Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Verheest
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Bin
2009-01-01
Based on the electromagnetic theory and by using an analytical technique-the transfer matrix method,the obliquely incident electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystals is studied.The dispersion relations for both the P-polarization waves and S-polarization waves,depending on the plasma density,plasma thickness and period,are discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Feihu; ZHANG Zhou; CHEN Yinhua; HUANG Feng
2007-01-01
In this study,by employing a local fluid theory for warm plasma containing negative ions,an obliquely propagating electromagnetic instability in the lower hybrid frequency range driven by cross-field currents or relative drifts between electrons and ions Was investigated.It is found that the growth rate of the lower-hybrid-drift instability(LHDI)can be controlled by appropriate selection of the propagation direction,the wave number and the relative population of the negative ions.
Farhad Kiyaei, Forough; Dorranian, Davoud
2017-01-01
Effects of the obliqueness and the strength of external magnetic field on the ion acoustic (IA) cnoidal wave in a nonextensive plasma are investigated. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the corresponding KdV equation for the IA wave. Sagdeev potential is extracted, and the condition of generation of IA waves in the form of cnoidal waves or solitons is discussed in detail. In this work, the domain of allowable values of nonextensivity parameter q for generation of the IA cnoidal wave in the plasma medium is considered. The results show that only the compressive IA wave may generate and propagate in the plasma medium. Increasing the strength of external magnetic field will increase the frequency of the wave and decrease its amplitude, while increasing the angle of propagation will decrease the frequency of the wave and increase its amplitude.
Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized electron-positron-ion plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferdousi, M.; Sultana, S.; Mamun, A. A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka-1342 (Bangladesh)
2015-03-15
The properties of obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary waves in the presence of ambient magnetic field have been investigated theoretically in an electron-positron-ion nonthermal plasma. The plasma nonthermality is introduced via the q-nonextensive distribution of electrons and positrons. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations are derived by adopting reductive perturbation method. The solution of K-dV and modified K-dV equation, which describes the solitary wave characteristics in the long wavelength limit, is obtained by steady state approach. It is seen that the electron and positron nonextensivity and external magnetic field (obliqueness) have significant effects on the characteristics of solitary waves. A critical value of nonextensivity is found for which solitary structures transit from positive to negative potential. The findings of this investigation may be used in understanding the wave propagation in laboratory and space plasmas where static external magnetic field is present.
Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.
2017-02-01
Oblique propagation of large amplitude electrostatic waves and solitary structures is investigated in magnetized plasmas, comprising cold fluid ions and Cairns nonthermally distributed electrons, by using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism. To perform the analysis, quasineutrality is assumed, so that in normalized variables the electrostatic potential and the occurrence of solitary structures are governed by three parameters: the Mach number M, the typical Cairns parameter β, and the angle ϑ between the directions of propagation and the static magnetic field. Below a critical β, only positive compressive solitons are possible, and their amplitudes increase with increasing β, M, and ϑ. Above the critical β, there is coexistence between negative rarefactive and positive compressive solitons, and the range of negative solitons, at increasing M, ends upon encountering a double layer or a singularity. The double layer amplitudes (in absolute value) increase with β but are independent of ϑ. Roots of the Sagdeev pseudopotential beyond the double layer are not accessible from the undisturbed conditions, because of an intervening singularity where the pseudopotential becomes infinite. Recent claims of finding supersolitons beyond a double layer appear to be based on a misinterpretation of the nature of the singularity.
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-09-01
This work investigates the oblique nonlinear propagation of ion acoustic (IA) shock waves for both weakly and highly relativistic plasmas composed of nonthermal electrons and positrons with relativistic thermal ions. The KdVB-like equation, involving dispersive, weakly transverse dispersive, nonlinearity and dissipative coefficients, is derived employing the well known reductive perturbation method. The integration of this equation is carried out by the {tanh} method taking the stable shock formation condition into account. The effects of nonthermal electrons and positrons, nonthermal electrons with isothermal positrons, isothermal electrons with nonthermal positrons, and isothermal electrons and positrons on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in weakly relativistic regime are described. Furthermore, the effects of plasma parameters on oblique propagation of IA shock waves in highly relativistic regime are discussed and compared with weakly relativistic case. It is seen that the plasma parameters within certain limits significantly modify the structures of the IA shock waves in both cases. The results may be useful for better understanding of the interactions of charged particles with extra-galactic jets as well as astrophysical compact objects.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Akbari-Moghanjoughi; N Ahmadzadeh-Khosroshahi
2011-08-01
Oblique interaction of small- but ﬁnite-amplitude KdV-type electron-acoustic solitary excitations is examined in an unmagnetized two-electron-populated degenerate quantum electron–ion plasma in the framework of quantum hydrodynamics model using the extended Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) perturbation method. Critical plasma parameter is found to distinguish the types of solitons and their interaction phase-shifts. It is shown that, depending on the critical quantum diffraction parameter cr, both compressive and rarefactive solitary excitations may exist in this plasma and their collision phase-shifts can be either positive or negative for the whole range of collision angles 0 < θ < .
Oblique propagation of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma
Misra, A P
2013-01-01
We study the linear and nonlinear properties of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma with immobile positively charged dusts. For the obliquely propagating linear waves, a general dispersion relation is derived, from which it is shown that the low-frequency (in comparison with the negative-ion cyclotron frequency) long-wavelength "slow" and a "fast" modes can propagate as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust ion-cyclotron (DIC)-like waves. The properties of these modes are analyzed with the effects of obliqueness of propagation $(\\theta)$, the negative to positive ion mass ratio $(m)$, the ratio of negative to positive ion temperatures $(T)$, the static magnetic field as well as the presence of charged dusts (characterized by the dust to negative-ion number density $\\delta$) in the plasma. In the nonlinear regime, a standard reductive perturbation technique is used to derive a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the oblique DIA waves. We show that the KdV equation can admit either compressive or ra...
Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2016-08-01
The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.
Oblique propagation of dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty pair-ion plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misra, A. P., E-mail: apmisra@visva-bharati.ac.in, E-mail: apmisra@gmail.com; Barman, Arnab [Department of Mathematics, Siksha Bhavana, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731 235, West Bengal (India)
2014-07-15
We investigate the propagation characteristics of electrostatic waves in a magnetized pair-ion plasma with immobile charged dusts. It is shown that obliquely propagating (OP) low-frequency (in comparison with the negative-ion cyclotron frequency) long-wavelength “slow” and “fast” modes can propagate, respectively, as dust ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust ion-cyclotron (DIC)-like waves. The properties of these modes are studied with the effects of obliqueness of propagation (θ), the static magnetic field, the ratios of the negative to positive ion masses (m), and temperatures (T) as well as the dust to negative-ion number density ratio (δ). Using the standard reductive perturbation technique, we derive a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation which governs the evolution of small-amplitude OP DIA waves. It is found that the KdV equation admits only rarefactive solitons in plasmas with m well below its critical value m{sub c} (≫ 1) which typically depends on T and δ. It is shown that the nonlinear coefficient of the KdV equation vanishes at m = m{sub c}, i.e., for plasmas with much heavier negative ions, and the evolution of the DIA waves is then described by a modified KdV (mKdV) equation. The latter is shown to have only compressive soliton solution. The properties of both the KdV and mKdV solitons are studied with the system parameters as above, and possible applications of our results to laboratory and space plasmas are briefly discussed.
Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad; Kourakis, Ioannis
2017-03-01
The dynamical characteristics of large amplitude ion-acoustic waves are investigated in a magnetized plasma comprising ions presenting space asymmetry in the equation of state and non-Maxwellian electrons. The anisotropic ion pressure is defined using the double adiabatic Chew-Golberger-Low theory. An excess in the superthermal component of the electron population is assumed, in agreement with long-tailed (energetic electron) distribution observations in space plasmas; this is modeled via a kappa-type distribution function. Large electrostatic excitations are assumed to propagate in a direction oblique to the external magnetic field. In the linear (small amplitude) regime, two electrostatic modes are shown to exist. The properties of arbitrary amplitude (nonlinear) obliquely propagating ion-acoustic solitary excitations are thus investigated via a pseudomechanical energy balance analogy, by adopting a Sagdeev potential approach. The combined effect of the ion pressure anisotropy and excess superthermal electrons is shown to alter the parameter region where solitary waves can exist. An excess in the suprathermal particles is thus shown to be associated with solitary waves, which are narrower, faster, and of larger amplitude. Ion pressure anisotropy, on the other hand, affects the amplitude of the solitary waves, which become weaker (in strength), wider (in spatial extension), and thus slower in comparison with the cold ion case.
Obliquely propagating dust-density waves
Piel, A.; Arp, O.; Klindworth, M.; Melzer, A.
2008-02-01
Self-excited dust-density waves are experimentally studied in a dusty plasma under microgravity. Two types of waves are observed: a mode inside the dust volume propagating in the direction of the ion flow and another mode propagating obliquely at the boundary between the dusty plasma and the space charge sheath. The dominance of oblique modes can be described in the frame of a fluid model. It is shown that the results fom the fluid model agree remarkably well with a kinetic electrostatic model of Rosenberg [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)]. In the experiment, the instability is quenched by increasing the gas pressure or decreasing the dust density. The critical pressure and dust density are well described by the models.
Andreev, Pavel A
2016-01-01
We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider oblique propagating longitudinal waves in this systems. We report presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave and pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and, as we called it, spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, Trivelpiece-Gould wave, pair of positron-acoustic waves, pair of SEAWs, and pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we r...
Mishra, M. K.; Jain, S. K.; Jain
2013-10-01
Ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized low-β plasma consisting of warm adiabatic positive and negative ions and non-thermal electrons have been studied. The reductive perturbation method is used to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that due to the presence of finite ion temperature there exist two modes of propagation, namely fast and slow ion-acoustic modes. In the case of slow-mode if the ratio of temperature to mass of positive ion species is lower (higher) than the negative ion species, then there exist compressive (rarefactive) ion-acoustic solitons. It is also found that in the case of slow mode, on increasing the non-thermal parameter (γ) the amplitude of the compressive (rarefactive) soliton decreases (increases). In fast ion-acoustic mode the nature and characteristics of solitons depend on negative ion concentration. Numerical investigation in case of fast mode reveals that on increasing γ, the amplitude of compressive (rarefactive) soliton increases (decreases). The width of solitons increases with an increase in non-thermal parameters in both the modes for compressive as well as rarefactive solitons. There exists a value of critical negative ion concentration (α c ), at which both compressive and rarefactive ion-acoustic solitons appear as described by modified KdV soliton. The value of α c decreases with increase in γ.
Observations of Obliquely Propagating Electron Bernstein Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armstrong, R. J.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Stenzel, R. L.
1981-01-01
Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation.......Plane electron Bernstein waves propagating obliquely to the magnetic field are investigated. The waves are excited by a plane grid antenna in a large volume magnetoplasma. The observations compare favorably with the predictions of the linear dispersion relation....
Singh, Satyavir; Bharuthram, Ramashwar
2016-07-01
Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a magnetized plasma consisting of hot electrons following Cairn's type non-thermal distribution function and fluid cool electrons, cool ions and an electron beam. Using reductive perturbation technique, the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation is derived to describe the nonlinear evolution of electron acoustic waves. It is observed that the presence of non-thermal electrons plays an important role in determining the existence region of solitary wave structures. Theoretical results of this work is used to model the electrostatic solitary structures observed by Viking satellite. Detailed investigation of physical parameters such as non-thermality of hot electrons, beam electron velocity and temperature, obliquity on the existence regime of solitons will be discussed.
Rupper, Greg; Rudin, Sergey; Crowne, Frank J.
2012-12-01
In the Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector the conduction channel of a heterostructure High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) is used as a plasma wave resonator for density oscillations in electron gas. Nonlinearities in the plasma wave propagation lead to a constant source-to-drain voltage, providing the detector output. In this paper, we start with the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation and derive the hydrodynamic model with temperature dependent transport coefficients for a two-dimensional viscous flow. This derivation allows us to obtain the parameters for the hydrodynamic model from the band-structure of the HEMT channel. The treatment here also includes the energy balance equation into the analysis. By numerical solution of the hydrodynamic equations with a non-zero boundary current we evaluate the detector response function and obtain the temperature dependence of the plasma resonance. The present treatment extends the theory of Dyakonov-Shur plasma resonator and detector to account for the temperature dependence of viscosity, the effects of oblique wave propagation on detector response, and effects of boundary current in two-dimensional flow on quality of the plasma resonance. The numerical results are given for a GaN channel. We also investigated a stability of source to drain flow and formation of shock waves.
Whistler damping at oblique propagation - Laminar shock precursors
Gary, S. P.; Mellott, M. M.
1985-01-01
This paper addresses the collisionless damping of whistlers observed as precursors standing upstream of oblique, low-Mach number terrestrial bow shocks. The linear theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous Vlasov plasma with Maxwellian distribution functions and a magnetic field is considered. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation are presented for whistlers propagating at an arbitrary angle with respect to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that electron Landau damping attenuates oblique whistlers and that the parameter which determines this damping is beta-e. In a well-defined range of parameters, this theory provides damping lengths which are the same order of magnitude as those observed. Thus electron Landau damping is a plausible process in the dissipation of upstream whistlers. Nonlinear plasma processes which may contribute to precursor damping are also discussed, and criteria for distinguishing among these are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Kalamboli Highway, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra (India); Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Echer, E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Avenida Astronautas, 1758, P.O. Box 515, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Glassmeier, K.-H., E-mail: remyaphysics@gmail.com [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics (IGEP), Mendelssohnstr.3, D-38106, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-09-20
During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.
Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean
2017-05-23
Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.
Uzbekov, Bogdan; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Orlova, Ksenia
2016-10-01
Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are transverse plasma waves that are generated in the Earth magnetosphere by ring current protons with temperature anisotropy in three different bands: below the H+, He+ and O+ ion gyrofrequencies. EMIC events are enhanced during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm when intensifications in the electric field result in enhanced injections of ions and are usually confined to high-density regions just inside the plasmapause or within drainage plumes. EMIC waves are capable of scattering radiation belt electrons and thus provide an important link between the intensification of the electric field, ion populations, and radiation belt electrons. Bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients computed with the assumption of parallel wave propagation are compared to the results of the code that uses the full cold plasma dispersion relation taking into account oblique propagation of waves and higher-order resonances. We study the sensitivity of the scattering rates to a number of included higher-order resonances, wave spectral distribution parameters, wave normal angle distribution parameters, ambient plasma density, and ion composition. Inaccuracies associated with the neglect of higher-order resonances and oblique propagation of waves are compared to potential errors introduced by uncertainties in the model input parameters.
Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves
Burke, William J.; Ginet, Gregory P.; Heinemann, Michael A.; Villalon, Elena
The paper presents an analysis of the relativistic equations of motion for electrons in magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The relativistic Lorentz equation for a test electron moving under the influence of an electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma and wave propagation through the ionospheric 'radio window' are examined. It is found that at wave energy fluxes greater than 10 to the 8th mW/sq m, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Plans to test the theoretical results with rocket flights are discussed.
Characteristics of Dust Plasma Sheath in an Oblique Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZOU Xiu
2006-01-01
@@ The characteristics of dust plasma sheath in an oblique magnetic field are investigated with a fluid model. Hot electrons, cold ions, neutral particles, and dust grains are taken into account in this system.
Oblique Du-Fort Frankel Beam Propagation Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Chan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The oblique BPM based on the Du-Fort Frankel method is presented. The paper demonstrates the accuracy and the computational improvements of the scheme compared to the oblique BPM based on Crank-Nicholson (CN scheme.
Periodical Plasma Structures Controlled by Oblique Magnetic Field
Schweigert, Irina
2016-01-01
The propulsion type plasma in oblique external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V PIC MCC simulations. A periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities appears with an increase of an obliqueness of magnetic field. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. As a result the two-dimensional double-layers structure forms in cylindrical plasma chamber. The ion and electron currents on the side wall are essential modulated by the oblique magnetic field.
Hollweg, J. V.; Markovskii, S. A.
2001-05-01
UVCS/SOHO has provided observations of protons and ions in coronal holes which suggest the operation of ion-cyclotron heating and acceleration. Many models have concentrated on the interactions of particles with parallel-propagating ion-cyclotron waves. There is of course no reason to expect parallel propagation in the corona, so we consider here some consequences of oblique propagation. Following Stix (1992), we analytically calculate the energy absorbed by an ion moving in an obliquely-propagating electromagnetic wave. Resonances occur at harmonics of the gyro frequency, though we will show that the physical interpretations are quite different for electric field polarizations in, or perpendicular to, the plane containing k and Bo (k is wavenumber and Bo is the ambient magnetic field). Surprisingly, a resonance at the fundamental frequency can occur even if the wave is right-hand circularly polarized (i.e. opposite to the sense of the gyromotion). We suggest, therefore, that resonances with the fast/whistler branch, which are often overlooked, may play a role in the heating of ions and protons in coronal holes as long as the waves are oblique. We will discuss possible sources of such waves. We will also summarize other consequences of oblique propagation for the resonant heating of coronal holes and the origin of the fast solar wind. Stix, T.H., Waves in Plasmas, AIP, New York, 1992.
Electron Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal hole for obliquely propagating solitary kinetic Alfvén waves
Woo, M.-H.; Dokgo, K.; Yoon, Peter H.; Lee, D.-Y.; Choi, Cheong R.
2017-04-01
A possible formation of an electron hole structure associated with an obliquely propagating solitary kinetic Alfvén wave (SKAW) in a strongly magnetized plasma is discussed. It is found that transverse electric field along the magnetic field plays a key role in the electron phase space hole formation. Owing to the presence of trapped electrons, SKAW can propagate in both super-Alfvénic and sub-Alfvénic regimes with different spatial structures. In particular, in the sub-Alfvénic case, the density perturbation possesses a dip at the center accompanied by a pair of humps at the edges. Such a feature may be relevant to satellite observation of solitary structures in the Earth's geomagnetic tail region.
Collisional effects on the oblique instability in relativistic beam-plasma interactions
Hao, B.; Ding, W. J.; Sheng, Z. M.; Ren, C.; Kong, X.; Mu, J.; Zhang, J.
2012-07-01
The general oblique instability for a relativistic electron beam propagating through a warm and resistive plasma is investigated fully kinetically by a variable rotation method. Analysis shows that the electrostatic part of the oblique instability is attenuated and eventually stabilized by collisional effects. However, the electromagnetic part of the oblique instability (EMOI) is enhanced. Since the current-filamentation instability as a special case of the EMOI has a larger growth rate, it becomes dominant in the collisional case as shown in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. While the beam diverges in the collisionless case, it can become magnetically collimated in the collisional case due to stabilization of the electrostatic instabilities when the initial beam spreading angle is less than certain magnitude such as a dozen degrees.
Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, W.J.; Ginet, G.P.; Heinemann, M.A.; Villalon, E.
1988-01-01
The relativistic equations of motion have been analyzed for electrons in magnetized plasmas and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The electron energy is obtained from a set of non-linear differential equations as functions of time, initial conditions and cyclotron harmonic numbers. For a given cyclotron resonance the energy oscillates in time within the limits of a potential well. Stochastic acceleration occurs if the widths of hamiltonian potentials overlap. Numerical analyses suggest that, at wave energy fluxes in excess of 10/sup 8/ mW/m/sup 2/, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Practical attempts to validate the theory with a series of planned rocket flights over the HIPAS facility in Alaska are discussed. The HIPAS antennas will be used to irradiate the magnetic mirror points of 10 - 40 keV electrons emitted from the ECHO 7 rocket in the early winter of 1988. Follow-on rocket experiments to exploit the wave amplification properties of the ionospheric 'radio window' are described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Supsar, Markus; Schlickeiser, Reinhard, E-mail: markus.supsar@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2014-03-10
The distant universe is opaque to γ radiation from blazars due to gamma-gamma attenuation with extragalactic background light. This process produces electron-positron pair beams that interact with the intergalactic medium and are unstable to linear instabilities, particularly the electrostatic and Weibel instabilities. The electrostatic instability grows faster and so determines the dissipation of the free energy of the beam. Here, we generalize the calculation of the electrostatic growth rate to a beam plasma system with a Maxwellian perpendicular momentum spread and allow for oblique propagation directions. We show that the growth rate for the oblique electrostatic mode has a maximum value that is even higher than for a cold beam or for one with a constant perpendicular momentum spread.
Oblique non-neutral solitary Alfven modes in weakly nonlinear pair plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verheest, Frank [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); School of Physics, Howard College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Lakhina, G S [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai 410218 (India); Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2005-04-01
The equal charge-to-mass ratio for both species in pair plasmas induces a decoupling of the linear eigenmodes between waves that are charge neutral or non-neutral, also at oblique propagation with respect to a static magnetic field. While the charge-neutral linear modes have been studied in greater detail, including their weakly and strongly nonlinear counterparts, the non-neutral mode has received less attention. Here the nonlinear evolution of a solitary non-neutral mode at oblique propagation is investigated in an electron-positron plasma. Employing the framework of reductive perturbation analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (with cubic nonlinearity) for the lowest-order wave magnetic field is obtained. In the linear approximation, the non-neutral mode has its magnetic component orthogonal to the plane spanned by the directions of wave propagation and of the static magnetic field. The linear polarization is not maintained at higher orders. The results may be relevant to the microstructure in pulsar radiation or to the subpulses.
The Oblique Incident Effects of Electromagnetic Wave in Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Yong; JIANG Zhonghe; HU Xiwei; LIU Minghai
2008-01-01
The propagating behaviours, i.e. phase shift, transmissivity, reflectivity and absorptivity, of an electromagnetic (EM) wave in a two-dimensional atmospheric pressure plasma layer are described by the numerical solutions of integral-differential Maxwell's equations through a generalized finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm. These propagating behaviours are found to be strongly affected by five factors: two EM wave characteristics relevan.t to the oblique incident and three dimensionless factors. The two EM wave factors are the polarization mode (TM mode or TE mode) and its incident angle. The three dimensionless factors are: the ratio of the maximum electron density to the critical density n0/ncr, the ratio of the plasma layer width to the wave length d/λ, and the ratio of the collision frequency between electrons and neutrals to the incident wave frequency ve0/f.
Oblique solitary waves in a five component plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sijo, S.; Manesh, M.; Sreekala, G.; Venugopal, C., E-mail: cvgmgphys@yahoo.co.in [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686 560 Kerala (India); Neethu, T. W. [Department of Physics, CMS College, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 686 001 Kerala (India); Renuka, G. [Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 004 Kerala (India)
2015-12-15
We investigate the influence of a second electron component on oblique dust ion acoustic solitary waves in a five component plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged dust, hydrogen ions, and hotter and colder electrons. Of these, the heavier dust and colder photo-electrons are of cometary origin while the other two are of solar origin; electron components are described by kappa distributions. The K-dV equation is derived, and different attributes of the soliton such as amplitude and width are plotted for parameters relevant to comet Halley. We find that the second electron component has a profound influence on the solitary wave, decreasing both its amplitude and width. The normalized hydrogen density strongly influences the solitary wave by decreasing its width; the amplitude of the solitary wave, however, increases with increasing solar electron temperatures.
An oblique pulsar magnetosphere with a plasma conductivity
Cao, Gang; Sun, Sineng
2016-01-01
An oblique pulsar magnetosphere with a plasma conductivity is studied by using a pseudo-spectral method. In the pseudo-spectral method, the time-dependent Maxwell equations are solved, both electric and magnetic fields are expanded in terms of the vector spherical harmonic (VSH) functions in spherical geometry and the divergencelessness of magnetic field is analytically enforced by a projection method. The pulsar magnetospheres in infinite (i. e., force-free approximation) and finite conductivities are simulated and a family of solutions that smoothly transition from the Deutsch vacuum solution to the force-free solution are obtained. The $\\sin^2\\alpha$ dependence of the spin-down luminosity on the magnetic inclination angle $\\alpha$ in which the full electric current density are taken into account is retrieved in the force-free regime.
Hollweg, Joseph V.; Markovskii, S. A.
2002-06-01
There is a growing consensus that cyclotron resonances play important roles in heating protons and ions in coronal holes where the fast solar wind originates and throughout interplanetary space as well. Most work on cyclotron resonant interactions has concentrated on the special, but unrealistic, case of propagation along the ambient magnetic field, B0, because of the great simplification it gives. This paper offers a physical discussion of how the cyclotron resonances behave when the waves propagate obliquely to B0. We show how resonances at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency come about, and how the physics can be different depending on whether E⊥ is in or perpendicular to the plane containing k and B0 (k is wave vector, and E⊥ is the component of the wave electric field perpendicular to B0). If E⊥ is in the k-B0 plane, the resonances are analogous to the Landau resonance and arise because the particle tends to stay in phase with the wave during the part of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. If E⊥ is perpendicular to the k-B0 plane, then the resonances depend on the fact that the particle is at different positions during the parts of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. Our main results are our refid="df10" type="formula">equations (10), refid="df11" type="formula">(11), and refid="df13" type="formula">(13) for the secular rate of energy gain (or loss) by a resonant particle and the unfamiliar result that ions can resonate with a purely right-hand circularly polarized wave if the propagation is oblique. We conclude with some speculations about the origin of highly obliquely propagating ion resonant waves in the corona and solar wind. We point out that there are a number of instabilities that may generate such waves locally in the corona and solar wind.
Mahmood, S.; Sadiq, Safeer; Haque, Q.; Ali, Munazza Z.
2016-06-01
The obliquely propagating arbitrary amplitude electrostatic wave is studied in a dense magnetized plasma having singly and doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons pressures. The Fermi temperature for ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons described by N. M. Vernet [(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007), p. 57] is used to define ion acoustic speed in ultra-dense plasmas. The pseudo-potential approach is used to solve the fully nonlinear set of dynamic equations for obliquely propagating electrostatic waves in a dense magnetized plasma containing helium ions. The upper and lower Mach number ranges for the existence of electrostatic solitons are found which depends on the obliqueness of the wave propagation with respect to applied magnetic field and charge number of the helium ions. It is found that only compressive (hump) soliton structures are formed in all the cases and only subsonic solitons are formed for a singly charged helium ions plasma case with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons. Both subsonic and supersonic soliton hump structures are formed for doubly charged helium ions with nonrelativistic degenerate electrons and ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons plasma case containing singly as well as doubly charged helium ions. The effect of propagation direction on the soliton amplitude and width of the electrostatic waves is also presented. The numerical plots are also shown for illustration using dense plasma parameters of a compact star (white dwarf) from literature.
Oblique ion-acoustic cnoidal waves in two temperature superthermal electrons magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panwar, A., E-mail: anurajrajput@gmail.com; Ryu, C. M., E-mail: ryu201@postech.ac.kr [POSTECH, Hyoja-Dong San 31, KyungBuk, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Bains, A. S., E-mail: bainsphysics@yahoo.co.in [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)
2014-12-15
A study is presented for the oblique propagation of ion acoustic cnoidal waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of cold ions and two temperature superthermal electrons modelled by kappa-type distributions. Using the reductive perturbation method, the nonlinear Korteweg de-Vries equation is derived, which further gives the solutions with a special type of cnoidal elliptical functions. Both compressive and rarefactive structures are found for these cnoidal waves. Nonlinear periodic cnoidal waves are explained in terms of plasma parameters depicting the Sagdeev potential and the phase curves. It is found that the density ratio of hot electrons to ions μ significantly modifies compressive/refractive wave structures. Furthermore, the combined effects of superthermality of cold and hot electrons κ{sub c},κ{sub h}, cold to hot electron temperature ratio σ, angle of propagation and ion cyclotron frequency ω{sub ci} have been studied in detail to analyze the height and width of compressive/refractive cnoidal waves. The findings in the present study could have important implications in understanding the physics of electrostatic wave structures in the Saturn's magnetosphere where two temperature superthermal electrons are present.
Oblique Propagation and Dissipation of Alfv´en Waves in Coronal Holes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A. K. Srivastava; B. N. Dwivedi
2007-03-01
We investigate the effect of viscosity and magnetic diffusivity on the oblique propagation and dissipation of Alfvén waves with respect to the normal outward direction, making use of MHD equations, density, temperature and magnetic field structure in coronal holes and underlying magnetic funnels. We find reduction in the damping length scale, group velocity and energy flux density as the propagation angle of Alfvén waves increases inside the coronal holes. For any propagation angle, the energy flux density and damping length scale also show a decrement in the source region of the solar wind (< 1.05 R⊙) where these may be one of the primary energy sources, which can convert the inflow of the solar wind into the outflow. In the outer region (> 1.21 R⊙), for any propagation angle, the energy flux density peaks match with the peaks of MgX 609.78 Å and 624.78 Å linewidths observed from the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO and the non-thermal velocity derived from these observations, justify the observed spectroscopic signature of the Alfvén wave dissipation.
Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. D. Sciffer
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Solutions for ultra-low frequency (ULF wave fields in the frequency range 1–100mHz that interact with the Earth's ionosphere in the presence of oblique background magnetic fields are described. Analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic wave fields in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are derived within the context of an inductive ionosphere. The inductive shielding effect (ISE arises from the generation of an "inductive" rotational current by the induced part of the divergent electric field in the ionosphere which reduces the wave amplitude detected on the ground. The inductive response of the ionosphere is described by Faraday's law and the ISE depends on the horizontal scale size of the ULF disturbance, its frequency and the ionosphere conductivities. The ISE for ULF waves in a vertical background magnetic field is limited in application to high latitudes. In this paper we examine the ISE within the context of oblique background magnetic fields, extending studies of an inductive ionosphere and the associated shielding of ULF waves to lower latitudes. It is found that the dip angle of the background magnetic field has a significant effect on signals detected at the ground. For incident shear Alfvén mode waves and oblique background magnetic fields, the horizontal component of the field-aligned current contributes to the signal detected at the ground. At low latitudes, the ISE is larger at smaller conductivity values compared with high latitudes.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; electric fields and currents; wave propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moffatt, R. A., E-mail: rmoffatt@stanford.edu; Cabrera, B.; Corcoran, B. M.; Kreikebaum, J. M.; Redl, P.; Shank, B.; Yen, J. J. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Young, B. A. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California 95053 (United States); Brink, P. L.; Cherry, M.; Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Facility, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Phipps, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Sundqvist, K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2016-01-11
Excited electrons in the conduction band of germanium collect into four energy minima, or valleys, in momentum space. These local minima have highly anisotropic mass tensors which cause the electrons to travel in directions which are oblique to an applied electric field at sub-Kelvin temperatures and low electric fields, in contrast to the more isotropic behavior of the holes. This experiment produces a full two-dimensional image of the oblique electron and hole propagation and the quantum transitions of electrons between valleys for electric fields oriented along the [0,0,1] direction. Charge carriers are excited with a focused laser pulse on one face of a germanium crystal and then drifted through the crystal by a uniform electric field of strength between 0.5 and 6 V/cm. The pattern of charge density arriving on the opposite face is used to reconstruct the trajectories of the carriers. Measurements of the two-dimensional pattern of charge density are compared in detail with Monte Carlo simulations developed for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) to model the transport of charge carriers in high-purity germanium detectors.
Parameteric studies of nonlinear oblique magnetosonic waves in two-ion-species plasmas
Toida, Mieko; Kondo, Yuichi
2011-06-01
The study of the effects of ion composition on perpendicular magnetosonic waves in two-ion-species plasmas [M. Toida, H. Higashino, and Y. Ohsawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 76, 104052 (2007)] is extended to include oblique waves. First, the conditions necessary for KdV equations for low- and high-frequency modes to be valid are analytically obtained. The upper limit of the amplitude of the low-frequency-mode pulse is expressed as a function of the propagation angle θ, density ratio, and cyclotron frequency ratio of the two ion species. Next, with electromagnetic particle simulations, the nonlinear evolution of a long-wavelength low-frequency-mode disturbance is examined for various θs in two plasmas with different ion densities and cyclotron frequency ratios, and the theory for the low-frequency-mode pulse is confirmed. It is also shown that if the pulse amplitude exceeds the theoretical value of the upper limit of the amplitude, then shorter-wavelength low- and high-frequency-mode waves are generated.
Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands
Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lorenzo Matteini; Simone Landi; Luca Del Zanna; Marco Velli; Petr Hellinger
2010-01-01
The parametric instability of a monochromatic shear Alfvén wave in oblique propagation with respect the ambient magnetic field is investigated in a kinetic regime, performing one-dimensional (1-D...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Sauer
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Isotropic electron beams are considered to explain the excitation of whistler waves which have been observed by the STEREO satellite in the Earth's radiation belt. Aside from their large amplitudes (~240 mV/m, another main signature is the strongly inclined propagation direction relative to the ambient magnetic field. Electron temperature anisotropy with T_{e⊥}>T_{e||}, which preferentially generates parallel propagating whistler waves, can be excluded as a free energy source. The instability arises due to the interaction of the Doppler-shifted cyclotron mode ω=−Ω_{e}+kV_{b}cosθ with the whistler mode in the wave number range of kc/ω_{e}≤1 (θ is the propagation angle with respect to the background magnetic field direction, ω_{e} is the electron plasma frequency and Ω_{e} the electron cyclotron frequency. Fluid and kinetic dispersion analysis have been used to calculate the growth rate of the beam-excited whistlers including the most important parameter dependencies. One is the beam velocity (V_{b} which, for instability, has to be larger than about 2V_{Ae}, where V_{Ae} is the electron Alfvén speed. With increasing V_{Ae} the propagation angle (θ of the fastest growing whistler waves shifts from θ~20° for V_{b}=2V_{Ae} to θ~80° for V_{b}=5V_{Ae}. The growth rate is reduced by finite electron temperatures and disappears if the electron plasma beta (β_{e} exceeds β_{e}~0.2. In addition, Gendrin modes (kc/ω_{e}≈1 are analyzed to determine the conditions under which stationary nonlinear waves (whistler oscillitons can exist. The corresponding spatial wave profiles are calculated using the full nonlinear fluid approach. The results are compared with the STEREO satellite observations.
A particle-in-cell approach to obliquely propagating electrostatic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koen, Etienne J. [Space Commercial Services Holdings (SCSH) Group, Somerset West (South Africa); School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden); South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa); Collier, Andrew B. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban (South Africa); Exegetic Analytics, Durban (South Africa); Maharaj, Shimul K. [South African National Space Agency (SANSA), Space Science, Hermanus (South Africa)
2014-09-15
The electron-acoustic and beam-driven modes associated with electron beams have previously been identified and studied numerically. These modes are associated with Broadband Electrostatic Noise found in the Earth's auroral and polar cusp regions. Using a 1-D spatial Particle-in-Cell simulation, the electron-acoustic instability is studied for a magnetized plasma, which includes cool ions, cool electrons and a hot, drifting electron beam. Both the weakly and strongly magnetized regimes with varying wave propagation angle, θ, with respect to the magnetic field are studied. The amplitude and frequency of the electron-acoustic mode are found to decrease with increasing θ. The amplitude of the electron-acoustic mode is found to significantly grow at intermediate wavenumber ranges. It reaches a saturation level at the point, where a plateau forms in the hot electron velocity distribution after which the amplitude of the electron-acoustic mode decays.
Influence of plasma turbulence on microwave propagation
Köhn, Alf; Leddy, Jarrod; Thomas, Matthew B; Vann, Roddy G L
2016-01-01
It is not fully understood how electromagnetic waves propagate through plasma fluctuations when the size of the fluctuations is comparable with the wavelength of the incident radiation. In this paper, the perturbing effect of a turbulent plasma density layer on a traversing microwave beam is simulated with full-wave simulations. The deterioration of the microwave beam is calculated as a function of the characteristic turbulence structure size, the turbulence amplitude, the depth of the interaction zone and the size of the waist of the incident beam. The maximum scattering is observed for a structure size on the order of half the vacuum wavelength. The scattering and beam broadening was found to increase linearly with the depth of the turbulence layer and quadratically with the fluctuation strength. Consequences for experiments and 3D effects are considered.
Merritt, Elizabeth C; Hsu, Scott C; Adams, Colin S; Gilmore, Mark A
2013-01-01
We report spatially resolved experimental measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density $\\sim 10^{14}$ cm$^{-3}$, electron temperature $\\approx 1.4$ eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity $\\approx 40$ km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)]. The observed stagnation layer emission morphology is consistent with hydrodynamic oblique shock theory at early times, and then undergoes an evolution at later times that is coincident with the theoretically predicted transition to detached shock formation.
1993-07-01
frequency of the disturbing transmitter is greater than the i.. asma frequency in the ionospheric interaction region. In fact, with many practical radio...NY) lay in the Gulf of Mexico and it was not possible to use an oblique probe system similar to- the technique used by the Soviets in their...using a vertical incidence sounder at Albuquerque, New Mexico (35.11N, 106.8 0W) at the midpoint of the 2400 km path. This technique insures that the
Propagation of ion beams through a tenuous magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrien, E.F.; Valeo, E.J.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Oberman, C.R.
1985-10-01
When an ion beam is propagated through a plasma, the question of charge neutralization is critical to its propagation. We consider such a problem where the plasma is magnetized with magnetic field perpendicular to the beam. The plasma-number density and beam-number density are assumed comparable. We reduce the problem to a two-dimensional model, which we solve. The solution suggests that it should be possible to attain charge neutralization if the beam density is properly varied along itself.
Stable Propagating Waves and Wake Fields in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DUAN Yi-Shi; XIE Bai-Song; TIAN Miao; YIN Xin-Tao; ZHANG Xin-Hui
2008-01-01
Stable propagating waves and wake fields in relativistic electromagnetic plasma are investigated. The incident electromagnetic field has a finite initial constant amplitude meanwhile the longitudinal momentum of electrons is taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with transverse wave group velocity the stable propagating transverse electromagnetic waves and longitudinal plasma wake fields can exist in the appropriate regime of plasma.
EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material
Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh
2017-01-01
This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.
Cabrera, B; Moffatt, R; Sundqvist, K; Sadoulet, B
2010-01-01
We show that oblique propagation of electrons in crystals of Ge and Si, where the electron velocity does not follow the electric field even on average, can be explained using standard anisotropic theory for indirect gap semiconductors. These effects are pronounced at temperatures below ~1K and for electric fields below ~5V/cm because inter-valley transitions are energetically suppressed forcing electrons to remain in the same band valley throughout their motion and the valleys to separate in position space. To model, we start with an isotropic approximation which incorporates the average properties of the crystals with one phonon mode, and include the ellipsoidal electron valleys by transforming into a momentum space where constant energy surfaces are spheres. We include comparisons of simulated versus measured drift velocities for holes and electrons, and explain the large discrepancy between electrons and holes for shared events in adjacent electrodes.
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M
2011-01-01
Based on the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model, an exact arbitrary-amplitude general solution is presented for oblique propagation of solitary excitations in two- and three-component quasineutral magnetoplasmas, adopting the standard pseudopotential approach. It is revealed that the necessary matching criterion of existence of such oblique nonlinear propagations in two and three-fluid magnetoplasmas share global features. These features are examined for the cases of electron-ion and electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas with diverse equations of state. This study also reveals that for electron-ion magnetoplasmas with plasma-frequencies larger than the cyclotron-frequency ($B_0<0.137\\sqrt{n_0}$) a critical-angle of $\\beta_{cr}=\\arccos{\\left[B_0 /(0.137 \\sqrt{n_0})\\right]}$ exists, at which propagation of solitary excitation is not possible. Coriolis effect on allowed soliton matching condition in rotating magnetoplasmas is also considered as an extension to this work. Current investigation can have important ...
Transverse conductivity of a relativistic plasma in oblique electric and magnetic fields
Melia, Fulvio; Fatuzzo, Marco
1991-01-01
Resistive tearing in a primary candidate for flares occurring in stressed magnetic fields. Its possible application to the strongly magnetized environments (Hz about 10 to the 12th G) near the surface of neutron stars, particularly as a mechanism for generating the plasma heating and particle acceleration leading to gamma-ray bursts, has motivated a quantum treatment of this process, which requires knowledge of the electrical conductivity sigma of a relativistic gas in a new domain (i.e., that of a low-density n/e/) plasma in oblique electric and magnetic fields. This paper discusses the mathematical formalism for calculating sigma and present numerical results for a wide range of parameter values. The results indicate that sigma depends very strongly on both the applied electric and magnetic fields.
Differences in gravity wave drag between realistic oblique and assumed vertical propagation
Kalisch, Silvio; Preusse, Peter; Ern, Manfred; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Riese, Martin
2014-09-01
Gravity wave (GW) parametrizations for general circulation models (GCMs) restrict the propagation of GWs to the vertical direction. The influence of this vertical-only propagation assumption on the distribution of GW drag (GWD) has not yet been investigated. Thus, we present results of two global GW ray tracing simulations, one with full three-dimensional propagation (GWO) and a second one with vertical-only propagation (GWV) of GWs for January and July 2008. The Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy Tracer (GROGRAT) was used to perform these simulations with a global homogeneous and isotropic launch distribution. Both simulations, GWO and GWV, are analyzed with respect to GWD in the zonal and meridional direction. The location of zonal GWD maxima changes. GWO shows in comparison to GWV a poleward shift of zonal GWD in both seasons with increased GWD at the summer stratopause. The meridional GWD is much stronger in the GWO case, spatially correlated with the zonal drag, and is generally poleward directed. These features in zonal and meridional drag are consistent with a general prevalence of poleward propagation of GWs. Additional simulations suggest that this is due to the Coriolis effect as well as wind filtering around the tropopause, allowing more GWs to propagate into the middle atmosphere. We infer how GWs of different horizontal wavelengths and phase speeds cause the main differences in GWD in the middle atmosphere. A simple test for GCMs is proposed to assess the effects of the altered meridional drag on the general circulation and the interaction with planetary waves.
Positron Beam Propagation in a Meter Long Plasma Channel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsh, K.A.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.B.; /UCLA; Decker, F.-J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; O' Connell, C.; Raimondi, P.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Katsouleas, T.C.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.
2008-03-17
Recent experiments and simulations have shown that positron beams propagating in plasmas can be focused and also create wakes with large accelerating gradients. For similar parameters, the wakes driven by positron beams are somewhat smaller compared to the case of an electron beam. Simulations have shown that the wake amplitude can be increased if the positron beam is propagated in a hollow plasma channel (Ref. 1). This paper, compares experimentally, the propagation and beam dynamics of a positron beam in a meter scale homogeneous plasma, to a positron beam hollow channel plasma. The results show that positron beams in hollow channels are less prone to distortions and deflections. Hollow channels were observed to guide the positron beam onto the channel axis. Beam energy loss was also observed implying the formation of a large wake amplitude. The experiments were carried out as part of the E-162 plasma wakefield experiments at SLAC.
Oblique Bernstein Mode Generation Near the Upper-hybrid Frequency in Solar Pre-flare Plasmas
Kryshtal, A.; Fedun, V.; Gerasimenko, S.; Voitsekhovska, A.
2015-11-01
We study analytically the generation process of the first harmonics of the pure electron weakly oblique Bernstein modes. This mode can appear as a result of the rise and development of a corresponding instability in a solar active region. We assume that this wave mode is modified by the influence of pair Coulomb collisions and a weak large-scale sub-Dreicer electric field in the pre-flare chromosphere near the footpoints of a flare loop. To describe the pre-flare plasma we used the model of the solar atmosphere developed by Fontenla, Avrett, and Loeser ( Astrophys. J. 406, 319, 1993). We show that the generated first harmonic is close to the upper-hybrid frequency. This generation process begins at the very low threshold values of the sub-Dreicer electric field and well before the beginning of the preheating phase of a flare. We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of non-damped first harmonics of oblique Bernstein waves with small amplitudes in the flare area.
Oblique interactions of dust density waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Zhelchui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Yang - Fang [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Hou, Lujing [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Jiang, Ke [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Wu, De - Jin [CHINA; Thomas, Hubertus M [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE; Morfill, Gregor E [MAX-PLANCK INSTITUTE
2010-01-01
Self-excited dust density waves (DDWs) are studied in a striped electrode device. In addition to the usual perpendicularly (with respect to the electrode) propagating DDWs, which have been frequently observed in dusty plasma experiments on the ground, a low-frequency oblique mode is also observed. This low-frequency oblique DDW has a frequency much lower than the dust plasma frequency and its spontaneous excitation is observed even with a very low dust density. It is found that the low-frequency oblique mode can exist either separately or together with the usual perpendicular mode. In the latter case, a new mode arises as a result of the interactions between the perpendicular and the oblique modes. The experiments show that these three modes satisfy the wave coupling conditions in both the frequencies and the wave-vectors.
Effect of the shear viscosity on plasma sheath in an oblique magnetic field
Wang, Ting-Ting; Li, Jing-Ju; Ma, J. X.
2016-12-01
In a magnetized plasma sheath, strong velocity shear exists owing to the three-dimensional nature of ion velocity. Thus, the ion viscosity should have an important effect on the sheath structure, which has not been studied. This article presents the study of the effect of ion shear viscosity on the sheath in an oblique magnetic field within the framework of classical cross-field transport. It is shown that the inclusion of the shear viscosity in the ion momentum equation results in a significant reduction in the sheath thickness. It is also shown that the "generalized Bohm criterion" is not affected by the shear viscosity within the present model. However, additional boundary conditions such as the velocity shear arise in the viscous case. The appropriate boundary conditions are formulated, accounting for E × B and diamagnetic drifts at the sheath edge, which affects the criterion and sheath profiles.
Verscharen, Daniel
2012-01-01
An ion beam can destabilize Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves and magnetosonic/whistler waves if the beam speed is sufficiently large. Numerical solutions of the hot-plasma dispersion relation have previously shown that the minimum beam speed required to excite such instabilities is significantly smaller for oblique modes with $\\vec k \\times \\vec B_0\
Nakazaki, Nobuya; Matsumoto, Haruka; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi
2015-09-01
In the microfabrication of 3D transistors (e.g. Fin-FET), the sidewall roughness, such as LER and LWR caused by off-normal or oblique ion incidence during plasma etching, is a critical issue to be resolved, which in turn requires a better understanding of the effects of ion incidence angle θi on surface roughening. This paper presents surface roughening and rippling by oblique ion incidence during inductively coupled plasma etching of Si in Cl2, using the experimental setup as in our previous study. The oblique ion incidence was achieved by sheath control plates, which were placed on and electrically connected to the wafer stage. The plates had slits to vary the sheath structure thereon and to extract ions from plasma to samples on the bottom and/or side of the slits. The results indicated that at θi ~ 40° or oblique incidence; ripple structures were formed on surfaces perpendicularly to the direction of ion incidence, on the other hand, at θi ~ 80° or grazing incidence, small ripples or slit like grooves were formed on surfaces parallel to the direction of ion incidence, as predicted in our previous numerical investigations.
Effective action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong
2016-01-01
A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we study a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well-known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasma...
Laser absorption and electron propagation in rippled plasma targets
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2016-10-01
Efficient absorption of laser energy and the collimated propagation of relativistic electron beams (generated by the laser target interaction) in plasma are two issues which are of significant importance for applications such as fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It is shown with the help of 2-D Particle- In- Cell simulations that introducing density ripples transverse to the laser propagation direction enhances the efficiency of laser power absorption. Furthermore, the density ripples are also instrumental in suppressing the Weibel instability of the propagating electron beam (which is responsible for the divergence of the beam). A physical understanding of the two effects is also provided.
