WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma neutral collisions

  1. Diagnosis of Unmagnetized Plasma Electron Number Density and Electron-neutral Collision Frequency by Using Microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhongcai; Shi Jiaming; Xu Bo

    2005-01-01

    The plasma diagnostic method using the transmission attenuation of microwaves at double frequencies (PDMUTAMDF) indicates that the frequency and the electron-neutral collision frequency of the plasma can be deduced by utilizing the transmission attenuation of microwaves at two neighboring frequencies in a non-magnetized plasma. Then the electron density can be obtained from the plasma frequency. The PDMUTAMDF is a simple method to diagnose the plasma indirectly. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves and the plasma is analyzed. Then, based on the attenuation and the phase shift of a microwave in the plasma, the principle of the PDMUTAMDF is presented. With the diagnostic method, the spatially mean electron density and electron collision frequency of the plasma can be obtained. This method is suitable for the elementary diagnosis of the atmospheric-pressure plasma

  2. Particle-in-cell simulations of plasma accelerators and electron-neutral collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Bruhwiler

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We present 2D simulations of both beam-driven and laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerators, using the object-oriented particle-in-cell code XOOPIC, which is time explicit, fully electromagnetic, and capable of running on massively parallel supercomputers. Simulations of laser-driven wakefields with low \\(∼10^{16} W/cm^{2}\\ and high \\(∼10^{18} W/cm^{2}\\ peak intensity laser pulses are conducted in slab geometry, showing agreement with theory and fluid simulations. Simulations of the E-157 beam wakefield experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, in which a 30 GeV electron beam passes through 1 m of preionized lithium plasma, are conducted in cylindrical geometry, obtaining good agreement with previous work. We briefly describe some of the more significant modifications to XOOPIC required by this work, and summarize the issues relevant to modeling relativistic electron-neutral collisions in a particle-in-cell code.

  3. Transport of a nonneutral electron plasma due to electron collisions with neutral atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.H.; O'Neil, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Transport of a nonneutral electron plasma across a magnetic field is caused by electron scattering from ambient neutral atoms. A theoretical model of such transport is presented, assuming the plasma is quiescent and the scattering is elastic scattering from infinite mass scattering centers of constant momentum transfer cross section. This model is motivated by recent experiments. A reduced transport equation is obtained by expanding the Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution in inverse powers of the magnetic field. The equation together with Poisson's equation for the radial electric field, which must exist in a nonneutral column, determine the evolution of the system. When these two equations are properly scaled, they contain only a single parameter: the ratio of initial Debye length to initial column radius. For cases where this parameter is either large or small, analytical solutions, or at least partial solutions, are obtained. For intermediate values of the parameter, numerical solutions are obtained

  4. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  5. Enhancement of the neutral-beam stopping cross section in fusion plasmas due to multistep collision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.; Post, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    Multistep processes involving excited atomic states are found to produce a substantial increase in the stopping cross section for a neutral hydrogen beam injected into a plasma, and thus to reduce the beam penetration. For typical plasma and beam parameters of current large tokamak experiments, the stopping cross-sectional enhancement is found to vary from 25% to 50% depending on the beam energy, plasma density, and impurity level. For neutral hydrogen beams with energies greater than or equal to 500 keV, envisioned in tokamak amd mirror reactor designs, the enhancement can be as large as 80 to 90%

  6. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  7. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  8. Simulation of an ITER-like dissipative divertor plasma with a combined edge plasma Navier-Stokes neutral model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Sigmar, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A combined edge plasma/Navier-Stokes neutral transport model is used to simulate dissipative divertor plasmas in the collisional limit for neutrals on a simplified two-dimensional slab geometry with ITER-like plasma conditions and scale lengths. The neutral model contains three momentum equations which are coupled to the plasma through ionization, recombination, and ion-neutral elastic collisions. The neutral transport coefficients are evaluated including both ion-neutral and neutral-neutral collisions. (orig.)

  9. Plasma neutralizer for H- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutralization of H - beams by a hydrogen plasma is discussed. Optimum target thickness and maximum neutralization efficiency as a function of the fraction of the hydrogen target gas ionized is calculated for different H - beam energies. Also, the variation of neutralization efficiency with respect to target thickness for different H - beam energies is computed. The dispersion of the neutralized beam by a magnetic field for different energies and different values of B . z is found. Finally, a type of plasma jet is proposed, which may be suitable for a compact H - neutralizer

  10. Simulation of dense recombining divertor plasmas with a Navier endash Stokes neutral transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Sigmar, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A two-dimensional combined edge plasma Navier endash Stokes neutral transport model is presented for the simulation of dense recombining divertor plasmas. This model includes ions, electrons, and neutral atoms which undergo Coulomb collisions, electron impact ionization, ion endash neutral elastic collisions, three-body and radiative recombination, and neutral endash neutral collisions. The advanced fully implicit solution algorithm is briefly described and a variety of results on a model geometry are presented. It is shown that interesting neutral flow patterns can exist and that these flows can convect significant energy. A solution that ignores neutral endash neutral collisions is shown to be quantitatively different from one that includes neutral endash neutral collisions. Solutions are also shown to be sensitive to the plasma opacity for Lyman α radiation. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Neutral heavy lepton production in e+-e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, C.

    1977-01-01

    The cross-sections of the weak production of different kinds of neutral heavy leptons in e + -e - collisions are calculated and their signatures are studied. A possible electromagnetic production of neutral heavy leptons is also considered

  12. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-01

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented

  13. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  14. A General Nonlinear Fluid Model for Reacting Plasma-Neutral Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E T; Shumlak, U

    2012-04-06

    A generalized, computationally tractable fluid model for capturing the effects of neutral particles in plasmas is derived. The model derivation begins with Boltzmann equations for singly charged ions, electrons, and a single neutral species. Electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange reactions are included. Moments of the reaction collision terms are detailed. Moments of the Boltzmann equations for electron, ion, and neutral species are combined to yield a two-component plasma-neutral fluid model. Separate density, momentum, and energy equations, each including reaction transfer terms, are produced for the plasma and neutral equations. The required closures for the plasma-neutral model are discussed.

  15. Impurity transport in a collision-dominated rotating tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, G.; Liljegren, A.

    1981-04-01

    The flux of heavy impurities is an axisymmetric, toroidal plasma with all particles in the collision-dominated regime is considered. Plasma rotation and charge-exchange with neutrals are taken into account. A hydrodynamic model employing Braginskii's transport equations is used. The theorry is extended to higher collision freqencies as compared to previous treatments. It is found that the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux is significantly reduced as compared to the value given by Rutherford and that it is of the same order of magnitude, or less, than the classical flux in all regimes considered. It is also shown that the impurity flux can be influenced by charge-exchange with neutrals. (author)

  16. Plasma neutralizers for H- or D- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.; Pyle, R.V.; Savas, S.E.; Stalder, K.R.

    1980-10-01

    Plasma neutralizers can produce higher conversion efficiencies than are obtainable with gas neutralizers for the production of high-energy neutral beams from negative hydrogen ions. Little attention has been paid to experimental neutralizer studies because of the more critical problems connected with the development of negative-ion sources. With the prospect of accelerating ampere dc beams from extrapolatable ion sources some time next year, we are re-examining plasma neutralizers. Some basic considerations, two introductory experiments, and a next-step experiment are described

  17. On plasma-neutral gas interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataramani, N.; Mattoo, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of plasma-neutral gas interaction layer has been emphasized by pointing out its application to a wide variety of physical phenomena. The interaction of a magnetised plasma stream penetrating a neutral gas cloud is discussed in the light of Alfven's critical velocity and Varma's threshold velocity on the ionising interaction. Interaction of a moving magnetised plasma with a stationary neutral gas has been studied and described. The device comprises of a plasma gun and an interaction region where neutral gas cloud is injected. The interaction region is provided with a transverse magnetic field of upto 1000 G. Several diagnostics deployed at the interaction region to make measurements on the macroscopic parameters of plasma and neutral gas are described. The parameters of discharge circuits are measured with high current and voltage probes. An interaction between a magnetised plasma stream and a neutral gas cloud is demonstrated. It is shown that this interaction does not have Varma's threshold on their relative velocity. The Alfven's critical velocity phenomenon is shown to depend on the integrated column neutral gas density that a plasma stream encounters while penetrating through it and not on the neutral gas density in the range of 10 17 -10 21 m -3 . (auth.)

  18. Neutral helium spectral lines in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, Banaz; Wierling, August; Roepke, Gerd; Guenter, Sibylle

    2006-01-01

    Shift and broadening of isolated neutral helium lines 7281 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 S), 7065 A ring (2 3 P-3 3 S), 6678 A ring (2 1 P-3 1 D), 5048 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 S), 4922 A ring (2 1 P-4 1 D), and 4713 A ring (2 3 P-4 3 S) in a dense plasma are investigated. Based on a quantum statistical theory, the electronic contributions to the shift and width are considered, using the method of thermodynamic Green functions. Dynamic screening of the electron-atom interaction is included. Compared to the width, the electronic shift is more affected by dynamical screening. This effect increases at high density. A cut-off procedure for strong collisions is used. The contribution of the ions is taken into account in a quasi-static approximation, with both the quadratic Stark effect and the quadrupole interaction included. The results for shift and width agree well with the available experimental and theoretical data

  19. Correlations of neutral pions in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peitzmann, T.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Glewing, G.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Claesson, G.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Obenshain, F.E.; Plasil, F.; Soerensen, S.P.; Young, G.R.; Eklund, A.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Idh, J.; Kristiansson, P.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Franz, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Correlations of 4 photons representing neutral pions have been studied in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Data were taken in the WA80 experiment at the CERN-SPS with a 200 A GeV oxygen beam. The π 0 are detected via their decay photons with a high-granularity lead glass array. Special features of interferometry using neutral pions will be discussed. The extracted preliminary parameters for high p T pions emitted near midrapidity in O+Au collisions lead to rather small effective source sizes. (orig.)

  20. Neutralization of H-- in energetic collisions with multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, F.; Benner, M.; Kruedener, S.; Schulze, R.; Meuser, S.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    Employing the crossed-beam technique, we have measured absolute cross sections for neutralization of H -- ions in collisions with multiply charged ions Ne q+ (q≤4) and Ar q+ , Xe q+ (q≤8) at center-of-mass energies ranging from 20 to 200 keV. . . It is found that th cross sections are independent of the target ion species. The data are in excellent agreement with quantum calculations. A universal scaling law for the neutralization cross section is given

  1. Collision effects on propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves in a sub-wavelength plasma slab of partially ionized dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, LI; Zhibin, WANG; Qiuyue, NIE; Xiaogang, WANG; Fanrong, KONG; Zhenyu, WANG

    2018-01-01

    Intensive collisions between electrons and neutral particles in partially ionized plasmas generated in atmospheric/sub-atmospheric pressure environments can sufficiently affect the propagation characteristics of electromagnetic waves, particularly in the sub-wavelength regime. To investigate the collisional effect in such plasmas, we introduce a simplified plasma slab model with a thickness on the order of the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic wave. The scattering matrix method (SMM) is applied to solve the wave equation in the plasma slab with significant nonuniformity. Results show that the collisions between the electrons and the neutral particles, as well as the incident angle and the plasma thickness, can disturb the transmission and reduce reflection significantly.

  2. One-electron capture and target ionization in He+-neutral-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Tolstikhina, I.Yu.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.; Song, M-.Y.; Yoon, J-.S.

    2009-12-01

    One-electron capture and target-ionization cross sections in collisions of He + ions with neutral atoms: He + + A → He + A + and He + + A → He + + A + + e, A = H, He(1s 2 , 1s2s), Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, are calculated and compared with available experimental data over the broad energy range E = 0.1 keV/u - 10 MeV/u of He + ions. The role of the metastable states of neutral helium atoms in such collisions, which are of importance in plasma physics applications, is briefly discussed. The recommended cross section data for these processes are presented in a closed analytical form (nine-order polynomials) which can be used for a plasma modeling and diagnostics. (author)

  3. Using the Pairs of Lines Broadened by Collisions with Neutral and Charged Particles for Gas Temperature Determination of Argon Non-Thermal Plasmas at Atmospheric Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Yubero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The spectroscopic method for gas temperature determination in argon non-thermal plasmas sustained at atmospheric pressure proposed recently by Spectrochimica Acta Part B 129 14 (2017—based on collisional broadening measurements of selected pairs of argon atomic lines, has been applied to other pairs of argon atomic lines, and the discrepancies found in some of these results have been analyzed. For validation purposes, the values of the gas temperature obtained using the different pairs of lines have been compared with the rotational temperatures derived from the OH ro-vibrational bands, using the Boltzmann-plot technique.

  4. Plasma and neutralization effects: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidman, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma working group considered the question of whether an intense heavy ion beam could be transported and accurately focussed across a target chamber radius of approximately 10 m on to a pellet of radius approximately 0.1 cm at the center of the chamber (a typical beam was taken as 3 kA, 40 GeV uranium injected into the reactor vessel with initial beam radius approximately 10 cm). Here we give a brief summary of our considerations. The conclusions were that focussing through relatively dense reactor chamber gases appears to be possible. Instabilities, if they arise, are expected only within the last few 10's of cm from the pellet, by which time they are unlikely to significantly degrade the beam focussing

  5. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  6. Investigating heavy-ion collisions with neutral mesons in the ALICE calorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahlmueller, Baldo [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    One of the main purposes of the LHC is the investigation of the quark-gluon plasma produced in heavy-ion collisions. In order to interpret such measurements, the initial state of such collisions, i.e. the lead nucleus, and its effects on observables such as the modification of hadron transverse momentum spectra have to be understood. This initial state is studied in p-Pb collisions. Furthermore, pp collisions function as baseline measurement for the aforementioned larger systems and are necessary to extract fundamental parameters such as fragmentation functions. The π{sup 0} and η mesons can be measured in electromagnetic calorimeters via their two-photon decays. In the first run of the LHC, ALICE comprised two different calorimeters, PHOS and EMCAL, that offer different advantages and the possibility of two independent measurements of the same observables such as the transverse momentum distribution of neutral mesons. We present the status of ALICE measurements of neutral mesons with the EMCAL and PHOS detectors. The focus is on technical aspects of the analyses and present results from pp and p-Pb collisions. Furthermore, we give an outlook to future measurements in the second LHC run that will start in 2015.

  7. Neutralization mechanisms in He+-Al surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajales, N.; Ferron, J.; Goldberg, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    From a quantum mechanical calculation where the populations of He ground and first excited states are properly taken into account, we can identify for the first time the neutralization to the He first excited state as an operative mechanism in He + -Al surface collisions. This identification allows us to understand the presence of high energy electrons in the ion induced electron emission spectra, through the inclusion of Auger deexcitation as an electron emission source, as well as to suggest a possible cause for the disagreement still found between theory and experiments in low energy ion scattering (LEIS) for this system

  8. Confinement of pure electron plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkery, John W.; Pedersen, Thomas Sunn; Kremer, Jason P.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Lefrancois, Remi G.; Hahn, Michael S.; Brenner, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) [T. S. Pedersen, J. P. Kremer, R. G. Lefrancois, Q. Marksteiner, N. Pomphrey, W. Reiersen, F. Dahlgreen, and X. Sarasola, Fusion Sci. Technol. 50, 372 (2006)] is a stellarator used to study non-neutral plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces. A detailed experimental study of confinement of pure electron plasmas in CNT is described here. Electrons are introduced into the magnetic surfaces by placing a biased thermionic emitter on the magnetic axis. As reported previously, the insulated rods holding this and other emitter filaments contribute to the radial transport by charging up negatively and creating ExB convective transport cells. A model for the rod-driven transport is presented and compared to the measured transport rates under a number of different conditions, finding good agreement. Neutrals also drive transport, and by varying the neutral pressure in the experiment, the effects of rod-driven and neutral-driven transport are separated. The neutral-driven electron loss rate scales linearly with neutral pressure. The neutral driven transport, presumably caused by electron-neutral collisions, is much greater than theoretical estimates for neoclassical diffusion in a classical stellarator with strong radial electric fields. In fact the confinement time is on the order of the electron-neutral collision time. Ion accumulation, electron attachment, and other effects are considered, but do not explain the observed transport rates

  9. Modelling neutral and plasma chemistry with DSMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartel, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is a powerful method for modelling chemically reacting flows. It is a statistical method which simulates the Boltzmann equation by interacting computational particles which represent a large number of a single species type. A statistical problem will occur when trace concentrations are required to be accurately modelled; the traditional strategy is to use more computational particles per cell or simply obtain lower statistics and thus have higher uncertainty for the trace concentrations. A new method, cell based chemistry (CBC), based on an integral balancing concept, allows all chemistry, including trace reactions, to be efficiently modelled in the framework of DSMC. This strategy first separates the collision phase from the reacting phase. Then a strategy is presented which conserves both the collision and reaction frequencies in a consistent manner. The illustrative problem is a chemically reacting glow discharge plasma; the ion concentrations typically are at a 0.1% mole fraction but dominant the physical mechanism of the system. Comparisons will be made to a chlorine plasma in a Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) reference cell with an inductive coil at approximately 20 mtorr system pressure

  10. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.

    1993-01-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs

  11. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...

  12. Effects of neutral gas collisions on the power transmission factor at the divertor sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futch, A.H.; Matthews, G.F.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    We show that charge-exchange and other ion-neutral collision can reduce the power transmission factor of the plasma sheath, thereby lowering the ion impact energy and target plate sputtering. The power transmission factor relates the heat flux reaching the divertor target to the plasma density and temperature just in front of the surface: δ=Q surf /J ew k T e . Experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak suggests that δ could be as low as 2-3 near the region of peak divertor particle flux, instead of the 7-8 expected from usual sheath theory. Several effects combine to allow ion-neutral interactions to be important in the divertor plasma sheath. The shallow angle of incidence of the magnetic field (1-3deg in DIII-D) leads to the spatial extension of the sheath from approximately ρ i ∝1 mm normal to the plate to several centimeters along the field lines. Ionization reduces the sheath potential, and collisions reduce the ion impact energy. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of the plasma start-up in Wendelstein 7-X with neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradic, D.; Dinklage, A.; Brakel, R.; McNeely, P.; Rust, N.; Wolf, R.; Osakabe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma start-up by neutral beam injection was investigated for stellarators. A zero-dimensional collisional model was extended to evaluate the temporal evolution of the plasma start-up in a confining toroidal magnetic field. Inclusion of different beam energy components indicated a substantial effect due to the energy dependence of beam–gas collisions. Additional collision processes and particle equations were considered to simulate the plasma start-up in helium–hydrogen mixtures. The isotope effect between operation with hydrogen and deuterium beams was also investigated. As a major objective the conditions necessary for a plasma start-up with neutral beams in W7-X have been examined. The assessed beam configuration in W7-X was found not to allow plasma start-up by neutral beam injection alone. The model has been validated for experimental data from W7-AS and Large Helical Device. Quantitative predictions of this study show that the ratio of the beam–plasma interaction length and the plasma volume is an essential quantity for the successful plasma start-up with neutral beams. (paper)

  14. Fusion plasma losses due to the charge exchange of injected neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.; Carlson, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The interaction of a neutral beam, consisting of full, half and third energy components, with a mirror plasma is analyzed. The beam-plasma interaction is assumed to occur via ionization and charge exchange collisions. The plasma was approximated as being spherical in shape, having a uniform density, isotropic velocity distribution, and a mirror plasma energy distribution. It was found that to a first approximation, for plasma energies less than 100 keV, the charge exchange power loss (per injected atom) of the half energy component is at least twice that of the full energy component. For the third energy component, the loss is at least three times that of the full energy component. For some plasma conditions, the neutral beam can act as an energy sink for the plasma due to these charge exchange losses. (U.S.)

  15. Excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between dust grains and the formation of dust plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.A.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1998-01-01

    Dust plasma crystals have recently been produced in experiments in a number of laboratories. For dust crystallization to occur, there should exist an efficient mechanism for the cooling of the dust plasma component. It is shown that the excitation of collective plasma modes during collisions between the grains may serve as the required cooling mechanism. The excitation of dust sound waves is found to be most efficient. It is shown that the cooling of dust grains via the excitation of collective plasma modes can be even more efficient than that due to collisions with neutral particles, which was previously considered to be the only mechanism for cooling of the dust plasma component. At present, the first experiments are being carried out to study collisions between individual dust grains. High efficiency of the excitation of plasma modes caused by collisions between dust grains is attributed to the coherent displacement of the plasma particles that shield the grains. it is shown that the excitation efficiency is proportional to the fourth power of the charge of the dust grains and to a large power of their relative velocity, and is independent of their mass. The results obtained can be checked in experiments studying how the binary collisions between dust grains and the pressure of the neutral component influence the dust crystallization

  16. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdanier, William [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Roy, Prabir K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kaganovich, Igor [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  17. Subthreshold Production of Neutral Pions in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The pion production below the threshold at 290 MeV/u (corresponding to the minimum beam velocity at which pions can be produced in nucleon-nucleon collisions) is sensitive to coherent effects in the momentum distribution of the nucleons in the internuclear collision region. Such collective or coherent effects would manifest themselves in an enhancement of the observed cross section with respect to a prediction on the basis of model momentum distributions, e.g. from the Fermi gas model. \\\\ \\\\ With neutral pions such experiments can be extended to rather low energies and rather small cross sections (in the sub-@mb range) due to the fact that the @p|0's leave the composite nuclear system undisturbed by the Coulomb forces and that their decay $\\gamma$ rays can be detected with high efficiency also at very low pion momentum. In our experiments using |1|2C~ions of 60, 74 and 84~MeV/u and |1|80 of 84~MeV/u we were able to clearly sep from background from different sources. The large efficiency of the annular lead gl...

  18. Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.

  19. Confinement of a neutral plasma using nested electric potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    A self-consistent, two-dimensional analysis is presented on confining a region of neutral plasma with a Penning/Malmberg type plasma trap using a nested well configuration. It is found that a neutral plasma region having disparate electron and ion temperatures or having high charge state ions can be confined with static fields. For confining a neutral region comprised of electrons and equal temperature low charge state ions, a quasistatic approach appears promising. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  1. Attenuation of acoustic waves through reflections at the plasma neutral gas interfaces: weakly ionised case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, S.K.; Sen, S.N.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of transmission of sonic waves through a weakly ionised plasma bounded in each side by a neutral gas medium has been treated by assuming the plasma to be a mixture of two intermingled fluids viz., neutral particle fluid and ion fluid in equilibrium. From a hydrodynamic analysis the wave equation for 'p', the macroscopic pressure perturbation has been obtained and it is shown that two independent wave motions, one due to the neutral particles and the other due to ions are propagated through the plasma with two different phase velocities. Assuming the usual boundary conditions at the interface, the amplitude of the transmitted wave has been calculated in case of weakly ionized plasma; the theory can be utilized for the determination of electron temperature from the measured value of attenuation if the percentage of ionization and collision cross section can be obtained independently. (author)

  2. Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru

  3. First observations of partially neutralized and quasineutral plasmas in the Columbia Non-neutral Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasola, Xabier; Brenner, Paul; Hahn, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    The Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) is the first stellarator devoted to the study of pure electron, partially neutralized and positron-electron plasmas. To date, CNT usually operates with electron rich plasmas (with negligible ion density) [1], but a stellarator can also confine plasmas of arbitrary degree of neutralization. In CNT the accumulation of ions alters the equilibrium of electron plasmas and a global instability has been observed when the ion fraction exceeds 10 %. A characterization of this instability is presented in [2], analyzing its parameter dependence and spatial structure (non- resonant with rational surfaces). A new set of experiments is currently underway studying plasmas of arbitrary degree of neutralization, ranging from pure electron to quasineutral plasmas. Basic observations show that the plasma potential decouples from emitter bias when we increase the degree of the neutralization of our plasmas. Partially neutralized plasmas are also characterized by multiple mode behavior with dominant modes between 20 and 200 kHz. When the plasma becomes quasineutral, it reverts to single mode behavior. The first results on partially neutralized plasmas confined on magnetic surfaces will be presented. [1] J. Kremer, PRL 97, (2006) 095003 [2] Q. Marksteiner, PRL 100 (2008) 065002

  4. Ion heating due to rotation and collision in magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderegg, F.; Stern, R.A.; Skiff, F.; Hammel, B.A.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kohler, P.

    1986-01-01

    The E x B rotation and associated collisional ion heating of noble-gas magnetized plasmas are investigated with high resolution by means of laser-induced fluorescence and electrical probes. Plasma rotation results from a radial potential gradient which can be controlled by biasing of the discharge electrodes. The time and space evolution of the potential, the rotation velocity v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/, and the ion perpendicular temperature indicate that heating is due to the randomization of v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/ by ion-neutral collisions, and leads to temperature increases as high as a factor of 50 over initial values

  5. Atomic collisions in fusion plasmas involving multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzborn, E.

    1980-01-01

    A short survey is given on atomic collisions involving multiply charged ions. The basic features of charge transfer processes in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions relevant to fusion plasmas are discussed. (author)

  6. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H - , H 0 and H + projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically

  7. Electron-hole collision limited transport in charge-neutral bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Youngwoo; Ki, Dong-Keun; Soler-Delgado, David; Morpurgo, Alberto F.

    2017-12-01

    Ballistic transport occurs whenever electrons propagate without collisions deflecting their trajectory. It is normally observed in conductors with a negligible concentration of impurities, at low temperature, to avoid electron-phonon scattering. Here, we use suspended bilayer graphene devices to reveal a new regime, in which ballistic transport is not limited by scattering with phonons or impurities, but by electron-hole collisions. The phenomenon manifests itself in a negative four-terminal resistance that becomes visible when the density of holes (electrons) is suppressed by gate-shifting the Fermi level in the conduction (valence) band, above the thermal energy. For smaller densities, transport is diffusive, and the measured conductivity is reproduced quantitatively, with no fitting parameters, by including electron-hole scattering as the only process causing velocity relaxation. Experiments on a trilayer device show that the phenomenon is robust and that transport at charge neutrality is governed by the same physics. Our results provide a textbook illustration of a transport regime that had not been observed previously and clarify the nature of conduction through charge-neutral graphene under conditions in which carrier density inhomogeneity is immaterial. They also demonstrate that transport can be limited by a fully electronic mechanism, originating from the same microscopic processes that govern the physics of Dirac-like plasmas.

  8. Effect of neutral atoms on tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, T.; Catto, Peter J.; Helander, P.

    2001-01-01

    Neutral atoms can significantly influence the physics of tokamak edge plasmas, e.g., by affecting the radial electric field and plasma flow there, which may, in turn, be important for plasma confinement. Earlier work [Fueloep et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 3969 (1998)], assuming short mean-free path neutrals and Pfirsch-Schlueter ions, has shown that the ion-neutral coupling through charge-exchange affects the neoclassical flow velocity significantly. However, the mean-free path of the neutrals is not always small in comparison with the radial scale length of densities and temperatures in the edge pedestal. It is therefore desirable to determine what happens in the limit when the neutral mean-free path is comparable with the scale length. In the present work a self-similar solution for the neutral distribution function allowing for strong temperature and density variation is used, following the analysis of Helander and Krasheninnikov [Phys. Plasmas 3, 226 (1995)]. The self-similar solution is possible if the ratio of the mean-free path to the temperature and density scale length is constant throughout the edge plasma. The resulting neutral distribution function is used to investigate the neutral effects on the ion flow and electrostatic potential as this ratio varies from much less than one to order unity

  9. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

    1988-06-01

    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  10. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrysøe, A. S.; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul

    2018-03-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms are included in a four-field drift-fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the last-closed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation to be self-consistently maintained due to ionization of neutrals in the confined region.

  11. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  12. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar{sup +} beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ∼5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  13. Reduction effect of neutral density on the excitation of turbulent drift waves in a linear magnetized plasma with flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitou, Y.; Yonesu, A.; Shinohara, S.; Ignatenko, M. V.; Kasuya, N.; Kawaguchi, M.; Terasaka, K.; Nishijima, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawai, Y.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Azumi, M.; Itoh, K.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of reducing the neutral density to reach strong drift wave turbulence is clarified from the results of the extended magnetohydrodynamics and Monte Carlo simulations in a linear magnetized plasma. An upper bound of the neutral density relating to the ion-neutral collision frequency for the excitation of drift wave instability is shown, and the necessary flow velocity to excite this instability is also estimated from the neutral distributions. Measurements of the Mach number and the electron density distributions using Mach probe in the large mirror device (LMD) of Kyushu University [S. Shinohara et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 37, 1015 (1995)] are reported as well. The obtained results show a controllability of the neutral density and provide the basis for neutral density reduction and a possibility to excite strong drift wave turbulence in the LMD

  14. Production of neutral pions Pb+Au collisions at 158 AGeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soualah, Rachik

    2009-06-24

    The direct photons are a particularly useful probe to search for an evidence of the Quark-Gluon Plasma formation in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Direct photons can be extracted experimentally by measuring the large background from {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} meson decays. This thesis work represents the production of the neutral pion mesons measured with the CERES/NA45 experiment at the top SPS energy in 158 AGeV/c Pb-Au collisions. The {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} (98.8%) is the decay channel used in the reconstruction scheme. The {pi}{sup 0} measurement is based on the data taken in the year 2000. The CERES experiment can measure the photons that convert shortly before the TPC by measuring the e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs in the TPC. The RICH2 mirror is the main converter used for this analysis. The presented analysis method describes in more details the selection of the e{sup +} and e{sup -} tracks using only the TPC information to reconstruct the converted photon. A Secondary vertex technique was developed and used to select the photons converted in the RICH2 mirror area. The extraction of the {pi}{sup 0} needs a careful study of the combinatorial background determined using the mixed event technique. The obtained invariant mass distribution of the two photons defined well the {pi}{sup 0} peak. The neutral pion transverse spectra compared to phenomenological models and other experiments validate our analysis method. (orig.)

  15. Plasma heating with multi-MeV neutral atom beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Eubank, H.P.

    1981-10-01

    We explore the utility and feasibility of neutral beams of greater than or equal to 6 AMU formed from negative ions, and also of D 0 formed from D - . The negative ions would be accelerated to approx. 1 to 2 MeV/AMU and neutralized, whereupon the neutral atoms would be used to heat and, perhaps, to drive current in magnetically confined plasmas. Such beams appear feasible and offer the promise of significant advantages relative to conventional neutral beams based on positive deuterium ions at approx. 150 keV

  16. Two dimensional neutral transport analysis in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Azumi, Masafumi

    1987-02-01

    Neutral particle influences the particle and energy balance, and play an important role on sputtering impurity and the charge exchange loss of neutral beam injection. In order to study neutral particle behaviour including the effects of asymmetric source and divertor configuration, the two dimensional neutral transport code has been developed using the Monte-Carlo techniques. This code includes the calculation of the H α radiation intensity based on the collisional-radiation model. The particle confinement time of the joule heated plasma in JT-60 tokamak is evaluated by comparing the calculated H α radiation intensity with the experimental data. The effect of the equilibrium on the neutral density profile in high-β plasma is also investigated. (author)

  17. Sawtooth stability in neutral beam heated plasmas in TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, I.T.; Pinches, S. D.; Koslowski, H. R.; Liang, Y.; Kramer-Flecken, A.; De Bock, M.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental sawtooth behaviour in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas in TEXTOR is described. It is found that the sawtooth period is minimized with a low NBI power oriented in the same direction as the plasma current. As the beam power is increased in the opposite direction to the

  18. Experimental investigation of plasma-neutralized operation of a gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, D.A.; Sullivan, C.; Gold, S.H.; Manheimer, W.M.; Levush, B.; Antonsen, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present plans and preliminary results of an experiment to investigate the effects of a neutralizing background plasma on the operation of a gyrotron oscillator. Previous experiments operating without a neutralizing background plasma achieved output powers P = 100 - 250MW at a frequency f = 35 GHz, with beam voltages in the range V = 0.60 - 1.35MV, and beam currents I = 1 -3kA. A completely ionized plasma is injected into a gyrotron interaction region from an upstream array of plasma guns. The peak plasma density available from the plasma guns exceeds n p > 10 13 cm -3 . The plasma density is measured by 70 GHz microwave interferometry and Langmuir probes. A high current electron beam from a field emission electron gun enters the plasma-filled gyrotron cavity from the upstream side. The density of the neutralizing plasma is varied by changing the delay between the firing of plasma guns and the VEBA accelerator. The authors present measurements of the transmitted electron beam current. Subsequent design of a gyrotron oscillator which utilizes the enhanced capabilities are presented

  19. Active neutral particle diagnostics for high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies related to active neutral particle diagnostics in the JT-60 tokamak. Detection efficiencies of a micro-channel plate (MCP), which has widely used in plasma diagnostics, were determined for ions and neutrals. Multi-step processes for a neutral beam is predicted to enhance the beam stopping cross section in a plasma. In order to confirm the predictions, shine-through for a hydrogen and for a helium beam was measured in the JT-60 ohmic plasmas. The measurements for a hydrogen beam resulted in the cross sectional enhancement in the beam stopping. The same experiment using a helium beam indicated that the cross sectional enhancement for helium was much smaller than that for hydrogen at almost same plasma parameters. Ion temperature diagnostic using active beam scattering was developed in data processing technique, in consideration of the device function of a neutral particle analyzer and in estimation of the effect of beam ion component. Fundamental experiments for detecting helium ions in a plasma were performed using two-electron transfer reaction between a helium atomic beam and helium ions, and the energy distribution and the density of the helium ions were determined. These experiments demonstrated promise of the two-electron transfer reaction as an alpha ash detection in a burning plasma. A parasitic neutral efflux accompanied by active beam injection was investigated. (J.P.N.)

  20. Neutral and plasma shielding model for pellet ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Milora, S.L.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1987-10-01

    The neutral gas shielding model for ablation of frozen hydrogenic pellets is extended to include the effects of an initial Maxwelliam distribution of incident electron energies; a cold plasma shield outside the neutral shield and extended along the magnetic field; energetic neutral beam ions and alpha particles; and self-limiting electron ablation in the collisionless plasma limit. Including the full electron distribution increases ablation, but adding the cold ionized shield reduces ablation; the net effect is a modest reduction in pellet penetration compared with the monoenergetic electron neutral shielding model with no plasma shield. Unlike electrons, fast ions can enter the neutral shield directly without passing through the cold ionized shield because their gyro-orbits are typically larger than the diameter of the cold plasma tube. Fast alpha particles should not enhance the ablation rate unless their population exceeds that expected from local classical thermalization. Fast beam ions, however, may enhance ablation in the plasma periphery if their population is high enough. Self-limiting ablation in the collisionless limit leads to a temporary distortion of the original plasma electron Maxwellian distribution function through preferential depopulation of the higher-energy electrons. 23 refs., 9 figs

  1. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  2. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  3. Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1971-08-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs

  4. Collisional Thermalization in Strongly Coupled Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    calculated collisions rates in a strongly coupled plasma. From Bannasch et al., PRL 109, 185008 (2012). DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public...applicability to other plasmas.) We use a Green- Kubo relation to extract the diffusion constant from our measurements of the relaxation towards...strongly coupled systems. Our measurements (data symbols) agree with numerical calculations (solid lines) from J. Daligault, PRL 108, 225004 (2012

  5. Modelling of neutral particle transport in divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakizuka, Tomonori; Shimizu, Katsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the modelling of neutral particle transport in the diverter plasma was described in the paper. The characteristic properties of divertor plasma were largely affected by interaction between neutral particles and divertor plasma. Accordingly, the behavior of neutral particle should be investigated quantitatively. Moreover, plasma and neutral gas should be traced consistently in the plasma simulation. There are Monte Carlo modelling and the neutral gas fluid modelling as the transport modelling. The former need long calculation time, but it is able to make the physical process modelling. A ultra-large parallel computer is good for the former. In spite of proposing some kinds of models, the latter has not been established. At the view point of reducing calculation time, a work station is good for the simulation of the latter, although some physical problems have not been solved. On the Monte Carlo method particle modelling, reducing the calculation time and introducing the interaction of particles are important subjects to develop 'the evolutional Monte Carlo Method'. To reduce the calculation time, two new methods: 'Implicit Monte Carlo method' and 'Free-and Diffusive-Motion Hybrid Monte-Carlo method' have been developing. (S.Y.)

