address a possible association between intake of paracetamol and risk of adult-onset asthma. Using a multidisciplinary postal questionnaire survey concerning health and lifestyle we prospectively...... studied 19,349 adult twins enrolled in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry. There was a higher prevalence of new-onset asthma in subjects who reported frequent intake of paracetamol at baseline compared with subjects without this determinant (12.0% vs. 4.3%), OR = 3.03 (1.51-6.11), p = 0.005. The result...... remained significant after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, BMI, hay fever, eczema, and intake of medications other than paracetamol, OR = 2.16 (1.03-4.53), p = 0.041. Frequent intake of paracetamol is an independent risk factor for adult-onset asthma....

  16. Concomitant overdosing of other drugs in patients with paracetamol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Paracetamol is frequently involved in intended self-poisoning, and concomitant overdosing of other drugs is commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to investigate further concomitant drug overdose in patients with paracetamol poisoning and to evaluate its effects on the outcome...... of the paracetamol intoxication. METHODS: Six hundred and seventy-one consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning were studied and concomitant drug intake was recorded. The relative risk of hepatic encephalopathy, death or liver transplantation, hepatic dysfunction, liver cell damage, and renal...... favourable outcome was observed in patients with concomitant NSAID overdose. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant overdosing of benzodiazepines or analgesics is frequent in patients admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Concomitant benzodiazepine or acetylsalicylic acid overdose was associated with more severe toxicity...

  17. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  18. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  19. The Effect of Geographic Location on Circannual Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Plasma Concentrations in Horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secombe, C J; Tan, R H H; Perara, D I; Byrne, D P; Watts, S P; Wearn, J G

    2017-09-01

    Longitudinal evaluation of plasma endogenous ACTH concentration in clinically normal horses has not been investigated in the Southern Hemisphere. To longitudinally determine monthly upper reference limits for plasma ACTH in 2 disparate Australian geographic locations and to examine whether location affected the circannual rhythm of endogenous ACTH in the 2 groups of horses over a 12-month period. Clinically normal horses horses from Perth and ≤67 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville, than at the acrophase, ≤94 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Perth, ≤101 pg/mL (upper limit of the 90% CI) in horses from Townsville. Circannual rhythms of endogenous ACTH concentrations vary between geographic locations, this could be due to changes in photoperiod or other unknown factors, and upper reference limits should be determined for specific locations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in Crohn's and pancreatic cancer patients compared to control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drai, J; Borel, P; Faure, H; Galabert, C; Le Moël, G; Laromiguière, M; Fayol, V

    2009-03-01

    Carotenoids are colored molecules that are widespread in the plant kingdom, but animals cannot synthesize them. Carotenes are long, apolar molecules which require fully functioning digestive processes to be absorbed properly. Hence they could be interesting markers of intestinal absorption and digestion. Indeed, only few tests are available to assess these processes and only the D-xylose tolerance test is routinely used. However D-xylose is a sugar that tests only the absorption of water-soluble compounds and it only tests duodenal absorption. In this study, we have evaluated carotenoids as markers of digestion and absorption. We compared fasting plasma carotenoids concentrations in 21 control subjects, 20 patients with Crohn's disease, and 18 patients with pancreatic cancer. Crohn's disease alters intestinal absorption while pancreatic cancer decreases pancreatic enzyme secretion thus impairing digestion. Results show that all carotenoids are significantly lower in Crohn's and cancer patients as compared to control subjects and the multifactorial analysis shows that this decrease is mostly independent of dietary intake. Interestingly, maldigestion as seen in pancreatic cancer more strongly influences plasma lutein and lycopene concentrations while malabsorption in Crohn's disease acts on other carotenoids. Thus carotenoids could be interesting alternatives for testing and following patients that are suspected of having malabsorption or maldigestion syndromes.