Spatially Confined Propagation of Intense Ultraviolet Radiation in Plasmas.
Shi, Xiaomei
X-ray amplification requires a high energy deposition rate in a high aspect-ratio volume. High power lasers for x-ray laser pumping have become available with the development of the short pulse and high intensity laser technology capable of producing pulses with a peak power as high as 10^{12} watts. Short pulses of high intensity x-ray have been observed in laser -plasma interactions, which encurages many scientists actively pursuing the goal of constructing practical x-ray lasers. Our approach has concentrated on producing high aspect ratio x-ray amplifying medium by spatially confined propagation of high power laser pulse in plasmas. A high intensity laser beam induces nonlinear refractive index changes in plasma. In the case of subpicosecond ultrahigh power laser-plasma interaction, the dominant mechanisms responsible for the refractive index change in plasmas are: (1) the relativistic free electron mass increase due to the increase of electron oscillation velocity in the intense electromagnetic field of the laser pulses; and (2) displacement of free electrons out of the high intensity region of the laser beam by ponderomotive force. Both of the above effects lead to a refractive index change of the plasma, which in turn has a positive lensing effect on the beam. If the focusing effect is strong enough to overcome diffraction the beam will stay in a spatially confined mode of propagation. This confined propagation provides an effective method of concentrating energy. The field intensity associated with the confined propagation is so high that the highly excited medium with high aspect ratio suitable for x-ray amplification can be achieved. In this research we have successfully demonstrated spatially confined propagation of 500 GW subpicosecond laser pulse in laser induced plasma. The measured diameter of the propagation is less than 2 μm and the aspect ratio of the confined propagation is over 1000. The filed intensity associated with the propagation is
Does the Decay Wave Propagate Forwards in Dusty Plasmas?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢柏松
2002-01-01
The decay interaction of the ion acoustic wave in a dusty plasma with variable-charge dust grains is studied.Even if strong charging relaxation for dust grains and the short wavelength regime for ion waves are included, it is found that the decay wave must be backward propagating.
Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1979-01-01
The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...
Ionization wave propagation on a micro cavity plasma array
Wollny, Alexander; Gebhardt, Markus; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Boettner, Henrik; Winter, Joerg; der Gathen, Volker Schulz-von; Mussenbrock, Thomas
2011-01-01
Microcavity plasma arrays are regular arrays of inverse pyramidal cavities created on positive doped silicon wafers. Each cavity acts as a microscopic dielectric barrier discharge. Operated at atmospheric pressure in argon and excited with high voltage at about 10 kHz frequency each cavity develops a localized microplasma. Experiments show a strong interaction of the individual cavities, leading to the propagation of wave-like emission structures along the array surface. This paper studies the ignition process of a micro cavity plasma array by means of a numerical simulation and confirms the experimental results. The propagation of an ionization wave is observed. Its propagation speed of 1 km/s matches experimental findings.
The Time-Frequency Characteristics of Pulse Propagation Through Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
In this paper, propagated δ pulses through different distance of Plasma are calculated, and their time-frequency characteristics are studied using CWD (Choi-William distrilution). It is found that several horizontal spectra appear at early arrival time like discrete spectruml at last time a hyperbolic curve lies in the time-frequency spectrum which corresponds to the frequency-group delay curve of plasma. To understand the time-frequency, the property of a signal is helpful for obtaining the plasma parameters.
Integrable, oblique travelling waves in quasi-charge-neutral two-fluid plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. M. Webb
2008-02-01
Full Text Available A Hamiltonian description of oblique travelling waves in a two-fluid, charge-neutral, electron-proton plasma reveals that the transverse momentum equations for the electron and proton fluids are exactly integrable in cases where the total transverse momentum flux integrals, P_{y}^{(d} and P_{z}^{(d}, are both zero in the de Hoffman Teller (dHT frame. In this frame, the transverse electric fields are zero, which simplifies the transverse momentum equations for the two fluids. The integrable travelling waves for the case P_{y}^{(d}=P_{z}^{(d}=0, are investigated based on the Hamiltonian trajectories in phase space, and also on the longitudinal structure equation for the common longitudinal fluid velocity component u_{x} of the electron and proton fluids. Numerical examples of a variety of travelling waves in a cold plasma, including oscillitons, are used to illustrate the physics. The transverse, electron and proton velocity components u_{jy} and u_{jz} (j=e, p of the waves exhibit complex, rosette type patterns over several periods for u_{x}. The role of separatrices in the phase space, the rotational integral and the longitudinal structure equation on the different wave forms are discussed.
Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water
Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren
2016-04-01
In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.
Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Bin Wang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.
Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P
2016-01-01
The experimental observation of the self$-$excited dust acoustic waves (DAWs) and its propagation characteristics in the absence and presence of a floating cylindrical object are investigated. The experiments are carried out in a direct current (DC) glow discharge dusty plasma in the background of argon gas. Dust particles are found levitated at the interface of plasma and cathode sheath region. The DAWs are spontaneously excited in the dust medium and found to propagate in the direction of ion drift (along the gravity) above a threshold discharge current at lower pressure. The excitation of such low frequency wave is a result of the ion--dust streaming instability in the dust cloud. The characteristics of the propagating dust acoustic wave get modified in presence of a floating cylindrical object of radius larger than the dust Debye length. Instead of propagating in the vertical direction, the DAWs are found to propagate obliquely in presence of the floating object (kept either vertically or horizontally). I...
Magnetic Piston Propagation in a 100-ns Plasma Opening Switch
Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.
1998-11-01
The propagation of a magnetic piston through the plasma of a 90-ns, 170-kA POS is observed by studying the electron density, magnetic field, and ion velocity evolution. For the prefilled plasma n_e=(2.2± 0.5)× 10^14 cm-3, and T_e=5.5± 1 eV. The plasma composition is studied from absolute line intensities and collisional-radiative calculations. Most of the plasma ions are protons (90% near the cathode) with the rest being mainly CIV. The Hall-MHD conditions are not fulfilled for our experiment and ion motion is significant. The 3D-resolved ne evolution during the current pulse is studied from the line intensities of ions doped in the plasma using laser evaporation, and the magnetic field from Zeeman splitting. A diagonal magnetic piston propagates from the generator towards the load at about half the proton Alfven velocity. The protons are specularly reflected by the piston, while the heavy ions cross the potential hill in the piston, acquiring a lower velocity. The proton reflection causes an increase of ne ahead of the piston, followed by a sharp (10-20 ns) and substantial drop in ne (to 10-50% from the initial value). The magnetic field distribution studied using chordal observation, and theoretical analysis of ne and the magnetic field evolution are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin [School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China); Liu Yanming [School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China)
2013-01-15
A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)
2016-03-15
The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.
Surface Wave Propagation in non--ideal plasmas
Pandey, B P
2015-01-01
The properties of surface waves in a partially ionized, compressible magnetized plasma slab are investigated in this work. The waves are affected by the nonideal magnetohydrodynamic effects which causes finite drift of the magnetic field in the medium. When the magnetic field drift is ignored, the characteristics of the wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma fluid is similar to the fully ionized ideal MHD except now the propagation properties depend on the fractional ionization as well as on the compressibility of the medium. The phase velocity of the sausage and kink waves increases marginally (by a few percent) due to the compressibility of the medium in both ideal as well as Hall diffusion dominated regimes. However, unlike ideal regime, only waves below certain cut off frequency can propagate in the medium in Hall dominated regime. This cut off for a thin slab has a weak dependence on the plasma beta whereas for thick slab no such dependence exists. More importantly, since the cut off is introduce...
Piel, Alexander; Arp, Oliver; Menzel, Kristoffer; Klindworth, Markus
2007-11-01
We report on experimental observations of dust density waves in a complex (dusty) plasma under microgravity. The plasma is produced in a radio-frequency parallel-plate discharge (argon, p=15Pa, U=65Vpp). Different sizes of dust particles were used (3.4 μm and 6.4μm diameter). The low-frequency (f 11Hz) dust density waves are naturally unstable modes, which are driven by the ion flow in the plasma. Surprisingly, the wave propagation direction is aligned with the ion flow direction in the bulk plasma but becomes oblique at the boundary of the dust cloud with an inclination of 60^o with respect to the plasma boundary. The experimental results are compared with a kinetic model in the electrostatic approximation [1] and a fluid model [2]. Moreover, the role of dust surface waves is discussed. [1] M. Rosenberg, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996) [2] A. Piel et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205009 (2006)
Lieske, Mike; Schlurmann, Torsten
2016-04-01
INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATION The design of structures in coastal and offshore areas and their maintenance are key components of coastal protection. Usually, assessments of processes and loads on coastal structures are derived from experiments with flow and wave parameters in separate physical models. However, Peregrin (1976) already points out that processes in natural shallow coastal waters flow and sea state processes do not occur separately, but influence each other nonlinearly. Kemp & Simons (1982) perform 2D laboratory tests and study the interactions between a turbulent flow and following waves. They highlight the significance of wave-induced changes in the current properties, especially in the mean flow profiles, and draw attention to turbulent fluctuations and bottom shear stresses. Kemp & Simons (1983) also study these processes and features with opposing waves. Studies on the wave-current interaction in three-dimensional space for a certain wave height, wave period and water depth were conducted by MacIver et al. (2006). The research focus is set on the investigation of long-crested waves on obliquely opposing and following currents in the new 3D wave-current basin. METHODOLOGY In a first step the flow analysis without waves is carried out and includes measurements of flow profiles in the sweet spot of the basin at predefined measurement positions. Five measuring points in the water column have been delineated in different water depths in order to obtain vertical flow profiles. For the characterization of the undisturbed flow properties in the basin, an uniformly distributed flow was generated in the wave basin. In the second step wave analysis without current, the unidirectional wave propagation and wave height were investigated for long-crested waves in intermediate wave conditions. In the sweet spot of the wave basin waves with three different wave directions, three wave periods and uniform wave steepness were examined. For evaluation, we applied a common
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S. PRASAD; Vivek SINGH; A. K. SINGH
2012-01-01
An analytical study is presented on the modal dispersion characteristics, group velocity, and effective group, as well as the phase index of a ternary one dimensional plasma photonic crystal for an obliquely incident electromagnetic wave considering the effect of collisions in plasma layers. The dispersion relation is derived by using the transfer matrix method and the boundary conditions based on electromagnetic theory. The dispersion curves are plotted for both the normal photonic band gap structure and the absorption photonic band gap structure. It is found that the increase in the angle of incidence shifts the photonic band gap toward higher frequencies. Also, the cutoff frequency is independent of collisions.
A plasma β transition within a propagating flux rope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Savani, N. P. [George Mason University, Faifax, VA (United States); Vourlidas, A.; Linton, M. G. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States); Shiota, D. [Computational Astrophysics Laboratory, Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kusano, K. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Lugaz, N. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Rouillard, A. P. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Plantologie, Universit de Toulouse (UPS) (France)
2013-12-20
We present a 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a magnetic flux rope (FR) propagating in the heliosphere and investigate the cause of the observed sharp plasma β transition. Specifically, we consider a strong internal magnetic field and an explosive fast start, such that the plasma β is significantly lower in the FR than in the sheath region that is formed ahead. This leads to an unusual FR morphology in the first stage of propagation, while the more traditional view (e.g., from space weather simulations like Enlil) of a pancake-shaped FR is observed as it approaches 1 AU. We investigate how an equipartition line, defined by a magnetic Weber number, surrounding a core region of a propagating FR, can demarcate a boundary layer where there is a sharp transition in the plasma β. The substructure affects the distribution of toroidal flux, with the majority of the flux remaining in a small core region that maintains a quasi-cylindrical structure. We quantitatively investigate a locus of points where the kinetic energy density of the relative inflow field is equal to the energy density of the transverse magnetic field (i.e., effective tension force). The simulation provides compelling evidence that at all heliocentric distances the distribution of toroidal magnetic flux away from the FR axis is not linear, with 80% of the toroidal flux occurring within 40% of the distance from the FR axis. Thus, our simulation displays evidence that the competing ideas of a pancaking structure observed remotely can coexist with a quasi-cylindrical magnetic structure seen in situ.
Wave propagation in a moving cold magnetized plasma
Hebenstreit, H.
1980-03-01
Polarization relations and dispersion equations are derived for media that are electrically anisotropic in the comoving frame. Three-dimensional calculations for media at rest recover the known dispersion equations, i.e., Astrom's dispersion equation for magnetized cold plasmas and Fresnel's wave normal equation for uniaxial crystals. An analogous four-dimensional calculation yields the generalization to moving media. The dispersion equations so obtained for moving gyrotropic media are then discussed qualitatively for various special media and special directions of wave propagation. Finally, the polarization relations are specialized to media gyrotropic in the comoving frame.
A 1D (radial) Plasma Jet Propagation Study for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)
Thompson, J. R.; Bogatu, I. N.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Welch, D. R.; Thoma, C.; Golovkin, I.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Cassibry, J. T.; Awe, T. J.; Hsu, S. C.
2011-10-01
The Plasma Liner Experiment will explore the formation of imploding spherical ``plasma liners'' that reach peak pressures of 0.1 Mbar upon stagnation. The liners will be formed through the merging of dense, high velocity plasma jets (n ~1017 cm-3, T ~3 eV, v ~50 km/s) in a spherically convergent geometry. The focus of this 1D (radial) study is argon plasma jet evolution during propagation from the rail gun source to the jet merging radius. The study utilizes the Large Scale Plasma (LSP) PIC code with atomic physics included through the use of a non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) Equation of State (EOS) table. We will present scenarios for expected 1D (radial) plasma jet evolution, from upon exiting the PLX rail gun to reaching the jet merging radius. The importance of radiation cooling early in the simulation is highlighted. Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-05ER54835.
Propagation and collision of soliton rings in quantum semiconductor plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Shamy, E.F., E-mail: emadel_shamy@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Gohman, F.S., E-mail: fulh2012kku@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, Abha, P.O. 960 (Saudi Arabia)
2014-07-18
The intrinsic localization of electrostatic wave energies in quantum semiconductor plasmas can be described by solitary pulses. The collision properties of these pulses are investigated. In the present study, the fundamental model includes the quantum term, degenerate pressure of the plasma species, and the electron/hole exchange–correlation effects. In cylindrical geometry, using the extended Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) method, the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two soliton rings are derived. Typical values for GaSb and GaN semiconductors are used to estimate the basic features of soliton rings. It is found that the pulses of GaSb semiconductor carry more energies than the pulses of GaN semiconductor. In addition, the degenerate pressure terms of electrons and holes have strong impact on the phase shift. The present theory may be useful to analyze the collision of localized coherent electrostatic waves in quantum semiconductor plasmas. - Highlights: • The propagation and the collision of pulses in quantum semiconductor plasmas are studied. • Numerical calculations reveal that pulses may exist only in dark soliton rings for electron–hole quantum plasmas. • Typical values for GaSb and GaN semiconductors are used to estimate the basic features of soliton rings. • It is found that the pulses of GaSb semiconductor carry more energies than the pulses of GaN semiconductor. • The degenerate pressure terms of electrons and holes have strong impact on the phase shift.
Crawford, F. W.
1975-01-01
A ten year summary was given of university research on the nature and characteristics of space related plasma resonance phenomena, whistler propagation in laboratory plasmas, and theoretical and experimental studies of plasma wave propagation. Data are also given on long delayed echoes, low frequency instabilities, ionospheric heating, and backscatter, and pulse propagation. A list is included of all conference papers, publications, and reports resulting from the study.
FDTD Simulation on Terahertz Waves Propagation Through a Dusty Plasma
Wang, Maoyan; Zhang, Meng; Li, Guiping; Jiang, Baojun; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Xu, Jun
2016-08-01
The frequency dependent permittivity for dusty plasmas is provided by introducing the charging response factor and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles. The field equations that describe the characteristics of Terahertz (THz) waves propagation in a dusty plasma sheath are derived and discretized on the basis of the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) in the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. Compared with numerical solutions in reference, the accuracy for the ADE FDTD method is validated. The reflection property of the metal Aluminum interlayer of the sheath at THz frequencies is discussed. The effects of the thickness, effective collision frequency, airborne particle density, and charge relaxation rate of airborne particles on the electromagnetic properties of Terahertz waves through a dusty plasma slab are investigated. Finally, some potential applications for Terahertz waves in information and communication are analyzed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097, 11504252, 61201007, 41304119), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Nos. ZYGX2015J039, ZYGX2015J041), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120185120012)
Sundkvist, David; Krasnoselskikh, V; Bale, S D; Schwartz, S J; Soucek, J; Mozer, F
2012-01-13
Whistler wave trains are observed in the foot region of high Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks. The waves are oblique with respect to the ambient magnetic field as well as the shock normal. The Poynting flux of the waves is directed upstream in the shock normal frame starting from the ramp of the shock. This suggests that the waves are an integral part of the shock structure with the dispersive shock as the source of the waves. These observations lead to the conclusion that the shock ramp structure of supercritical high Mach number shocks is formed as a balance of dispersion and nonlinearity.
Plasma simulation with the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utsumi, Takayuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
A computer code based on the Differential Algebraic Cubic Interpolated Propagation scheme has been developed for the numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for a one-dimensional plasma with immobile ions. The scheme advects the distribution function and its first derivatives in the phase space for one time step by using a numerical integration method for ordinary differential equations, and reconstructs the profile in phase space by using a cubic polynomial within a grid cell. The method gives stable and accurate results, and is efficient. It is successfully applied to a number of equations; the Vlasov equation, the Boltzmann equation with the Fokker-Planck or the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) collision term and the relativistic Vlasov equation. The method can be generalized in a straightforward way to treat cases such as problems with nonperiodic boundary conditions and higher dimensional problems. (author)
Lynn, Alan G.; Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott
2014-10-01
We discuss the dynamics of plasma ``bubbles'' as they propagate through a variety of background media. These bubbles are formed by a pulsed coaxial gun with an externally applied magnetic field. Bubble parameters are typically ne ~1020 m-3, Te ~ 5 - 10 eV, and Ti ~ 10 - 15 eV. The structure of the bubbles can range from unmagnetized jet-like structures to spheromak-like structures with complex magnetic flux surfaces. Some of the background media the bubbles interact with are vacuum, vacuum with magnetic field, and other magnetized plasmas. These bubbles exhibit different qualitative behavior depending on coaxial gun parameters such as gas species, gun current, and gun bias magnetic field. Their behavior also depends on the parameters of the background they propagate through. Multi-frame fast camera imaging and magnetic probe data are used to characterize the bubble evolution under various conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-04-13
This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density n_{e}(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rn_{e}(r).
Moradi, Afshin
2016-04-01
In a recent article [Niknam et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 122106 (2013)], Niknam et al. investigated the propagation of TM surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma in the Faraday configuration (in this case, the magnetic field is parallel to the both of the plasma surface and direction of propagation). Here, we present a fresh look at the problem and show that TM surface waves cannot propagate on surface of the present system. We find in the Faraday configuration the surface waves acquire both TM and TE components due to the cyclotron motion of electrons. Therefore, the main result of the work by Niknam et al. is incorrect.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Guo-Ping; HE Ye-Xi; WANG Wen-Hao; GAO Zhe; ZENG Li; XIE Li-Feng; FENG Chun-Hua
2004-01-01
@@ Radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma of Sino-United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST) has been measured using Langmuir probes. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analysed by the two-point correlation technique. The results show radially outward propagation of the turbulent fluctuations at all measured radial positions. The power-average wavenumber profile is approximately constant in plasma edge region and suddenly increases to the limiter. These results are in good agreement with the model predictions proposed by Mattor which suggests that the drift wave propagation may be a source of edge turbulence.
Nonlinear Characteristics of an Intense Laser Pulse Propagating in Partially Stripped Plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Qiang-Lin; LIU Shi-Bing; CHEN Tao; JIANG Yi-Jian
2005-01-01
The nonlinear optic characteristics of an intense laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasmas are investigated analytically. The phase and group velocity of the laser pulse propagation as well as the three general expressions governing the nonlinear optic behavior, based on the photon number conservation, are obtained by considering the partially stripped plasma as a nonlinear optic medium. The numerical result shows that the presence of the bound electrons in partially stripped plasma can significantly change the propagating property of the intense laser pulse.
Impact of the Collisional Plasma on the Propagation of Millimeter Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
袁忠才; 时家明; 汪家春; 许波
2004-01-01
The plasma generated in the low-altitude atmosphere is of high collision frequencies.In this paper, the transmission coefficients of millimeter(MM) waves normally incident upon the plasma with high collision frequencies are calculated and analyzed. The experimental results of reflection and attenuation are presented for the eight-millimeter waves propagating through the plasma. Both the calculated experimental results indicate that the MM-waves concerned are attenuated significantly and reflected weakly, when propagating through the plasma of high collision frequencies.
The density and velocity of plasma bullets propagating along one dielectric tube
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Longfei Ji
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This study shows that the propagation of plasma bullets along one dielectric tube is strongly affected by many discharge parameters, such as the waveform of applied voltage (AC or pulsed DC, peak voltage, He flow rate, and the frequency of AC voltage. Analysis indicates that the density and velocity of plasma bullets are mainly determined by the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. These discharge parameters may significantly influence the distribution of plasma potential along the tube, thus control the electric field at the front of plasma bullets and their propagation. An increase in the pulsed DC voltage with its rise time of <40-50 ns can lead to an obvious improvement in the electric field at the front of plasma bullets, resulting in generation of a plasma in the high density gas and a fast propagation of plasma bullets. He flowing through the tube can contribute to the surface diffusion of charged species, and greatly increase the electric field at the front of plasma bullets. During the propagation of plasma bullets, their density is decreased due to the surface recombination of charged species, such as electrons and ions.
Propagation of Surface Wave Along a Thin Plasma Column and Its Radiation Pattern
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Zhijiang; ZHAO Guowei; XU Yuemin; LIANG Zhiwei; XU Jie
2007-01-01
Propagation of the surface waves along a two-dimensional plasma column and the far-field radiation patterns are studied in thin column approximation. Wave phase and attenuation coefficients are calculated for various plasma parameters. The radiation patterns are shown. Results show that the radiation patterns are controllable by flexibly changing the plasma length and other parameters in comparison to the metal monopole antenna. It is meaningful and instructional for the optimization of the plasma antenna design.
Numerics for the simulation of electromagnetic-field propagation in nonionized and plasma media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borovsky, J.E.
1986-03-01
The numerical techniques used to simulate the propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic disturbances in Ohmic media and in collisional and collisionless plasmas are discussed. The scheme is based upon a multimedia propagation equation that is derived from Maxwell's equations. 10 refs., 5 figs.
Refined Study of ECR Wave Propagation and Absorption in the Weakly Relativistic Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHIBingren; LONGYongxin
2001-01-01
The ECR wave heating is now a routine method for plasma heating and profile control in fusion devices and also in plasma applications. Theoretical study of ECR wave propagation and absorption began very early in 1950's. Basic theoretical work had accomplished in 1970～1980. For toroidal devices like the tokamak, the fundamental O-mode and X-mode with nearly perpendicular propagation were used very often. For pure O-mode and X-mode with kx=O,
Study on Propagation Characteristics of Plasma Surface Wave in Medium Tube
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Shiqing; YAN Zelin; LI Wenzhong; LIU Jian; LI Jian; XU Lingfei
2008-01-01
Axial propagation characteristics of the axisymmetric surface wave along the plasma in the medium tube were studied. The expressions of electromagnetic field inside and outside the medium tube were deduced. Also, the impacts of several factors, such as plasma density, signal frequency, inner radius of medium tube, collision frequency, etc., on plasma surface wave propa-gation were numerically simulated. The results show that, the properties of plasma with higher density and .lower gas pressure are closer to those of metal conductor. Furthermore, larger radius of medium tube and lower signal frequency are better for surface wave propagation. However, the effect of collision frequency is not obvious. The optimized experimental parameters can be chosen as the plasma density of about 1017 m-3 and the medium radius between 11 mm and 19 mm.
Effect of an energy reservoir on the atmospheric propagation of laser-plasma filaments.
Eisenmann, Shmuel; Peñano, Joseph; Sprangle, Phillip; Zigler, Arie
2008-04-18
The ability to select and stabilize a single filament during propagation of an ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulse in air makes it possible to examine the longitudinal structure of the plasma channel left in its wake. We present the first detailed measurements and numerical 3-D simulations of the longitudinal plasma density variation in a laser-plasma filament after it passes through an iris that blocks the surrounding energy reservoir. Since no compensation is available from the surrounding background energy, filament propagation is terminated after a few centimeters. For this experiment, simulations indicate that filament propagation is terminated by plasma defocusing and ionization loss, which reduces the pulse power below the effective self-focusing power. With no blockage, a plasma filament length of over a few meters was observed.
Oblique Ion Two-Stream Instability in the Foot Region of a Collisionless Shock
Ohira, Yutaka
2008-01-01
Electrostatic behavior of a collisionless plasma in the foot region of high Mach number perpendicular shocks is investigated through the two-dimensional linear analysis and electrostatic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The simulations are double periodic and taken as a proxy for the situation in the foot. The linear analysis for relatively cold unmagnetized plasmas with a reflected proton beam shows that obliquely propagating Buneman instability is strongly excited. We also found that when the electron temperature is much higher than the proton temperature, the most unstable mode is the highly obliquely propagating ion two-stream instability excited through the resonance between ion plasma oscillations of the background protons and of the beam protons, rather than the ion acoustic instability that is dominant for parallel propagation. To investigate nonlinear behavior of the ion two-stream instability, we have made PIC simulations for the shock foot region in which the initial state satisfies the Buneman i...
Impact of nonlinear absorption on propagation of microwave in a plasma filled rectangular waveguide
Sobhani, H.; Vaziri, M.; Rooholamininejad, H.; Bahrampour, A. R.
2016-07-01
In collisional and ponderomotive predominant regimes, the propagation of microwave in rectangular waveguide filled with collisional plasma is investigated numerically. The dominant mode is excited through an evacuated waveguide and then enters a similar and co-axis waveguide filled with plasma. In collisional predominant regime, the amplitude of electric field is oscillated along propagation path; outset of propagation path due to the electron-ion collision, the intensity oscillations are reduced. Afterward, under competition between the collisional nonlinearity and absorption, the intensity is increased, so the electron density peak is created in middle of waveguide. In ponderomotive predominant regime, the intensity is slowly decreased due to collision, so the electron density is ramped. Control parameters, like the frequency, input power, collision frequency, and background electron density are surveyed that can be used to control propagation characteristics of microwave. This method can be used to control heating of fusion plasma and accelerate charged particle.
Curcio, A.; Giulietti, D.; Petrarca, M.
2017-02-01
The betatron radiation from laser-plasma accelerated electrons in dielectric capillary waveguides is investigated. The multimode laser propagation is responsible for a modulated plasma wakefield structure, which affects the electron transverse dynamics, therefore influencing the betatron radiation spectra. Such a phenomenon can be exploited to tune the energy spectrum of the betatron radiation by controlling the excitation of the capillary modes.
Dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized plasma
Marklund, G B M; Shukla, P K
2006-01-01
A dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized cold plasma is deduced, taking photon-photon scattering into account. It is shown that the combined plasma and quantum electrodynamic effect is important for understanding the mode-structures in magnetar and pulsar atmospheres. The implications of our results are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronald C. Davidson; Igor Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev
2004-04-09
Properties of the multi-species electromagnetic Weibel and electrostatic two-stream instabilities are investigated for an intense ion beam propagating through background plasma. Assuming that the background plasma electrons provide complete charge and current neutralization, detailed linear stability properties are calculated within the framework of a macroscopic cold-fluid model for a wide range of system parameters.
Instability versus equilibrium propagation of a laser beam in plasma.
Lushnikov, Pavel M; Rose, Harvey A
2004-06-25
We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtained, which provides an essential correction to a geometric optic approximation for beam propagation.
Ionospheric heating with oblique HF waves
Field, Edward C., Jr.; Bloom, Ron M.
1990-10-01
Calculations of ionospheric electron density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produce by intense oblique high frequency (HF) transmitters are presented. This analysis considers radio field focusing at caustics, the consequent joule-heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes: these being the effects of a powerful oblique 'modifying' wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. Then effects on a secondary 'test' wave that is propagated along the same path as the first are investigated. Calculations predict ground-level field-strength reductions of several dB in the test wave for modifying waves having ERP in the 85 to 90 dBW range. These field-strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The results are sensitive to the model ionosphere assumed, so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An effective power of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, results in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on joule-heating and subsequent defocusing of waves passing through caustic regions.
COUNTER PROPAGATION OF ELECTRON AND CO2 LASER BEAMS IN A PLASMA CHANNEL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HIROSE,T.; POGORELSKY,I.V.; BEN ZVI,I.; YAKIMENKO,V.; KUSCHE,K.; SIDDONS,P.; KUMITA,T.; KAMIYA,Y.; ZIGLER,A.; GREENBERG,B.; ET AL
2002-11-12
A high-energy CO{sub 2} laser is channeled in a capillary discharge. Occurrence of guiding conditions at a relatively low plasma density (<10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}) is confirmed by MHD simulations. Divergence of relativistic electron beam changes depending on the plasma density. Counter-propagation of the electron and laser beams inside the plasma channel results in intense x-ray generation.
Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel
Sonu Sen; Meenu Asthana Varshney; Dinesh Varshney
2014-01-01
In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have num...
Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets
Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.
1994-01-01
Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.
Nie, L.; Chang, L.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.
2016-09-01
One of the significant differences between the traditional streamers and the plasma jets is the repeatability of their propagation. In this paper, the effect of the seed electron density on the repeatability of the plasma jets is investigated. The seed electron density plays an essential role in the propagation of plasma plume which is in either repeatable mode or random mode depending on the frequency of the applied voltage and the mixture percentage of the working gas. By measuring the propagation velocities and the ignition delay time, it is found that the propagation velocities of the plasma plume are independent of the seed electron density. However, the jitter of the ignition delay time strongly depends on the frequency of the applied voltage and the mixture percentage of the working gas. After detailed analyzing of the experiment results, it is concluded that the minimum seed electron density required for the plasma bullet to propagate in repeatable mode is on the order of 108 cm-3 for gas pressure of 2 × 104 Pa. The minimum required seed electron density for the gas pressure of 4 × 103 Pa is on the order of 107 cm-3. Further analysis shows that, at one atmospheric pressure, the required minimum seed electron density for repeatable mode is on the order of 109 cm-3.
Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W
2003-08-22
We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.
Instability Versus Equilibrium Propagation of Laser Beam in Plasma
Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.
2003-01-01
We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam, that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtain...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borovsky, J.E.
1987-02-01
The propagation of ultralow-frequency (ulf) electromagnetic signals (Alfven and magnetosonic waves) in collisional, inhomogeneous, magnetized plasmas is analyzed by numerical simulation. The problem is formulated from a Maxwell-equation orbit-theory approach rather than from a magnetohydrodynamic point of view, and the problem is numerically treated in a fully time-dependent manner. Boundary-value-problem behavior is distinguished from initial-value-problem behavior. The propagation of two-dimensional small-amplitude electromagnetic disturbances in plasmas with spatially dependent densities and in plasmas with spatially dependent conductivities is numerically simulated, and when possible, the simulations are compared with theory. Changes in the plasma density lead to changes in the signal speed and to reflections; collisions lead to changes in the signal speed, to reflections, and to attenuations. Theoretical descriptions based upon discontinuities in the media are generally incorrect in predicting the amplitudes of signals reflected from plasma inhomogeneities. 19 refs., 16 figs.
TIME DOMAIN ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT PROPAGATION IN INHOMOGENEOUS MAGNETIZED PLASMA USING Z-TRANSFORMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Shoujiang; Li Fang
2006-01-01
The electromagnetic propagation through an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma slab is studied using the Z-transform formulation of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain(FDTD) method. The direction of electromagnetic propagation is parallel to the biasing magnetic filed. To validate the Z-transform algorithm, the reflection and transmission coefficients for the right-hand circularly polarized wave of the homogeneous magnetized plasma slab are computed by means of discrete Fourier transform. The comparison between the reflection and transmission coefficients of the homogeneous plasma slab and analytical values indicates that Z-transform algorithm is very accurate. When the plasma frequency varies according to the square root and parabolic relations, the reflection and transmission coefficients of the inhomogeneous magnetized plasma slab are computed.
Noureen, S.; Abbas, G.; Farooq, H.
2017-09-01
Using Vlasov-Maxwell's equations, the spectra of the perpendicular propagating Bernstein wave and Extraordinary wave in ultra-relativistic fully degenerate electron plasma are studied. The equilibrium particle distribution function is assumed to be isotropic Fermian. The analysis of high frequency spectra of the waves is carried out in the weak propagation limit Ω≫k .v and in the weak magnetic field limit |ω-k .v | ≫Ω and graphically observed.
Matda, Y.; Crawford, F. W.
1974-01-01
An economical low noise plasma simulation model is applied to a series of problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. The model is described and tested, first in the absence of an applied signal, and then with a small amplitude perturbation, to establish the low noise features and to verify the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as 0.000,001 of the plasma thermal energy. The method is then used to study propagation of an essentially monochromatic plane wave. Results on amplitude oscillation and nonlinear frequency shift are compared with available theories. The additional phenomena of sideband instability and satellite growth, stimulated by large amplitude wave propagation and the resulting particle trapping, are described.
On the rogue wave propagation in ion pair superthermal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg; Zahran, M. A. [Physics Department, College of Sciences and Humanities Studies Al-Kharj, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K., E-mail: emadshewy@yahoo.com; Elwakil, S. A. [Theoretical Physics Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)
2016-02-15
Effects of superthermal electron on the features of nonlinear acoustic waves in unmagnetized collisionless ion pair plasma with superthermal electrons have been examined. The system equations are reduced in the form of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The rogue wave characteristics dependences on the ionic density ratio (ν = n{sub –0}/n{sub +0}), ionic mass ratio (Q = m{sub +}/m{sub −}), and superthermality index (κ) are investigated. It is worth mentioning that the results present in this work could be applicable in the Earth's ionosphere plasmas.
An exact solution to paraxial propagation of laser beams in longitudinal inhomogeneous plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Bing-Ju; Huang Zheng; Liu Ming-Wei; Liu Xiao-Juan
2007-01-01
An exact, general solution for laser beams propagating in longitudinally inhomogeneous plasmas is obtained in the form of the diffraction integral. The Gaussian beam and the Hermite-Gaussian beam are taken for example. In the case of an increasing plasma density along the propagation distance, natural diffraction of the Gaussian beam is retarded. This retardance has a less effect on the central part of the Hermite-Gaussian beam while a considerable rise of the power in bucket (PIB) occurs in the surrounding part of the beam.
Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asma Begum
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 1011 cm-3 and it reaches to the maximum of 1012 cm-3.
Plasma acceleration by the interaction of parallel propagating Alfv\\'en waves
Mottez, Fabrice
2014-01-01
It is shown that two circularly polarised Alfv\\'en waves that propagate along the ambient magnetic field in an uniform plasma trigger non oscillating electromagnetic field components when they cross each other. The non-oscilliating field components can accelerate ions and electrons with great efficiency. This work is based on particle-in-cell (PIC) numerical simulations and on analytical non-linear computations. The analytical computations are done for two counter-propagating monochromatic waves. The simulations are done with monochromatic waves and with wave packets. The simulations show parallel electromagnetic fields consistent with the theory, and they show that the particle acceleration result in plasma cavities and, if the waves amplitudes are high enough, in ion beams. These acceleration processes could be relevant in space plasmas. For instance, they could be at work in the auroral zone and in the radiation belts of the Earth magnetosphere. In particular, they may explain the origin of the deep plasma...
Propagation of waves in a multicomponent plasma having charged dust particles
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sukanya Burman; A Roy Chowdhury; S N Paul
2001-06-01
Propagation of both low and high frequency waves in a plasma consisting of electrons, ions, positrons and charged dust particles have been theoretically studied. The characteristics of dust acoustic wave propagating through the plasma has been analysed and the dispersion relation deduced is a generalization of that obtained by previous authors. It is found that nonlinear localization of high frequency electromagnetic ﬁeld in such a plasma generates magnetic ﬁeld. This magnetic ﬁeld is seen to depend on the temperatures of electrons and positrons and also on their equilibrium density ratio. It is suggested that the present model would be applicable to ﬁnd the magnetic ﬁeld generation in space plasma.
Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.
2017-04-01
The Burgers equation is obtained to study the characteristics of nonlinear propagation of ionacoustic shock, singular kink, and periodic waves in weakly relativistic plasmas containing relativistic thermal ions, nonextensive distributed electrons, Boltzmann distributed positrons, and kinematic viscosity of ions using the well-known reductive perturbation technique. This equation is solved by employing the ( G'/ G)-expansion method taking unperturbed positron-to-electron concentration ratio, electron-to-positron temperature ratio, strength of electrons nonextensivity, ion kinematic viscosity, and weakly relativistic streaming factor. The influences of plasma parameters on nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic shock, periodic, and singular kink waves are displayed graphically and the relevant physical explanations are described. It is found that these parameters extensively modify the shock structures excitation. The obtained results may be useful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized relativistic ion-acoustic shock waves in an unmagnetized plasma system for some astrophysical compact objects and space plasmas.
Propagation of λ3 Laser Pulses in Underdense Plasma
Zhidkov, Alexei; Nemoto, Koshichi; Nayuki, Takuya; Oishi, Yuji; Fujii, Takashi
2008-06-01
We study the interaction of λ3 laser pulses with underdense plasma by means of real geometry particle-in-cell simulation. Underdense plasma irradiated by even low energy λ3 laser pulses can be an efficient source of multi-MeV electrons, ˜50 nC/J. The electron acceleration driven by low energy λ3 and λ2 laser pulses is monitored by means of fully relativistic 3D particle-in- cell simulation. Strong transverse wave-breaking in the vicinity of the laser focus is found to give rise to an immense electron charge injected to the acceleration phase of laser wake field. While the acceleration by λ2 pulses runs in usual way, strong blowout regime is found for λ3 pulses. Details of laser pulse self-guiding are discussed.
Propagation of Plasma Generated by Intense Pulsed Ion Beam Irradiation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Di; GONG Ye; LIU Jin-Yuan; WANG Xiao-Gang; LIU Yue; MA Teng-Cai
2006-01-01
@@ Taking the calculation results based on the established two-dimensional ablation model of the intense-pulsed-ion-beam (IPIB) irradiation process as initial conditions, we build a two-dimensional hydrodynamic ejection model of plasma produced by an IPIB-irradiated metal titanium target into ambient gas. We obtain the conclusions that shock waves generate when the background pressure is around 133 mTorr and also obtain the plume splitting phenomenon that has been observed in the experiments.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
HARVINDER KAUR; TARSEM SINGH GILL; PARVEEN BALA
2017-08-01
In the present investigation, ion-acoustic double layers in an inhomogeneous plasma consisting of Maxwellian and non-thermal distributions of electrons are studied.We have derived a modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation for ion-acoustic double layers propagating in a collisionless inhomogeneous plasma. It is observed that the non-thermal parameters affect the amplitude and width of the double layer which further depend on the density.
On the rogue waves propagation in non-Maxwellian complex space plasmas
El-Tantawy, S. A.; El-Awady, E. I.; Tribeche, M.
2015-11-01
The implications of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions (nonthermal/or suprathermal/or nonextensive distributions) are examined on the dust-ion acoustic (DIA) rogue/freak waves in a dusty warm plasma. Using a reductive perturbation technique, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable DIA wavepackets and to describe the rogue waves (RWs) propagation. Rogue waves are large-amplitude short-lived wave groups, routinely observed in space plasmas. The possible region for the rogue waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of space plasmas. It is shown that the RWs strengthen for decreasing plasma nonthermality and increasing superthermality. For nonextensive electrons, the RWs amplitude exhibits a bit more complex behavior, depending on the entropic index q. Moreover, our numerical results reveal that the RWs exist with all values of the ion-to-electron temperature ratio σ for nonthermal and superthermal distributions and there is no limitation for the freak waves to propagate in both two distributions in the present plasma system. But, for nonextensive electron distribution, the bright- and dark-type waves can propagate in this case, which means that there is a limitation for the existence of freak waves. Our systematic investigation should be useful in understanding the properties of DIA solitary waves that may occur in non-Maxwellian space plasmas.
On the rogue waves propagation in non-Maxwellian complex space plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Tantawy, S. A., E-mail: samireltantawy@yahoo.com; El-Awady, E. I., E-mail: eielawady@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Tribeche, M., E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz [Plasma Physics Group, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, BP 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria)
2015-11-15
The implications of the non-Maxwellian electron distributions (nonthermal/or suprathermal/or nonextensive distributions) are examined on the dust-ion acoustic (DIA) rogue/freak waves in a dusty warm plasma. Using a reductive perturbation technique, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The latter is used to study the nonlinear evolution of modulationally unstable DIA wavepackets and to describe the rogue waves (RWs) propagation. Rogue waves are large-amplitude short-lived wave groups, routinely observed in space plasmas. The possible region for the rogue waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of space plasmas. It is shown that the RWs strengthen for decreasing plasma nonthermality and increasing superthermality. For nonextensive electrons, the RWs amplitude exhibits a bit more complex behavior, depending on the entropic index q. Moreover, our numerical results reveal that the RWs exist with all values of the ion-to-electron temperature ratio σ for nonthermal and superthermal distributions and there is no limitation for the freak waves to propagate in both two distributions in the present plasma system. But, for nonextensive electron distribution, the bright- and dark-type waves can propagate in this case, which means that there is a limitation for the existence of freak waves. Our systematic investigation should be useful in understanding the properties of DIA solitary waves that may occur in non-Maxwellian space plasmas.
Chang, L.; Nie, L.; Xian, Y.; Lu, X.
2016-12-01
One of the distinguishable features of plasma jets compared with the traditional streamers is their repeatable propagation. As an initial objective, the effect of seed electrons on the repeatability of plasma plume propagation is investigated numerically. Besides residual electrons left from previous pulses, the electrons detached from O2 - ions could also be a significant source of the seed electrons to affect the repeatability of plasma plume propagation when an electronegative gas admixture is presented. In this investigation, a global plasma chemical kinetics model is developed to investigate the temporal evolution of the electron and O2 - ions in the afterglow of a plasma plume driven by microsecond pulse direct current voltages, at a total gas pressure of 2 × 104 Pa or 4 × 103 Pa in helium or helium-oxygen mixtures with an air impurity of 0.025%. In addition, a Monte Carlo technique has been applied to calculate the O2 - detachment rate coefficient. Accordingly, the seed electron density due to detachment from O2 - ions for different percentages of oxygen is obtained. Finally, the minimum seed electron density required for the plasma bullets to propagate in a repeatable mode is obtained according to the critical frequency from the experiments. It is found that the order of minimum seed electron number density required for repeatable propagation mode is independent of oxygen concentrations in the helium-oxygen mixture. It is 10 8 cm - 3 for 20 kPa and 10 7 cm - 3 for 4 kPa. Furthermore, for the helium with an air impurity of 0.025%, the residual electrons left over from previous discharges are the main source of seed electrons. On the other hand, when 0.5% of O2 is added, the detachment of O2 - is the main source of the seed electrons.
Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion
Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.
1978-01-01
The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, G.S.; Naulin, Volker; Fundamenski, W.
2010-01-01
Drift-Alfvén vortex filaments associated with electromagnetic turbulence were recently identified in reversed field pinch devices. Similar propagating filamentary structures were observed in the Earth magnetosheath, magnetospheric cusp and Saturn’s magnetosheath by spacecrafts. The characteristic......, heat, and momentum in the fusion plasmas can be interpreted in terms of the ballistic motion of these solitary electromagnetic filamentary structures....
Enhanced propagation for relativistic laser pulses in inhomogeneous plasmas using hollow channels.
Fuchs, J; d'Humières, E; Sentoku, Y; Antici, P; Atzeni, S; Bandulet, H; Depierreux, S; Labaune, C; Schiavi, A
2010-11-26
The influence of long (several millimeters) and hollow channels, bored in inhomogeneous ionized plasma by using a long pulse laser beam, on the propagation of short, ultraintense laser pulses has been studied. Compared to the case without a channel, propagation in channels significantly improves beam transmission and maintains a beam quality close to propagation in vacuum. In addition, the growth of the forward-Raman instability is strongly reduced. These results are beneficial for the direct scheme of the fast ignitor concept of inertial confinement fusion as we demonstrate, in fast-ignition-relevant conditions, that with such channels laser energy can be carried through increasingly dense plasmas close to the fuel core with minimal losses.
RF wave propagation and scattering in turbulent tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton, W., E-mail: wendell.horton@gmail.com; Michoski, C. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78654 (United States); Peysson, Y.; Decker, J. [CEA, IRFM, 13108, Saint-Paul, Durance Cedex (France)
2015-12-10
Drift wave turbulence driven by the steep electron and ion temperature gradients in H-mode divertor tokamaks produce scattering of the RF waves used for heating and current drive. The X-ray emission spectra produced by the fast electrons require the turbulence broaden RF wave spectrum. Both the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid waves and the 170 GHz electron cyclotron [EC] RF waves experience scattering and diffraction by the electron density fluctuations. With strong LHCD there are bifurcations in the coupled turbulent transport dynamics giving improved steady-state confinement states. The stochastic scattering of the RF rays makes the prediction of the distribution of the rays and the associated particle heating a statistical problem. Thus, we introduce a Fokker-Planck equation for the probably density of the RF rays. The general frame work of the coupled system of coupled high frequency current driving rays with the low-frequency turbulent transport determines the profiles of the plasma density and temperatures.
Pathak, Naveen; Zhidkov, Alexei; Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Shinichi; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kodama, Ryosuke
2016-03-01
Propagation of relativistically intense azimuthally or radially polarized laser pulses (RPP) is demonstrated, via 3D particle-in-cell simulations, to be unstable in uniform underdense plasma. Strong breaking of the pulse symmetry occurs for RPP with power exceeding the critical one for self-focusing in transversely uniform plasma with an increment, Γ, close to the well-known Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability depending on the acceleration, α, and the modulated density gradient length, L, as Γ≈(α/L) 1 /2 . In deeper plasma channels, the instability vanishes. Electron self-injection in the pulse wake and resulting acceleration is explored.
Pathak, Naveen; Nakanii, Nobuhiko; Masuda, Shinichi; Hosokai, Tomonao; Kodama, R
2015-01-01
Propagation of relativistically intense azimuthally or radially polarized laser pulses (RPP) in underdense plasmas is demonstrated to be unstable, via 3D particle-in-cell simulation and disregarding the Kerr non-linearity. Strong pulse filamentation occurs for RPP in transversely uniform plasma with an increment, $\\Gamma$, close to the well-known one depending on acceleration, $\\alpha$, and modulated density gradient length, $L$, as $\\Gamma \\approx (\\alpha/L)^{1/2}$. In deep plasma channels the instability vanishes. Electron self-injection and acceleration by the resulting laser pulse wake is explored.