  6. Precise measurements of neutral gas temperature using Fiber Bragg Grating sensor in Argon capacitively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daoman; Liu, Zigeng; Liu, Yongxin; Peng, Wei; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    Neutral gas temperature was measured using Fiber Bragg Grating sensor (FBGs) in capacitively coupled argon plasmas. Thermometry is based on the thermal equilibrium between the sensor and neutral gases, which is found to become faster with increasing pressure. It is also observed that the neutral gas temperature is higher than the room temperature by 10 120 °depending on the experiental conditions, and gas temperature shows significant non-uniformity in space. In addition, radial profiles of neutral temperature at different pressures, resemble these of ion density, obtained by a floating double probe. Specifically, at low pressure, neutral gas temperature and ion density peak at the center of the reactor, while the peak appears at the edge of the electrode at higher pressure. The neutral gas heating is mainly caused by the elastic collisions of Ar + with neutral gas atoms in the sheath region after Ar + gaining a certain energy. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (Grants No. 11335004, 11405018, and 61137005).

  7. Spectroscopic and electron-ion collision data for plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.; Marchand, R.; Tawara, H.; Vainshtein, L.; Wiese, W.

    1992-01-01

    This Working Group Report briefly reviews and summarizes the available spectroscopic and electron-ion collision data for plasma impurities. Included are lithium, neon, and argon, which, although they are not plasma impurities per se, are introduced into the plasma through the application of diagnostic techniques. 32 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  9. Multipole traps for non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiouririne, T.N.; Turner, L.; Lau, A.W.C.

    1994-01-01

    A multipolar generalization of the Penning trap is presented. The case of l=1 is that of standard Penning trap. For the case of a quadrupolar magnetic field, analytic solutions are presented for cold, confined, one-species plasmas with spheroidal or spherical boundaries; for higher l values analytic solutions are given only for spherically bounded plasmas. By virtue of the sheared flow present for solutions with l>1, the classical Brillouin ratio (stored rest energy of particles/stored magnetic energy) of unity is exceeded and attains a global limit of 2 at infinitely high l

  10. Two-fluid (plasma-neutral) Extended-MHD simulations of spheromak configurations in the HIT-SI experiment with PSI-Tet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, D. A.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2017-10-01

    A self-consistent, two-fluid (plasma-neutral) dynamic neutral model has been implemented into the 3-D, Extended-MHD code PSI-Tet. A monatomic, hydrogenic neutral fluid reacts with a plasma fluid through elastic scattering collisions and three inelastic collision reactions: electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge-exchange. Density, momentum, and energy are evolved for both the plasma and neutral species. The implemented plasma-neutral model in PSI-Tet is being used to simulate decaying spheromak configurations in the HIT-SI experimental geometry, which is being compare to two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence measurements (TALIF) made on the HIT-SI3 experiment. TALIF is used to measure the absolute density and temperature of monatomic deuterium atoms. Neutral densities on the order of 1015 m-3 and neutral temperatures between 0.6-1.7 eV were measured towards the end of decay of spheromak configurations with initial toroidal currents between 10-12 kA. Validation results between TALIF measurements and PSI-Tet simulations with the implemented dynamic neutral model will be presented. Additionally, preliminary dynamic neutral simulations of the HIT-SI/HIT-SI3 spheromak plasmas sustained with inductive helicity injection will be presented. Lastly, potential benefits of an expansion of the two-fluid model into a multi-fluid model that includes multiple neutral species and tracking of charge states will be discussed.

  11. RF Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, P. C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2003-10-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 - 100 times the ion beam density and at a length 0.1-0.5 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 0-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures 10-5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10-4 - 10-1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 cm-3 have been achieved. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10-6 Torr range with densities of 10^11 cm-3. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with NTX and is being used in the experiments. The plasma is approximately 10 cm in length in the direction of the beam propagation. Modifications to the source will be presented that increase its length in the direction of beam propagation.

  12. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grant Logan, Larry B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage (∼8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO 3 source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5x10 10 cm -3 density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios ∼120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high-energy-density physics applications.

  13. Measurement of neutral mesons in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at mid-rapidity with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Morreale, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    One of the key signatures of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is the modification of hadron transverse momentum differential cross-sections in heavy-ion collisions (HIC) as compared to proton-proton (pp) collisions. Suppression of hadron production at high transverse momenta (\\pt)~in HIC has been explained by the energy loss of the partons produced in the hard scattering processes which traverse the deconfined quantum chromodynamic (QCD) matter. The dependence of the observed suppression on the \\pt~ of the measured hadron towards higher \\pt~ is an important input for the theoretical understanding of jet quenching effects in the QGP and the nature of the energy loss. The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) performs measurements of neutral meson inclusive spectra at mid-rapidity in a wide \\pt~ range in $pp$, $p$-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. Neutral mesons ($\\pi^{0}$, $\\eta$, $\\omega$) are reconstructed via complementary methods, using the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters, PHOS and EMCal, and by the c...

  14. Measurement of neutral pions with the ALICE PHOS in pp-collisions at √(s) = 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflitsch, Svenja [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The ALICE-experiment at the LHC is dedicated to study the properties of the Quark-Gluon-Plasma by means of heavy-ion-collisions. Hadronic spectra in pp-collisions at the same energy establish a vital baseline for the understanding of hadron-production. In this context the measurement of neutral pions via the two-photon decay channel provides a complementary analysis to the measurement of charged pions. The PHOS is one of the two electromagnetic calorimeters of ALICE, consisting of PbWO{sub 4} crystals. The reconstruction method of the decay-photons and the large signal-to-background ratio in pp collisions lead to a high statistics measurement across a large p{sub T} range. We present the status of the analysis of neutral pions based on LHC Run 1 data at √(s)=8 TeV. Details of the analysis such as peak extraction and the resulting spectra are discussed. This includes acceptance and reconstruction efficiencies derived from Monte-Carlo simulations as well as a comparison with an independent parallel analysis.

  15. Coarse Grained Transport Model for Neutrals in Turbulent SOL Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marandet, Y.; Mekkaoui, A.; Genesio, P.; Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R., E-mail: yannick.marandet@univ-amu.fr [PIIM, CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P. [IEK4, FZJ, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices exhibit strong intermittent turbulence, which governs perpendicular transport of particles and heat. Turbulent fluxes result from the coarse graining procedure used to derive the transport equation, which entails time averaging of the underlying equations governing the turbulent evolution of the electron and ion fluids. In previous works, we have pointed out that this averaging is not carried out on the Boltzmann equation that describes the transport of neutral particles (atoms, molecules) in current edge code suites (such as SOLPS). Since fluctuations in the far SOL are of order unity, calculating the transport of neutral particles, hence the source terms in plasma fluid equations, in the average plasma background might lead to misleading results. In particular, retaining the effects of fluctuations could affect the estimation of the importance of main chamber recycling, hence first wall sputtering by charge exchange atoms, as well as main chamber impurity contamination and transport. In this contribution, we obtain an exact coarse-grained equation for the average neutral density, assuming that density fluctuations are described by multivariate Gamma statistics. This equation is a scattering free Boltzmann equation, where the ionization rate has been renormalized to account for fluctuations. The coarse grained transport model for neutrals has been implemented in the EIRENE code, and applications in 2D geometry with ITER relevant plasma parameters are presented. Our results open the way for the implementation of the effects of turbulent fluctuations on the transport of neutral particles in coupled plasma/neutral edge codes like B2-EIRENE. (author)

  16. Hybrid Simulations of Plasma-Neutral-Dust Interactions at Enceladus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidi, N.; Russell, C. T.; Jia, Y. D.; Tokar, R. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Leisner, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Through ejection from its southern hemisphere, Enceladus is a dominant source of neutral gas and dust in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The interaction of the corotating plasma with the gas and dust modifies the plasma environment around Enceladus. We use 3-D hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) simulations to examine the effects of gas and dust on the nature of the interaction region and use Cassini observations to constrain their properties.

  17. Dynamics of particles accelerated by head-on collisions of two magnetized plasma shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2018-02-01

    A kinetic model of the head-on collision of two magnetized plasma shocks is analyzed theoretically and in numerical calculations. When two plasmas with anti-parallel magnetic fields collide, they generate magnetic reconnection and form a motional electric field at the front of the collision region. This field accelerates the particles sandwiched between both shock fronts to extremely high energy. As they accelerate, the particles are bent by the transverse magnetic field crossing the magnetic neutral sheet, and their energy gains are reduced. In the numerical calculations, the dynamics of many test particles were modeled through the relativistic equations of motion. The attainable energy gain was obtained by multiplying three parameters: the propagation speed of the shock, the magnitude of the magnetic field, and the acceleration time of the test particle. This mechanism for generating high-energy particles is applicable over a wide range of spatial scales, from laboratory to interstellar plasmas.

  18. Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Verheest

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.

  19. Toroidal magnetic confinement of non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho; Ogawa, Yuichi; Morikawa, Junji; Himura, Haruhiko; Kondo, Shigeo; Nakashima, Chihiro; Kakuno, Shuichi; Iqbal, Muhamad; Volponi, Francesco; Shibayama, Norihisa; Tahara, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    A new method of toroidal non-neutral plasma trap has been developed with applying the chaos-induced radial transport of particles near a magnetic null point. A pure electron plasma is produced by injecting an electron beam. The poloidal gyroradius of an electron at the energy of 1 keV is of order 10 mm, which determines the length scale of the chaotic region. Amongst various applications of toroidal non-neutral plasmas, a possibility of producing very high-β plasma, which is suitable for advanced fusion, has been examined. The self-electric field of a non-neutral plasma can generate a strong shear flow. When the flow velocity is comparable to the Alfven speed (which is smaller than the ion sound speed, if β>1), a high-β equilibrium can be produced in which the plasma pressure is primarily balanced by the dynamic pressure of the flow. This configuration is described by a generalized Bernoulli law

  20. Electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-06-01

    The electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bemsstranhlung process are investigated in warm Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by the electron-electron collisions with the effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstranhlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index, and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase of the plasma temperature. (author)

  1. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  2. Effects of neutrals on plasma rotation in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Hinton, F.L.; Kim, J.; Garbet, X.; Groebner, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Friction due to charge exchange with cold neutral atoms in the edge is investigated as a candidate to govern the poloidal rotation in the edge of a tokamak plasma. The Hirshman and Sigmar neoclassical moment approach is used to determine the rotation velocities of the main plasma ions and of one impurity species, when charge exchange friction is included. It is found that the poloidal rotation of the main plasma ions is controlled by charge exchange friction with neutrals. The impurity ion poloidal rotation is governed by the balance between the impurity viscous force and the main-ion-impurity-ion friction force. The results of the calculation are compared with the measurements obtained in the edge of a DIII-D high (H) mode plasma, using charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy. It is found that the measured main ion poloidal rotation can be accurately predicted by the neoclassical theory including the effect of neutrals, assuming a neutral density n > = 3 x 10 17 m -3 at the separatrix, decreasing exponentially inside the plasma with an e-folding length of 0.012 m, and peaking near the X point region with a poloidal peaking parameter y ≡ n > 2 >/ n B 2 > = 1.5. However, for the impurity ions, the neoclassical theory including a single impurity charge state, and regardless of the effect of the neutrals, gives a prediction that has the correct sign, but whose value is a factor of 5 or 6 different from the experimental value. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  3. Collision integral and equilibrium distributions for a bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnij, A.G.; Usenko, A.S.; Yakimenko, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    A kinetic equation of Balesku-Lennard type for multicomponent system of charged particle limited by two flat-parallel surfaces is derived on the basis of the general theory of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma. Equilibrium values of collision integral for a plasma with arbitrary configuration boundaries are calculated and general ratios describing charged particles density profiles in such systems are obtained

  4. Application of diffusion theory to neutral atom transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Conn, R.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1986-05-01

    It is found that energy dependent diffusion theory provides excellent accuracy in the modelling of transport of neutral atoms in fusion plasmas. Two reasons in particular explain the good accuracy. First, while the plasma is optically thick for low energy neutrals, it is optically thin for high energy neutrals and diffusion theory with Marshak boundary conditions gives accurate results for an optically thin medium even for small values of 'c', the ratio of the scattering to the total cross section. Second, the effective value of 'c' at low energy becomes very close to one due to the down-scattering via collisions of high energy neutrals. The first reason is proven both computationally and theoretically by solving the transport equation in a power series in 'c' and the diffusion equation with 'general' Marshak boundary conditions. The second reason is established numerically by comparing the results from a one-dimensional, general geometry, multigroup diffusion theory code, written for this purpose, with the results obtained using the transport code ANISN

  5. Application of diffusion theory to neutral atom transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Conn, R.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1987-01-01

    It is found that the energy dependent diffusion theory provides excellent accuracy in the modelling of transport of neutral atoms in fusion plasmas. Two reasons in particular explain the good accuracy. First, while the plasma is optically thick for low energy neutrals, it is optically thin for high energy neutrals and the diffusion theory with Marshak boundary conditions gives accurate results for an optically thin medium, even for small values of c, the ratio of the scattering cross-section to the total cross-section. Second, the effective value of c at low energy is very close to 1 because of the downscattering via collisions of high energy neutrals. The first reason is proven computationally and theoretically by solving the transport equation in a power series in c and solving the diffusion equation with 'general' Marshak boundary conditions. The second reason is established numerically by comparing the results from a one-dimensional, general geometry, multigroup diffusion theory code, written for this purpose, with the results obtained using the transport code ANISN. Earlier studies comparing one-speed diffusion and transport theory indicated that the diffusion theory would be inaccurate. A detailed analysis shows that this conclusion is limited to a very specific case. Surprisingly, for a very wide range of conditions and when energy dependence is included, the diffusion theory is highly accurate. (author)

  6. Divertor, thermonuclear device and method of neutralizing high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    The thermonuclear device comprises a thermonuclear reactor for taking place fusion reactions to emit fusion plasmas, and a divertor made of a hydrogen occluding material, and the divertor is disposed at a position being in contact with the fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction. The divertor is heated by fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction, and hydrogen is released from the hydrogen occluding material as a constituent material. A gas blanket is formed by the released hydrogen to cool and neutralize the supplied high temperature nuclear fusion plasmas. This prevents the high temperature plasmas from hitting against the divertor, elimination of the divertor by melting and evaporation, and solve a problem of processing a divertor activated by neutrons. In addition, it is possible to utilize hydrogen isotopes of fuels effectively and remove unnecessary helium. Inflow of impurities from out of the system can also be prevented. (N.H.)

  7. On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daligault, Jérôme, E-mail: daligaul@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.

  8. On the quantum Landau collision operator and electron collisions in dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligault, Jérôme

    2016-03-01

    The quantum Landau collision operator, which extends the widely used Landau/Fokker-Planck collision operator to include quantum statistical effects, is discussed. The quantum extension can serve as a reference model for including electron collisions in non-equilibrium dense plasmas, in which the quantum nature of electrons cannot be neglected. In this paper, the properties of the Landau collision operator that have been useful in traditional plasma kinetic theory and plasma transport theory are extended to the quantum case. We outline basic properties in connection with the conservation laws, the H-theorem, and the global and local equilibrium distributions. We discuss the Fokker-Planck form of the operator in terms of three potentials that extend the usual two Rosenbluth potentials. We establish practical closed-form expressions for these potentials under local thermal equilibrium conditions in terms of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein integrals. We study the properties of linearized quantum Landau operator, and extend two popular approximations used in plasma physics to include collisions in kinetic simulations. We apply the quantum Landau operator to the classic test-particle problem to illustrate the physical effects embodied in the quantum extension. We present useful closed-form expressions for the electron-ion momentum and energy transfer rates. Throughout the paper, similarities and differences between the quantum and classical Landau collision operators are emphasized.

  9. Neutral Pion Production in Proton+Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV and Insight into Hadron Production Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Satoshi

    High transverse momentum particles play an important role for investigation of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions. When high transverse momentum partons traverse the QGP, they lose their energy. Consequently, the yield of high transverse momentum hadron is suppressed relative to proton+proton collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (jet quenching). The phenomenon is expected to give us much information about properties of QGP. Thus far, almost all models consider only parton energy loss during passing through. However, the perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) predicts the direct hadron production (the higher-twist effect). If hadrons produced by this mechanism exist, the hadron energy loss should be considered additionally. For checking if there is the higher-twist effect, investigation of hadron production in proton+proton collisions is suitable. The invariant differential cross sections for inclusive neutral pion at midrapidity are measured in p...

  10. Beams of fast neutral atoms and molecules in low-pressure gas-discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metel, A. S., E-mail: ametel@stankin.ru [Moscow State University of Technology ' Stankin,' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Fast neutral atom and molecule beams have been studied, the beams being produced in a vacuum chamber at nitrogen, argon, or helium pressure of 0.1-10 Pa due to charge-exchange collisions of ions accelerated in the sheath between the glow discharge plasma and a negative grid immersed therein. From a flat grid, two broad beams of molecules with continuous distribution of their energy from zero up to e(U + U{sub c}) (where U is voltage between the grid and the vacuum chamber and U{sub c} is cathode fall of the discharge) are propagating in opposite directions. The beam propagating from the concave surface of a 0.2-m-diameter grid is focused within a 10-mm-diameter spot on the target surface. When a 0.2-m-diameter 0.2-m-high cylindrical grid covered by end disks and composed of parallel 1.5-mm-diameter knitting needles spaced by 4.5 mm is immersed in the plasma, the accelerated ions pass through the gaps between the needles, turn inside the grid into fast atoms or molecules, and escape from the grid through the gaps on its opposite side. The Doppler shift of spectral lines allows for measuring the fast atom energy, which corresponds to the potential difference between the plasma inside the chamber and the plasma produced as a result of charge-exchange collisions inside the cylindrical grid.

  11. Revised neutral gas shielding model for pellet ablation - combined neutral and plasma shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Schuresko, D.D.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The ablation and penetration of pellets in early ORMAK and ISX-A experiments were reliably predicted by the neutral gas shielding model of Milora and Foster. These experiments demonstrated that the principle components of the model - a self-generated shield which reduces the heat flux at the plasma surface - were correct. In more recent experiments with higher temperature plasmas, this model consistently predicts greater penetration than observed in the experiments. Upgarding known limitations of the original model brings the predicted and observed penetration values into agreement. These improvements include: (1) treating the incident electrons as having distribution in energy rather than being monoenergetic; (2) including the shielding effects of cold, dense plasma extending along the magnetic field outside the neutral shield; and (3) modifying the finite plasma, self-limiting incident heat flux so that it represents a collisionless plasma limit rather than a collisional limit. Comparisons are made between the models for a selection of ISX-B Alcator-C, and TFTR shots. The net effect of the changes in the model is an increase in pellet ablation rates and decrease in penetration for current and future experiments

  12. Plasma-neutral gas interaction in a tokamak divertor: effects of hydrogen molecules and plasma recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Soboleva, T.K.; Sigmar, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the influence of hydrogen molecules on plasma recombination using a collisional-radiative model for multispecies hydrogen plasmas and tokamak detached divertor parameters. The rate constant found for molecular activated recombination of a plasma can be as high as 2 x 10 -10 cm 3 /s, confirming our pervious estimates. We investigate the effects of hydrogen molecules and plasma recombination on self-consistent plasma-neutral gas interactions in the recycling region of a tokamak divertor. We treat the plasma flow in a fluid approximation retaining the effects of plasma recombination and employing a Knudsen neutral transport model for a 'gas box' divertor geometry. For the model of plasma-neutral interactions we employ we find: (a) molecular activated recombination is a dominant channel of divertor plasma recombination; and (b) plasma recombination is a key element leading to a decrease in the plasma flux onto the target and substantial plasma pressure drop which are the main features of detached divertor regimes. (orig.)

  13. Review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Janev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations, the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye–Hückel (Yukawa-type potential, characterized by the Debye screening length. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations have been carried out in the past few decades on the plasma screening effects on the electronic structure of atoms and their collision processes employing the Debye–Hückel screening model. The present article aims at providing a comprehensive review of the recent studies in atomic physics in Debye plasmas. Specifically, the work on atomic electronic structure, photon excitation and ionization, electron/positron impact excitation and ionization, and excitation, ionization and charge transfer of ion-atom/ion collisions will be reviewed.

  14. Sheet Fluorescence and Annular Analysis of Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.; Gao, H.; Killian, T. C.

    2009-01-01

    Annular analysis of fluorescence imaging measurements on Ultracold Neutral Plasmas (UNPs) is demonstrated. Spatially-resolved fluorescence imaging of the strontium ions produces a spectrum that is Doppler-broadened due to the thermal ion velocity and shifted due to the ion expansion velocity. The fluorescence excitation beam is spatially narrowed into a sheet, allowing for localized analysis of ion temperatures within a volume of the plasma with small density variation. Annular analysis of fluorescence images permits an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio compared to previous fluorescence measurements done in strontium UNPs. Using this technique and analysis, plasma ion temperatures are measured and shown to display characteristics of plasmas with strong coupling such as disorder induced heating and kinetic energy oscillations.

  15. Modeling of neutral beam ion loss from CHS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.; Isobe, Mitsutaka; Sasao, Mamiko; Kondo, T.

    2000-01-01

    Beam ion loss measurements from Compact Helical System (CHS) plasmas under a variety of conditions show a strong loss of ions in the range of pitch angles corresponding to transition orbits at the probe location. A numerical model has been developed which includes the beam ion orbits, and details of the detector, plasma, vessel, and neutral beam geometry. From this, the expected classical (i.e. collisionless single particle orbit) signal at the detector can be computed. Preliminary comparisons between the experimental data and model predictions indicate that the classical behavior of the orbits and the machine geometry are insufficient to explain the observations. (author)

  16. Rutherford scattering of neutral atoms: a technique for measuring plasma ion temperatures. An analysis of the applicability to the central cell plasma of TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granneman, E.H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rutherford scattering of neutral particles by plasma ions is examined as a method for determining plasma ion in the central cell fo the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). When a scattering configuration, consisting of a 20-keV-, 10-A-deuterium neutral beam and an energy analyzer with a 1% resolution, is arranged such that only neutral particles scattered by plasma ions over an angle of 10 0 are accepted, central-cell ion temperatures in the 30- to 1000-eV range can be measured. The count rate registered by the detector(s) is estimated to be 2000 counts/ms. Consequently, good statistical accuracy and time resolution are attainable simultaneously. The results of the calculation are presented such that the scaling of the count rates and the energy broadening with scattering angle, neutral-beam energy, ion temperature, and plasma density can easily be deduced. Neutral helium beams are also considered; they have some advantages over deuterium beams. The background signal, caused by neutral particles entering the detector after two successive charge-exchange collisions, is examined and ways to completely eliminate this background are indicated

  17. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  18. Quasi-neutral limit for a model of viscous plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Zhang, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 197, č. 1 (2010), s. 271-295 ISSN 0003-9527 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0315 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Navier-Stokes- Poisson system * quasi-neutral limit * viscous plasma Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.277, year: 2010 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00205-010-0317-7

  19. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies

  20. Stationary spectra in a quasi neutral current-carrying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    The low-frequency short-wave equilibrium spectra of electromagnetic fluctuations are obtained, accounting for cross-field correlations. The statistical analysis shows that a longitudinal current in a dense quasi neutral (α e ≡4πnomec 2 /Bo 2 >>1) plasma destroys the stationary of fluctuation spectra corresponding to zero fluxes of motion invariants, and may alter also the anomalous electron heat conductivity. 2 refs. (author)

  1. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for Edge Plasma Analysis in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castracane, J.

    2001-01-04

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe (HNBP) developed initially with DOE funding under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program was installed on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) at the CCFM. This diagnostic was designed to perform fundamental measurements of edge plasma properties. The hardware was capable of measuring electron density and potential profiles with high spatial and temporal resolution. Fluctuation spectra for these parameters were obtained with HNBP for transport studies.

  2. Accelerated procedure to solve kinetic equation for neutral atoms in a hot plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2017-12-01

    The recombination of plasma charged components, electrons and ions of hydrogen isotopes, on the wall of a fusion reactor is a source of neutral molecules and atoms, recycling back into the plasma volume. Here neutral species participate, in particular, in charge-exchange (c-x) collisions with the plasma ions and, as a result, atoms of high energies with chaotically directed velocities are generated. Some fraction of these hot atoms hit the wall. Statistical Monte Carlo methods normally used to model c-x atoms are too time consuming for reasonably small level of accident errors and extensive parameter studies are problematic. By applying pass method to evaluate integrals from functions, including the ion velocity distribution, an iteration approach to solve one-dimensional kinetic equation [1], being alternative to Monte Carlo procedure, has been tremendously accelerated, at least by a factor of 30-50 [2]. Here this approach is developed further to solve the 2-D kinetic equation, applied to model the transport of c-x atoms in the vicinity of an opening in the wall, e.g., the entrance of the duct guiding to a diagnostic installation. This is necessary to determine firmly the energy spectrum of c-x atoms penetrating into the duct and to assess the erosion of the installation there. The results of kinetic modeling are compared with those obtained with the diffusion description for c-x atoms, being strictly relevant under plasma conditions of low temperature and high density, where the mean free path length between c-x collisions is much smaller than that till the atom ionization by electrons. It is demonstrated that the previous calculations [3], done with the diffusion approximation for c-x atoms, overestimate the erosion rate of Mo mirrors in a reactor by a factor of 3 compared to the result of the present kinetic study.

  3. Transition probability of the 5971-A line in neutral uranium from collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Mongeau, B.; Demers, Y.; Pianarosa, P.

    1981-01-01

    From collision-induced fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, we have determined the transition probability Aof the 5971-A transition in neutral uranium. Our value, A 5971 = (5.9 +- 1.8) x 10 5 sec -1 , is, within experimental error, in good agreement with the previous determination of Corliss, A 5971 = (7.3 +- 3.0) x 10 5 sec -1 [J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80,1 (1976)

  4. Electron and molecular ion collisions relevant to divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, H.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of the multi-channel quantum defect theory (MQDT) and show the outline of the MQDT newly extended to include the dissociative states. We investigate some molecular processes relevant to the divertor plasma by using the MQDT: the dissociative recombination, dissociative excitation, and rotation-vibrational transition in the hydrogen molecular ion and electron collisions. (author)

  5. Plasma/neutral gas transport in divertors and limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.

    1983-09-01

    The engineering design of the divertor and first wall region of fusion reactors requires accurate knowledge of the energies and particle fluxes striking these surfaces. Simple calculations indicate that approx. 10 MW/m 2 heat fluxes and approx. 1 cm/yr erosion rates are possible, but there remain fundamental physics questions that bear directly on the engineering design. The purpose of this study was to treat hydrogen plasma and neutral gas transport in divertors and pumped limiters in sufficient detail to answer some of the questions as to the actual conditions that will be expected in fusion reactors. This was accomplished in four parts: (1) a review of relevant atomic processes to establish the dominant interactions and their data base; (2) a steady-state coupled O-D model of the plasma core, scrape-off layer and divertor exhaust to determine gross modes of operation and edge conditions; (3) a 1-D kinetic transport model to investigate the case of collisionless divertor exhaust, including non-Maxwellian ions and neutral atoms, highly collisional electrons, and a self-consistent electric field; and (4) a 3-D Monte Carlo treatment of neutral transport to correctly account for geometric effects

  6. Application of the Faddeev-Watson expansion to thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Prunele, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Faddeev-Watson expansion (FWE) for the T operator is applied to the study of thermal collisions between Rydberg atom and neutral atom. These collisions are considered as a three-body problem (the perturber, the Rydberg electron, and its parent core) and it is assumed, as already done in most theoretical works dealing with Rydberg-atom--atom collisions, that the core-perturber interaction can be neglected. Then the evaluation of the FWE first- and second-order terms is made tractable by using an appropriate separable potential for the Rydberg-electron--perturber interaction. The evaluation of the second-order term allows us to estimate the importance of taking into account explicitly the Rydberg-electron--core interaction in the expression of the (three-body) T operator for the thermal collisions considered. Detailed calculations for the process Rb(n, l = 0)+He →Rb(n',l')+He are presented and discussed. The FWE second-order term has been evaluated for the first time by taking the (two-body) t operator associated with the Rydberg atom (valence electron plus parent core) as the Coulomb potential. The contribution of the FWE second-order term to the scattering amplitude decreases as n increases and is found especially significant when both the momentum transfers involved in the collision are large and the values of l and l' are small

  7. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for edge plasma analysis in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Neutral Beam Probe project presented in this document is part of an international collaboration in magnetic confinement fusion energy research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research (Confinement Systems Division) and the Centre Canadian de Fusion Magnetique. The overall objective of the effort is to apply a neutral particle beam to the study of edge plasma dynamics in discharges on the Tokamak de Varennes facility in Montreal, Canada. To achieve this goal, a research and development project was started in December, 1990 to produce the necessary hardware to make such measurements and meet the scheduling requirements of the program. At present, satisfactory progress has been achieved. The ion gun is fully operational with the neutralizer in the final assembly stage in preparation for testing. The beam diagnostics have been completed and mounted in the computer automated test stand. The analyzer design and detailed trajectory calculations are nearing completion to allow for the vacuum interface construction. The CAMAC based data acquisition system hardware was integrated into the test stand. Part of this hardware is a component of the Tokamak de Varennes' contribution to the collaboration. Next steps on the critical path include the beginning of the neutralization tests and the start of the analyzer construction. Anticipated installation of the diagnostic on the tokamak is Spring 1992

  8. On coupling fluid plasma and kinetic neutral physics models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The coupled fluid plasma and kinetic neutral physics equations are analyzed through theory and simulation of benchmark cases. It is shown that coupling methods that do not treat the coupling rates implicitly are restricted to short time steps for stability. Fast charge exchange, ionization and recombination coupling rates exist, even after constraining the solution by requiring that the neutrals are at equilibrium. For explicit coupling, the present implementation of Monte Carlo correlated sampling techniques does not allow for complete convergence in slab geometry. For the benchmark case, residuals decay with particle number and increase with grid size, indicating that they scale in a manner that is similar to the theoretical prediction for nonlinear bias error. Progress is reported on implementation of a fully implicit Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov coupling scheme. The present block Jacobi preconditioning method is still sensitive to time step and methods that better precondition the coupled system are under investigation.

  9. Plasma heating by injection of neutral beams into TFR 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results from quasi-perpendicular high power (up to 1.2 MW) neutral beam injection in the TFR 600 tokamak are reported. The trapped fast ions show all the characteristics of a classical feature. This allows us to study the behaviour of a dense plasma (n approximately equal to 10 14 cm -3 ) whose electron and ion temperatures are significantly changed by fast neutrals injection (ΔTsub(e,i)>300 eV). No increase of the global energy confinement time has been observed, but at low q value a large increase of internal disruptions appears. This fact permits to partly enlighten the internal disruptions mechanism and to emphasize their importance. 1-D simulation calculations are also reported; changes in the electron and ion heat conduction, necessary to explain most of the experimental results observed during the internal disruptions will be discussed

  10. The effects of particle recycling on the divertor plasma: A particle-in-cell with Monte Carlo collision simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingyu; Sang, Chaofeng; Sun, Zhenyue; Hu, Wanpeng; Wang, Dezhen

    2018-05-01

    A Particle-In-Cell (PIC) with Monte Carlo Collision (MCC) model is applied to study the effects of particle recycling on divertor plasma in the present work. The simulation domain is the scrape-off layer of the tokamak in one-dimension along the magnetic field line. At the divertor plate, the reflected deuterium atoms (D) and thermally released deuterium molecules (D2) are considered. The collisions between the plasma particles (e and D+) and recycled neutral particles (D and D2) are described by the MCC method. It is found that the recycled neutral particles have a great impact on divertor plasma. The effects of different collisions on the plasma are simulated and discussed. Moreover, the impacts of target materials on the plasma are simulated by comparing the divertor with Carbon (C) and Tungsten (W) targets. The simulation results show that the energy and momentum losses of the C target are larger than those of the W target in the divertor region even without considering the impurity particles, whereas the W target has a more remarkable influence on the core plasma.

  11. Dynamic plasma screening effects on atomic collisions in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young-Dae Jung

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on electron-ion collisional excitation and Coulomb Bremsstrahlung processes in dense plasmas. The electron-ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. The straight-ling trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is found to be always greater than that including the static plasma screening effects. It is found that the differential Bremsstrahlung radiation cross section including the dynamic plasma screening effect is also greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. However, when the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, the interaction potential is almost unshielded

  12. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, T.; Itagaki, H.; Numasawa, H.; Terashima, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Hirose, A. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  13. A compact and continuously driven supersonic plasma and neutral source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Itagaki, H; Numasawa, H; Terashima, Y; Hirano, Y; Hirose, A

    2010-10-01

    A compact and repetitively driven plasma source has been developed by utilizing a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) for diagnostics requiring deep penetration of a large amount of neutral flux. The system consists of a MCPG 95mm in length with a DN16 ConFlat connection port and an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power unit. The power supply consists of an array of eight IGBT units and is able to switch the discharge on and off at up to 10 kV and 600 A with a maximum repetitive frequency of 10 kHz. Multiple short duration discharge pulses maximize acceleration efficiency of the plasmoid. In the case of a 10 kHz operating frequency, helium-plasmoids in the velocity range of 20 km/s can be achieved.

  14. Fragmentation of neutral carbon clusters formed by high velocity atomic collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinet, G.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the fragmentation of small neutral carbon clusters formed by high velocity atomic collision on atomic gas. In this experiment, the main way of deexcitation of neutral clusters formed by electron capture with ionic species is the fragmentation. To measure the channels of fragmentation, a new detection tool based on shape analysis of current pulse delivered by semiconductor detectors has been developed. For the first time, all branching ratios of neutral carbon clusters are measured in an unambiguous way for clusters size up to 10 atoms. The measurements have been compared to a statistical model in microcanonical ensemble (Microcanonical Metropolis Monte Carlo). In this model, various structural properties of carbon clusters are required. These data have been calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT-B3LYP) to find the geometries of the clusters and then with Coupled Clusters (CCSD(T)) formalism to obtain dissociation energies and other quantities needed to compute fragmentation calculations. The experimental branching ratios have been compared to the fragmentation model which has allowed to find an energy distribution deposited in the collision. Finally, specific cluster effect has been found namely a large population of excited states. This behaviour is completely different of the atomic carbon case for which the electron capture in the ground states predominates. (author)

  15. Binary collision rates of relativistic thermal plasmas. I Theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermer, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Binary collision rates for arbitrary scattering cross sections are derived in the case of a beam of particles interacting with a Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) plasma, or in the case of two MB plasmas interacting at generally different temperatures. The expressions are valid for all beam energies and plasma temperatures, from the nonrelativistic to the extreme relativistic limits. The calculated quantities include the reaction rate, the energy exchange rate, and the average rate of change of the squared transverse momentum component of a monoenergetic particle beam as a result of scatterings with particles of a MB plasma. Results are specialized to elastic scattering processes, two-temperature reaction rates, or the cold plasma limit, reproducing previous work.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Induced Sterilization and Chemical Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garate, Eusebio; Evans, Kirk; Gornostaeva, Olga; Alexeff, Igor; Lock Kang, Weng; Wood, Thomas K.

    1998-11-01

    We are studying chemical neutralization and surface decontamination using atmospheric pressure plasma discharges. The plasma is produced by corona discharge from an array of pins and a ground plane. The array is constructed so that various gases, like argon or helium, can be flowed past the pins where the discharge is initiated. The pin array can be biased using either DC, AC or pulsed discharges. Results indicate that the atmospheric plasma is effective in sterilizing surfaces with biological contaminants like E-coli and bacillus subtilus cells. Exposure times of less than four minutes in an air plasma result in a decrease in live colony counts by six orders of magnitude. Greater exposure times result in a decrease of live colony counts of up to ten orders of magnitude. The atmospheric pressure discharge is also effective in decomposing organic phosphate compounds that are simulants for chemical warfare agents. Details of the decomposition chemistry, by-product formation, and electrical energy consumption of the system will be discussed.