  1. Fibrinogen plasma concentration is an independent marker of haemodynamic impairment in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigs, Jan K.; Baumann, Hans Jörg; Lüneburg, Nicole; Quast, Gesine; Harbaum, Lars; Heyckendorf, Jan; Sydow, Karsten; Schulte-Hubbert, Bernhard; Halank, Michael; Klose, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen has a crucial role in both inflammation and coagulation, two processes pivotal for the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. We therefore aimed to investigate whether fibrinogen plasma concentrations a) are elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and b) may serve as a novel biomarker for haemodynamic impairment. In a dual-centre, retrospective analysis including 112 patients with PAH (n = 52), CTEPH (n = 49) and a control cohort of patients with suspected PAH ruled out by right heart catheterisation (n = 11), we found fibrinogen plasma concentrations to be increased in patients with PAH (4.1 ± 1.4 g/l) and CTEPH (4.3 ± 1.2 g/l) compared to control patients (3.4 ± 0.5 g/l, p = 0.0035 and p = 0.0004, respectively). In CTEPH patients but not in PAH patients fibrinogen was associated with haemodynamics (p < 0.036) and functional parameters (p < 0.041). Furthermore, fibrinogen was linked to disease severity (WHO functional class, p = 0.017) and independently predicted haemodynamic impairment specifically in CTEPH (p < 0.016). Therefore, fibrinogen seems to represent an important factor in CTEPH pathophysiology and may have the potential to guide clinical diagnosis and therapy. PMID:24770447

  2. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  3. Patients with the worst outcomes after paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver failure have an early monocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J K; MacKinnon, A C; Man, T Y; Manning, J R; Forbes, S J; Simpson, K J

    2017-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited. The peripheral blood monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, circulating cytokines quantified by protein array and monocyte gene expression array performed and related to outcome. On admission, patients with worst outcomes after POD-ALF had a significant monocytopenia, characterised by reduced classical and expanded intermediate monocyte population. This was associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and natural killer cells, peripheral cytokine patterns suggestive of a 'cytokine storm' and increased concentrations of cytokines associated with monocyte egress from the bone marrow. Gene expression array did not differentiate patient outcome. At day 4, there was no significant difference in monocyte, lymphocyte or natural killer cells between survivors and the patients with adverse outcomes. Severe paracetamol liver failure is associated with profound changes in the peripheral blood compartment, particularly in monocytes, related with worse outcomes. This is not seen in patients with non-paracetamol-induced liver failure. Significant monocytopenia on admission may allow earlier clarification of prognosis, and it highlights a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Plasma firocoxib concentrations after intra-articular injection of autologous conditioned serum prepared from firocoxib positive horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortved, K F; Goodale, M B; Ober, C; Maylin, G A; Fortier, L A

    2017-12-01

    Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection. Firocoxib was administered to six horses at 0.1mg/kg PO twice at a 24h interval. Blood was obtained at 4h following the second dose and transferred to a separate syringe (Arthrex IRAP II) for ACS preparation. Plasma and ACS concentrations of firocoxib were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). When horses were confirmed firocoxib negative, 7.5mL of ACS was injected into both tarsocrural joints. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h, and firocoxib concentration was measured. Mean (±standard error of the mean, SEM) plasma concentration of firocoxib 4h following the second dose was 33.3±4.72ng/mL. Mean (±SEM) firocoxib concentration in ACS was 35.4±4.47ng/mL. Fourteen days following the second and last dose of firocoxib, mean plasma concentration was below the lower limit of detection (LOD=1ng/mL) in all horses. Following IA injection of ACS, plasma concentrations of firocoxib remained below LOD at all times in all horses. ACS generated from horses with therapeutic plasma concentrations of firocoxib did not contain sufficient firocoxib to lead to a positive plasma drug test following IA administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Siersma, Volkert D; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are accumulating in our environment and human exposure to these potentially harmful chemicals are of growing concern. In the present study, 116 children aged 6-11 and 143 mothers in two locations in Denmark donated blood samples as a supplement to their participation in the large European human biomonitoring project, DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). The blood samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the concentration of six PFASs: PFOA, PFHxS, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and n-PFOS. All measured compounds were above the detection limit in both mothers and children except for PFHxS in one child. There was a significant correlation between the levels in children and their mothers, indicating a family-related exposure pattern. However, we also found that the levels of PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, br-PFOS and total-PFOS were significantly higher in children compared to their mothers. This may be due to higher exposure in children through for example dust and soil, and due to the fact that children are smaller in body size and blood volume and hence have a lower storage capacity. Furthermore, we found an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels are comparable to concentrations found in other Western countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized comparative trial of efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falgun Indravadan Vyas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Paracetamol and ibuprofen are widely used for fever in children as monotherapy and as combined therapy. None of the treatments is proven clearly superior to others. Hence, the study was planned to compare the efficacy of paracetamol, ibuprofen and paracetamol-ibuprofen combination for treatment of febrile children. Materials and Methods: This was an investigator blind, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 99 febrile children, 6 months to 12 years of age, allocated to three groups. First group received paracetamol 15 mg/kg, second group received ibuprofen 10 mg/kg and third group received both paracetamol and ibuprofen, all as a single dose by the oral route. Patients were followed-up at intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 h post dose by tympanic thermometry. Results: Mean tympanic temperature after 4 h of drug administration was significantly lower in the combination group compared with paracetamol group (P < 0.05; however, the difference was not clinically significant (<1΀C. The rate of fall of temperature was highest in the combination group. Number of afebrile children any time post dose until 4 h was highest in the combination group. Difference between combination and paracetamol was significant for the 1 st h (P = 0.04. Highest fall of temperature was noted in the 1 st h of drug administration in all the groups. No serious adverse events were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: Paracetamol and ibuprofen combination caused quicker temperature reduction than either paracetamol or ibuprofen alone. If quicker reduction of body temperature is the desired goal of therapy, the use of combination of paracetamol + ibuprofen may be advocated.