Cho, Guangsup; Uhm, Han Sup
2016-10-01
The time-dependent solution of diffusion equation by the Fourier integration provides the axial diffusion velocity of a plasma packet, which is a key element of the plasma propagation in a plasma jet operated by the several tens of kHz. The plasma diffusion velocity is higher than the order of un ˜ 10 m/s at a high electric-field region of plasma generation and it is about the order of un ˜ 10 m/s at the plasma column of a low field region in a jet-nozzle inside. Meanwhile, the diffusion velocity is slower than the order of un ˜ 10 m/s in the open-air space where the plasma density flattens due to its radial expansion. Using these diffusion velocity data, the group-velocity of plasma diffusion wave-packet is given by ug ˜ cs2/un, a combination of the diffusion velocity un and the acoustic velocity cs. The experimental results of the plasma propagation can be verified with the plasma propagation in a form of the wave-packet whose propagation velocity is 104 m/s in a tube inside and is as fast as 105 m/s in the open-air space, thereby reconfirming that the theory of a plasma diffusion-wave is the origin of the plasma propagation in a plasma jet.
Wang, S.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, D. X.; Rong, M. Z.; Chen, H. L.; Kong, M. G.
2015-11-01
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have potential to be used for endoscope sterilization. In this study, a long quartz tube was used as the simulated endoscope channel, and an array of electrodes was warped one by one along the tube. Plasmas were generated in the inner channel of the tube, and their propagation characteristics in He+O2 feedstock gases were studied as a function of the oxygen concentration. It is found that each of the plasmas originates at the edge of an instantaneous cathode, and then it propagates bidirectionally. Interestingly, a plasma head with bright spots is formed in the hollow instantaneous cathode and moves towards its center part, and a plasma tail expands through the electrode gap and then forms a swallow tail in the instantaneous anode. The plasmas are in good axisymmetry when [O2] ≤ 0.3%, but not for [O2] ≥ 1%, and even behave in a stochastic manner when [O2] = 3%. The antibacterial agents are charged species and reactive oxygen species, so their wall fluxes represent the "plasma dosage" for the sterilization. Such fluxes mainly act on the inner wall in the hollow electrode rather than that in the electrode gap, and they get to the maximum efficiency when the oxygen concentration is around 0.3%. It is estimated that one can reduce the electrode gap and enlarge the electrode width to achieve more homogenous and efficient antibacterial effect, which have benefits for sterilization applications.
Role of Density Profiles for the Nonlinear Propagation of Intense Laser Beam through Plasma Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonu Sen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work role of density profiles for the nonlinear propagation of intense laser beam through plasma channel is analyzed. By employing the expression for the dielectric function of different density profile plasma, a differential equation for beamwidth parameter is derived under WKB and paraxial approximation. The laser induces modifications of the dielectric function through nonlinearities. It is found that density profiles play vital role in laser-plasma interaction studies. To have numerical appreciation of the results the propagation equation for plasma is solved using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method for the initial plane wave front of the beam, using boundary conditions. The spot size of the laser beam decreases as the beam penetrates into the plasma and significantly adds self-focusing in plasma. This causes the laser beam to become more focused by reduction of diffraction effect, which is an important phenomenon in inertial confinement fusion and also for the understanding of self-focusing of laser pulses. Numerical computations are presented and discussed in the form of graphs for typical parameters of laser-plasma interaction.
Nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic waves in electron–positron–ion plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M G HAFEZ; M R TALUKDER; M HOSSAIN ALI
2016-11-01
This work presents theoretical and numerical discussion on the dynamics of ion-acoustic solitary wave for weakly relativistic regime in unmagnetized plasma comprising non-extensive electrons, Boltzmann positrons and relativistic ions. In order to analyse the nonlinear propagation phenomena, the Korteweg–de Vries(KdV) equation is derived using the well-known reductive perturbation method. The integration of the derived equation is carried out using the ansatz method and the generalized Riccati equation mapping method. The influenceof plasma parameters on the amplitude and width of the soliton and the electrostatic nonlinear propagation of weakly relativistic ion-acoustic solitary waves are described. The obtained results of the nonlinear low-frequencywaves in such plasmas may be helpful to understand various phenomena in astrophysical compact object and space physics.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A P Misra; A Roy Chowdhury; S N Paul
2004-09-01
Characteristic features of low frequency transverse wave propagating in a magnetised dusty plasma have been analysed considering the effect of dust-charge fluctuation. The distinctive behaviours of both the left circularly polarised and right circularly polarised waves have been exhibited through the analysis of linear and non-linear dispersion relations. The phase velocity, group velocity, and group travel time for the waves have been obtained and their propagation characteristics have been shown graphically with the variations of wave frequency, dust density and amplitude of the wave. The change in non-linear wave number shift and Faraday rotation angle have also been exhibited with respect to the plasma parameters. It is observed that the effects of dust particles are significant only when the higher order contributions are considered. This may be referred to as the `dust regime' in plasma.
Upper-limit power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in underdense plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wei-Min; Wang; Zheng-Ming; Sheng; Yu-Tong; Li; Jie; Zhang
2013-01-01
It is found that there is an upper-limit critical power for self-guided propagation of intense lasers in plasma in addition to the well-known lower-limit critical power set by the relativistic effect.Above this upper-limit critical power,the laser pulse experiences defocusing due to expulsion of local plasma electrons by the transverse ponderomotive force.Associated with the upper-limit power,a lower-limit critical plasma density is also found for a given laser spot size,below which self-focusing does not occur for any laser power.Both the upper-limit power and the lower-limit density are derived theoretically and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.The present study provides new guidance for experimental designs,where self-guided propagation of lasers is essential.
Plasma Instability and Wave Propagation in Gate-Controlled GaN Conduction Channels
Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg
2013-08-01
The plasma wave in the conduction channel of a semiconductor heterostructure high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be excited at frequencies significantly higher than the cut-off frequency in a short channel device. The hydrodynamic model predicts a resonance response to applied harmonic signal at the plasma oscillation frequency. When either the ac voltage induced in the channel by the signal at the gate or the current applied at the drain or source contact are not very small, the plasma waves in the semiconductor channel will propagate as a shock wave. The device can be used either as a detector or a tunable source of terahertz range radiation. Using the parameters appropriate for the GaN channel we show that in both configurations the charge flow develops shock waves due to hydrodynamic nonlinearities. In a sufficiently wide channel the wave propagation separates into two or more different bands giving a two-dimensional structure to the waves.
Propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a relativistic electron-positron-ion plasma
Saberian, E; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M
2011-01-01
Propagation of large amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in a fully relativistic plasma consisting of cold ions and ultrarelativistic hot electrons and positrons is investigated using the Sagdeev's pseudopotential method in a relativistic hydrodynamics model. Effects of streaming speed of plasma fluid, thermal energy, positron density and positron temperature on large amplitude IASWs are studied by analysis of the pseudopotential structure. It is found that in regions that the streaming speed of plasma fluid is larger than that of solitary wave, by increasing the streaming speed of plasma fluid the depth and width of potential well increases and resulting in narrower solitons with larger amplitude. This behavior is opposite for the case where the streaming speed of plasma fluid is smaller than that of solitary wave. On the other hand, increase of the thermal energy results in wider solitons with smaller amplitude, because the depth and width of potential well decreases in that case. Additionally, th...
Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an under-dense, laser-produced plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Constantin, C; Back, C A; Fournier, K B; Gregori, G; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H; Dewald, E L; Miller, M C
2004-10-22
We observe a laser-driven supersonic ionization wave heating a mm-scale plasma of sub-critical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures. Propagation velocities initially 10 times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat wave propagation.
Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Norberg, Seth A.; Winter, Jörn; Johnsen, Eric; Reuter, S.; Weltmann, K. D.; Kushner, Mark J.
2015-06-01
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets for biomedical applications are often sustained in He with small amounts of, for example, O2 impurities and typically propagate into ambient air. The resulting poorly controlled generation of reactive species has motivated the use of gas shields to control the interaction of the plasma plume with the ambient gas. The use of different gases in the shield yields different behavior in the plasma plume. In this paper, we discuss results from experimental and computational investigations of He plasma jets having attaching and non-attaching gas shields. We found that negative ion formation in the He-air mixing region significantly affects the ionization wave dynamics and promotes the propagation of negative guided streamers through an electrostatic focusing mechanism. Results from standard and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy ratios of emission from states of N2 and He imply different electric fields in the plasma plume depending on the composition of the shielding gas. These effects are attributed to the conductivity in the transition region between the plasma plume and the shield gas, and the immobile charge represented by negative ions. The lower conductivity in the attaching mixtures enables more extended penetration of the electric field whereas the negative ions aid in focusing the electrons towards the axis.
Effective-action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas
Shi, Yuan; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong
2016-07-01
A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we give two examples: a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasmas are cold. These waves account for cyclotron absorption features observed in spectra of x-ray pulsars. Moreover, cutoff frequencies of the two nondegenerate electromagnetic waves are red-shifted by different amounts. These corrections need to be taken into account in order to correctly interpret diagnostic results in laser plasma experiments.
Atmospheric pressure He-air plasma jet: Breakdown process and propagation phenomenon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Begum, Asma [Independent University, Bangladesh, School of Engineering and Computer Science, Bashundhara, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Laroussi, Mounir [Old Dominion University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Norfolk, Virginia (United States); Pervez, Mohammad Rasel [Master Mind College, Department of Physics, Dhanmondi, Dhaka (Bangladesh)
2013-06-15
In this paper He-discharge (plasma jet/bullet) in atmospheric pressure air and its progression phenomenon has been studied experimentally using ICCD camera, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and calibrated dielectric probe measurements. The repetitive nanosecond pulse has applied to a plasma pencil to generate discharge in the helium gas channel. The discharge propagation speed was measured from the ICCD images. The axial electric field distribution in the plasma jet is inferred from the optical emission spectroscopic data and from the probe measurement. The correlation between the jet velocities, jet length with the pulse duration is established. It shows that the plasma jet is not isolated from the input voltage along its propagation path. The discharge propagation speed, the electron density and the local and average electric field distribution along the plasma jet axis predicted from the experimental results are in good agreement with the data predicted by numerical simulation of the streamer propagation presented in different literatures. The ionization phenomenon of the discharge predicts the key ionization parameters, such as speed, peak electric field in the front, and electron density. The maximum local electric field measured by OES is 95 kV/cm at 1.3 cm of the jet axis, and average EF measured by probe is 24 kV/cm at the same place of the jet. The average and local electron density estimated are in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and it reaches to the maximum of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}.
Proton Acceleration at Oblique Shocks
Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.
2011-06-01
Acceleration at the shock waves propagating oblique to the magnetic field is studied using a recently developed theoretical/numerical model. The model assumes that resonant hydromagnetic wave-particle interaction is the most important physical mechanism relevant to motion and acceleration of particles as well as to excitation and damping of waves. The treatment of plasma and waves is self-consistent and time dependent. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped, and hence particles will be pitch-angle-scattered. The total distribution is included in the model and neither introduction of separate population of seed particles nor some ad hoc escape rate of accelerated particles is needed. Results of the study show agreement with diffusive shock acceleration models in the prediction of power spectra for accelerated particles in the upstream region. However, they also reveal the presence of spectral break in the high-energy part of the spectra. The role of the second-order Fermi-like acceleration at the initial stage of the acceleration is discussed. The test case used in the paper is based on ISEE-3 data collected for the shock of 1978 November 12.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2016-02-15
A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.
Propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum magnetized collisional plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri Boroujeni, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-12-15
The propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded quantum plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field and collisional effects is investigated by using quantum magnetohydrodynamics model. A general analytical expression for the dispersion relation of surface waves is obtained by considering the boundary conditions. It is shown that, in some special cases, the obtained dispersion relation reduces to the results reported in previous works. It is also indicated that the quantum, external magnetic field and collisional effects can facilitate the propagation of surface waves on a semi-bounded plasma. In addition, it is found that the growth rate of the surface wave instability is enhanced by increasing the collision frequency and plasmonic parameter.
Jet propagation and medium excitation in a quark–gluon plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2014-11-15
We implement the complete set of elastic 2→2 parton scattering processes in the Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model to study the parton propagation inside a hot quark–gluon plasma. We calculate and compare the elastic energy loss and the transverse momentum distribution of quarks and gluons. We further simulate a single jet propagation and the induced medium excitation within a static quark–gluon plasma to study how the jet energy and profiles are modified by the jet-medium interaction and in particular the jet-induced wake. Effects of the recoiled thermal partons and the jet-induced wake on the jet energy loss and profiles are studied in detail.
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a degenerate dense plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M M Masud; A A Mamun
2013-07-01
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a degenerate dense plasma (with all the constituents being degenerate, for both the non-relativistic or ultrarelativistic cases) have been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. The linear dispersion relation and Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation have been derived, and the numerical solutions of KdV equation have been analysed to identify the basic features of electrostatic solitary structures that may form in such a degenerate dense plasma. The implications of our results in compact astrophysical objects, particularly, in white dwarfs and neutron stars, have been briefly discussed.
Propagation of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse in solid-state plasma
Astapenko, V A
2013-01-01
The change of the shape of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse in its propagation in solid-state plasma was calculated in the linear approximation. A case of solid-state silver plasma and of a "Mexican hat" wavelet pulse was considered. The dielectric permittivity of the medium was calculated in the Drude model. Strong dispersion spreading of a pulse at distances of the order of several microns was shown, and the comparison of evolution of the pulse shape for different center frequencies was carried out.
Green frequency-doubled laser-beam propagation in high-temperature hohlraum plasmas.
Niemann, C; Berger, R L; Divol, L; Froula, D H; Jones, O; Kirkwood, R K; Meezan, N; Moody, J D; Ross, J; Sorce, C; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H
2008-02-01
We demonstrate propagation and small backscatter losses of a frequency-doubled (2omega) laser beam interacting with inertial confinement fusion hohlraum plasmas. The electron temperature of 3.3 keV, approximately a factor of 2 higher than achieved in previous experiments with open geometry targets, approaches plasma conditions of high-fusion yield hohlraums. In this new temperature regime, we measure 2omega laser-beam transmission approaching 80% with simultaneous backscattering losses of less than 10%. These findings suggest that good laser coupling into fusion hohlraums using 2omega light is possible.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-02-01
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, PIEAS, Nilore, 44000 Islamabad (Pakistan); Shah, Asif; Haque, Q. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2011-12-15
Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].
Simulation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in collisional weakly relativistic plasmas
Kaur, Maninder; Nandan Gupta, Devki
2016-11-01
The process of interaction of lasers beating in a plasma has been explored by virtue of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the presence of electron-ion collisions. A plasma beat wave is resonantly excited by ponderomotive force by two relatively long laser pulses of different frequencies. The amplitude of the plasma wave become maximum, when the difference in the frequencies is equal to the plasma frequency. We propose to demonstrate the energy transfer between the laser beat wave and the plasma wave in the presence of electron-ion collision in nearly relativistic regime with 2D-PIC simulations. The relativistic effect and electron-ion collision both affect the energy transfer between the interacting waves. The finding of simulation results shows that there is a considerable decay in the plasma wave and the field energy over time in the presence of electron-ion collisions.
Slade-Lowther, Cody
2016-10-01
Next-generation lasers (e.g. ELI) expect to reach peak intensities of 1023 Wcm-2. At such intensities, the electromagnetic field strength is sufficient for non-linear Quantum Electrodynamics effects to become important. The processes of non-linear Compton scattering and Breit-Wheeler Pair production become likely at intensities >=1023 Wcm-2, and have been predicted to lead to prolific pair and γ-ray production via electromagnetic cascades. We present results for the case of two counter-propagating circularly- polarized lasers of intensity I ∈ [1023 ,1025 ] Wcm24 interacting with a plasma of initial density n0 ∈ [1025 ,1035 ] via the Monte-Carlo- particle-in-cell code EPOCH. We show the maximum pair plasma density in I vs n0 space. We further discuss the variation within this space on the plasma characteristics, including laser absorption and field-particle energy distribution.
AN INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE PROPAGATION IN PLASMA BY SHOCK TUBE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Naiyi; LI Xuefen; HUANG Lishun; YU Xilong; YANG Qiansuo
2004-01-01
This paper presents the electromagnetic wave propagation characteristics in plasma and the attenuation coefficients of the microwave in terms of the parameters ne, v, ω, L, ωb. The φ800 mm high temperature shock tube has been used to produce a uniform plasma. In order to get the attenuation of the electromagnetic wave through the plasma behind a shock wave, the microwave transmission has been used to measure the relative change of the wave power. The working frequency is f = (2 ～ 35) GHz (ω = 2π f, wave length λ = 15 cm ～ 8 mm). The electron density in the plasma is ne = (3 × 1010 ～ 1× 1014) cm-3. The collision frequency v = (1× 10s ～ 6 × 1010)Hz. The thickness of the plasma layer L = (2 ～ 80) cm. The electron circular frequency ωb = eBo/me, magnetic flux density B0 = (0 ～ 0.84)T. The experimental results show that when the plasma layer is thick (such as L/λ≥ 10), the correlation between the attenuation coefficients of the electromagnetic waves and the parameters ne, v, ω, L determined from the measurements are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions of electromagnetic wave propagations in the uniform infinite plasma. When the plasma layer is thin (such as when both L and λ are of the same order), the theoretical results are only in a qualitative agreement with the experimental observations in the present parameter range,but the formula of the electromagnetic wave propagation theory in an uniform infinite plasma can not be used for quantitative computations of the correlation between the attenuation coefficients and the parameters ne, v, ω, L. In fact, if ω＜ωp, v2 ＜＜ω2, the power attenuations K of the electromagnetic waves obtained from the measurements in the thin-layer plasma are much smaller than those of the theoretical predictions. On the other hand, if ω＞ωp, v2 ＜＜ω2 (just v ≈ f), the measurements are much larger than the theoretical results. Also, we have measured the electromagnetic wave power
Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Yoshinuma, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Narushima, Y.; Evans, T. E.; Ohdachi, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, K.
2016-09-01
Bifurcation physics of a magnetic island was investigated using the heat pulse propagation technique produced by the modulation of electron cyclotron heating. There are two types of bifurcation phenomena observed in a large helical device (LHD) and DIII-D. One is a bifurcation of the magnetic topology between nested and stochastic fields. The nested state is characterized by the bi-directional (inward and outward) propagation of the heat pulse with slow propagation speed. The stochastic state is characterized by the fast propagation of the heat pulse with electron temperature flattening. The other bifurcation is between the magnetic island with larger thermal diffusivity and that with smaller thermal diffusivity. The damping of toroidal flow is observed at the O-point of the magnetic island both in helical plasmas and in tokamak plasmas during a mode locking phase with strong flow shears at the boundary of the magnetic island. Associated with the stochastization of the magnetic field, the abrupt damping of toroidal flow is observed in LHD. The toroidal flow shear shows a linear decay, while the ion temperature gradient shows an exponential decay. This observation suggests that this flow damping is due to the change in the non-diffusive term of momentum transport.
Study of ICRF wave propagation and plasma coupling efficiency in a linear magnetic mirror device
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, S.Y.
1991-07-01
Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) wave propagation in an inhomogeneous axial magnetic field in a cylindrical plasma-vacuum system has historically been inadequately modelled. Previous works either sacrifice the cylindrical geometry in favor of a simpler slab geometry, concentrate on the resonance region, use a single mode to represent the entire field structure, or examine only radial propagation. This thesis performs both analytical and computational studies to model the ICRF wave-plasma coupling and propagation problem. Experimental analysis is also conducted to compare experimental results with theoretical predictions. Both theoretical as well as experimental analysis are undertaken as part of the thesis. The theoretical studies simulate the propagation of ICRF waves in an axially inhomogeneous magnetic field and in cylindrical geometry. Two theoretical analysis are undertaken - an analytical study and a computational study. The analytical study treats the inhomogeneous magnetic field by transforming the (r,z) coordinate into another coordinate system ({rho},{xi}) that allows the solution of the fields with much simpler boundaries. The plasma fields are then Fourier transformed into two coupled convolution-integral equations which are then differenced and solved for both the perpendicular mode number {alpha} as well as the complete EM fields. The computational study involves a multiple eigenmode computational analysis of the fields that exist within the plasma-vacuum system. The inhomogeneous axial field is treated by dividing the geometry into a series of transverse axial slices and using a constant dielectric tensor in each individual slice. The slices are then connected by longitudinal boundary conditions.
The characteristics of an intense laser beam propagating in a corrugated plasma channel
Tian, Jian-Min; Tang, Rong-An; Hong, Xue-Ren; Yang, Yang; Wang, Li; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Xue, Ju-Kui
2016-12-01
The propagation of an intense laser beam in a corrugated plasma channel is investigated. By using the source-dependent expansion technique, an evolution equation of the laser spot size is derived. The behaviors including aperiodic oscillation, resonance, beat-like wave, and periodic oscillation with multipeak are found and analyzed. The formula for the instantaneous wave numbers of these oscillations is obtained. These theoretical findings are confirmed by the final numerical simulation.
Wang, Z. B.; Nie, Q. Y.; Li, B. W.; Kong, F. R.
2017-01-01
Sub-atmospheric pressure plasma slabs exhibit the feature of relatively high plasma number density and high collisional frequency between electrons and neutral gases, as well as similar thickness to the electromagnetic (EM) wavelength in communication bands. The propagation characteristics of EM waves in sub-atmospheric pressure plasma slabs are attracting much attention of the researchers due to their applications in the plasma antenna, the blackout effect during reentry, wave energy injection in the plasma, etc. In this paper, a numerical model with a one-dimensional assumption has been established and therefore, it is used for the investigations of the propagation characteristics of the EM waves in plasma slabs. In this model, the EM waves propagating in both sub-wavelength plasma slabs and plasmas with thicker slabs can be studied simultaneously, which is superior to the model with geometrical optics approximation. The influence of EM wave frequencies and collisional frequencies on the amplitude of the transmitted EM waves is discussed in typical plasma profiles. The results will be significant for deep understanding of the propagation behaviors of the EM waves in sub-atmospheric pressure nonuniform plasma slabs, as well as the applications of the interactions between EM waves and the sub-atmospheric pressure plasmas.
Particle Simulation of the Blob Propagation in Non-Uniform Plasmas
Hasegawa, Hiroki; Ishiguro, Seiji
2014-10-01
The kinetic dynamics on blob propagation in non-uniform plasmas have been studied with a three dimensional electrostatic plasma particle simulation code. In our previous studies, we assumed that grad-B is uniform in the toroidal and poloidal directions. In scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas of real magnetic confinement devices, however, the direction of grad-B is different between the inside and the outside of torus. In this study, we have investigated the blob kinetic dynamics in the system where grad-B is spatially non-uniform. We observe different potential and particle flow structures from those shown in our previous studies. Thus, it is found that propagation properties of blobs in non-uniform grad-B plasmas are also distinct. These properties depend on the initial blob location in the toroidal directions. We will also discuss the application of this study to pellet dynamics. Supported by NIFS Collaboration Research programs (NIFS13KNSS038 and NIFS14KNXN279) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI 23740411).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2017-02-12
High frequency electrostatic wave propagation in a dense and semi-bounded electron quantum plasma is investigated with consideration of the Bohm potential. The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. We found that the quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. However, the frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave for the same quantum wave number. The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained. - Highlights: • High frequency electrostatic wave propagation is investigated in a dense semi-bounded quantum plasma. • The dispersion relation for the surface mode of quantum plasma is derived and numerically analyzed. • The quantum effect enhances the frequency of the wave especially in the high wave number regime. • The frequency of surface wave is found to be always lower than that of the bulk wave. • The group velocity of the surface wave for various quantum wave number is also obtained.
One-way helical electromagnetic wave propagation supported by magnetized plasma
Yang, Biao; Gao, Wenlong; Guo, Qinghua; Zhang, Shuang
2014-01-01
In this paper we reveal the presence of photonic one-way helical surface states in a simple natural system - magnetized plasma. The application of an external magnetic field to a bulk plasma body not only breaks time-reversal-symmetry but also leads to separation of Equi-Frequency Contour surfaces (EFCs) to form topologically nontrivial gaps in k space. Interestingly, these EFCs support topologically protected surface states. We numerically investigate an interface between magnetized plasma, using a realistic model for parameter dispersion, and vacuum, to confirm the existence of one-way scatter-immune helical surface states. Unlike previous proposals for achieving photonic one-way propagation, our scheme does not require the use of artificial structures and should therefore be simple to implement experimentally.
Ideal laser-beam propagation through high-temperature ignition Hohlraum plasmas.
Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; Dixit, S; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H
2007-02-23
We demonstrate that a blue (3omega, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2 x 10(15) W cm(-2) propagates nearly within the original beam cone through a millimeter scale, T(e)=3.5 keV high density (n(e)=5 x 10(20) cm(-3)) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter at these high temperatures and densities; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.
Propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse in a relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ritchie, B.; Decker, C.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1997-12-31
A Maxwell-relativistic fluid model is developed for the propagation of an ultrashort, intense laser pulse through an underdense plasma. The separability of plasma and optical frequencies ({omega}{sub p} and {omega} respectively) for small {omega}{sub p}/{omega} is not assumed; thus the validity of multiple-scales theory (MST) can be tested. The theory is valid when {omega}{sub p}/{omega} is of order unity or for cases in which {omega}{sub p}/{omega} {much_lt} 1 but strongly relativistic motion causes higher-order plasma harmonics to be generated which overlap the region of the first-order laser harmonic, such that MST would not expected to be valid although its principal validity criterion {omega}{sub p}/{omega} {much_lt} 1 holds.
Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Wei, M. S.; Nagayama, T.; Campbell, E. M.; Blue, B. E.; Heeter, R. F.; Koning, J. M.; Peterson, K. J.; Schmitt, A.
2016-11-01
We report experimental results and simulations showing efficient laser energy coupling into plasmas at conditions relevant to the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept. In MagLIF, to limit convergence and increase the hydrodynamic stability of the implosion, the fuel must be efficiently preheated. To determine the efficiency and physics of preheating by a laser, an Ar plasma with ne/nc r i t˜0.04 is irradiated by a multi-ns, multi-kJ, 0.35-μm, phase-plate-smoothed laser at spot-averaged intensities ranging from 1.0 ×1014 to 2.5 ×1014W /c m2 and pulse widths from 2 to 10 ns. Time-resolved x-ray images of the laser-heated plasma are compared to two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that show agreement with the propagating emission front, a comparison that constrains laser energy deposition to the plasma. The experiments show that long-pulse, modest-intensity (I =1.5 ×1014W /c m2 ) beams can efficiently couple energy (˜82 % of the incident energy) to MagLIF-relevant long-length (9.5 mm) underdense plasmas. The demonstrated heating efficiency is significantly higher than is thought to have been achieved in early integrated MagLIF experiments [A. B. Sefkow et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 072711 (2014), 10.1063/1.4890298].
On the propagation of hydromagnetic waves in a plasma of thermal and suprathermal components
Kumar, Nagendra; Sikka, Himanshu
2007-12-01
The propagation of MHD waves is studied when two ideal fluids, thermal and suprathermal gases, coupled by magnetic field are moving with the steady flow velocity. The fluids move independently in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field but gets coupled along the field. Due to the presence of flow in suprathermal and thermal fluids there appears forward and backward waves. All the forward and backward modes propagate in such a way that their rate of change of phase speed with the thermal Mach number is same. It is also found that besides the usual hydromagnetic modes there appears a suprathermal mode which propagates with faster speed. Surface waves are also examined on an interface formed with composite plasma (suprathermal and thermal gases) on one side and the other is a non-magnetized plasma. In this case, the modes obtained are two or three depending on whether the sound velocity in thermal gas is equal to or greater than the sound velocity in suprathermal gas. The results lead to the conclusion that the interaction of thermal and suprathermal components may lead to the occurrence of an additional mode called suprathermal mode whose phase velocity is higher than all the other modes.
Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joulaei, A. [Max-Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moody, J. [Max-Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Berti, N.; Kasparian, J. [University of Geneva (Switzerland); Mirzanejhad, S. [University of Mazandaran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Muggli, P. [Max-Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany)
2016-09-01
We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment. - Highlights: • Discussion the AWAKE plasma source based on photoionization of rubidium vapor with a TW/cm^2 Intensity laser with a spectrum across valence ground state transition resonances. • Examines the propagation of the AWAKE ionization laser through rubidium vapor at design density on a small scale and reduced intensity with a linear numerical model compared to experimental results. • Discusses physics of pulse propagation through the vapor at high intensity regime where strong ionization occurs within the laser pulse.
Propagation of atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet into ambient air at laminar gas flow
Pinchuk, M.; Stepanova, O.; Kurakina, N.; Spodobin, V.
2017-05-01
The formation of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) in a gas flow passing through the discharge gap depends on both gas-dynamic properties and electrophysical parameters of the plasma jet generator. The paper presents the results of experimental and numerical study of the propagation of the APPJ in a laminar flow of helium. A dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) generated inside a quartz tube equipped with a coaxial electrode system, which provided gas passing through it, served as a plasma source. The transition of the laminar regime of gas flow into turbulent one was controlled by the photography of a formed plasma jet. The corresponding gas outlet velocity and Reynolds numbers were revealed experimentally and were used to simulate gas dynamics with OpenFOAM software. The data of the numerical simulation suggest that the length of plasma jet at the unvarying electrophysical parameters of DBD strongly depends on the mole fraction of ambient air in a helium flow, which is established along the direction of gas flow.
Magnetic and Electric Field Polarizations of Oblique Magnetospheric Chorus Waves
Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lakhina, Gurbax S.
2012-01-01
A theory was developed to explain the properties of the chorus magnetic and electric field components in the case of an arbitrary propagation angle. The new theory shows that a whistler wave has circularly polarized magnetic fields for oblique propagation. This theoretical result is verified by GEOTAIL observations. The wave electric field polarization plane is not orthogonal to the wave vector, and in general is highly elliptically polarized. A special case of the whistler wave called the Gendrin mode is also discussed. This will help to construct a detailed and realistic picture of wave interaction with magnetosphere electrons. It is the purpose of this innovation to study the magnetic and electric polarization properties of chorus at all frequencies, and at all angles of propagation. Even though general expressions for electromagnetic wave polarization in anisotropic plasma are derived in many textbooks, to the knowledge of the innovators, a detailed analysis for oblique whistler wave mode is lacking. Knowledge of the polarization properties is critical for theoretical calculations of resonant wave-particle interactions.
Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment
Joulaei, A.; Moody, J.; Berti, N.; Kasparian, J.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Muggli, P.
2016-09-01
We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment.
Propagation of a Scattered Electromagnetic Wave with P-Polarization (TE) Mode in Atmospheric Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Zhong-He; HU Xi-Wei; LIU Ming-Hai; LAN Chao-Hui; HE Yong; ZHANG Shu; PAN Yuan
2006-01-01
@@ The finite-difference-time-domain method is applied to simulate the two-dimensional propagation ofa p-polarization mode electromagnetic wave in atmospheric plasma and metal layer for strong electron-neutral collisions. It is indicated that for a giving electron density profile, the p-polarization attenuation is very different from the spolarization attenuation and it depends even strongly on the incident angle. The mechanism of p-polarization attenuation is analysed by the interference of wave and the relationship between the attenuation property and the main parameters is given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Shi-Bing; CHEN Tao; CHEN Shi-Gang
2004-01-01
An essential dispersion relation,which can describe the dynamic properties of stimulated Raman scattering instability as a laser beam propagates through plasmas,is derived analytically.The development of growth mode,angle distribution,and temperature dependence of the instabilities are presented by solving this dispersion relation numerically.A significant dynamic characteristic has been revealed that the temperature increasing of the electron would result in redshift of scattered spectrum at high laser intensities.Furthermore,a novel modulational instability with double-peak temporal structure appears in a limited density region because of the coupling of scattered upshift and downshift waves.
Laser pulse propagation in a meter scale rubidium vapor/plasma cell in AWAKE experiment
Joulaei, Atefeh; Berti, Nicolas; Kasparian, Jerome; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Muggli, Patric
2016-01-01
We present the results of numerical studies of laser pulse propagating in a 3.5 cm Rb vapor cell in the linear dispersion regime by using a 1D model and a 2D code that has been modified for our special case. The 2D simulation finally aimed at finding laser beam parameters suitable to make the Rb vapor fully ionized to obtain a uniform, 10 m-long, at least 1 mm in radius plasma in the next step for the AWAKE experiment.
Magnetic structures propagating in non-equilibrium relativistic plasma of pulsar wind nebulae
Petrov, A. E.; Bykov, A. M.
2016-11-01
The kinetic model of highly non-equilibrium relativistic electron-positron plasma is used to study dynamical magnetic structures in pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The evolution equation which describes a propagation of a long-wavelength magnetosonic type perturbation of small but finite amplitude is derived. The wavelength is assumed to be longer than the scattering length of the background positrons and electrons. The rates of scattering of electrons and positrons by the stochastic magnetic field fluctuations are distinguished but the difference is supposed to be small compared with the gyrofrequencies of particles. The phase velocity, the dissipation rate and the dispersion length of the magnetic pulse are studied as the functions of plasma parameters and the scattering rates of electrons and positrons. The model being confronted to observations can help to determine the pulsar wind composition, particle distribution and non-thermal pressure in PWNe.
Electron Acceleration and the Propagation of Ultrashort High-Intensity Laser Pulses in Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiaofang; Krishnan, Mohan; Saleh, Ned; Wang, Haiwen; Umstadter, Donald
2000-06-05
Reported are interactions of high-intensity laser pulses ({lambda}=810 nm and I{<=}3x10{sup 18} W /cm{sup 2} ) with plasmas in a new parameter regime, in which the pulse duration ({tau}=29 fs ) corresponds to 0.6-2.6 plasma periods. Relativistic filamentation is observed to cause laser-beam breakup and scattering of the beam out of the vacuum propagation angle. A beam of megaelectronvolt electrons with divergence angle as small as 1 degree sign is generated in the forward direction, which is correlated to the growth of the relativistic filamentation. Raman scattering, however, is found to be much less than previous long-pulse results. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air
Lacoste, Deanna
2014-11-04
This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 μm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 ×105 m s-1 is observed.
Pure air-plasma bullets propagating inside microcapillaries and in ambient air
Lacoste, Deanna A.; Bourdon, Anne; Kuribara, Koichi; Urabe, Keiichiro; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo
2014-12-01
This paper reports on the characterization of air-plasma bullets in microcapillary tubes and in ambient air, obtained without the use of inert or noble gases. The bullets were produced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges, applied in a dielectric barrier discharge configuration. The anode was a tungsten wire with a diameter of 50 µm, centered in the microcapillary, while the cathode was a silver ring, fixed on the outer surface of the fused silica tube. The effects of the applied voltage and the inner diameter of the microcapillary tube on the plasma behavior were investigated. Inside the tubes, while the topology of the bullets seems to be strongly dependent on the diameter, their velocity is only a function of the amplitude of the applied voltage. In ambient air, the propagation of air bullets with a velocity of about 1.25 × 105 m s-1 is observed.
Chen, Qiang; Chen, Bin
2012-10-01
In this paper, a hybrid electrodynamics and kinetics numerical model based on the finite-difference time-domain method and lattice Boltzmann method is presented for electromagnetic wave propagation in weakly ionized hydrogen plasmas. In this framework, the multicomponent Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model considering both elastic and Coulomb collisions and the multicomponent force model based on the Guo model are introduced, which supply a hyperfine description on the interaction between electromagnetic wave and weakly ionized plasma. Cubic spline interpolation and mean filtering technique are separately introduced to solve the multiscalar problem and enhance the physical quantities, which are polluted by numerical noise. Several simulations have been implemented to validate our model. The numerical results are consistent with a simplified analytical model, which demonstrates that this model can obtain satisfying numerical solutions successfully.
Relativistic nonlinearity and wave-guide propagation of rippled laser beam in plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R K Khanna; K Baheti
2001-06-01
In the present paper we have investigated the self-focusing behaviour of radially symmetrical rippled Gaussian laser beam propagating in a plasma. Considering the nonlinearity to arise from relativistic phenomena and following the approach of Akhmanov et al, which is based on the WKB and paraxial-ray approximation, the self-focusing behaviour has been investigated in some detail. The effect of the position and width of the ripple on the self-focusing of laser beam has been studied for arbitrary large magnitude of nonlinearity. Results indicate that the medium behaves as an oscillatory wave-guide. The self-focusing is found to depend on the position parameter of ripple as well as on the beam width. Values of critical power has been calculated for different values of the position parameter of ripple. Effects of axially and radially inhomogeneous plasma on self-focusing behaviour have been investigated and presented here.
Manning, Robert M.
2009-01-01
Based on a theoretical model of the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a hypersonically induced plasma, it has been demonstrated that the classical radiofrequency communications blackout that is experienced during atmospheric reentry can be mitigated through the appropriate control of an external magnetic field of nominal magnitude. The model is based on the kinetic equation treatment of Vlasov and involves an analytical solution for the electric and magnetic fields within the plasma allowing for a description of the attendant transmission, reflection and absorption coefficients. The ability to transmit through the magnetized plasma is due to the magnetic windows that are created within the plasma via the well-known whistler modes of propagation. The case of 2 GHz transmission through a re-entry plasma is considered. The coefficients are found to be highly sensitive to the prevailing electron density and will thus require a dynamic control mechanism to vary the magnetic field as the plasma evolves through the re-entry phase.
Nonlinear Alfvén wave propagating in ideal MHD plasmas
Zheng, Jugao; Chen, Yinhua; Yu, Mingyang
2016-01-01
The behavior of nonlinear Alfvén waves propagating in ideal MHD plasmas is investigated numerically. It is found that in a one-dimensional weakly nonlinear system an Alfvén wave train can excite two longitudinal disturbances, namely an acoustic wave and a ponderomotively driven disturbance, which behave differently for β \\gt 1 and β \\lt 1, where β is the ratio of plasma-to-magnetic pressures. In a strongly nonlinear system, the Alfvén wave train is modulated and can steepen to form shocks, leading to significant dissipation due to appearance of current sheets at magnetic-pressure minima. For periodic boundary condition, we find that the Alfvén wave transfers its energy to the plasma and heats it during the shock formation. In two-dimensional systems, fast magneto-acoustic wave generation due to Alfvén wave phase mixing is considered. It is found that the process depends on the amplitude and frequency of the Alfvén waves, as well as their speed gradients and the pressure of the background plasma.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robert, E.; Darny, T.; Dozias, S.; Iseni, S.; Pouvesle, J. M. [GREMI, UMR 7344, CNRS/Université d' Orléans, BP 6744, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)
2015-12-15
Atmospheric pressure plasma propagation inside long dielectric tubes is analyzed for the first time through nonintrusive and nonperturbative time resolved bi-directional electric field (EF) measurements. This study unveils that plasma propagation occurs in a region where longitudinal EF exists ahead the ionization front position usually revealed from plasma emission with ICCD measurement. The ionization front propagation induces the sudden rise of a radial EF component. Both of these EF components have an amplitude of several kV/cm for helium or neon plasmas and are preserved almost constant along a few tens of cm inside a capillary. All these experimental measurements are in excellent agreement with previous model calculations. The key roles of the voltage pulse polarity and of the target nature on the helium flow patterns when plasma jet is emerging in ambient air are documented from Schlieren visualization. The second part of this work is then dedicated to the development of multi jet systems, using two different setups, based on a single plasma source. Plasma splitting in dielectric tubes drilled with sub millimetric orifices, but also plasma transfer across metallic tubes equipped with such orifices are reported and analyzed from ICCD imaging and time resolved EF measurements. This allows for the design and the feasibility validation of plasma jet arrays but also emphasizes the necessity to account for voltage pulse polarity, target potential status, consecutive helium flow modulation, and electrostatic influence between the produced secondary jets.
Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A K Banerjee; M N Alam; A A Mamun
2001-05-01
Obliquely propagating ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfvén mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust-magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that in parallel propagating dust-Alfvén mode these effects play no role, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfvén mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays stabilizing role.
Theory and Modeling of Petawatt Laser Pulse Propagation in Low Density Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadwick, Bradley A. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kalmykov, S. Y. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2016-12-08
Report describing accomplishments in all-optical control of self-injection in laser-plasma accelerators and in developing advanced numerical models of laser-plasma interactions. All-optical approaches to controlling electron self-injection and beam formation in laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) were explored. It was demonstrated that control over the laser pulse evolution is the key ingredient in the generation of low-background, low-phase-space-volume electron beams. To this end, preserving a smooth laser pulse envelope throughout the acceleration process can be achieved through tuning the phase and amplitude of the incident pulse. A negative frequency chirp compensates the frequency red-shift accumulated due to wake excitation, preventing evolution of the pulse into a relativistic optical shock. This reduces the ponderomotive force exerted on quiescent plasma electrons, suppressing expansion of the bubble and continuous injection of background electrons, thereby reducing the charge in the low-energy tail by an order of magnitude. Slowly raising the density in the pulse propagation direction locks electrons in the accelerating phase, boosting their energy, keeping continuous injection at a low level, tripling the brightness of the quasi-monoenergetic component. Additionally, propagating the negatively chirped pulse in a plasma channel suppresses diffraction of the pulse leading edge, further reducing continuous injection. As a side effect, oscillations of the pulse tail may be enhanced, leading to production of low-background, polychromatic electron beams. Such beams, consisting of quasi-monoenergetic components with controllable energy and energy separation, may be useful as drivers of polychromatic x-rays based on Thomson backscattering. These all-optical methods of electron beam quality control are critically important for the development of future compact, high-repetition-rate, GeV-scale LPA using 10 TW-class, ultra-high bandwidth pulses and mm-scale, dense
Theory of wave propagation along waveguide filled with plasma in finite magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘盛纲; J.K.Lee; 祝大军
1996-01-01
Rigorous analytical theory of wave propagation along a cylindrical waveguide filled with plasmas in a dielectric tube immersed in finite magnetic field is presented.The field components’ expressions,eigenvalues,dispersion equations and complex wave power transmission equations have been obtained rigorously and discussed in detail.It is shown analytically that there is no disruption of the wave propagationin the ECR (ω=ωa) case,although the electrical permittivities approach to infinite in the case,and it hasbeen found that a real resonance takes place in this case while ω=(ωa2+ωpc2)1/2,in which the wave propagationof any mode is broken.The effective collisions are taken into consideration in the theory.Based on the above theory,the analytical theory of corrugated plasma waveguide immersed in finite axial magnetic field is also presented.The Floquet’s expansion of field components,the dispersion equations,and the coupling coefficients of the corrugated plasma waveguide have been derived rigorously a
Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation in magnetized plasma: A review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porkolab, Miklos
2015-12-10
Nonlinear phenomena in RF wave propagation has been observed from the earliest days in basic laboratory experiments going back to the 1960s [1], followed by observations of parametric instability (PDI) phenomena in large scale RF heating experiments in magnetized fusion plasmas in the 1970s and beyond [2]. Although not discussed here, the importance of PDI phenomena has also been central to understanding anomalous absorption in laser-fusion experiments (ICF) [3]. In this review I shall discuss the fundamentals of nonlinear interactions among waves and particles, and in particular, their role in PDIs. This phenomenon is distinct from quasi-linear phenomena that are often invoked in calculating absorption of RF power in wave heating experiments in the core of magnetically confined plasmas [4]. Indeed, PDIs are most likely to occur in the edge of magnetized fusion plasmas where the electron temperature is modest and hence the oscillating quiver velocity of charged particles can be comparable to their thermal speeds. Specifically, I will review important aspects of PDI theory and give examples from past experiments in the ECH/EBW, lower hybrid (LHCD) and ICRF/IBW frequency regimes. Importantly, PDI is likely to play a fundamental role in determining the so-called “density limit” in lower hybrid experiments that has persisted over the decades and still central to understanding present day experiments [5-7].
Effect of Bohm quantum potential in the propagation of ion-acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas
Hasan, M. M.; Hossen, M. A.; Rafat, A.; Mamun, A. A.
2016-10-01
A theoretical investigation has been carried out on the propagation of the ion-acoustic (IA) waves in a relativistic degenerate plasma containing relativistic degenerate electron and positron fluids in the presence of inertial non-relativistic light ion fluid. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV), and mixed mK-dV (mmK-dV) equations are derived by adopting the reductive perturbation method. In order to analyze the basic features (phase speed, amplitude, width, etc.) of the IA solitary waves (SWs), the SWs solutions of the K-dV, mK-dV, and mmK-dV are numerically analyzed. It is found that the degenerate pressure, inclusion of the new phenomena like the Fermi temperatures and quantum mechanical effects (arising due to the quantum diffraction) of both electrons and positrons, number densities, etc., of the plasma species remarkably change the basic characteristics of the IA SWs which are found to be formed either with positive or negative potential. The implication of our results in explaining different nonlinear phenomena in astrophysical compact objects, e.g., white dwarfs, neutron stars, etc., and laboratory plasmas like intense laser-solid matter interaction experiments, etc., are mentioned.
Kaganovich, Igor D.
2015-11-01
In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Propagation of Ordinary and Extraordinary Modes in Ultra-Relativistic Maxwellian Electron Plasma
Ali, M.; Zaheer, S.; Murtaza, G.
2010-12-01
Modes of ultra relativistic electron plasma embedded in a strong magnetic field are investigated for perpendicular propagation. Using Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, a general expression for the conductivity tensor is derived. An ultra-relativistic Maxwellian distribution function is employed to derive different modes for strong magnetic field limit. In particular, the dispersion relations for the ordinary mode and the extra ordinary mode (O-mode and X-mode) are obtained. Graphs of these dispersion relations and the imaginary parts of the frequency are drawn for some specific values of the parameters. It is observed that the damping rate increases gradually, reaches some maximum point and then decreases for larger wavenumbers. Further, increasing the strength of the magnetic field lowers the maximum value of the damping rate.
Proton beam generation of oblique whistler waves
Wong, H. K.; Goldstein, M. L.
1988-01-01
It is known that ion beams are capable of generating whistler waves that propagate parallel to the mean magnetic field. Such waves may have been observed both upstream of the earth's bow shock and in the vicinity of comets. Previous analyses are extended to include propagation oblique to the mean magnetic field. The instability is generated by the perpendicular component of free energy in the ions, which can arise either via a temperature anisotropy or via a gyrating distribution. In the former case, the generation of whistler waves is confined to a fairly narrow cone of propagation directions centered about parallel propagation; in the latter case, the maximum growth of the instability can occur at fairly large obliquities (theta equal to about 50 deg).
Nonlinear propagation of positron-acoustic waves in a four component space plasma
Shah, M. G.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2015-10-01
> The nonlinear propagation of positron-acoustic waves (PAWs) in an unmagnetized, collisionless, four component, dense plasma system (containing non-relativistic inertial cold positrons, relativistic degenerate electron and hot positron fluids as well as positively charged immobile ions) has been investigated theoretically. The Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV), modified K-dV (mK-dV) and further mK-dV (fmK-dV) equations have been derived by using reductive perturbation technique. Their solitary wave solutions have been numerically analysed in order to understand the localized electrostatic disturbances. It is observed that the relativistic effect plays a pivotal role on the propagation of positron-acoustic solitary waves (PASW). It is also observed that the effects of degenerate pressure and the number density of inertial cold positrons, hot positrons, electrons and positively charged static ions significantly modify the fundamental features of PASW. The basic features and the underlying physics of PASW, which are relevant to some astrophysical compact objects (such as white dwarfs, neutron stars etc.), are concisely discussed.
Kong, D. F.; Liu, A. D.; Lan, T.; Yu, C. X.; Cheng, J.; Qiu, Z. Y.; Zhao, H. L.; Shen, H. G.; Yan, L. W.; Dong, J. Q.; Xu, M.; Zhao, K. J.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y.; Chen, R.; Zhang, S. B.; Sun, X.; Xie, J. L.; Li, H.; Liu, W. D.