  17. Propagation and collision of soliton rings in quantum semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shamy, E.F.; Gohman, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    The intrinsic localization of electrostatic wave energies in quantum semiconductor plasmas can be described by solitary pulses. The collision properties of these pulses are investigated. In the present study, the fundamental model includes the quantum term, degenerate pressure of the plasma species, and the electron/hole exchange–correlation effects. In cylindrical geometry, using the extended Poincaré–Lighthill–Kuo (PLK) method, the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equations and the analytical phase shifts after the collision of two soliton rings are derived. Typical values for GaSb and GaN semiconductors are used to estimate the basic features of soliton rings. It is found that the pulses of GaSb semiconductor carry more energies than the pulses of GaN semiconductor. In addition, the degenerate pressure terms of electrons and holes have strong impact on the phase shift. The present theory may be useful to analyze the collision of localized coherent electrostatic waves in quantum semiconductor plasmas. - Highlights: • The propagation and the collision of pulses in quantum semiconductor plasmas are studied. • Numerical calculations reveal that pulses may exist only in dark soliton rings for electron–hole quantum plasmas. • Typical values for GaSb and GaN semiconductors are used to estimate the basic features of soliton rings. • It is found that the pulses of GaSb semiconductor carry more energies than the pulses of GaN semiconductor. • The degenerate pressure terms of electrons and holes have strong impact on the phase shift

  18. Heavy Neutral Beam Probe for edge plasma analysis in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castracane, J.; Saravia, E.; Beckstead, J.; Aceto, S.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of this report present the progress achieved to date on the Heavy Neutral Beam Probe project. This effort is an international collaboration in magnetic confinement fusion energy research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research (Confinement Systems Division) and the Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique (CCFM). The overall objective of the effort is to develop and apply a neutral particle beam to the study of edge plasma dynamics in discharges on the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) facility in Montreal, Canada. To achieve this goal, a research and development project was established to produce the necessary hardware to make such measurements and meet the scheduling requirements of the program. At present the project is in the middle of its second budget period with the instrumentation on-site at TdeV. The first half of this budget period was used to complete total system tests at InterScience, Inc., dismantle and ship the hardware to TdeV, re-assemble and install the HNBP on the tokamak. Integration of the diagnostic into the TdeV facility has progressed to the point of first beam production and measurement on the plasma. At this time, the HNBP system is undergoing final de-bugging prior to re-start of machine operation in early Fall of this year

  19. Velocity limitation of a neutral dust cloud colliding with a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1986-08-01

    The problem is considered of a cloud of neutral dust which moves into a cloud of static plasma which is confined in a magnetic field. Earlier experiments and theoretical analysis on critical velocity limitation by plasma-wall interaction suggest that such limitation also arises in the case of plasma-neutral dust interaction. Nevertheless further analysis is required to provide a full and clear picture of the interaction between plasma and neutral gas on one hand and plasma and neutral dust on the other. (author)

  20. Influence of continuously-varing profile on the diocotron instability in a non neutral plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgary, H. R.; Maraghehechi, Behrooz; Rafii, Mahboobeh

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the theoretical method related to density profile effect on diocotron instability in nonrelativistic state in non neutral plasma column. At first we introduce non neutral plasma and diocotron instability then we extract instability equation and we will investigate plasma stability with special profile density

  1. SOLPS-ITER Study of neutral leakage and drift effects on the alcator C-Mod divertor plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dekeyser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of an effort to validate the edge plasma model in the SOLPS-ITER code suite under ITER-relevant divertor plasma and neutral conditions, we report on progress in the modeling of the Alcator C-Mod divertor plasma with the new code. We perform simulations with a complete drifts model and kinetic neutrals, including effects of neutral viscosity, ion-molecule collisions and Lyα-opaque conditions, but assuming a pure deuterium plasma. Through a series of simulations with varying divertor geometries, we show the importance of including neutal leakage paths through the divertor substructure on the divertor plasma solution. Moreover, the impact of drifts on inner-outer target asymmetries is assessed. Including both effects, we achieve excellent agreement between simulations and upstream and outer target Langmuir Probe data. In absence of strong volumetric losses due to e.g. impurity radiation in our simulations, the strong inner target detachment observed experimentally remains elusive in our modeling at present.

  2. On Coulomb collisions in bi-Maxwellian plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 5 (2009), 054501/1-054501/4 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517; CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : Coulomb collisions * transport coefficients * bi-Maxwellian distribution function Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.475, year: 2009 http://link.aip.org/link/?PHPAEN/16/054501/1

  3. Improved elastic collision modeling in DEGAS 2 for low-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzleiter, Randall J.; Stotler, Daren P.; Karney, Charles F. F.; Steiner, Don

    2000-01-01

    Recent emphasis on low-temperature divertor operations has focused attention on proper treatment of neutral-elastic collisions in low-temperature environments. For like species collisions, as in D + +D, quantum mechanical indistinguishability precludes differentiation of small-angle elastic scattering from resonant charge exchange for collision energies + +D 2 are included for the first time. An integration technique is utilized that reduces the total collision cross section while keeping the other transport cross sections invariant. The inclusion of ion-molecular elastic collisions results in significant increases in energy exchange between background ions and neutral test species

  4. Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D. P.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. H.; Lang, J.; Park, G.

    2012-08-29

    A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of the neutral gas depletion effect in a helicon discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollasch, Jeffrey; Schmitz, Oliver; Norval, Ryan; Reiter, Detlev; Sovinec, Carl

    2016-10-01

    Helicon discharges provide an attractive radio-frequency driven regime for plasma, but neutral-particle dynamics present a challenge to extending performance. A neutral gas depletion effect occurs when neutrals in the plasma core are not replenished at a sufficient rate to sustain a higher plasma density. The Monte Carlo neutral particle tracking code EIRENE was setup for the MARIA helicon experiment at UW Madison to study its neutral particle dynamics. Prescribed plasma temperature and density profiles similar to those in the MARIA device are used in EIRENE to investigate the main causes of the neutral gas depletion effect. The most dominant plasma-neutral interactions are included so far, namely electron impact ionization of neutrals, charge exchange interactions of neutrals with plasma ions, and recycling at the wall. Parameter scans show how the neutral depletion effect depends on parameters such as Knudsen number, plasma density and temperature, and gas-surface interaction accommodation coefficients. Results are compared to similar analytic studies in the low Knudsen number limit. Plans to incorporate a similar Monte Carlo neutral model into a larger helicon modeling framework are discussed. This work is funded by the NSF CAREER Award PHY-1455210.

  6. A collision model in plasma particle simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yanyun; Chang Wenwei; Yin Yan; Yue Zongwu; Cao Lihua; Liu Daqing

    2000-01-01

    In order to offset the collisional effects reduced by using finite-size particles, β particle clouds are used in particle simulation codes (β is the ratio of charge or mass of modeling particles to real ones). The method of impulse approximation (strait line orbit approximation) is used to analyze the scattering cross section of β particle clouds plasmas. The authors can obtain the relation of the value of a and β and scattering cross section (a is the radius of β particle cloud). By using this relation the authors can determine the value of a and β so that the collisional effects of the modeling system is correspondent with the real one. The authors can also adjust the values of a and β so that the authors can enhance or reduce the collisional effects fictitiously. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the theoretical ones

  7. First search for exotic Z Boson decays into photons and neutral pions in hadron collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Bae, T; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Bland, K R; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Butti, P; Buzatu, A; Calamba, A; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Canelli, F; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Clark, A; Clarke, C; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Cremonesi, M; Cruz, D; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; D'Errico, M; Devoto, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, M; Driutti, A; Ebina, K; Edgar, R; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, S; Esham, B; Farrington, S; Fernández Ramos, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Frisch, H; Funakoshi, Y; Galloni, C; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González López, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gramellini, E; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Hahn, S R; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harrington-Taber, T; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hocker, A; Hong, Z; Hopkins, W; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kambeitz, M; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kasmi, A; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S H; Kim, S B; Kim, Y J; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirby, M; Knoepfel, K; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Laasanen, A T; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lannon, K; Latino, G; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Limosani, A; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Liu, H; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lucà, A; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maestro, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Marchese, L; Margaroli, F; Marino, P; Martínez, M; Matera, K; Mattson, M E; Mazzacane, A; Mazzanti, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Noh, S Y; Norniella, O; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Palni, P; Papadimitriou, V; Parker, W; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poprocki, S; Potamianos, K; Pranko, A; Prokoshin, F; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Ranjan, N; Redondo Fernández, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodriguez, T; Rolli, S; Ronzani, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Sakumoto, W K; Sakurai, Y; Santi, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scuri, F; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sforza, F; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shreyber-Tecker, I; Simonenko, A; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Song, H; Sorin, V; St Denis, R; Stancari, M; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Sudo, Y; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Takemasa, K; Takeuchi, Y; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thomson, E; Thukral, V; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Trovato, M; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vernieri, C; Vidal, M; Vilar, R; Vizán, J; Vogel, M; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Waters, D; Wester Iii, W C; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wilbur, S; Williams, H H; Wilson, J S; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wu, Z; Yamamoto, K; Yamato, D; Yang, T; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W-M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Zanetti, A M; Zeng, Y; Zhou, C; Zucchelli, S

    2014-03-21

    A search for forbidden and exotic Z boson decays in the diphoton mass spectrum is presented for the first time in hadron collisions, based on data corresponding to 10.0 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity from proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF experiment. No evidence of signal is observed, and 95% credibility level Bayesian upper limits are set on the branching ratios of decays of the Z boson to a photon and neutral pion (which is detected as a photon), a pair of photons, and a pair of neutral pions. The observed branching ratio limits are 2.01 × 10(-5) for Z → π(0)γ, 1.46 × 10(-5) for Z → γγ, and 1.52 × 10(-5) for Z → π(0)π(0). The Z → π(0)γ and Z → γγ limits improve the most stringent results from other experiments by factors of 2.6 and 3.6, respectively. The Z → π(0)π(0) branching ratio limit is the first experimental result on this decay.

  8. Macroscopic cross sections for analyzing the transport of neutral particles in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tadakazu; Taji, Yuukichi; Nakahara, Yasuaki

    1975-05-01

    Algorithms have been developed for calculating the ionization and charge exchange cross sections required for analyzing the neutral transport in plasmas. In our algorithms, the integration of the expression for reaction rate of neutrals with plasmas is performed by expanding the integrand with the use of polynomials. At present, multi-energy-group sets of the cross sections depending on plasma temperature and energy of neutrals can be prepared by means of Maxwellian averages over energy. Calculational results are printed out in the FIDO format. Some numerical examples are given for several forms of spatial distributions assumed for the plasma ion temperature and source neutral energy. (auth.)

  9. Numerical simulation of neutral particle evolution in the plasma of a Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, C.; Werkoff, F.

    1976-11-01

    A numerical code previously described is used to simulate the evolution of neutral particles in a cylindrical plasma. The influence of the incoming neutral energy on their repartition inside the plasma is briefly studied. The flux of the neutrals emitted by the plasma and hitting the wall is given as a function of the energy. The effect of various plasma parameters on the apparent value of the ion temperature obtained by analyzing the emitted neutral spectrum in a given direction is also studied [fr

  10. Negative ion based neutral beams for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1978-01-01

    Neutral beam systems based on negative ions have been considered because of a high expected power efficiency. Methods for the production, acceleration and neutralization of negative ions will be reviewed and possibilities for an application in neutral beam lines explored

  11. Development of neutral beam source using electron beam excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya; Hara, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    A low-energy neutral beam (NB) source, which consists of an electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) source and two carbon electrodes, has been developed for damageless etching of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) devices. It has been confirmed that the Ar ion beam energy was controlled by the acceleration voltage and the beam profile had good uniformity over the diameter of 80 mm. Dry etching of a Si wafer at the floating potential has been carried out by Ar NB. Si sputtering yield by an Ar NB clearly depends on the acceleration voltage. This result shows that the NB has been generated through the charge exchange reaction from the ion beam in the process chamber. (author)

  12. Numerical calculation of axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.; Rasband, S.N.; Vanfleet, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Efficient techniques for computing axisymmetric non-neutral plasma equilibria are described. These equilibria may be obtained either by requiring global thermal equilibrium, by specifying the midplane radial density profile, or by specifying the radial profile of ∫n dz. Both splines and finite-differences are used, and the accuracy of the two is compared by using a new characterization of the thermal equilibrium density profile which gives a simple formula for estimating the radial and axial gradient scale lengths of thermal equilibria. It is found that for global thermal equilibrium 1% accuracy is achieved with splines if the distance between neighboring splines is about two Debye lengths while finite differences require a grid spacing of about one-half Debye length to achieve the same accuracy

  13. DOUBLE code simulations of emissivities of fast neutrals for different plasma observation view-lines of neutral particle analyzers on the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitosinkova, K.; Tomes, M.; Stockel, J.; Varju, J.; Stano, M.

    2018-03-01

    Neutral particle analyzers (NPA) measure line-integrated energy spectra of fast neutral atoms escaping the tokamak plasma, which are a product of charge-exchange (CX) collisions of plasma ions with background neutrals. They can observe variations in the ion temperature T i of non-thermal fast ions created by additional plasma heating. However, the plasma column which a fast atom has to pass through must be sufficiently short in comparison with the fast atom’s mean-free-path. Tokamak COMPASS is currently equipped with one NPA installed at a tangential mid-plane port. This orientation is optimal for observing non-thermal fast ions. However, in this configuration the signal at energies useful for T i derivation is lost in noise due to the too long fast atoms’ trajectories. Thus, a second NPA is planned to be connected for the purpose of measuring T i. We analyzed different possible view-lines (perpendicular mid-plane, tangential mid-plane, and top view) for the second NPA using the DOUBLE Monte-Carlo code and compared the results with the performance of the present NPA with tangential orientation. The DOUBLE code provides fast-atoms’ emissivity functions along the NPA view-line. The position of the median of these emissivity functions is related to the location from where the measured signal originates. Further, we compared the difference between the real central T i used as a DOUBLE code input and the T iCX derived from the exponential decay of simulated energy spectra. The advantages and disadvantages of each NPA location are discussed.

  14. ORNL neutral gas shielding model for pellet-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L; Foster, C.A.

    1977-05-01

    A revised neutral molecule ablation model is derived to describe the evaporation of a solid hydrogen pellet in a tokamak plasma. The approach taken is based on the theory of Parks, Turnbull, and Foster who postulate that a cloud of molecular hydrogen surrounding the pellet shields the surface from incoming energetic electrons and, in so doing, regulates the evaporation rate. This treatment differs from an earlier model in that the hydrodynamic behavior of the molecular cloud is treated in a self-consistent manner. Numerical solutions of the fluid dynamic equations, which include the effects of strong electron heating locally in the gas, reveal that the flow of material away from the pellet is initially retarded by the heating and then rapidly accelerated and rarefied. This behavior is more pronounced for higher temperature plasmas and the net effect is that pellet lifetimes are prolonged slightly by including the heating effects. A comparison is made with the results of the recent pellet injection experiments on ORMAK and a simple injection depth scaling law is derived

  15. The plasma-wall transition layers in the presence of collisions with a magnetic field parallel to the wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, J.; Faudot, E.; Devaux, S.; Heuraux, S.

    2018-01-01

    The plasma-wall transition is studied by means of a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in the configuration of a parallel to the wall magnetic field (B), with collisions between charged particles vs. neutral atoms taken into account. The investigated system consists of a plasma bounded by two absorbing walls separated by 200 electron Debye lengths (λd). The strength of the magnetic field is chosen such as the ratio λ d / r l , with rl being the electron Larmor radius, is smaller or larger than unity. Collisions are modelled with a simple operator that reorients randomly ion or electron velocity, keeping constant the total kinetic energy of both the neutral atom (target) and the incident charged particle. The PIC simulations show that the plasma-wall transition consists in a quasi-neutral region (pre-sheath), from the center of the plasma towards the walls, where the electric potential or electric field profiles are well described by an ambipolar diffusion model, and in a second region at the vicinity of the walls, called the sheath, where the quasi-neutrality breaks down. In this peculiar geometry of B and for a certain range of the mean-free-path, the sheath is found to be composed of two charged layers: the positive one, close to the walls, and the negative one, towards the plasma and before the neutral pre-sheath. Depending on the amplitude of B, the spatial variation of the electric potential can be non-monotonic and presents a maximum within the sheath region. More generally, the sheath extent as well as the potential drop within the sheath and the pre-sheath is studied with respect to B, the mean-free-path, and the ion and electron temperatures.

  16. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  17. Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Arka [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Kamali, M. Z. M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoshal, Arijit, E-mail: arijit98@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnavelu, K. [Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-15

    The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  18. Experimental study of the pion-xenon nucleus collisions at 3.5 GeV/c. Neutral pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Abrosimov, A.T.; Wosinska, K.; Pawlak, T.; Nluta, J.; Sredniawa, B.; Il'ina, A.N.; Okhrimenko, L.S.; Peryt, W.; Miller, K.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the neutral pion production are performed in pion-xenon collisions at 3.5 GeV/c. It is obtained that: 1) the average neutral pion multiplicity changes with the multiplicity of the protons emitted; 2) nearly 20% of the pions produced are emitted into the backward hemisphere; 3) the energy spectrum of the neutral pions is smooth; 4) the longitudinal component of the neutral pion momentum changes within the limits from -600 MeV/c to +1800 MeV/c; 5) the average value of the transversal component of the neutral pion momentum changes with the multiplicity of the protons emitted from approximately 270 to approximately 170 MeV/c; 6) the average value of the cosine of the neutral pion emission angle decreases with the multiplicity of the protons emitted

  19. Contact discontinuities in a cold collision-free two-beam plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, K. B.; Sonnerup, B. U. O.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of contact discontinuities in a collision-free plasma is examined using a model of a plasma which consists of two oppositely directed cold ion beams and a background of cold massless electrons such that exact charge neutrality is maintained and that the electric field is zero. The basic equations describing self-consistent equilibria are obtained for the more general situation where a net flow across the layer takes place and where the magnetic field has two nonzero tangential components but where the electric field remains zero. These equations are then specialized to the case of no net plasma flow where one of the tangential components is zero, and four different classes of sheets are obtained, all having thickness the order of the ion inertial length. The first class is for layers separating two identical plasma and magnetic field regions, the second is for an infinite array of parallel layers producing an undulated magnetic field, the third is for layers containing trapped ions in closed orbits which separate two vacuum regions with uniform identical magnetic fields, and the fourth is for layers which reflect a single plasma beam, leaving a vacuum with a reversed and compressed tangential field on the other side.

  20. Efficient neutralization of primary isolates by the plasma from HIV-1 infected Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S S; Chaudhary, Alok Kumar; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K; Vajpayee, Madhu; Hazarika, Anjali; Bagga, Barun; Luthra, Kalpana

    2011-10-01

    We tested the plasma of 51 HIV-1-infected children (23 naïve and 28 ART treated) for neutralization against five primary isolates (PIs) generated from adult Indian HIV-1-infected patients. The plasma exhibited neutralization potential with significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers in ART-treated children than naïve children against three out of five PIs (pIndian children.

  1. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklem, P. S.

    2018-02-01

    Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy O+H collisions is studied; it is a problem of importance for modelling stellar spectra and obtaining accurate oxygen abundances in late-type stars including the Sun. The collisions have been studied theoretically using a previously presented method based on an asymptotic two-electron linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system, together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model. The method has been extended to include configurations involving excited states of hydrogen using an estimate for the two-electron transition coupling, but this extension was found to not lead to any remarkably high rates. Rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K, and charge transfer and (de)excitation processes involving the first excited S-states, 4s.5So and 4s.3So, are found to have the highest rates. Data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/vizbin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A57. The data are also available at http://https://github.com/barklem/public-data

  2. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklem, P. S.

    2018-05-01

    Data for inelastic processes due to hydrogen atom collisions with iron are needed for accurate modelling of the iron spectrum in late-type stars. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy Fe+H collisions is studied theoretically using a previously presented method based on an asymptotic two-electron linear combination of atomic orbitals model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system, together with the multi-channel Landau-Zener model. An extensive calculation including 166 covalent states and 25 ionic states is presented and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K. The largest rates are found for charge transfer processes to and from two clusters of states around 6.3 and 6.6 eV excitation, corresponding in both cases to active 4d and 5p electrons undergoing transfer. Excitation and de-excitation processes among these two sets of states are also significant. Full Tables and rate coefficient data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A90

  3. Investigation of Sterilization Mechanism for Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores with Plasma-Excited Neutral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the mechanism of the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals are separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas uses humidified mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores and tyrosine which is amino acid are treated by the plasma-excited neutral gas. Shape change of the treated spore is observed by SEM, and chemical modification of the treated tyrosine is analyzed by HPLC. As a result, the surface of the treated spore shows depression. Hydroxylation and nitration of tyrosine are shown after the treatment. For these reasons, we believe that the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas results from the deformation of spore structure due to the chemical modification of amino acid.

  4. Neutral pion production at midrapidity in pp and Pb–Pb collisions at √ sNN TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The ALICE Collaboration, ALICE Collaboration; Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Agnello, M.; Agostinelli, A.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belmont, R.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Berger, M. E.; Bertens, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371577810; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371578248; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Böhmer, F. V.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070139032; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411885812; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Casula, E. A R; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411888056; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, K.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D’Erasmo, G.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; de Rooij, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315888644; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Di Bari, D.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372618715; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dørheim, S.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Hilden, T. E.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Esposito, M.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J. Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gumbo, M.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Khan, K. H.; Haake, R.; Haaland, I.M.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kadyshevskiy, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530780; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/362845670; Kučera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074064975; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; La Pointe, S. L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080192; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lu, X. G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal’Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohammadi, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369405870; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Okatan, A.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323375618; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Sahoo, P.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palmeri, A.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Pohjoisaho, E. H O; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Rauf, A. W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32823219X; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohni, S.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sánchez Rodríguez, F. J.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J M; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Der Maarel, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412860996; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836737; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wagner, V.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C S; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yang, S.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I. K.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304845035; Zhou, Y.; Zhuo, Zhou; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Invariant yields of neutral pions at midrapidity in the transverse momentum range (Formula presented.)c measured in Pb–Pb collisions at (Formula presented.) TeV are presented for six centrality classes. The pp reference spectrum was measured in the range (Formula presented.)c at the same

  5. Neutral meson production in p-Be and p-Au collisions at 450 GeV beam energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agakichiev, G; Appenheimer, M; Averbeck, R; Ballester, F; Baur, R; Brenschede, A; Diaz, J; Drees, A; Faschingbauer, U; Ferrero, JL; Fraenkel, Z; Franke, M; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glassel, P; Gunzel, T; de los Hero, CP; Hess, F.; Holzmann, R; Irmscher, D; Jacob, C; Kuhn, W; Lenkeit, B; Löhner, H.; Marin, A; Marques, FM; Martinez, G; Metag, [No Value; Notheisen, M; Novotny, R; Olsen, LH; Schon, A; Schukraft, J; Ostendorf, R.; Panebrattsev, Y; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, [No Value; Rehak, P; Sampietro, M; Schutz, Y; Shimansky, S; Shor, A; Simon, RS; Specht, HJ; Steiner, [No Value; Tapprogge, S; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, [No Value; Ullrich, T; Wilschut, H.; Wurm, JP; Yurevich, [No Value

    In a joint experiment the TAPS and CERES collaborations have studied the production of the neutral mesons pi degrees; eta and omega in 450 GeV p-Be and p-Au collisions at the CERN SPS. The mesons were identified by their pi degrees --> gamma gamma, eta --> gamma gamma, and omega --> pi degrees gamma

  6. Basic Properties of Plasma-Neutral Coupling in the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Plasma-neutral coupling (PNC) in the solar atmosphere concerns the effects of collisions between charged and neutral species’. It is most important in the chromosphere, which is the weakly ionized, strongly magnetized region between the weakly ionized, weakly magnetized photosphere and the strongly ionized, strongly magnetized corona. The charged species’ are mainly electrons, protons, and singly charged heavy ions. The neutral species’ are mainly hydrogen and helium. The resistivity due to PNC can be several orders of magnitude larger than the Spitzer resistivity. This enhanced resistivity is confined to the chromosphere, and provides a highly efficient dissipation mechanism unique to the chromosphere. PNC may play an important role in many processes such as heating and acceleration of plasma; wave generation, propagation, and dissipation; magnetic reconnection; maintaining the near force-free state of the corona; and limiting mass flux into the corona. It might play a major role in chromospheric heating, and be responsible for the existence of the chromosphere as a relatively thin layer of plasma that emits a net radiative flux 10-100 times greater than that of the overlying corona. The required heating rate might be generated by Pedersen current dissipation triggered by the rapid increase of magnetization with height in the lower chromosphere, where most of the net radiative flux is emitted. Relatively cool regions of the chromosphere might be regions of minimal Pedersen current dissipation due to smaller magnetic field strength or perpendicular current density. This talk will discuss PNC from an MHD point of view, and focus on the basic parameters that determine its effectiveness. These parameters are ionization fraction, magnetization, and the electric field that drives current perpendicular to the magnetic field. By influencing this current and the electric field that drives it, PNC directly influences the rate at which energy is exchanged between the

  7. A Study of Charge-Exchange Neutrals from a Rotating Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of charge-exchange neutrals leaving a rotating plasma (a puffatron device) are reported. Neutrals are observed only during the breakdown phase (2-3 mu s) indicating that the created plasma is fully ionized. Several energy spectra of the neutrals for different plasma parameters are ob....... Neutral particle measurements at different distances from the puffatron midplane show ionization velocities parallel with the magnetic field of about 2*104 ms-1 and plasma expansion velocities of about 5-6*104 ms-1 corresponding to an electron temperature of about 25 eV.......Measurements of charge-exchange neutrals leaving a rotating plasma (a puffatron device) are reported. Neutrals are observed only during the breakdown phase (2-3 mu s) indicating that the created plasma is fully ionized. Several energy spectra of the neutrals for different plasma parameters...... are obtained. These spectra are grossly explained using a single-particle orbit model of the plasma ions. Assuming a Maxwellian distribution for the spread in the ion Larmor energy for the central part of the measured energy spectra, it is possible to determine the ion energy during the breakdown phase...

  8. Search for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a pair of tau leptons in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Mittag, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2014-10-28

    A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) decaying to tau-lepton pairs in pp collisions is performed, using events recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 24.6 fb$^{-1}$, with 4.9 fb$^{-1}$ at 7 TeV and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at 8 TeV. To enhance the sensitivity to neutral MSSM Higgs bosons, the search includes the case where the Higgs boson is produced in association with a b-quark jet. No excess is observed in the tau-lepton-pair invariant mass spectrum. Exclusion limits are presented in the MSSM parameter space for different benchmark scenarios, $m_\\mathrm{h}^\\text{max}$, $m_\\mathrm{h}^{\\text{mod}+}$, $m_\\mathrm{h}^{\\text{mod}-}$, light-stop, light-stau, $\\tau$-phobic, and low-$m_\\mathrm{H}$. Upper limits on the cross section times branching fraction for gluon fusion and b-quark associated Higgs boson production are also given.

  9. Search for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a pair of tau leptons in pp collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. 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F.; Bernet, C.; Bianchi, G.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O'Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Barfuss, A. F.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2014-10-01

    A search for neutral Higgs bosons in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model (MSSM) decaying to tau-lepton pairs in pp collisions is performed, using events recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The dataset corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 24.6 fb-1, with 4.9 fb-1 at 7 TeV and 19.7 fb-1 at 8 TeV. To enhance the sensitivity to neutral MSSM Higgs bosons, the search includes the case where the Higgs boson is produced in association with a b-quark jet. No excess is observed in the tau-lepton-pair invariant mass spectrum. Exclusion limits are presented in the MSSM parameter space for different benchmark scenarios, m {h/max}, m {h/mod +}, m {h/mod -}, light-stop, light-stau, τ-phobic, and low- m H. Upper limits on the cross section times branching fraction for gluon fusion and b-quark associated Higgs boson production are also given. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Neutral particle transport modeling with a reflective source in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    A reflective source term is incorporated into the Boltzmann neutral particle transport equation to account for boundary reflection. This reflective neutral model is integrated over a uniform axis and subsequently discretized. The discrete two-dimensional equations are solved iteratively with a computer code. The results of the reflective neutral model computer code are benchmarked with the neutral particle transport code ONEDANT. The benchmark process demonstrates the validity of the reflective neutral model. The reflective neutral model is coupled to the Braams plasma particle and energy transport code. The coupled system generates self-consistent plasma edge transport solutions. These solutions, which utilize the transport equation are similar to solutions which utilize simple plasma edge neutral models when high recycle divertors are modeled. In the high recycle mode, the high electron density at the divertor plate reduces the mean free path of plate neutrals. Hence, the similarity in results. It is concluded that simple neutral models are sufficient for the analysis of high recycle power reactor edge plasmas. Low recycle edge plasmas were not examined

  11. On the relation between plasma and neutral gas profiles in a cold gas-blanket system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bures, M.

    1981-01-01

    A solution for the neutral density profile using the measured plasma density and temperature gradients is presented. The fluid model is used. It is found that the penetration length for neutrals is underestimated in the situation where the integrated profiles are used. The ionization rate need not be inferred in the present calculation, because the ionization of neutrals diffusing into the plasma is implicitly included in measured profiles. This calculation is advantageous in the low temperature range where the ionization rate is a strongly varying function of temperature. Finally the presented solution indicates that the temperature gradient plays the essential role in the determination of the neutral density profile. (Auth.)

  12. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  13. Interaction of modulated REB with plasma, formed at its transit through high-density neutral gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Sotnikov, G.V.; Uskov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of investigations of the relativistic electron beam interactions with plasma, created during its penetration into neutral gas of large pressure, are presented. It is shown that by using of deeply modulated beam it is possible to avoid the depressive influence of dissipation and longitudinal nonuniform plasma density on the beam-plasma interaction efficiency

  14. Modeling of the negative ions extraction from a hydrogen plasma source. Application to ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalskyy, S.

    2011-12-01

    The development of a high performance negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in the construction of a Neutral Beam Injector of the future fusion reactor ITER. NI source should deliver 40 A of H - or of D - . To address this problem in a realistic way, a 3D particles-in-cell electrostatic collisional code was developed. Binary collisions between the particles are introduced using Monte-Carlo collision scheme. This code called ONIX was used to investigate the plasma properties and the transport of the charged particles close to a typical extraction aperture. Results obtained from this code are presented in this thesis. They include negative ions and electrons 3D trajectories. The ion and electron current density profiles are shown for different local magnetic field configurations. Results of production, destruction, and transport of H - in the extraction region are also presented. The production of H - is investigated via 3 atomic processes: 1) electron dissociative attachment to the vibrationally excited molecules H 2 (v) in the volume, 2) interaction of the positive ions H + and H 2 + with the aperture wall and 3) collisions of the neutral gas H, H 2 with aperture wall. The influence of each process on the total extracted NI current is discussed. The extraction efficiency of H - from the volume is compared to the one of H - coming from the wall. Moreover, a parametric study of the H - surface production is presented. Results show the role of sheath behavior in the vicinity of the aperture developing a double layer structure responsible of the NI extraction limitations. The 2 following issues are also analysed. First the influence of the external extracted potential value on the formation of negative sheath and secondly the strength of the magnetic filter on the total extracted NI and co-extracted electron current. The suppression of the electron beam by the negative ion produced at the plasma grid wall is also discussed. Results are in good agreement

  15. Multigroup calculations of low-energy neutral transport in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, J.G.; Gralnick, S.L.; Price, W.G. Jr.; Kammash, T.

    1978-01-01

    Multigroup discrete ordinates methods avoid many of the approximations that have been used in previous neutral transport analyses. Of particular interest are the neutral profiles generated as an integral part of larger plasma system simulation codes. To determine the appropriateness of utilizing a particular multigroup code, ANISN, for this purpose, results are compared with the neutral transport module of the Duechs code. For a typical TFTR plasma, predicted neutral densities differ by a maximum factor of three on axis and outfluxes at the plasma boundary by approximately 40%. This is found to be significant for a neutral transport module. Possible sources of the observed discrepancies are indicated from an analysis of the approximations used in the Duechs model. Recommendations are made concerning the future application of the multigroup method. (author)

  16. Recent measurements of low energy charge exchange cross sections for collisions of multicharged ions on neutral atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havener, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    At ORNL Multicharged Ion Research Facility (MIRF), charge exchange (CX) cross sections have been measured for multicharged ions (MCI) on neutral atoms and molecules. The ORNL ion-atom merged-beam apparatus was used to measure single electron capture by MCI from H at eV/amu energies. A gas cell was used to measure single and double electron capture by MCI from a variety of molecular targets at keV collision energies. The merged-beams experiment has been successful in providing benchmark total electron capture measurements for several collision systems with a variety of multicharged ions on H or D

  17. Effect of turbulent collisions on diffusion in stationary plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, H.; Ishihara, O.

    1990-01-01

    Recently the velocity diffusion process was studied by the generalized Langevin equation derived by the projection operator method. The further study shows that the retarded frictional function plays an important role in suppressing particle diffusion in the velocity space in stronger turbulence as much as the resonance broadening effect. The retarded frictional effect, produced by the effective collisions due to the plasma turbulence is assumed to be a Gaussian, but non-Markovian and non-wide-sense stationary process. The relations between the proposed formulation and the extended resonance broadening theory is discussed. The authors also carry out test particle numerical experiment for Langmuir turbulence to test the theories. In a stronger turbulence a deviation of the diffusion rate from the one predicted by both the quasilinear and the extended resonance theories has been observed and is explained qualitatively by the present formulation

  18. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration

  19. Quasi-steady carbon plasma source for neutral beam injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    Carbon plasma is successfully sustained during 1000 s without any carrier gas in the bucket type ionization chamber with cusp magnetic field. Every several seconds, seed plasmas having ∼3 ms duration time are injected into the ionization chamber by a shunting arch plasma gun. The weakly ionized carbon plasma ejected from the shunting arch is also ionized by 2.45 GHz microwave at the electron cyclotron resonance surface and the plasma can be sustained even in the interval of gun discharges. Control of the gun discharge interval allows to keep high pressure and to sustain the plasma for long duration.

  20. Edge plasma diagnostics in the compact helical system (CHS) device using fast neutral lithium beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Mario

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports the research activities of the author on using fast neutral lithium beam edge plasma diagnostic, at the Japanese National Institute for Fusion Science compact helical system (CHS). (author). 20 figs.

  1. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  2. Neutral molecules in tokamak edge plasma - role of vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadez, I.; Cercek, M.; Pelicon, P.; Razpet, A.

    2003-01-01

    The role of neutral molecules in edge plasma is discussed with special emphasis on the vibrationally excited hydrogen. Neutral molecules are formed mostly by surface processes on the walls and then released to the edge plasma where they take part in volumetric reactions with other particles. Typically these molecules are formed in excited states and data are needed for their reactions on the wall and in the volume. Processes in edge plasma determine particle and energy flux what is especially critical issue in tokamak divertor region. Various cross sections and reaction rates are needed for modelling edge plasma and its interaction with walls. (author)

  3. Plasma production and hadronization in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataja, M.

    1990-01-01

    We study the color confinement and hadronization in the thermodynamic limit of the flux tube model, which was recently developed to describe the energy deposition, particle production and the early expansion of plasma in the central region of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. In this purpose, we introduce a concept of an intermediate 'mixed state', which is formed when the original giant flux tube is fragmented into many smaller tubes which contain the plasma and the Abelian color-electric field and which coexist with a dilute hadron gas. This mixed state is an extension of the mixed phase used in the pure hydrodynamic description utilizing the bag equation of state. We study the thermodynamics of this mixed state making use of the bag model and the classical models of color confinement. It appears that in the thermodynamic limit, the mixed state can be considered as a dielectric medium in which the color dielectric constant takes the values between 0 and 1. We also study how the 'equations of electrohydrodynamics', which were formulated in earlier works to describe the evolution of the giant flux tube and plasma, are to be modified due to the dielectric nature of the new transient mixed state. A numeric simulation of a one-dimensional scaling expansion demonstrates the dynamic transition of the system from plasma to hadron phase and the characteristic reheating effect due to this hadronization transition. It is also shown that in the limit of low temperature or large bag constant, this formalism is reduced to the hydrodynamics of hadron gas produced by the fragmentation of multiple strings. (orig.)