  7. Plasma ET-1 Concentrations are Elevated in Patients with Hypertension - Meta-Analysis of Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mei; Lu, Yong-Ping; Hasan, Ahmed Abdallah; Hocher, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    A recent study revealed that global overexpression of ET-1 causes a slight reduction in systemic blood pressure. Moreover, heterozygous ET-1 knockout mice are hypertensive. The role of ET-1 in human hypertension was so far not addressed by a strict meta-analysis of published human clinical studies. We included studies published between January 1, 1990 and February 28, 2017. We included case control studies analyzing untreated essential hypertension or hypertensive patients where antihypertensive medication was discontinued for at least two weeks. Based on the principle of Cochrane systematic reviews, case control studies (CCSs) in PubMed (Medline) and Google Scholar designed to identify the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathophysiological of hypertension were screened. Review Manager Version 5.0 (Rev-Man 5.0) was applied for statistical analysis. Mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI) were shown in inverse variance (IV) fixed-effects model or IV random-effects models. Eleven studies fulfilling our in- and exclusion criteria were eligible for this meta-analysis. These studies included 450 hypertensive patients and 328 controls. Our meta-analysis revealed that ET-1 plasma concentrations were higher in hypertensive patients as compared to the control patients [mean difference between groups 1.57 pg/mL, 95%CI [0.47∼2.68, P = 0.005]. These finding were driven by patients having systolic blood pressure higher than 160 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure higher than 100 mmHg. This meta-analysis showed that hypertensive patients do have elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations. This finding is driven by those patients with high systolic/diastolic blood pressure. Given that the ET-1 gene did not appear in any of the whole genome association studies searching for hypertension associated gene loci, it is very likely that the elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations in hypertensive patients are secondary to hypertension and may reflect endothelial cell damage. © 2017 The

  8. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) were established in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts populations after they had received OTC medicated feed at a rate of 75 mg OTC/kg over 10 days. One population was experiencing an epizootic of furunculosis in a commercial freshwater farm...

  9. Composition of highly concentrated silicate electrolytes and ultrasound influencing the plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchen, F.; Rymer, L.-M.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are increasingly in use as lightweight construction materials. However, their inappropriate corrosion and wear resistance often prevent their direct practical use. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a promising, environmentally friendly method to improve the surface characteristics of magnesium materials by the formation of oxide coatings. These PEO layers contain components of the applied electrolyte and can be shifted in their composition by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte constituents. Therefore, in contrast to the use of conventional low concentrated electrolytes, the process results in more stable protective coatings, in which electrolyte species are the dominating constitutes. In the present work, the influence of the composition of highly concentrated alkaline silicate electrolytes with additives of phosphate and glycerol on the quality of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ31 was examined. The effect of ultrasound coupled into the electrolyte bath was also considered. The process was monitored by recording the electrical process variables with a transient recorder and by observation of the discharge phenomena on the sample surface with a camera. The study was conducted on the basis of a design of experiments. The effects of the process parameter variation are considered with regard to the coatings thickness, hardness and corrosion resistance. Information about the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on the considered properties is obtained by an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  10. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  11. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  12. Measurement of excitation, ionization, and electron temperatures and positive ion concentrations in a 144 MHz inductively coupled radiofrequency plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, P.E.; Chester, T.L.; Winefordner, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements of 144 MHz radiofrequency inductively coupled plasmas at pressures between 0.5 and 14 Torr have been made. Other variables studied included the gas type (Ar or Ne) and material in plasma (Ti or Tl). Parameters measured included excitation temperatures via the atomic Boltzmann plot and the two-line method, ionization electric probes. Excitation temperatures increased as the pressure of Ar or Ne plasmas decreased and reached a maximum of approx.9000 degreeK in the latter case and approx.6700 degreeK in the former case; Tl in the Ar plasma resulted in in a smaller rate of decrease of excitation temperature with increase of pressure of Ar. The ionization temperatures were lower than the excitation temperatures and were similar for both the Ar and Ne plasmas. Electron temperatures were about 10 times higher than the excitation temperatures indicating non-LTE behavior. Again, the electron temperatures indicating in Ne were considerably higher than in Ar. With the presence of metals, the electron temperatures with a metal in the Ar plasma were higher than in the absence. Positive ion concentrations were also measured for the various plasmas and were found to be similar (approx.10 18 m -3 ) in both the Ar and Ne plasmas. The presence of metals caused significant increase in the positive ion concentrations. From the results obtained, the optimum Ar pressure for Tl electrodeless discharge lamps operated at 144 MHz would be between 2 and 4 Torr