2017-04-01
Coexisting dual kinetic geodesic acoustic modes (KGAMs) with similar characteristics have been observed with Langmuir probe arrays in the edge plasma of HL-2A tokamak with low density Ohmic discharge. The dual KGAMs are named a low-frequency GAM (LFGAM) and a high-frequency GAM (HFGAM), respectively. By changing the line averaged density from 1.0× {{10}19}~{{\\text{m}}-3} to 0.7× {{10}19}~{{\\text{m}}-3} , the study of n e and T e profiles indicate that collision damping rate plays a crucial role on exciting of dual KGAMs, especially for the higher frequency branch (HFGAM). With the application of modulating techniques, we provide direct proof that nonlinear interactions between GAMs and ambient turbulence (AT) show great difference at different radial positions. At the exciting position of GAM, the amplitude modulation of AT is dominant, indicating that GAM is generated in the energy-conserving triad interaction. After the exciting of GAMs, they will propagate both inward and outward. During the propagation, the phase modulation of AT is dominant, GAMs can rarely gain energy from AT, yet they can give back-reactions on AT through shearing effect.
Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain
2016-01-01
The theoretical and numerical studies have been investigated on the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) in an un-magnetized Thomas-Fermi plasma system consisting of electron, positrons, and positive ions for both of ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic degenerate electrons. Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation is derived from the model equations by using the well-known reductive perturbation method. This equation is solved by employing the generalized Riccati equation mapping method. The hyperbolic functions type solutions to the K-dV equation are only considered for describing the effect of plasma parameters on the propagation of electrostatic IAWs for both of ultra-relativistic and non-relativistic degenerate electrons. The obtained results may be helpful in proper understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized IAWs in degenerate plasmas and provide the mathematical foundation in plasma physics.
Uncertainty propagation in modeling of plasma-assisted hydrogen production from biogas
Zaherisarabi, Shadi; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy
2016-10-01
With the growing concern of global warming and the resulting emphasis on decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there is an ever-increasing need to utilize energy-production strategies that can decrease the burning of fossil fuels. In this context, hydrogen remains an attractive clean-energy fuel that can be oxidized to produce water as a by-product. In spite of being an abundant species, hydrogen is seldom found in a form that is directly usable for energy-production. While steam reforming of methane is one popular technique for hydrogen production, plasma-assisted conversion of biogas (carbon dioxide + methane) to hydrogen is an attractive alternative. Apart from producing hydrogen, the other advantage of using biogas as raw material is the fact that two potent greenhouse gases are consumed. In this regard, modeling is an important tool to understand and optimize plasma-assisted conversion of biogas. The primary goal of this work is to perform a comprehensive statistical study that quantifies the influence of uncertain rate constants thereby determining the key reaction pathways. A 0-D chemical kinetics solver in the OpenFOAM suite is used to perform a series of simulations to propagate the uncertainty in rate constants and the resulting mean and standard deviation of outcomes.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kh. H. EL-SHORBAGY
2008-01-01
The effect of a high frequency (HF) electric field on the propagation of electrostatic wave in a 2D non-uniform relativistic plasma waveguide is investigated. A variable separation method is applied to the two-fluid plasma model. An analytical study of the reflection of electro-static wave propagation along a magnetized non-uniform relativistic plasma slab subjected to an intense HF electric field is presented and compared with the case of a non relativistic plasma. It is found that, when the frequency of the incident wave is close to the relativistic electron plasma frequency, the plasma is less reflective due to the presence of both an HF field and the effect of rel-ativistic electrons. On the other hand, for a low-frequency incident wave the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the amplitude of the HF field. Also, it is shown that the relativistic electron plasma leads to a decrease in the value of reflection coefficient in comparison with the case of the non relativistic plasma.
Phase mixing of Alfvén waves propagating in non-reflective magnetic plasma configurations
Ruderman, Michael S.; Petrukhin, Nikolai S.
2017-04-01
The ability of phase mixing to provide efficient damping of Alfvén waves even in weakly dissipative plasmas made it a popular mechanism for explaining the solar coronal heating. Initially it was studied in the equilibrium configurations with the straight magnetic field lines and the Alfvén speed only varying in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Later the analysis of the Alfvén wave phase mixing was extended in various directions. In particular it was studied in two-dimensional planar magnetic plasma equilibria. Analytical investigation was carried out under the assumption that the wavelength is much smaller than the characteristic scale of the background quantity variation. This assumption enabled using the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin (WKB) method. When it is not satisfied the study was only carried out numerically. In general, even the wave propagation in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous equilibrium can be only studied numerically. However there is one important exception, so-called non-reflective equilibria. In these equilibria the wave equation with the variable phase speed reduces to the Klein-Gordon equation with constant coefficients. In this paper we apply the theory of non-reflective wave propagation to studying the Alfvén wave phase mixing in two-dimensional planar magnetic plasma equilibria. Using curvilinear coordinates we reduce the equation describing the Alfvén wave phase mixing to the equation that becomes a one-dimensional wave equation in the absence of dissipation. This equation is further reduced to the equation which is the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation in the absence of dissipation. Then we show that this equation has constant coefficients when a particular relation between the plasma density and magnetic field magnitude is satisfied. Using the derived Klein-Gordon-type equation we study the phase mixing in various non-reflective equilibria. We emphasise that our analysis is valid even when the wavelength is
Bénisti, Didier
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the linear and nonlinear propagation of an electron wave (EPW), in a three-dimensional geometry, and in a collisionless plasma that may be inhomogeneous, nonstationary, anisotropic and even weakly magnetized. The wave amplitude, together with any hydrodynamic quantity characterizing the plasma (density, temperature,...) are supposed to vary very little within one wavelength or one wave period. Hence, the geometrical optics limit is assumed, and the wave propagation is described by a first order differential equation. This equation explicitly accounts for three-dimensional effects, plasma inhomogeneity, Landau damping, and the collisionless dissipation and electron acceleration due to trapping. It is derived by mixing results obtained from a direct resolution of the Vlasov-Poisson system and from a variational formalism involving a nonlocal Lagrangian density. In a one-dimensional situation, abrupt transitions are predicted in the coefficients of the wave equation. They occur when the sate...
Energetics and Propagation of Coronal Mass Ejections in Different Plasma Environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Based on previous work, we investigate the propagation of CMEs in amore realistic plasma environment than the isothermal atmosphere, and find thatMach number MA for the inflow into the reconnection site has to be at least 0.013in order to give a plausible eruption (compared to MA = 0.005 for the isothermalatmosphere). Taking MA = 0.1, we find that the energy output and the electricfield induced inside the current sheet match the temporal behavior inferred fromthe energetic, long duration, CME-associated X-ray events. The results indicatethat catastrophic loss of equilibrium in the coronal magnetic field provides the mostpromising mechanism for major solar eruptions, and that the more energetic theeruption is, the earlier the associated flare peaks. The variation of the output powerwith the background field strength revealed by our calculations implies the poor cor-relation between slow CMEs and solar flares. This work also further confirms theexplanation we proposed for the peculiar motion of giant X-ray arches and anoma-lous post-flare loops. Their kinematic pattern and observed heights are determined by the local Alfven speed and its variation with height.
Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas
Timofeev, I V
2012-01-01
Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.
Wang, Li; Hong, Xue-Ren; Sun, Jian-An; Tang, Rong-An; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Tian, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan
2017-07-01
The propagation of q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed plasma channel is investigated by means of the variational method. A differential equation for the spot size has been obtained by including the effects of relativistic self-focusing, ponderomotive self-channeling and preformed channel focusing. The propagation behaviors and their corresponding physical conditions are identified. The comparison of the propagation between q-Gaussian and Gaussian laser beams is done by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that, in the same channel, the focusing power of q-Gaussian laser beam is lower than that of Gaussian laser beam, i.e., the q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than Gaussian laser beam.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F. [Geospace Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología (CEDENNA), Santiago 9170124 (Chile)
2015-09-15
We use a particle-in-cell simulation to study the propagation of localized structures in a magnetized electron-positron plasma with relativistic finite temperature. We use as initial condition for the simulation an envelope soliton solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, derived from the relativistic two fluid equations in the strongly magnetized limit. This envelope soliton turns out not to be a stable solution for the simulation and splits in two localized structures propagating in opposite directions. However, these two localized structures exhibit a soliton-like behavior, as they keep their profile after they collide with each other due to the periodic boundary conditions. We also observe the formation of localized structures in the evolution of a spatially uniform circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In both cases, the localized structures propagate with an amplitude independent velocity.
Zhou, Shengguo; Li, Hailong; Fu, Luyao; Wang, Maoyan
2016-06-01
Radar echoes intensity of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) is greatly affected by the temperature of dusty plasma and the frequency of electromagnetic wave about the radar. In this paper, a new method is developed to explain the active experiment results of PMSE. The theory of wave propagation in a layered media is used to study the propagation characteristics of an electromagnetic wave at different electron temperatures. The simulation results show that the variation tendency of the reflected power fraction almost agrees with the results observed by radar in the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT). The radar echoes intensity of PMSE greatly decreases with the increase of the radio frequency and the enhancement of the electron temperature. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 41104097 and 41304119) and by the National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment, China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation (CRIRP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Purohit, Gunjan, E-mail: gunjan75@gmail.com; Rawat, Priyanka [Department of Physics, Laser-Plasma Computational Laboratory, DAV PG College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand (India); Chauhan, Prashant [Department of Physics and Material Science and Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mahmoud, Saleh T. [Department of Physics, College of Science, UAE University, PO Box 17551 Al-Ain (United Arab Emirates)
2015-05-15
This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate.
Obliquity along plate boundaries
Philippon, Mélody; Corti, Giacomo
2016-12-01
Most of the plate boundaries are activated obliquely with respect to the direction of far field stresses, as roughly only 8% of the plate boundaries total length shows a very low obliquity (ranging from 0 to 10°, sub-orthogonal to the plate displacement). The obliquity along plate boundaries is controlled by (i) lateral rheological variations within the lithosphere and (ii) consistency with the global plate circuit. Indeed, plate tectonics and magmatism drive rheological changes within the lithosphere and consequently influence strain localization. Geodynamical evolution controls large-scale mantle convection and plate formation, consumption, and re-organization, thus triggering plate kinematics variations, and the adjustment and re-orientation of far field stresses. These geological processes may thus result in plate boundaries that are not perpendicular but oblique to the direction of far field stresses. This paper reviews the global patterns of obliquity along plate boundaries. Using GPlate, we provide a statistical analysis of present-day obliquity along plate boundaries. Within this framework, by comparing natural examples and geological models, we discuss deformation patterns and kinematics recorded along oblique plate boundaries.
Esfandyari-Kalejahi, Abdolrasoul; Saberian, Ehsan; 10.1585/pfr.5.045
2011-01-01
Arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) are studied using Sagdeev-Potential approach in electron-positron-ion plasma with ultra-relativistic or non-relativistic degenerate electrons and positrons and the matching criteria of existence of such solitary waves are numerically investigated. It has been shown that the relativistic degeneracy of electrons and positrons has significant effects on the amplitude and the Mach-number range of IASWs. Also it is remarked that only compressive IASWs can propagate in both non-relativistic and ultra-relativistic degenerate plasmas.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘承宜; 郭弘; 付喜泉; 胡巍; 喻松
2001-01-01
By starting with the Maxwell theory of x-ray laser propagation in collisionless plasmas, we study the phase difference of the probe and reference beams of x-ray laser interferometry in measuring the plasma electron density. The basic idea is to reduce the Maxwell equation to a Schrodinger-like equation. By using the quantum mechanical technique and introducing a novel picture, we obtain a modified relation between the phase and the electron density, where the phase corresponds to the interference of probe and reference light and the contribution of gradient of the electron density has been taken into account.
The whistler mode in a Vlasov plasma
Tokar, R. L.; Gary, S. P.
1985-01-01
In this study, properties of small-amplitude parallel and oblique whistler-mode waves are investigated for a wide range of plasma parameters by numerically solving the full electromagnetic Vlasov-dispersion equation. To investigate the cold-plasma and electrostatic approximations for the whistler mode, the results are compared with results obtained using these descriptions. For large wavelengths, the cold-plasma description is often accurate, while for short wavelengths and sufficiently oblique propagation, the electrostatic description is often accurate. The study demonstrates that in a Vlasov plasma the whistler mode near resonance has a group velocity more nearly parallel to the magnetic field than that predicted by cold-plasma theory.
Quantitative single shot and spatially resolved plasma wakefield diagnostics
Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Levy, Matthew C; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Wing, Matthew; Norreys, Peter
2015-01-01
Diagnosing plasma conditions can give great advantages in optimizing plasma wakefield accelerator experiments. One possible method is that of photon acceleration. By propagating a laser probe pulse through a plasma wakefield and extracting the imposed frequency modulation, one can obtain an image of the density modulation of the wakefield. In order to diagnose the wakefield parameters at a chosen point in the plasma, the probe pulse crosses the plasma at oblique angles relative to the wakefield. In this paper, mathematical expressions relating the frequency modulation of the laser pulse and the wakefield density profile of the plasma for oblique crossing angles are derived. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulation results presented in this paper confirm that the frequency modulation profiles and the density modulation profiles agree to within 10%. Limitations to the accuracy of the measurement are discussed in this paper. This technique opens new possibilities to quantitatively diagnose the plasma wakefie...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S.; Chen, Z. Y.; Wang, X. H., E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, D.; Yang, A. J.; Liu, D. X.; Rong, M. Z. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, H. L. [Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Kong, M. G. [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)
2015-11-28
Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas have potential to be used for endoscope sterilization. In this study, a long quartz tube was used as the simulated endoscope channel, and an array of electrodes was warped one by one along the tube. Plasmas were generated in the inner channel of the tube, and their propagation characteristics in He+O{sub 2} feedstock gases were studied as a function of the oxygen concentration. It is found that each of the plasmas originates at the edge of an instantaneous cathode, and then it propagates bidirectionally. Interestingly, a plasma head with bright spots is formed in the hollow instantaneous cathode and moves towards its center part, and a plasma tail expands through the electrode gap and then forms a swallow tail in the instantaneous anode. The plasmas are in good axisymmetry when [O{sub 2}] ≤ 0.3%, but not for [O{sub 2}] ≥ 1%, and even behave in a stochastic manner when [O{sub 2}] = 3%. The antibacterial agents are charged species and reactive oxygen species, so their wall fluxes represent the “plasma dosage” for the sterilization. Such fluxes mainly act on the inner wall in the hollow electrode rather than that in the electrode gap, and they get to the maximum efficiency when the oxygen concentration is around 0.3%. It is estimated that one can reduce the electrode gap and enlarge the electrode width to achieve more homogenous and efficient antibacterial effect, which have benefits for sterilization applications.
Dan’ko, S. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.
2017-04-01
This paper presents measurement results of neon and helium plasma parameters in axial jets generated in plasma focus discharge. They were obtained in the course of experiments on laboratory modeling of astrophysical jets performed at the PF-3 facility. The plasma concentration was determined according to Stark broadening of spectral lines; the ionization temperature was determined by the average ion charge. The values of the concentration and temperature of jet plasma and background plasma at two distances from the pinch are also presented. In addition, an estimation was made of the heat content losses of the neon and helium jets during their movement through the surrounding medium.
Fedorov, V. A.
2016-05-01
Electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency are estimated for the plasma that is formed in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere. The frequencies of electromagnetic waves that may propagate in plasma emerging in the vicinity of the aircraft are determined. Formulas that make it possible to analytically (rather than graphically) calculate electron concentration in plasma at altitudes of 30, 60, and 90 km are derived for two speeds. Several specific features of variations in the electron concentration in plasma depending on the above altitudes and speeds are presented. Quasi-periodic variations in the plasma concentration can be obtained using an increase and decrease in the speed of aircraft.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segre, S.E. [Rome Univ. 2. Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy). Istituto Nazionale Fisica della Materia, Dipartimento di Fisica
2001-07-01
The known analytic expressions for the evolution of the polarization of electromagnetic waves propagating in a plasma with uniformly sheared magnetic field are extended to the case where the shear is not constant. Exact analytic expressions are found for the case when the space variations of the medium are such that the magnetic field components and the plasma density satisfy a particular condition (eq. 13), possibly in a convenient reference frame of polarization space. [Italian] Le espressioni, gia' note, per l'evoluzione della polarizzazione di onde elettromagnetiche propaganti in un plasma magnetizzato con shear costante vengono estese a casi in cui questo non e' costante. Si trovano soluzioni analitiche esatte per il caso in cui le variazioni spaziali del mezzo sono tali da soddisfare una particolare condizione (eq. 13), eventualmente in un opportuno sistema di riferimento nello spazio della polarizzazione (lo spazio di Poincare').
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. Hafez
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional three-component plasma system consisting of nonextensive electrons, positrons, and relativistic thermal ions is considered. The well-known Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers and Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations are derived to study the basic characteristics of small but finite amplitude ion acoustic waves of the plasmas by using the reductive perturbation method. The influences of positron concentration, electron-positron and ion-electron temperature ratios, strength of electron and positrons nonextensivity, and relativistic streaming factor on the propagation of ion acoustic waves in the plasmas are investigated. It is revealed that the electrostatic compressive and rarefactive ion acoustic waves are obtained for superthermal electrons and positrons, but only compressive ion acoustic waves are found and the potential profiles become steeper in case of subthermal positrons and electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)
2011-07-01
The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation
Ni, Gengsong; Qian, Muyang; Yang, Congying; Liu, Sanqiu; Wang, Dezhen
2016-07-01
In this work, a computational modeling study on the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet in needle-plane configuration is presented. Above all, in our model, two sub-models of time-dependent plasma dynamics and laminar flow are connected using a oneway coupled method, and both the working gas and the surrounding gas around the plasma jet are assumed to be the same, which are premixed He/N2 gas. The mole fractions of the N2 (NMF) ingredient are set to be 0.01%, 0.1% and 1% in three cases, respectively. It is found that in each case, the plasma bullet accelerates with time to a peak velocity after it exits the nozzle and then decreases until getting to the treated surface, and that the velocity of the plasma bullet increases at each time moment with the peak value changing from 0.72×106 m/s to 0.80×106 m/s but then drops more sharply when the NMF varies from 0.01% to 1%. Besides, the electron impact ionizations of helium neutrals and nitrogen molecules are found to have key influences on the propagation of a plasma bullet instead of the penning ionization. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11465013), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (No. 20151BAB212012), and in part by the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2015DFA61800)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Li; Hong, Xue-Ren, E-mail: hxr_nwnu@163.com; Sun, Jian-An, E-mail: sunja@nwnu.edu.cn; Tang, Rong-An; Yang, Yang; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Tian, Jian-Min; Duan, Wen-Shan
2017-07-12
The propagation of q-Gaussian laser beam in a preformed plasma channel is investigated by means of the variational method. A differential equation for the spot size has been obtained by including the effects of relativistic self-focusing, ponderomotive self-channeling and preformed channel focusing. The propagation behaviors and their corresponding physical conditions are identified. The comparison of the propagation between q-Gaussian and Gaussian laser beams is done by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that, in the same channel, the focusing power of q-Gaussian laser beam is lower than that of Gaussian laser beam, i.e., the q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than Gaussian laser beam. - Highlights: • Some behaviors for Gaussian laser are also found for q-Gaussian one. • The parameter regions corresponding to different laser behaviors are given. • Influence of q on the laser propagation behavior is obvious. • The q-Gaussian laser beam is easier to focus than the Gaussian one.
Wave Propagation and Diffusive Transition of Oscillations in Pair Plasmas with Dust Impurities
Atamaniuk, Barbara
2008-01-01
In view of applications to electron-positron pair-plasmas and fullerene pair-ion-plasmas containing charged dust impurities a thorough discussion is given of three-component Plasmas. Space-time responses of multi-component linearized Vlasov plasmas on the basis of multiple integral equations are invoked. An initial-value problem for Vlasov-Poisson -Ampere equations is reduced to the one multiple integral equation and the solution is expressed in terms of forcing function and its space-time convolution with the resolvent kernel. The forcing function is responsible for the initial disturbance and the resolvent is responsible for the equilibrium velocity distributions of plasma species. By use of resolvent equations, time-reversibility, space-reflexivity and the other symmetries are revealed. The symmetries carry on physical properties of Vlasov pair plasmas, e.g., conservation laws. Properly choosing equilibrium distributions for dusty pair plasmas, we can reduce the resolvent equation to: (i) the undamped disp...
Wallin, Erik; Harvey, Christopher; Lundh, Olle; Marklund, Mattias
2015-01-01
Although, for current laser pulse energies, the weakly nonlinear regime of LWFA is known to be the optimal for reaching the highest possible electron energies, the capabilities of upcoming large laser systems will provide the possibility of running highly nonlinear regimes of laser pulse propagation in underdense or near-critical plasmas. Using an extended particle-in-cell (PIC) model that takes into account all the relevant physics, we show that such regimes can be implemented with external guiding for a relatively long distance of propagation and allow for the stable transformation of laser energy into other types of energy, including the kinetic energy of a large number of high energy electrons and their incoherent emission of photons. This is despite the fact that the high intensity of the laser pulse triggers a number of new mechanisms of energy depletion, which we investigate systematically.
Chen, Chuan-Jie; Li, Shou-Zhe; Wu, Yue; Li, Zhen-Ye; Zhang, Jialiang; Wang, Yong-Xing
2016-12-01
An atmospheric-pressure, pulse-modulated surface wave argon plasma is investigated with respect to its propagation of the ionization front. The time-resolved photographs about the advance of the ionization front are taken using a high speed camera. The ionization front velocity and its rise time when propagating along the discharge tube are measured with respect to a series of values of input power, duty ratio, and the pulse repetition frequency. The interpretations are given on the basis of the ionization and diffusion processes. And it is also found that the reduced electric field and memory effect from previous discharge impose the influence on both the ionization front velocity and its rise time strongly.
Aliev, Yu. M.; Krämer, M.
2016-10-01
Theoretical as well as numerical analyses of the full set of Maxwell's equations is carried out to study non-axisymmetric ( m ≠ 0 ) guided modes in radially nonuniform helicon (HE) discharges. Unlike the axisymmetric (m = 0) modes, these modes reveal a non-reciprocal behavior with respect to the azimuthal direction. We develop the conditions for propagation and non-propagation of the various modes in the helicon parameter range, thereby focussing on the important role of the radial density gradient. Three types of modes occurring in different parameter ranges are described, i.e., the helicon (HE) mode, the electrostatic (ES) or Trivelpiece-Gould mode, and the locally coupled (LC) mode that is characterized by mode coupling (MC) in a certain region of the plasma density profile. In contrast to m = + 1 modes, the parameter range of m = - 1 modes is much more restricted as rather high densities are needed for the propagation of the helicon and LC modes. An important issue of the investigations is the rf power coupling and absorption via the various modes. Computations based on a simple antenna-plasma model show that the axial wavenumber of the antenna determines decisively which type of mode is excited. In case of LC mode excitation, the dominant role of the MC layer for the absorption is demonstrated. Finally, the rf power coupling to helicon modes is studied. The density limit for m = - 1 helicon mode propagation and the narrow magnetic field profiles of these modes are the main reasons why the rf power absorption in helicon discharges occurs via m = + 1 helicon modes.
Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.
2015-11-01
Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.
APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: kaneko@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-20
In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.
Mars Obliquity Cycle Illustration
2008-01-01
The tilt of Mars' spin axis (obliquity) varies cyclically over hundreds of thousands of years, and affects the sunlight falling on the poles. Because the landing site of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is so near the north pole, higher sun and warmer temperatures during high obliquity lead to warmer, more humid surface environments, and perhaps thicker, more liquid-like films of water in soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
DAWs' propagation in bi-dust plasmas with gradient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valdeblanquez, Eder [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad del Zulia, Aparatado 4011-A526, Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Centro de Investigacion de Matematicas Aplicadas, Facultad de IngenierIa, Universidad del Zulia, Aparatado 10486, Maracaibo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: eder@luz.edu.ve
2008-10-15
Low-frequency waves in plasma with two kinds of dusty grains are studied. Plasmas with layers of different densities are stratified to that of the main plasma. In this analysis, each dust species is treated with a simplified model of fluid equations, and electrons and ions are determined by a Boltzmann factor. Relative velocity between each species and the nonuniform plasma is considered. In the cases where the speed or the current density of the charged dust grains is zero, the dispersion relation is recovered.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Ming-Ping; LIU Bing-Bing; LIU San-Qiu; ZHANG Fu-Yang; LIU Jie
2013-01-01
Using a variational approach,the propagation of a moderately intense laser pulse in a parabolic preformed plasma channel is investigated.The effects of higher-order relativistic nonlinearity (HRN) and wakefield are included.The effect of HRN serves as an additional defocusing mechanism and has the same order of magnitude in the spot size as that of the transverse wakefield (TWF).The effect of longitudinal wakefield is much larger than those of HRN and TWF for an intense laser pulse with the pulse length equaling the plasma wavelength.The catastrophic focusing of the laser spot size would be prevented in the present of HRN and then it varies with periodic focusing oscillations.
Seepersad, Yohan
The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Misguich, J.H
2004-04-01
As a first step toward a nonlinear renormalized description of turbulence phenomena in magnetized plasmas, the lowest order quasi-linear description is presented here from a unified point of view for collisionless as well as for collisional plasmas in a constant magnetic field. The quasi-linear approximation is applied to a general kinetic equation obtained previously from the Klimontovich exact equation, by means of a generalised Dupree-Weinstock method. The so-obtained quasi-linear description of electromagnetic turbulence in a magnetoplasma is applied to three separate physical cases: -) weak electrostatic turbulence, -) purely magnetic field fluctuations (the classical quasi-linear results are obtained for cosmic ray diffusion in the 'slab model' of magnetostatic turbulence in the solar wind), and -) collisional kinetic equations of magnetized plasmas. This mathematical technique has allowed us to derive basic kinetic equations for turbulent plasmas and collisional plasmas, respectively in the quasi-linear and Landau approximation. In presence of a magnetic field we have shown that the systematic use of rotation matrices describing the helical particle motion allows for a much more compact derivation than usually performed. Moreover, from the formal analogy between turbulent and collisional plasmas, the results derived here in detail for the turbulent plasmas, can be immediately translated to obtain explicit results for the Landau kinetic equation.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves through magnetized plasmas in arbitrary gravitational fields
Breuer, R; Ehlers, J.
1981-01-01
A generalized JWBK-method for high-frequency waves traveling through inhomogeneous, moving plasmas imbedded in arbitrary relativistic gravitational fields is reported. In particular, a generalization of the standard formula for Faraday rotation is given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hong-Yu; XIE Bai-Song
2006-01-01
We propose an effective and useful numerical simulation scheme for the investigation of the ultra-fast laser pulses in tenuous plasmas. The accuracy of the method is tested by numerical examples. We check some special examples to investigate the laser envelope evolving and modulation in plasmas. Asymmetric two-peak modulation structure is found and its underlying physics is analyzed. The advantages and shortages of the method are also discussed.
Climates of Oblique Exoplanets
Dobrovolskis, A. R.
2008-12-01
A previous paper (Dobrovolskis 2007; Icarus 192, 1-23) showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million km of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets, which is particularly effective for solid/liquid bodies like "Super-Earths". Along with friction between a solid mantle and a liquid core, tides also are expected to despin a planet until it is captured in the synchronous resonance, so that its rotation period is identical to its orbital period. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. For comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to 180° for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits. For obliquities greater than 90°, the ground track of the sub-solar point wraps around all longitudes on the surface of such a planet. For smaller obliquities, the sub-solar track takes the figure-8 shape of an analemma. This can be visualized as the intersection of the planet's spherical surface with a right circular cylinder, parallel to the spin axis and tangent to the equator from the inside. The excursion of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen
2016-01-01
Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...... Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... type" fracture pattern. The first patient was treated conservatively with cervical spine immobilization in a semirigid collar. However, gross displacement was noted at the 6-week follow-up visit. The second patient was therefore treated operatively by C1-C3/4 posterior fusion and the course...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen;
2016-01-01
was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion......Purpose. Anderson type III odontoid fractures have traditionally been considered stable and treated conservatively. However, unstable cases with unfavorable results following conservative treatment have been reported. Methods. We present the cases of two patients who sustained minimally displaced...
Baland, Rose-Marie; Van Hoolst, Tim
2015-01-01
The extraordinary activity at Enceladus' warm south pole indicates the presence of an internal global or local reservoir of liquid water beneath the surface. While Tyler (2009, 2011) has suggested that the geological activity and the large heat flow of Enceladus could result from tidal heating triggered by a large obliquity of at least 0.05{\\deg}-0.1{\\deg}, theoretical models of the Cassini state predict the obliquity to be two to three orders of magnitude smaller for an entirely solid and rigid Enceladus. We investigate the influence of an internal subsurface ocean and of tidal deformations of the solid layers on the obliquity of Enceladus. Our Cassini state model takes into account the external torque exerted by Saturn on each layer of the satellite and the internal gravitational and pressure torques induced by the presence of the liquid layer. As a new feature, our model also includes additional torques that arise because of the periodic tides experienced by the satellite. We find that the upper limit for ...
On the perpendicular propagating modes in the ultra-relativistic weakly magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbas, Gohar; Iqbal, Z. [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)
2015-03-15
The dispersion relations for the weakly magnetized perpendicular propagating modes (O-mode, X-mode, and upper hybrid mode) based on the ultra-relativistic Fermi-Dirac distribution function with chemical potential are derived using the Vlasov–Maxwell model. The results are presented in terms of Polylog functions without making any approximation. It is found that as the ratio μ/T is increased, the cutoff points shift downward. A comparison is also performed with the previously derived results for ultra-relativistic Maxwellian distribution.
Pitch angle scattering of energetic particles by oblique whistler waves
Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.
1991-01-01
First order cyclotron or Landau resonant pitch angle scattering of electrons by oblique whistler waves propagating at large angles to the ambient field are found to be at least as large as that due to parallel propagating waves. Commonly observed precipitation of more than 40 keV electrons in association with ducted whistlers may thus be accompanied by substantial fluxes of lower energy (10 eV-40 keV) electrons precipitated by the nonducted components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z Ebne Abbasi
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Investigation of ion acoustic solitons in three component plasma including positive and negative ions and Maxwellian electrons shows that negative to positive relative ion density plays a critical role so that by changing ν over the range of 0<ν<1 compressive or rarefactive solitons will propagate. In this paper, it is shown that due to the superthermal electrons, there are three domains for ν so that in the first one only compressive solitons are allowed, in the second one compressive and rarefactive solitons coexist together and in the third one only rarefactive solitons are observed. The results from sagdeev potential in weak nonlinear region are in good agreement with analytic results obtained from KdV equation.
Bhakta, Subrata; Ghosh, Uttam; Sarkar, Susmita
2017-02-01
In this paper, we have investigated the effect of secondary electron emission on nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves in a complex plasma where equilibrium dust charge is negative. The primary electrons, secondary electrons, and ions are Boltzmann distributed, and only dust grains are inertial. Electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions have been neglected with the assumption that electron and ion mean free paths are very large compared to the plasma Debye length. Both adiabatic and nonadiabatic dust charge variations have been separately taken into account. In the case of adiabatic dust charge variation, nonlinear propagation of dust acoustic waves is governed by the KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation, whereas for nonadiabatic dust charge variation, it is governed by the KdV-Burger equation. The solution of the KdV equation gives a dust acoustic soliton, whose amplitude and width depend on the secondary electron yield. Similarly, the KdV-Burger equation provides a dust acoustic shock wave. This dust acoustic shock wave may be monotonic or oscillatory in nature depending on the fact that whether it is dissipation dominated or dispersion dominated. Our analysis shows that secondary electron emission increases nonadiabaticity induced dissipation and consequently increases the monotonicity of the dust acoustic shock wave. Such a dust acoustic shock wave may accelerate charge particles and cause bremsstrahlung radiation in space plasmas whose physical process may be affected by secondary electron emission from dust grains. The effect of the secondary electron emission on the stability of the equilibrium points of the KdV-Burger equation has also been investigated. This equation has two equilibrium points. The trivial equilibrium point with zero potential is a saddle and hence unstable in nature. The nontrivial equilibrium point with constant nonzero potential is a stable node up to a critical value of the wave velocity and a stable focus above it. This critical
Linear MHD Wave Propagation in Time-Dependent Flux Tube. III. Leaky Waves in Zero-Beta Plasma
Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.
2016-01-01
In this article, we evaluate the time-dependent wave properties and the damping rate of propagating fast magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) waves when energy leakage into a magnetised atmosphere is considered. By considering a cold plasma, initial investigations into the evolution of MHD wave damping through this energy leakage will take place. The time-dependent governing equations have been derived previously in Williamson and Erdélyi (2014a, Solar Phys. 289, 899 - 909) and are now solved when the assumption of evanescent wave propagation in the outside of the waveguide is relaxed. The dispersion relation for leaky waves applicable to a straight magnetic field is determined in both an arbitrary tube and a thin-tube approximation. By analytically solving the dispersion relation in the thin-tube approximation, the explicit expressions for the temporal evolution of the dynamic frequency and wavenumber are determined. The damping rate is, then, obtained from the dispersion relation and is shown to decrease as the density ratio increases. By comparing the decrease in damping rate to the increase in damping for a stationary system, as shown, we aim to point out that energy leakage may not be as efficient a damping mechanism as previously thought.
Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.
2015-12-01
Results from a 3D global numerical model of Alfven wave propagation in a warm multi-species plasma in Earth's magnetosphere are presented. The model uses spherical coordinates, accounts for a non-dipole magnetic field, vertical structure of the ionosphere, and an air gap below the ionosphere. A realistic density model is used. Below the exobase altitude (2000 km) the densities and the temperatures of electrons, ions, and neutrals are obtained from the IRI and MSIS models. Above the exobase, ballistic (originating from the ionosphere and returning to ionosphere) and trapped (bouncing between two reflection points above the ionosphere) electron populations are considered similar to [Pierrard and Stegen (2008), JGR, v.113, A10209]. Plasma parameters at the exobase provided by the IRI are the boundary conditions for the ballistic electrons while the [Carpenter and Anderson (1992), JGR, v.97, p.1097] model of equatorial electron density defines parameters of the trapped electron population. In the simulations that are presented, Alfven waves with frequencies from 1 Hz to 0.01 Hz and finite azimuthal wavenumbers are excited in the magnetosphere and compared with Van Allen Probes data and ground-based observations from the CARISMA array of ground magnetometers. When short perpendicular scale waves reflect form the ionosphere, compressional Alfven waves are observed to propagate across the geomagnetic field in the ionospheric waveguide [e.g., Lysak (1999), JGR, v.104, p.10017]. Signals produced by the waves on the ground are discussed. The wave model is also applied to interpret recent Van Allen Probes observations of kinetic scale ULF waves that are associated with radiation belt electron dynamics and energetic particle injections.
Finite-amplitude shear-Alfv\\'en waves do not propagate in weakly magnetized collisionless plasmas
Squire, J; Schekochihin, A A
2016-01-01
It is shown that low-collisionality plasmas cannot support linearly polarized shear-Alfv\\'en fluctuations above a critical amplitude $\\delta B_{\\perp}/B_{0} \\sim \\beta^{\\,-1/2}$, where $\\beta$ is the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure. Above this cutoff, a developing fluctuation will generate a pressure anisotropy that is sufficient to destabilize itself through the parallel firehose instability. This causes the wave frequency to approach zero, interrupting the fluctuation before any oscillation. The magnetic field lines rapidly relax into a sequence of angular zig-zag structures. Such a restrictive bound on shear-Alfv\\'en-wave amplitudes has far-reaching implications for the physics of magnetized turbulence in the high-$\\beta$ conditions prevalent in many astrophysical plasmas, as well as for the solar wind at $\\sim 1 \\mathrm{AU}$ where $\\beta \\gtrsim 1$.
Propagation of dust-acoustic waves in weakly ionized plasmas with dust-charge fluctuation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K K Mondal
2004-11-01
For an unmagnetized partially ionized dusty plasma containing electrons, singly charged positive ions, micron-sized massive negatively charged dust grains and a fraction of neutral atoms, dispersion relations for both the dust-ion-acoustic and the dust-acoustic waves have been derived, incorporating dust charge fluctuation. The dispersion relations, under various conditions, have been exhaustively analysed. The explicit expressions for the growth rates have also been derived.
Ohira, Yutaka
2014-01-01
Recent studies about collisionless shocks in partially ionized plasmas showed that some of neutral particles leak into the shock upstream region from the downstream region. In this paper, we perform a linear analysis and show that acoustic waves are unstable in the neutral precursor region. The acoustic instability amplifies fluctuations of magnetic field and density in the upstream region. The fluctuations are indispensable for the diffusive shock acceleration and could be important for the downstream turbulence.
Plasma instability and wave propagation in gate-controlled semiconductor conduction channels
Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg
2013-03-01
The plasma wave in the conduction channel of a semiconductor heterostructure high electron mobility transistor is an electron density excitation, possible at frequencies significantly higher than the cut-off frequency in a short channel device. When the electron-electron collision limited mean free path is much smaller than the wavelength of the density variations, the electron gas in the channel can be treated as a two-dimensional fluid. The flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation and the heat conduction equation. The quality of the plasma resonance is limited by the electron mobility and the viscosity of the electron fluid. We use the hydrodynamic model derived as the balance equations from the quasi-classical Boltzmann equation, starting with a drifted Fermi-Dirac distribution as a zero order term in the expansion of the distribution function in orders of the Knudsen number. The charge flow can become unstable because of plasma wave amplification at the boundaries. The device then can be used as a tunable source of terahertz range radiation. We show that in such configuration the charge flow also develops shock waves due to hydrodynamic nonlinearities.
Damping of MHD turbulence in partially ionized plasma: implications for cosmic ray propagation
Xu, Siyao; Lazarian, A
2015-01-01
We study the damping from neutral-ion collisions of both incompressible and compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in partially ionized medium. We start from the linear analysis of MHD waves applying both single-fluid and two-fluid treatments. The damping rates derived from the linear analysis are then used in determining the damping scales of MHD turbulence. The physical connection between the damping scale of MHD turbulence and cutoff boundary of linear MHD waves is investigated. Our analytical results are shown to be applicable in a variety of partially ionized interstellar medium (ISM) phases and solar chromosphere. As a significant astrophysical utility, we introduce damping effects to propagation of cosmic rays in partially ionized ISM. The important role of turbulence damping in both transit-time damping and gyroresonance is identified.
On the control of filamentation of intense laser beams propagating in underdense plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, E A
2005-10-21
In indirect drive ICF ignition designs, the laser energy is delivered into the hohlraum through the laser entrance holes (LEH), which are sized as small as practicable to minimize X-ray radiation losses. On the other hand, deleterious laser plasma processes, such as filamentation and stimulated back-scatter, typically increase with laser intensity. Ideally, therefore, the laser spot shape should be a close fit to the LEH, with uniform (envelope) intensity in the spot and minimal energy at larger radii spilling onto the LEH material. This keeps the laser intensity as low as possible consistent with the area of the LEH aperture and the power requirements of the design. This can be achieved (at least for apertures significantly larger than the laser's aberrated focal spot) by the use of custom-designed phase plates. However, outfitting the 192 beam (National Ignition facility) NIF laser with multiple sets of phase plates optimized for a variety of different LEH aperture sizes is an expensive proposition. It is thus important to assess the impact on laser-plasma interaction processes of using phase plates with a smaller than optimum focal spot (or even no phase plates at all!) and then de-focusing the beam to expand it to fill the LEH and lower its intensity. We find significant effects from the lack of uniformity of the laser envelope out of the focal plane, from changes in the characteristic sizes of the laser speckle, and on the efficacy of additional polarization and/or SSD beam smoothing. We quantify these effects with analytic estimates and simulations using our laser plasma interaction code pF3D.
Propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma with non-isothermal electrons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K K Mondal
2007-08-01
For an unmagnetised collisionless plasma consisting of warm ions, non-isothermal electrons and cold, massive and charged dust grains, the Sagdeev potential equation, considering both ion dynamics and dust dynamics has been derived. It has been observed that the Sagdeev potential () exists only for > 0 up to an upper limit ( ≃ 1.2). This implies the possibility of existence of compressive solitary wave in the plasma. Exhaustive numerics done for both the large-amplitude and small-amplitude ion-acoustic waves have revealed that various parameters, namely, ion temperature, non-isothermality of electrons, Mach numbers etc. have considerable impact on the amplitude as well as the width of the solitary waves. Dependence of soliton profiles on the ion temperature and the Mach number has also been graphically displayed. Moreover, incorporating dust-charge fluctuation and non-isothermality of electrons, a non-linear equation relating the grain surface potential to the electrostatic potential has been derived. It has been solved numerically and interdependence of the two potentials for various ion temperatures and orders of non-isothermality has been shown graphically.
The role of plasma instabilities in the propagation of gamma-rays from distant Blazars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saveliev, A.; Evoli, C.; Sigl, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2013-11-15
The observation in the GeV band of distant blazars has been recently used to put constraints on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) and Extragalactic Magnetic Fields (EGMF). To support such claims one has to assume that the leptonic component of the electromagnetic cascade initiated by blazar gamma-rays is deflected away by strong enough EGMF, suppressing the signal in the Fermi window. Apart from magnetic fields, the development of such a cascade might be affected by plasma instabilities due to interactions with the ionized component of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). In this paper we model the electromagnetic cascade through a Monte Carlo simulation in which both effects are taken into account separately, and we derive constraints on these scenarios from the combined Fermi-HESS data set. In the specific case of 1ES 0229+200 observations, we show that both explanations of the GeV flux suppression are compatible with the available data, specifically by assuming a magnetic field of B >or similar 10{sup -16} G or an IGM temperature of T
Collisional effects in the ion Weibel instability for two counter-propagating plasma streams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryutov, D. D.; Fiuza, F.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-03-15
Experiments directed towards the study of the collisionless interaction between two counter-streaming plasma flows generated by high-power lasers are designed in such a way as to make collisions between the ions of the two flows negligibly rare. This is reached by making flow velocities v as high as possible and thereby exploiting the 1/v{sup 4} dependence of the Rutherford cross-section. At the same time, the plasma temperature of each flow may be relatively low so that collisional mean-free paths for the intra-stream particle collisions may be much smaller than the characteristic spatial scale of the unstable modes required for the shock formation. The corresponding effects are studied in this paper for the case of the ion Weibel (filamentation) instability. Dispersion relations for the case of strong intra-stream collisions are derived. It is shown that the growth-rates become significantly smaller than those stemming from a collisionless model. The underlying physics is mostly related to the increase of the electron stabilizing term. Additional effects are an increased “stiffness” of the collisional ion gas and the ion viscous dissipation. A parameter domain where collisions are important is identified.
Ultrarelativistic regime in the propagation of an ultrastrong, femtosecond laser pulse in plasmas
Jovanović, Dušan; Belić, Milivoj; De Nicola, Sergio
2014-01-01
The interaction of a multi-Petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma is studied analytically and numerically in the regime of fully relativistic electron jitter velocities and in the context of the laser wakefield acceleration scheme. The study is applied to the specifications available at present time, or planned for the near future, of the Ti:Sa Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments (FLAME) in Frascati. Novel nonlinear equation is derived by a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the laser wave. They describe on an equal footing both the strong and moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and the edges of the pulse. These have fundamentally different dispersive properties since, in the core, the electrons are almost completely expelled by a very strong ponderomotive force and the electromagnetic wave packet is imbedded in a vacuum channel and has (almost) linear properties, while a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gyergyek, T. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Tržaška 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, POB 100, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovačič, J. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, POB 100, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2015-04-15
A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is
Yonemori, Seiya; Ono, Ryo
2015-06-01
The atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet is an emerging technology for plasma biomedical applications. In this paper, the authors focus on the effect of discharge polarity on propagation of the discharge and the densities of OH, NO, and O radicals. The plasma jet is applied to a glass surface placed on a grounded metal plate. Positive or negative voltage pulses with 25 μs duration, 8 kV amplitude, and 10 kpps repetition rate are used for the plasma jet. The plasma propagation is measured using a short-gated ICCD camera. The light emission intensity of the discharge generated at the rising phase of the voltage pulse is approximately equivalent for both polarities, while that generated during the falling phase is much higher for the negative discharge than the positive one. The shape of the discharge changes with the discharge polarity. The OH, NO, and O densities in the plasma jet are also measured for both polarities. It is found that the OH density is almost the same regardless the discharge polarity. Conversely, the negative discharge produces more O atoms and the positive discharge produces more NO molecules. These results indicate that the polarity of the discharge affects the densities of some reactive species produced in the plasma jet.
Bespamyatnov, Igor O; Rowan, William L; Granetz, Robert S
2008-10-01
Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on Alcator C-Mod relies on the use of the diagnostic neutral beam injector as a source of neutral particles which penetrate deep into the plasma. It employs the emission resulting from the interaction of the beam atoms with fully ionized impurity ions. To interpret the emission from a given point in the plasma as the density of emitting impurity ions, the density of beam atoms must be known. Here, an analysis of beam propagation is described which yields the beam density profile throughout the beam trajectory from the neutral beam injector to the core of the plasma. The analysis includes the effects of beam formation, attenuation in the neutral gas surrounding the plasma, and attenuation in the plasma. In the course of this work, a numerical simulation and an analytical approximation for beam divergence are developed. The description is made sufficiently compact to yield accurate results in a time consistent with between-shot analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jovanović, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.jovanovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade, Zemun (Serbia); Fedele, Renato, E-mail: renato.fedele@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II,” M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy); Belić, Milivoj, E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); De Nicola, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.denicola@spin.cnr.it [SPIN-CNR, Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, Napoli (Italy)
2015-04-15
The interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma is studied analytically and numerically in a regime with ultrarelativistic electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The study is applied to a laser wakefield acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse. These have fundamentally different dispersive properties since in the core the electrons are almost completely expelled by a very strong ponderomotive force, and the electromagnetic wave packet is imbedded in a vacuum channel, thus having (almost) linear properties. Conversely, at the pulse edges, the laser amplitude is smaller, and the wave is weakly nonlinear and dispersive. New nonlinear terms in the wave equation, introduced by the nonlinear phase, describe without the violation of imposed scaling laws a smooth transition to a nondispersive electromagnetic wave at very large intensities and a simultaneous saturation of the (initially cubic) nonlocal nonlinearity. The temporal evolution of the laser pulse is studied both analytically and by numerically solving the model equations in a two-dimensional geometry, with the spot diameter presently used in some laser acceleration experiments. The most stable initial pulse length is estimated to exceed ≳1.5–2 μm. Moderate stretching of the pulse in the direction of propagation is observed, followed by the development of a vacuum channel and of a very large
Salvetr, Pavel; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pignol, Damien; Novák, Pavel
2017-04-01
This work is focused on the possibilities of preparing Ni-Ti46 wt pct alloy by powder metallurgy methods. The self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) and combination of SHS reaction, milling, and spark plasma sintering consolidation (SPS) are explored. The aim of this work is the development of preparation method with the lowest amount of undesirable phases (mainly Ti2Ni phase). The SHS with high heating rate (approx. 200 and 300 K min-1) was applied. Because the SHS product is very porous, it was milled in vibratory disk milling and consolidated by SPS technique at temperatures of 1173 K, 1273 K, and 1373 K (900 °C, 1000 °C, and 1100 °C). The microstructures of samples prepared by SHS reaction and combination of SHS reaction, milling, and SPS consolidation are compared. The changes in microstructure with increasing temperature of SPS consolidation are observed. Mechanical properties are tested by hardness measurement. The way to reduce the amount of Ti2Ni phase in structure is leaching of powder in 35 pct hydrochloric acid before SPS consolidation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han S. Uhm
2003-03-01
Full Text Available The dispersion relation for the resistive hose instability in a charged particle beam with a flattop density profile is derived from the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations. Stability properties of the resistive hose instability where the perturbations are initiated at the beam entrance are investigated. In particular, the complex eigenfrequency Ω in the dispersion relation is expressed as a function of the real oscillation frequency ω of the excitation at the beam entrance. As expected, the growth rate ImΩ=Ω_{i} decreases rapidly as the conducting wall approaches the beam (r_{w}/r_{b}→1. The growth rate also decreases substantially as the frequency ratio ω/ν_{c} increases, where ν_{c} is the electron collision frequency. Stability properties for perturbations propagating through the beam pulse from its head to tail are also investigated. In this case, the growth rate Imω is calculated in terms of the real oscillation frequency Ω of each beam segment. It is shown that the resonance frequency Ω=Ω_{r} corresponding to the infinite growth rate detunes considerably from the betatron frequency ω_{β} of the beam particles. It is also found that the bandwidth corresponding to instability is narrow when the plasma electron collision time (1/ν_{c} is long compared with the magnetic decay time (τ_{d}.