  4. Higher order terms of the nonlinear forces in plasmas with collisions at laser interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentwell, G.W.; Hora, H.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation of the general expression of the nonlinear force of laser-plasma interaction showed discrepancies depending on the assumptions of the phase and collisions in the expressions used for E and H. While the first order terms of the derivations are remaining unchanged, new third order terms are found for the case of perpendicular incidence without collisions. With collisions, the additional non-pondermotive terms are derived to be more general than known before. It is then possible to evaluate the forces for oblique incidence with collisions and find an absorption caused force in the plane of the plasma surface. (author)

  5. Study of neutral pions in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{^{s}}NN$= 2.76 TeV with the PHOS detector at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihata, Daiki

    A state of decon ned quarks and gluons, called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), is created in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The ALICE experiment is one of the heavy-ion collider experiments at the LHC to investigate such the new state of mat- ter. Neutral mesons such as 0 that decays into two photons are suitable to study parton energy-loss in the QGP, since they can be identi ed by a ne-segmented elec- tromagnetic calorimeter in a wide p T range. It is quite competitive with respect to other particle identi cation methods. The energy-loss results in a suppression of hadrons yields quanti ed with a nuclear modi cation factor R AA de ned as hadron yields in A-A collisions with respect to those in p-p collisions. Partons created by a hard scattering interacts with the medium and lose energy. This phenomenon modi es hadron yields at a high p T and can be powerful probe to disentangle mechanism of the energy-loss in the QGP.

  6. The populations of excited levels of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions in plasmas traversed by neutral hydrogen beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, J.; Summers, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the populations of levels of impurity ions in a spartially homogeneous plasma containing primarily thermal electrons and protons and monoenergetic neutral hydrogen atoms. Of special concern is the role of recombination which may include the radiative, three-body and dielectronic process together with charge exchange capture from neutral hydrogen beams. The influence of these primary processes on the population is modified by radiative transitions and redistributive transitions due to collisions with electrons and protons in the plasma. The behaviour of the populations of the ions C 5+ , C 4+ and Ar 16+ with variation of plasma parameters is explored in the present work. A bundled principal quantum level picture and a more elaborate LS resolved picture are used which allow investigation of the expected spectral emission and its sensitivity to uncertainty in the primary rates. The variation of the impurity ion spectrum in transiently recombining or ionising conditions is also considered. (orig.)

  7. Plasma and neutral gas jet interactions in the exhaust of a magnetic confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, W.A.

    1990-06-01

    A general purpose 2-1/2 dimensional, multifluid, time dependent computer code has been developed. This flexible tool models the dynamic behavior of plasma/neutral gas interactions in the presence of a magnetic field. The simulation has been used to examine the formation of smoke ring structure in the plasma rocket exhaust by injection of an axial jet of neutral gas. Specifically, the code was applied to the special case of attempting to couple the neutral gas momentum to the plasma in such a manner that plasma smoke rings would form, disconnecting the plasma from the magnetic field. For this scenario several cases where run scanning a wide range of neutral gas input parameters. In all the cases it was found that after an initial transient phase, the plasma eroded the neutral gas and after that followed the original magnetic field. From these findings it is concluded that smoke rings do not form with axial injection of neutral gas. Several suggestions for alternative injection schemes are presented

  8. Influence of plasma background including neutrals on scrape-off layer filaments using 3D simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schwörer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the plasma background, including neutrals in a self-consistent way, on filaments in the scrape-off layer (SOL of fusion devices. A strong dependency of filament motion on background density and temperature is observed. The radial filament motion shows an increase in velocity with decreasing background density and increasing background temperature. In the simulations presented here, three neutral-filament interaction models have been compared, one with a static neutral background, one with no interaction between filaments and neutrals, and one co-evolving the neutrals self consistently with the filaments. With the background conditions employed here, which do not show detachment, there are no significant effects of neutrals on filaments, as by the time the filament reaches maximum velocity, the neutral density has not changed significantly.

  9. A fully-implicit Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision code for the simulation of inductively coupled plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, S.; Nishida, K.; Onai, M.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Hatayama, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a fully-implicit electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo collision code, called NINJA, written for the simulation of inductively coupled plasmas. NINJA employs a kinetic enslaved Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov method to solve self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the radio-frequency coil and the plasma response. The simulated plasma includes a kinetic description of charged and neutral species as well as the collision processes between them. The algorithm allows simulations with cell sizes much larger than the Debye length and time steps in excess of the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition whilst preserving the conservation of the total energy. The code is applied to the simulation of the plasma discharge of the Linac4 H- ion source at CERN. Simulation results of plasma density, temperature and EEDF are discussed and compared with optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A systematic study of the energy conservation as a function of the numerical parameters is presented.

  10. Toroidal confinement of non-neutral plasma - A new approach to high-beta equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Z.; Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.

    2001-01-01

    Departure from the quasi-neutral condition allows us to apply significant two-fluid effects that impart a new freedom to the design of high-performance fusion plasma. The self-electric field in a non-neutralized plasma induces a strong ExB-drift flow. A fast flow produces a large hydrodynamic pressure that can balance with the thermal pressure of the plasma. Basic concepts to produce a toroidal non-neutral plasma have been examined on the internal-conductor toroidal confinement device Proto-RT. A magnetic separatrix determines the boundary of the confinement region. Electrons describe chaotic orbits in the neighborhood of the magnetic null point on the separatrix. The chaos yields collisionless diffusion of electrons from the particle source (electron gun) towards the confinement region. Collisionless heating also occurs in the magnetic null region, which can be applied to produce a plasma. (author)

  11. Contact discontinuities in a cold collision-free two-beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, K.B.; Sonnerup, B.U.O.

    1982-01-01

    A contact discontinuity in a collision-free magnetized plasma is a thin layer, possessing a nontrivial magnetic structure, across which no net plasma flow takes place (#betta#/sub n/ = 0) even though the magnetic field has a nonvanishing component (B/sub n/not =0) normal to it. This paper examines the structure of such discontinuities in a simple plasma model consisting of two oppositely directed cold ion beams and a background of cold massless electrons such that exact charge neutrality is maintained so that the electric field Eequivalent0. The basic equations describing self-consistent equilibria are developed for the more general situation where a net flow across the layer takes place (#betta#/sub n/ = 0) and where the magnetic field has two nonzero tangential components B/sub y/ and B/sub z/ but where E remains zero. These equations are then specialized to the case eta/sub n/equivalent0, B/sub z/equivalent0, and four different classes of sheets are obtained, all having thickness of the order of the ion inertial length: (1) layers separating two identical plasma and magnetic field regions. (2) an infinite array of parallel layers producing an undulated magnetic field, (3) layers containing trapped ions in closed orbits which separate two vacuum regions with uniform identical magnetic fields, and (4) layers which reflect a single plasma beam, leaving a vacuum with a revesed and compressed tangential field on the other side. Solutions for which #betta#/sub n/ = 0 but B/sub z/not =0 may also exist but have not been analyzed; rotational discontinuities are shown not to be possible in this model

  12. Photon and neutral pion production in Au plus Au collisions at root s(NN)=130 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Chaloupka, Petr; Filip, Pavel; Lednický, Richard; Šumbera, Michal; Zborovský, Imrich

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2004), 044902 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : heavy-ion collisions * quark-gluon plasma * star Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.125, year: 2004

  13. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ˜0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ˜10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3. Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (˜1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ˜10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed.

  14. Development of a 1-m plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Grant Logan, B.

    2005-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ∼0.1-1 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. A radio frequency (RF) source was constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization. Pulsing the source enabled operation at pressures ∼10 -6 Torr with plasma densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization was achieved. The plasma was 10 cm in length, but future experiments require a source 1 m long. The RF source does not easily scale to the length. Consequently, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. A 1 m long section of the drift tube inner surface of NTX will be covered with ceramic. A high voltage (∼1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. Plasma densities of 10 12 cm -3 and neutral pressures ∼10 -6 Torr are expected. A test stand to produce 20 cm long plasma is being constructed and will be tested before a 1 m long source is developed

  15. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author)

  16. Neutral meson measurement using different neutral pion reconstruction techniques in ALICE in pp collisions at $\\sqrt s = 7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Jonas, Florian

    2017-01-01

    In this analysis, which is carried out as part of a summer student project, the $\\omega$ and $\\eta$ mesons are measured in pp collisions at $\\sqrt s = 7$ TeV using ALICE's two calorimeters PHOS and EMCal, the so called Photon Conversion Method (PCM) and two hybrid methods that combine one photon that was reconstructed with PCM and the other photon measured with the different calorimeters for neutral pion reconstruction. The analysis was carried out on LHC data from 2010 resulting in visible peaks for all mentioned methods. Investigations of the invariant mass distributions using Monte Carlo Event Generator PYTHIA6 show a main contribution to the background by false identifications of neutral pions, that are reduced by stronger cuts on the photon pairs invariant-mass. Furthermore, the chain of afterburners that was put in place to further process the extracted peaks and compare the different reconstruction methods is demonstrated.

  17. The energy-deposition model. Electron loss of heavy ions in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevelko, V.P.; Litsarev, M.S.; Kato, D.; Tawara, H.

    2010-09-01

    Single- and multiple-electron loss processes in collisions of heavy many-electron ions (positive and negative) in collisions with neutral atoms at low and intermediate energies are considered using the energy-deposition model. The DEPOSIT computer code, created earlier to calculate electron-loss cross sections at high projectile energies, is extended for low and intermediate energies. A description of a new version of DEPOSIT code is given, and the limits of validity for collision velocity in the model are discussed. Calculated electron-loss cross sections for heavy ions and atoms (N + , Ar + , Xe + , U + , U 28+ , W, W + , Ge - , Au - ), colliding with neutral atoms (He, Ne, Ar, W) are compared with available experimental and theoretical data at energies E > 10 keV/u. It is found that in most cases the agreement between experimental data and the present model is within a factor of 2. Combining results obtained by the DEPOSIT code at low and intermediate energies with those by the LOSS-R code at high energies (relativistic Born approximation), recommended electron-loss cross sections in a wide range of collision energy are presented. (author)

  18. Excitation of an instability by neutral particle ionization induced fluxes in the tokamak edge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, P.; Sunder, D.

    1991-01-01

    Strong density and potential fluctuations in the edge plasma of toroidal nuclear fusion devices can lead to anomalously fast particle and energy transport. There are some reasons to assume the level of these fluctuations to be connected with neutral particles which enter the plasma by gas puffing or recycling processes. The influence of neutral particles on the behaviour of electrostatic drift modes was investigated. Using the ballooning transformation the excitation of dissipative drift waves in tokamak was studied taking ionization and charge exchange into consideration. Ionization driven drift wave turbulence was analyzed. The higher the neutral particle density is the more important the plasma-wall interaction and the less important the action of the limiter becomes. Instabilities localized in the edge plasma and far from the limiter can be one of the reasons of such a phenomenon. In the present paper we show that such an instability may exist. Usually the neutral particle density is large in the vicinity of the limiter and decreases rapidly with the distance from it. Plasma particles generated by ionization of these neutrals outside the limiter shadow, move along the magnetic field lines into a region without neutrals and diffuse slowly across the magnetic field. We solve the stability problem for modes with a perpendicular wave length that is much larger than the ion Larmor radius with electron temperature, and much smaller than the minor plasma radius. The excitation of such modes localized far from the limiter is investigated. A one-dimensional differential equation is derived in the cold ion approximation without taking shear and toroidal effects into consideration. In the case of low flow velocities a nearly aperiodic instability is found analytically. Its growth rate is proportional to the equilibrium plasma velocity at the boundary of the neutral particle's free region and to the inverse of the extension of this zone. This mode is localized in the edge

  19. Kinetic theory of neutrals in a bounded plasma slab with inhomogeneous temperature and density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.B.; Agren, O.

    1982-01-01

    The transport of neutral hydrogen atoms in a hydrogen plasma slab is considered. The influence of the inhomogeneous ion temperature profile on the neutral density and distribution is discussed as well as the influence of the neutral edge energy, charge exchange, and ionization rates. The analytical solutions for the neutral density and distribution function are obtained and compared with the numerical results. The effects due to the inhomogeneous temperature profile are discussed. The recommen-dations from the viewpoint of the effects mentioned previously for the purposes of the cold-gas mantle system have been given

  20. Coupled plasma-neutral transport model for the scrape-off region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Heifetz, D.

    1985-03-01

    Analysis of the scrape-off region requires treatment of the plasma transport along and across the field lines and inclusion of the neutral transport effects. A method for modeling the scrape-off region that is presented here uses separate models for each of these aspects that are coupled together through an iteration procedure that requires only minimal numerical effort. The method is applied here to estimate the neutral pumping rates in the pump-limiter and divertor options for a proposed deuterium-tritium (D-T) ignition experiment. High neutral recycling in the vicinity of the neutralizer plate dramatically affects pumping rates for both the pump-limiter and divertor. In both cases, the plasma flow into the channel surrounding the neutralizer plate is greatly reduced by the neutral recycling. The fraction of this flow that is pumped can be large (> 50%), but in general it is dependent on the particular geometry and plasma conditions. It is estimated that pumping speeds approximately greater than 10 5 L/s are adequate for the exhaust requirements in the pump-limiter and the divertor cases. Also, high neutral recycling on the front surface of the limiter tends to increase the neutral pumping rate

  1. Solenoidal magnetic field influences the beam neutralization by a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration is much longer than the electron plasma period. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. Figure 1 shows the influence of a solenoidal magnetic field on charge and current neutralization. Analytical studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field begins to influence the radial electron motion when ω ce > βω pe . Here, ω ce is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β = V b /c is the ion beam velocity. If a solenoidal magnetic field is not applied, plasma waves do not propagate. In contrast, in the presence of a solenoidal magnetic field, whistler waves propagate ahead of the beam and can perturb the plasma ahead of the beam pulse. In the limit ω ce >> βω pe , the electron current completely neutralizes the ion beam current and the beam self magnetic field greatly diminishes. Application of an external solenoidal magnetic field clearly makes the collective processes of ion beam-plasma interactions rich in physics content. Many results of the PIC simulations remain to be explained by analytical theory. Four new papers have been published or submitted describing plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse

  2. Plasma Heating and Current Drive by Neutral Beam and Alpha Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Okumura, Y [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of plasma heating is to raise the plasma temperature enough to produce a deuterium and tritium reaction (D + T {yields} {sup 4}He + n). The required plasma temperature T is in the range of 10-30 keV. Since the high temperature plasma is confined by a strong magnetic field, injection of energetic ions from outside to heat the plasma is difficult due to the Lorenz force. The most efficient way to heat the plasma by energetic particles is to inject high energy 'neutrals' which get ionized in the plasma. Neutral beam injection (NBI) with a beam energy much above the average kinetic energy of the plasma electrons or ions is used (beam energy typically {approx}40 keV - 1 MeV). This heating scheme is similar to warming up cold water by pouring in hot water. There are two types of neutral beam, called P-NBI and N-NBI (P- and N- means 'positive' and 'negative', respectively). P-NBI uses the acceleration of positively charged ions and their neutralization, while N-NBI uses the acceleration of negative ions (electrons attached to neutral atoms) and their neutralization. Details are given in NBI technology Section. The first demonstration of plasma heating by P-NBI was made in ORMAK and ATC in 1974, while that by N-NBI was made in JT-60U for the first time in 1996. ITER has also adopted the N-NBI system as the heating and current drive system with a beam energy of 1 MeV. Figure A typical bird's eye view of a tokamak with N-NBI and N-NBI (JT-60U) is shown. (author)

  3. Investigation of plasma stream collision produced by thin films irradiated by powerful pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, V P; Demidov, B A; Ivkin, M V; Mescheryakov, A N; Petrov, V A; Potapenko, A I

    2006-01-01

    Collision of fast plasma streams in vacuum is investigated. Plasma streams were produced by irradiation of thin foils with a powerful pulsed electron beam. Interaction of the plasma flows was studied by using frame and streak cameras. One-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out. Application of this method for porous ICF targets and high-energy physics is discussed

  4. Fragmentation of neutral carbon clusters formed by high velocity atomic collision; Fragmentation d'agregats de carbone neutres formes par collision atomique a haute vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, G

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the fragmentation of small neutral carbon clusters formed by high velocity atomic collision on atomic gas. In this experiment, the main way of deexcitation of neutral clusters formed by electron capture with ionic species is the fragmentation. To measure the channels of fragmentation, a new detection tool based on shape analysis of current pulse delivered by semiconductor detectors has been developed. For the first time, all branching ratios of neutral carbon clusters are measured in an unambiguous way for clusters size up to 10 atoms. The measurements have been compared to a statistical model in microcanonical ensemble (Microcanonical Metropolis Monte Carlo). In this model, various structural properties of carbon clusters are required. These data have been calculated with Density Functional Theory (DFT-B3LYP) to find the geometries of the clusters and then with Coupled Clusters (CCSD(T)) formalism to obtain dissociation energies and other quantities needed to compute fragmentation calculations. The experimental branching ratios have been compared to the fragmentation model which has allowed to find an energy distribution deposited in the collision. Finally, specific cluster effect has been found namely a large population of excited states. This behaviour is completely different of the atomic carbon case for which the electron capture in the ground states predominates. (author)

  5. Asymptotic analysis of the Poisson equation coupled with Boltzmann's relation quasi-neutrality hypothesis for plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golse, F.; Sentis, R.

    1993-01-01

    The present work is aimed at discussing the validity of the quasi-neutrality assumption for electron-ions plasmas. Quasi-neutrality means that the difference between the ionic density and the electronic density is small when compared to the sum of these densities. The plasmas considered here are assumed to be well described by the Langmuir-Tonks approximation -that is, the ionic density is known and the electronic density is given in terms of the electric potential. In the model considered here, the spatial domain containing the plasma is a deformed cylinder whose basis are electrodes. When the Debye length is small when compared to characteristic lengths of the flow, we prove that the plasma is quasi-neutral but near the electrodes, where boundary layers occur. (authors). 6 refs

  6. Designing Neutralized Drift Compression for Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses in a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Startsev, E.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Lee, E.P.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Welch, D.R.; Sefkow, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective method for particle beam focusing and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear radial and longitudinal velocity drift is applied to a beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the drift-compression section. The beam intensity can increase more than a factor of 100 in both the radial and longitudinal directions, resulting in more than 10,000 times increase in the beam number density during this process. The self-electric and self-magnetic fields can prevent tight ballistic focusing and have to be neutralized by supplying neutralizing electrons. This paper presents a survey of the present theoretical understanding of the drift compression process and plasma neutralization of intense particle beams. The optimal configuration of focusing and neutralizing elements is discussed in this paper.

  7. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  8. Electric force on plasma ions and the momentum of the ion-neutrals flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A.; Zoler, D.; Boxman, R. L.

    2018-05-01

    The electric force on ions in plasma and the momentum flux carried by the mixed ion-neutral flow were measured and found to be equal. The experiment was performed in a direct-current gas discharge of cylindrical geometry with applied radial electric field and axial magnetic field. The unmagnetized plasma ions, neutralized by magnetized electrons, were accelerated radially outward transferring part of the gained momentum to neutrals. Measurements were taken for various argon gas flow rates between 13 and 100 Standard Cubic Centimeter per Minute, for a discharge current of 1.9 A and a magnetic field intensity of 136 G. The plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential were measured at various locations along the flow. These measurements were used to determine the local electric force on the ions. The total electric force on the plasma ions was then determined by integrating radially the local electric force. In parallel, the momentum flux of the mixed ion-neutral flow was determined by measuring the force exerted by the flow on a balance force meter (BFM). The maximal plasma density was between 6 × 1010 cm-3 and 5 × 1011 cm-3, the maximal electron temperature was between 8 eV and 25 eV, and the deduced maximal electric field was between 2200 V/m and 5800 V/m. The force exerted by the mixed ion-neutral flow on the BFM agreed with the total electric force on the plasma ions. This agreement showed that it is the electric force on the plasma ions that is the source of the momentum acquired by the mixed ion-neutral flow.

  9. Bernstein modes in a non-neutral plasma column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents theory and numerical calculations of electrostatic Bernstein modes in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma column. These modes rely on finite Larmor radius effects to propagate radially across the column until they are reflected when their frequency matches the upper hybrid frequency. This reflection sets up an internal normal mode on the column and also mode-couples to the electrostatic surface cyclotron wave (which allows the normal mode to be excited and observed using external electrodes). Numerical results predicting the mode spectra, using a novel linear Vlasov code on a cylindrical grid, are presented and compared to an analytical Wentzel Kramers Brillouin (WKB) theory. A previous version of the theory [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 20(4), 042120 (2013)] expanded the plasma response in powers of 1/B, approximating the local upper hybrid frequency, and consequently, its frequency predictions are spuriously shifted with respect to the numerical results presented here. A new version of the WKB theory avoids this approximation using the exact cold fluid plasma response and does a better job of reproducing the numerical frequency spectrum. The effect of multiple ion species on the mode spectrum is also considered, to make contact with experiments that observe cyclotron modes in a multi-species pure ion plasma [M. Affolter et al., Phys. Plasmas 22(5), 055701 (2015)].

  10. Modeling of Inelastic Collisions in a Multifluid Plasma: Excitation and Deexcitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling of Inelastic Collisions in a Multifluid Plasma: Excitation and 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...describe here a model for inelastic collisions for electronic excitation and deexcitation processes in a general, multifluid plasma. The model is derived... Excitation and Deexcitationa) Hai P. Le1, b) and Jean-Luc Cambier2, c) 1)Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles, California

  11. Ultra relativistic heavy ions collisions or the search for quark-gluon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1985-03-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The qualitative changes expected in the properties of hadronic matter at high temperature and/or large baryon density are described in terms of simple models. We discuss a scenario giving the space-time evolution of a quark-gluon plasma. Finally we address the difficult question of the possible signatures of the formation of a quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions

  12. Theory of neutral injection heating of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordey, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The present state of injection theory is reviewed with particular emphasis on the consequences of high power injection. The subject is divided into the following six sections: fast ion deposition; the slowing down and scattering of the fast ions; energy and momentum transfer rates; heating of the thermal ions; other perturbations; microinstabilities. The theory is compared with the experimental results. The questions that remain to be answered to establish neutral injection as a useful heating technique in reactors, are listed (26 references)

  13. Development of neutral beams for fusion plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, H.H.; Pyle, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A state-of-the-art account of neutral beam technology at the LBL/LLNL and ORNL facilities is given with emphasis on positive-ion-based systems. The advances made in the last few years are elaborated and problem areas are identified. The ORNL program has successfully completed the neutral injection systems for PLT, ISX-B, and most recently, PDX and the ISX-B upgrade. All of these are high current (60 to 100 A), medium energy (40 to 50 keV) systems. This program is also engaged in the development of a reactor-grade advanced positive ion system (150 to 200 kV/100 A/5 to 10 s) and a multimegawatt, long pulse (30 s) heating system for ISX-C. In a joint program, LBL and LLNL are developing and testing neutral beam injection systems based on the acceleration of positive ions for application in the 80- to 160-keV range on MFTF-B, D-III, TFTR/TFM, ETF, MNS, etc. A conceptual design of a 160-keV injection system for the German ZEPHYR project is in progress at LBL/LLNL and independently at ORNL. The laboratories are also engaged in the development of negative-ion-based systems for future applications at higher energies

  14. Development of neutral beams for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselton, H.H.; Pyle, R.V.

    1980-01-01

    A state-of-the-art account of neutral beam technology at the LBL/LLNL and ORNL facilities is given with emphasis on positive-ion-based systems. The advances made in the last few years are elaborated and problem areas are identified. The ORNL program has successfully completed the neutral injection systems for PLT, ISX-B, and most recently, PDX and the ISX-B upgrade. All of these are high current (60 to 100 A), medium energy (40 to 50 keV) systems. This program is also engaged in the development of a reactor-grade advanced positive ion system (150 to 200 kV/100 A/5 to 10 s) and a multimegawatt, long pulse (30 s) heating system for ISX-C. In a joint program, LBL and LLNL are developing and testing neutral beam injection systems based on the acceleration of positive ions for application in the 80- to 160-keV range on MFTF-B, D-III, TFTR/TFM, ETF, MNS, etc. A conceptual design of a 160-keV injection system for the German ZEPHYR project is in progress at LBL/LLNL and independently at ORNL. The laboratories are also engaged in the development of negative-ion-based systems for future applications at higher energies.

  15. How does the Quark-Gluon Plasma know the collision energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Brett

    2018-02-01

    Heavy ion collisions at the LHC facility generate a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) which, for central collisions, has a higher energy density and temperature than the plasma generated in central collisions at the RHIC. But sufficiently peripheral LHC collisions give rise to plasmas which have the same energy density and temperature as the "central" RHIC plasmas. One might assume that the two versions of the QGP would have very similar properties (for example, with regard to jet quenching), but recent investigations have suggested that they do not: the plasma "knows" that the overall collision energy is different in the two cases. We argue, using a gauge-gravity analysis, that the strong magnetic fields arising in one case (peripheral collisions), but not the other, may be relevant here. If the residual magnetic field in peripheral LHC plasmas is of the order of at least eB ≈ 5mπ2, then the model predicts modifications of the relevant quenching parameter which approach those recently reported.

  16. Some results of a numerical calculation of plasma dispersion curves including collisions; Quelques resultats de calcul de courbes de dispersion avec collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepechinsky, D; Parlange, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    Dispersion curves including the effect of collisions have been calculated with a 7090 IBM computer for several types of laboratory hydrogen plasmas; Te = Ti = 1 eV; Te = 1 eV, Ti = 0,1 eV; Te = 10 eV, Ti = 2 eV; Te = 50 eV, Ti 10 eV, with neutral gas pressures of 10{sup -1}, 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -4} mmHg and electron densities of 10{sup 10}, 10{sup 13} and eventually 10{sup 15} el/cc. The corresponding collision frequencies with neutrals and between electrons and ions have been derived using appropriate relationships The dispersion equations used correspond to the macroscopic treatment. The real and imaginary parts of the wave number K are presented as a function of real values of the frequency {omega}, for electrostatic and electromagnetic waves and for e.m. waves propagating parallel to a permanent magnetic field of 500 gauss and 12.5 Kgauss. (authors) [French] Des courbes de dispersion tenant compte de l'effet des collisions ont ete calculees a l'aide d'un ordinateur IBM 7090 pour differents types de plasmas d'hydrogene se presentant au laboratoire; les temperatures electroniques et ioniques envisagees ont ete les suivantes: Te = Ti = 1 Ev; Te = 1 eV, Ti 0,1 eV; Te = 10 eV, Ti = 2 eV; Te = 50 eV, Ti = 10 eV; les pressions de neutres - de 10{sup -1}, 10{sup -3} et 10{sup -4} mmHg; les densites electroniques - de 10{sup 10}, 10{sup 13} et eventuellement de 10{sup 15} el/cc. Les frequences de collision avec les neutres et entre electrons et ions ont ete evaluees en fonction de ces donnees. Les equations, de dispersion utilisees correspondant au traitement macroscopique. On presente les valeurs des parties reelle et imaginaire du nombre d'ondes K en fonction de valeurs reelles de la frequence {omega} pour les ondes electrostatiques et electromagnetiques et pour les ondes e.m. se propageant parallelement a un champ magnetique permanent de 500 gauss et de 12,5 kgauss. (auteurs)

  17. Partial-depth modulation study of anions and neutrals in low pressure silane plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozurteille, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.; Sansonnens; Howling, A.A.

    1995-10-01

    Partial-depth modulation of the rf power in a capacitive discharge is used to investigate the relative importance of negative ions and neutral radicals for particle formation in low power, low pressure silane plasmas. For less than 85% modulation depth, anions are trapped indefinitely in the plasma and particle formation ensues, whereas the polymerised neutral flux magnitudes and dynamics are independent of the modulation depth and the powder formation. These observations suggest that negative ions could be the particle precursors in plasma conditions where powder appears many seconds after plasma ignition. Microwave interferometry and mass spectrometry were combined to infer an anion density of ≅7.10 9 cm -3 which is approximately twice the free electron density in these modulated plasmas. (author) 6 figs., tabs., refs

  18. A new method of solution for one-dimensional quasi-neutral bounded plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, M.; Kuhn, S.

    2010-08-01

    A new method is proposed for calculating the potential distribution Φ(z) in a one-dimensional quasi-neutral bounded plasma; Φ(z) is assumed to satisfy a quasi-neutrality condition (plasma equation) of the form ni{Φ(z)} = ne(Φ), where the electron density ne is a given function of Φ and the ion density ni is expressed in terms of trajectory integrals of the ion kinetic equation. While previous methods relied on formally solving a global integral equation (Riemann, Phys. Plasmas, vol. 13, 2006, paper no. 013503; Kos et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 16, 2009, paper no. 093503), the present method is characterized by piecewise analytic solution of the plasma equation in reasonably small intervals of z. As a first concrete application, Φ(z) is found analytically through order z4 near the center of a collisionless Tonks-Langmuir discharge with a cold-ion source.

  19. Collisions of Oq+ with neutral C-60 : Charge transfer and fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R

    1998-01-01

    Fragmentation of C-60 fullerenes by collisions with multiply charged Oq+ ions (1 less than or equal to q less than or equal to 7) has been studied experimentally for Oq+ collision energies of 1.16 keV amu(-1) For high projectile charges the potential energy of the projectiles is mainly responsible

  20. Assessment of plasma impedance probe for measuring electron density and collision frequency in a plasma with spatial and temporal gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Mark A.; King, Lyon B.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations and experimental measurements were combined to determine the ability of a plasma impedance probe (PIP) to measure plasma density and electron collision frequency in a plasma containing spatial gradients as well as time-varying oscillations in the plasma density. A PIP is sensitive to collision frequency through the width of the parallel resonance in the Re[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic, while also being sensitive to electron density through the zero-crossing of the Im[Z]-vs.-frequency characteristic at parallel resonance. Simulations of the probe characteristic in a linear plasma gradient indicated that the broadening of Re[Z] due to the spatial gradient obscured the broadening due to electron collision frequency, preventing a quantitative measurement of the absolute collision frequency for gradients considered in this study. Simulation results also showed that the PIP is sensitive to relative changes in electron collision frequency in a spatial density gradient, but a second broadening effect due to time-varying oscillations made collision frequency measurements impossible. The time-varying oscillations had the effect of causing multiple zero-crossings in Im[Z] at parallel resonance. Results of experiments and simulations indicated that the lowest-frequency zero-crossing represented the lowest plasma density in the oscillations and the highest-frequency zero-crossing represented the highest plasma density in the oscillations, thus the PIP probe was found to be an effective tool to measure both the average plasma density as well as the maximum and minimum densities due to temporal oscillations

  1. Transport in partially degenerate, magnetized plasmas. Pt. 1. Collision operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.R.; Haines, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    The quantum Boltzmann collision operator is expanded to yield a degenerate form of the Fokker-Planck collision operator. This is analyzed using Rosenbluth potentials to give a degenerate analogue of the Shkarofsky operator. The distribution function is then expanded about an equilibrium Fermi-Dirac distribution function using a tensor perturbation formulation to give a zeroth-order and a first-order collision operator. These equations are shown to satisfy the relevant conservation equations. It is shown that the distribution function relaxes to a Fermi-Dirac form through electron-electron collisions. (Author)

  2. Electron-electron collision effects on the bremsstrahlung emission in Lorentzian plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Kato, Daiji

    2009-01-01

    Electron-electron collision effects on the electron-ion bremsstrahlung process are investigated in Lorentzian plasmas. The effective electron-ion interaction potential is obtained by including the far-field terms caused by electron-electron collisions with an effective Debye length in Lorentzian plasmas. The bremsstrahlung radiation cross section is obtained as a function of the electron energy, photon energy, collision frequency, spectral index and Debye length using the Born approximation for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. It is shown that the non-Maxwellian character suppresses the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section. It is also shown that the electron-electron collision effect enhances the bremsstrahlung emission spectrum. In addition, the bremsstrahlung radiation cross section decreases with an increase in the plasma temperature.

  3. Effect of neutral gas heating in argon radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, O.H.; Jayapalan, K.K.; Wong, C.S.

    2014-01-01

    Heating of neutral gas in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is known to result in neutral gas depletion. In this work, this effect is considered in the simulation of the magnetic field distribution of a 13.56 MHz planar coil ICP. Measured electron temperatures and densities at argon pressures of 0.03, 0.07 and 0.2 mbar were used in the simulation whilst neutral gas temperatures were heuristically fitted. The simulated results showed reasonable agreement with the measured magnetic field profile. (author)

  4. Advanced plasma flow simulations of cathodic-arc and ferroelectric plasma sources for neutralized drift compression experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B. Sefkow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Large-space-scale and long-time-scale plasma flow simulations are executed in order to study the spatial and temporal evolution of plasma parameters for two types of plasma sources used in the neutralized drift compression experiment (NDCX. The results help assess the charge neutralization conditions for ion beam compression experiments and can be employed in more sophisticated simulations, which previously neglected the dynamical evolution of the plasma. Three-dimensional simulations of a filtered cathodic-arc plasma source show the coupling efficiency of the plasma flow from the source to the drift region depends on geometrical factors. The nonuniform magnetic topology complicates the well-known general analytical considerations for evaluating guiding-center drifts, and particle-in-cell simulations provide a self-consistent evaluation of the physics in an otherwise challenging scenario. Plasma flow profiles of a ferroelectric plasma source demonstrate that the densities required for longitudinal compression experiments involving ion beams are provided over the drift length, and are in good agreement with measurements. Simulations involving azimuthally asymmetric plasma creation conditions show that symmetric profiles are nevertheless achieved at the time of peak on-axis plasma density. Also, the ferroelectric plasma expands upstream on the thermal expansion time scale, and therefore avoids the possibility of penetration into the acceleration gap and transport sections, where partial neutralization would increase the beam emittance. Future experiments on NDCX will investigate the transverse focusing of an axially compressing intense charge bunch to a sub-mm spot size with coincident focal planes using a strong final-focus solenoid. In order to fill a multi-tesla solenoid with the necessary high-density plasma for beam charge neutralization, the simulations predict that supersonically injected plasma from the low-field region will penetrate and

  5. The effect of plasma parameter on the bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Cao Jinjia; Yang Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma parameters on the distribution of net current density of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio Tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. Numerical results show that the value of net current density increases with the temperature of plasma increasing and decreases with the density of plasma increasing. The value of net current density is weakly affected by the effective charge number, but the peak of net current density moves towards edge plasma with effective charge number increasing. (authors)

  6. Power supply for plasma generator of HL-1M neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Detai; Qian Jiamei; Lei Guangjiu; Shun Mengda; Jiang Shaofeng; Wang Enyao; Lu Xuejun; Yang Tiehai; Wang Xuehua; Zhao Zhimin; Hao Ming; Huang Jianrong; Yu Yanqiu; Cheng Baoqiang; Wu Zhige; Sheng Ning; Hu Qingtao

    1999-01-01

    The diagram of the HL-1M Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) and the power supply (PS) system is shown. The NBI consists of ion source, beam line and power supply system etc. The ion source includes plasma generator and three-electrode extraction system. The power supply for plasma generator consists of a filament PS, an arc PS and gas valve PS. Testing has shown that the PS for plasma generator of the HL-1M NBI has excellent stability and obtain good plasma heating effect

  7. Overview of recent results from non-neutral plasmas in the CNT stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T. Sunn; Boozer, A. H.; Brenner, P. W.; Durand de Gevigney, B.; Hahn, M. S.; Sarasola, X.; Senter, A.