  13. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  14. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  15. Susceptibility of Mice to Trypanosoma evansi Treated with Human Plasma Containing Different Concentrations of Apolipoprotein L-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfa, Vinicius R.; Otto, Mateus A.; Gressler, Lucas T.; Tavares, Kaio C.S.; Lazzarotto, Cícera R.; Tonin, Alexandre A.; Miletti, Luiz C.; Duarte, Marta M.M.F.; Monteiro, Silvia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following outline: negative control (A), positive control (B), treatment with plasma 1 (C), treatment with plasma 2 (D), and treatment with plasma 3 (E). Mice treated with human plasma showed an increase in longevity of 40.9±0.3 (C), 20±9.0 (D) and 35.6±9.3 (E) days compared to the control group (B) which was 4.3±0.5 days. The number of surviving mice and free of the parasite (blood smear and PCR negative) at the end of the experiment was 90%, 0%, and 60% for groups C, D, and E, respectively. The quantification of APOL1 was performed due to the large difference in the treatments that differed in the source plasma. In plasmas 1, 2, and 3 was detected the concentration of 194, 99, and 115 mg/dl of APOL1, respectively. However, we believe that this difference in the treatment efficiency is related to the level of APOL1 in plasmas. PMID:22355213

  16. Average concentrations of FSH and LH in seminal plasma as determined by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milbradt, R.; Linzbach, P.; Feller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In 322 males, 25 to 50 years of age, levels of LH and FSH respectively were determined in seminal plasma by radioimmunoassay. Average values of 0,78 ng/ml and 3,95 ng/ml were found as for FSH and LH respectively. Sperm count and motility were not related to FSH levels, but were to LH levels. A high count of spermatozoa corresponded to high concentration of LH, and normal motility was associated with higher levels of LH as compared to levels associated with asthenozoospermia. With respect to count of spermatozoa of a single or the average patient, it is suggested that the ratio of FSH/LH would be more meaningful than LH level alone. (orig.) [de

  17. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  19. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    A-antibodies on 3 mm blood spots collected from phenylketonuria [PKU cards (Guthrie cards)]. Toxoplasma-infected children received 3 months continuous treatment with 50–100 mg/kg per day sulfadiazine in two separate administrations and 1 mg/kg per day pyrimethamine after a 1-day loading dose of 2 mg/kg, and folinic...... acid 7.5 mg was administered twice weekly. Blood cell counts and body weight were recorded during follow-up. The plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were analysed in a subgroup of seven children, using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower...

  20. Relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy to maternal sleep and mental well-being: The GUSTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Cai, Shirong; Loy, See Ling; Tham, Elaine K H; Yap, Fabian K P; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Shek, Lynette P C; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Chong, Mary F F

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relation between plasma tryptophan concentrations and sleep and mental well-being. As no studies have been performed in pregnant women, we studied the relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy with sleep quality, and mood during and after pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 572) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 26-28 weeks gestation and three months post-delivery. Plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks gestation. Poisson regressions estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between tryptophan and poor sleep quality (PSQI global score > 5), probable antenatal depression (EPDS ≥ 15) and probable anxiety (STAI-state ≥ 41) were calculated adjusting for covariates. Mean plasma tryptophan concentrations was 48.0µmol/L (SD: 8.09). Higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were a