Kaganovich, I. D.; Sydorenko, D.
2016-11-01
This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is γ≈(1 /13 )ωpe(nb/np)(L ωpe/vb)ln (L ωpe/vb)[1 -0.18 cos (L ωpe/vb+π/2 ) ] , where ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, nb and np are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, vb is the beam velocity, and L is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number, and the spatial and temporal growth rates, as functions of the plasma size, exhibit band structure. The amplitude of saturation of the instability depends on the system length, not on the beam current. For short systems, the amplitude may exceed values predicted for infinite plasmas by more than an order of magnitude.
Kaganovich, I D
2015-01-01
This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is $\\gamma \\approx (1/13)\\omega_{pe}(n_{b}/n_{p})(L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})\\ln (L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})[ 1-0.18\\cos ( L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b}+{\\pi }/{2}) ]$, where $\\omega_{pe}$ is the electron plasma frequency, $n_{b}$ and $n_{p}$ are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, $v_{b}$ is the beam velocity, and $L$ is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number and the spatial and temporal growth rates as functions of the plasma size exhibit band structure.
Paul, S. N.; Chatterjee, A.; Paul, Indrani
2017-01-01
Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in self-gravitating multicomponent dusty plasma consisting of positive ions, non-isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust particles with fluctuating charges and drifting ions has been studied using the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in gravitating dusty plasma is described by an uncoupled third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of Korteweg-deVries equation, in contraries to the coupled nonlinear equations obtained by earlier authors. Quasi-soliton solution for the ion-acoustic solitary wave has been obtained from this uncoupled nonlinear equation. Effects of non-isothermal two-temperature electrons, gravity, dust charge fluctuation and drift motion of ions on the ion-acoustic solitary waves have been discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuchs, J [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Marques, J-R [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Antici, P [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Bourgeois, N [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Grech, M [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Lin, T [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadephia, PA 19111-2497 (United States); Romagnani, L [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Tikhonchuk, V [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Weber, S [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Kodama, R [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Audebert, P [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)
2007-12-15
We have performed a systematic study of beam propagation (400 ps, I = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}) in underdense plasmas (n{sub e} = 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) at a level of reduced complexity compared with the smoothed beams currently used in inertial confinement fusion studies, using one or two well-controlled filaments. These experiments have been performed on the LULI 100 TW laser facility. The use of well-controlled, diffraction-limited single filaments is possibly due to the use of adaptative optics. We have used either a single filament or two filaments having variable distance, delay, intensity ratio and polarization. The single filament configuration allows to study basic beam propagation and reveals occurrence of filamentation at low intensity levels. The use of two filaments demonstrates the occurrence of beam coupling and merging, and the importance of cross-talk effects supported by the plasma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Afanasiev
2009-10-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the fine structure of solar decametric type II radio bursts in the form of drifting narrowband fibres on the dynamic spectrum. Observations show that this structure appears in those events where there is a coronal mass ejection (CME traveling in the near-solar space ahead of the shock wave responsible for the radio burst. The diversity in observed morphology of fibres and values of their parameters implies that the fibres may be caused by different formation mechanisms. The burst emission propagates through extremely inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, so one possible mechanism can be related to radio propagation effects. I suggest that the fibres in some events represent traces of radio emission caustics, which are formed due to regular refraction of radio waves on the large-scale inhomogeneous structure of the CME front. To support this hypothesis, I have modeled the propagation of radio waves through inhomogeneous plasma of the CME, taking into consideration the presence of electron density fluctuations in it. The calculations, which are based on the Monte Carlo technique, indicate that, in particular, the emission of the fibres should be harmonic. Moreover, the mechanism under consideration suggests that in solar observations from two different points in space, the observed sets of fibres can be shifted in frequency with respect to one another or can have a different structure. This potentially can be used for identifying fibres caused by the propagation effects.
Savani, Neel P; Shiota, D; Linton, M G; Kusano, K; Lugaz, N; Rouillard, A P
2013-01-01
We present a 2.5D MHD simulation of a magnetic flux rope (FR) propagating in the heliosphere and investigate the cause of the observed sharp plasma beta transition. Specifically, we consider a strong internal magnetic field and an explosive fast start, such that the plasma beta is significantly lower in the FR than the sheath region that is formed ahead. This leads to an unusual FR morphology in the first stage of propagation, while the more traditional view (e.g. from space weather simulations like Enlil) of a `pancake' shaped FR is observed as it approaches 1 AU. We investigate how an equipartition line, defined by a magnetic Weber number, surrounding a core region of a propagating FR can demarcate a boundary layer where there is a sharp transition in the plasma beta. The substructure affects the distribution of toroidal flux, with the majority of the flux remaining in a small core region which maintains a quasi-cylindrical structure. Quantitatively, we investigate a locus of points where the kinetic energy...
Oblique detonation waves stabilized in rectangular-cross-section bent tubes
2011-01-01
Oblique detonation waves, which are generated by a fundamental detonation phenomenon occurring in bent tubes, may be applied to fuel combustion in high-efficiency engines such as a pulse detonation engine (PDE) and a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The present study has experimentally demonstrated that steady-state oblique detonation waves propagated stably through rectangular-cross-section bent tubes by visualizing these waves using a high-speed camera and the shadowgraph method. The obliq...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saberian, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Rastkar-Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Afsari-Ghazi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-03-15
The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitons is studied in a plasma system, comprised of warm ions and superthermal (Kappa distributed) electrons in the presence of an electron-beam by using a hydrodynamic model. In the linear analysis, it is seen that increasing the superthermality lowers the phase speed of the IA waves. On the other hand, in a fully nonlinear investigation, the Mach number range and characteristics of IA solitons are analyzed, parametrically and numerically. It is found that the accessible region for the existence of IA solitons reduces with increasing the superthermality. However, IA solitons with both negative and positive polarities can coexist in the system. Additionally, solitary waves with both subsonic and supersonic speeds are predicted in the plasma, depending on the value of ion-temperature and the superthermality of electrons in the system. It is examined that there are upper critical values for beam parameters (i.e., density and velocity) after which, IA solitary waves could not propagate in the plasma. Furthermore, a typical interaction between IA waves and the electron-beam in the plasma is confirmed.
Saito, Susumu; Maruyama, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kubota, Minoru; Ma, Guanyi; Chen, Yanhong; Li, Jinghua; Ha Duyen, Chau; Le Truong, Thanh
2008-12-01
The results from simultaneous observations of the nighttime transequatorial propagation (TEP) of HF radio waves between Australia and Japan and the GPS scintillation measurements in south China and Vietnam are presented in this paper. The results showed that there was good correspondence between the nighttime eastward traveling off-great circle propagation (OGCP) of broadcasting waves of Radio Australia from Shepparton, Australia, measured at Oarai, Japan, and the scintillations in GPS radio waves at Hainan, China. This shows that the nighttime eastward traveling OGCP in HF TEP is caused by a large-scale ionospheric structure associated with a plasma bubble. The zonal drift velocities of the large-scale ionospheric structure estimated by the change in the direction of arrival of the OGCP were similar to those of the small-scale irregularities associated with plasma bubbles measured by the GPS scintillation spaced-receiver technique. Our results show that the HF TEP measurement is quite useful for monitoring the plasma bubble occurrence over a wide area and for forecasting the arrival of the plasma bubble at places located to the east of it.
Jovanović, D.; Shukla, P. K.; Pegoraro, F.
2008-11-01
A new three-dimensional model for the warm-ion turbulence at the tokamak edge plasma and in the scrape-off layer is proposed, and used to study the dynamics of plasma blobs in the scrape-off layer. The model is based on the nonlinear interchange mode, coupled with the nonlinear resistive drift mode, in the presence of the magnetic curvature drive, the density inhomogeneity, the electron dynamics along the open magnetic field lines, and the electron-ion and electron-neutral collisions. Within the present model, the effect of the sheath resistivity decreases with the distance from the wall, resulting in the bending and the break up of the plasma blob structure. Numerical solutions exhibit the coupling of interchange modes with nonlinear drift modes, causing the collapse of the blob in the lateral direction, followed by a clockwise rotation and radial propagation. The symmetry breaking, caused both by the parallel resistivity and the finite ion temperature, introduces a poloidal component in the plasma blob propagation, while the overall stability properties and the speed are not affected qualitatively.
Vogel, Nadja I.; Kochan, N.
2001-01-01
The generation of extremely stable light bullets in a preformed plasma near critical density has been observed experimentally during the interaction of intense picosecond laser beam with a metallic target in air. Optical probing measurements indicate the formation of pulsating channels, typically of about 5 μm in diameter, directed towards a heating laser beam, as well as of disconnected massive plasma blocks moving also towards the laser beam. The velocities of the dense plasma blocks reach the values of 4.5×108 cm/s. The blocks are stable during their acceleration and propagation in air. Self-generated magnetic fields up to 4-7 MG were observed by means of the Faraday rotation of a probe laser beam.
Perry, G. W.; James, H. G.; Gillies, R.; McWilliams, K. A.; St-Maurice, J. P.; Yau, A. W.
2015-12-01
One of the scientific objectives of the enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) is to study ionospheric density structure and its impact on High Frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. We present a survey of several ePOP RRI transits through isolated beams of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) Saskatoon and Rankin Inlet radars. It reveals that the spreading of a SuperDARN beam beyond its nominal azimuthal beam width of 3.24° is a common occurrence at auroral and polar latitudes. Furthermore, on multiple occasions, lateral deviations of a beam's power peak by several beam widths was measured, indicating the presence of significant plasma density gradients along the ray path. The e-POP RRI measurements illustrate that our understanding and recognition of plasma density gradients and their influence on HF radio wave propagation is limited. We report on the results of employing HF ray tracing techniques to quantify the impact of ionospheric structuring on HF radio wave propagation, and consider the source of the gradients contributing to the spreading of the SuperDARN beams.
Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a uniform unbounded plasma
Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.
2016-09-01
Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes originally described electrostatic surface waves on an axially magnetized cylindrical plasma column. Subsequent studies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma columns revealed two modes, a predominantly magnetic helicon mode (H) and the mixed magnetic and electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould modes (TG). The latter are similar to whistler modes near the oblique cyclotron resonance in unbounded plasmas. The wave propagation in cylindrical geometry is assumed to be paraxial while the modes exhibit radial standing waves. The present work shows that TG modes also arise in a uniform plasma without radial standing waves. It is shown experimentally that oblique cyclotron resonance arises in large mode number helicons. Their azimuthal wave number far exceeds the axial wave number which creates whistlers near the oblique cyclotron resonance. Cyclotron damping absorbs the TG mode and can energize electrons in the center of a plasma column rather than the edge of conventional TG modes. The angular orbital field momentum can produce new perpendicular wave-particle interactions.
Recent progresses in relativistic beam-plasma instability theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bret
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Beam-plasma instabilities are a key physical process in many astrophysical phenomena. Within the fireball model of Gamma ray bursts, they first mediate a relativistic collisionless shock before they produce upstream the turbulence needed for the Fermi acceleration process. While non-relativistic systems are usually governed by flow-aligned unstable modes, relativistic ones are likely to be dominated by normally or even obliquely propagating waves. After reviewing the basis of the theory, results related to the relativistic kinetic regime of the poorly-known oblique unstable modes will be presented. Relevant systems besides the well-known electron beam-plasma interaction are presented, and it is shown how the concept of modes hierarchy yields a criterion to assess the proton to electron mass ratio in Particle in cell simulations.
Secular obliquity variations for Ceres
Bills, Bruce; Scott, Bryan R.; Nimmo, Francis
2016-10-01
We have constructed secular variation models for the orbit and spin poles of the asteroid (1) Ceres, and used them to examine how the obliquity, or angular separation between spin and orbit poles, varies over a time span of several million years. The current obliquity is 4.3 degrees, which means that there are some regions near the poles which do not receive any direct Sunlight. The Dawn mission has provided an improved estimate of the spin pole orientation, and of the low degree gravity field. That allows us to estimate the rate at which the spin pole precesses about the instantaneous orbit pole.The orbit of Ceres is secularly perturbed by the planets, with Jupiter's influence dominating. The current inclination of the orbit plane, relative to the ecliptic, is 10.6 degrees. However, it varies between 7.27 and 11.78 degrees, with dominant periods of 22.1 and 39.6 kyr. The spin pole precession rate parameter has a period of 205 kyr, with current uncertainty of 3%, dominated by uncertainty in the mean moment of inertia of Ceres.The obliquity varies, with a dominant period of 24.5 kyr, with maximum values near 26 degrees, and minimum values somewhat less than the present value. Ceres is currently near to a minimum of its secular obliquity variations.The near-surface thermal environment thus has at least 3 important time scales: diurnal (9.07 hours), annual (4.60 years), and obliquity cycle (24.5 kyr). The annual thermal wave likely only penetrates a few meters, but the much long thermal wave associated with the obliquity cycle has a skin depth larger by a factor of 70 or so, depending upon thermal properties in the subsurface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. R. Robinson
Full Text Available A new theory of the propagation of low power electromagnetic test waves through the upper-hybrid resonance layer in the presence of magnetic field-aligned plasma density striations, which includes the effects of multiple scatter, is presented. The case of sinusoidal striations in a cold magnetoplasma is treated rigorously and then extended, in an approximate manner, to the broad-band striation spectrum and warm plasma cases. In contrast to previous, single scatter theories, it is found that the interaction layer is much broader than the wavelength of the test wave. This is due to the combined electric fields of the scattered waves becoming localised on the contour of a fixed plasma density, which corresponds to a constant value for the local upper-hybrid resonance frequency over the whole interaction region. The results are applied to the calculation of the refractive index of an ordinary mode test wave during modification experiments in the ionospheric F-region. Although strong anomalous absorption arises, no new cutoffs occur at the upper-hybrid resonance, so that in contrast to the predictions of previous single scatter theories, no additional reflections occur there. These results are consistent with observations made during ionospheric modification experiments at Tromsø, Norway.
Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation
Dharodi, Vikram; Patel, Bhavesh; Kaw, Predhiman
2015-01-01
The strongly coupled dusty plasma has often been modelled by the Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) model used for representing visco-elastic fluid systems. The incompressible limit of the model which supports transverse shear wave mode is studied in detail. In particular dipole structures are observed to emit transverse shear waves in both the limits of sub and super - luminar propagation, where the structures move slower and faster than the phase velocity of the shear waves, respectively. In the sub - luminar limit the dipole gets engulfed within the shear waves emitted by itself, which then backreacts on it and ultimately the identity of the structure is lost. However, in the super - luminar limit the emission appears like a wake from the tail region of the dipole. The dipole, however, keeps propagating forward with little damping but minimal distortion in its form. A Poynting like conservation law with radiative, convective and dissipative terms being responsible for the evolution of W , which is similar to `...
Low-Frequency Waves in Cold Three-Component Plasmas
Fu, Qiang; Tang, Ying; Zhao, Jinsong; Lu, Jianyong
2016-09-01
The dispersion relation and electromagnetic polarization of the plasma waves are comprehensively studied in cold electron, proton, and heavy charged particle plasmas. Three modes are classified as the fast, intermediate, and slow mode waves according to different phase velocities. When plasmas contain positively-charged particles, the fast and intermediate modes can interact at the small propagating angles, whereas the two modes are separate at the large propagating angles. The near-parallel intermediate and slow waves experience the linear polarization, circular polarization, and linear polarization again, with the increasing wave number. The wave number regime corresponding to the above circular polarization shrinks as the propagating angle increases. Moreover, the fast and intermediate modes cause the reverse change of the electromagnetic polarization at the special wave number. While the heavy particles carry the negative charges, the dispersion relations of the fast and intermediate modes are always separate, being independent of the propagating angles. Furthermore, this study gives new expressions of the three resonance frequencies corresponding to the highly-oblique propagation waves in the general three-component plasmas, and shows the dependence of the resonance frequencies on the propagating angle, the concentration of the heavy particle, and the mass ratio among different kinds of particles. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11303099, 41531071 and 41574158), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS
A primitive kinetic-fluid model for quasi-parallel propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nariyuki, Y. [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190 Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Saito, S. [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Umeda, T. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan)
2013-07-15
The extension and limitation of the existing one-dimensional kinetic-fluid model (Vlasov-MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) model), which has been used to analyze parametric instabilities of parallel propagating Alfvén waves, are discussed. The inconsistency among the given velocity distribution functions in the past studies is resolved through the systematic derivation of the multi-dimensional Vlasov-MHD model. The linear dispersion analysis of the present model indicates that the collisionless damping of the slow modes is adequately evaluated in low beta plasmas, although the deviation between the present model and the full-Vlasov theory increases with increasing plasma beta and increasing propagation angle. This is because the transit-time damping is not correctly evaluated in the present model. It is also shown that the ponderomotive density fluctuations associated with the envelope-modulated quasi-parallel propagating Alfvén waves derived from the present model is not consistent with those derived from the other models such as the Landau-fluid model, except for low beta plasmas. The result indicates the present model would be useful to understand the linear and nonlinear development of the Alfvénic turbulence in the inner heliosphere, whose condition is relatively low beta, while the existing model and the present model are insufficient to discuss the parametric instabilities of Alfvén waves in high beta plasmas and the obliquely propagating waves.
Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S S Duha; S K Paul; A K Banerjee; A A Mamun
2004-11-01
A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift mode, dust-cyclotron mode, dust-lower-hybrid mode, and other associated modes (such as, accelerated and retarded dust-acoustic modes, accelerated and retarded dust-lower-hybrid modes, etc.), have also been investigated. It has been shown that the effects of obliqueness and inhomogeneities in plasma particle number densities introduce new electrostatic dust modes as well as significantly modify the dispersion properties of the other low-frequency electrostatic dust associated modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗牧华; 张秋菊
2011-01-01
Using one - dimensional particle - in - cell simulations, the generation of attosecond pulses is studied, which is obtained through the interaction of a short oblique incident laser pulse with overdense plasma. It is observed that the intensity and conversion efficiency of attosecond pulses at oblique incidence is always higher than the normal incidence at the same parameters. And the number of attosecond pulses for the oblique incident laser pulse is only one half of the normal incidence. According to the oscillating mirror model and the equation of the mirror motion, we analyze the reason of these questions. Furthermore, when the density of plasma is invariable and the intensity of the laser pulse is raised, with the increase the times of filtering, the conversion ratio of attosecond pulses for the oblique and normal incidence shows an approaching tendency. After selecting harmonics above the order of 300, then we can get the attosecond pulses that have reached the X - ray region.%利用一维粒子模拟程序研究和比较了斜入射和垂直入射激光脉冲与稠密等离子体相互作用得到的阿秒脉冲以及激光强度对阿秒脉冲转换比率的影响.同样参数下,斜入射的阿秒脉冲转换比率明显高于垂直入射的情况,滤波后得到的阿秒脉冲振幅比较大,而脉冲串中阿秒脉冲的个数则是垂直入射时的一半.根据振荡镜面模型对两种情况进行了分析,由镜面振荡方程可以对结果给出解释.保持等离子体密度不变,增大入射激光强度时,随着滤波次数的增加,斜入射与垂直入射的阿秒脉冲的转换比率逐渐趋于相同.300次以上高通滤波后我们得到了处于X射线范围的阿秒脉冲.
Active probing of space plasmas
Chan, Chang; Silevitch, Michael B.; Villalon, Elena
1989-09-01
During the course of the research period our efforts were focused on the following areas: (1) An examination of stochastic acceleration mechanisms in the ionosphere; (2) A study of nonequilibrium dynamics of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system; and (3) Laboratory studies of active space experiments. Reprints include: Dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body -- Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation; Laboratory study of the electron temperature in the near wake of a conducting body; New model for auroral breakup during substorms; Substorm breakup on closed field lines; New model for substorm on sets -- The pre-breakup and triggering regimes; Model of the westward traveling surge and the generation of Pi 2 pulsations; Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances; Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields; Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas.
On the Tidal Dissipation of Obliquity
Rogers, T M
2013-01-01
We investigate tidal dissipation of obliquity in hot Jupiters. Assuming an initial random orientation of obliquity and parameters relevant to the observed population, the obliquity of hot Jupiters does not evolve to purely aligned systems. In fact, the obliquity evolves to either prograde, retrograde or 90^{o} orbits where the torque due to tidal perturbations vanishes. This distribution is incompatible with observations which show that hot jupiters around cool stars are generally aligned. This calls into question the viability of tidal dissipation as the mechanism for obliquity alignment of hot Jupiters around cool stars.
Maneva, Y G; Moya, Pablo S; Wicks, R; Poedts, S
2015-01-01
We perform 2.5D hybrid simulations with massless fluid electrons and kinetic particle-in-cell ions to study the temporal evolution of ion temperatures, temperature anisotropies and velocity distribution functions in relation to the dissipation and turbulent evolution of a broad-band spectrum of parallel and obliquely propagating Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves. The purpose of this paper is to study the relative role of parallel versus oblique Alfv\\'en-cyclotron waves in the observed heating and acceleration of minor ions in the fast solar wind. We consider collisionless homogeneous multi-species plasma, consisting of isothermal electrons, isotropic protons and a minor component of drifting $\\alpha$ particles in a finite-$\\beta$ fast stream near the Earth. The kinetic ions are modeled by initially isotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution functions, which develop non-thermal features and temperature anisotropies when a broad-band spectrum of low-frequency non-resonant, $\\omega \\leq 0.34 \\Omega_p$, Alfv\\'en-cyclotron...
Habitable Climates: The Influence of Obliquity
Spiegel, David S; Scharf, Caleb A
2008-01-01
Without the stabilizing influence of the Moon, the Earth's obliquity could vary significantly. Extrasolar terrestrial planets with the potential to host life may therefore have large obliquities or be subject to strong obliquity variations. We revisit the habitability of oblique planets with an energy balance climate model (EBM) allowing for dynamical transitions to ice-covered snowball states as a result of ice-albedo feedback. Despite the great simplicity of our EBM, it captures reasonably well the seasonal cycle of global energetic fluxes at Earth's surface. It also performs satisfactorily against a full-physics climate model of a highly oblique Earth, in an unusual regime of circulation dominated by heat transport from the poles to the equator. Climates on oblique terrestrial planets can violate global radiative balance through much of their seasonal cycle, which limits the usefulness of simple radiative equilibrium arguments. High obliquity planets have severe climates, with large amplitude seasonal vari...
Propagation in 3D of microwaves through density perturbations
Williams, T R N; O'Brien, M R; Vann, R G L
2013-01-01
Simulations using 3D and 2D full-wave codes have shown that edge filaments in tokamak plasmas can significantly affect the propagation of microwaves across a broad frequency spectrum, resulting in scattering angles of up to 46 degrees. Parameter scans were carried out for density perturbations comparable in width and amplitude to MAST filaments and the effect on the measured emission was calculated. 3D effects were discovered in the case of an obliquely incident beam. In general, the problem of EM propagation past wavelength-sized 3D inhomogeneities is not well understood, yet is of importance for both heating and diagnostic applications in the electron cyclotron frequency range for tokamaks, as well as atmospheric physics. To improve this understanding, a new cold-plasma code, EMIT-3D, was written to extend full-wave microwave simulations in magnetized plasmas to 3D, and make comparisons to the existing 2D code IPF-FDMC. This work supports MAST experiments using the SAMI diagnostic to image microwave emissio...
Momentum transfer from oblique impacts
Schultz, Peter H.; Gault, Donald E.
1987-05-01
A completely satisfactory experiment would be in a low gravity environment where the effect of momentum imparted by ejecta impacting the surface can be removed or controlled from momentum transfer during impact. Preliminary estimates can be made using a ballistic pendulum. Such experiments were initiated at the NASA-Ames Vertical Gun Range in order to examine momentum transfer due to impact vaporization for oblique impacts. The preliminary results indicate that momentum from oblique impacts is very inefficient: decreasing with increasing impact velocity and perhaps size; increasing with decreasing density; and increasing with increasing impact angle. At face value, such results minimize the effect of momentum transfer by grazing impact; the more probable impact angles of 30 deg would have a greater effect, contrary to the commonly held impression.
Anaglyph videoanimations from oblique stereoimages
Vozenilek, Vit; Kralik, Tomas
2015-03-01
The paper deals with the approach of compiling of animations from a pair of oblique stereoimages. The authors investigated as simple and cheap way as possible to develop such approach which will be available for wide scope of ordinary users with common equipment. They concentrated on three procedures of oblique stereoimage handling to compile sets of images, animations and analogue documents. After capturing construction site by a pair of web cameras the data were corrected, photogrammetrically adjusted (due to radial distortion) and exported. Firstly, a set of anaglyphic images were compiled, then they were trimmed and timeline was inserted. The final anaglyph animations are compiled in various versions. In addition, an anaglyphic book containing 150 images was created in a special way that the user can easily browse through its content. The main outputs are several unique anaglyph products, but more beneficial outputs are developed procedures of anaglyph visualization that can be applied with minor modifications to photographing of any objects.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Chaubey, A.K.; Dyment, J.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Royer, J.-Y.; Srinivas, K.; Yatheesh, V.
clear oblique offsets, characteristics of pseudofaults associated with propagating ridge segments. The tectonic interpretation of the area revealed: (1) a complex pattern of ridge propagation between Chrons 28n (c. 63 Ma) and 25n (c. 56 Ma...
Stability of oblique shock front
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Shuxing(陈恕行)
2002-01-01
The stability of the weak planar oblique shock front with respect to the perturbation of the wall is discussed. By the analysis of the formation and the global construction of shock and its asymptotic behaviour for stationary supersonic flow along a smooth rigid wall we obtain the stability of the solution containing a weak planar shock front. The stability can be used to single out a physically reasonable solution together with the entropy condition.
Singh, S. V.; Devanandhan, S.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.
2016-08-01
A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the obliquely propagating electron acoustic solitary waves having nonthermal hot electrons, cold and beam electrons, and ions in a magnetized plasma. We have employed reductive perturbation theory to derive the Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation describing the nonlinear evolution of these waves. The two-dimensional plane wave solution of KdV-ZK equation is analyzed to study the effects of nonthermal and beam electrons on the characteristics of the solitons. Theoretical results predict negative potential solitary structures. We emphasize that the inclusion of finite temperature effects reduces the soliton amplitudes and the width of the solitons increases by an increase in the obliquity of the wave propagation. The numerical analysis is presented for the parameters corresponding to the observations of "burst a" event by Viking satellite on the auroral field lines.
Oblique Surface Waves on a Pair of Planar Periodic Slotted Waveguides
Tannous, C; Amram, M
1995-01-01
The dispersion relation and mode amplitudes of oblique surface waves propagating on an acoustic double comb filter are obtained with a method based on the calculus of residues. We obtain a better agreement (below 480 Hz) between theoretical predictions and measurements reported previously when the filter was being supposed to be made of a single comb structure.
Generalized rectangular finite difference beam propagation method.
Sujecki, Slawomir
2008-08-10
A method is proposed that allows for significant improvement of the numerical efficiency of the standard finite difference beam propagation algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method derive from the fact that it allows for an arbitrary selection of the preferred direction of propagation. It is demonstrated that such flexibility is particularly useful when studying the properties of obliquely propagating optical beams. The results obtained show that the proposed method achieves the same level of accuracy as the standard finite difference beam propagation method but with lower order Padé approximations and a coarser finite difference mesh.
Kumar, Bhupesh; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Ajai
2016-04-01
The effects of mass and pressure of ambient gas on the propagation dynamics of two laser-blow-off plasma plumes created in close proximity are investigated. A time gated fast imaging technique is used for recording the images of the laterally colliding plumes under different experimental conditions. Pressure is varied from 0.1 to 3 mbar in three ambient, i.e., helium, neon, and argon. Emphasis is given on the nature of shock-shock interaction under different ambient conditions. It has been observed that the shock-velocity, shape, strength, and their interactions are strongly dependent on the mass and density of the ambient gases. The role of the interacting shocks and their subsequent reflections on the formation and geometrical shape of the interaction region in different ambient conditions is briefly described.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dharodi, Vikram; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in; Patel, Bhavesh; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2016-01-15
The strongly coupled dusty plasma has often been modelled by the Generalized Hydrodynamic (GHD) model used for representing visco-elastic fluid systems. The incompressible limit of the model which supports transverse shear wave mode is studied in detail. In particular, dipole structures are observed to emit transverse shear waves in both the limits of sub- and super-luminar propagation, where the structures move slower and faster than the phase velocity of the shear waves, respectively. In the sub-luminar limit the dipole gets engulfed within the shear waves emitted by itself, which then backreacts on it and ultimately the identity of the structure is lost. However, in the super-luminar limit the emission appears like a wake from the tail region of the dipole. The dipole, however, keeps propagating forward with little damping but minimal distortion in its form. A Poynting-like conservation law with radiative, convective, and dissipative terms being responsible for the evolution of W, which is similar to “enstrophy” like quantity in normal hydrodynamic fluid systems, has also been constructed for the incompressible GHD equations. The conservation law is shown to be satisfied in all the cases of evolution and collision amidst the nonlinear structures to a great accuracy. It is shown that monopole structures which do not move at all but merely radiate shear waves, the radiative term, and dissipative losses solely contribute to the evolution of W. The dipolar structures, on the other hand, propagate in the medium and hence convection also plays an important role in the evolution of W.
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-01-10
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Srinivas, Kadivendi; Vundavilli, Pandu R.; Manzoor Hussain, M.; Saiteja, M.
2016-09-01
Welding input parameters such as current, gas flow rate and torch angle play a significant role in determination of qualitative mechanical properties of weld joint. Traditionally, it is necessary to determine the weld input parameters for every new welded product to obtain a quality weld joint which is time consuming. In the present work, the effect of plasma arc welding parameters on mild steel was studied using a neural network approach. To obtain a response equation that governs the input-output relationships, conventional regression analysis was also performed. The experimental data was constructed based on Taguchi design and the training data required for neural networks were randomly generated, by varying the input variables within their respective ranges. The responses were calculated for each combination of input variables by using the response equations obtained through the conventional regression analysis. The performances in Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation neural network and radial basis neural network (RBNN) were compared on various randomly generated test cases, which are different from the training cases. From the results, it is interesting to note that for the above said test cases RBNN analysis gave improved training results compared to that of feed forward back propagation neural network analysis. Also, RBNN analysis proved a pattern of increasing performance as the data points moved away from the initial input values.
Medina-Tanco, G. A.; Opher, R.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Se presentan resultados numericos para un modelo hidrodinamico de cuatro componentes (plasma de fondo, particulas energeticas, ondas de Alfven autogeneradas y campo magnetico) para choques oblicuos. ABSTRACT. Numerical results of a four component hydrodynamic model (background plasma, energetic particles, self-generated Alfven waves and magnetic field) for oblique shocks are presented. Keq wo't : COSMIC RAY-GENERAL - PLASMAS - SHOCK WAVES
Touma, Jihad; Wisdom, Jack
1993-01-01
The discovery (by Laskar, 1989, 1990) that the evolution of the solar system is chaotic, made in a numerical integration of the averaged secular approximation of the equations of motions for the planets, was confirmed by Sussman and Wisdom (1992) by direct numerical integration of the whole solar system. This paper presents results of direct integrations of the rotation of Mars in the chaotically evolved planetary system, made using the same model as that used by Sussman and Wisdom. The numerical integration shows that the obliquity of Mars undergoes large chaotic variations, which occur as the system evolves in the chaotic zone associated with a secular spin-orbit resonance.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
O Rahman; A A Mamun
2013-06-01
A theoretical investigation of dust-acoustic solitary waves in three-component unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of trapped electrons, Maxwellian ions, and arbitrarily charged cold mobile dust was done. It has been found that, owing to the departure from the Maxwellian electron distribution to a vortex-like one, the dynamics of small but finite amplitude dust-acoustic (DA) waves is governed by a nonlinear equation of modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) type (instead of KdV). The reductive perturbation method was employed to study the basic features (amplitude, width, speed, etc.) of DA solitary waves which are significantly modified by the presence of trapped electrons. The implications of our results in space and laboratory plasmas are briefly discussed.
Compensation of corneal oblique astigmatism by internal optics: a theoretical analysis.
Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N
2017-05-01
Oblique astigmatism is a prominent optical aberration of peripheral vision caused by oblique incidence of rays striking the refracting surfaces of the cornea and crystalline lens. We inquired whether oblique astigmatism from these two sources should be expected, theoretically, to have the same or opposite signs across the visual field at various states of accommodation. Oblique astigmatism was computed across the central visual field for a rotationally-symmetric schematic-eye using optical design software. Accommodative state was varied by altering the apical radius of curvature and separation of the biconvex lens's two aspheric surfaces in a manner consistent with published biometry. Oblique astigmatism was evaluated separately for the whole eye, the cornea, and the isolated lens over a wide range of surface curvatures and asphericity values associated with the accommodating lens. We also computed internal oblique astigmatism by subtracting corneal oblique astigmatism from whole-eye oblique astigmatism. A visual field map of oblique astigmatism for the cornea in the Navarro model follows the classic, textbook description of radially-oriented axes everywhere in the field. Despite large changes in surface properties during accommodation, intrinsic astigmatism of the isolated human lens for collimated light is also radially oriented and nearly independent of accommodation both in theory and in real eyes. However, the magnitude of ocular oblique astigmatism is smaller than that of the cornea alone, indicating partial compensation by the internal optics. This implies internal oblique astigmatism (which includes wavefront propagation from the posterior surface of the cornea to the anterior surface of the lens and intrinsic lens astigmatism) must have tangentially-oriented axes. This non-classical pattern of tangential axes for internal astigmatism was traced to the influence of corneal power on the angles of incidence of rays striking the internal lens. Partial
Andreev, Pavel A
2014-01-01
We discuss complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory for the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate contribution of the Darwin...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenzo Mattei
Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PrP(C is a physiological constituent of eukaryotic cells. The cellular pathways underlying prions spread from the sites of prions infection/peripheral replication to the central nervous system are still not elucidated. Membrane-derived microvesicles (MVs are submicron (0.1-1 microm particles, that are released by cells during plasma membrane shedding processes. They are usually liberated from different cell types, mainly upon activation as well as apoptosis, in this case, one of their hallmarks is the exposure of phosphatidylserine in the outer leaflet of the membrane. MVs are also characterized by the presence of adhesion molecules, MHC I molecules, as well as of membrane antigens typical of their cell of origin. Evidence exists that MVs shedding provide vehicles to transfer molecules among cells, and that MVs are important modulators of cell-to-cell communication. In this study we therefore analyzed the potential role of membrane-derived MVs in the mechanism(s of PrP(C diffusion and prion infectivity transmission. We first identified PrP(C in association with the lipid raft components Fyn, flotillin-2, GM1 and GM3 in MVs from plasma of healthy human donors. Similar findings were found in MVs from cell culture supernatants of murine neuronal cells. Furthermore we demonstrated that PrP(Sc is released from infected murine neuronal cells in association with plasma membrane-derived MVs and that PrP(Sc-bearing MVs are infectious both in vitro and in vivo. The data suggest that MVs may contribute both to the intercellular mechanism(s of PrP(C diffusion and signaling as well as to the process of prion spread and neuroinvasion.
Parametric decay of parallel and oblique Alfven waves in the expanding solar wind
Del Zanna, L; Landi, S; Verdini, A; Velli, M
2014-01-01
The long-term evolution of large-amplitude Alfven waves propagating in the solar wind is investigated by performing two-dimensional MHD simulations within the expanding box model. The linear and nonlinear phases of the parametric decay instability are studied for both circularly polarized waves in parallel propagation and for arc-polarized waves in oblique propagation. The non-monochromatic case is also considered. In the oblique case, the direct excitation of daughter modes transverse to the local background field is found for the first time in an expanding environment, and this transverse cascade seems to be favored for monochromatic mother waves. The expansion effect reduces the instability growth rate, and it can even suppress its onset for the lowest frequency modes considered here, possibly explaining the persistence of these outgoing waves in the solar wind.
Williamson, A.; Erdélyi, R.
2014-11-01
We explore the notion of resonant absorption in a dynamic time-dependent magnetised plasma background. Very many works have investigated resonance in the Alfvén and slow MHD continua under both ideal and dissipative MHD regimes. Jump conditions in static and steady systems have been found in previous works, connecting solutions at both sides of the resonant layer. Here, we derive the jump conditions in a temporally dependent, magnetised, inhomogeneous plasma background to leading order in the Wentzel-Kramers-Billouin (WKB) approximation. Next, we exploit the results found in Williamson and Erdélyi ( Solar Phys. 289, 899, 2014) to describe the evolution of the jump condition in the dynamic model considered. The jump across the resonant point is shown to increase exponentially in time. We determined the damping as a result of the resonance over the same time period and investigated the temporal evolution of the damping itself. We found that the damping coefficient, as a result of the evolution of the resonance, decreases as the density gradient across the transitional layer decreases. This has the consequence that in such time-dependent systems resonant absorption may not be as efficient as time progresses.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Laxmi SHIVESHWARI
2011-01-01
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals, the superlattice structure consisting of alternating plasma and dielectric materials, is studied theoretically for oblique incidence by using the transfer matrix method. Our results show that complete photonic band gaps for all polarizations can be obtained in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals. These structures can exhibit a new type of band or gap, for the incidence other than the normal one, near frequencies where the electric permittivity of the plasma layer changes sign. This new band or gap arises, from the dispersive properties of the plasma layer, only for transverse magnetic polarized waves, and its width increases with the increase in incident angle. This differential behavior under polarization can be utilized in the design of an efficient polarization splitter. The existence of both photonic gaps and resonance transmission bands is demonstrated for experimentally realizable structures such as double electromagnetic barriers.
Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas
Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.
1982-10-01
The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.
Obliquity forcing of low-latitude climate
Bosmans, J.H.C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, L.J.
2015-01-01
The influence of obliquity, the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis, on incoming solar radiation at low latitudes is small, yet many tropical and subtropical palaeoclimate records reveal a clear obliquity signal. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this signal, such as the remote
Obliquity forcing of low-latitude climate
Bosmans, J.H.C.; Hilgen, F.J.; Tuenter, Erik; Lourens, L.J.
2015-01-01
The influence of obliquity, the tilt of the Earth's rotational axis, on incoming solar radiation at low latitudes is small, yet many tropical and subtropical palaeoclimate records reveal a clear obliquity signal. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this signal, such as the remote influe
Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian
2016-01-01
A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, DongLin, E-mail: donglinliu@stu.xidian.edu.cn; Li, XiaoPing; Xie, Kai; Liu, ZhiWei [School of Aerospace Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2015-10-15
A high-speed vehicle flying through the atmosphere between 100 and 20 km may suffer from a “communication blackout.” In this paper, a low frequency system with an on-board loop antenna to receive signals is presented as a potential blackout mitigation method. Because the plasma sheath is in the near-field region of the loop antenna, the traditional scattering matrix method that is developed for the far-field region may overestimate the electromagnetic (EM) wave's attenuation. To estimate the EM wave's attenuation in the near-field region, EM interference (EMI) shielding theory is introduced. Experiments are conducted, and the results verify the EMI shielding theory's effectiveness. Simulations are also conducted with different plasma parameters, and the results obtained show that the EM wave's attenuation in the near-field region is far below than that in the far-field region. The EM wave's attenuation increases with the increase in electron density and decreases with the increase in collision frequency. The higher the frequency, the larger is the EM wave's attenuation. During the entire re-entry phase of a RAM-C module, the EM wave's attenuations are below 10 dB for EM waves with a frequency of 1 MHz and below 1 dB for EM waves with a frequency of 100 kHz. Therefore, the low frequency systems (e.g., Loran-C) may provide a way to transmit some key information to high-speed vehicles even during the communication “blackout” period.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xiao
2013-11-01
Full Text Available AIM: To measure the abnormality of the inferior oblique tendon in patients with congenital superior oblique muscle paralysis.METHODS: In this cross-sectional, self-control designed study, the tensity of the inferior oblique tendon of both the paralytic and nonparalytic eye were measured during the operations in 30 patients who were diagnosed with exotropia(including intermittent exotropia and constant exotropia accompanied with single superior oblique muscle paralysis. The tensity of the tendon was measured as the maximal distance of which the inferior oblique tendon could be lifted from the scleraRESULTS: Inferior oblique had different degrees of thickness, but was tougher and tighter than that of nonparalytic eye. There was a significant difference(PCONCLUSION: The inferior oblique tendon is stronger and less relaxant in the paralytic eyes.
Microwave Imaging under Oblique Illumination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingyang Meng
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Microwave imaging based on inverse scattering problem has been attracting many interests in the microwave society. Among some major technical challenges, the ill-posed, multi-dimensional inversion algorithm and the complicated measurement setup are critical ones that prevent it from practical applications. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of the subspace-based optimization method (SOM for two-dimensional objects when it was applied to a setup designed for oblique incidence. Analytical, simulation, and experimental results show that, for 2D objects, neglecting the cross-polarization scattering will not cause a notable loss of information. Our method can be potentially used in practical imaging applications for 2D-like objects, such as human limbs.
The dispersion relations of dispersive Alfvén waves in superthermal plasmas
Gaelzer, Rudi; Ziebell, Luiz F.
2014-12-01
The effects of velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the space plasma community. Such functions, known as superthermal or kappa distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDF measured by several spacecraft in the plasma environment of the solar wind. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well established. However, for kappa distributions, either isotropic or anisotropic, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation. Contributions for the general case of obliquely propagating waves have been scarcely reported so far. In this work we introduce a mathematical formalism that provides expressions for the dielectric tensor components and subsequent dispersion relations for oblique propagating dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) resulting from a kappa VDF. We employ an isotropic distribution, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions, such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa. The effect of the kappa index and thermal corrections on the dispersion relations of DAW is discussed.
Propagation and scattering of high-intensity X-ray pulses in dense atomic gases and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weninger, Clemens
2015-10-15
scattering signal can thus be amplified by several orders of magnitude. To study stimulated X-ray emission a generalized one-dimensional Maxwell-Bloch model is developed. The radiation is propagated through the medium with the help of the Maxwell equations and the radiation is coupled to the atomic system via the polarization. The atomic system is treated in the density matrix formalism and the time evolution of the coherences determine the polarization of the medium.
Computer modeling of test particle acceleration at oblique shocks
Decker, Robert B.
1988-01-01
The present evaluation of the basic techniques and illustrative results of charged particle-modeling numerical codes suitable for particle acceleration at oblique, fast-mode collisionless shocks emphasizes the treatment of ions as test particles, calculating particle dynamics through numerical integration along exact phase-space orbits. Attention is given to the acceleration of particles at planar, infinitessimally thin shocks, as well as to plasma simulations in which low-energy ions are injected and accelerated at quasi-perpendicular shocks with internal structure.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-04-01
The influence of electron–electron collisions on the propagation of the ion-acoustic space-charge wave is investigated in a cylindrical waveguide filled with warm collisional plasma by employing the normal mode analysis and the method of separation of variables. It is shown that the frequency of the ion-acoustic space-charge wave with higher-harmonic modes is always smaller than that with lower-harmonic modes, especially in intermediate wave number domains. It is also shown that the collisional damping rate of the ion-acoustic space-charge wave due to the electron–electron collision effect with higher-harmonic modes is smaller than that with lower-harmonic modes. In addition, it is found that the maximum position of the collisional damping rate shifts to large wave numbers with an increase of the harmonic mode. The variation of the wave frequency and the collisional damping rate of the ion-acoustic space-charge wave is also discussed.
Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...
Erosion and redeposition processes of molybdenum with oblique incidence of magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kojima, Masahiro; Ido, Yasuhiro; Ezumi, Naomichi; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1997-04-01
Erosion and redeposition processes have been investigated using a linear plasma device and a Monte Carlo simulation code. Argon plasmas were irradiated on a molybdenum substrate with an oblique incidence of magnetic field. The erosion distributions depending on the direction of magnetic field are clearly observed. Numerical code analysis gives a qualitative explanation for the erosion profiles by considering the effect of prompt redeposition of high Z material. However, we have still quantitative differences for their erosion and redeposition rates. (author)
Towards Efficiency of Oblique Images Orientation
Ostrowski, W.; Bakuła, K.
2016-03-01
Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir images obtained simultaneously with oblique photos or bundle adjustment for separate images captured in different directions. The aim of this study was to investigate how the orientation of oblique images can be carried out effectively in commercial software based on the structure from motion technology. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the impact of the orientation strategy on both duration of the process and accuracy of photogrammetric 3D products. Two, very popular software: Pix4D and Agisoft Photoscan were tested and two approaches for image blocks were considered. The first approach based only on oblique images collected in four directions and the second approach included nadir images. In this study, blocks for three test areas were analysed. Oblique images were collected with medium-format cameras in maltan cross configuration with registration of GNSS and INS data. As a reference both check points and digital surface models from airborne laser scanning were used.
TOWARDS EFFICIENCY OF OBLIQUE IMAGES ORIENTATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Ostrowski
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Many papers on both theoretical aspects of bundle adjustment of oblique images and new operators for detecting tie points on oblique images have been written. However, only a few achievements presented in the literature were practically implemented in commercial software. In consequence often aerial triangulation is performed either for nadir images obtained simultaneously with oblique photos or bundle adjustment for separate images captured in different directions. The aim of this study was to investigate how the orientation of oblique images can be carried out effectively in commercial software based on the structure from motion technology. The main objective of the research was to evaluate the impact of the orientation strategy on both duration of the process and accuracy of photogrammetric 3D products. Two, very popular software: Pix4D and Agisoft Photoscan were tested and two approaches for image blocks were considered. The first approach based only on oblique images collected in four directions and the second approach included nadir images. In this study, blocks for three test areas were analysed. Oblique images were collected with medium-format cameras in maltan cross configuration with registration of GNSS and INS data. As a reference both check points and digital surface models from airborne laser scanning were used.