    2009-11-01

    An overview of recent results from the Columbia Non-neutral Torus (CNT) will be given. CNT is a stellarator dedicated to studies of non-neutral and electron-positron plasmas [1]. CNT operates with a surplus of electrons -- most of the time with only a trace amount of ions (ni/ne Kremer et al., PRL 97, (2006) 095003 [3] P. W. Brenner et al., this poster session [4] Q. R. Marksteiner et al., PRL 100 (2008) 065002 [5] X. Sarasola Martin et al., this poster session [6] M. S. Hahn et al., Phys. Plasmas 16 (2009) 022105

  8. High-resolution spectral analysis of light from neutral beams and ion source plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1980-05-01

    The spectral distributions of Balmer alpha emission from 7- and 22-cm-diam neutral hydrogen beams have been measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to obtain information on the beam energy, divergence, and species composition. Results of these measurements are compared with other data on the beam properties to evaluate high-resolution spectroscopy as a beam diagnostic technique. Measurements on ion source plasmas and on beam-produced background plasmas yield average neutral atom energies of approximately 0.3 and 2.5 eV, respectively

  9. A triggering of solar flare by magnetosonic waves in a neutral sheet plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Jun-ichi; Washimi, Haruichi.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical model of the triggering of a solar flare by magnetosonic waves in a neutral sheet plasma is discussed. It is shown that the ponderomotive force due to the magnetosonic waves strongly excites the plasma convection flow in the magnetic neutral sheet which in turn enhances the tearing instability. The system of basic equations for the tearing mode including the time-averaged nonlinear effects due to the magnetosonic waves is derived and the boundary value problem is solved. The results show that the growth time of the instability is shortened to about 100 sec for reasonable magnetosonic wave intensity. (author)

  10. Interstellar turbulence model : A self-consistent coupling of plasma and neutral fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Zank, Gary P.; Pogorelov, Nikolai

    2006-01-01

    We present results of a preliminary investigation of interstellar turbulence based on a self-consistent two-dimensional fluid simulation model. Our model describes a partially ionized magnetofluid interstellar medium (ISM) that couples a neutral hydrogen fluid to a plasma through charge exchange interactions and assumes that the ISM turbulent correlation scales are much bigger than the shock characteristic length-scales, but smaller than the charge exchange mean free path length-scales. The shocks have no influence on the ISM turbulent fluctuations. We find that nonlinear interactions in coupled plasma-neutral ISM turbulence are influenced substantially by charge exchange processes

  11. Spatial profiling of ion and neutral excitation in noble gas electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, R.L.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Optical emission from neutrals and ions of several noble gases has been profiled in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma system. In argon plasmas with a net microwave power of 750 W, the neutral (696.5-nm) and ion (488-nm) emission profiles are slightly center peaked at 0.32 mTorr and gradually shift to a hollow appearance at 2.5 mTorr. Neon profiles show a similar trend from 2.5 to 10.0 mTorr. For the noble gases, transition pressure scales with the ionization potential of the gas, which is consistent with neutral depletion. Studies of noble gas mixtures, however, indicate that neutral depletion is not always dominant in the formation of hollow profiles. For Kr/Ar, Ar/Ne, and Ne/He plasmas, the majority gas tends to set the overall shape of the profile at any given pressure. For the conditions of the current system, plasma density appears to be more dominant than electron temperature in the formation of hollow profiles. The general method described is also a straightforward, inexpensive technique for measuring the spatial distribution of power deposited in plasmas, particularly where absolute scale can be calibrated by some other means

  12. Limits on neutral Higgs production in the forward region in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ilten, P

    2013-01-01

    Limits on the cross-section times branching fraction for Higgs particles, produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, and decaying to two taus with pseudorapidities between 2 and 4.5, are presented. The result is based on a dataset of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb detector. Model independent upper limits on neutral Higgs cross-section times branching fraction are set and are compared to the SM Higgs expectation. Model dependent MSSM upper limits on tan(beta) are also set.

  13. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon; Contribution a l`etude d`un plasma cree de facon continue par bombardement electronique et de son melange avec un photo-plasma pulse. Influence des collisions sur les cones de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-02-25

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author).

  14. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  15. Impurity induced neutralization of MeV energy protons in JET plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondhalekar, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Korotkov, A A [AF Ioffe Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    A model elucidating the role of carbon and beryllium, the main impurities in JET plasmas, in neutralizing MeV energy protons, which arise during ICRF heating of deuterium plasmas in the hydrogen minority heating mode D(H), and from D-D fusion reactions, is presented. The model establishes charge transfer from hydrogen-like impurity ions to protons as the main process for neutralization. Calculations for deducing the proton energy distribution function from measured hydrogen flux are described. The validity of the model is tested by using it to described the measured flux in different conditions of plasma heating and fueling. Further, it is used to deduce the background thermal deuterium atom density at the plasma center. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Design data for calculating neutral beam penetration into Z/sub eff/ > 1 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.; Berkner, K.H.; Graham, W.G.; Pyle, R.V.; Schlachter, A.S.; Stearns, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Impurities such as C, N, O, Fe, and Mo in a confined plasma reduce the penetration of the energetic neutral deuterium or hydrogen beam injected for heating or fueling the plasma, thus affecting the energy- and fuel-deposition profiles. New calculations, confirmed by recent experimental results, show that previous estimates of the reduction of neutral beam penetration due to impurities in the plasma were overly pessimistic. Until recently, the cross sections used to calculate beam attenuation had been assumed to be q 2 times the cross section for H + + H obtained from the Born approximation, where q is the charge state of the ion. This led to very large cross sections for large values of q, and thus to very stringent requirements on the acceptable level of impurity ions in the plasma

  17. Diamagnetic measurement of JFT-2 plasma heated by neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Sengoku, Seio; Yamamoto, Shin; Suzuki, Norio; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kawashima, Hisato; Miura, Yukitoshi

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beam was injected into the plasma in the JFT-2 tokamak, and the poloidal beta value βsub(p) of the plasma was determined by a diamagnetic method in which the change in the magnetic flux due to the plasma was obtained by measuring the very small perturbation of the current in the tokamak's toroidal field coil. The ratio of the perturbed to unperturbed currents in the coil was found to be (2-3) x 10 -4 . The poloidal beta value βsub(pd) determined by this method agrees within experimental error with that obtained from magnetic and energy profile analyses. βsub(pd) increases linearly with the total power Psub(net) deposited by the neutral beam in the plasma when Psub(net)=1.5 MW. The heating efficiency of the beam injection heating was found to be lower than that of Joule heating. (author)

  18. Search for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays in pp collisions at 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

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E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. 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U.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Nesvold, E.; Orimoto, T.; Orsini, L.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Polese, G.; Quertenmont, L.; Racz, A.; Reece, W.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Rolandi, G.; Rommerskirchen, T.; Rovelli, C.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Santanastasio, F.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Segoni, I.; Sekmen, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wöhri, H. K.; Worm, S. D.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Gabathuler, K.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; König, S.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, F.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sibille, J.; Bäni, L.; Bortignon, P.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Deisher, A.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Dünser, M.; Eugster, J.; Freudenreich, K.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Mohr, N.; Moortgat, F.; Nägeli, C.; Nef, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Ronga, F. J.; Rossini, M.; Sala, L.; Sanchez, A. K.; Starodumov, A.; Stieger, B.; Takahashi, M.; Tauscher, L.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Treille, D.; Urscheler, C.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Wehrli, L.; Amsler, C.; Chiochia, V.; De Visscher, S.; Favaro, C.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Millan Mejias, B.; Otiougova, P.; Robmann, P.; Snoek, H.; Tupputi, S.; Verzetti, M.; Chang, Y. H.; Chen, K. H.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, S. W.; Lin, W.; Liu, Z. K.; Lu, Y. J.; Mekterovic, D.; Singh, A. P.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Bartalini, P.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Hsiung, Y.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Shi, X.; Shiu, J. G.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wan, X.; Wang, M.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Karaman, T.; Karapinar, G.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sogut, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, L. N.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Aliev, T.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Deniz, M.; Gamsizkan, H.; Guler, A. M.; Ocalan, K.; Ozpineci, A.; Serin, M.; Sever, R.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Yildirim, E.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Sonmez, N.; Cankocak, K.; Levchuk, L.; Bostock, F.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Frazier, R.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Kreczko, L.; Metson, S.; Newbold, D. M.; Nirunpong, K.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Basso, L.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Jackson, J.; Kennedy, B. W.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Bainbridge, R.; Ball, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Guneratne Bryer, A.; Hall, G.; Hatherell, Z.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Marrouche, J.; Mathias, B.; Nandi, R.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Pioppi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Ryan, M. J.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sparrow, A.; Stoye, M.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Wardle, N.; Whyntie, T.; Chadwick, M.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Heister, A.; St. John, J.; Lawson, P.; Lazic, D.; Rohlf, J.; Sperka, D.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Heintz, U.; Jabeen, S.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Houtz, R.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Pellett, D.; Ricci-tam, F.; Rutherford, B.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Andreev, V.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Duris, J.; Erhan, S.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Plager, C.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Tucker, J.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Babb, J.; Clare, R.; Dinardo, M. E.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Giordano, F.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Liu, H.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Nguyen, H.; Paramesvaran, S.; Sturdy, J.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; Evans, D.; Golf, F.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Mangano, B.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Petrucciani, G.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Yoo, J.; Barge, D.; Bellan, R.; Campagnari, C.; DʼAlfonso, M.; Danielson, T.; Flowers, K.; Geffert, P.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Lowette, S.; Mccoll, N.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Chen, Y.; Di Marco, E.; Duarte, J.; Gataullin, M.; Ma, Y.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Traczyk, P.; Veverka, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Yang, Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Akgun, B.; Azzolini, V.; Carroll, R.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Jang, D. W.; Liu, Y. F.; Paulini, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Drell, B. R.; Edelmaier, C. J.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Heyburn, B.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eggert, N.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Kreis, B.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Vaughan, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bloch, I.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Chetluru, V.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Green, D.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kilminster, B.; Klima, B.; Kunori, S.; Kwan, S.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Newman-Holmes, C.; OʼDell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Tan, P.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, W.; Yang, F.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Dobur, D.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gartner, J.; Hugon, J.; Kim, B.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Remington, R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Sellers, P.; Skhirtladze, N.; Snowball, M.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Gaultney, V.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Chen, J.; Diamond, B.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Dorney, B.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Bai, Y.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Callner, J.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dragoiu, C.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Lacroix, F.; Malek, M.; OʼBrien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Strom, D.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Duru, F.; Griffiths, S.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Sen, S.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Hu, G.; Maksimovic, P.; Rappoccio, S.; Swartz, M.; Whitbeck, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Grachov, O.; Kenny Iii, R. P.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tinti, G.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Barfuss, A. F.; Bolton, T.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Shrestha, S.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Boutemeur, M.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Peterman, A.; Skuja, A.; Temple, J.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Twedt, E.; Apyan, A.; Bauer, G.; Bendavid, J.; Busza, W.; Butz, E.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Dutta, V.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Hahn, K. A.; Kim, Y.; Klute, M.; Krajczar, K.; Li, W.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Sung, K.; Velicanu, D.; Wenger, E. A.; Wolf, R.; Wyslouch, B.; Xie, S.; Yang, M.; Yilmaz, Y.; Yoon, A. S.; Zanetti, M.; Cooper, S. I.; Dahmes, B.; De Benedetti, A.; Franzoni, G.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Sasseville, M.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Kroeger, R.; Perera, L.; Rahmat, R.; Sanders, D. A.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Butt, J.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Keller, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malbouisson, H.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Baur, U.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Jain, S.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Shipkowski, S. P.; Smith, K.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Nash, D.; Trocino, D.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Anastassov, A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Antonelli, L.; Berry, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolb, J.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Morse, D. M.; Pearson, T.; Ruchti, R.; Slaunwhite, J.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Vuosalo, C.; Williams, G.; Winer, B. L.; Adam, N.; Berry, E.; Elmer, P.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Hebda, P.; Hegeman, J.; Hunt, A.; Jindal, P.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Raval, A.; Safdi, B.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Acosta, J. G.; Brownson, E.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Oliveros, S.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Alagoz, E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Everett, A.; Hu, Z.; Jones, M.; Koybasi, O.; Kress, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Leonardo, N.; Maroussov, V.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Vidal Marono, M.; Yoo, H. D.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Guragain, S.; Parashar, N.; Adair, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Miner, D. C.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Malik, S.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Rekovic, V.; Robles, J.; Rose, K.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Seitz, C.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. C.; York, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Sengupta, S.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Toback, D.; Akchurin, N.; Damgov, J.; Dudero, P. R.; Jeong, C.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Roh, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Florez, C.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Johnston, C.; Kurt, P.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Yohay, R.; Gollapinni, S.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sakharov, A.; Anderson, M.; Bachtis, M.; Belknap, D.; Borrello, L.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Friis, E.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Palmonari, F.; Pierro, G. A.; Ross, I.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Swanson, J.

    2013-01-01

    The results of a search for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays t to Zq in events with a topology compatible with the decay chain t t-bar to Wb + Zq to ell nu b + ell ell q are presented. The search is performed with a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The observed number of events agrees with the standard model prediction and no evidence for flavor changing neutral currents in top quark decays is found. A t to Zq branching fraction greater than 0.21% is excluded at the 95% confidence level.

  19. Density peaking in the JFT-2M tokamak plasma with counter neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Itoh, S.; Itoh, K.

    1991-05-01

    A significant particle pinch and reduction of the effective thermal diffusivity are observed after switching the neutral beam direction from co- to counter- injection in the JFT-2M tokamak. A time delay in the occurrence of density peaking to that of plasma rotation is found. This shows that the particle pinch is related to the profile of the electric field as determined by the plasma rotation profile. The measured particle flux shows qualitative agreement with the theoretically-predicted inward pinch. (author)

  20. Propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in plasma with modulated collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Zhou Zhongxiang; Gao Ruilin; Li Lei; Du Yanwei

    2012-01-01

    The propagation characteristics of a Gaussian laser beam in cold plasma with the electron collision frequency modulated by laser intensity are presented. The nonlinear dynamics of the ponderomotive force, which induce nonlinear self-focusing as opposed to spatial diffraction, are considered. The effective dielectric function of the Drude model and complex eikonal function are adopted in deriving coupled differential equations of the varying laser beam parameters. In the framework of ponderomotive nonlinearity, the frequency of electron collision in plasmas, which is proportional to the spatial electron density, is strongly interrelated with the laser beam propagation characteristics. Hence, the propagation properties of the laser beam and the modulated electron collision frequency distribution in plasma were studied and explained in depth. Employing this self-consistent method, the obtained simulation results approach practical conditions, which is of significance to the study of laser–plasma interactions.

  1. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Shvets, Gennady; Startsev, Edward; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma

  2. Development of an rf-driven plasma neutralizer for negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    The assertion that beams of negative ions can be neutralized more efficiently by impacting a plasma, rather than a cold gas target, is confirmed scientifically by the work of K.H. Berkner et al. What remains to be done is the realization of practical means of generating plasmas efficiently with appropriate integrated line densities (target thickness). The work performed by JAYCOR, under this grant, over the past few years has made significant progress towards that goal. In this work, large volumes of plasma are generated using low-frequency pulsed inductive rf discharges within a ring cusp multipole-magnetic field geometry. These plasmas exhibit sufficient line-integrated electron densities and degrees of ionization to neutralize beams of energetic negative ions whose energies exceed 500 keV. The method of plasma generation and the cell configuration used in these studies are directly applicable to higher energy neutral beam injector systems (NBIS). Innate scalability and modularity of the system design facilitates linear stacking to achieve a desired target thickness. Further, the plasma formation process is accomplished with an electrical economy consistent with increased overall electrical efficiency of the NBIS compared to that possible using a cold gas target. 5 refs., 16 figs

  3. Interactions between plasma-treated carbon nanotubes and electrically neutral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    A plasma treatment can create dangling bonds on the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The dangling bonds are so reactive that the bonds possibly interact with other neutral species even out of the plasma if the lifetime of the bonds is effectively long. In order to have good understandings with the interactions, we placed multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs) in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge that was created in a closed environment with the voltage at 5 kV. We set 50 W for the operating power and 15 minutes for the process time for this plasma treatment. Our preliminary results showed that the reaction between dangling bonds and neutrals likely occurred in the situation when CNTs were treated with argon plasma, and then exposed in a nitrogen-rich dry box. We did Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after the treatments. The measurement showed that the spectrum with plasma-treated CNTs was different from pristine CNTs. This is an indication that the plasma-treated CNTs have reactive cites on the surface even after the discharge (~ minutes), and then the CNTs likely reacted with the neutral species that causes the different spectrum. In this poster, we will show more details from our results and further progresses from this research.

  4. Geomagnetically conjugate observation of plasma bubbles and thermospheric neutral winds at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Nishioka, M.; Kubota, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Nagatsuma, T.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first paper that reports simultaneous observations of zonal drift of plasma bubbles and the thermospheric neutral winds at geomagnetically conjugate points in both hemispheres. The plasma bubbles were observed in the 630 nm nighttime airglow images taken by using highly sensitive all-sky airglow imagers at Kototabang, Indonesia (geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0°S), and Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9°N), which are nearly geomagnetically conjugate stations, for 7 h from 13 to 20 UT (from 20 to 03 LT) on 5 April 2011. The bubbles continuously propagated eastward with velocities of 100-125 m/s. The 630 nm images at Chiang Mai and those mapped to the conjugate point of Kototabang fit very well, which indicates that the observed plasma bubbles were geomagnetically connected. The eastward thermospheric neutral winds measured by two Fabry-Perot interferometers were 70-130 m/s at Kototabang and 50-90 m/s at Chiang Mai. We compared the observed plasma bubble drift velocity with the velocity calculated from the observed neutral winds and the model conductivity, to investigate the F region dynamo contribution to the bubble drift velocity. The estimated drift velocities were 60-90% of the observed velocities of the plasma bubbles, suggesting that most of the plasma bubble velocity can be explained by the F region dynamo effect.

  5. Nonlinear Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Pre-formed Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Gennady Shvets; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2001-01-30

    The propagation of a high-current finite-length ion beam in a cold pre-formed plasma is investigated. The outcome of the calculation is the quantitative prediction of the degree of charge and current neutralization of the ion beam pulse by the background plasma. The electric magnetic fields generated by the ion beam are studied analytically for the nonlinear case where the plasma density is comparable in size with the beam density. Particle-in-cell simulations and fluid calculations of current and charge neutralization have been performed for parameters relevant to heavy ion fusion assuming long, dense beams with el >> V(subscript b)/omega(subscript b), where V(subscript b) is the beam velocity and omega subscript b is the electron plasma frequency evaluated with the ion beam density. An important conclusion is that for long, nonrelativistic ion beams, charge neutralization is, for all practical purposes, complete even for very tenuous background plasmas. As a result, the self-magnetic force dominates the electric force and the beam ions are always pinched during beam propagation in a background plasma.

  6. Analytical calculations of intense Gaussian laser beam propagating in plasmas with relativistic collision correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yuan Chengxun; Gao Ruilin; Zhou Zhongxiang

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of a Gaussian laser beam propagating in relativistic plasmas have been performed with the WKB method and complex eikonal function. We consider the relativistic nonlinearity induced by intense laser beam, and present the relativistically generalized forms of the plasma frequency and electron collision frequency in plasmas. The coupled differential equations describing the propagation variations of laser beam are derived and numerically solved. The obtained simulation results present the similar variation tendency with experiments. By changing the plasma density, we theoretically analyze the feasibility of using a plasmas slab of a fixed thickness to compress the laser beam-width and acquire the focused laser intensity. The present work complements the relativistic correction of the electron collision frequency with reasonable derivations, promotes the theoretical approaching to experiments and provides effective instructions to the practical laser-plasma interactions.

  7. Oblique non-neutral solitary Alfven modes in weakly nonlinear pair plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Lakhina, G S

    2005-01-01

    The equal charge-to-mass ratio for both species in pair plasmas induces a decoupling of the linear eigenmodes between waves that are charge neutral or non-neutral, also at oblique propagation with respect to a static magnetic field. While the charge-neutral linear modes have been studied in greater detail, including their weakly and strongly nonlinear counterparts, the non-neutral mode has received less attention. Here the nonlinear evolution of a solitary non-neutral mode at oblique propagation is investigated in an electron-positron plasma. Employing the framework of reductive perturbation analysis, a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (with cubic nonlinearity) for the lowest-order wave magnetic field is obtained. In the linear approximation, the non-neutral mode has its magnetic component orthogonal to the plane spanned by the directions of wave propagation and of the static magnetic field. The linear polarization is not maintained at higher orders. The results may be relevant to the microstructure in pulsar radiation or to the subpulses

  8. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  9. Drift resonance in high density non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaup, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the operation of crossed-field electron vacuum devices such as magnetrons and crossed-field amplifiers (CFA) have usually centered on their initial growth, taking this as an indication of their operating modes. In such an analysis one solves the equations for the density profile, the operating frequency, the growth rate, and other features of these devices. What one really obtains then are only the conditions for the device to turn on. The dominant interaction in this stage is a Rayleigh-type instability which initiates a quasilinear diffusion process whereby the electron density profile redistributes itself into a profile which will be in equilibrium with the ponderomotive-like forces produced by the growing rf fields. Eventually the rf fields will saturate and an operating device will settle into a stationary operating regime. This stage of a device's operation is called the ''saturation stage.'' This latter stage involves a different set of physical interactions from the initiation stage. No longer is there a growth rate; rather the rf amplitudes have saturated and as a result, the ponderomotive-like forces have also vanished along with the quasilinear diffusion. In this saturation stage, we find that new rf modes appear. In fact, there are a total of five rf modes, two of which are the usual slow modes of the initiation stage, and three of which have fast oscillations in the vertical direction. One fast mode corresponds to a drift plasma oscillation while the other two fast modes are drift cyclotron modes. In this paper, we will describe how the drift plasma oscillation interacts and couples with the slow rf modes at the diocotron resonance

  10. Aurora T: a Monte Carlo code for transportation of neutral atoms in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bignami, A.; Chiorrini, R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a short description of Aurora code. This code have been developed at Princeton with Monte Carlo method for calculating neutral gas in cylindrical plasma. In this work subroutines such one can take in account toroidal geometry are developed

  11. Tearing mode of a neutral current sheath in a plasma flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubchenko, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The linear stage of the tearing mode of diffusion neutral current sheath immersed in the plasma flux directed along the magnetic field is considered. It follows form the obtained dispersion characteristics that the flux exerts a stabilizing effect on the mode and leads to appearance of phase drift velocity

  12. Time-of-flight analysis of charge-exchange neutral particles from the TORTUR II plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocken, H.J.B.M.

    1981-10-01

    A disc chopper for time-of-flight analysis of fast neutral particles was constructed for the determination of the ion energy spectrum at lower energies than can be obtained by conventional electro-magnetic analyzers. The method has been applied to the TORTUR II tokamak. The chopper and detection system are described and the measurements are presented. For the interpretation of the results of the measurements a data analysis procedure was developed. The influence of reflections of neutrals at the liner wall showed to be important in the calculations of the neutral density profile at the plasma edge. The neutral energy spectrum in the lower energy range is strongly pronounced by this effect

  13. Formation Process of Non-Neutral Plasmas by Multiple Electron Beams on BX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpei, Akio; Himura, Haruhiko; Masamune, Sadao

    An imaging diagnostic system, which is composed of a handmade phosphor screen and a high-speed camera, has been applied to identify the dynamics of multiple electron beams on BX-U. The relaxation process of those toward a non-neutral plasma is experimentally identified. Also, the radial density profile of the plasma is measured as a function of time. Assuming that the plasma is a spheroidal shape, the value of electron density ne is in the range between 2.2 × 106 and 4.4 × 108 cm-3 on BX-U.

  14. First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley: initial VEGA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Remizov, A.P.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1986-04-01

    The first in situ observations and a description of the large scale behaviour of comet Halley's plasma environment are presented. The scientific objectives of the PLASMAG-1 experiment were as follows: to study the change of plasma parameters and distributions as a function of cometocentric distance; to investigate the existence and structure of the cometary bow shock; to determine the change in chemical composition of the heavily mass loaded plasma as the spacecraft approached the comet; and to measure the neutral gas distribution along the spacecraft trajectory. (author)

  15. On the relativistic large-angle electron collision operator for runaway avalanches in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embréus, O.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2018-02-01

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions lead to an avalanching generation of runaway electrons in a plasma. We present the first fully conservative large-angle collision operator, derived from the relativistic Boltzmann operator. The relation to previous models for large-angle collisions is investigated, and their validity assessed. We present a form of the generalized collision operator which is suitable for implementation in a numerical kinetic equation solver, and demonstrate the effect on the runaway-electron growth rate. Finally we consider the reverse avalanche effect, where runaways are slowed down by large-angle collisions, and show that the choice of operator is important if the electric field is close to the avalanche threshold.

  16. Quark-gluon plasmas and collective features of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of the dynamics of the quark-gluon plasmas which may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. A space-time description of the central rapidity region is presented. It is shown that the hydrodynamical flow induces correlations between particle transverse momenta and multiplicities. One discusses to which extent these correlations could signal the occurrence of a phase transition in heavy ion collisions

  17. Acoustic Wave in a Dusty Plasma with Frequent Grain Charging Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee J.; Cho, Sang-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The sink terms in the electron and ion continuity equations and the frictional terms in the momentum equations of a dusty plasma are obtained by taking moments of a kinetic equation which takes into account the grain charging collisions by electrons and ions. We show that an acoustic wave can propagate as a normal mode in the parameter regime where the frequencies of charging collisions are much greater than the wave frequency

  18. Neutral meson production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the invariant differential cross sections of inclusive π 0 and η meson production with ALICE are presented for pp collisions at √(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV. Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD calculations overestimate the data at √(s) = 7TeV, but are consistent with the π 0 spectrum at √(s) = 0.9TeV and with the measured π 0 /η cross section ratio at √(s) = 7TeV. The nuclear modification factors (R AA ) of π 0 production at different centralities show a strong suppression with respect to pp collisions.

  19. Some estimates of mirror plasma startup by neutral beam heating of pellet and gas cloud targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Hot plasma buildup by neutral beam injection into an initially cold solid or gaseous target is found to be conceivable in large mirror machine experiments such as 2XIIB or MFTF. A simple analysis shows that existing neutral beam intensities are sufficient to ablate suitable targets to form a gas or vapor cloud. An approximate rate equation model is used to follow the subsequent processes of ionization, heating, and hot plasma formation. Solutions of these rate equations are obtained by means of the ''GEAR'' techniques for solving ''stiff'' systems of differential equations. These solutions are in rough agreement with the 2XIIB stream plasma buildup experiment. They also predict that buildup on a suitable nitrogen-like target will occur in the MFTF geometry. In 2XIIB the solutions are marginal; buildup may be possible, but is not certain

  20. Assessment of ion-atom collision data for magnetic fusion plasma edge modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section data for ion-atom collision processes which play important roles in the edge plasma of magnetically-confined fusion devices are surveyed and reviewed. The species considered include H, He, Li, Be, C, O, Ne, Al, Si, Ar, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and their ions. The most important ion-atom collision processes occurring in the edge plasma are charge-exchange reactions. Excitation and ionization processes are also considered. The scope is limited to atomic species and to collision velocities corresponding to plasma ion temperatures in the 2-200 eV range. Sources of evaluated or recommended data are presented where possible, and deficiencies in the data base are indicated. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy

  2. Neutral-beam deposition in large, finite-beta noncircular tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, R.M.; Houlberg, W.A.

    1982-02-01

    A parametric pencil beam model is introduced for describing the attenuation of an energetic neutral beam moving through a tokamak plasma. The nonnegligible effects of a finite beam cross section and noncircular shifted plasma cross sections are accounted for in a simple way by using a smoothing algorithm dependent linearly on beam radius and by including information on the plasma flux surface geometry explicitly. The model is benchmarked against more complete and more time-consuming two-dimensional Monte Carlo calculations for the case of a large D-shaped tokamak plasma with minor radius a = 120 cm and elongation b/a = 1.6. Deposition profiles are compared for deuterium beam energies of 120 to 150 keV, central plasma densities of 8 x 10 13 - 2 x 10 14 cm -3 , and beam orientation ranging from perpendicular to tangential to the inside wall

  3. Optical Studies of Strong Coupling and Recombination in Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, Thomas C.

    2004-01-01

    The ultracold atoms and plasmas research group at Rice University uses a combination of atomic and plasma physics techniques to create neutral plasmas that are orders of magnitude colder than have ever been studied before. Through this work, we probe the basic plasma physics of this exotic regime. During the past year, the major components of a new experiment were completed. We demonstrated a powerful new diagnostic, optical imaging of the plasma, which led to a paper that was published in Physical Review Letters. (Figure A, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 143001 (2004)) This was the central feature of my DOE Junior Faculty Award proposal. DOE funding has been used to support one postdoctoral researcher, multiple graduate students, the principle investigator, apparatus construction, and normal laboratory expenses

  4. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.

    2016-02-19

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  5. Interaction of intense laser pulses with neutral gases and preformed plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A. J.; Borghesi, M.; Iwase, A.; Jones, M. W.; Willi, O.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a neutral gas or preformed plasma has been studied over a wide range of target and laser conditions. It was found that the propagation of 2ps laser pulses (λ=1.054μm, P=5-10TW, I∼5x10 14 -1x10 14 -1x10 18 Wcm -2 ) in neutral gases with atomic densities greater than 0.001 of critical was strongly influenced by ionisation induced refraction. Preformed density channels were effective in overcoming refraction but the channel length was found to be limited by ionization induced defocusing of the prepulse

  6. Simulations of an ultracold, neutral plasma with equal mass for every charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robicheaux, F; Bender, B J; Phillips, M A

    2014-01-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of an ultracold, neutral plasma composed only of equal mass positive and negative charges are reported. In our simulations, the plasma is created by the fast dissociation of a neutral particle; each dissociation leads to one positive ion and one negative ion with the same mass as the positive ion. The temperature of the plasma is controlled by the relative energy of the dissociation. We studied the early time evolution of this system where the initial energy was tuned so that the plasma is formed in the strongly coupled regime. In particular, we present results on the temperature evolution and three body recombination. In the weakly coupled regime, we studied how an expanding plasma thermalizes and how the scattering between ions affects the expansion. Because the expansion causes the density to drop, the velocity distribution only evolves for a finite time with the final distribution depending on the number of particles and initial temperature of the plasma. (paper)

  7. First experimental result of toroidal confinement of non-neutral plasma on Proto-RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, an internal-ring device named Proto-RT (Prototype Ring Trap) was constructed at University of Tokyo, and experiments on the device have been just initiated. The goal of Proto-RT is to explore an innovative way which has a possibility to attain a plasma equilibrium with extremely high-β (β>1) in a toroidal geometry using non-neutral condition. At the first series of the experiments, pure electron plasma (n e ∼10 12 m -3 ) is successfully confined inside a separatrix. No disruption is so far observed. The confinement time of the electron plasma is the order of 1 sec. A shear effect of magnetic fields seems to result in longer confinement. The non-neutrality of Δn e ∼10 12 m -3 is already beyond the value required to produce an enough self-electric field E in plasma, causing a strong ExB flow thoroughly all over the plasma where the hydrodynamic pressure of the flow is predicted to balance with the thermal pressure of the plasma. (author)

  8. Neutral-beam requirements for compression-boosted ignited tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Jassby, D.L.; Kreischer, K.

    1977-12-01

    Neutral-beam energies of 200 to 500-keV D 0 may be required to insure adequate penetration into the center of ignition-sized tokamak plasmas. However, the beam energy requirement can be reduced by using a start-up scenario in which the final plasma is formed by major-radius compression of a beam-heated plasma whose density-radius product, na, is determined by satisfactory neutral-beam penetration. ''Compression boosting'' is attractive only for plasmas in which ntau/sub E/ increases with na, because a major-radius compression C increases na by C 3 / 2 . The dependence on C of beam energy and beam power for plasmas which obey ''empirical scaling laws'' of the type ntau/sub E/ varies as (na) 2 is analyzed. The dependences on C of stored magnetic energy and TF-coil power dissipation are also determined. It is found that a compression ratio of 1.5 to attain the ignited plasma permits adequate penetration by 150-keV D 0 beams

  9. Application of diffusion theory to the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the widely held view that diffusion theory can not provide good accuracy for the transport of neutral particles in fusion plasmas is misplaced. In fact, it is shown that multigroup diffusion theory gives quite good accuracy as compared to the transport theory. The reasons for this are elaborated and some of the physical and theoretical reasons which make the multigroup diffusion theory provide good accuracy are explained. Energy dependence must be taken into consideration to obtain a realistic neutral atom distribution in fusion plasmas. There are two reasons for this; presence of either is enough to necessitate an energy dependent treatment. First, the plasma temperature varies spatially, and second, the ratio of charge-exchange to total plasma-neutral interaction cross section (c) is not close to one. A computer code to solve the one-dimensional multigroup diffusion theory in general geometry (slab, cylindrical and spherical) has been written for use on Cray computers, and its results are compared with those from the one-dimensional transport code ANISN to support the above finding. A fast, compact and versatile two-dimensional finite element multigroup diffusion theory code, FINAT, in X-Y and R-Z cylindrical/toroidal geometries has been written for use on CRAY computers. This code has been compared with the two dimensional transport code DOT-4.3. The accuracy is very good, and FENAT runs much faster compared even to DOT-4.3 which is a finite difference code

  10. Collaborative Research: A Model of Partially Ionized Plasma Flows with Kinetic Treatment of Neutral Atoms and Nonthermal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelov, Nikolai; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of flows of partially ionized, magnetized plasma are frequently accompanied by the presence of both thermal and non-thermal (pickup) ion components. Such interactions cannot be modeled using traditional MHD equations and require more advanced approaches to treat them. If a nonthermal component of ions is formed due to charge exchange and collisions between the thermal (core) ions and neutrals, it experiences the action of magnetic field, its distribution function is isotropized, and it soon acquires the velocity of the ambient plasma without being thermodynamically equilibrated. This situation, e. g., takes place in the outer heliosphere -- the part of interstellar space beyond the solar system whose properties are determined by the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. This is also possible in laboratory, at million degrees and above, when plasma is conducting electricity far too well, which makes Ohmic heating ineffective. To attain the target temperatures one needs additional heating eventually playing a dominant role. Among such sources is a so-called neutral particle beam heating. This is a wide-spread technique (Joint European Torus and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor experiments) based on the injection of powerful beams of neutral atoms into ohmically preheated plasma. In this project we have investigated the energy and density separation between the thermal and nonthermal components in the solar wind and interstellar plasmas. A new model has been developed in which we solve the ideal MHD equations for mixture of all ions and the kinetic Boltzmann equation to describe the transport of neutral atoms. As a separate capability, we can treat the flow of neutral atoms in a multi-component fashion, where neutral atoms born in each thermodynamically distinct region are governed by the Euler gas dynamic equations. We also describe the behavior of pickup ions either kinetically, using the Fokker--Planck equation, or

  11. Collaborative Research: A Model of Partially Ionized Plasma Flows with Kinetic Treatment of Neutral Atoms and Nonthermal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, Nikolai [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States); Zhang, Ming [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2016-07-31

    Interactions of flows of partially ionized, magnetized plasma are frequently accompanied by the presence of both thermal and non-thermal (pickup) ion components. Such interactions cannot be modeled using traditional MHD equations and require more advanced approaches to treat them. If a nonthermal component of ions is formed due to charge exchange and collisions between the thermal (core) ions and neutrals, it experiences the action of magnetic field, its distribution function is isotropized, and it soon acquires the velocity of the ambient plasma without being thermodynamically equilibrated. This situation, e. g., takes place in the outer heliosphere –- the part of interstellar space beyond the solar system whose properties are determined by the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. This is also possible in laboratory, at million degrees and above, when plasma is conducting electricity far too well, which makes Ohmic heating ineffective. To attain the target temperatures one needs additional heating eventually playing a dominant role. Among such sources is a so-called neutral particle beam heating. This is a wide-spread technique (Joint European Torus and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor experiments) based on the injection of powerful beams of neutral atoms into ohmically preheated plasma. In this project we have investigated the energy and density separation between the thermal and nonthermal components in the solar wind and interstellar plasmas. A new model has been developed in which we solve the ideal MHD equations for mixture of all ions and the kinetic Boltzmann equation to describe the transport of neutral atoms. As a separate capability, we can treat the flow of neutral atoms in a multi-component fashion, where neutral atoms born in each thermodynamically distinct region are governed by the Euler gas dynamic equations. We also describe the behavior of pickup ions either kinetically, using the Fokker--Planck equation

  12. Collaborative Research: A Model of Partially Ionized Plasma Flows with Kinetic Treatment of Neutral Atoms and Nonthermal Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, Nikolai [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Space Science. Center for Space Plasma and; Zhang, Ming [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Physics and Space Sciences Dept.; Borovikov, Sergey [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Space Science. Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research; Heerikhuisen, Jacob [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Space Science. Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research; Zank, Gary [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States). Dept. of Space Science. Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research; Gamayunov, Konstantin [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Physics and Space Sciences Dept.; Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-31

    Interactions of flows of partially ionized, magnetized plasma are frequently accompanied by the presence of both thermal and non-thermal (pickup) ion components. Such interactions cannot be modeled using traditional MHD equations and require more advanced approaches to treat them. If a nonthermal component of ions is formed due to charge exchange and collisions between the thermal (core) ions and neutrals, it experiences the action of magnetic field, its distribution function is isotropized, and it soon acquires the velocity of the ambient plasma without being thermodynamically equilibrated. This situation, e. g., takes place in the outer heliosphere - the part of interstellar space beyond the solar system whose properties are determined by the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium. This is also possible in laboratory, at million degrees and above, when plasma is conducting electricity far too well, which makes Ohmic heating ineffective. To attain the target temperatures one needs additional heating eventually playing a dominant role. Among such sources is a so-called neutral particle beam heating. This is a wide-spread technique (Joint European Torus and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor experiments) based on the injection of powerful beams of neutral atoms into ohmically preheated plasma. In this project we have investigated the energy and density separation between the thermal and nonthermal components in the solar wind and interstellar plasmas. A new model has been developed in which we solve the ideal MHD equations for mixture of all ions and the kinetic Boltzmann equation to describe the transport of neutral atoms. As a separate capability, we can treat the flow of neutral atoms in a multi-component fashion, where neutral atoms born in each thermodynamically distinct regions are governed by the Euler gas dynamic equations. We also describe the behavior of pickup ions either kinetically, using the Fokker–Planck equation, or

  13. Neutral meson production in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borissov, Alexander [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States and European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    The first measurements of the invariant differential cross sections of inclusive {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} meson production with ALICE are presented for pp collisions at {radical}(s) = 0.9 and 7 TeV. Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD calculations overestimate the data at {radical}(s) = 7TeV, but are consistent with the {pi}{sup 0} spectrum at {radical}(s) = 0.9TeV and with the measured {pi}{sup 0}/{eta} cross section ratio at {radical}(s) = 7TeV. The nuclear modification factors (R{sub AA}) of {pi}{sup 0} production at different centralities show a strong suppression with respect to pp collisions.

  14. Gravitational collisions and the quark-gluon plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schee, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330953974

    2014-01-01

    This thesis addresses the thermalisation of heavy-ion collisions within the context of the AdS/CFT duality. The first part clarifies the numerical set-up and studies the relaxation of far-from-equilibrium modes in homogeneous systems. Less trivially we then study colliding shock waves and uncover a

  15. Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Sefkow, A.B; Friedman, A.F.; Lee, E.P.

    2009-01-01

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by a background plasma forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self-magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating

  16. An introduction to quark-gluon plasma and high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    1987-01-01

    The quark-gluon plasma, and how it might be produced in ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions is reviewed. I briefly introduce the quark-gluon plasma, and what we might learn from studying it. I then discuss what has been learned from the recent results from the CERN oxygen run. I then attempt to address the issue of whether A = 16 and E = 200 GeV are sufficient to make a quark-gluon plasma. I discuss strangeness and charm production as well as electromagnetic probes of the plasma

  17. Binary-collision-approximation simulation for noble gas irradiation onto plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Takayama, Arimichi; Ito, Atsushi M

    2014-01-01

    A number of experiments show that helium plasma constructs filament (fuzz) structures whose diameter is in nanometer-scale on the tungsten material under the suitable experimental condition. In this paper, binary-collision-approximation-based simulation is performed to reveal the mechanism and the conditions of fuzz formation of tungsten material under plasma irradiation. The irradiation of the plasma of hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium, and also the plasma of noble gas such as helium, neon, and argon atoms are investigated. The possibility of fuzz formation is discussed on the simulation result of penetration depth of the incident atoms

  18. Neutral pion measurement in p-Pb collisions at ${\\sqrt{s_{\\rm{NN}}}}$ = 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508134

    Quarks and gluons which are thought to be a elementary particle are confined in the nucleon, and it is impossible to extract only quark from the nucleon. However they are freed from confined state with a condition of extreme high temperature and high density. There was the high temperature and dense condition immediately after the big bang of the birth of the universe, and quarks and gluons could move around freely. This state is called Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). A high-energy heavy-ion collisions experiment can create the QGP experimentally. Particles passing through the QGP lose energy by the strong force. In the results, produced particles are modified their own yields. Strong suppression of high-${p_{\\rm T}}$ particles has been observed in heavy-ion collisions at LHC energies, which can be interpreted by invoking various processes involving transport properties of the QCD medium and initial-state effects. Proton-nucleus (p-A) collisions are intermediate between proton-proton (pp) and nucleus-nucleus (A-A)...

  19. Measurement of neutral mesons and direct photons in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00416390

    The Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is a strongly interacting matter with high temperature and energy density, where partons are deconfined. It is hypothesised being the same state the universe was in just a few microseconds after the Big Bang. Experimentally, the QGP is studied at accelerator experiments using heavy-ions. The presence of a deconfined phase after the ultra-relativistic collisions is expected to influence the system evolution. The search for modifications induced on the particle production is carried out taking elementary particle collisions as reference measurement. The research presented in this thesis focuses on the study of neutral meson and direct photon production in lead ion collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The neutral pion and \\e mesons are reconstructed via their photon decay channel, exploiting the photon conversions in the detector material. A modification of the meson spectra is observed and investigated further with ...

  20. Improved Temperature Diagnostic for Non-Neutral Plasmas with Single-Electron Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanman, Sabrina; Evans, Lenny; Fajans, Joel; Hunter, Eric; Nelson, Cheyenne; Sierra, Carlos; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Plasma temperature diagnostics in a Penning-Malmberg trap are essential for reliably obtaining cold, non-neutral plasmas. We have developed a setup for detecting the initial electrons that escape from a trapped pure electron plasma as the confining electrode potential is slowly reduced. The setup minimizes external noise by using a silicon photomultiplier to capture light emitted from an MCP-amplified phosphor screen. To take advantage of this enhanced resolution, we have developed a new plasma temperature diagnostic analysis procedure which takes discrete electron arrival times as input. We have run extensive simulations comparing this new discrete algorithm to our existing exponential fitting algorithm. These simulations are used to explore the behavior of these two temperature diagnostic procedures at low N and at high electronic noise. This work was supported by the DOE DE-FG02-06ER54904, and the NSF 1500538-PHY.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielkopf, J.

    1991-01-01

    Low energy collisions involving neutral excited states of hydrogen are being studied with vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Atomic hydrogen is generated by focusing an energetic pulse of ArF, KrF, or YAG laser light into a cell of molecular hydrogen, where a plasma is created near the focal point. The H 2 molecules in and near this region are dissociated, and the cooling atomic hydrogen gas is examined with laser and dispersive optical spectroscopy. In related experiments, we are also investigating neutral H + O and H + metal - atom collisions in these laser-generated plasmas

  2. A review of quantum collision dynamics in Debye plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Janev, R. K.; Zhang, Song Bin; Wang, Jian Guo

    2016-01-01

    Hot, dense plasmas exhibit screened Coulomb interactions, resulting from the collective effects of correlated many-particle interactions. In the lowest particle correlation order (pair-wise correlations), the interaction between charged plasma particles reduces to the Debye-H\\"uckel (Yukawa-type) potential, characterized by the Debye screening length D. Due to the importance of Coulomb interaction screening in dense laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, hundreds of theoretical investigations ...

  3. Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency

  4. The diagnostic neutral beam injector with arc-discharge plasma source on the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpushov, Alexander N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: alexander.karpushov@epfl.ch; Andrebe, Yanis; Duval, Basil P.; Bortolon, Alessandro [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    The diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) together with a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system has been used on the TCV Tokamak as a diagnostic tool for local measurements of plasma ion temperature, velocity and carbon impurity density based on analysis of the beam induced impurity radiation emission since 2000. To improve the performance of the CXRS diagnostic, several upgrades of both the optical system and the neutral beam were performed. An increase of the plasma source size together with beam optimization in 2003 resulted in a twofold increase the beam current. The RF plasma generator was replaced by an arc-discharge plasma source together with a new ion optical system (IOS) in 2006 and subsequent beam optimization is presented herein. This was designed to increase the line brightness of the beam in the CXRS observation region without increasing of the injected power (to avoid plasma perturbation by the beam). The beam characteristics are measured by a multi-chord scanning of Doppler-shifted H{sub {alpha}} emission, thermal measurements on a movable calorimeter and visible optical measurements inside the Tokamak vessel.

  5. Study of the synthesized plasma resulting from forced neutralization of a mercury ions beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, G.

    1969-01-01

    When an ionic beam is used (space simulation etc...) it needs a forced space charge neutralization by means of electrons injection when the perturbations resulting from the ionic space charge are not already eliminated by the well known self neutralization of the beam on the back ground gas of the tank. We have shown that it is possible to obtain the forced neutralization of a low energy (a few KeV) Hg + ion beam, 10 cm in diameter, with a neutraliser made of a hot emissive filament located inside the beam close to the ion source. The computed solution of the plane waves dispersion equation has shown that the synthesized plasma, resulting from the neutralised beam, is damping fluctuations with any wave length when the average ions velocity is less than the neutralizing electrons thermal velocity. This last conclusion assumes that no external electromagnetic field is applied. When a longitudinal electric field is applied, by means of a polarized grid into the beam, the plasma stability range is changed. (author) [fr

  6. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  7. Study of elementary transfer mechanisms during a collision between a swift multi-charged heavy ion and a neutral atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, P.

    1995-01-01

    This work is dedicated to the study of the energy transfer mechanisms which occur during a collision between a swift multicharged heavy ion and a neutral atom. The elementary energy energy transfer mechanisms (scattering, excitation, ionization, capture) and their consequences on the target velocity after the collision (recoil velocity) are recalled in the first chapter. In the case of small projectile diffusion angles, we show that the recoil velocity component, transverse to the incident projectile direction, results principally from the diffusion mechanism, while the longitudinal component is due essentially to the mass transfer and the inelastic energy transfer mechanisms. Since the target recoil velocities are very small, we have built an experimental set-up which reduces the impreciseness on their measurement due to the target thermal spread using, as targets, cooled atoms of a supersonic jet (temperature 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + Ar => Xe 44 + Ar q+ +qe - (q ranging from 1 to 7); Xe 44+ (6.7 MeV/A) + He => Xe 44+ He 1+,2+ +1e - ,2e - . We show that it is possible to interpret the recoil velocity in terms of kinetic energy transferred to the target and to the electrons ejected from the target. (author)

  8. Contribution to the theoretical study of collisions between highly excited atom and a neutral particle (atom or molecule)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunele, Eugene de.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the collision between an atom in the Rydberg state and a neutral atom (or molecule) is considerably simplified if it is considered as the collision of a B particle with a system of two linked particles A + and e - . If the interaction between these two particles is described by a potential and if the three-body interaction is approximated by a potential equal to the sum of the two-body interaction potentials, the problem is theoretically solvable exactly within the framework of quantum mechanics but, its explicit solution is very complicated, even for very simple potentials. Various types of approaches are then necessary. The choice of interaction potentials is already an approximation, for it is obviously not known how to describe exactly the interaction between the electron and atom B for example. The fact that the electron is, on average, very far from core A + has enabled an interaction potential to be simulated between B and e - when the latter is linked to A + , by utilizing the scattering data between free e - and B. (Fermi's pseudopotential). A second approach consists in utilizing the scattering data between free e - and B, without bringing in an interaction potential between e - and B. The first approach is more satisfactory from the theoretical point of view; the second and less ambitious one is more useful [fr

  9. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism

  10. Preliminary considerations concerning neutral plasma beam propagation across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, W.R.; Faehl, R.J.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-08-01

    A plan to address physical questions of interest for exoatmospheric military applications of intense neutralized plasma beams is described. After a brief review of earlier work relevant to this matter and a detailed explanation of why such work cannot answer questions of present interest, a plan employing interactive application of several numerical and analytic techniques to treat relevant phenomena occurring on the various rather disparate time and length scales involved is suggested. The first part of the study would determine the macroscopic features of beam propagation through calculations effected with a magnetohydrodynamical numerical code. Classical transport coefficients would be employed in this initial phase. Using information thus gained concerning gross charge and current distributions, particle-in-cell simulations would be initialized to study those microscopic, phase-space-dependent phenomena which can alter the phenomonological transport coefficients appearing in the fluid description. Insight thereby gained concerning anomaous, collectively induced transport effects would then be applied to yield a refined, accurate description of the macroscopic aspects of neutral plasma beam propagation. Personnel and computational resources available at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory are described. Results of a very preliminary particle-in-cell simulation of a neutral plasma beam propagating across a magnetic field are presented

  11. Stability aspects of plasmas penetrated by neutral gas with respect to velocity driven modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, D.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the stability properties of dense partially ionized plasmas immersed in strong magnetic fields with respect to velocity driven modes are presented. First we consider modes driven by mass motion perpendicular to the lines of force and the unperturbed density and temperature gradients. The presence of a third fluid, neutral gas, gives under certain conditions rise to unstable modes. This type of instability arises independently or whether the applied electric field transverse to the lines of force, driving the mass motion, being parallel or antiparallel to the unperturbed density and temperature gradient. The presence of neutral gas also corresponds to stabilizing effects which, in certain parameter regions, result in a quenching of this instability. It is shown that modes driven by velocity shear perpendicular to the lines of force are effectively stabilized by viscous and resistive effects. These effects are in certain parameter ranges strongly enhanced on account of plasma-neutral gas interaction effects. In collisionless plasmas, modes driven by velocity shear parallel to the lines of force are stabilized by compressibility effects parallel to the magnetic field and by finite Larmor radius effects. (author)

  12. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, S. S.; Liu, D.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ‘beam-in-a-box’ model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  13. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gorelenkova, M. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Heidbrink, W. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Stagner, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-12

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a 'beam-in-a-box' model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  14. Usefulness of a collision term for the guiding center-plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Pierre; Baumann, Germain

    1976-01-01

    Difficulties occurring in the treatment of the guiding-center-plasma equations by means of the spectral method, are connected to the finite number of Fourier components which must be retained. It is shown that the introduction of viscosity-like collisions will remove appreciably the numerical difficulties, without destroying the interesting phenomena [fr

  15. On the equivalence of convergent kinetic equations for hot dilute plasmas: Generating functions for collision brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The generating functions for the collision brackets associated with two alternative convergent kinetic equations are derived for small values of the plasma parameter. It is shown that the first few terms in the asymptotic expansions of these generating functions are identical. Consequently, both

  16. Increase of plasma ion source efficiency utilizing collisions of the second kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    1979-01-01

    It is experimentally found that the efficiency of a plasma ion source for use in an electromagnetic separator can be increased under appropriate operating conditions utilizing collisions of the second kind, of a proper gas is additionally introduced into the arc chamber containing atoms with metastable excited levels. (author)

  17. Neutral meson production in $p$-Be and $p$-Au collisions at 450 GeV beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Agakichiev, G; Averbeck, R; Ballester, F; Baur, R; Brenschede, A; Díaz, J; Drees, A; Faschingbauer, U; Ferrero, J L; Fischer, P; Fraenkel, Zeev; Franke, M; Fuchs, C; Gatti, E; Glässel, P; Günzel, T F; Pérez de los Heros, C; Hess, F; Holzmann, R; Irmscher, D; Jacob, C; Kühn, W; Lenkeit, B C; Löhner, H; Marin, A; Marqués, F M; Martínez, G; Metag, V; Notheisen, M; Novotny, R; Olsen, L H; Ostendorf, R W; Panebratsev, Yu A; Pfeiffer, A; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sampietro, M; Schön, A; Schükraft, Jürgen; Schutz, Y; Shimansky, S S; Shor, A; Simon, R S; Specht, H J; Steiner, V; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tel-Zur, G; Tserruya, Itzhak; Ullrich, T S; Wilschut, H W; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, V I

    1998-01-01

    In a joint experiment the TAPS and CERES collaborations have studied the production of the neutral mesons $\\pi^{0}$, $\\eta$ and $\\omega$ in 450 GeV $p$-Be and $p$-Au collisions at the CERN SPS. The mesons were identified by their $\\pi^{0} \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma, \\eta \\rightarrow \\gamma\\gamma$, and $\\omega \\rightarrow \\pi^{0}\\gamma$ decay modes. The cross sections were measured down to very low $p_{T}$ ($\\geq$ 20 MeV/c) near mid-rapidity $(3.0neutral meson production on the mass of the nuclear target and find it in good agreement with previous measurements of charged mesons.

  18. The Decay of Optically Thick Helium Plasmas, Taking into Account Ionizing Collisions between Metastable Atoms or Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevefelt, J

    1970-11-15

    The effective recombination rate of a helium afterglow plasma, which is optically thick towards the resonance lines, is calculated from the coupled rate equations for the number densities of free electrons and of metastable atoms or molecules. The model employed is a neutral plasma, consisting of one kind of ions and one kind of metastables. The ions are lost by electron-ion recombination only, with subsequent formation of metastables, which are then deactivated in collisions with free electrons or with other metastables: in the latter case one electron is regained to the free state. When the rate constants for these various processes are time-independent, it is found that after a certain transition time a transient equilibrium between the number densities of electrons and metastables is attained. In a dense afterglow plasma, where the recombination coefficient may be large, the transient equilibrium density of metastables may become significantly higher than the qua si-equilibrium value obtained by equating the time derivative of the metastable density to zero, and the effective recombination coefficient may be reduced by much more than a factor of two

  19. The Decay of Optically Thick Helium Plasmas, Taking into Account Ionizing Collisions between Metastable Atoms or Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevefelt, J.

    1970-11-01

    The effective recombination rate of a helium afterglow plasma, which is optically thick towards the resonance lines, is calculated from the coupled rate equations for the number densities of free electrons and of metastable atoms or molecules. The model employed is a neutral plasma, consisting of one kind of ions and one kind of metastables. The ions are lost by electron-ion recombination only, with subsequent formation of metastables, which are then deactivated in collisions with free electrons or with other metastables: in the latter case one electron is regained to the free state. When the rate constants for these various processes are time-independent, it is found that after a certain transition time a transient equilibrium between the number densities of electrons and metastables is attained. In a dense afterglow plasma, where the recombination coefficient may be large, the transient equilibrium density of metastables may become significantly higher than the qua si-equilibrium value obtained by equating the time derivative of the metastable density to zero, and the effective recombination coefficient may be reduced by much more than a factor of two

  20. Compression of a mixed antiproton and electron non-neutral plasma to high densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghion, Stefano; Amsler, Claude; Bonomi, Germano; Brusa, Roberto S.; Caccia, Massimo; Caravita, Ruggero; Castelli, Fabrizio; Cerchiari, Giovanni; Comparat, Daniel; Consolati, Giovanni; Demetrio, Andrea; Di Noto, Lea; Doser, Michael; Evans, Craig; Fanì, Mattia; Ferragut, Rafael; Fesel, Julian; Fontana, Andrea; Gerber, Sebastian; Giammarchi, Marco; Gligorova, Angela; Guatieri, Francesco; Haider, Stefan; Hinterberger, Alexander; Holmestad, Helga; Kellerbauer, Alban; Khalidova, Olga; Krasnický, Daniel; Lagomarsino, Vittorio; Lansonneur, Pierre; Lebrun, Patrice; Malbrunot, Chloé; Mariazzi, Sebastiano; Marton, Johann; Matveev, Victor; Mazzotta, Zeudi; Müller, Simon R.; Nebbia, Giancarlo; Nedelec, Patrick; Oberthaler, Markus; Pacifico, Nicola; Pagano, Davide; Penasa, Luca; Petracek, Vojtech; Prelz, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Rienaecker, Benjamin; Robert, Jacques; Røhne, Ole M.; Rotondi, Alberto; Sandaker, Heidi; Santoro, Romualdo; Smestad, Lillian; Sorrentino, Fiodor; Testera, Gemma; Tietje, Ingmari C.; Widmann, Eberhard; Yzombard, Pauline; Zimmer, Christian; Zmeskal, Johann; Zurlo, Nicola; Antonello, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    We describe a multi-step "rotating wall" compression of a mixed cold antiproton-electron non-neutral plasma in a 4.46 T Penning-Malmberg trap developed in the context of the AEḡIS experiment at CERN. Such traps are routinely used for the preparation of cold antiprotons suitable for antihydrogen production. A tenfold antiproton radius compression has been achieved, with a minimum antiproton radius of only 0.17 mm. We describe the experimental conditions necessary to perform such a compression: minimizing the tails of the electron density distribution is paramount to ensure that the antiproton density distribution follows that of the electrons. Such electron density tails are remnants of rotating wall compression and in many cases can remain unnoticed. We observe that the compression dynamics for a pure electron plasma behaves the same way as that of a mixed antiproton and electron plasma. Thanks to this optimized compression method and the high single shot antiproton catching efficiency, we observe for the first time cold and dense non-neutral antiproton plasmas with particle densities n ≥ 1013 m-3, which pave the way for an efficient pulsed antihydrogen production in AEḡIS.

  1. Progress of neutral beam R and D for plasma heating and current drive at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Recent progress and future plans regarding development of a high power negative ion source at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are described. The neutral beam injection system, which is expected to play an important role not only in plasma heating but also in the plasma current drive in the fusion reactor, requires a high power negative ion source which can produce negative deuterium ion beams with current of order 20A at energy above 1MeV. In order to realize such a high power negative ion beam, intensive research and development has been carried out at JAERI since 1984. The negative hydrogen ion beam current of 10A achieved in recent years almost equals the value required for the fusion reactor. With regard to the negative ion acceleration, a high current negative ion beam of 0.2A has been accelerated up to 350keV electrostatically. On the basis of this recent progress, two development plans have been initiated as an intermediate step towards the fusion reactor. One is to develop a 500keV, 10MW negative ion based neutral beam injection system for JT-60U to demonstrate the neutral beam current drive in a high density plasma. The other is to develop a 1MeV, 1A ion source to demonstrate high current negative ion acceleration up to 1MeV. On the basis of this research and development, an efficient and reactor relevant neutral beam injection system will be developed for an experimental fusion reactor such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. ((orig.))

  2. Neutral pion production in heavy ion collisions at SIS-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumbera, M.; Loehner, H.; Raschke, A.E.; Venema, L.B.; Wilschut, H.W.

    1993-01-01

    The production of π 0 mesons has been studied in the reactions 40 Ar+Ca and 197 Au+Au at 1.0 GeV/u. While the pion transverse momentum spectrum from the reaction Ar+Ca is consistent with a simple thermal exponential slope a second component is seen for the system Au+Au. Both neutral pions, neutrons and charged particles exhibit an anisotropy in the reaction plane azimuth. At midrapidity the emission of pions perpendicular to the reaction plane increases with their energy. (orig.)

  3. Role of atom--atom inelastic collisions in two-temperature nonequilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunc, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic atom--atom collisions to the production of electrons and excited atoms in two-temperature (with electron temperature T/sub e/, atomic temperature T/sub a/, and atomic density N/sub a/), steady-state, nonequilibrium atomic hydrogen plasma is investigated. The results are valid for plasmas having large amounts of atomic hydrogen as one of the plasma components, so that e--H and H--H inelastic collisions and interaction of these atoms with radiation dominate the production of electrons and excited hydrogen atoms. Densities of electrons and excited atoms are calculated in low-temperature plasma, with T/sub e/ and T/sub a/≤8000 K and 10 16 cm -3 ≤N/sub a/≤10 18 cm -3 , and with different degrees of the reabsorption of radiation. The results indicate that inelastic atom--atom collisions are important for production of electrons and excited atoms in partially ionized plasmas with medium and high atomic density and temperatures below 8000 K

  4. Solution of the non-stationary electron Boltzmann equation for a weakly ionized collision dominated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, R.; Wilhelm, J.

    A detailed description is presented of calculating the nonstationary electron distribution function in a weakly ionized collision-dominated plasma from the Boltzmann kinetic equation respecting the effects of the time-dependent electric field, collision processes and the electron formation and loss. The finite difference approximation was used for numerical solution. Using the Crank-Nicolson method and parabolic interpolation between the grid points the Boltzmann equation was transformed to a system of linear equations which was then solved by iterations at a preset accuracy. Using the calculated distribution function values, the macroscopic plasma parameters were determined and the balance of electron density and energy checked in each time step. The mathematical procedure is illustrated using a neon plasma perturbed by a rectangular electric pulse. The time development shown of the distribution function at moments when the pulse was switched on and off demonstrates the great stability of the numerical solution. (J.U.)

  5. Head-on collisions of electrostatic solitons in multi-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank; Hellberg, Manfred A.; Hereman, Willy A.

    2012-01-01

    Head-on collisions between two electrostatic solitons are dealt with by the Poincaré-Lighthill-Kuo method of strained coordinates, for a plasma composed of a number of cold (positive and negative) ion species and Boltzmann electrons. The nonlinear evolution equations for both solitons and their phase shift due to the collision, resulting in time delays, are established. A Korteweg-de Vries description is the generic conclusion, except when the plasma composition is special enough to replace the quadratic by a cubic nonlinearity in the evolution equations, with concomitant repercussions on the phase shifts. Applications include different two-ion plasmas, showing positive or negative polarity solitons in the generic case. At critical composition, a combination of a positive and a negative polarity soliton is possible.

  6. Reconfigurable modified surface layers using plasma capillaries around the neutral inclusion regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varault, S. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Universite Paul Sabatier—CNRS-Laplace 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Gabard, B. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); STAE—4, Rue Emile Monso, BP84234, 31030 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Crépin, T.; Bolioli, S. [ONERA—The French Aerospace Lab 2, Avenue Edouard Belin, BP4025, 31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Sokoloff, J. [Universite Paul Sabatier—CNRS-Laplace 118, Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-02-28

    We show both theoretically and experimentally reconfigurable properties achieved by plasma inclusions placed in modified surface layers generally used to tailor the transmission and beaming properties of electromagnetic bandgap based waveguiding structures. A proper parametrization of the plasma capillaries allows to reach the neutral inclusion regime, where the inclusions appear to be electromagnetically transparent, letting the surface mode characteristics unaltered. Varying the electron density of the plasma inclusions provoques small perturbations around this peculiar regime, and we observe significant modifications of the transmission/beaming properties. This offers a way to dynamically select the enhanced transmission frequency or to modify the radiation pattern of the structure, depending on whether the modified surface layer is placed at the entrance/exit of the waveguide.

  7. Reconfigurable modified surface layers using plasma capillaries around the neutral inclusion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, S.; Gabard, B.; Crépin, T.; Bolioli, S.; Sokoloff, J.

    2014-01-01

    We show both theoretically and experimentally reconfigurable properties achieved by plasma inclusions placed in modified surface layers generally used to tailor the transmission and beaming properties of electromagnetic bandgap based waveguiding structures. A proper parametrization of the plasma capillaries allows to reach the neutral inclusion regime, where the inclusions appear to be electromagnetically transparent, letting the surface mode characteristics unaltered. Varying the electron density of the plasma inclusions provoques small perturbations around this peculiar regime, and we observe significant modifications of the transmission/beaming properties. This offers a way to dynamically select the enhanced transmission frequency or to modify the radiation pattern of the structure, depending on whether the modified surface layer is placed at the entrance/exit of the waveguide

  8. Design and fabrication of a large rectangular magnetic cusp plasma source for high intensity neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, L.A.; Berkner, K.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Paterson, J.A.; Porter, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large, rectangular magnetic bucket plasma source are described. This source is compatible with the accelerator structures for the TFTR and DIII neutral-beam systems

  9. On radiative detection of neutral particles produced in e+e- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedov, Yu.A.; Klimenko, K.G.; Tikhonin, F.F.

    1983-01-01

    The photon spectra from the reaction e + e - →γ + ''unobserved neutrals'' for different types of pairs from ''unobserved neutrals'' have been studied in some details. The initial particle masses have been taken into account. Their effect proved to be negligible, as it has been checked for the case νsub(i)νsub(i) nilde. But, generally speaking, this is not obvious. Besides, these calculations made it possible to carry out the integration over the whole variation range of the photon azimuthal emission angle. The influence of the masses of a photino pair γ tilde anti γ tilde on the spectrum behaviour has been calculated. It turned out that in other references this effect was incorrectly taken into account. Moreover a sharp difference between the spectrum in the case of a G tilde anti G tilde-pair (spin 3/2 gravitino-antigravitino) and the ones for spin 1/2 pairs, which also contradicts the results obtained by other authors are shown

  10. Radio-frequency heating and neutral atom transport in a fluid-magnetohydrodynamic treatment of burning tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Mau, T.K.; Prinja, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A physical model for the space and time evolution of the primary parameters of ordinary and burning tokamak plasmas is described by employing a fluid plasma treatment coupled to a magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium description, the solution to the appropriate Maxwell equations, and the solution of the linear transport equation describing neutral atom transport in plasmas. The specific problems of plasma heating by ion cyclotron radiofrequency (ICRF) waves and neutral atom transport in the plasma edge and in complicated geometrical components such as divertor channels or pumped limiter structures are analyzed. A theoretical, onedimensional slab model of ICRF heating at ω = 2ω/SUB cD/ is developed and applied to determine the space-time response of tokamak plasmas. Generally, strong single-pass absorption is found for high-density, high (β) plasmas using a low k 11 spectrum (0.05 to 0.1 cm -1 ) although for (β > 1%, electron Landau damping becomes important. Deterministic and Monte Carlo methods to solve the neutral atom transport problem are described. Specific application to determine the spectrum of neutral atoms emerging from the duct of a pump limiter shows it to be hard (mean energy > 20 eV), indicating very incomplete energy thermalization. Uncertainties are identified in the overall problem of dynamic burning plasma analysis caused by the complexity of the problem itself and by uncertainties in fundamental areas such as plasma transport coefficients, stability, and plasma edge physics

  11. Equivalent effect of neutral gas pressure and transverse magnetic field in low-pressure glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, M.; Rusu, Ioana; Pohoata, V.; Mihaila, I.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper it is emphasized the equivalent effect of the neutral gas pressure and the action of a transverse magnetic field (TMF), respectively, on a striated positive plasma column. Experimental and theoretical results prove that the distance between striations has the same variation under the influence of both neutral gas pressure and the action of TMF. The pressure modification as well as the action of a TMF can induce ionization instability in the plasma column which explains the standing striation appearance. (authors)

  12. Numerical simulation of neutral injection in a hot-electron mirror target plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkoff, F.; Bardet, R.; Briand, P.; Dupas, L.; Gormezano, C.; Melin, G.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1976-01-01

    In the case of neutral injection into a hot-electron target plasma, the use of the existing Fokker-Planck codes is greatly complicated by the fact that the scale of the energies and times of the confined ions and electrons is very large. To avoid this difficulty, a simplified multi-species model is set up, in which each species is described by time-dependent density and energy equations with analytical approximations for the interactions between the species. During the neutral injection, instantaneous high values of the ambipolar potential (higher than the half value of hot-ion energy) may appear, but do not prevent hot-ion density build-up. However, the hot-electron target plasma must not be maintained for a too long time. Numerical runs are performed with typical target parameters: density 2x10 13 cm -3 , electron energy 30 keV, ion energy 400 eV, time duration during which the target density is maintained 1 ms. Hot-ion density, a few 10 14 cm -3 , can be achieved with a neutral beam of 100 A, 20 keV. (author)

  13. Estimation of Neutral Density in Edge Plasma with Double Null Configuration in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Xu Guosheng; Ding Siye; Gao Wei; Wu Zhenwei; Chen Yingjie; Huang Juan; Liu Xiaoju; Zang Qing; Chang Jiafeng; Zhang Wei; Li Yingying; Qian Jinping

    2011-01-01

    In this work, population coefficients of hydrogen's n = 3 excited state from the hydrogen collisional-radiative (CR) model, from the data file of DEGAS 2, are used to calculate the photon emissivity coefficients (PECs) of hydrogen Balmer-α (n = 3 → n = 2) (H α ). The results are compared with the PECs from Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) database, and a good agreement is found. A magnetic surface-averaged neutral density profile of typical double-null (DN) plasma in EAST is obtained by using FRANTIC, the 1.5-D fluid transport code. It is found that the sum of integral D α and H α emission intensity calculated via the neutral density agrees with the measured results obtained by using the absolutely calibrated multi-channel poloidal photodiode array systems viewing the lower divertor at the last closed flux surface (LCFS). It is revealed that the typical magnetic surface-averaged neutral density at LCFS is about 3.5 x 10 16 m -3 . (magnetically confined plasma)

  14. Measurement of neutral mesons and direct photons in Pb-Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leardini, Lucia

    2017-11-20

    The Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is a strongly interacting matter with high temperature and energy density, where partons are deconfined. It is hypothesised being the same state the universe was in just a few microseconds after the Big Bang. Experimentally, the QGP is studied at accelerator experiments using heavy-ions. The presence of a deconfined phase after the ultra-relativistic collisions is expected to influence the system evolution. The search for modifications induced on the particle production is carried out taking elementary particle collisions as reference measurement. The research presented in this thesis focuses on the study of neutral meson and direct photon production in lead ion collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The neutral pion and η mesons are reconstructed via their photon decay channel, exploiting the photon conversions in the detector material. A modification of the meson spectra is observed and investigated further with the comparison to similar experimental results as well as theoretical models. The measurement of neutral mesons is essential for the study of direct photon production, since decay photons are the largest background for this signal. The photon excess signal on top of the decay photon background in the transverse momentum interval 1

  15. Production of charmed particles in nuN collisions due to neutral weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    A study is made of associated production of charmed particles in neutrino-nucleon interactions due to neutral weak currents. The angular distribution of the jets of charmed hadrons in nN interactions is determined in the lowest approximation in the quark-gluon coupling constant, according to which a charmed quark and antiquark are produced in an annihilation of a vector gluon and a virtual Z boson. It is shown that only a P-even dependence on the azimuthal angle v occurs in the studied approximation, the P-odd dependence which is possible in the general case being equal to zero. The total cross section for charmed-particle production in neutrino-nucleon interactions is calculated, and the origin of the violation of scale invariance is demonstrated

  16. Production asymmetries of neutral B mesons in pp collisions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Ferrari, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The B0bar-B0 and Bsbar-Bs production asymmetries, AP(B0) and AP(Bs), are measured by means of a time-dependent analysis of B0 -> J/\\psi K*0, B0 -> D- pi+ and Bs -> Ds- pi+ decays, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb^{-1}, collected by LHCb in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurements are performed as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the B0 and Bs mesons within the LHCb acceptance. The production asymmetries, integrated over pT and eta in the range 4 < pT< 30 GeV/c and 2.5

  17. The effect of charge exchange with neutral deuterium on carbon emission in JET divertor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggi, C.; Horton, L.; Summers, H.

    1999-11-01

    High density, low temperature divertor plasma operation in tokamaks results in large neutral deuterium concentrations in the divertor volume. In these conditions, low energy charge transfer reactions between neutral deuterium and the impurity ions can in principle enhance the impurity radiative losses and thus help to reduce the maximum heat load to the divertor target. A quantitative study of the effect of charge exchange on carbon emission is presented, applied to the JET divertor. Total and state selective effective charge exchange recombination rate coefficients were calculated in the collisional radiative picture. These coefficients were coupled to divertor and impurity transport models to study the effect of charge exchange on the measured carbon spectral emission in JET divertor discharges. The sensitivity of the effect of charge exchange to the assumptions in the impurity transport model was also investigated. A reassessment was made of fundamental charge exchange cross section data in support of this study. (author)

  18. Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D. [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universisdad de Castilla La Mancha, Ciudad Real E13071 (Spain)]. E-mail: ManuelD.Barriga@uclm.es

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies.