Thermal transport in oblique finned microminichannels
Fan, Yan; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Lee, Yong Jiun
2015-01-01
The main aim of this book is to introduce and give an overview of a novel, easy, and highly effective heat transfer augmentation technique for single-phase micro/minichannel heat sink. The specific objectives of the volume are to: Introduce a novel planar oblique fin microchannel and cylindrical oblique fin minichannel heat sink design using passive heat transfer enhancement techniques Investigate the thermal transport in both planar and cylindrical oblique fin structures through numerical simulation and systematic experimental studies. Evaluate the feasibility of employing the proposed solution in cooling non-uniform heat fluxes and hotspot suppression Conduct the similarity analysis and parametric study to obtain empirical correlations to evaluate the total heat transfer rate of the oblique fin heat sink Investigate the flow mechanism and optimize the dimensions of cylindrical oblique fin heat sink Investigate the influence of edge effect on flow and temperature uniformity in these oblique fin chan...
Tidal obliquity evolution of potentially habitable planets
Heller, René; Barnes, Rory
2011-01-01
Stellar insolation has been used as the main constraint on a planet's habitability. However, as more Earth-like planets are discovered around low-mass stars (LMSs), a re-examination of the role of tides on the habitability of exoplanets has begun. Those studies have yet to consider the misalignment between a planet's rotational axis and the orbital plane normal, i.e. the planetary obliquity. We apply two equilibrium tide theories to compute the obliquity evolution of terrestrial planets orbiting in the habitable zones around LMSs. The time for the obliquity to decrease from an Earth-like obliquity of 23.5 deg to 5 deg, the 'tilt erosion time', is compared to the traditional insolation habitable zone (IHZ) as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and stellar mass. We also compute tidal heating and equilibrium rotation caused by obliquity tides. The Super-Earth Gl581d and the planet candidate Gl581g are studied as examples for tidal processes. Earth-like obliquities of terrestrial planets in the IHZ arou...
Sadeghi, Shahriar; Yassaghi, Ali
2016-04-01
Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and a crustal-scale cross section across the NW Zagros collision zone provide constraints on the spatial evolution of oblique convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates since the Late Cretaceous. The Zagros collision zone in NW Iran consists of the internal Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and Ophiolite zones and the external Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones. The Main Zagros Thrust is the major structure of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of oblique deformation are recognized in the external part of the NW Zagros in Iran. In the early stage, coexisting dextral strike-slip and reverse dominated domains in the Radiolarite zone developed in response to deformation partitioning due to oblique convergence. Dextral-reverse faults in the Bisotoun zone are also compatible with oblique convergence. In the late stage, deformation partitioning occurred during southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulting in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage was related to Late Cretaceous oblique obduction, while the second stage resulted from Cenozoic collision. The Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique convergence is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent Fault) but also occurred in the external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabian and Eurasian plates in Zagros collision zone initiated with oblique obduction in the Late Cretaceous followed by oblique collision in the late Tertiary, consistent with global plate reconstructions.
Oblique waves on a vertically sheared current are rotational
Ellingsen, Simen Å
2015-01-01
In the study of surface waves in the presence of a shear current, a useful and much studied model is that in which the shear flow has constant vorticity. Recently it was shown by Constantin [Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids 30 (2011) 12-16] that a flow of constant vorticity can only permit waves travelling exactly upstream or downstream, but not at oblique angles to the current, and several proofs to the same effect have appeared thereafter. Physical waves cannot possibly adhere to such a restriction, however. We resolve the paradox by showing that an oblique plane wave propagating atop a current of constant vorticity according to the linearized Euler equation carries with it an undulating perturbation of the vorticity field, hence is not prohibited by the Constantin theorem since vorticity is not constant. The perturbation of the vorticity field is readily interpreted in a Lagrangian perspective as the wave motion gently shifting and twisting the vortex lines as the wave passes. In the special case of upstream or down...
Stability and evolution of wave packets in strongly coupled degenerate plasmas
Misra, A P
2011-01-01
We study the nonlinear propagation of electrostatic wave packets in a collisional plasma composed of strongly coupled ions and relativistically degenerate electrons. The equilibrium of ions is maintained by an effective temperature associated with their strong coupling, whereas that of electrons is provided by the relativistic degeneracy pressure. Using a multiple scale technique, a (3+1)-dimensional coupled set of nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equations with nonlocal nonlinearity is derived from a generalized viscoelastic hydrodynamic model. These coupled equations, which govern the dynamics of wave packets, are used to study the oblique modulational instability of a Stoke's wave train to a small plane wave perturbation. We show that the wave packets, though stable to the parallel modulation, becomes unstable against oblique modulations. In contrast to the long-wavelength carrier modes, the wave packets with short-wavelengths are shown to be stable in the weakly relativistic case, whereas they can be stable...
Superior oblique surgery: when and how?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taylan Şekeroğlu H
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Hande Taylan Şekeroğlu,1 Ali Sefik Sanac,1 Umut Arslan,2 Emin Cumhur Sener11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyBackground: The purpose of this paper is to review different types of superior oblique muscle surgeries, to describe the main areas in clinical practice where superior oblique surgery is required or preferred, and to discuss the preferred types of superior oblique surgery with respect to their clinical outcomes.Methods: A consecutive nonrandomized retrospective series of patients who had undergone superior oblique muscle surgery as a single procedure were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis, clinical features, preoperative and postoperative vertical deviations in primary position, type of surgery, complications, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The primary outcome measures were the type of strabismus and the type of superior oblique muscle surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the results of the surgeries.Results: The review identified 40 (20 male, 20 female patients with a median age of 6 (2–45 years. Nineteen patients (47.5% had Brown syndrome, eleven (27.5% had fourth nerve palsy, and ten (25.0% had horizontal deviations with A pattern. The most commonly performed surgery was superior oblique tenotomy in 29 (72.5% patients followed by superior oblique tuck in eleven (27.5% patients. The amount of vertical deviation in the fourth nerve palsy and Brown syndrome groups (P = 0.01 for both and the amount of A pattern in the A pattern group were significantly reduced postoperatively (P = 0.02.Conclusion: Surgery for the superior oblique muscle requires experience and appropriate preoperative evaluation in view of its challenging nature. The main indications are Brown syndrome, fourth nerve palsy, and A pattern deviations. Superior oblique surgery may be effective in terms of pattern collapse and correction of vertical deviations in primary
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in a superthermal dusty plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saini, N. S., E-mail: nssaini@yahoo.com; Singh, Manpreet, E-mail: singhmanpreet185@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Bains, A. S., E-mail: bainsphysics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)
2015-11-15
Dust kinetic Alfvén solitary waves (DKASWs) have been examined in a low-β dusty plasma comprising of negatively charged dust grains, superthermal electrons, and ions. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using the reductive perturbation method. The combined effects of superthermality of charged particles (via κ), plasma β, obliqueness of propagation (θ), and dust concentration (via f) on the shape and size of the DKASWs have been examined. Only negative potential (rarefactive) structures are observed. Further, characteristics of dust kinetic Alfvén rogue waves (DKARWs), by deriving the non-linear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) from the KdV equation, are studied. Rational solutions of NLSE show that rogue wave envelopes are supported by this plasma model. It is observed that the influence of various plasma parameters (superthermality, plasma β, obliqueness, and dust concentration) on the characteristics of the DKARWs is very significant. This fundamental study may be helpful in understanding the formation of coherent nonlinear structures in space and astrophysical plasma environments where superthermal particles are present.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imbeaux, F
1999-09-22
Control of the current density profile is a critical issue in view to obtain high fusion performances in tokamak plasmas? It is therefore important to be able to control the power deposition profile of the lower hybrid wave, which has the highest current drive efficiency among all other non-inductive additional methods. Propagation and absorption of this wave are investigated in the Tore Supra tokamak using a new hard x-ray tomographic system and a new ray-tracing/Fokker-Planck code. These tools are described in detail and allow to analyse the lower hybrid power deposition profile dependence as a function of various plasma parameters (density, magnetic field, current) and of the injected wave spectrum. A good agreement between the code and the measurements found when the central electron temperature is greater than about 3 keV, that is in regimes where the wave undergoes only a few reflections before being absorbed. The simulations are then used to interpret the experimental trends. The lower hybrid power deposition profile is in nearly all discharges localised at a normalised minor radius of 0.2-0.3, and is weakly sensitive to variations of plasma parameters. It is hence difficult to perform an efficient control of the current profile generated by the lower hybrid wave in Tore Supra. This goal may nevertheless be reached by using an original method, which uses an auxiliary lower hybrid wave injected by a vertical port of the torus. This method is investigated by means of the simulation code. (author)
Artemyev, Anton; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mourenas, Didier; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Shastun, Vitalii; Mozer, Forrest
2016-04-01
In this paper we review recent spacecraft observations of oblique whistler-mode waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere as well as the various consequences of the presence of such waves for electron scattering and acceleration. In particular, we survey the statistics of occurrences and intensity of oblique chorus waves in the region of the outer radiation belt, comprised between the plasmapause and geostationary orbit, and discuss how their actual distribution may be explained by a combination of linear and non-linear generation, propagation, and damping processes. We further examine how such oblique wave populations can be included into both quasi-linear diffusion models and fully nonlinear models of wave-particle interaction. On this basis, we demonstrate that varying amounts of oblique waves can significantly change the rates of particle scattering, acceleration, and precipitation into the atmosphere during quiet times as well as in the course of a storm. Finally, we discuss possible generation mechanisms for such oblique waves in the radiation belts. We demonstrate that oblique whistler-mode chorus waves can be considered as an important ingredient of the radiation belt system and can play a key role in many aspects of wave-particle resonant interactions.
Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo
2016-07-01
A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.
Xiangjie, Zhao; Jiazhu, Duan; Dayong, Zhang; Cangli, Liu; Yongquan, Luo
2016-10-01
A liquid crystal polarization grating (LCPG) is proposed that amplifies the steering angle of a liquid crystal optical phased array for non-mechanical beam steering, taking advantage of its high steering efficiency under normal incidence. However, oblique incidence may play an important role in the overall steering efficiency. The effect of oblique incidence on steering efficiency of a LCPG was analyzed by numerically solving the extended Jones matrix and considering propagation crosstalk. The results indicate that the outgoing laser beam is amplitude-modulated under the effect of oblique incidence and behaves as a sinusoidal-modulated amplitude grating, which diffracts certain energies to non-blazed orders. Over-oblique incidence may even eliminate the steering effect of the incident beam. The modulation depth of the induced amplitude grating was found to be proportional to the product of sinusoidal value of oblique incidence angle and the LC layer thickness, and inversely proportional to the periodic pitch length of the LCPG. Both in-plane incidence and out-of-plane incidence behave similarly to influence the steering efficiency. Finally, the overall steering efficiency for cascaded LCPGs was analyzed and a difference of up to 11 % steering efficiency can be induced between different LCPG configurations, even without considering the over-oblique incidence effect. Both the modulation depth and final steering efficiency can be optimized by varying the LC birefringence and layer thickness.
Inferring Planetary Obliquity Using Rotational & Orbital Photometry
Schwartz, Joel C; Haggard, Hal M; Pallé, Eric; Cowan, Nicolas B
2015-01-01
The obliquity of a terrestrial planet is an important clue about its formation and critical to its climate. Previous studies using simulated photometry of Earth show that continuous observations over most of a planet's orbit can be inverted to infer obliquity. We extend this approach to single-epoch observations for planets with arbitrary albedo maps. For diffuse reflection, the flux seen by a distant observer is the product of the planet's albedo map, the host star's illumination, and the observer's visibility of different planet regions. It is useful to treat the product of illumination and visibility as the kernel of a convolution; this kernel is unimodal and symmetric. For planets with unknown obliquity, the kernel is not known a priori, but could be inferred by fitting a rotational light curve. We analyze this kernel under different viewing geometries, finding it well described by its longitudinal width and latitudinal position. We use Monte Carlo simulation to estimate uncertainties on these kernel char...
Solar Obliquity Induced by Planet Nine
Bailey, Elizabeth; Brown, Michael E
2016-01-01
The six-degree obliquity of the sun suggests that either an asymmetry was present in the solar system's formation environment, or an external torque has misaligned the angular momentum vectors of the sun and the planets. However, the exact origin of this obliquity remains an open question. Batygin & Brown (2016) have recently shown that the physical alignment of distant Kuiper Belt orbits can be explained by a 5-20 Earth-mass planet on a distant, eccentric, and inclined orbit, with an approximate perihelion distance of ~250 AU. Using an analytic model for secular interactions between Planet Nine and the remaining giant planets, here we show that a planet with similar parameters can naturally generate the observed obliquity as well as the specific pole position of the sun's spin axis, from a nearly aligned initial state. Thus, Planet Nine offers a testable explanation for the otherwise mysterious spin-orbit misalignment of the solar system.
Dynamical Instabilities in High-Obliquity Systems
Tamayo, Daniel; Hamilton, Douglas P; Nicholson, Philip D
2012-01-01
High-inclination circumplanetary orbits that are gravitationally perturbed by the central star can undergo Kozai oscillations---large-amplitude, coupled variations in the orbital eccentricity and inclination. We first study how this effect is modified by incorporating perturbations from the planetary oblateness. Tremaine et al. (2009) found that, for planets with obliquities > 68.875 degrees, orbits in the equilibrium local Laplace plane are unstable to eccentricity perturbations over a finite radial range, and execute large-amplitude chaotic oscillations in eccentricity and inclination. In the hope of making that treatment more easily understandable, we analyze the problem using orbital elements, confirming this threshold obliquity. Furthermore, we find that orbits inclined to the Laplace plane will be unstable over a broader radial range, and that such orbits can go unstable for obliquities less than 68.875 degrees. Finally, we analyze the added effects of radiation pressure, which are important for dust gr...
Effective operator contributions to the oblique parameters
Sánchez-Colón, G
1998-01-01
We present a model and process independent study of the contributions from non-Standard Model physics to the oblique parameters S, T and U. We show that within an effective lagrangian parameterization the expressions for the oblique parameters in terms of observables are consistent, while those in terms of the vector-boson vacuum polarization tensors are ambiguous. We obtain the constraints on the scale of new physics derived from current data on S, T and U and note that deviations in U from its Standard Model value would favor a scenario where the underlying physics does not decouple.
Simulation of EMIC growth and propagation within the plasmaspheric plume density irregularities
de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Spasojevic, M.
2012-12-01
In situ data from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instruments onboard the LANL spacecraft are used to study the growth and propagation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the presence of cold plasma irregularities in the plasmaspheric plume. The data corresponds to the 9 June 2001 event, a period of moderate geomagnetic activity with highly irregular density structure within the plume as measured by the MPA instrument at geosynchoronus orbit. Theory and observations suggest that EMIC waves are responsible for energetic proton precipitation, which is stronger during geomagnetically disturbed intervals. These waves propagate below the proton gyrofrequency, and they appear in three frequency bands due to the presence of heavy ions, which strongly modify wave propagation characteristics. These waves are generated by ion cyclotron instability of ring current ions, whose temperature anisotropy provides the free energy required for wave growth. Growth maximizes for field-aligned propagation near the equatorial plane where the magnetic field gradient is small. Although the wave's group velocity typically stays aligned with the geomagnetic field direction, wave-normal vectors tend to become oblique due to the curvature and gradient of the field. On the other hand, radial density gradients have the capability of guiding the waves and competing against the magnetic field effect thus favoring wave growth conditions. In addition, enhanced cold plasma density reduces the proton resonant energy where higher fluxes are available for resonance, and hence explaining why wave growth is favored at higher L-shell regions where the ratio of plasma to cyclotron frequency is larger. The Stanford VLF 3D Raytracer is used together with path-integrated linear growth calculations to study the amplification and propagation characteristics of EMIC waves within the plasmaspheric plume formed during the 9 June 2001 event. Cold multi-ion plasma is assumed for raytracing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batool, Nazia; Saleem, H. [National Centre for Physics (NCP), Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2013-10-15
The linear and nonlinear dynamics of pair-ion (PI) and pair-ion-electron plasmas (PIE) have been investigated in a cylindrical geometry with a sheared plasma flow along the axial direction having radial dependence. The coupled linear dispersion relation of low frequency electrostatic waves has been presented taking into account the Guassian profile of density and linear gradient of sheared flow. It is pointed out that the quasi-neutral cold inhomogeneous pure pair ion plasma supports only the obliquely propagating convective cell mode. The linear dispersion relation of this mode has been solved using boundary conditions. The nonlinear structures in the form of vortices formed by different waves have been discussed in PI and PIE plasmas.
Formation of transverse waves in oblique detonations
Verreault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Stowe, R.A.
2013-01-01
The structure of oblique detonation waves stabilized on a hypersonic wedge in mixtures characterized by a large activation energy is investigated via steady method of characteristics (MoC) calculations and unsteady computational flowfield simulations. The steady MoC solutions show that, after the tr
Orientation Strategies for Aerial Oblique Images
Wiedemann, A.; Moré, J.
2012-07-01
Oblique aerial images become more and more distributed to fill the gap between vertical aerial images and mobile mapping systems. Different systems are on the market. For some applications, like texture mapping, precise orientation data are required. One point is the stable interior orientation, which can be achieved by stable camera systems, the other a precise exterior orientation. A sufficient exterior orientation can be achieved by a large effort in direct sensor orientation, whereas minor errors in the angles have a larger effect than in vertical imagery. The more appropriate approach is by determine the precise orientation parameters by photogrammetric methods using an adapted aerial triangulation. Due to the different points of view towards the object the traditional aerotriangulation matching tools fail, as they produce a bunch of blunders and require a lot of manual work to achieve a sufficient solution. In this paper some approaches are discussed and results are presented for the most promising approaches. We describe a single step approach with an aerotriangulation using all available images; a two step approach with an aerotriangulation only of the vertical images plus a mathematical transformation of the oblique images using the oblique cameras excentricity; and finally the extended functional model for a bundle block adjustment considering the mechanical connection between vertical and oblique images. Beside accuracy also other aspects like efficiency and required manual work have to be considered.
Flow and sediment transport across oblique channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Erik Østergaard; Fredsøe, Jørgen
1998-01-01
A 3D numerical investigation of flow across channels aligned obliquely to the main flow direction has been conducted. The applied numerical model solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the k-ε model for turbulence closure on a curvilinear grid. Three momentum equations are sol...
Oblique patterned etching of vertical silicon sidewalls
Bruce Burckel, D.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; David Henry, M.; Resnick, Paul J.; Jarecki, Robert L.
2016-04-01
A method for patterning on vertical silicon surfaces in high aspect ratio silicon topography is presented. A Faraday cage is used to direct energetic reactive ions obliquely through a patterned suspended membrane positioned over the topography. The technique is capable of forming high-fidelity pattern (100 nm) features, adding an additional fabrication capability to standard top-down fabrication approaches.
Obliquity Modulation of the Incoming Solar Radiation
Liu, Han-Shou; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Based on a basic principle of orbital resonance, we have identified a huge deficit of solar radiation induced by the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity as possibly the causal mechanism for ice age glaciation. Including this modulation effect on solar radiation, we have performed model simulations of climate change for the past 2 million years. Simulation results show that: (1) For the past 1 million years, temperature fluctuation cycles were dominated by a 100-Kyr period due to amplitude-frequency resonance effect of the obliquity; (2) From 2 to 1 million years ago, the amplitude-frequency interactions. of the obliquity were so weak that they were not able to stimulate a resonance effect on solar radiation; (3) Amplitude and frequency modulation analysis on solar radiation provides a series of resonance in the incoming solar radiation which may shift the glaciation cycles from 41-Kyr to 100-Kyr about 0.9 million years ago. These results are in good agreement with the marine and continental paleoclimate records. Thus, the proposed climate response to the combined amplitude and frequency modulation of the Earth's obliquity may be the key to understanding the glaciation puzzles in paleoclimatology.
Formation of transverse waves in oblique detonations
Verreault, J.; Higgins, A.J.; Stowe, R.A.
2013-01-01
The structure of oblique detonation waves stabilized on a hypersonic wedge in mixtures characterized by a large activation energy is investigated via steady method of characteristics (MoC) calculations and unsteady computational flowfield simulations. The steady MoC solutions show that, after the tr
Abdikian, A.; Mahmood, S.
2016-12-01
The obliquely nonlinear acoustic solitary propagation in a relativistically quantum magnetized electron-positron (e-p) plasma in the presence of the external magnetic field as well as the stationary ions for neutralizing the plasma background was studied. By considering the dynamic of the fluid e-p quantum and by using the quantum hydrodynamics model and the standard reductive perturbation technique, the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived for small but finite amplitude waves and the solitary wave solution for the parameters relevant to dense astrophysical objects such as white dwarf stars is obtained. The numerical results show that the relativistic effects lead to propagate the electrostatic bell shape structures in quantum e-p plasmas like those in classical pair-ion or pair species for relativistic plasmas. It is also observed that by increasing the relativistic effects, the amplitude and width of the e-p acoustic solitary wave will decrease. In addition, the wave amplitude increases as positron density decreases in magnetized e-p plasmas. It is indicated that by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, the width of the soliton reduces and it becomes sharper. At the end, we have analytically and numerically shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable and have traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on electron density. It is found that by considering the relativistic pressure, the instability of the soliton pulse can be reduced. The results can be useful to study the obliquely nonlinear propagation of small amplitude localized structures in magnetized quantum e-p plasmas and be applicable to understand the particle and energy transport mechanism in compact stars such as white dwarfs, where the effects of relativistic electron degeneracy become important.
Insolation patterns on synchronous exoplanets with obliquity
Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.
2009-11-01
A previous paper [Dobrovolskis, A.R., 2007. Icarus 192, 1-23] showed that eccentricity can have profound effects on the climate, habitability, and detectability of extrasolar planets. This complementary study shows that obliquity can have comparable effects. The known exoplanets exhibit a wide range of orbital eccentricities, but those within several million kilometers of their suns are generally in near-circular orbits. This fact is widely attributed to the dissipation of tides in the planets. Tides in a planet affect its spin even more than its orbit, and such tidally evolved planets often are assumed to be in synchronous rotation, so that their rotation periods are identical to their orbital periods. The canonical example of synchronous spin is the way that our Moon always keeps nearly the same hemisphere facing the Earth. Tides also tend to reduce the planet's obliquity (the angle between its spin and orbital angular velocities). However, orbit precession can cause the rotation to become locked in a "Cassini state", where it retains a nearly constant non-zero obliquity. For example, our Moon maintains an obliquity of about 6.7° with respect to its orbit about the Earth. In comparison, stable Cassini states can exist for practically any obliquity up to ˜90° or more for planets of binary stars, or in multi-planet systems with high mutual inclinations, such as are produced by scattering or by the Kozai mechanism. This work considers planets in synchronous rotation with circular orbits, but arbitrary obliquity β; this affects the distribution of insolation over the planet's surface, particularly near its poles. For β=0, one hemisphere bakes in perpetual sunshine, while the opposite hemisphere experiences eternal darkness. As β increases, the region of permanent daylight and the antipodal realm of endless night both shrink, while a more temperate area of alternating day and night spreads in longitude, and especially in latitude. The regions of permanent day or
Oblique effect in visual mismatch negativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endre eTakács
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We investigated whether visual orientation anisotropies (known as oblique effect exist in non-attended visual changes using event-related potentials (ERP. We recorded visual mismatch negativity (vMMN which signals violation of sequential regularities. In the visual periphery unattended, task-irrelevant Gábor patches were displayed in an oddball sequence while subjects performed a tracking task in the central field. A moderate change (50° in the orientation of stimuli revealed no consistent change-related components. However we found orientation-related differences around 170 ms in occipito-temporal areas in the amplitude of the ERPs evoked by standard stimuli. In a supplementary experiment we determined the amount of orientation difference that is needed for change detection in an active, attended paradigm. Results exhibited the classical oblique effect; subjects detected 10° deviations from cardinal directions, while threshold from oblique directions was 17°. These results provide evidence that perception of change could be accomplished at significantly smaller thresholds, than what elicits vMMN. In Experiment2 we increased the orientation change to 90°. Deviant-minus-standard difference was negative in occipito-parietal areas, between 120-200 ms after stimulus onset. VMMNs to changes from cardinal angles were larger and more sustained than vMMNs evoked by changes from oblique angles. Changes from cardinal orientations represent a more detectable signal for the automatic change detection system than changes from oblique angles, thus increased vMMN to these larger deviances might be considered a variant of the magnitude of deviance effect rarely observed in vMMN studies.
The Chicxulub Impact Crater and Oblique Impact
McDonald, M.; Gulick, S.; Melosh, H.; Christeson, G.
2007-05-01
Determining whether or not the Chicxulub impact was oblique (<45 degrees) will aid in our understanding of the environmental consequences 65 Ma. Planetary impact events, and impact simulations in the laboratory, show that oblique impacts have clear asymmetric ejecta distributions. However, the subsurface structures of the resultant craters are not well understood. In 2005, we acquired 1822 km of seismic reflection data onboard the R/V Maurice Ewing imaging the massive (200+ km) Chicxulub impact crater. The seismic profiles show that pre- crater stratigraphy outside the central basin of the Chicxulub impact crater is offset downward into the crater marking the post-impact slumping and formation of the terrace zone. The inward collapse of the Chicxulub terrace zone coincides with the outward collapse of the central uplift to form the peak ring. Chicxulub's peak ring is offset to the southeast, away from the deepest terrace zone mapped in the seismic data, suggesting that its peak ring was offset toward a more gradual wall of the transient cavity. Peak ring offsets, relative to crater center, of Venusian craters from radar images in the Magellan data set allow us to determine whether there are systematic variations in peak ring offset due to oblique impact. Ten pristine Venusian peak ring craters formed by oblique impact show that peak rings are offset both uprange and downrange, suggesting that peak ring position, and related subsurface asymmetries in the terrace zone, do not provide information about impact obliquity. This analysis supports the idea that Chicxulub's peak ring offset is a consequence of target properties and pre-impact structure and independent of impact trajectory.
Efficient regime of electromagnetic emission in a plasma with counterstreaming electron beams
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.
2014-08-01
Efficiency of electromagnetic emission produced in a magnetized plasma with counterstreaming electron beams was investigated using both the linear kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations. We calculated the growth rate of the beam-plasma instability taking into account both kinetic and relativistic effects and showed that there exists a regime in which transversely propagating electromagnetic waves can be generated by the coupling of the most unstable oblique beam-driven modes. It was confirmed by numerical simulations that such a tune-up of system parameters for a specific nonlinear process can lead to a substantial increase in electromagnetic emission efficiency. It was found that electromagnetic radiation emerging from the plasma in such a regime is generated near the harmonics of the pump frequency that is determined by the typical eigenfrequency of the beam-driven modes. It was also shown that the peak emission power can reach 5% of the maximal power lost by beam electrons.
Efficient regime of electromagnetic emission in a plasma with counterstreaming electron beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2014-08-15
Efficiency of electromagnetic emission produced in a magnetized plasma with counterstreaming electron beams was investigated using both the linear kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations. We calculated the growth rate of the beam-plasma instability taking into account both kinetic and relativistic effects and showed that there exists a regime in which transversely propagating electromagnetic waves can be generated by the coupling of the most unstable oblique beam-driven modes. It was confirmed by numerical simulations that such a tune-up of system parameters for a specific nonlinear process can lead to a substantial increase in electromagnetic emission efficiency. It was found that electromagnetic radiation emerging from the plasma in such a regime is generated near the harmonics of the pump frequency that is determined by the typical eigenfrequency of the beam-driven modes. It was also shown that the peak emission power can reach 5% of the maximal power lost by beam electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artemyev, A. V., E-mail: ante0226@gmail.com; Vasiliev, A. A.; Neishtadt, A. I. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow, Russia, 117997 (Russian Federation); Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. [LPC2E/CNRS—University of Orleans, 3A, Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, F-45071 Orleans Cedex (France); Agapitov, O. V. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2015-11-15
We investigate electron trapping by high-amplitude whistler-mode waves propagating at small as well as large angles relative to geomagnetic field lines. The inhomogeneity of the background magnetic field can result in an effective acceleration of trapped particles. Here, we derive useful analytical expressions for the probability of electron trapping by both parallel and oblique waves, paving the way for a full analytical description of trapping effects on the particle distribution. Numerical integrations of particle trajectories allow to demonstrate the accuracy of the derived analytical estimates. For realistic wave amplitudes, the levels of probabilities of trapping are generally comparable for oblique and parallel waves, but they turn out to be most efficient over complementary energy ranges. Trapping acceleration of <100 keV electrons is mainly provided by oblique waves, while parallel waves are responsible for the trapping acceleration of >100 keV electrons.
Scattering at oblique incidence by multiple cylinders in front of a surface
Lee, Siu-Chun
2016-10-01
This paper presents a theoretical solution for scattering by multiple parallel infinite cylinders located on top of a dielectric substrate. The incident plane wave is arbitrarily polarized and propagates in a general direction inclined from the axis of the cylinders. The scattered waves become depolarized at oblique incidence, which are reflected from the surface of the substrate to become incident waves at the cylinders. An exact solution of Maxwell's equations is developed that rigorously treats the depolarization of scattered waves and the angular spectrum of reflected and transmitted waves from the surface. Numerical results are presented for different configurations of perfectly conducting and coated cylinders at perpendicular and oblique incidence to illustrate plasmonic resonances in the near-field and scattering characteristics in the far-field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wan, A.S.; Cauble, R.; Da Silva, L.B.; Libby, S.B.; Moreno, J.C.
1996-02-01
This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Exploratory Research Project (ERP) entitled ``X-ray Laser Propagation and Coherence: Diagnosing Fast-evolving, High-density Laser Plasmas Using X-ray Lasers,`` tracking code 93-ERP-075. The most significant accomplishment of this project is the demonstration of a new laser plasma diagnostic: a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer using a neonlike yttrium x-ray laser at 155 {angstrom} as the probe source. Detailed comparisons of absolute two-dimensional electron density profiles obtained from soft x-ray laser interferograms and profiles obtained from radiation hydrodynamics codes, such as LASNEX, will allow us to validate and benchmark complex numerical models used to study the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Thus the development of soft x-ray interferometry technique provides a mechanism to probe the deficiencies of the numerical models and is an important tool for, the high-energy density physics and science-based stockpile stewardship programs. The authors have used the soft x-ray interferometer to study a number of high-density, fast evolving, laser-produced plasmas, such as the dynamics of exploding foils and colliding plasmas. They are pursuing the application of the soft x-ray interferometer to study ICF-relevant plasmas, such as capsules and hohlraums, on the Nova 10-beam facility. They have also studied the development of enhanced-coherence, shorter-pulse-duration, and high-brightness x-ray lasers. The utilization of improved x-ray laser sources can ultimately enable them to obtain three-dimensional holographic images of laser-produced plasmas.
Ma, X.; Yan, J.; Hou, Y.; Lin, F.; Zheng, X.
2016-12-01
The northern South China Sea provides prominent examples of internal waves, however, rare studies have been done on the associated bedforms and sediment transport near the shelf break. Here, we report the unique data of bedform details which probably caused by the internal solitary waves and internal tides near the shelf break in the areas west of Dongsha Atoll. In the study area, most internal solitary waves (ISWs) are found to propagate onto the shelf obliquely in an approximately 290° through the MODIS image. Several typical events of ISWs were also captured during our observation by an mooring system on the continental slope. Bottom current data near the shelf break showed that extremely strong speed (exceeding 80 cm/s) occurred when the obliquely incident ISWs propagated. The strong currents have the capability to move coarse grains or suspend and transport fine grains but, cannot change the long-term trend of sediment transport on the slope (γ/c>1). Two types of sand waves were also found on the seabed. The upslope-dipping sand waves (type 1) are only found at depths of 120-150 m with flat crests and intersecting the depth contours, being ascribed to the obliquely incident ISWs. In contrast, the downslope-dipping sand waves (type 2) are parallel to the depth contours and obviously migrated over eight months, which were probably caused by internal tides. The ISWs could also produce along-slope currents to form and maintain channels on seabed with a larger gradient (γ>0.8°). The bedforms are likely widespread near the shelf break in the northern South China Sea and other seas but are limited on mild slopes where ISWs do not break. Additional detailed research needs to be deployed on wave behaviors, sediment transport, and the bedforms associated with obliquely incident ISWs.
Inferior oblique weakening surgery on ocular torsion in congenital superior oblique palsy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinho Lee
2015-06-01
Full Text Available AIM:To investigate changes in fundus excyclotorsion after inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy.METHODS:The records of 21 patients undergoing strabismus surgery by a single surgeon between 2009 and 2012 were examined. Only patients who had undergone an inferior oblique myectomy or myotomy, with or without horizontal rectus muscle surgery, were evaluated. Digital fundus photographs were obtained, and the angle formed by a horizontal line passing through the optic disc center and a reference line connecting the foveola and optic disc center was measured. Associated clinical factors examined include age at the time of surgery, presence or absence of a head tilt, degree of preoperative vertical deviation, torsional angle, inferior oblique muscle overaction/superior oblique muscle underaction, and surgery laterality. Whether the procedure was performed alone or in combination with a horizontal rectus muscle surgery was also examined.RESULTS:Mean preoperative torsional angle was 12.0±6.4°, which decreased to 6.9±5.7° after surgery (P<0.001, paired t-test. Torsional angle also decreased from 15.1±7.0° to 6.2±4.3° in the myectomy group (P<0.001, paired t-test but there were no significant changes in the myotomy group (P=0.093, Wilcoxon signed rank test. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that preoperative torsional angle, degree of inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery independently and significantly affected postoperative torsional angle.CONCLUSION:Mean torsional angle decreased after inferior oblique myectomy. Degree of preoperative torsional angle, inferior oblique overaction, and age at surgery influence postoperative torsional angle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Ghosh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.
Simpson, J. J.; Taflove, A.
2006-12-01
We report a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computational solution of Maxwell's equations for sub-30 kHz electromagnetic (EM) propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The FDTD technique used in this study enables a direct, full-vector, three-dimensional (3-D) time-domain calculation of EM propagation accounting for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the excitation, ionosphere, lithosphere, and oceans. This is unlike previous FDTD models which assumed azimuthal symmetry about a vertical current source excitation representing a lightning channel. Our model is therefore unique in that it includes fully 3-D anisotropic plasma phenomena in the ionosphere as influenced by the full-vector geomagnetic field. In this study, we show results for EM propagation from lightning strikes using a spherical-coordinate (latitude- longitude) grid having a 1 x 1 x 1 km resolution. Our new model provides additional capabilities to simulate EM wave phenomena arising from whistlers and other lightning-related events, as well as for better understanding anomalous ionospheric phenomena reported to have occurred prior to and during major earthquakes.
Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.
Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene
2008-02-01
We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.
Low stellar obliquities in compact multiplanet systems
Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard; Johnson, John A
2013-01-01
We measure the sky-projected stellar obliquities (\\lambda) in the multiple-transiting planetary systems KOI-94 and Kepler-25, using the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. In both cases the host stars are well-aligned with the orbital planes of the planets. For KOI-94 we find \\lambda=-11+-11 deg, confirming a recent result by Hirano and coworkers. Kepler-25 was a more challenging case because the transit depth is unusually small (0.13 %). To obtain the obliquity it was necessary to use prior knowledge of the star's projected rotation rate, and apply two different analysis methods to independent wavelength regions of the spectra. The two methods gave consistent results, \\lambda=7+-8 deg and -0.5+-5.7 deg. There are now a total of five obliquity measurements for host stars of systems of multiple transiting planets, all of which are consistent with spin-orbit alignment. This alignment is unlikely to be the result of tidal interactions, because of the relatively large orbital distances and low planetary masses in the sys...
On the oscillations in Mercury's obliquity
Bois, E
2007-01-01
One major objective of MESSENGER and BepiColombo spatial missions is to accurately measure Mercury's rotation and its obliquity in order to obtain constraints on internal structure of the planet. Which is the obliquity's dynamical behavior deriving from a complete spin-orbit motion of Mercury simultaneously integrated with planetary interactions? We have used our SONYR model integrating the spin-orbit N-body problem applied to the solar System (Sun and planets). For lack of current accurate observations or ephemerides of Mercury's rotation, and therefore for lack of valid initial conditions for a numerical integration, we have built an original method for finding the libration center of the spin-orbit system and, as a consequence, for avoiding arbitrary amplitudes in librations of the spin-orbit motion as well as in Mercury's obliquity. The method has been carried out in two cases: (1) the spin-orbit motion of Mercury in the 2-body problem case (Sun-Mercury) where an uniform precession of the Keplerian orbita...
Ferrarese, Giorgio
2011-01-01
Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.
2007-01-01
We consider the effect of oblique EMIC waves on relativistic electron scattering in the outer radiation belt using simultaneous observations of plasma and wave parameters from CRRES. The main findings can be s ummarized as follows: 1. In 1comparison with field-aligned waves, int ermediate and highly oblique distributions decrease the range of pitc h-angles subject to diffusion, and reduce the local scattering rate b y an order of magnitude at pitch-angles where the principle absolute value of n = 1 resonances operate. Oblique waves allow the absolute va lue of n > 1 resonances to operate, extending the range of local pitc h-angle diffusion down to the loss cone, and increasing the diffusion at lower pitch angles by orders of magnitude; 2. The local diffusion coefficients derived from CRRES data are qualitatively similar to the local results obtained for prescribed plasma/wave parameters. Conseq uently, it is likely that the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients, if estimated from concurrent data, will exhibit the dependencies similar to those we found for model calculations; 3. In comparison with f ield-aligned waves, intermediate and highly oblique waves decrease th e bounce-averaged scattering rate near the edge of the equatorial lo ss cone by orders of magnitude if the electron energy does not excee d a threshold (approximately equal to 2 - 5 MeV) depending on specified plasma and/or wave parameters; 4. For greater electron energies_ ob lique waves operating the absolute value of n > 1 resonances are more effective and provide the same bounce_averaged diffusion rate near the loss cone as fiel_aligned waves do.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
夏俊明; 徐跃民; 孙越强; 霍文青; 孙海龙; 白伟华; 柳聪亮; 孟祥广
2015-01-01
Large planar plasma sheets, generated by a linear hollow cathode in pulse discharge mode under magnetic con-finement, can be used in the field of plasma antenna, plasma stealth, and simulation of a plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth’s atmosphere. Firstly, to investigate the propagation prop-erties of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies and polarization, the transverse field transfer matrix method is introduced. Secondly, the measured electron density temporal and spatial distribution and the transverse field transfer matrix method are utilized to calculate the reflection, transmission and absorption of electromagnetic waves by large planar plasma sheets with different currents. Finally, 1 GHz (less than the critical cut-off frequency) electromagnetic waves and 4 GHz (greater than the critical frequency) electromagnetic waves are chosen to investigate the evolution of propagation properties during the pulsed discharge period. Results show that both the reflection and absorption of the electromagnetic waves are greater for their polarization direction parallel to that of magnetic field, and their frequencies lower than the critical cut-off frequency, and as the discharge currents rise, the reflection increases while the absorption decreases. However both the reflection and absorption of the electromagnetic waves with their polarization direction perpendicular to the magnetic field direction and their frequency greater than the critical cut-off frequency become less, and as the discharge currents rise, both the reflection and absorption will increase. For the electromagnetic waves with their polarization direction perpendicular to the magnetic field direction, there is an upper hybrid resonance absorption band near the upper hybrid resonance frequencies, in which the absorption is significant but the absorption peak value is not affected by the discharge current. The propagation characteristics of the
Nonlinear waves on the free surface of a dielectric liquid in an oblique electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gashkov, M. A.; Zubarev, N. M., E-mail: nick@iep.uran.ru; Kochurin, E. A., E-mail: kochurin@iep.uran.ru [Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electrophysics (Russian Federation)
2015-09-15
The nonlinear dynamics of the free surface of an ideal dielectric liquid that is exposed to an external oblique electric field has been studied theoretically. In the framework of the Hamiltonian formalism, a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations has been derived that describes the dynamics of nonlinear waves in the small-angle approximation. It is established that for a liquid with high dielectric permittivity, these equations have a solution in the form of plane waves of arbitrary shape that propagate without distortion in the direction of the horizontal component of the external field.
Bashir, M F
2012-01-01
Using kinetic theory for homogeneous collisionless magnetized plasmas, we present an extended review of the plasma waves and instabilities and discuss the anisotropic response of generalized relativistic dielectric tensor and Onsager symmetry properties for arbitrary distribution functions. In general, we observe that for such plasmas only those electromagnetic modes whose magnetic field perturbations are perpendicular to the ambient magneticeld, i.e.,B1 \\perp B0, are effected by the anisotropy. However, in oblique propagation all modes do show such anisotropic effects. Considering the non-relativistic bi-Maxwellian distribution and studying the relevant components of the general dielectric tensor under appropriate conditions, we derive the dispersion relations for various modes and instabilities. We show that only the electromagnetic R- and L- waves, those derived from them and the O-mode are affected by thermal anisotropies, since they satisfy the required condition B1\\perpB0. By contrast, the perpendicular...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez R, F. [UAEM, A.P. 2-139, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2004-07-01
An analytical model for the description of the movement of a charged particle in the interaction of an electromagnetic pulse elliptically polarized propagating along of a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation is presented. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary amplitude and modulated by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radiative effects. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez R, F. [UAEM, Facultad de Ciencias, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2004-07-01
An analytic model is presented for the description of the motion of a charged particle in the interaction of an elliptically electromagnetic pulse polarized propagating along a static and homogeneous external magnetic field in a plasma starting from the force equation. The method allows to express the solution in terms of the invariant phase, obtaining differential equations for the trajectory of the accelerated particle by means of an electromagnetic pulse of arbitrary and modulated width by an encircling Gaussian. The numerical solutions reported in this work can find varied applications, for example in the physics of the interaction laser-plasma, in the acceleration of particles, in hot plasma and in radioactive effects. (Author)
Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces.
Salem, Mohamed A; Bağcı, Hakan
2013-06-01
We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non-Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster's angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection.
Behavior of obliquely incident vector Bessel beams at planar interfaces
Salem, Mohamed
2013-01-01
We investigate the behavior of full-vector electromagnetic Bessel beams obliquely incident at an interface between two electrically different media. We employ a Fourier transform domain representation of Bessel beams to determine their behavior upon reflection and transmission. This transform, which is geometric in nature, consists of elliptical support curves with complex weighting associated with them. The behavior of the scattered field at an interface is highly complex, owing to its full-vector nature; nevertheless, this behavior has a straightforward representation in the transform domain geometry. The analysis shows that the reflected field forms a different vector Bessel beam, but in general, the transmitted field cannot be represented as a Bessel beam. Nevertheless, using this approach, we demonstrate a method to propagate a Bessel beam in the refractive medium by launching a non- Bessel beam at the interface. Several interesting phenomena related to the behavior of Bessel beams are illustrated, such as polarized reflection at Brewster\\'s angle incidence, and the Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Federov shifts in the case of total reflection. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Propagation of short laser pulses in partially stripped plasma%有限长激光脉冲在部分离化等离子体中的传播
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
柳剑鹏; 刘明萍; 陶向阳; 刘三秋
2015-01-01
In order to study the propagation characteristics of short laser pulses in partially stripped plasma , parameters evolution equation of short laser pulses in partially ionized plasma was derived using variational method .The effect parameters of wakefield , relativistic self-focusing and intensity of partially stripped plasma were analyzed .The coupled evolution equations of the laser spot size and the pulse length were derived and the propagation of a short laser pulse in partially stripped plasma was analyzed under the effects of transverse wakefield ( TWF ) and longitudinal wakefield (LWF).The results show that laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in patitally stripped plasma only when a certain condition is satisfied .The evolution of the pulse length should be considered in partially stripped plasma .When laser pulse and plasma density is constant , with the increasing of ionization degree , wakefield will enhance the self-focusing of the laser pulse further .Longitudinal wakefield has more obvious effect on self-focusing of laser pulse than transverse wakefield .The results may be significant theoretically to the mechanism of ionization-induced injection and acceleration by an intense laser pulse.%为了研究有限长激光脉冲在部分离化等离子体中的传播特性，采用变分法推导出有限长激光脉冲在部分离化等离子体中的参量演化方程，分析了尾波场、相对论自聚焦和部分离化非线性极化强度的影响因素；通过分析焦斑半径和脉冲宽度满足的耦合方程，讨论了横向和纵向尾波场影响下的激光脉冲传播特性。结果表明，由于焦斑半径和脉冲宽度的耦合，激光脉冲在部分离化等离子体中传播必须满足一定条件；在部分离化等离子体中，考虑激光传播时脉冲宽度的变化是有必要的；对给定强度的激光脉冲，等离子体密度不变时，随着电离程度增大，尾波场会进一步增强激光脉冲的自
Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations
Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.
2011-01-01
Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the wa
Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere
Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-01-01
We perform test particle simulations for relativistic electrons interacting with a whistler mode chorus packet propagating at oblique angles. By confirming that the energy transport of oblique lower band chorus is nearly along the ambient magnetic field, we apply the gyroaveraging method in calculating equations of motion of electrons. We trace evolution of a delta function of relativistic electrons in a phase space of kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle and obtain numerical Green's functions of the chorus wave-particle interactions. Examining the Green's functions in a wide range of kinetic energies, we find that Landau resonance can accelerate MeV electrons efficiently and that higher nth resonances such as n =- 1 and n = 2 also contribute to acceleration of electrons at high equatorial pitch angles (˜70°) and high energies (˜2 MeV). We investigate the rate of energy gain of the cyclotron resonance acceleration and the Landau resonance acceleration and find that the perpendicular component of wave electric field dominates both accelerations for MeV electrons. Furthermore, the proximity between the parallel components of Vp and Vg of oblique whistler mode waves and the nonlinear trapping condition make the interaction time of Landau resonance much longer than that of n = 1 cyclotron resonance, resulting in efficient acceleration of MeV electrons.
Generalized Langmuir Waves in Magnetized Kinetic Plasmas
Willes, A. J.; Cairns, Iver H.
2000-01-01
The properties of unmagnetized Langmuir waves and cold plasma magnetoionic waves (x, o, z and whistler) are well known. However, the connections between these modes in a magnetized kinetic plasma have not been explored in detail. Here, wave properties are investigated by numerically solving the dispersion equation derived from the Vlasov equations both with and without a beam instability present. For omega(sub p)>Omega(sub e), it is shown that the generalized Langmuir mode at oblique propagation angles has magnetic z-mode characteristics at low wave numbers and thermal Langmuir mode characteristics at high wave numbers. For omega(sub p)Langmuir mode instead connects to the whistler mode at low wave numbers. The transition from the Langmuir/z mode to the Langmuir/whistler mode near omega(sub p) = Omega(sub e) is rapid. In addition, the effects on wave dispersion and polarization after adding a beam are investigated. Applications of this theory to magnetized Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock and the solar wind, to waves observed near the plasma frequency in the auroral regions, and to solar type III bursts are discussed.
A Novel Oblique Detonation Structure and Its Stability
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Hong-Hui; ZHAO Wei; JIANG Zong-Lin
2007-01-01
Oblique detonation structures induced by the wedge in the supersonic combustible gas mixtures are simulated numerically. The results show that the stationary oblique detonation structures are influenced by the gas flow Mach number, and a novel critical oblique detonation structure, which is characterized by a more complicated wave system, appears in the low Mach number cases. By introducing the inflow disturbance, its nonstationary evolution process is illustrated and its stability is verified.
Stability analysis of the Martian obliquity during the Noachian era
2011-01-01
Abstract We performed numerical simulations of the obliquity evolution of Mars during the Noachian era, at which time the giant planets were on drastically different orbits than today. For the preferred primordial configuration of the planets we find that there are two large zones where the Martian obliquity is stable and oscillates with an amplitude lower than 20?. These zones occur at obliquities below 30?and above 60?; intermediate values show either resonant or chaotic behaviou...
Hayano, Akira; Ishii, Eiichi
2016-10-01
This study investigates the mechanical relationship between bedding-parallel and bedding-oblique faults in a Neogene massive siliceous mudstone at the site of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Hokkaido, Japan, on the basis of observations of drill-core recovered from pilot boreholes and fracture mapping on shaft and gallery walls. Four bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge, named respectively the MM Fault, the Last MM Fault, the S1 Fault, and the S2 Fault (stratigraphically, from the highest to the lowest), were observed in two pilot boreholes (PB-V01 and SAB-1). The distribution of the bedding-parallel faults at 350 m depth in the Horonobe URL indicates that these faults are spread over at least several tens of meters in parallel along a bedding plane. The observation that the bedding-oblique fault displaces the Last MM fault is consistent with the previous interpretation that the bedding- oblique faults formed after the bedding-parallel faults. In addition, the bedding-parallel faults terminate near the MM and S1 faults, indicating that the bedding-parallel faults with visible fault gouge act to terminate the propagation of younger bedding-oblique faults. In particular, the MM and S1 faults, which have a relatively thick fault gouge, appear to have had a stronger control on the propagation of bedding-oblique faults than did the Last MM fault, which has a relatively thin fault gouge.
Oblique Water Wave Diffraction by a Step
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolai P.
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of diffraction of an obliquely incident surface water wave train on an obstacle in the form of a finite step. Havelock expansions of water wave potentials are used in the mathematical analysis to obtain the physical parameters reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals. Appropriate multi-term Galerkin approximations involving ultraspherical Gegenbauer polynomials are utilized to obtain a very accurate numerical estimate for reflection and transmission coefficients which are depicted graphically. From these figures various interesting results are discussed.
Oblique Water Wave Diffraction by a Step
Dolai, P.
2017-02-01
This paper is concerned with the problem of diffraction of an obliquely incident surface water wave train on an obstacle in the form of a finite step. Havelock expansions of water wave potentials are used in the mathematical analysis to obtain the physical parameters reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals. Appropriate multi-term Galerkin approximations involving ultraspherical Gegenbauer polynomials are utilized to obtain a very accurate numerical estimate for reflection and transmission coefficients which are depicted graphically. From these figures various interesting results are discussed.
Moore, M. R.
2012-10-02
A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Non-oblique Correction in Extenden Technicolor Theory
Kitazawa, N
1993-01-01
We study radiative corrections on $Zb{\\bar b}$ vertex generated by the ETC gauge bosons, ``diagonal'' as well as sideways. Although the oblique corrections due to the ETC bosons are small in comparison with the oblique correction due to the technicolor dynamics, the non-oblique corrections result in substantial shift of contour plot in the $S$-$T$ plane. We show that such a shift due to the non-oblique corrections is actually important for discussing $S$ and $T$ values in the technicolor models.
Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai
2016-10-01
Shocks occur in the co-rotating interaction regions just beyond the solar corona, in the corona during CME events, and when the solar wind impacts Earth's magnetosphere. The Caltech solar loop experiment investigates shock physics by creating an arched plasma-filled flux rope that expands to collide with a pre-injected, initially-neutral gas. We focus the investigation on the situation of a heavy-gas plasma (Argon) impacting a much lighter neutral gas cloud (Hydrogen). The neutral gas target cloud ionizes immediately upon being impacted and plasma-induced shock waves propagate in the target cloud away from the impact region. Analysis of data from magnetic probes, Langmuir probes, a fast camera, and spectroscopic measurements will be presented. The measurements suggest that a thin, compressed, ionized layer of hydrogen is formed just downstream of the Argon plasma loop and that thin, supersonic shocks form further downstream and propagate obliquely away from the plasma loop. Numerical simulation of an ideal MHD plasma is underway to enable comparison of the measurements with the predictions of MHD theory.
Active probing of space plasmas. Final report, 25 October 1985-30 September 1989
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, C.; Silevitch, M.B.; Villalon, E.
1989-09-01
During the course of the research period our efforts were focused on the following areas: (1) An examination of stochastic acceleration mechanisms in the ionosphere; (2) A study of nonequilibrium dynamics of the coupled magnetosphere - ionosphere system; and (3) Laboratory studies of active space experiments. Reprints include: Dynamics of charged particles in the near wake of a very negatively charged body -- Laboratory experiment and numerical simulation; Laboratory study of the electron temperature in the near wake of a conducting body; New model for auroral breakup during substorms; Substorm breakup on closed field lines; New model for substorm on sets -- The pre-breakup and triggering regimes; Model of the westward traveling surge and the generation of Pi 2 pulsations; Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances; Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields; Some consequences of intense electromagnetic wave injection into space plasmas.
Physics issues associated with low-beta plasma generators
Borovsky, Joseph E.
1992-01-01
Kinetic aspects of MHD generators are explored by examining the propagation of dense, low-beta streams of plasma. Three situations are considered: the basic principles of plasma-stream propagation, the propagation of plasma streams into vacuum, and the propagation of plasma streams into ambient plasmas. These three situations are analogous to plasma generators, plasma generators with vacuum loads, and plasma generators with plasma loads. Kinetic (microphysics) aspects include oscillations of the generator plasma, the effects of diocotron instabilities, the acceleration of particles, the starvation of current systems, and plasma-wave production.
Sze, Michelle Wynne C; Sugon, Quirino M; McNamara, Daniel J
2010-11-01
In this paper, we use Clifford (geometric) algebra Cl(3,0) to verify if electromagnetic energy-momentum density is still conserved for oblique superposition of two elliptically polarized plane waves with the same frequency. We show that energy-momentum conservation is valid at any time only for the superposition of two counter-propagating elliptically polarized plane waves. We show that the time-average energy-momentum of the superposition of two circularly polarized waves with opposite handedness is conserved regardless of the propagation directions of the waves. And, we show that the resulting momentum density of the superposed waves generally has a vector component perpendicular to the momentum densities of the individual waves.
Oblique chain resonance of internal waves by three-dimensional seabed corrugations
Couston, L -A; Alam, M -R
2016-01-01
Here we show that the interaction of a low-mode internal wave with small oblique seabed corrugations can lead to a chain resonance of many other freely propagating internal waves with a broad range of wavenumbers and directions of propagation. The chain resonance results in a complex internal wave dynamics over the corrugated seabed that can lead to a significant redistribution of energy across the internal wave spectrum. In order to obtain a quantitative understanding of the energy transfer rates between the incident and resonated waves over the seabed topography, here we derive an equation for the evolution of the wave envelopes using multiple-scale analysis in the limit of small-amplitude corrugations. Strong energy transfers from the incident internal wave toward shorter internal waves are demonstrated for a broad range of incidence angles, and the theoretical predictions are compared favorably with direct simulations of the full Euler's equation. The key results show that: (i) a large number of distinct ...
Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Bespalov, P. A.
2016-04-01
In part I of this work [1], we study the dispersion characteristics of low-frequency waves in a relativistic electron-positron plasma. In part II, we examine the electromagnetic wave instability in this plasma caused by an admixture of nonrelativistic protons with energy comparable with the energy of relativistic low-mass particles. The instability occurs in the frequency band between the fundamental harmonic of proton gyrofrequency and the fundamental harmonic of relativistic electron gyrofrequency. The results can be used for the interpretation of known observations of the pulsar emissions obtained with a high time and frequency resolution. The considered instability can probably be the initial stage of the microwave radio emission nanoshots typical of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour
2013-01-01
An accelerated skin layer may be used to ignite solid state fuels.Detailed analyses were clarified by solving the hydrodynamic equations for nonlinear force driven plasma block ignition.In this paper,the complementary mechanisms are included for the advanced fuel ignition:external factors such as lasers,compression,shock waves,and sparks.The other category is created within the plasma fusion as reheating of an alpha particle,the Bremsstrahlung absorption,expansion,conduction,and shock waves generated by explosions.With the new condition for the control of shock waves,the spherical deuterium-tritium fuel density should be increased to 75 times that of the solid state.The threshold ignition energy flux density for advanced fuel ignition may be obtained using temperature equations,including the ones for the density profile obtained through the continuity equation and the expansion velocity for the r ≠ 0 layers.These thresholds are significantly reduced in comparison with the ignition thresholds at x =0 for solid advanced fuels.The quantum correction for the collision frequency is applied in the case of the delay in ion heating.Under the shock wave condition,the spherical protonboron and proton-lithium fuel densities should be increased to densities 120 and 180 times that of the solid state.These plasma compressions are achieved through a longer duration laser pulse or X-ray.
Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.
2015-09-01
Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.
Reduced Oblique Effect in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
Sysoeva, Olga V.; Davletshina, Maria A.; Orekhova, Elena V.; Galuta, Ilia A.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.
2016-01-01
People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (vertical and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique axes is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the “oblique effect.” Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual processing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may shed light on the nature of visual sensory abnormalities frequently reported in this population. We examined line orientation sensitivity along oblique and vertical axes in a sample of 26 boys with ASD (IQ > 68) and 38 typically developing (TD) boys aged 7–15 years, as well as in a subsample of carefully IQ-matched ASD and TD participants. Children were asked to detect the direction of tilt of a high-contrast black-and-white grating relative to vertical (90°) or oblique (45°) templates. The oblique effect was reduced in children with ASD as compared to TD participants, irrespective of their IQ. This reduction was due to poor orientation sensitivity along the vertical axis in ASD children, while their ability to discriminate line orientation along the oblique axis was unaffected. We speculate that this deficit in sensitivity to vertical orientation may reflect disrupted mechanisms of early experience-dependent learning that takes place during the critical period for orientation selectivity. PMID:26834540
Interface Defeat of Long Rods Impacting Oblique Silicon Carbide
2011-02-01
Test data for gold rods impacting unconfined silicon carbide targets are reported. This work focuses on the dwell phenomenon exhibited by silicon ... carbide for targets at obliquity. Experiments are presented for obliquities of 30 deg, 45 deg and 60 deg, with and without cover plates. Results are compared to normal impact.
33 CFR 118.90 - Bridges crossing channel obliquely.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridges crossing channel obliquely. 118.90 Section 118.90 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.90 Bridges crossing channel obliquely....
Fallows, Kathryn J.; Withers, Paul; Morgan, David
2016-10-01
The topside plasma density measurements from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on the Mars Express orbiter have been invaluable for studying the influence of the crustal magnetic fields on the distribution of plasma in the Mars ionosphere. A common feature, especially in the southern crustal field region, is an "oblique echo," or an off-nadir reflection consistent with the spacecraft passing by, or directly above, a localized region with a sharp gradient in electron density. These are often interpreted as regions where the ionosphere is heated by the solar wind fields and plasma which penetrate the ionosphere along vertical field lines.We present a subset of these oblique echoes which are characterized by reflections at frequencies much higher than those from the nadir ionosphere. If these are interpreted in the same way as typical return signals, where the frequency of the reflected signal is assumed to be the plasma frequency at the point of reflection, then these may be the highest plasma densities reported to date at Mars. In two cases, reflections are detected at the maximum sounding frequency of the instrument, 5.5 MHz, which corresponds to electron densities of 3.75x105 cm-3.These features are associated with strong, vertical magnetic fields, as expected for typical oblique echoes. However, they are only observed in regions where there is also an above-average likelihood of the field lines being open to the solar wind. This is consistent with the interpretation that these cusp-like regions can allow for interaction with the solar wind, but it is not yet clear whether these are an extreme case of "typical" oblique echoes, or whether these high-frequency echoes are caused by a unique physical process or observation geometry.
The local dayside reconnection rate for oblique interplanetary magnetic fields
Komar, Colin M
2016-01-01
We present an analysis of local properties of magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause for various interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientations in global magnetospheric simulations. This has heretofore not been practical because it is difficult to locate where reconnection occurs for oblique IMF, but new techniques make this possible. The approach is to identify magnetic separators, the curves separating four regions of differing magnetic topology, which map the reconnection X-line. The electric field parallel to the X-line is the local reconnection rate. We compare results to a simple model of local two-dimensional asymmetric reconnection. To do so, we find the plasma parameters that locally drive reconnection in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere in planes perpendicular to the X-line at a large number of points along the X-line. The global magnetohydrodynamic simulations are from the three-dimensional Block-Adaptive, Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code with a uniform resisti...
Bow and Oblique Shock Formation in Soap Film
Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas; Sane, Aakash
2015-11-01
In recent years, soap films have been exploited primarily to approximate two-dimensional flows while their three-dimensional character is relatively unattended. An example of the three-dimensional character of the flow in a soap film is the observed Marangoni shock wave when the flow speed exceeds the wave speed. In this study, we investigated the formation of bow and oblique shocks in soap films generated by wedges with different deflection angles. When the wedge deflection angle is small and the film flows fast, oblique shocks are observed. When the oblique shock cannot exists, bow shock is formed upstream the wedge. We characterized the oblique shock angle as a function of the wedge deflection angle and the flow speed, and we also present the criteria for transition between bow and oblique Marangoni shocks in soap films.
Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus
Barnes, Jason W; Lissauer, Jack J; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M
2016-01-01
Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Earth would have if it lacked its large Moon (Lissauer et al., 2012), having just one primary chaotic regime at high prograde obliquities. We note an unexpected long-term variability of up to $\\pm7^\\circ$ for retrograde Venuses. Low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability over billion-year timescales -- comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.
Microwave Propagation Through Cultural Vegetation Canopies
Tavakoli, Ahad
The need to understand the interaction of microwaves with vegetation canopies has markedly increased in recent years. This is due to advances made in remote sensing science, microwave technology, and signal processing circuits. One class of the earth's vegetation cover is man-made canopies, such as agricultural fields, orchards, and artificial forests. Contrary to natural vegetation terrain, location, spacing, and density of plants in a man-made vegetation canopy are deterministic quantities. As a result, the semi-deterministic nature of cultural vegetation canopies violate the random assumption of the radiative transfer theory and leads to experimented results that are in variance with model calculations. Hence, an alternative approach is needed to model the interaction of microwaves with such canopies. This thesis examines the propagation behavior through a canopy of corn plants. The corn canopy was selected as a representative of cultural vegetation canopies that are planted in parallel rows with an approximately fixed spacing between adjacent plants. Several experimental measurements were conducted to determine the transmission properties of a corn canopy in the 1-10 GHz range. The measurements which included horizontal propagation through the canopy as well as propagation at oblique incidence, were performed for defoliated canopies and for canopies with leaves. Through experimental observations and model development, the propagation behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength and the path length. At a wavelength in the neighborhood of 20 cm, for example, it was found that scattering by the stalks was coherent in nature for waves propagating horizontally through the canopy, which necessitated the development of a coherent-field model that uses Bragg scattering to account for the observed interference pattern in the transmitted beam. As the wavelength is made shorter, the semi-random spacing between plants becomes significant relative to the
The Role of Rift Obliquity During Pangea Fragmentation
Brune, S.; Butterworth, N. P.; Williams, S.; Müller, D.
2014-12-01
Does supercontinent break-up follow specific laws? What parameters control the success and the failure of rift systems? Recent analytical and geodynamic modeling suggests that oblique rifting is energetically preferred over orthogonal rifting. This implies that during rift competition, highly oblique branches proceed to break-up while less oblique ones become inactive. These models predict that the relative motion of Earth's continents during supercontinent break-up is affected by the orientation and shape of individual rift systems. Here, we test this hypothesis based on latest plate tectonic reconstructions. Using PyGPlates, a recently developed Python library that allows script-based access to the plate reconstruction software GPlates, we quantify rift obliquity, extension velocity and their temporal evolution for continent-scale rift systems of the past 200 Myr. Indeed we find that many rift systems contributing to Pangea fragmentation involved strong rift obliquity. East and West Gondwana for instance split along the East African coast with a mean obliquity of 55° (measured as the angle between local rift trend normal and extension direction). While formation of the central and southern South Atlantic segment involved a low obliquity of 10°, the Equatorial Atlantic opened under a high angle of 60°. Rifting between Australia and Antarctica involved two stages with 25° prior to 100 Ma followed by 50° obliquity and distinct increase of extension velocity. Analyzing the entire passive margin system that formed during Pangea breakup, we find a mean obliquity of 40°, with a standard deviation of 20°. Hence 50% of these margins formed with an angle of 40° or more. Considering that many conceptual models of rifting and passive margin formation assume 2D deformation, our study quantifies the degree to which such 2D models are globally applicable, and highlights the importance of 3D models where oblique rifting is the dominant mode of deformation.
Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups
Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.
2016-06-01
Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of
CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Kemper
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first
MIX and Instability Growth from Oblique Shock
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molitoris, J D; Batteux, J D; Garza, R G; Tringe, J W; Souers, P C; Forbes, J W
2011-07-22
We have studied the formation and evolution of shock-induced mix resulting from interface features in a divergent cylindrical geometry. In this research a cylindrical core of high-explosive was detonated to create an oblique shock wave and accelerate the interface. The interfaces studied were between the high-explosive/aluminum, aluminum/plastic, and finally plastic/air. Pre-emplaced surface features added to the aluminum were used to modify this interface. Time sequence radiographic imaging quantified the resulting instability formation from the growth phase to over 60 {micro}s post-detonation. Thus allowing the study of the onset of mix and evolution to turbulence. The plastic used here was porous polyethylene. Radiographic image data are compared with numerical simulations of the experiments.
Partial Oblique Projection Learning for Optimal Generalization
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Benyong; ZHANG Jing
2004-01-01
In practice,it is necessary to implement an incremental and active learning for a learning method.In terms of such implementation,this paper shows that the previously discussed S-L projection learning is inappropriate to constructing a family of projection learning,and proposes a new version called partial oblique projection (POP) learning.In POP learning,a function space is decomposed into two complementary subspaces,so that functions belonging to one of the subspaces can be completely estimated in noiseless case;while in noisy case,the dispersions are set to be the smallest.In addition,a general form of POP learning is presented and the results of a simulation are given.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Caserta
1998-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the antiplane wave propagation in a 2D heterogeneous dissipative medium with complex layer interfaces and irregular topography. The initial boundary value problem which represents the viscoelastic dynamics driving 2D antiplane wave propagation is formulated. The discretization scheme is based on the finite-difference technique. Our approach presents some innovative features. First, the introduction of the forcing term into the equation of motion offers the advantage of an easier handling of different inputs such as general functions of spatial coordinates and time. Second, in the case of a straight-line source, the symmetry of the incident plane wave allows us to solve the problem of oblique incidence simply by rotating the 2D model. This artifice reduces the oblique incidence to the vertical one. Third, the conventional rheological model of the generalized Maxwell body has been extended to include the stress-free boundary condition. For this reason we solve explicitly the stress-free boundary condition, not following the most popular technique called vacuum formalism. Finally, our numerical code has been constructed to model the seismic response of complex geological structures: real geological interfaces are automatically digitized and easily introduced in the input model. Three numerical applications are discussed. To validate our numerical model, the first test compares the results of our code with others shown in the literature. The second application rotates the input model to simulate the oblique incidence. The third one deals with a real high-complexity 2D geological structure.
Obliquity Variations of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus
Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy L.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.
2016-06-01
Planetary obliquity (axis tilt) and its variations can have strong effects on climate. Earth's glacial cycles, for instance, are driven in part by variations in Earth's obliquity of order ±1.5o. Direct observations of the obliquity of habitable zone rocky exoplanets is likely a long way off. Therefore we investigate the long-term obliquity variations expected for Venus as it might have existed in the early Solar System. Although Venus presently rotates slowly owing to tidal despinning, it must have had a different rotation state early in Solar System history. At the same time, Venus was the Solar System's habitable zone under a Faint Young Sun. Because of our extensive knowledge of the Solar System's constituents, we therefore use Venus' obliquity variations as a proxy for what we might find in exoplanetary systems. We find that the obliquity variation structure is simpler for early Venus than it would be for a Moonless Earth, but that large, chaotic variability can occur for high initial obliquity values. Interestingly retrograde-rotating Venuses show higher variability than do retrograde Moonless Earths.
Obliquity evolution of the minor satellites of Pluto and Charon
Quillen, Alice C.; Nichols-Fleming, Fiona; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Noyelles, Benoît
2017-09-01
New Horizons mission observations show that the small satellites Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra, of the Pluto-Charon system, have not tidally spun-down to near synchronous spin states and have high obliquities with respect to their orbit about the Pluto-Charon binary (Weaver, 2016). We use a damped mass-spring model within an N-body simulation to study spin and obliquity evolution for single spinning non-round bodies in circumbinary orbit. Simulations with tidal dissipation alone do not show strong obliquity variations from tidally induced spin-orbit resonance crossing and this we attribute to the high satellite spin rates and low orbital eccentricities. However, a tidally evolving Styx exhibits intermittent obliquity variations and episodes of tumbling. During a previous epoch where Charon migrated away from Pluto, the minor satellites could have been trapped in orbital mean motion inclination resonances. An outward migrating Charon induces large variations in Nix and Styx's obliquities. The cause is a commensurability between the mean motion resonance frequency and the spin precession rate of the spinning body. As the minor satellites are near mean motion resonances, this mechanism could have lifted the obliquities of all four minor satellites. The high obliquities need not be primordial if the minor satellites were at one time captured into mean motion resonances.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons and trapped ions
Misra, A. P.; Wang, Yunliang
2015-05-01
The nonlinear propagation of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged mobile dusts, nonthermal fast electrons and trapped ions with vortex-like distribution is studied. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like equation is derived which governs the dynamics of the small-amplitude solitary waves in a magnetized dusty nonthermal plasma. It is found that due to the dust thermal pressure, there exists a critical value (βc) of the nonthermal parameter β (>1), denoting the percentage of energetic electrons, below which the DA solitary waves cease to propagate. The soliton solution (traveling wave) of the KdV-like equation is obtained, and is shown to be only of the rarefactive type. The properties of the solitons are analyzed numerically with the system parameters. It is also seen that the effect of the static magnetic field (which only modifies the soliton width) becomes significant when the dust gyrofrequency is smaller than one-tenth of the dust plasma frequency. Furthermore, the amplitude of the soliton is found to increase (decrease) when the ratio of the free to trapped ion temperatures (σ) is positive (negative). The effects of the system parameters including the obliqueness of propagation (lz) and σ on the dynamics of the DA solitons are also discussed numerically, and it is found that the soliton structures can withstand perturbations and turbulence during a considerable time. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas (e.g., Earth's magnetosphere, auroral region, heliospheric environments, etc.).
Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question.
Yang, X; Brunetti, E; Gil, D Reboredo; Welsh, G H; Li, F Y; Cipiccia, S; Ersfeld, B; Grant, D W; Grant, P A; Islam, M R; Tooley, M P; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M; Sheng, Z M; Jaroszynski, D A
2017-03-10
Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5-10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°-60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators.
Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question
Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D. Reboredo; Welsh, G. H.; Li, F. Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.
2017-01-01
Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators. PMID:28281679
Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question
Yang, X; Reboredo Gil, David; Welsh, Gregor H; Li, Y.F; Cipiccia, Silvia; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Grant, D. W; Grant, P. A; Islam, Muhammad; Tooley, M.B; Vieux, Gregory; Wiggins, Sally; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino
2017-01-01
Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lowerenergy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wake...
Optimized ICP etching process for fabrication of oblique GaN sidewall and its application in LED
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Shengjun [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Cao, Bin [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan (China); Liu, Sheng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Research Institute of Micro/Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Wuhan (China); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Institute of Microsystems, Wuhan (China)
2011-11-15
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of GaN is systemically investigated by changing ICP power/RF bias power, operating pressure, and Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} gas mixing ratio. The hexagonal etch pits related to screw dislocation existing along GaN epitaxial layer were observed on the etched GaN surface after ICP etching. The intensity of band-edge emission is significantly reduced from the etched n-GaN surface, which reveals that plasma-induced damage are generated after ICP etching. The oblique sidewall is transferred into GaN using a combination of Cl{sub 2}/BCl{sub 3} plasma chemistry and hard mask SiO{sub 2}. By adjusting ICP etching process parameters, oblique sidewalls with various oblique angles can be formed, allowing for conformal metal lines coverage across the mesa structures, which can play an important role in the interconnection of multiple microchips for light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabrication. (orig.)
Pairs of oblique duals in spaces of periodic functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song
2010-01-01
We construct non-tight frames in finite-dimensional spaces consisting of periodic functions. In order for these frames to be useful in practice one needs to calculate a dual frame; while the canonical dual frame might be cumbersome to work with, the setup presented here enables us to obtain...... explicit constructions of some particularly convenient oblique duals. We also provide explicit oblique duals belonging to prescribed spaces different from the space where we obtain the expansion. In particular this leads to oblique duals that are trigonometric polynomials....
Acquired Brown Syndrome Treated With Traction of Superior Oblique Tendon.
Shin, Kwang Hoon; Paik, Hae Jung; Chi, Mijung
2016-03-01
Brown syndrome is a rare strabismic disease characterized by a limited elevation in adduction of the eye. The lengthening/weakening of superior oblique muscle is the main way of surgical intervention for this disease. A 7-year-old boy was diagnosed as having acquired Brown syndrome in his right eye after injury in his face. We experienced successful release of this Brown syndrome through mere pulling outward of superior oblique tendon during surgical exploration. We briefly discuss why this manipulation of superior oblique tendon that we performed was successful.
Klein tunneling through an oblique barrier in graphene ribbons
Oh, J H
2010-01-01
We study a transmission coefficient of graphene nanoribbons with a top gate which acts as an oblique barrier. Using a Green function method based on the Dirac-like equation, scattering among transverse modes due to the oblique barrier is taken into account numerically. In contrast to the 2-dimensional graphene sheet, we find that the pattern of transmission in graphene ribbons depends strongly on the electronic structure in the region of the barrier. Consequently, irregular structures in the transmission coefficient are predicted while perfect transmission is still calculated in the case of metallic graphene independently of angle and length of the oblique barrier.
Direct decision making vs. oblique decision making: which is right?
Kerfoot, Karlene M
2011-01-01
The complexity of health care environments is far too complicated for solutions to be developed by a small group or isolated upper managers. This direct leadership approach often fails. Leaders who use a more oblique approach focusing on areas such as long-term economic value, creating significant benefits for the wider community, and building robust social capital within the company are successful. Obliquity leadership is very appropriate for health care because of its constantly changing environment. Obliquity leadership and shared governance are great partners in reaching higher levels of involvement and high performance.
Small amplitude electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized superthermal plasma
Devanandhan, S.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Bharuthram, R.
2015-05-01
The propagation of electron acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized plasma consisting of fluid cold electrons, electron beam and superthermal hot electrons (obeying kappa velocity distribution function) and ion is investigated in a small amplitude limit using reductive perturbation theory. The Korteweg-de-Vries-Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation governing the dynamics of electron acoustic solitary waves is derived. The solution of the KdV-ZK equation predicts the existence of negative potential solitary structures. The new results are: (1) increase of either the beam speed or temperature of beam electrons tends to reduce both the amplitude and width of the electron acoustic solitons, (2) the inclusion of beam speed and temperature pushes the allowed Mach number regime upwards and (3) the soliton width maximizes at certain angle of propagation (αm) and then decreases for α >αm . In addition, increasing the superthermality of the hot electrons also results in reduction of soliton amplitude and width. For auroral plasma parameters observed by Viking, the obliquely propagating electron-acoustic solitary waves have electric field amplitudes in the range (7.8-45) mV/m and pulse widths (0.29-0.44) ms. The Fourier transform of these electron acoustic solitons would result in a broadband frequency spectra with peaks near 2.3-3.5 kHz, thus providing a possible explanation of the broadband electrostatic noise observed during the Burst a.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xi-Lang Wang
2017-02-01
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle on the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation(DVDin children with inferior oblique overaction(IOOAand unequal inferior oblique transposition of the treatment of IOOA with the eyes of the asymmetry of DVD efficacy, associated with the lower oblique hyperfunction DVD patients to provide more effective treatment. METHODS: Eighty patients with hyperfunction who were treated in our hospital from January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly selected and treated with anterior transposition of inferior oblique muscle. Patients were followed up for 1 to 30mo. We compared the vertical incline at the original incline from far(5m, near(33cmdistance and IOOA degree before and after operations, and the correlation between the two. We also compared the vertical incline at the original incline from far(5m, near(33cmdistance and IOOA degree before and after operations in 30 eyes(20 patientswith bilateral asymmetry DVD and IOOA who received unequal inferior oblique transposition. The incidence of antielevation syndrome(AESwas observed after operations. RESULTS: The mean prism diopters(PDat 5m before operations was 19.5±0.15, the average PD after operations was 3.5±0.18, at 5m the original incline was 16±0.21PD. The mean PD at 33cm was 18.6±0.20 before operation, 4.5±0.26 after operations, and 14.1±0.16 at 33cm the original incline, the difference was statistically significant(Pr=0.554, Pr=0.454, P PPCONCLUSION: Anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle has a good therapeutic effect on isolated vertical strabismus patients with inferior oblique hyperfunction. While the incidence of postoperative AES is low in patients received unequal inferior oblique muscle transposition.
Oblique rifting at Tempe Fossae, Mars
Fernández, Carlos; Anguita, Francisco
2007-09-01
This work shows the results of a structural study of the faults observed at the Tempe Rift (northeastern Tharsis region), Mars. A new, detailed map of faults and fault systems was used to geometrically characterize the fracture architecture of the Tempe Rift and to measure fault length, displacement, and spacing data, to analyze the spatial distribution of fault centroids, and to investigate the fractal nature of fault trace maps. A comparison with analog models and the use of conventional techniques of fault population analysis show that the Tempe Rift was most probably generated under sinistral oblique-rifting processes, which highlights the importance of the presence of inherited fractures in the tectonic evolution of the Noachian crust. The angle between the extension direction and the rift axis varies along the Tempe Rift, ranging from 50°-60° at its central southern part to 66°-88° to the southwest. Fault scaling relationships are similar to those found at mid-ocean ridges on Earth with exponential fault length-frequency distributions. Localized, inhomogeneous deformation generated weakly interacting faults, spanning the entire thickness of the mechanical layer. This thickness decreased from southwest to northeast along the rift, along with distance from the central part of the Tharsis dome.
Camere aeree oblique: sistemi, applicazioni e prospettive future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Remondino
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The use of oblique imagery has become a standard for many civil and mapping applications, thanks to the development of airborne digital multi-camera systems, as proposed by many companies. The indisputable virtue of oblique photography lies in its simplicity of interpretation and understanding for inexperienced users allowing their use of oblique images in very different applications, such as building detection and reconstruction, building structural damage classification, road land updating and administration services, etc. We report an overview of the actual oblique commercial systems and the workflow for the automated orientation and dense matching of large image blocks. Perspectives, potentialities, pitfalls and suggestions for achieving satisfactory results are given too.
Chemonucleolysis technique. New oblique approach requires no measurements.
Romy, M
1986-01-01
The author describes a new technique for intradiscal therapy that eliminates the need for measurements. The new technique for entering the lumbar disk for discolysis from the oblique approach is described as simple, accurate and safe.
Effectiveness of oblique section display in thallium-201 myocardial tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Brien, A.R.; Gemmell, H.G.
1986-08-01
A simple left ventricle phantom, placed in a water-filled body phantom, has been used to compare the detectability of simulated perfusion defects in short-axis oblique sections with transverse section tomography and conventional planar imaging. Images of the phantom were assessed by five experienced observers and their responses analysed on a lesion-by-lesion basis. No significant difference in defect detectability was found between planar imaging and transverse section tomography. However, following reorientation of the transverse section data into oblique planes perpendicular to the long-axis of the phantom there was a statistically significant increase in defect detectability compared with planar imaging. Observers also detected significantly more defects using oblique section display compared with the original transverse sections. This suggests that reformatting of the transverse sections into oblique planes may be essential to realize the full potential of thallium-201 myocardial tomography.
[Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasma]: Progress report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1995-12-31
In the study of plasma collection by obstacles in a tokamak edge plasma, the effect of anomalous transport have been examined using an extension of the 2D fluid code developed here previously (Appendices A and B). The origin of the anomalous transport is assumed to be a randomly fluctuating electric field such as would be caused by drift waves. As before, the magnetic field is assumed to be uniform and perpendicular to the obstacle, which is taken to be an infinite strip. In the absence of ambient plasma flow, the numerical results indicate that ion viscous heating is important near the tip of the obstacle, where there is a large velocity gradient in the flow. For typical plasma parameters, the maximum ion temperature near the tip is up to 85% higher than the ambient ion temperature. When there is a subsonic plasma flow past the obstacle, the numerical results indicate that, near the tip of the obstacle, the ions on the downstream side are hotter than those on the upstream side. Furthermore, the ion density is higher on the upstream side. A detailed report of this work has been prepared and will be submitted as part of the Annual Progress Report. Recently, the 2D parallel electrostatic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) code described in reference (9) (Appendix B) has been upgraded to a 2D fully electromagnetic PIC code. This code has been successfully tested on the JPL/Caltech Mark III Hypercube concurrent computers and can be used to simulate interactions of electromagnetic waves with a magnetized plasma. It is currently applied to investigate the decay of large amplitude Alfven waves, such as those observed in the solar wind. Large amplitude Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, are predicted to decay into obliquely propagating daughter waves and standing magnetosonic waves. Results from the simulations will be compared with theoretical predictions.
Oblique transpression in the western thrust front of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera
Acosta, J.; Lonergan, L.; Coward, M. P.
2004-11-01
New kinematic data reveal that the main faults of the western foothills of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera are a series of left-lateral to oblique thrusts that are offset by steeply dipping, northwest-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip faults. Kinematic data were collected from the main structures that dominate the 350-km length of the western foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, north of Bogota (La Salina-Bituima, Cambrás, Dos Hermanos-Alto del Trigo, and Bucaramanga faults). These data indicate that transpression is responsible for the Cenozoic formation of the folds and thrusts that deform the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary sequences of the Middle Magdalena Valley. Kinematic and structural data suggest that the La Salina-Bituima fault changed from a reverse fault to a fault with a left-lateral, strike-slip sense of displacement during middle to late Miocene times. As it propagated, a transpressive zone was generated in the western foothills of the Eastern Cordillera, with the development of arcuate, oblique-reverse secondary faults on the leading edge of the Magdalena basin (e.g. Cambrás, Dos Hermanos). This development implies that during the Neogene (?), the tectonics of the western foothills were dominated by nonplanar deformation with shortening accompanied by significant left-lateral, strike-slip displacements. These new data indicate that the oblique convergence vector imposed by convergence among the Nazca, Caribbean, and South American plates is not fully partitioned in space but instead must be distributed in a diffuse zone of transpressional deformation along the western margin of the Eastern Cordillera and its associated foreland basin.
Effects of extreme obliquity variations on the habitability of exoplanets.
Armstrong, J C; Barnes, R; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S
2014-04-01
We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 10(8) years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.
Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets
Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.
2014-01-01
We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.
The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View
Gueorguiev, V. G.
2012-12-01
The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.
The Oblique Basis Method from an Engineering Point of View
Gueorguiev, V. G.
2012-01-01
The oblique basis method is reviewed from engineering point of view related to vibration and control theory. Examples are used to demonstrate and relate the oblique basis in nuclear physics to the equivalent mathematical problems in vibration theory. The mathematical techniques, such as principal coordinates and root locus, used by vibration and control theory engineers are shown to be relevant to the Richardson - Gaudin pairing-like problems in nuclear physics.
Form Birefringence in Thin Films with Oblique Columnar Structures
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Jian-Guo; SHAO Jian-Da; WANG Su-Mei; HE Hong-Bo; FAN Zheng-Xiu
2005-01-01
@@ Effective medium theory is useful for designing optical elements with form birefringent subwavelength structures. Thinfilms fabricated by oblique deposition are similar to the two-dimensional surface relief subwavelength gratings. We use the effective medium theory to calculate the anisotropic optical properties of the thin films with oblique columnar structures. The effective refractive indices and the directions are calculated from effective medium theory. It is shown that optical thin films with predetermined refractive indices and birefringence may be engineered.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nariyuki, Y. [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hada, T. [Department of Earth System Science and Technology, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga City, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Tsubouchi, K., E-mail: nariyuki@edu.u-toyama.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)
2014-10-01
The damping process of field-aligned, low-frequency right-handed polarized nonlinear Alfvén waves (NAWs) in solar wind plasmas with and without proton beams is studied by using a two-dimensional ion hybrid code. The numerical results show that the obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) excited by beam protons affect the damping of the low-frequency NAW in low beta plasmas, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction between parallel propagating waves and nonlinear Landau damping due to the envelope modulation are the dominant damping process in high beta plasmas. The nonlinear interaction between the NAWs and KAWs does not cause effective energy transfer to the perpendicular direction. Numerical results suggest that while the collisionless damping due to the compressibility of the envelope-modulated NAW plays an important role in the damping of the field-aligned NAW, the effect of the beam instabilities may not be negligible in low beta solar wind plasmas.
Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft
Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.
1996-01-01
Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.
Three-dimensional frictional plastic strain partitioning during oblique rifting
Duclaux, Guillaume; Huismans, Ritske S.; May, Dave
2017-04-01
Throughout the Wilson cycle the obliquity between lithospheric plate motion direction and nascent or existing plate boundaries prompts the development of intricate three-dimensional tectonic systems. Where oblique divergence dominates, as in the vast majority of continental rift and incipient oceanic domains, deformation is typically transtensional and large stretching in the brittle upper crust is primarily achieved by the accumulation of displacement on fault networks of various complexity. In continental rift depressions such faults are initially distributed over tens to hundreds of kilometer-wide regions, which can ultimately stretch and evolve into passive margins. Here, we use high-resolution 3D thermo-mechanical finite element models to investigate the relative timing and distribution of localised frictional plastic deformation in the upper crust during oblique rift development in a simplified layered lithosphere. We vary the orientation of a wide oblique heterogeneous weak zone (representing a pre-existing geologic feature like a past orogenic domain), and test the sensitivity of the shear zones orientation to a range of noise distribution. These models allow us to assess the importance of material heterogeneities for controlling the spatio-temporal shear zones distribution in the upper crust during oblique rifting, and to discuss the underlying controls governing oblique continental breakup.
Pollical oblique ligament in humans and non-human primates.
Shrewsbury, Marvin
2003-04-01
A morphological study of the oblique ligament in the thumb is presented. The ligament was consistently described in human specimens and compared with dissections of non-human primates from different species. The oblique ligament was found in some, but not all, specimens in each of the following species examined: chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, anubis baboon, hamadryas baboon, squirrel monkey, lemur and marmoset. A revised identity of the oblique ligament is proposed as a reinforced distal border of a fibro-osseous annular pollical flexor sheath and whose function is not independent of the flexor sheath. The constant presence and tendinous trait of the pollical oblique ligament in humans, when compared with non-human primates, supports the notion that the oblique ligament strengthens the pollical flexor sheath in humans for restraint of the flexor pollicis longus tendon during forceful precision pinching. A derivation of the pollical oblique ligament is considered as representing a vestigial radial limb of a flexor pollicis superficialis tendon in the thumb.
Dust-acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with nonthermal electrons and trapped ions
Misra, A P
2014-01-01
The nonlinear theory of electrostatic dust-acoustic (DA) waves in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged mobile dusts, nonthermal fast electrons and trapped ions with vortex-like distribution is revisited. Previous theory in the literature [Phys. Plasmas {\\bf 20}, 104505 (2013)] is rectified and put forward to include the effects of the external magnetic field, the adiabatic pressure of charged dusts as well as the obliqueness of propagation to the magnetic field. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Korteweg-de Vries (KdV)-like equation is derived which governs the dynamics of the small-amplitude solitary waves in a magnetized dusty nonthermal plasma. It is found that due to the dust thermal pressure, there exists a critical value $(\\beta_c)$ of the nothermal parameter $\\beta (>1)$, denoting the percentage of energetic electrons, below which the DA solitary waves cease to propagate. The soliton solution (travelling wave) of the KdV-like equation is obtained, and is shown to be on...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Andreev, Pavel A.
2015-06-01
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Zaalov, N. Y.; Moskaleva, E. V.; Rogov, D. D.; Zernov, N. N.
2015-12-01
High frequency (HF) radio band is important for the long-range communications and over-the-horizon surveillance, particularly in the polar cap region where the ground infrastructure may be limited. However, the space weather events drastically affect the high frequency radio wave propagation so that the ability to provide now-casting and forecasting of HF radio wave absorption is important for users relying on the HF communications. During the space weather events such as solar proton events and X-ray flares the high-latitude ionosphere becomes a particularly efficient absorber of HF radio waves. There is therefore a need to develop accurate HF propagation prediction services. Absorption of the HF field caused by the X-ray flux, Solar Ultra-Violet flux and proton precipitations is investigated in this paper for the event of the solar flare observed on 11 April 2013. The effects of the X-ray flux and proton precipitations on the structure of the vertical and oblique ionograms for different latitudes are estimated. The simulation of the vertical and oblique ionograms was performed on the basis of the computational model of the ionosphere oriented to applications into the high frequency wave propagation problems. The absorption effects induced by the proton precipitations and X-ray flux are calculated according to the algorithm elaborated by Sauer and Wilkinson and D-region Absorption Model (D-RAP) available from the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. The simulated vertical and oblique ionograms with the absorption effects taken into account and the measured ionograms exhibit a fairly good similarity.
Thermomechanics of transient oblique compaction shock reflection from a rigid boundary
Mandal, A.; Gonthier, K. A.
2015-11-01
Transient oblique reflection of resolved compaction shocks in porous material from a rigid planar boundary is computationally examined to characterize how spatial reflection structures vary with reflection angle. The material response is described by a hydrodynamic theory that accounts for both elastic and inelastic volumetric deformation. The mathematical model, expressed in terms of curvilinear coordinates, is numerically integrated using a high-resolution technique. Emphasis is placed on characterizing the relative importance of compression and compaction work as heating mechanisms. Spatially continuous structures are predicted that propagate at speeds below the ambient sound speed of the solid component which are analogous to discontinuous structures for oblique reflection of gas shocks. An analogous transition from a von Neumann reflection to a Mach reflection to a regular reflection is predicted with increasing reflection angle, with high dissipative heating induced by configurations possessing a stem-like structure. Compression and dissipation by rate-dependent compaction are shown to be primary heating mechanisms, whereas dissipation by inelastic compaction is of secondary importance.
Propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves
Pan, Weiyan
2014-01-01
This book deals with the SLF/ELF wave propagation, an important branch of electromagnetic theory. The SLF/ELF wave propagation theory is well applied in earthquake electromagnetic radiation, submarine communication, thunderstorm detection, and geophysical prospecting and diagnostics. The propagation of SLF/ELF electromagnetic waves is introduced in various media like the earth-ionospheric waveguide, ionospheric plasma, sea water, earth, and the boundary between two different media or the stratified media. Applications in the earthquake electromagnetic radiation and the submarine communications are also addressed. This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the fields of radio propagation and EM theory and applications. Prof. Pan is a professor at China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation in Qingdao (China). Dr. Li is a professor at Zhejiang University in Hangzhou (China).
Ionospheric Heating with Oblique Waves. Volume 2. Applications to High-Frequency Radio Propagation
1989-08-01
iutengsitV. Several points must he stressed. First. the geometrica I1ptics fieid intensity becomes unbounded at the skip distance, hoth at the interior...March-April 1988, pp. 171-182. 13. Buckley, R., "On the Calculation of Intensity in Dispersive Inhomogenous Media in the Ray Approximation," Proc. R
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Oblique dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Pictometry Oblique Imagery...
Plasma properties. Annual report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weitzner, H
1992-06-01
This report discusses the following topics: MHD equilibrium and stability; MHD transport; statistical analysis; edge physics studies; wave propagation; basic plasma physics; and, space plasma physics.
Kinetic Alfvén solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bains, A. S.; Li, Bo, E-mail: bbl@sdu.edu.cn; Xia, Li-Dong [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, 264209 Weihai (China)
2014-03-15
We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in low β plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter κ, plasma β, and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfvénic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfvén rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger equation from the KdV equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermality whereas the opposite is true when the plasma β increases. The findings of this study may find applications to low β plasmas in astrophysical environments where particles are superthermally distributed.
Plasma-based accelerator structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1999-12-01
Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.
Arruda, Tiago José; Martinez, Alexandre Souto
2010-07-01
We analytically calculate the time-averaged electromagnetic energy stored inside a nondispersive magnetic isotropic cylinder that is obliquely irradiated by an electromagnetic plane wave. An expression for the optical-absorption efficiency in terms of the magnetic internal coefficients is also obtained. In the low absorption limit, we derive a relation between the normalized internal energy and the optical-absorption efficiency that is not affected by the magnetism and the incidence angle. This relation, indeed, seems to be independent of the shape of the scatterer. This universal aspect of the internal energy is connected to the transport velocity and consequently to the diffusion coefficient in the multiple scattering regime. Magnetism favors high internal energy for low size parameter cylinders, which leads to a low diffusion coefficient for electromagnetic propagation in 2D random media.
Hammer, Manfred; Förstner, Jens
2015-01-01
Sheets of slab waveguides with sharp corners are investigated. By means of rigorous numerical experiments, we look at oblique incidence of semi-guided plane waves. Radiation losses vanish beyond a certain critical angle of incidence. One can thus realize lossless propagation through 90-degree corner configurations, where the remaining guided waves are still subject to pronounced reflection and polarization conversion. A system of two corners can be viewed as a structure akin to a Fabry-Perot-interferometer. By adjusting the distance between the two partial reflectors, here the 90-degree corners, one identifies step-like configurations that transmit the semi-guided plane waves without radiation losses, and virtually without reflections. Simulations of semi-guided beams with in-plane wide Gaussian profiles show that the effect survives in a true 3-D framework.
Near-equatorial pitch angle diffusion of energetic electrons by oblique whistler waves
Villalon, Elena; Burke, William J.
1991-06-01
The pitch angle scattering of trapped, energetic electrons by obliquely propagating whistler waves in the equatorial regions of the plasmasphere is investigated. Storm-injected electrons moving along field lines near the equator interact with electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are Doppler-shifted to some harmonic of the cyclotron frequency. The wave normals are distributed almost parallel to the geomagnetic field. Waves grow from the combined contributions of a large reservoir of energetic electrons that are driven into the loss cone by the highest-harmonic interactions permitted to them. Relativistic, quasi-linear theory is applied to obtain self-consistent equations describing the temporal evolution of waves and particles over time scales which are longer than the particle bounce time and group time delay of the waves. The equilibrium solutions and their stability are studied, considering the reflection of the waves by the ionsphere and the coupling of multiple harmonic resonances.
Depth-dependent expression of obliquely incident wave induced radiation stress
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The vertically dependent expressions of obliquely incident waves induced radiation stress are derived by use of the second order Stokes wave theory within three regions of the water column, that is, above the mean water level, below the wave trough level, and between these two levels. Computations indicate that the wave-induced radiation stress below the wave trough level is from the water wave particle velocity only, whereas both the water wave particle velocity and the wave pressure contribute to the tensor above the wave trough level; the vertical variations of the wave-induced radiation stress are influenced substantially by the velocity component in the direction of wave propagation; the distributions of the wave-induced radiation stress tensor over depth are non-uniform and the proportion of the tensor below the wave trough level becomes considerable in the shallow water; from water surface to seabed, the reversed variations occur for the predominant tensor components.
TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses
Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna
2017-04-01
The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.
Potential role of kinetic Alfvén waves and whistler waves in solar wind plasmas
Nandal, P.; Yadav, N.; Sharma, R. P.; Goldstein, M. L.
2016-07-01
Spacecraft observations indicate the signatures of highly oblique kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) and whistler waves in the solar wind plasma. In the present work, we explore the possible role of KAWs and whistler waves in the observed solar wind magnetic turbulent spectrum. The nonlinear spatial evolution of KAW is studied including the effects of the ponderomotive force which results in intense localized structures due to the background density modification. Weak quasi-transverse whistler wave propagating through these localized structures also gets localized in the form of small-scale localized structures. We present numerically calculated magnetic power spectra for both KAW as well as for whistler wave. Our obtained results demonstrate the important role that KAWs and whistler waves play in the energy cascading from larger to smaller scales. The relevance of these results to recent spacecraft observations is also pointed out.
Enhancement in the electromagnetic beam-plasma instability due to ion streaming
Shukla, Nitin; Stockem, A.; Fiúza, F.; Silva, L. O.
2012-04-01
We investigate the Weibel instability in counter-propagating electron-ion plasmas with focus on the ion contribution, considering a realistic mass ratio. A generalized dispersion relation is derived from the relativistic theory by assuming an initially anisotropic temperature, which is represented by a waterbag distribution in momentum space, which shows an enhanced growth rate due to ion response. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support the theoretical analysis, showing a further amplification of magnetic field on ion time scale. The effect of an initial anisotropic temperature is investigated showing that the growth rate is monotonously decreased if the transverse spread is increased. Nevertheless, the presence of ions generates that the instability can develop for significantly higher electron temperatures. Suppression of oblique mode is also explored by introducing a parallel velocity spread.
Cook, J W S; Dendy, R O
2010-01-01
We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a regime relevant to tokamak fusion plasmas, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes under conditions approximating the outer mid-plane edge in a large tokamak, through which there pass confined centrally born fusion products on banana orbits that have large radial excursions. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the in...
A laboratory search for plasma erosion by Alfven waves
Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P.
2007-12-01
Obliquely propagating shear Alfven waves with transverse wavelengths on the order of the electron inertial length or even the ion gyro-radius are commonly observed in the earth's low-altitude auroral zones. These regions are also replete with observations of electron beams and transversely heated ions. A kinetic treatment of shear Alfven wave-particle interaction reveals how these waves can be responsible for some of the observed particle acceleration. The auroral plasma environment is further enriched by the presence of field-aligned depletions in plasma density, and it has been suggested* that the Alfven waves may, in fact, be the cause of the erosion of ionospheric density. In this laboratory experiment, shear waves will be launched using a variety of proven antennas, and also allowed to grow spontaneously as Drift-Alfven modes in seeded density depletions**. Detailed measurements of the wave magnetic fields in the perpendicular density gradient regions will be presented which demonstrate the generation of short perpendicular wave scales due to the perpendicular gradient in parallel wave phase speed. Miniature in-situ particle diagnostics will also be used to look for electron and ion acceleration. The waves will also be launched into an increasing region of background magnetic field in an attempt to model the ratios of Alfven speed to electron thermal speed, and density gradient scale length to electron inertial length appropriate to the earth's auroral zone. Preliminary results will be presented on the efficacy of shear Alfven waves to self-generate plasma density depletions, or deepen ambient density inhomogeneities. The experiments are conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility in the Large Plasma Device. *Chaston, et al., "Ionospheric erosion by Alfven Waves," JGR, V 111, A03206, 2006. **Penano, et al., "Drift-Alfven fluctuations associated with a narrow pressure striation," Phys. Plasmas, V 7, Issue 1, pp. 144-157 (2000).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ai-Feng Wang; Wei Zhao; Zong-Lin Jiang
2011-01-01
A simplified theoretic method and numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the characterization of propagation of transverse shock wave at wedge supported oblique detonation wave.After solution validation,a criterlon which is associated with the ratio φ (u2/ucJ) of existence or inexistence of the transverse shock wave at the region of the primary triple was deduced systematically by 38 cases.It is observed that for abrupt oblique shock wave (OSW)/oblique detonation wave (ODW) transition,a transverse shock wave is generated at the region of the primary triple when φ ＜ 1,however,such a transverse shock wave does not take place for the smooth OSW/ODW transition when φ ＞ 1.The parameter φ can be expressed as the Mach number behind the ODW front for stable CJ detonation.When 0.9 ＜ φ ＜ 1.0,the reflected shock wave can pass across the contact discontinuity and interact with transverse waves which are originating from the ODW front.When 0.8 ＜ φ ＜ 0.9,the reflected shock wave can not pass across the contact discontinuity and only reflects at the contact discontinuity.The condition (0.8 ＜ φ ＜ 0.9) agrees well with the ratio (Dave/DcJ) in the critical detonation.
Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes
2010-01-01
In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a
Zwaan, Frank; Schreurs, Guido; Adam, Jürgen
2017-04-01
During the early stages of rifting, rift segments may form along non-continuous and/or offset pre-existing weaknesses. It is important to understand how these initial rift segments interact and connect to form a continuous rift system. Previous modelling of rift interaction structures has shown the dominant influence of oblique extension, promoting rift segment linkage (e.g. Zwaan et al., 2016) and eventual continent break-up (Brune et al., 2012). However, these studies did not incorporate sedimentation, which can have important implications for rift evolution (e.g. Bialas and Buck, 2009). Here we present a series of analogue model experiments investigating the influence of sedimentation on rift interaction structures under oblique extension conditions. Our set-up involves a base of compressed foam and plexiglass that forces distributed extension in the overlying analogue materials when the model sidewalls move apart. A sand layer simulates the brittle upper crust and a viscous sand/silicone mixture the ductile lower crust. One of the underlying base plates can move laterally allowing oblique extension. Right-stepping offset and disconnected lines of silicone (seeds) on top of the basal viscous serve as inherited structures since the strong sand cover is locally thinner. We apply syn-rift sediments by filling in the developing rift and transfer zone basins with sand at fixed time steps. Models are run either with sedimentation or without to allow comparison. The first results suggest that the gross structures are similar with or without sedimentation. As seen by Zwaan et al. (2016), dextral oblique extension promotes rift linkage because rift propagation aligns itself perpendicular to the extension direction. This causes the rift segments to grow towards each other and to establish a continuous rift structure. However, the structures within the rift segments show quite different behaviour when sedimentation is applied. The extra sediment loading in the rift basin
Use of Vertical Aerial Images for Semi-Oblique Mapping
Poli, D.; Moe, K.; Legat, K.; Toschi, I.; Lago, F.; Remondino, F.
2017-05-01
The paper proposes a methodology for the use of the oblique sections of images from large-format photogrammetric cameras, by exploiting the effect of the central perspective geometry in the lateral parts of the nadir images ("semi-oblique" images). The point of origin of the investigation was the execution of a photogrammetric flight over Norcia (Italy), which was seriously damaged after the earthquake of 30/10/2016. Contrary to the original plan of oblique acquisitions, the flight was executed on 15/11/2017 using an UltraCam Eagle camera with focal length 80 mm, and combining two flight plans, rotated by 90º ("crisscross" flight). The images (GSD 5 cm) were used to extract a 2.5D DSM cloud, sampled to a XY-grid size of 2 GSD, a 3D point clouds with a mean spatial resolution of 1 GSD and a 3D mesh model at a resolution of 10 cm of the historic centre of Norcia for a quantitative assessment of the damages. From the acquired nadir images the "semi-oblique" images (forward, backward, left and right views) could be extracted and processed in a modified version of GEOBLY software for measurements and restitution purposes. The potential of such semi-oblique image acquisitions from nadir-view cameras is hereafter shown and commented.
Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.
Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y
2016-03-01
Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (pmyasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected.
Obliquity pacing of the late Pleistocene glacial terminations.
Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl
2005-03-24
The 100,000-year timescale in the glacial/interglacial cycles of the late Pleistocene epoch (the past approximately 700,000 years) is commonly attributed to control by variations in the Earth's orbit. This hypothesis has inspired models that depend on the Earth's obliquity (approximately 40,000 yr; approximately 40 kyr), orbital eccentricity (approximately 100 kyr) and precessional (approximately 20 kyr) fluctuations, with the emphasis usually on eccentricity and precessional forcing. According to a contrasting hypothesis, the glacial cycles arise primarily because of random internal climate variability. Taking these two perspectives together, there are currently more than thirty different models of the seven late-Pleistocene glacial cycles. Here we present a statistical test of the orbital forcing hypothesis, focusing on the rapid deglaciation events known as terminations. According to our analysis, the null hypothesis that glacial terminations are independent of obliquity can be rejected at the 5% significance level, whereas the corresponding null hypotheses for eccentricity and precession cannot be rejected. The simplest inference consistent with the test results is that the ice sheets terminated every second or third obliquity cycle at times of high obliquity, similar to the original proposal by Milankovitch. We also present simple stochastic and deterministic models that describe the timing of the late-Pleistocene glacial terminations purely in terms of obliquity forcing.
A Quick and Affine Invariance Matching Method for Oblique Images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XIAO Xiongwu
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper proposed a quick, affine invariance matching method for oblique images. It calculated the initial affine matrix by making full use of the two estimated camera axis orientation parameters of an oblique image, then recovered the oblique image to a rectified image by doing the inverse affine transform, and left over by the SIFT method. We used the nearest neighbor distance ratio(NNDR, normalized cross correlation(NCC measure constraints and consistency check to get the coarse matches, then used RANSAC method to calculate the fundamental matrix and the homography matrix. And we got the matches that they were interior points when calculating the homography matrix, then calculated the average value of the matches' principal direction differences. During the matching process, we got the initial matching features by the nearest neighbor(NN matching strategy, then used the epipolar constrains, homography constrains, NCC measure constrains and consistency check of the initial matches' principal direction differences with the calculated average value of the interior matches' principal direction differences to eliminate false matches. Experiments conducted on three pairs of typical oblique images demonstrate that our method takes about the same time as SIFT to match a pair of oblique images with a plenty of corresponding points distributed evenly and an extremely low mismatching rate.
Xiong, Ming; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; 10.1029/2006JA011901
2009-01-01
Numerical studies of the interplanetary "shock overtaking magnetic cloud (MC)" event are continued by a 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model in heliospheric meridional plane. Interplanetary direct collision (DC)/oblique collision (OC) between an MC and a shock results from their same/different initial propagation orientations. For radially erupted MC and shock in solar corona, the orientations are only determined respectively by their heliographic locations. OC is investigated in contrast with the results in DC \\citep{Xiong2006}. The shock front behaves as a smooth arc. The cannibalized part of MC is highly compressed by the shock front along its normal. As the shock propagates gradually into the preceding MC body, the most violent interaction is transferred sideways with an accompanying significant narrowing of the MC's angular width. The opposite deflections of MC body and shock aphelion in OC occur simultaneously through the process of the shock penetrating the MC. After the shock's passage, the...
OBLIQUE PROJECTION REALIZATION OF A KERNEL-BASED NONLINEAR DISCRIMINATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Benyong; Zhang Jing
2006-01-01
Previously, a novel classifier called Kernel-based Nonlinear Discriminator (KND) was proposed to discriminate a pattern class from other classes by minimizing mean effect of the latter. To consider the effect of the target class, this paper introduces an oblique projection algorithm to determine the coefficients of a KND so that it is extended to a new version called extended KND (eKND). In eKND construction, the desired output vector of the target class is obliquely projected onto the relevant subspace along the subspace related to other classes. In addition, a simple technique is proposed to calculate the associated oblique projection operator. Experimental results on handwritten digit recognition show that the algorithm performes better than a KND classifier and some other commonly used classifiers.
Research On The Measure Method Of Oblique Pinhole Parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ma Yu-Zhen
2016-01-01
Full Text Available There are many special advantages in measuring the diameter of blind and deep holes with a capacitive probe, there are still some challenges for the measurement of a oblique pinhole parameters because the measuring device is inconvenient to stretch into the oblique pinhole exactly. A five-dimensional measurement system was adopted in the paper which included a capacitive sensor probe and a three-coordinate measuring machine to accomplish the measurement for oblique pinholes. With the help of the three-dimensional coordinates measured from the pinhole axis, we put forward a comprehensive method of combining the projection method and the least squares method together for fitting spatial straight line to obtain the optimal equation of the spacial axis. Finally, a reliable and entire measurement system was set up.
Chaotic obliquity and the nature of the Martian climate
Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.
1995-01-01
Recent calculations of the Martian obliquity suggests that it varies chaotically on timescales longer than about 10(exp 7) years and varies between about 0 and 60 deg. We examine the seasonal water behavior at obliquities between 40 and 60 deg. Up to several tens of centimeters of water may sublime from the polar caps each year, and possibly move to the equator, where it is more stable. The CO2 frost and CO2-H2O clathrate hydrate are stable in thepolar deposits below a few tens of meters depth, so that the polar cap could contain a significant CO2 reservoir. If CO2 is present, it could be left over from the early history of Mars; also, it could be released into the atmosphere during periods of high obliquity, causing occasional periods of more-clement climate.
Numerical modelling of steel tubes under oblique crushing forces
Ismail, A. E.; Rahman, M. Q. Abdul; Nezere, N.; Jamian, S.; Kamarudin, K. A.; Awang, M. K.; Nor, M. K. Mohd; Ibrahim, M. N.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd; Arifin, A. M. T.; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad
2017-08-01
This paper presents the numerical assessment of crushing responses of elliptical tubes under crushing forces. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of works on the axial crushing behaviour can be found. However, the studies on the oblique crushing responses are rarely found. Therefore, this work investigates numerically the elliptical tubes under compressions. The numerical model of the tubes are developed using ANSYS finite element program. Two important parameters are used such as elliptical ratios and oblique angles. The tubes are compressed quasi-statically and the force-displacement curves are extracted. Then, the area under the curves are calculated and it is represented the performances of energy absorptions. It is found numerically that the introductions of oblique angles during the crushing processes decrease the crushing performances. However, the elliptical-shaped tubes capable to enhance the energy absorption capabilities. On the other hand, the elliptical-shaped tubes produced the enhancement on the energy absorption capabilities.
Oblique aerial images and their use in cultural heritage documentation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Höhle, Joachim
2013-01-01
Oblique images enable three-dimensional (3d) modelling of objects with vertical dimensions. Such imagery is nowadays systematically taken of cities and may easily become available. The documentation of cultural heritage can take advantage of these sources of information. Two new oblique camera...... systems are presented and characteristics of such images are summarized. A first example uses images of a new multi-camera system for the derivation of orthoimages, façade plots with photo texture, 3d scatter plots, and dynamic 3d models of a historic church. The applied methodology is based...... developments. Special attention is given to the quality of input images. Investigations are carried out on edges in the images. The combination of oblique and nadir images enables new possibilities in the processing. The use of the near-infrared channel besides the red, green, and blue channel of the applied...
Oblique perforation of thick metallic plates by rigid projectiles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaowei Chen; Qingming Li; Saucheong Fan
2006-01-01
Oblique perforation of thick metallic plates by rigid Drojectiles with various nose shapes is studied in this paper.Two perforation mechanisms,i.e., the hole enlargement for a sharp projectile nose and the plugging formation for a blunt projectile nose,are considered in the proposed analytical model.It is shown that the perforation of a thick plate is dominated by several non-dimensional numbers,i.e., the impact function,the geometry function of projectile,the non-dimensional thickness of target and the impact obliquity.Explicit formulae are obtained to predict the ballistic limit.residual velocity and directional change for the oblique perforation of thick metallic plates.The proposed model is able to predict the critical condition for the occurrence of ricochet.The proposed model is validated by comparing the predictions with other existing models and independent experimental data.
Ducted propagation of chorus waves: Cluster observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. H. Yearby
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Ducted propagation of whistler waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system was discussed and studied long before the first in-situ spacecraft measurements. While a number of implicit examples of the existence of ducted propagation have been found, direct observation of ducts has been hampered by the low sampling rates of measurements of the plasma density. The present paper is based on Cluster observations of chorus waves. The ability to use measurements of the spacecraft potential as a proxy for high time resolution electron density measurements is exploited to identify a number of cases when increased chorus wave power, observed within the radiation belts, is observed simultaneously with density enchantments. It is argued that the observation of ducted propagation of chorus implies modification of numerical models for plasma-wave interactions within the radiation belts.
Method of Calculation of Crown Wall Stability in Oblique Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Burcharth, Hans F.
2007-01-01
The wave loading along a structure exposed to oblique waves varies in time and space. Despite of this, the wave generated pressures are usually recorded by gauges only in one position of the wall (more gauges densily spaced is regarded as one position).......The wave loading along a structure exposed to oblique waves varies in time and space. Despite of this, the wave generated pressures are usually recorded by gauges only in one position of the wall (more gauges densily spaced is regarded as one position)....
ACCURACY OF MEASUREMENTS IN OBLIQUE AERIAL IMAGES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Ostrowski
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology. To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology. As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used
Experimental studies of oblique impact. [of meteorites on planetary surfaces
Gault, D. E.; Wedekind, J. A.
1978-01-01
Meteoritic materials most probably impact planetary bodies along oblique trajectories inclined less than 45 deg above their surfaces. Laboratory studies of hypervelocity impacts against rock and particulate media are presented that indicate important effects of obliquity on crater size, shape, and ejecta distribution. The effects are particularly important to crater size-frequency analyses and geologic interpretations of crater formations. Impacts at shallow incidence, which are not uncommon, lead to ricochet of the impacting object accompanied with some entrained excavated materials at velocities only slightly reduced from the pre-impact value.
Oblique lumbar spine radiographs: importance in young patients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libson, E.; Bloom, R.A.; Dinari, G.; Robin, G.C.
1984-04-01
Spondylolysis is a direct precursor of spondylolisthesis and can lead to crippling back pain. Of 1,743 patients surveyed, including 936 who were asymptomatic and 807 with back pain, 165 (including 91 who were asymptomatic and 74 with back pain) had spondylolysis, which was seen only on oblique lumbar views in 20% of cases. Because of the high false-negative rate of AP and lateral views, oblique views are essential in children and young adults. As spondylolysis is rare above L3, radiographs can be limited to L3-S1. Significantly less spondylolysis was seen in persons older than 30 with back pain usually caused by disk degeneration.
Accuracy of Measurements in Oblique Aerial Images for Urban Environment
Ostrowski, W.
2016-10-01
Oblique aerial images have been a source of data for urban areas for several years. However, the accuracy of measurements in oblique images during this time has been limited to a single meter due to the use of direct -georeferencing technology and the underlying digital elevation model. Therefore, oblique images have been used mostly for visualization purposes. This situation changed in recent years as new methods, which allowed for a higher accuracy of exterior orientation, were developed. Current developments include the process of determining exterior orientation and the previous but still crucial process of tie point extraction. Progress in this area was shown in the ISPRS/EUROSDR Benchmark on Multi-Platform Photogrammetry and is also noticeable in the growing interest in the use of this kind of imagery. The higher level of accuracy in the orientation of oblique aerial images that has become possible in the last few years should result in a higher level of accuracy in the measurements of these types of images. The main goal of this research was to set and empirically verify the accuracy of measurements in oblique aerial images. The research focused on photogrammetric measurements composed of many images, which use a high overlap within an oblique dataset and different view angles. During the experiments, two series of images of urban areas were used. Both were captured using five DigiCam cameras in a Maltese cross configuration. The tilt angles of the oblique cameras were 45 degrees, and the position of the cameras during flight used a high grade GPS/INS navigation system. The orientation of the images was set using the Pix4D Mapper Pro software with both measurements of the in-flight camera position and the ground control points (measured with GPS RTK technology). To control the accuracy, check points were used (which were also measured with GPS RTK technology). As reference data for the whole study, an area of the city-based map was used. The archived results
Agapitov, Oleksiy; Drake, James; Mozer, Forrest
2016-04-01
Huge numbers of different nonlinear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc. referred to as Time Domain Structures - TDS) have been observed by the electric field experiment on board the Van Allen Probes. A large part of the observed non-linear structures are associated with whistler waves and some of them can be directly driven by whistlers. The parameters favorable for the generation of TDS were studied experimentally as well as making use of 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the system with inhomogeneous magnetic field. It is shown that an outward propagating front of whistlers and hot electrons amplifies oblique whistlers which collapse into regions of intense parallel electric field with properties consistent with recent observations of TDS from the Van Allen Probe satellites. Oblique whistlers seed the parallel electric fields that are driven by the beams. The resulting parallel electric fields trap and heat the precipitating electrons. These electrons drive spikes of intense parallel electric field with characteristics similar to the TDSs seen in the VAP data. The decoupling of the whistler wave and the nonlinear electrostatic component is shown in PIC simulation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field system. These effects are observed by the Van Allen Probes in the radiation belts. The precipitating hot electrons propagate away from the source region in intense bunches rather than as a smooth flux.
Schulte, Christian
2008-01-01
When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...
Simulation of Plasma Jet Merger and Liner Formation within the PLX- α Project
Samulyak, Roman; Chen, Hsin-Chiang; Shih, Wen; Hsu, Scott
2015-11-01
Detailed numerical studies of the propagation and merger of high Mach number argon plasma jets and the formation of plasma liners have been performed using the newly developed method of Lagrangian particles (LP). The LP method significantly improves accuracy and mathematical rigor of common particle-based numerical methods such as smooth particle hydrodynamics while preserving their main advantages compared to grid-based methods. A brief overview of the LP method will be presented. The Lagrangian particle code implements main relevant physics models such as an equation of state for argon undergoing atomic physics transformation, radiation losses in thin optical limit, and heat conduction. Simulations of the merger of two plasma jets are compared with experimental data from past PLX experiments. Simulations quantify the effect of oblique shock waves, ionization, and radiation processes on the jet merger process. Results of preliminary simulations of future PLX- alpha experiments involving the ~ π / 2 -solid-angle plasma-liner configuration with 9 guns will also be presented. Partially supported by ARPA-E's ALPHA program.
Direct oblique sagittal CT of orbital wall fractures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ball, J.B. Jr.
1987-03-01
Direct oblique sagittal CT was used to evaluate trauma to 77 orbits. Sixty-seven orbital wall fractures with intact orbital rims (36 floor, 22 medial wall, nine roof) were identified in 47 orbits. Since persistent diplopia and/or enophthalmos may warrant surgical repair of orbital floor fractures, optimal imaging should include an evaluation of extraocular muscle status, the nature and amount of displaced orbital contents, and an accurate definition of fracture margins. For orbital floor fractures, a combination of the direct oblique sagittal and direct coronal projections optimally displayed all fracture margins, the fracture's relationship to the inferior orbital rim and medial orbital wall, and the amount of displacement into the maxillary sinus. Inferior rectus muscle status with 36 floor fractures was best seen on the direct oblique sagittal projection in 30 fractures (83.3%) and was equally well seen on sagittal and coronal projections in two fractures (5.5%). Floor fractures were missed on 100% of axial, 5.5% of sagittal, and 0% of coronal projections. Since the direct oblique sagittal projection complements the direct coronal projection in evaluating orbital floor fractures, it should not be performed alone. A technical approach to the CT evaluation or orbital wall fractures is presented.
Obliquely co-evaporated thin films for magnetic recording
Kranenburg, van Herma
1992-01-01
A systematic research is carried out on obliquely ( co- ) evaporated media for magnetic recording applications. The investigated materials concern Co-alloys, being Co-Cr, Co-Ag and Co- Ta. The re1ations between deposition parameters, morphology , texture and rnagnetic behaviour were swdied. The acce
Pulp Rotation Flap for Lateral Oblique Fingertip Defects.
Ozturk, Muhammed Besir; Barutca, Seda Asfuroglu; Aksan, Tolga; Atik, Bekir
2016-11-01
Fingertip amputations are among the most common injuries seen in the hand. According to the geometry of the amputation, it may be classified as transverse or oblique (dorsal, volar, or lateral type). Although numerous repair techniques have been described in the literature, there are few alternatives suitable for lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. Between 2012 and 2016, we operated on 16 patients with simple rotation flap from the remaining part of the pulpa in a rotation and advancement manner for the reconstruction of lateral oblique type fingertip amputations. All but two of the flaps healed completely with full flap survival. Superficial distal flap necrosis was observed in two patients. They healed by secondary intention. No obvious hooked nail occurred in patients. Cold intolerance was observed in one patient; joint stiffness or hypersensitivity was not observed in any of the patients. Stiffness of the proximal interphalangeal joint did not occur. Two point discrimination test results were found to be normal. This technique is simple, rapid, and free from relatively major complications. This flap allows for anatomical reconstruction of the fingertip by using a similar tissue in cases of lateral oblique fingertip amputations, where only a few flap options can be successful.
Reorientation of magnetic anisotropy in obliquely sputtered metallic thin films
Lisfi, A.; Lodder, J.C.; Wormeester, H.; Poelsema, B.
2002-01-01
Reorientation in the magnetic anisotropy as a function of film thickness has been observed in Co-Ni and Co thin films, obliquely sputtered on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate at a large incidence angle (70°). This effect is a consequence of the low magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the films (f
Measurement of ocular torsion variation following superior oblique tenectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruna Lana Ducca
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purposes: To objectively evaluate the torsional effect of the superior oblique muscle-weakening surgery using the tenectomy technique proposed by Souza-Dias. Methods: The present prospective study included 10 patients (20 eyes with horizontal strabismus, bilateral superior oblique overaction and A-pattern of 15 to 30 prism diopters who underwent superior oblique tenectomy. Objective assessment of ocular torsion was performed by retinography immediately before and one month after surgery. The amount of ocular torsion was determined by measuring the angle formed by a horizontal line drawn across the geometric center of the optic disc and a second line connecting this point to the fovea. Results: The median preoperative angle was 5.56° in the right eyes and -3.43° in the left eyes. The median postoperative angle was 1.84° in the right eyes and -3.12° in the left eyes. The angle variation was statistically significant in both eyes (p=0.012 and p=0.01, respectively. Conclusion: The present study suggests that superior oblique tenectomy has an extorter effect, decreasing the intorsion detected on overaction of this muscle.
Oblique water entry of a three dimensional body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scolan Yves-Marie
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of the oblique water entry of a three dimensional body is considered. Wagner theory is the theoretical framework. Applications are discussed for an elliptic paraboloid entering an initially flat free surface. A dedicated experimental campaign yields a data base for comparisons. In the present analysis, pressure, force and dynamics of the wetted surface expansion are assessed.
Interaction of Oblique Incident Electromagnetic Wave with Relativistic Ionization Front
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Interactions of oblique incident probe wave with oncoming ionization fronts have been investigated using moving boundary conditions. Field conversion coefficients of reflection,transmission and magnetic modes produced in the interactions are derived. Phase matching conditions at the front and frequency up-shifting formulas for the three modes are also presented.
Morphological development of coasts at very oblique wave incidence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Dorthe Pia; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen
2003-01-01
This study focuses on one distinct feature to be found on coasts exposed to a very oblique wave incidence, namely an accumulating spit. That is a spit where no retreat of the shoreline is going on along the spit. This requires a monotonically decreasing sediment transport capacity from the updrift...
Combined obliquity and precession pacing of late Pleistocene deglaciations.
Huybers, Peter
2011-12-08
Milankovitch proposed that Earth resides in an interglacial state when its spin axis both tilts to a high obliquity and precesses to align the Northern Hemisphere summer with Earth's nearest approach to the Sun. This general concept has been elaborated into hypotheses that precession, obliquity or combinations of both could pace deglaciations during the late Pleistocene. Earlier tests have shown that obliquity paces the late Pleistocene glacial cycles but have been inconclusive with regard to precession, whose shorter period of about 20,000 years makes phasing more sensitive to timing errors. No quantitative test has provided firm evidence for a dual effect. Here I show that both obliquity and precession pace late Pleistocene glacial cycles. Deficiencies in time control that have long stymied efforts to establish orbital effects on deglaciation are overcome using a new statistical test that focuses on maxima in orbital forcing. The results are fully consistent with Milankovitch's proposal but also admit the possibility that long Southern Hemisphere summers contribute to deglaciation.
Calibrating the New Ultracam Osprey Oblique Aerial Sensor
Gruber, M.; Walcher, W.
2014-03-01
We present methods and results to calibrate the new oblique sensor UltraCam Osprey which was presented for the first time at the ASPRS 2013 conference and exhibition in Baltimore, MD, March 2013. Even if this was not the first time when oblique sensors were introduced into the market, the UltraCam Osprey did show several new conceptual details which are illustrated in this presentation. The design of the camera is focusing on two important characteristics, a metric nadir component which has been derived from the UltraCam Lp sensor, and collection efficiency through very large swath width. The nadir sensor consists of the 90 megapixel panchromatic camera, true-color RGB, and a near-infrared camera. Adding six oblique camera heads, with two each in forward and backwards direction, results in unmatched oblique collection efficiency. We first explain the camera and cone configuration along with the geometric layout of the sensor system. Then we describe the laboratory setup for geometric calibration of the UltraCam Osprey and the calibration process along with the actual results of one such calibration showing sub-pixel accurate image geometry. This proves that the UltraCam Osprey is a fully calibrated metric camera system suitable for photogrammetric survey applications.
Oblique Aerial Imagery for NMA - Some best Practices
Remondino, F.; Toschi, I.; Gerke, M.; Nex, F.; Holland, D.; McGill, A.; Talaya Lopez, J.; Magarinos, A.
2016-06-01
Oblique airborne photogrammetry is rapidly maturing and being offered by service providers as a good alternative or replacement of the more traditional vertical imagery and for very different applications (Fig.1). EuroSDR, representing European National Mapping Agencies (NMAs) and research organizations of most EU states, is following the development of oblique aerial cameras since 2013, when an ongoing activity was created to continuously update its members on the developments in this technology. Nowadays most European NMAs still rely on the traditional workflow based on vertical photography but changes are slowly taking place also at production level. Some NMAs have already run some tests internally to understand the potential for their needs whereas other agencies are discussing on the future role of this technology and how to possibly adapt their production pipelines. At the same time, some research institutions and academia demonstrated the potentialities of oblique aerial datasets to generate textured 3D city models or large building block models. The paper provides an overview of tests, best practices and considerations coming from the R&D community and from three European NMAs concerning the use of oblique aerial imagery.
Analyzing RCD30 Oblique Performance in a Production Environment
Soler, M. E.; Kornus, W.; Magariños, A.; Pla, M.
2016-06-01
In 2014 the Institut Cartogràfic i Geològic de Catalunya (ICGC) decided to incorporate digital oblique imagery in its portfolio in response to the growing demand for this product. The reason can be attributed to its useful applications in a wide variety of fields and, most recently, to an increasing interest in 3d modeling. The selection phase for a digital oblique camera led to the purchase of the Leica RCD30 Oblique system, an 80MPixel multispectral medium-format camera which consists of one Nadir camera and four oblique viewing cameras acquiring images at an off-Nadir angle of 35º. The system also has a multi-directional motion compensation on-board system to deliver the highest image quality. The emergence of airborne oblique cameras has run in parallel to the inclusion of computer vision algorithms into the traditional photogrammetric workflows. Such algorithms rely on having multiple views of the same area of interest and take advantage of the image redundancy for automatic feature extraction. The multiview capability is highly fostered by the use of oblique systems which capture simultaneously different points of view for each camera shot. Different companies and NMAs have started pilot projects to assess the capabilities of the 3D mesh that can be obtained using correlation techniques. Beyond a software prototyping phase, and taking into account the currently immature state of several components of the oblique imagery workflow, the ICGC has focused on deploying a real production environment with special interest on matching the performance and quality of the existing production lines based on classical Nadir images. This paper introduces different test scenarios and layouts to analyze the impact of different variables on the geometric and radiometric performance. Different variables such as flight altitude, side and forward overlap and ground control point measurements and location have been considered for the evaluation of aerial triangulation and
Three-dimensional MHD modeling of vertical kink oscillations in an active region plasma curtain
Ofman, L.; Parisi, M.; Srivastava, A. K.
2015-10-01
Context. Observations on 2011 August 9 of an X 6.9-class flare in active region (AR) 11263 by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), were followed by a rare detection of vertical kink oscillations in a large-scale coronal active region plasma curtain in extreme UV coronal lines with periods in the range 8.8-14.9 min. Aims: Our aim is to study the generation and propagation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations in the plasma curtain taking the realistic 3D magnetic and the density structure of the curtain into account. We also aim to test and improve coronal seismology for a more accurate determination of the magnetic field than with the standard method. Methods: We use the observed morphological and dynamical conditions, as well as plasma properties of the coronal curtain, to initialize a 3D MHD model of the observed vertical and transverse oscillations. To accomplish this, we implemented the impulsively excited velocity pulse mimicking the flare-generated nonlinear fast magnetosonic propagating disturbance interacting obliquely with the curtain. The model is simplified by utilizing an initial dipole magnetic field, isothermal energy equation, and gravitationally stratified density guided by observational parameters. Results: Using the 3D MHD model, we are able to reproduce the details of the vertical oscillations and study the process of their excitation by a nonlinear fast magnetosonic pulse, propagation, and damping, finding agreement with the observations. Conclusions: We estimate the accuracy of simplified slab-based coronal seismology by comparing the determined magnetic field strength to actual values from the 3D MHD modeling results, and demonstrate the importance of taking more realistic magnetic geometry and density for improving coronal seismology into account. A movie associated to Fig. 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.
1998-01-01
We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples tha...
2016-06-07
Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for
Accuracy Potential and Applications of MIDAS Aerial Oblique Camera System
Madani, M.
2012-07-01
Airborne oblique cameras such as Fairchild T-3A were initially used for military reconnaissance in 30s. A modern professional digital oblique camera such as MIDAS (Multi-camera Integrated Digital Acquisition System) is used to generate lifelike three dimensional to the users for visualizations, GIS applications, architectural modeling, city modeling, games, simulators, etc. Oblique imagery provide the best vantage for accessing and reviewing changes to the local government tax base, property valuation assessment, buying & selling of residential/commercial for better decisions in a more timely manner. Oblique imagery is also used for infrastructure monitoring making sure safe operations of transportation, utilities, and facilities. Sanborn Mapping Company acquired one MIDAS from TrackAir in 2011. This system consists of four tilted (45 degrees) cameras and one vertical camera connected to a dedicated data acquisition computer system. The 5 digital cameras are based on the Canon EOS 1DS Mark3 with Zeiss lenses. The CCD size is 5,616 by 3,744 (21 MPixels) with the pixel size of 6.4 microns. Multiple flights using different camera configurations (nadir/oblique (28 mm/50 mm) and (50 mm/50 mm)) were flown over downtown Colorado Springs, Colorado. Boresight fights for 28 mm nadir camera were flown at 600 m and 1,200 m and for 50 mm nadir camera at 750 m and 1500 m. Cameras were calibrated by using a 3D cage and multiple convergent images utilizing Australis model. In this paper, the MIDAS system is described, a number of real data sets collected during the aforementioned flights are presented together with their associated flight configurations, data processing workflow, system calibration and quality control workflows are highlighted and the achievable accuracy is presented in some detail. This study revealed that the expected accuracy of about 1 to 1.5 GSD (Ground Sample Distance) for planimetry and about 2 to 2.5 GSD for vertical can be achieved. Remaining systematic
Frontal and oblique tectonics in the Brazilian Shield
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GinaldoA.daC.Campanha; BenjamimBleydeBritoNeves
2004-01-01
The Brazilian shield was assembled from a few Archean and Paleoproterozoic cratonic nuclei surrounded by Pan-African-Brasiliano mobile belts of Neoproterozoic age. While some of these mobile belts display a typical frontal collision tectonic style, others are dominated by transcurrent regimes, clearly indicating oblique collisional systems. This paper is an attempt to determine the mean orientation of the principal horizontal compressive stresses for each mobile belt, considering either the frontal or oblique convergence character. From these general observations a scheme with WNW - ESE to NWSE trends of the main compressive stress is proposed. We suggest that this trend represents the mean displacement vectors, according to a coherent kinematic picture for the amalgamation of the West Gondwana during the final stages of convergence of the Brasiliano belts, where WNW-ESE to NW-SE are the main directions of final closure.
Oblique Laminar-Turbulent Interfaces in Plane Shear Flows
Duguet, Yohann; Schlatter, Philipp
2013-01-01
Localized structures such as turbulent stripes and turbulent spots are typical features of transitional wall-bounded flows in the subcritical regime. Based on an assumption for scale separation between large and small scales, we show analytically that the corresponding laminar-turbulent interfaces are always oblique with respect to the mean direction of the flow. In the case of plane Couette flow, the mismatch between the streamwise flow rates near the boundaries of the turbulence patch generates a large-scale flow with a nonzero spanwise component. Advection of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations (streaks) by the corresponding large-scale flow distorts the shape of the turbulence patch and is responsible for its oblique growth. This mechanism can be easily extended to other subcritical flows such as plane Poiseuille flow or Taylor-Couette flow.
Tidal Dissipation and Obliquity Evolution in Hot Jupiter Systems
Valsecchi, Francesca
2014-01-01
Two formation scenarios have been proposed to explain the tight orbits of hot Jupiters. These giant planets could be formed in low-obliquity orbits via disk migration or in high-obliquity orbits via high-eccentricity migration, where gravitational interactions with a companion are at play, together with tidal dissipation. Here we target the observed misaligned hot Jupiter systems to investigate whether their current properties are consistent with high-eccentricity migration. Specifically, we study whether tidal dissipation in the star can be responsible for the observed distribution of misalignments and orbital separations. Improving on previous studies, we use detailed models for the stellar component, thus accounting for how convection (and thus tidal dissipation) depends on the host star properties. We find that the currently observed degree of misalignment increases as the amount of surface convection in the host star decreases. This trend supports the hypothesis that tides are the mechanism shaping the o...
Impact of an oblique breaking wave on a wall
Shu, Jian-Jun
2014-01-01
The intention of this paper is to study impact force of an oblique-angled slamming wave acting on a rigid wall. In the present study the analytical approach is pursued based on a technique proposed by the author. A nonlinear theory in the context of potential flow is presented for determining accurately the free-surface profiles immediately after an oblique breaking wave impingement on the rigid vertical wall that suddenly starts from rest. The small-time expansion is taken as far as necessary to include the accelerating effect. The analytical solutions for the free-surface elevation are derived up to the third order. The results derived in this paper are of particular interest to the marine and offshore engineering industries, which will find the information useful for the design of ships, coastal and offshore.
Tree level unitarity and finiteness of electroweak oblique corrections
Nagai, Ryo
2015-01-01
We study perturbative unitarity and electroweak oblique corrections in the electroweak symmetry breaking models including an arbitrary number of neutral Higgs bosons. Requiring the perturbative unitarity of the high energy scattering amplitudes of weak gauge bosons and the neutral Higgs bosons at tree level, we obtain a set of conditions among the Higgs coupling strengths (unitarity sum rules). It is shown that the unitarity sum rules require the tree level rho parameter to be 1 if there are only neutral Higgs bosons. Moreover, we find that the one-loop finiteness of the electroweak oblique corrections is automatically guaranteed once the unitarity sum rules are imposed among the Higgs coupling strengths. Applying the unitarity sum rules, we obtain severe constraints on the mass of the second lightest neutral Higgs boson and the lightest neutral Higgs (a 125GeV Higgs) coupling strength from the results of the electroweak precision tests as well as the unitarity.
Effects of varying obliquity on Martian sublimation thermokarst landforms
Dundas, Colin M.
2017-01-01
Scalloped depressions in the Martian mid-latitudes are likely formed by sublimation of ice-rich ground. The stability of subsurface ice changes with the planetary obliquity, generally becoming less stable at lower axial tilt. As a result, the relative rates of sublimation and creep change over time. A landscape evolution model shows that these variations produce internal structure in scalloped depressions, commonly in the form of arcuate ridges, which emerge as depressions resume growth after pausing or slowing. In other scenarios, the formation of internal structure is minimal. Significant uncertainties in past climate and model parameters permit a range of scenarios. Ridges observed in some Martian scalloped depressions could date from obliquity lows or periods of low ice stability occurring <5 Ma, suggesting that the pits are young features and may be actively evolving.
Competing magnetic anisotropies in obliquely deposited thin permalloy film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belyaev, B.A. [Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 31, pr. Imeni Gazety “Krasnoyarskii Rabochii”, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation); Izotov, A.V. [Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Solovev, P.N., E-mail: platon.solovev@gmail.com [Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation)
2016-01-15
Distribution of the magnetic anisotropy in thin film prepared by thermal vacuum oblique deposition of permalloy with small off-normal angle of incident in the presence of an external magnetic field has been studied by ferromagnetic resonance technique. On local area of the sample, a mutual compensation of near orthogonal in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropies induced by oblique deposition and by applied magnetic field has been found. Moreover, in addition to the uniaxial (twofold) magnetic anisotropy, fourfold and sixfold magnetic anisotropies have been observed in the sample. To explain the obtained high-order anisotropies, we assumed that the sample has exchange coupled adjacent regions or phases with different parameters of magnetic anisotropy. The results of the micromagnetic analysis of a two-layer model of the sample confirm the hypothesis.
Oblique drop impact onto a deep liquid pool
Gielen, Marise V; Benschop, Jos; Riepen, Michel; Voronina, Victoria; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Versluis, Michel; Gelderblom, Hanneke
2016-01-01
Oblique impact of drops on a solid or liquid surface is frequently observed in nature. Most studies on drop impact and splashing, however, focus on perpendicular impact. Here, we study oblique impact onto a deep liquid pool, where we quantify the splashing threshold, maximal cavity dimensions and cavity collapse by high-speed imaging above and below the water surface. Three different impact regimes are identified: smooth deposition onto the pool, splashing in the direction of impact only, and splashing in all directions. We provide scaling arguments that delineate these regimes by accounting for drop impact angle and Weber number. The angle of the axis of the cavity created below the water surface follows the impact angle of the drop independent of the Weber number, while cavity depth and its displacement with respect to the impact position depend on the Weber number. Weber number dependency of both the cavity depth and displacement is modeled using an energy argument.
X-ray spectroscopic study of charge exchange phenomena in plasma-wall interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renner O.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Jets of energetic ions launched at laser-burnt-through foils represent an efficient tool for investigation of plasma interaction with solid surfaces (plasma-wall interaction, PWI and for description of transient phenomena occurring close to the walls. Highly charged ions approaching the secondary target interpenetrate the near surface layer, collide with the counter-propagating matter and capture a large number of electrons. This results in a creation of atoms in highly excited Rydberg states or hollow ions with multiple inner vacancies; plasma jet and target ions may also undergo charge exchange (CE processes. We report PWI experiments with Al/Si(PMMA and Al/C targets irradiated at normal or oblique laser incidence. The distinct dip structures observed in red wings of Al Lyγ self-emission is interpreted in terms of CE between C6+ and Al12+ in the near-wall zone. The spectroscopic identification of CE phenomena is supported by results of analytical and numerical calculations.
Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n solitary and rogue waves in superthermal plasmas
Bains, A; Xia, L -D
2014-01-01
We investigate the small but finite amplitude solitary Kinetic Alfv\\'{e}n waves (KAWs) in low $\\beta$ plasmas with superthermal electrons modeled by a kappa-type distribution. A nonlinear Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation describing the evolution of KAWs is derived by using the standard reductive perturbation method. Examining the dependence of the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients of the KdV equation on the superthermal parameter $\\kappa$, plasma $\\beta$ and obliqueness of propagation, we show that these parameters may change substantially the shape and size of solitary KAW pulses. Only sub-Alfv\\'enic, compressive solitons are supported. We then extend the study to examine kinetic Alfv\\'en rogue waves by deriving a nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation from {the KdV} equation. Rational solutions that form rogue wave envelopes are obtained. We examine how the behavior of rogue waves depends on the plasma parameters in question, finding that the rogue envelopes are lowered with increasing electron superthermal...
Obliquity of the Stapes in Otosclerosis: A New Radiological Sign
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anand, Veluswamy
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Introduction Observing the obliquity of stapes by closely scrutinizing the HRCT temporal bone in otosclerosis revealed a reliable and consistent finding. This finding can add to the existing radiological criteria in diagnosis of otosclerosis. Objective The objective of this study is to establish the obliquity of stapes in otosclerosis by radiological measurements using HRCT temporal bone by comparing: (a the distance between the horizontal (tympanic segment of facial nerve and stapes head in otosclerotic ears (study group with non-otosclerotic ears (control group; and (b the angle subtended by stapes with promontory in the study and control groups. Methods This is a prospective study performed after the institutional Ethics Committee clearance (IEC 3/2013. Results An increased mean distance between the horizontal segment of facial nerve and stapes head in otosclerotic patients (i.e., 2.49mm +/− 0.24mm SD, when compared with the non-otosclerotic patients (i.e., 1.46mm +/− 0.16mm SD is noted. There is a change in angle (i.e., 64.550 +/− 7.190 SD subtended by the stapes toward the promontory in otosclerotic ears when compared with that of controls (i.e., 99.700 +/− 40 SD. We applied the Mann-Whitney U non-parametric test and considered p value of < 0.0001 highly significant. Conclusions Obliquity of stapes in otosclerosis referred to as a “Pisa” sign by the senior author has diagnostic value as a new radiological sign in imaging of otosclerosis. This obliquity explains the torsional effect of otosclerosis on the ossicular chain. The findings correlate with late complications and failures in stapes surgery.
D Model Generation Using Oblique Images Acquired by Uav
Lingua, A.; Noardo, F.; Spanò, A.; Sanna, S.; Matrone, F.
2017-07-01
In recent years, many studies revealed the advantages of using airborne oblique images for obtaining improved 3D city models (including façades and building footprints). Here the acquisition and use of oblique images from a low cost and open source Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for the 3D high-level-of-detail reconstruction of historical architectures is evaluated. The critical issues of such acquisitions (flight planning strategies, ground control points distribution, etc.) are described. Several problems should be considered in the flight planning: best approach to cover the whole object with the minimum time of flight; visibility of vertical structures; occlusions due to the context; acquisition of all the parts of the objects (the closest and the farthest) with similar resolution; suitable camera inclination, and so on. In this paper a solution is proposed in order to acquire oblique images with one only flight. The data processing was realized using Structure-from-Motion-based approach for point cloud generation using dense image-matching algorithms implemented in an open source software. The achieved results are analysed considering some check points and some reference LiDAR data. The system was tested for surveying a historical architectonical complex: the "Sacro Mo nte di Varallo Sesia" in north-west of Italy. This study demonstrates that the use of oblique images acquired from a low cost UAV system and processed through an open source software is an effective methodology to survey cultural heritage, characterized by limited accessibility, need for detail and rapidity of the acquisition phase, and often reduced budgets.