  19. Effects of target electron collisions on energy loss straggling in plasmas of all degeneracies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to describe the effects of target electron collisions on the energy loss straggling in plasmas of any degeneracy. We focus our analysis on targets that are in the limit of weakly coupled electron gases, where the random phase approximation can be applied. This type of plasmas targets has not been studied extensively, though they are very important for inertial confinement fusion. The energy loss straggling is obtained from an exact quantum mechanical evaluation, which takes into account the degeneracy of the target plasma, and later it is compared with common classical and degenerate approximations. Also we consider electron collisions in the exact quantum mechanical straggling calculation. Now the maximum straggling occurs at velocities smaller than for the calculations without considering collisions for all kinds of plasmas analyzed. The straggling remains equal or enhances for velocities less than or equal to the velocity at maximum while is slightly decreases for higher velocities. Differences are significant in all cases, that can let large errors creep on in further energy deposition and projectile range studies

  20. Effects of target plasma electron-electron collisions on correlated motion of fragmented H2+ protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to examined the effects of plasma target electron-electron collisions on H 2 + protons traversing it. Specifically, the target is deuterium in a plasma state with temperature T e =10 eV and density n=10 23 cm -3 , and proton velocities are v p =v th , v p =2v th , and v p =3v th , where v th is the electron thermal velocity of the target plasma. Proton interactions with plasma electrons are treated by means of the dielectric formalism. The interactions among close protons through plasma electronic medium are called vicinage forces. It is checked that these forces always screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H 2 + ion decreasing their relative distance. They also align the interproton vector along the motion direction, and increase the energy loss of the two protons at early dwell times while for longer times the energy loss tends to the value of two isolated protons. Nevertheless, vicinage forces and effects are modified by the target electron collisions. These collisions enhance the calculated self-stopping and vicinage forces over the collisionless results. Regarding proton correlated motion, when these collisions are included, the interproton vector along the motion direction overaligns at slower proton velocities (v p =v th ) and misaligns for faster ones (v p =2v th , v p =3v th ). They also contribute to a great extend to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H 2 + ion. This later effect is more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  1. Suppression of fast electron leakage from large openings in a plasma neutralizer for N-NB systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Yamana, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Imai, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    To produce highly ionized plasmas at low operating pressure in a plasma neutralizer of negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) systems, it is a critical issue to suppress leakage of fast electrons through large openings as the beam entrance/exit. The authors propose to form weak transverse magnetic fields without a significant beam deflection, called the shield field, across the large openings of the neutralizer. A numerical study showed that the shield field of only few tens of Gauss is sufficient to suppress the fast electron leakage from the openings. By measuring of an electron energy distribution function (EEDF), it was confirmed that such a weak magnetic field is enough to repel the fast electrons back into the neutralizer plasma. As the result, the plasma density increased with the shield field strength and saturated at 30 G. The plasma density reached 50% higher value than that without the shield field. Thus it was found that reflected fast electrons by the shield field of only 30 G work effectively for the plasma generation. It was also estimated that such a weak magnetic field sufficiently suppresses the deflection of a 1 MeV beam. This weak magnetic field would be applicable to the plasma neutralizer for the fusion demonstration (DEMO) plant

  2. Voltage tensor for a plasma in high frequency electromagnetic and constant electric fields in the presence of collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorchik, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The voltage tensor expression is obtained for plasma placed in a HF electromagnetic and constant electric fields. The kinetic equations with allowance for collisions are initial. Weakly ionized and completely ionized plasmas are considered. The voltage tensor for completely ionized plasma differs essentially from that for transparent media

  3. An one-dimensional model simulating the energy distribution of neutrals going out of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrado, J.M.; Blazquez, J.B.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Zurro, B.

    1977-01-01

    An one-dimensional model to analyze the neutral atoms penetration into a hot plasma has been introduced in order to get the ionic temperature from the energy distribution of the charge exchange neutrals, which is obtained following a Montecarlo procedure. The model enhances the influence of the non homogeneous charge-exchange and temperature profiles over the energy distribution. It also shows haw the inner neutrals are screened by the plasma external layers and the dependence of the effective temperature on the charge-exchange cross section. Results agree with experimental data and with obtained through some others more elaborated models. (author) [es

  4. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with hexapole collision cell: figures of merit and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen]|[Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    2000-11-01

    The use of gas-filled multipole collision cells represents important progress in ICP-MS instrumentation. It enables an increase in element sensitivity based on the improvement of ion transmission efficiency from near thermalization and collisional focusing of ions. In addition, gas-phase ion-molecule chemistry can be applied in order to reduce mass spectral interferences via charge transfer reaction of interfering ions with reaction gas or via fragmentation of interfering molecular ions by collision-induced dissociation. The application of a hexapole collision cell in quadrupole based ICP-MS (HEX-ICP-QMS) was studied systematically in order to characterize the analytical figures of merit of this approach. Additionally, the performance of different solution introduction systems as well as an inductively coupled plasma shielded torch was studied for use with HEX-ICP-QMS. (orig.)

  5. Effects of external field on elastic electron-ion collision in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang-Chul; Jung, Young-Dae

    2008-01-01

    The field effects on elastic electron-ion collision are investigated in a plasma with the presence of the external field. The eikonal method and effective interaction potential including the far-field term caused by the external field is employed to obtain the eikonal phase shift and eikonal cross section as functions of the field strength, external frequency, impact parameter, collision energy, thermal energy and Debye length. The result shows that the effect of the external field on the eikonal cross section is given by the second-order eikonal phase. In addition, the external field effects suppress the eikonal cross section as well as eikonal phase for the elastic electron-ion collision. The eikonal phase and cross section are found to be increased with an increase of the frequency of the external field. It is also shown that the eikonal cross section increases with an increase of the thermal energy and Debye length.

  6. The influence of blobs on neutral particles in the scrape-off layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Naulin, Volker

    2016-01-01

    and edge are investigated. Simulations suggest that neutrals originating from dissociation of hydrogen molecules only fuel in the outermost edge region of the plasma, whereas hot neutrals from charge exchange collisions penetrate deep into the bulk plasma. The results are recovered in a simplified 2D model....

  7. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.J.; Radtke, R.; Zimmermann, R.

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs + ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion. (author)

  8. Plasma-screening effects upon energy levels and electron scattering from neutral and ionized caesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Y J; Radtke, R; Zimmermann, R

    1988-01-01

    Using interaction potentials screened with the Debye-Hueckel length, the effects of plasma shielding on energy levels and electrons scattering from neutral and ionized caesium are estimated. Both energy levels and atomic scattering cross-sections are found to be sensitive to the inclusion of screening. Relating to the scattering by the Cs/sup +/ ion, a low-energy resonance near E = 0.3 Ryd is found which arises from the f-wave phase shift and reflects the individual behaviour of the scattering ion.

  9. Plasma jet generation by flyer disk collision with massive target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Kálal, M.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-10 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Plasma jets * flyer targets * laser targets * laser ablation * shock waves * craters * PALS facility Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2007

  10. Distinct Plasma Profile of Polar Neutral Amino Acids, Leucine, and Glutamate in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Obukhanych, Tetyana V.; Laval, Julie; Aronov, Pavel A.; Libove, Robin; Banerjee, Arpita Goswami; Parker, Karen J.; O'Hara, Ruth; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine plasma amino acid (AA) levels in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, N = 27) and neuro-typically developing controls (N = 20). We observed reduced plasma levels of most polar neutral AA and leucine in children with ASD. This AA profile conferred significant post hoc power for discriminating…

  11. The subtle interplay of elastic and inelastic collisions in the thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaizot, Jean-Paul [Theoretical Physics, CEA, Saclay (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Using kinetic theory, we analyze the interplay of elastic and inelastic collisions in the thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma. The main focus is the dynamics and equilibration of long wavelength modes.

  12. Effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions on inertial confinement fusion plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, A E; Sherlock, M; Rose, S J

    2014-06-20

    Large-angle Coulomb collisions affect the rates of energy and momentum exchange in a plasma, and it is expected that their effects will be important in many plasmas of current research interest, including in inertial confinement fusion. Their inclusion is a long-standing problem, and the first fully self-consistent method for calculating their effects is presented. This method is applied to "burn" in the hot fuel in inertial confinement fusion capsules and finds that the yield increases due to an increase in the rate of temperature equilibration between electrons and ions which is not predicted by small-angle collision theories. The equilibration rate increases are 50%-100% for number densities of 10(30)  m(-3) and temperatures around 1 keV.

  13. Analysis of the neutral drag force in a dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on a series of experiments that use carefully applied perturbations to a dust cloud to reproducibly investigate the formation of the microparticle cloud and the formation of dust cloud-plasma interface. Here, one micron diameter alumina microparticles are suspended in an argon dc glow discharge plasma. A perturbing voltage pulse is applied to the cathode, causing a momentary disruption in the confinement of the dust cloud. After the perturbation, the cloud reforms, typically with a central 'mass' and two 'streams' of particles that are flowing into the cloud from both sides. Through the use of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (stereo-PIV), the complete three-dimensional velocity of the microparticles can be measured. The particles in the streams are used as test particles to characterize the forces acting upon the microparticles. Analysis of the experimental measurements suggests that the effective neutral drag force may be lower than expected

  14. Experimental observation of fluid echoes in a non-neutral plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jonathan H.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2002-01-01

    Experimental observation of a nonlinear fluid echo is presented which demonstrates the reversible nature of spatial Landau damping, and that non-neutral plasmas behave as nearly ideal 2D fluids. These experiments are performed on UCSD's CamV Penning-Malmberg trap with magnetized electron plasmas. An initial m i =2 diocotron wave is excited, and the received wall signal damps away in about 5 wave periods. The density perturbation filaments are observed to wrap up as the wave is spatially Landau damped. An m t =4 'tickler' wave is then excited, and this wave also Landau damps. The echo consists of a spontaneous appearance of a third m e =2 wave after the responses to the first two waves have inviscidly damped away. The appearance time of the echo agrees with theory, and data suggests the echo is destroyed at least partly due to saturation

  15. An Experimental study of neutral and charged particle fluctuations in Pb Pb collisions at 158-A-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, G

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of disoriented chiral condensate might be formed in high energy colli sion processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensate. The prime accessible signature of DCC is the ratio of neutral to charged pions in a certain range of phase space which should exhibit non-statistical fluctuations. The WA98 experiment has been used to measure the charged and photon multiplicities in the central region of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. PMD which has the ability to count photons is positioned at 21.5m from the target, covering the pseudorapidity range 2.9 region as compared to mixed events (I and II) and V+G events. To test the authenticity of the filtered events, these events a...

  16. Search for Neutral Higgs Bosons in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s} \\sim$ 189 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    A search for neutral Higgs bosons has been performed with the OPAL detector at LEP, using approximately 170 pb-1 of e+e- collision data collected at sqrt(s)~189GeV. Searches have been performed for the Standard Model (SM) process e+e- to H0Z0 and the MSSM processes e+e- to H0Z0, A0h0. The searches are sensitive to the b b-bar and tau antitau decay modes of the Higgs bosons, and also to the MSSM decay mode h0 to A0A0. OPAL search results at lower centre-of-mass energies have been incorporated in the limits we set, which are valid at the 95% confidence level. For the SM Higgs boson, we obtain a lower mass bound of 91.0 GeV. In the MSSM, our limits are mh>74.8GeV and mA>76.5GeV, assuming tan(beta)>1, that the mixing of the scalar top quarks is either zero or maximal, and that the soft SUSY-breaking masses are 1 TeV. For the case of zero scalar top mixing, we exclude values of tan(beta) between 0.72 and 2.19.

  17. Neutralization of methyl cation via chemical reactions in low-energy ion-surface collisions with fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon self-assembled monolayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Arpád; Smith, Darrin L; Wysocki, Vicki H; Colorado, Ramon; Lee, T Randall

    2002-10-01

    Low-energy ion-surface collisions of methyl cation at hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon self-assembled monolayer (SAM) surfaces produce extensive neutralization of CH3+. These experimental observations are reported together with the results obtained for ion-surface collisions with the molecular ions of benzene, styrene, 3-fluorobenzonitrile, 1,3,5-triazine, and ammonia on the same surfaces. For comparison, low-energy gas-phase collisions of CD3+ and 3-fluorobenzonitrile molecular ions with neutral n-butane reagent gas were conducted in a triple quadrupole (QQQ) instrument. Relevant MP2 6-31G*//MP2 6-31G* ab initio and thermochemical calculations provide further insight in the neutralization mechanisms of methyl cation. The data suggest that neutralization of methyl cation with hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon SAMs occurs by concerted chemical reactions, i.e., that neutralization of the projectile occurs not only by a direct electron transfer from the surface but also by formation of a neutral molecule. The calculations indicate that the following products can be formed by exothermic processes and without appreciable activation energy: CH4 (formal hydride ion addition) and C2H6 (formal methyl anion addition) from a hydrocarbon surface and CH3F (formal fluoride addition) from a fluorocarbon surface. The results also demonstrate that, in some cases, simple thermochemical calculations cannot be used to predict the energy profiles because relatively large activation energies can be associated with exothermic reactions, as was found for the formation of CH3CF3 (formal addition of trifluoromethyl anion).

  18. Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa-Min, Kim; Young-Dae, Jung

    2007-01-01

    The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle θ L = π/4. (authors)

  19. Landau damping effects on collision-induced quantum interference in electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa-Min, Kim [Daegu Univ. Catholic, Dept. of Electronics Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Young-Dae, Jung [Hanyang Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The Landau damping effects on the quantum interference in electron collisions are investigated in a quantum plasma composed of electrons and holes. The Born method and the total spin states are considered to obtain the scattering cross-section by using the effective screened potential model. It is found that the Landau damping effects enhance the scattering cross-section, especially, near the scattering angle {theta}{sub L} = {pi}/4. (authors)

  20. Coupled two-dimensional edge-plasma and neutral gas modelling of the DIII-D scrape-off-layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Gilligan, J.; Hankins, O.; Rensink, M.; Owen, L.; Klepper, C.; Mioduszewski, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to do consistent scrape-off-layer plasma and neutral transport calculations, the 2-D fluid code, B2 has been externally coupled to the neutral transport code, DEGAS, for Dlll-D. The coupling procedure is similar to recent simulations done for TFTR, Tore Supra, and ClT. An averaged source approach is utilized to allow convergence between the two codes. Initial comparison of plasma quantities between the coupled code set and the B2 code alone shows that a colder, denser plasma may exist at the divertor targets than predicted by the B2 code with its internal recycling model

  1. Neutron emission in neutral beam heated KSTAR plasmas and its application to neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Jong-Gu, E-mail: jgkwak@nfri.re.kr; Kim, H.S.; Cheon, M.S.; Oh, S.T.; Lee, Y.S.; Terzolo, L.

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We measured the neutron emission from KSTAR plasmas quantitatively. • We confirmed that neutron emission is coming from neutral beam-plasma interactions. • The feasibility study shows that the fast neutron from KSTAR could be used for fast neutron radiography. - Abstract: The main mission of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) program is exploring the physics and technologies of high performance steady state Tokamak operation that are essential for ITER and fusion reactor. Since the successful first operation in 2008, the plasma performance is enhanced and duration of H-mode is extended to around 50 s which corresponds to a few times of current diffusion time and surpassing the current conventional Tokamak operation. In addition to long-pulse operation, the operational boundary of the H-mode discharge is further extended over MHD no-wall limit(β{sub N} ∼ 4) transiently and higher stored energy region is obtained by increased total heating power (∼6 MW) and plasma current (I{sub p} up to 1 MA for ∼10 s). Heating system consists of various mixtures (NB, ECH, LHCD, ICRF) but the major horse heating resource is the neutral beam(NB) of 100 keV with 4.5 MW and most of experiments are conducted with NB. So there is a lot of production of fast neutrons coming from via D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction and it is found that most of neutrons are coming from deuterium beam plasma interaction. Nominal neutron yield and the area of beam port is about 10{sup 13}–10{sup 14}/s and 1 m{sup 2} at the closest access position of the sample respectively and neutron emission could be modulated for application to the neutron radiography by varying NB power. This work reports on the results of quantitative analysis of neutron emission measurements and results are discussed in terms of beam-plasma interaction and plasma confinement. It also includes the feasibility study of neutron radiography using KSTAR.

  2. Effective collision frequency method in the theory of the conductivity of Coulomb systems. II. Strong interion interaction and plasma structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, V.B.; Triger, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effective collision frequency method developed earlier by the authors for Coulomb systems characterized by strong interion interaction is developed further. An explicit expression is obtained for the effective electron collision frequency on the basis of the exact diagram representation obtained in Part I and the use of the model of a one-component plasma as initial approximation. The description of plasma structure in the corresponding approximation is considered. 25 refs

  3. Nonlocal Ohms Law, Plasma Resistivity, and Reconnection During Collisions of Magnetic Flux Ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Sydora, R.; Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2018-01-01

    The plasma resistivity was evaluated in an experiment on the collision of two magnetic flux ropes. Whenever the ropes collide, some magnetic energy is lost as a result of reconnection. Volumetric data, in which all the relevant time-varying quantities were recorded in detail, are presented. Ohm’s law is shown to be nonlocal and cannot be used to evaluate the plasma resistivity. The resistivity was instead calculated using the AC Kubo resistivity and shown to be anomalously high in certain regions of space.

  4. Head-on collision between positron acoustic waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. S.; Hafez, M. G.; Talukder, M. R.; Ali, M. Hossain

    2018-05-01

    The head-on collision between positron acoustic solitary waves (PASWs) as well as the production of rogue waves (RWs) in homogeneous and PASWs in inhomogeneous unmagnetized plasma systems are investigated deriving the nonlinear evolution equations. The plasmas are composed of immobile positive ions, mobile cold and hot positrons, and hot electrons, where the hot positrons and hot electrons are assumed to follow the Kappa distributions. The evolution equations are derived using the appropriate coordinate transformation and the reductive perturbation technique. The effects of concentrations, kappa parameters of hot electrons and positrons, and temperature ratios on the characteristics of PASWs and RWs are examined. It is found that the kappa parameters and temperature ratios significantly modify phase shifts after head-on collisions and RWs in homogeneous as well as PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas. The amplitudes of the PASWs in inhomogeneous plasmas are diminished with increasing kappa parameters, concentration and temperature ratios. Further, the amplitudes of RWs are reduced with increasing charged particles concentration, while it enhances with increasing kappa- and temperature parameters. Besides, the compressive and rarefactive solitons are produced at critical densities from KdV equation for hot and cold positrons, while the compressive solitons are only produced from mKdV equation for both in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas.

  5. Probing neutral density at the plasma edge of Tore Supra with CX excited impurity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, W.R.; Mattioli, M.; Guirlet, R.

    1993-01-01

    In Tokamak plasma physics renewed interest in visible spectroscopy has grown for two reasons. The use of fiber optics allows observation of local sources of both impurities and of hydrogen by observing radiation of low ionization states. Moreover, charge exchange spectroscopy (CXS) with either auxiliary or heating neutral beams is a standard technique to determine the ion temperature and impurity density profiles. After a short description of the experimental setup and the ergodic divertor of Tore Supra (TS), two discharges in which space-resolved observations of the CVI (8-7) line clearly show the presence of CX-related effects. A well isolated spectral line at 5304.6 A is discussed. Tentative identification as CIII (1s 2 2s, 7-5) is suggested. The conclusion shows the usefulness of the reported results for probing neutral density at the plasma edge by detecting CX excited impurity ions and that highly ionized C 6+ ions exist in the MARFE regions. To the best of our knowledge, only very low ionization C and O ions (such as CIII or OIV) have been previously reported in these regions

  6. Gain and loss mechanisms for neutral species in low pressure fluorocarbon plasmas by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Caleb T.; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Goeckner, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the chemical reaction pathways of stable neutral species in fluorocarbon plasmas. Octafluorocyclobutane (c-C 4 F 8 ) inductively coupled plasma discharges were found to primarily produce stable and metastable products downstream from the discharge, including c-C 4 F 8 , C 2 F 4 , C 2 F 6 , CF 4 , C 3 F 8 , C 4 F 10 , C 3 F 6 , and CF 2 . A novel analysis technique allows the estimation of gain and loss rates for neutral species in the steady state as functions of residence time, pressure, and discharge power. The gain and loss rates show that CF 4 , C 2 F 6 , C 3 F 8 , and C 4 F 10 share related gain mechanisms, speculated to occur at the surface. Further analysis confirms that CF 2 is predominantly produced at the chamber walls through electron impact dissociation of C 2 F 4 and lost through gas-phase addition reactions to form C 2 F 4 . Additionally, time-resolved FTIR spectra provide a second-order rate coefficient of 1.8 × 10 −14 cm 3 /s for the gas-phase addition of CF 2 to form C 2 F 4 . Finally, C 2 F 4, which is much more abundant than CF 2 in the discharge, is shown to be dominantly produced through electron impact dissociation of c-C 4 F 8 and lost through either surface or gas-phase addition reactions.

  7. Neutral pion production at midrapidity in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty Bezverkhny; Adamova, Dagmar; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agostinelli, Andrea; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Berger, Martin Emanuel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubskiy, Mikhail; Boehmer, Felix Valentin; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile Ioan; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Dang, Ruina; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; De Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dorheim, Sverre; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutt Mazumder, Abhee Kanti; Hilden, Timo Eero; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Esposito, Marco; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigory; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanouil; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gumbo, Mervyn; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Khan, Kamal; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kadyshevskiy, Vladimir; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; 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Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Okatan, Ali; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Sahoo, Pragati; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palmeri, Armando; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; 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Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zyzak, Maksym

    2014-10-16

    Invariant yields of neutral pions at midrapidity in the transverse momentum range $0.6 < p_{T} < 12$ GeV/c measured in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV are presented for six centrality classes. The pp reference spectrum was measured in the range $0.4 < p_{T} < 10$ GeV/c at the same center-of-mass energy. The nuclear modification factor, $R_{AA}$, shows a suppression of neutral pions in central Pb-Pb collisions by a factor of up to about $8-10$ for $5 \\lesssim p_{T} \\lesssim 7$ GeV/c. The presented measurements are compared with results at lower center-of-mass energies and with theoretical calculations.

  8. Neutral atom analyzers for diagnosing hot plasmas: A review of research at the ioffe physicotechnical institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Research on neutral particle diagnostics of thermonuclear plasmas that has been carried out in recent years at the Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia) is reviewed. Work on the creation and improvement of neutral atom analyzers was done in two directions: for potential applications (in particular, on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, which is now under construction at Cadarache in France) and for investigation of the ion plasma component in various devices (in particular, in the largest tokamaks, such as JET, TFTR, and JT-60). Neutral atom analyzers are the main tool for studying the behavior of hydrogen ions and isotopes in magnetic confinement systems. They make it possible to determine energy spectra, to perform the isotope analysis of atom fluxes from the plasma, to measure the absolute intensity of the fluxes, and to record how these parameters vary with time. A comparative description of the analyzers developed in recent years at the Ioffe Institute is given. These are ACORD-12/24 analyzers for recording 0.2-100-keV hydrogen and deuterium atoms with a tunable range of simultaneously measured energies, CNPA compact analyzers for a fixed energy gain in the ranges 80-1000 eV and 0.8-100 keV, an ISEP analyzer for simultaneously recording the atoms of all the three hydrogen isotopes (H, D, and T) in the energy range 5-700 keV, and GEMMA analyzers for recording atom fluxes of hydrogen and helium isotopes in the range 0.1-4 MeV. The scintillating detectors of the ISEP and GEMMA analyzers have a lowered sensitivity to neutrons and thus can operate without additional shielding in neutron fields of up to 10 9 n/(cm 2 s). These two types of analyzers, intended to operate under deuterium-tritium plasma conditions, are prototypes of atom analyzers created at the Ioffe Institute for use in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. With these analyzers, a number of new results have been

  9. Transverse momentum distributions of neutral pions from central and peripheral 16O+Au collisions at 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Bock, R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.W.; Lund, I.; Schmidt, H.R.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Awes, T.C.; Baktash, C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Lee, I.Y.; Obenshain, F.E.; Plasil, F.; Soerensen, S.P.; Young, G.R.; Beckmann, P.; Berger, F.; Clewing, G.; Dragon, L.; Glasow, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Loehner, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Purschke, M.; Santo, R.; Claesson, G.; Franz, A.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Ritter, H.G.; Garpman, S.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Persson, S.; Stenlund, E.; Kristiansson, P.

    1989-01-01

    The production of neutral pions by the interaction of 200 A GeV protons and 16 O projectiles with a Au target has been studied in the pseudorapidity range 1.5≤η≤2.1. Transverse momentum spectra have been measured between 0.4 GeV/c and 2.8 GeV/c and their dependence on the centrality of the collision has been investigated. The data show a high degree of similarity to p+p and α+α data from the ISR. The peripheral-collision spectra display a marked change of slope with a hard component starting at about 1.8 GeV/c, in contrast to central-collision data. (orig.)

  10. Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.; Pyle, R.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included

  11. Accounting of the Power Balance for Neutral-beam heated H-Mode Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the dependence of power balance on input power, shape, and plasma current was conducted for neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Measurements of heat to the divertor strike plates and divertor and core radiation were taken over a wide range of plasma conditions. The different conditions were obtained by inducing a L-mode to H-mode transition, changing the divertor configuration [lower single null (LSN) vs. double-null (DND)] and conducting a NBI power scan in H-mode. 60-70% of the net input power is accounted for in the LSN discharges with 20% of power lost as fast ions, 30-45% incident on the divertor plates, up to 10% radiated in the core, and about 12% radiated in the divertor. In contrast, the power accountability in DND is 85-90%. A comparison of DND and LSN data show that the remaining power in the LSN is likely to be directed to the upper divertor

  12. Design of TFTR movable limiter blades for ohmic and neutral-beam-heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Cecchi, J.L.; Citrolo, J.C.; Weissenburger, D.; Bialek, J.

    1981-10-01

    A new set of movable limiter blades has been designed for TFTR that will meet both the requirements of the 4 MW ohmic heated and the 33 MW neutral beam heated plasmas. This is accomplished with three limiter blades each having and elliptical shape along the toroidal direction. Heat flux levels are acceptable for both ohmic heated and pre-strong compression plasmas. The construction consists of graphite tiles attached to cooled backing plates. The tiles have an average thickness of approx. 4.7 cm and are drawn against the backing plate with spring loaded fasteners that are keyed into the graphite. The cooled backing plate provides the structure for resisting disruption and fault induced loads. A set of rollers attached to the top and bottom blades allow them to be expanded and closed in order to vary the plasma surface for scaling experiments. Water cooling lines penetrate only the mid-plane port cover/support plate in such a way as to avoid bolted water connections inside the vacuum boundary and at the same time allow blade movement. Both the upper and lower blades are attached to the mid-plane limiter blade through pivots. Pivot connections are protected against arcing with an alumina coating and a shunt bar strap. Remote handling is considered throughout the design

  13. Development of high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy for interaction of plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Masahiro; Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Seiichi

    1991-01-01

    A high current density neutral beam injector with a low energy has been developed to investigate interactions with plasma facing materials and propagation processes of damages. The high current density neutral beam has been produced by geometrical focusing method employing a spherical electrode system. The hydrogen beam with the current density of 140 mA/cm 2 has been obtained on the focal point in the case of the acceleration energy of 8 keV. (orig.)

  14. Dynamic plasma screening effects on semiclassical inelastic electron endash ion collisions in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y.

    1997-01-01

    In dense plasmas, dynamic plasma screening effects are investigated on 1s→2p dipole transition probabilities for electron-impact excitation of hydrogenic ions. The electron endash ion interaction potential is considered by introduction of the plasma dielectric function. A semiclassical straight-line trajectory method is applied to the path of the projectile electron in order to visualize the semiclassical transition probability as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and plasma parameters. The transition probability including the dynamic plasma screening effect is always greater than that including the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is smaller than the electron thermal velocity, the dynamic polarization screening effect becomes the static plasma screening effect. When the projectile velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the interaction potential is almost unshielded. The difference between the dynamic and static plasma screening effects is more significant for low-energy projectiles. It is also found that the static plasma screening formula obtained by the Debye endash Hueckel model overestimates the plasma screening effects on the atomic excitation processes in dense plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. The isotope effect on divertor conditions and neutral pumping in horizontal divertor configurations in JET-ILW Ohmic plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Uljanovs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of isotope mass and divertor configuration on the divertor conditions and neutral pressures is critical for predicting the performance of the ITER divertor in DT operation. To address this need, ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasma experiments were conducted in JET with the ITER-like wall in varying divertor configurations. In this study, these plasmas are simulated with EDGE2D-EIRENE outfitted with a sub-divertor model, to predict the neutral pressures in the plenum with similar fashion to the experiments. EDGE2D-EIRENE predictions show that the increased isotope mass results in up to a 25% increase in peak electron densities and 15% increase in peak ion saturation current at the outer target in deuterium when compared to hydrogen for all horizontal divertor configurations. Indicating that a change from hydrogen to deuterium as main fuel decreases the neutral mean free path, leading to higher neutral density in the divertor. Consequently, this mechanism also leads to higher neutral pressures in the sub-divertor. The experimental data provided by the hydrogen and deuterium ohmic discharges shows that closer proximity of the outer strike point to the pumping plenum results in a higher neutral pressure in the sub-divertor. The diaphragm capacitance gauge pressure measurements show that a two to three-fold increase in sub-divertor pressure was achieved in the corner and nearby horizontal configurations compared to the far-horizontal configurations, likely due to ballistic transport (with respect to the plasma facing components of the neutrals into the sub-divertor. The corner divertor configuration also indicates that a neutral expansion occurs during detachment, resulting in a sub-divertor neutral density plateau as a function of upstream density at the outer-mid plane.

  16. Neutral pion and $\\eta$ meson production at mid-rapidity in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV

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    Acharya, Shreyasi; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; 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    2018-01-01

    Neutral pion and η meson production in the transverse momentum range 1 < $p_{T}$ < 20 GeV/$c$ have been measured at mid-rapidity by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in central and semi-central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=2.76$ TeV. These results were obtained using the photon conversion method as well as the PHOS and EMCal detectors. The results extend the upper $p_{T}$ reach of the previous ALICE $\\pi^{0}$ measurements from 12 GeV/$c$ to 20 GeV/$c$ and present the first measurement of $\\eta$ meson production in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The $\\eta/\\pi^{0}$ ratio is similar for the two centralities and reaches at high $p_{T}$ a plateau value of 0.457 ± 0.013 (stat) ± 0.018 (syst). A suppression of similar magnitude for $\\pi^{0}$ and $\\eta$ meson production is observed in Pb-Pb collisions with respect to their production in pp collisions scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. We discuss the results in terms of NLO pQCD predictions and hydrodynami...

  17. Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

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Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; 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Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; 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Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; 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Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-04-09

    The ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is used to search for the decay of a scalar boson to a pair of long-lived particles, neutral under the Standard Model gauge group, in 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. This search is sensitive to long-lived particles that decay to Standard Model particles producing jets at the outer edge of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter or inside the hadronic calorimeter. No significant excess of events is observed. Limits are reported on the product of the scalar boson production cross section times branching ratio into long-lived neutral particles as a function of the proper lifetime of the particles. Limits are reported for boson masses from 100 GeV to 900 GeV, and a long-lived neutral particle mass from 10 GeV to 150 GeV.

  18. Drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, M.; Melchior, H.

    1968-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated.......A dispersion relation for low frequency drift waves in a weakly ionized plasma has been derived, and through numerical calculations the effect of collisions between the charged and the neutral particles is estimated....

  19. Quantum screening effects on the ion-ion collisions in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Dae-Han; Jung, Young-Dae

    2010-01-01

    The quantum screening effects on the ion-ion collisions are investigated in strongly coupled semiclassical hydrogen plasmas. The method of stationary phase and effective interaction potential containing the quantum mechanical effect are employed to obtain the scattering phase shift and scattering cross section as functions of the impact parameter, collision energy, de Broglie wavelength, and Debye length. The result shows that the scattering phase and cross section decrease with increasing de Broglie wavelength. It is also shown that the scattering cross section increases with an increase of the Debye length. Hence, it is found that the quantum effect suppresses the scattering cross section. In addition, the quantum effect on the scattering cross section is found to be more important in small Debye length domains.

  20. Collision processes of hydrocarbon species in hydrogen plasmas. II The ethane and propane families

    CERN Document Server

    Janev, R K

    2002-01-01

    Cross sections and rate coefficients are provided for collision processes of electrons and protons with C sub x H sub y and C sub x H sub y sup + (x = 2, 3; 1 <= y <= 2x + 2) hydrocarbon species in a wide range of collision energies and plasma (gas) temperatures. The considered processes include: electron-impact ionization and dissociation of C sub x H sub y , dissociative excitation, ionization and recombination of C sub x H sub y sup + with electrons, and both charge transfer and atom exchange in proton channels are considered separately. Information is also provided for the energies of each individual reaction channel. The cross sections and rate coefficients are presented in compact analytic forms.

  1. Collision processes of hydrocarbon species in hydrogen plasmas. Pt. 3. The Silane-family

    CERN Document Server

    Janev, R K

    2003-01-01

    Cross sections are provided for most important collision processes of the Silicon-Hydrides from the ''Silane-family'': SiH sub y (y = 1 - 4) molecules and their ions SiH sub y sup + , with (plasma) electrons and protons. The processes include: electron impact ionization and dissociation of SiH sub y , dissociative excitation, ionization and recombination of SiH sub y sup + ions with electrons, and charge - and atom - exchange in proton collisions with SiH sub y. All important channels of dissociative processes are considered. Information is also provided on the energetics (reactants/products energy loss / gain) of each individual reaction channel. Total and partial cross sections are presented in compact analytic forms. The critical assessment of data, derivation of new data and presentation of results follow closely the concepts of the recently published related databases for Carbon-Hydrides, namely for the Methane family, and for the Ethane- and the Propane families, respectively.

  2. Parameter Dependence of Inward Diffusion on Injected Electrons in Helical Non-Neutral Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, H.; Himura, H.; Fukao, M.; Yoshida, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies on an electron injection into a helical magnetic field and characteristics of non-neutral plasmas have been performed. It is found that the space potential φs has a weak dependence on the injection angle except for a narrow 'window' region in which φs significantly drops. A calculation shows that because of the electric field Eg of the electron gun (e-gun), the emitted electrons are launched quasi-parallel to the helical magnetic field B, regardless of α. This seems to agree with the observation. The 'window' seen in the data may be attributed to an current-driven instability which might result in the insufficient electron penetration or the degradation of electron confinement in the magnetic surface

  3. Confinement and βsub(p)-studies in neutral injection heated ASDEX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, F.; Becker, G.; Behringer, K.; Campbell, D.; Eberhagen, A.; Engelhardt, W.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; Gierke, G. von; Haas, G.; Huang, M.; Karger, F.; Keilhacker, M.; Klueber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; Lister, G.G.; Mayer, H.M.; Meisel, D.; Mueller, E.R.; Murmann, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Rapp, H.; Roehr, H; Schneider, F.; Siller, G.; Speth, E.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.; Succi, S.; Venus, G.; Vollmer, O.

    1983-03-01

    Neutral injection experiments into limiter and divertor discharges in ASDEX are described with hydrogen and deuterium as working gas. Two operational regimes have been observed in neutral injection heated divertor discharges. One regime is characterized by deteriorated energy and particle confinement. The global energy confinement times are comparable to those of neutral injection heated limited discharges. Tthe other regime has particle and energy confinement times comparable to those of ohmic discharges with tausub(E) = 40 - 60 msec at beam powers up to 3.1 MW. This regime is further characterized by high βsub(p)-values comparable to the aspect ratio A (βsub(p) proportional 0.65 A), by good electron heating (etasub(e) proportional 2.5 x 10 13 eV cm -3 kW -1 ) and ion heating (etasub(i) proportional 4.2 x 10 13 eV cm -3 kW -1 ). In both regimes, tausub(E) increases with plasma current but there is hardly any variation with density. The differences in confinement and scaling to ohmic discharges seem to be caused by modifications of the electron loss channel. The high βsub(p)-regime develops at an injection power >=1.8 MW, anti nsub(e) >= 3 x 10 13 cm -3 and q >= 2.45, and is so far only observed in divertor discharges. There are indications that this may be due to the broad profiles with high edge temperatures which can develop in divertor discharges. An indication of broad current density profiles is given by the lack of sawtooth activity in these discharges. (orig.)

  4. Relaxation and self-organization in two-dimensional plasma and neutral fluid flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amita

    2008-01-01

    Extensive numerical studies in the framework of a simplified two-dimensional model for neutral and plasma fluid for a variety of initial configurations and for both decaying and driven cases are carried out to illustrate relaxation toward a self-organized state. The dynamical model equation constitutes a simple choice for this purpose, e.g., the vorticity equation of the Navier-Stokes dynamics for the incompressible neutral fluids and the Hasegawa-Mima equation for plasma fluid flow system. Scatter plots are employed to observe a development of functional relationship, if any, amidst the generalized vorticity and its Laplacian. It is seen that they do not satisfy a linear relationship as the well known variational approach of enstrophy minimization subject to constancy of the energy integral for the two-dimensional (2D) system suggests. The observed nonlinear functional relationship is understood by separating the contribution to the scatter plot from spatial regions with intense vorticity patches and those of the background flow region where the background vorticity is weak or absent altogether. It is shown that such a separation has close connection with the known exact analytical solutions of the system. The analytical solutions are typically obtained by assuming a finite source of vorticity for the inner core of the localized structure, which is then matched with the solution in the outer region where vorticity is chosen to be zero. The work also demonstrates that the seemingly ad hoc choice of the linear vorticity source function for the inner region is in fact consistent with the self-organization paradigm of the 2D systems

  5. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  6. An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M. K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p ¯ ) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results

  7. An investigation of antiprotons collisions with positronium atom in Debye plasma environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, M. K., E-mail: pandey@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Y.-C.; Ho, Y. K., E-mail: ykho@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of Debye plasmas on antihydrogen formation and ionization processes are investigated in antiprotons (p{sup ¯}) and positronium (Ps) collisions. The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method with Debye Hückel potentials has been used for cross section calculations. In this process, antihydrogen formation and ionization cross sections have been calculated in unscreened as well as in Debye plasmas conditions in energies ranging from 1 to 500 keV. Partial cross sections for antihydrogen formation are also calculated which show the largest cross sections correspond to production of antihydrogen in the n = 2 (2s, 2p) states. Comparative study has been carried out to determine the differences of cross sections in screening and unscreening cases. The results show that the cross sections for both antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization depend on Debye screening lengths as well as on collision energies. The effects of plasmas conditions on antihydrogen formation and positronium ionization are explained in terms of classical trajectory framework. Our results for the unscreened case are in agreement with previously reported results.

  8. Surface plasmon polaritons in a semi-bounded degenerate plasma: Role of spatial dispersion and collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyshetskiy, Yu.; Kompaneets, R.; Vladimirov, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a semi-bounded degenerate plasma (e.g., a metal) are studied using the quasiclassical mean-field kinetic model, taking into account the spatial dispersion of the plasma (due to quantum degeneracy of electrons) and electron-ion (electron-lattice, for metals) collisions. SPP dispersion and damping are obtained in both retarded (ω/k z ∼c) and non-retarded (ω/k z ≪c) regions, as well as in between. It is shown that the plasma spatial dispersion significantly affects the properties of SPPs, especially at short wavelengths (less than the collisionless skin depth, λ ≲ c/ω pe ). Namely, the collisionless (Landau) damping of SPPs (due to spatial dispersion) is comparable to the purely collisional (Ohmic) damping (due to electron-lattice collisions) in a wide range of SPP wavelengths, e.g., from λ∼20 nm to λ∼0.8 nm for SPP in gold at T = 293 K and from λ∼400 nm to λ∼0.7 nm for SPPs in gold at T = 100 K. The spatial dispersion is also shown to affect, in a qualitative way, the dispersion of SPPs at short wavelengths λ ≲ c/ω pe .

  9. Study of a decaying helium plasma having a high neutral particle density; Etude d'un plasma d'helium, a forte densite de neutres, en regime de relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deloche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    We have shown theoretically, in a high pressure, decaying helium plasma, the effect at low energy of inelastic collisions between neutral particles on the population densities of excited molecules and electron-ion recombination coefficient. The formalism of Bates (1962) has been used, taking into account simultaneously collisional mechanisms with electrons, collisional mechanisms with neutrals and radiative processes. The variation of the population densities and electron-ion recombination coefficient with respect to the pressure is given for different values of electron density and temperature. These theoretical results indicate an effect of pressure large enough to be measured and allow us to define the most favorable experimental conditions. (author) [French] L'effet des collisions inelastiques entre particules neutres dans un plasma d'helium, en regime de relaxation, a basse temperature electronique et forte densite de neutres, a ete mis en evidence, theoriquement, aussi bien dans le calcul des densites de population des molecules excitees que dans la determination du coefficient de recombinaison electron-ion. Nous avons utilise le formalisme de Bates (1962) en tenant compte simultanement des mecanismes collisionnels avec les electrons, des mecanismes collisionnels avec les neutres et des phenomenes radiatifs. La variation des densites de population et du coefficient de recombinaison electron-ion en fonction de la pression est donnee pour differentes valeurs de la densite electronique et de la temperature. Ces resultats theoriques laissent prevoir un effet de la pression suffisamment important pour qu'il puisse etre mesure et permettent de definir les conditions experimentales les plus favorables. (auteur)

  10. Collision excitation studies useful for plasma diagnostics in astrophysics and fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man Mohan; Aggarwal, Sunny

    2015-01-01

    The urgent research for energy sources has led many countries to collaborate on demonstrating the scientific and technological feasibility of magnetic fusion through the construction of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor in France. Data on highly charged ions with high Z will be important in this quest. Atomic data such as energy levels, radiative rates and collision excitation plays an important role in fusion research and extensive knowledge of atomic parameters is needed for plasma diagnostics. There is a very limited knowledge so far about the heavy atoms due to involvement of strong relativistic effects. For heavy atoms, electron correlation effects and relativistic effects are strongly coupled making it necessary to use a relativistic theory which also incorporates 'electron correlations effects on the same footing. For treating heavy atoms there have been new developments and many codes in the relativistic domain have been developed by various authors. Among them, multi-configuration Hartree (Dirac) Fock (MCDF) model based codes have been found very useful in ab-initio investigations. We have calculated the energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for heavy charged F, Na and Mg like tungsten ions using MCDF and FAC and compared our results with the other available theoretical and experimental results. Also, we have performed collision excitation calculations for F, Na and Mg like tungsten ions which will be useful for astrophysical and fusion, plasma. Also, we have compared our collision excitation results with distorted wave calculations and they are found to be in good agreement. The main goal of this paper is to provide useful atomic physics data for use in fusion research and in astrophysical and industrial plasmas. (author)

  11. Mimotopes selected by biopanning with high-titer HIV-neutralizing antibodies in plasma from Chinese slow progressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One approach to identifying HIV-1 vaccine candidates is to dissect the natural antiviral immune response in treatment-naïve individuals infected for over ten years, considered slow progressor patients (SPs. It is suspected that SP plasma has strongly neutralizing antibodies (NAb targeting specific HIV viral epitopes. METHODS: NAbs levels of 11 HIV-1-infected SPs were detected by PBMC-based neutralization assays. To investigate SP NAb epitope, this study used a biopanning approach to obtain mimotopes of HIV-1 that were recognized by SP plasma NAbs. IgG was purified from hightiter NAb SP plasma, and used as the ligand for three rounds of biopanning to select HIV-specific mimotopes from a phage-displayed random peptide library. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA, competitive inhibition assays, and peptide sequence analysis were used to evaluate the characteristics of phage-borne mimotopes. RESULTS: SPs had significantly more plasma neutralizing activity than typical progressors (TPs (p = 0.04. P2 and P9 plasma, which have highest-titer HIV-NAb, were selected as ligands for biopanning. After three rounds of biopanning, 48 phage clones were obtained, of which 22 clones were consistent with requirement, binding with HIV-1 positive plasma and unbinding with HIV-1 negative plasma. Compared with linear HIV-1 protein sequence and HIV-1 protein structure files, only 12 clones were possible linear mimotopes of NAbs. In addition, the C40 clone located in gp41 CHR was found to be a neutralizing epitope, which could inhibit pooled HIV-1 positive plasma reaction. CONCLUSION: Biopanning of serum IgG can yield mimotopes of HIV-1-related antigen epitopes. This methodology provides a basis for exploration into HIV-1-related antigen-antibody interactions and furthers NAb immunotherapy and vaccine design.

  12. Plasma dynamics near an earth satellite and neutralization of its electric charge during electron beam injection into the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamics of the ionospheric plasma in the vicinity of an earth satellite injecting an electron beam. The time evolution of the electric charge of the satellite is determined. The electric potential of the satellite is found to be well below the beam-cutoff potential. It is shown that, under conditions typical of active experiments in space, the plasma electrons are capable of neutralizing the satellite's charge

  13. Electron collision data for polyatomic molecules in plasma processing and environmental processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Kitajima, M.; Cho, H.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental studies for electron-polyatomic molecule collision are reviewed in connection with the plasma processing and environmental issues. Recent developments in electron scattering experiments on the differential cross section measurements for various processes such as elastic scattering, vibrational, and electronic excitations are summarized from high to low energy regions (1-100 eV). The need for cross-section data for a broad variety of molecular species is also discussed because there is an urgent need to develop an international program to provide the scientific and technological communities with authoritative cross sections for electron-molecule interactions

  14. Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1997-04-01

    The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value

  15. Finite-Length Diocotron Modes in a Non-neutral Plasma Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel; Dubin, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Diocotron modes are 2D distortions of a non-neutral plasma column that propagate azimuthally via E × B drifts. While the infinite-length theory of diocotron modes is well-understood for arbitrary azimuthal mode number l, the finite-length mode frequency is less developed (with some exceptions), and is naturally of relevance to experiments. In this poster, we present an approach to address finite length effects, such as temperature dependence of the mode frequency. We use a bounce-averaged solution to the Vlasov Equation, in which the Vlasov Equation is solved using action-angle variables of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. We write the distribution function as a Fourier series in the bounce-angle variable ψ, keeping only the bounce-averaged term. We demonstrate a numerical solution to this equation for a realistic plasma with a finite Debye Length, compare to the existing l = 1 theory, and discuss possible extensions of the existing theory to l ≠ 1 . Supported by NSF/DOE Partnership Grants PHY1414570 and DESC0002451.

  16. Toroidal equilibrium of a non-neutral plasma with toroidal current, inertia and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Avinash, K.

    1992-01-01

    Equilibrium of non-neutral clouds in a toroidal vessel with toroidal magnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of a toroidal current, finite mass and finite pressure. With a toroidal current, it is shown that in a large-aspect-ratio conducting torus the equilibrium is governed by competition between forces produced by image charges and image currents. When μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 >B θ 2 (whe re E r and B θ are the self electrostatic and self magnetic fields of the cloud), the confinement is electrostatic and plasma shifts inwards; when μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 θ 2 , the confinement is magnetic and plasma shifts outwards. For μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 = B θ 2 there is no equilibrium. With finite mass or finite pressure, it is shown, in a large-aspect-ratio approximation, that the fluid drift surfaces and equipotential surfaces are displaced with respect to each other. In both cases the fluid drift surfaces are shifted inwards from the equipotential surfaces. (author)

  17. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  18. On Influence of Neutrals on Dust Particle Charging in Complex Plasmas in the Presence of Electromagnetic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopnin, S. I.; Morzhakova, A. A.; Popel, S. I.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    Effects associated with neutral component of complex (dusty) ionospheric plasmas which affect dust particle charging are studied. Microscopic ion currents on dust particles with taking into account ion-neutral interaction are presented. Calculations are performed both for the case of negative charges of dust particles, when the influence of Solar radiation on dust particle charging processes is negligible, and for the case of positive charges which is realized in the presence of sufficiently intensive UV or X-ray radiation. We also carry out investigation of the electron heating due to the photoelectric effect. We show that the efficiency of electron heating depends on the density of neutral component of the plasma. As result, we determine altitudes where the influence of the neutral plasma component on dust particle charging processes as well as the electron heating effect are significant and should be taken into account under consideration of the ionospheric complex plasmas. In particular, we show that the effects considered could be important for the description of noctilucent clouds, polar mesosphere summer echoes, and some other physical phenomena associated with dust particles in the ionosphere.

  19. Momentum, heat, and neutral mass transport in convective atmospheric pressure plasma-liquid systems and implications for aqueous targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, A.; Anderson, C.; Slikboer, E.T.; Shannon, S.; Graves, D.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of plasma-liquid interactions with application to biomedicine, chemical disinfection, agriculture, and other fields. This work models the momentum, heat, and neutral species mass transfer between gas and aqueous phases in the context of a streamer discharge;

  20. ELISA to measure neutralizing capacity of anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies in plasma of angioedema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Rensink, Irma; Roem, Dorina; Brouwer, Mieke; Kalei, Asma; Perry, Dawn; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; Hamann, Dörte

    2015-01-01

    Neutralizing autoantibodies (NAbs) against plasma serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) are implicated in the rare disorder, acquired angioedema (AAE). There is insufficient understanding of the process of antibody formation and its correlation with disease progression and severity. We have developed an

  1. A particle-in-cell method for modeling small angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    We propose a computational method to self-consistently model small angle collisional effects. This method may be added to standard Particle-In-Cell (PIC) plasma simulations to include collisions, or as an alternative to solving the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation using finite difference methods. The distribution function is represented by a large number of particles. The particle velocities change due to the drag force, and the diffusion in velocity is represented by a random process. This is similar to previous Monte-Carlo methods except we calculate the drag force and diffusion tensor self- consistently. The particles are weighted to a grid in velocity space and associated ''Poisson equations'' are solved for the Rosenbluth potentials. The motivation is to avoid the very time consuming method of Coulomb scattering pair by pair. First the approximation for small angle Coulomb collisions is discussed. Next, the FP-PIC collision method is outlined. Then we show a test of the particle advance modeling an electron beam scattering off a fixed ion background. 4 refs

  2. Improved derivation of the modified BGK collision term and applications to the Hall effect and cold plasma dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, M.

    1983-01-01

    A derived addition to the BGK collision term,is improved and expressed in simple form. The collision frequency for scattering depends anisotropically on the velocity vector. The improved macroscopic equation of momentum flow is applied to the Hall effect, the cold plasma dispersion relation and the cyclotron resonance. The Hall coefficient which is constant in the case of the BGK collision term now depends on the magnetic field. It is also shown that, compared with the almost symmetric classical curves of cyclotron resonance, the new curves are considerably asymmetric and their half-widths are about 3/2 times the classical ones. (autho)

  3. Simple collision operators for direct Vlasov simulations of laser plasma interaction and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arber, T D; Sircombe, N J

    2010-01-01

    Non-local electron transport effects have a direct influence on the compression of cryogenic targets in laser driven ICF and target heating in high energy density experiments. There is a growing need for self-consistent models of laser plasma interactions coupled to nonlocal transport. We present a direct Vlasov solver that includes multiple species and a simple collision operator. This BGK model operator - which conserves particle density, energy and momentum - is fully implicit. For collisionless plasmas it has been shown that a double layer may be formed in which an accelerated, kinetic ion population satisfies the zero current condition. Here we extend this result to collisionalities of interest to laser driven ignition to assess the validity of nonlocal electron transport models based on fluid ions.

  4. Site-resolved neutralization of slow singly and multiply charged ions during large-angle backscattering collisions with RbI(1 0 0)

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, F W; Vane, C R

    2003-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported of projectile neutralization during 120 deg. backscattering from RbI[1 0 0] of singly and multiply charged incident ions in the keV energy range. Scattered charge fractions are reported for 4.4 keV Ne sup 8 sup + and 4.2 keV F sup + normally incident on the ionic crystal. Collisions associated with scattering from a Rb or I site can be clearly distinguished for each scattered final charge state. Significant differences are observed in the intensities of the higher scattered charge states resulting from collisions with Rb and I sites. In contrast, at the target azimuth orientation of the present measurement, only minor differences in F sup - yield are observed for hard scattering from the two lattice sites.

  5. Associated production of a neutral top-Higgs with a heavy-quark pair in the γγ collisions at ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinshu; Lu Gongru; Xu Wei; Wang Shuaiwei

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the associated production processes of a neutral top-Higgs in the topcolor assisted technicolor model with a pair of heavy quarks in γγ collisions at the International Linear Collider (ILC). We find that the cross section for t(t-bar)h t in γγ collisions is at the level of a few fb with the c.m. energy √s=1000 GeV, which is consistent with the results of the cross section of t(t-bar)H in the standard model and the cross section of t(t-bar)h in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. It should be clear that hundreds of to thousands of ht per year can be produced at the ILC. This process of γγ→t(t-bar)h t is really interesting in testing the standard model and searching the signs of technicolor. (authors)

  6. A Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme for Transport and Collision Effects in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Pan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Boltzmann equation with electric acceleration term is discretized and solved by the unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS. The charged particle transport driven by electric field is included in the electric acceleration term. To capture non-equilibrium distribution function, the probability distribution functions of gas is discretized in a discrete velocity space. After discretization, the numerical flux for distribution function is computed to update the microscopic and macroscopic states. The flux is decided by an integral solution of Boltzmann equation based on characteristic problem. An electron-ion collision model is introduced in the Boltzmann Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK equation. This finite volume method for the UGKS couples the free transport and long-range interaction between particles. For simplicity, the electric field induced by charged particles is controlled by the Poisson’s equation, which is solved using the Green’s function for two dimensional plasma system subjected to the symmetry or periodic boundary conditions. Two numerical cases, linear Landau damping and Gaussian beam, are carried out to validate the proposed method. The linear electron plasma wave damping is simulated based on electron-ion collision operator. Comparison results show good accuracy and higher efficiency than particle based methods. Difference between Poisson’s equation and complete electromagnetic Maxwell equation is presented by numerical results based on the two models. Highly non-equilibrium and rarefied plasma flows, such as electron flows driven by electromagnetic field, can be simulated easily. The UGKS-Poisson model is proved to be promising in plasma flow simulation.

  7. Search for Neutral Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model Higgs Bosons Decaying to Tau Pairs in pp Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Tonutti, Manfred; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Karafasoulis, Konstantinos; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Sudano, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A search for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons in pp collisions at the LHC at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV is presented. The results are based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns recorded by the CMS experiment. The search uses decays of the Higgs bosons to tau pairs. No excess is observed in the tau-pair invariant-mass spectrum. The resulting upper limits on the Higgs boson production cross section times branching fraction to tau pairs, as a function of the pseudoscalar Higgs boson mass, yield stringent new bounds in the MSSM parameter space.

  8. 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus and its application to tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Funahashi, Akimasa; Takahashi, Koki; Shirakata, Hirofumi; Yano, Syukuro.

    1976-07-01

    A 10-channel neutral particle energy analyser apparatus for measurement of charge-exchange fast atoms emitted from a hot tokamak plasma has been constructed to determine the ion temperature of plasma from fewer discharge shots and to improve the accuracy of measurement. It consists of a 45-degrees parallel plate electrostatic analyser with ten ion detectors (Ceratron multipliers), a charge stripping cell, a dry vacuum pumping system and pulse-counting circuits for data acquisition. A calibration experiment of the apparatus is made for the particle energy and the energy resolution with electron beams of 100 to 1000 eV. The transmission efficiency of particles in the energy analyser is measured with proton beams of 1, 2 and 3 keV, and the conversion efficiency for H 2 gas in a charge stripping cell is also determined with hydrogen-atom beams of 2, 3 and 4 keV. Ion temperatures of JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices were measured with this apparatus, in order to check the usefulness and reliability of the apparatus and to investigate the parameter dependence of ion temperatures. It is found that an ion temperature can be measured with sufficient accuracy from six plasma shots (three shots to determine particle signals and three shots to determine background noises). The peak ion temperatures 80 to 400 eV are about (1/2 - 1/3) of the central electron temperatures. Dependence of the ion temperatures on plasma current I sub(p), toroidal magnetic field B sub(t) and average electron density anti n sub(e) is investigated for I sub(p) = 15 to 170 kAmp, B sub(t) = 10 to 18 kGauss and anti n sub(e) = (0.8 to 1.8) x 10 13 cm -3 on JFT-2a and JFT-2 devices. It is shown that the ion temperatures are in good agreement with the scaling law by Artsimovich Tsub(i) proportional to (Isub(p)Bsub(t) anti n sub(e)R 2 )sup(1/3), with R as the major radius of a tokamak device. (J.P.N.)

  9. Kinetic and collision process effects on magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshi, Esmaeil [Kyushu Univ., Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Goudarzi, Shervin [AEOI, Plasma Physics Department, Tehran (Iran); Amrollahi, Reza [K-N Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Sato, Kohnosuke [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Oscillations of the parallel and perpendicular neutral fluxes that are observed during pre-disruption stage in recent experiments, show possibility of a structure in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas. This structure oscillates simultaneously with the m=2 mode until the damping of this mode. The perpendicular component of this structure is greater than the parallel one. From other side, there are a good correlation between MHD activity and behavior of charge exchange neutrals, and an enough good correlation between time behavior of charge exchange flux with high energy and OV line radiation in pre-disruption phase. These may witness possibility of a mechanism of losses-excitation of inner transition with help of heavy particles in pre-disruption phase. This mechanism plays an important role in magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase. (author)

  10. Kinetic and collision process effects on magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Shervin; Amrollahi, Reza; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2001-01-01

    Oscillations of the parallel and perpendicular neutral fluxes that are observed during pre-disruption stage in recent experiments, show possibility of a structure in pre-disruption phase of tokamak plasmas. This structure oscillates simultaneously with the m=2 mode until the damping of this mode. The perpendicular component of this structure is greater than the parallel one. From other side, there are a good correlation between MHD activity and behavior of charge exchange neutrals, and an enough good correlation between time behavior of charge exchange flux with high energy and OV line radiation in pre-disruption phase. These may witness possibility of a mechanism of losses-excitation of inner transition with help of heavy particles in pre-disruption phase. This mechanism plays an important role in magnetic structures in pre-disruption phase. (author)

  11. Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.

    1982-01-01

    Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium

  12. Electron capture and excitation processes in H+-H collisions in dense quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakimovski, D.; Markovska, N.; Janev, R. K.

    2016-10-01

    Electron capture and excitation processes in proton-hydrogen atom collisions taking place in dense quantum plasmas are studied by employing the two-centre atomic orbital close-coupling (TC-AOCC) method. The Debye-Hückel cosine (DHC) potential is used to describe the plasma screening effects on the Coulomb interaction between charged particles. The properties of a hydrogen atom with DHC potential are investigated as a function of the screening strength of the potential. It is found that the decrease in binding energy of nl levels with increasing screening strength is considerably faster than in the case of the Debye-Hückel (DH) screening potential, appropriate for description of charged particle interactions in weakly coupled classical plasmas. This results in a reduction in the number of bound states in the DHC potential with respect to that in the DH potential for the same plasma screening strength, and is reflected in the dynamics of excitation and electron capture processes for the two screened potentials. The TC-AOCC cross sections for total and state-selective electron capture and excitation cross sections with the DHC potential are calculated for a number of representative screening strengths in the 1-300 keV energy range and compared with those for the DH and pure Coulomb potential. The total capture cross sections for a selected number of screening strengths are compared with the available results from classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations.

  13. Integrable, oblique travelling waves in quasi-charge-neutral two-fluid plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Webb

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A Hamiltonian description of oblique travelling waves in a two-fluid, charge-neutral, electron-proton plasma reveals that the transverse momentum equations for the electron and proton fluids are exactly integrable in cases where the total transverse momentum flux integrals, Py(d and Pz(d, are both zero in the de Hoffman Teller (dHT frame. In this frame, the transverse electric fields are zero, which simplifies the transverse momentum equations for the two fluids. The integrable travelling waves for the case Py(d=Pz(d=0, are investigated based on the Hamiltonian trajectories in phase space, and also on the longitudinal structure equation for the common longitudinal fluid velocity component ux of the electron and proton fluids. Numerical examples of a variety of travelling waves in a cold plasma, including oscillitons, are used to illustrate the physics. The transverse, electron and proton velocity components ujy and ujz (j=e, p of the waves exhibit complex, rosette type patterns over several periods for ux. The role of separatrices in the phase space, the rotational integral and the longitudinal structure equation on the different wave forms are discussed.

  14. Gyrokinetic modelling of the quasilinear particle flux for plasmas with neutral-beam fuelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Nakata, M.; Yoshida, M.; Takenaga, H.; Hayashi, N.

    2018-02-01

    A quasilinear particle flux is modelled based on gyrokinetic calculations. The particle flux is estimated by determining factors, namely, coefficients of off-diagonal terms and a particle diffusivity. In this paper, the methodology to estimate the factors is presented using a subset of JT-60U plasmas. First, the coefficients of off-diagonal terms are estimated by linear gyrokinetic calculations. Next, to obtain the particle diffusivity, a semi-empirical approach is taken. Most experimental analyses for particle transport have assumed that turbulent particle fluxes are zero in the core region. On the other hand, even in the stationary state, the plasmas in question have a finite turbulent particle flux due to neutral-beam fuelling. By combining estimates of the experimental turbulent particle flux and the coefficients of off-diagonal terms calculated earlier, the particle diffusivity is obtained. The particle diffusivity should reflect a saturation amplitude of instabilities. The particle diffusivity is investigated in terms of the effects of the linear instability and linear zonal flow response, and it is found that a formula including these effects roughly reproduces the particle diffusivity. The developed framework for prediction of the particle flux is flexible to add terms neglected in the current model. The methodology to estimate the quasilinear particle flux requires so low computational cost that a database consisting of the resultant coefficients of off-diagonal terms and particle diffusivity can be constructed to train a neural network. The development of the methodology is the first step towards a neural-network-based particle transport model for fast prediction of the particle flux.

  15. Research on the FDTD method of scattering effects of obliquely incident electromagnetic waves in time-varying plasma sheath on collision and plasma frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-xin; Li, Jiang-ting

    2017-04-01

    This study analyzes the scattering characteristics of obliquely incident electromagnetic (EM) waves in a time-varying plasma sheath. The finite-difference time-domain algorithm is applied. According to the empirical formula of the collision frequency in a plasma sheath, the plasma frequency, temperature, and pressure are assumed to vary with time in the form of exponential rise. Some scattering problems of EM waves are discussed by calculating the radar cross section (RCS) of the time-varying plasma. The laws of the RCS varying with time are summarized at the L and S wave bands.

  16. Ion-acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas: Modulational instability and dissipative rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tantawy, S.A., E-mail: samireltantawy@yahoo.com

    2017-02-26

    Progress is reported on the modulational instability (MI) of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) and dissipative rogue waves (RWs) in ultracold neutral plasmas (UNPs). The UNPs consist of inertial ions fluid and Maxwellian inertialess hot electrons, and the presence of an ion kinematic viscosity is allowed. For this purpose, a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) is derived and then solved analytically to show the occurrence of MI. It is found that the (in)stability regions of the wavepacks are dependent on time due to of the existence of the dissipative term. The existing regions of the MI of the IAWs are inventoried precisely. After that, we use a suitable transformation to convert the modified NLSE into the normal NLSE whose analytical solutions for rogue waves are known. The rogue wave propagation condition and its behavior are discussed. The impact of the relevant physical parameters on the profile of the RWs is examined. - Highlights: • UNPs are modeled by the phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic equations. • The derivative expansion method has been employed in order to derive a modified-NLSE. • A suitable transformation is used to transform the modified-NLSE into the standard NLSE. • The effect of the ion viscosity on the modulational instability and rogue waves is investigated.

  17. Electron temperature profiles in high power neutral-beam-heated TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Grek, B.; Stauffer, F.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, the maximum neutral beam injection (NBI) power in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was increased to 20 MW, with three beams co-parallel and one counter-parallel to I/sub p/. TFTR was operated over a wide range of plasma parameters; 2.5 19 19 m -3 . Data bases have been constructed with over 600 measured electron temperature profiles from multipoint TV Thomson scattering which span much of this parameter space. We have also examined electron temperature profile shapes from electron cyclotron emission at the fundamental ordinary mode and second harmonic extraordinary mode for a subset of these discharges. In the light of recent work on ''profile consistency'' we have analyzed these temperature profiles in the range 0.3 < (r/a) < 0.9 to determine if a profile shape exists which is insensitive to q/sub cyl/ and beam-heating profile. Data from both sides of the temperature profile [T/sub e/(R)] were mapped to magnetic flux surfaces [T/sub e/(r/a)]. Although T/sub e/(r/a), in the region where 0.3 < r/a < 0.9 was found to be slightly broader at lower q/sub cyl/, it was found to be remarkably insensitive to β/sub p/, to the fraction of NBI power injected co-parallel to I/sub p/, and to the heating profile going from peaked on axis, to hollow. 10 refs., 8 figs

  18. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Wong, K.L.; Scott, S.; Hsuan, H.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Tait, G.

    1990-01-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2587 (1985)] with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted Ti XXI Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range 2.1--3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range 1.8--3.0x10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is consistent with theoretical estimates

  19. Compilation of electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral argon; Compilacion de resultados de secciones eficaces de excitacion para niveles del Argon neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, F

    1993-07-01

    The present work presents a compilation and critical analysis of the available data on electron collision excitation cross sections for neutral Argon levels. This study includes: 1.- A detailed description in intermediate coupling for all the levels belonging the 20 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4to 12), np(n=4to8) and nd(n=3to8)of neutral Argon. 2.- Calculation of the electron collision excitation cross sections in Born and Born-Oppenheimer-Ochkur approximations for all the levels in the 14 configurations 3p5 ns (n=4 to 7), np (n=4 to 7) and nd (n=3 to 8). 3.- comparison and discussion of the compiled data. These are the experimental and theoretical values available from the literature, and those from this work. 4.- Analysis of the regularities and systematic behaviors in order to determine which values can be considered more reliable. It is show that the concept of one electron cross section results quite useful for this purpose. In some cases it has been possible to obtain in this way approximate analytical expressions interpolating the experimental data. 5.- All the experimental and theoretical values studied are graphically presented and compared. 6.- The last part of the work includes a listing of several general purpose programs for Atomic Physics calculations developed for this work. (Author) 35 refs.

  20. Observation of luminescent spectra in low energy ion-neutral collisions. Progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments reported provide detailed information on the fundamental nature of energy transfer processes in ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions. By combining ion beam techniques with emission spectroscopy, data are obtained which directly lead to internal energy state distributions of atomic and molecular products of these collisions. Data are in the form of emission spectra from nascent energetically excited species formed in the energy transfer process. Changes in the collision-produced spectra as a function of beam kinetic energy yield information on the extent of energy conversion (kinetic → internal) in the collision process. Some of the specific energy transfer processes studied are applicable to the problem of achieving inverted energy level populations in high pressure gas lasers. Also discussed are experiments designed to test theoretical models which predict product energy partitioning in molecular collisions. Because experimentally determined energy state distributions deviate substantially from the predicted distributions it is concluded that additional theoretical work is needed. A simple model was developed which qualitatively reproduces the important features of the data. This model, which is considerably more general than those previously available is outlined and briefly discussed

  1. Neutral pion and $\\eta$ meson production in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; 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Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Liu, Alwina; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; 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Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pisano, Silvia; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogalev, Roman; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Roslon, Krystian; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sarkar, Amal; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shirinkin, Sergey; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Song, Jihye; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stocco, Diego; 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Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vermunt, Luuk; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegrzynek, Adam; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yun, Eungyu; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Neutral pion and $\\eta$ meson invariant differential yields were measured in non-single diffractive p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. The analysis combines results from three complementary photon measurements, utilizing the PHOS and EMCal calorimeters and the Photon Conversion Method. The invariant differential yields of $\\pi^0$ and $\\eta$ meson inclusive production are measured near mid-rapidity in a broad transverse momentum range of $0.34$ GeV/$c$ at $0.483\\pm0.015{\\rm {(stat.)}}\\pm 0.015 {\\rm{(syst.)}}$. A deviation from $m_{\\rm T}$ scaling is observed for $p_{\\rm T}<2$ GeV/$c$. The measured $\\eta/\\pi^0$ ratio is consistent with previous measurements from pA and pp collisions over the full $p_{\\rm T}$ range. The measured $\\eta/\\pi^0$ ratio at high $p_{\\rm T}$ also agrees within uncertainties with measurements from AA collisions. The $\\pi^0$ and $\\eta$ yields in p-Pb relative to the scaled pp interpolated reference, $R_{\\rm pPb}$, are present...

  2. Numerical simulation of collision-free plasma using Vlasov hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, D.

    1990-01-01

    A novel scheme for the numerical simulation of wave particle interactions in space plasmas has been developed. The method, termed VHS or Vlasov Hybrid Simulation, is applicable to hot collision free plasmas in which the unperturbed distribution functions is smooth and free of delta function singularities. The particle population is described as a continuous Vlasov fluid in phase space-granularity and collisional effects being ignored. In traditional PIC/CIC codes the charge/current due to each simulation particle is assigned to a fixed spatial grid. In the VHS method the simulation particles sample the Vlasov fluid and provide information about the value of distribution function (F(r,v) at random points in phase space. Values of F are interpolated from the simulation particles onto a fixed grid in velocity/position or phase space. With distribution function defined on a phase space grid the plasma charge/current field is quickly calculated. The simulation particles serve only to provide information, and thus the particle population may be dynamic. Particles no longer resonant with the wavefield may be discarded from the simulation, and new particles may be inserted into the Vlasov fluid where required

  3. Comparison of particle trajectories and collision operators for collisional transport in nonaxisymmetric plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreman, M., E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mollén, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, we examine the validity of several common simplifying assumptions used in numerical neoclassical calculations for nonaxisymmetric plasmas, both by using a new continuum drift-kinetic code and by considering analytic properties of the kinetic equation. First, neoclassical phenomena are computed for the LHD and W7-X stellarators using several versions of the drift-kinetic equation, including the commonly used incompressible-E × B-drift approximation and two other variants, corresponding to different effective particle trajectories. It is found that for electric fields below roughly one third of the resonant value, the different formulations give nearly identical results, demonstrating the incompressible E × B-drift approximation is quite accurate in this regime. However, near the electric field resonance, the models yield substantially different results. We also compare results for various collision operators, including the full linearized Fokker-Planck operator. At low collisionality, the radial transport driven by radial gradients is nearly identical for the different operators; while in other cases, it is found to be important that collisions conserve momentum.

  4. Introduction to the experimental study of hadronic matter in heavy ion collisions. The Quark Gluon Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, G.

    2006-12-01

    In the last 20 years, heavy ion collisions have been an unique way to study the hadronic matter in the laboratory. The phase diagram of hadronic matter remains unknown, although many experimental and theoretical studies have been done in the last decade, aiming at studying its phase transitions. After a general introduction, two phases transition of the hadronic matter, liquid-gas and the transition to the Quark Gluon Plasma, are addressed. A general view about the experimental methods to study these phase transitions is presented in chapter three. The most important results of the heavy ion program in the RHIC collider at BNL (Upton, N.Y., Usa) are presented in chapter four. The last three chapters are devoted to the heavy ion program in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland). In particular, the unique LHC experiment specially designed for heavy ion physics, ALICE and its muon spectrometer are presented. (author)

  5. Recent theoretical studies of slow collisions between plasma impurity ions and H or He atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany). Bereich Theoretische Physik; Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    We review recent progress in theoretical studies of slow collisions between light plasma impurity ions and atomic hydrogen or helium. We start with a brief overview of theory work that has been done by various groups in the past. We then proceed to discuss work that is published in the last two years. For the systems of Be{sup 2+}-He, Be{sup 4+}-He and C{sup 5+}-He we present yet unpublished work of our own. All of this work broadens our knowledge about systems that are of interest for the fusion community. Some of the new information is found to be at variance with what is known from other sources and hence needs further analysis. (author)

  6. Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.

    2016-05-01

    The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.

  7. The effects of thermal motion of neutrals on the non-potential instabilities in a weakly sodium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigman, V.J.; Milic, B.S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of recent experimental measurements of the differential cross-section for elastic scattering of electrons on sodium atoms are used to evaluate the electron steady-state distribution function in a weakly ionized, uniform and non-magnetized sodium plasma placed in a d.c. electric field. The field is assumed to be of moderate intensity, so that the thermal motion of the neutrals has to be taken into account in the evaluation of the distribution function. The resulting 'modified Druyvesteinian function' is applied to study the non-potential instabilities arising from the presence of the field in this particular plasma. Threshold drifts for both very slow and slow modes are obtained and the conditions for the onset of instabilities are discussed. It is shown that the thermal motion of the neutrals affects both critical drifts and the angles of propagation. (author)

  8. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.

    1986-07-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma

  9. Search for long-lived neutral particles decaying to quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Song; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikl