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Sample records for plasma n-3 fatty

  1. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  2. Plasma phospholipid long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen Margrete

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers.......We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  3. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-20

    Dec 20, 2010 ... omega 3 (n-3), omega 6 (n-6) and omega 9 (n-9) fatty acids and are essential in the ... the maintenance of different physiological functions. (Aaes-Jorgensen .... was easier to recognize each one of these cellular types. Mating.

  4. Selective enrichment of n-3 fatty acids in human plasma lipid motifs following intake of marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic, age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s disease. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that n-3 LCPUFA fatty acids in human plasma are incorporated...

  5. n-3 fatty acids reduce plasma 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and blood pressure in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emilie; Beilin, Lawrence J; Puddey, Ian B; Watts, Gerald F; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A

    2015-09-01

    Metabolism of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase leads to the formation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) that regulates vascular function, sodium homeostasis and blood pressure (BP). Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids is known to alter arachidonic acid metabolism and reduce the formation of the lipid peroxidation products F2-isoprostanes, but the effect of n-3 fatty acids on 20-HETE has not been studied. We previously reported a significant effect of n-3 fatty acids but not coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) to reduce BP in a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, wherein patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were randomized to n-3 fatty acids (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. This study examined the effect of n-3 fatty acids on plasma and urinary 20-HETE in the same study, as well as plasma and urinary F2-isoprostanes, and relate these to changes in BP. Seventy-four patients completed the 8-week intervention. n-3 fatty acids but not CoQ significantly reduced plasma 20-HETE (P = 0.001) and F2-isoprostanes (P fatty acids. This is the first report that n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces plasma 20-HETE in humans and that this associates with reduced BP. These results provide a plausible mechanism for the reduction in BP observed in patients with CKD following n-3 fatty acid supplementation.

  6. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  7. Dietary (n-6 : n-3 Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Amira Abdulbari Kassem

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO: 50% cod liver oil (CLO (1 : 1, 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1, 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1. Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  8. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) fatty acids alter plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in pregnant Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat.

  9. Dietary (n-6 : n-3) Fatty Acids Alter Plasma and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Pregnant Sprague Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Amira Abdulbari; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Yong Meng, Goh; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma and tissue fatty acid composition in rat. The treatment groups included control rats fed chow diet only, rats fed 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil (CLO) (1 : 1), 84% SBO: 16% CLO (6 : 1), 96% SBO: 4% CLO (30 : 1). Blood samples were taken at day 15 of pregnancy, and the plasma and tissue were analyzed for fatty acid profile. The n-3 PUFA in plasma of Diet 1 : 1 group was significantly higher than the other diet groups, while the total n-6 PUFA in plasma was significantly higher in Diet 30 : 1 group as compared to the control and Diet 1 : 1 groups. The Diet 1 : 1 group showed significantly greater percentages of total n-3 PUFA and docosahexaenoic acid in adipose and liver tissue, and this clearly reflected the contribution of n-3 fatty acids from CLO. The total n-6 PUFA, linoleic acid, and arachidonic acid were significantly difference in Diet 30 : 1 as compared to Diet 1 : 1 and control group. These results demonstrated that the dietary ratio of n-6 : n-3 fatty acid ratio significantly affected plasma and tissue fatty acids profile in pregnant rat. PMID:22489205

  10. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmon F Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  11. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  12. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Manichaikul (Ani); M. Foy (Millennia); E.K. Kabagambe (Edmond); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); I.B. King (Irena); L.-C. Weng; S. Bhattacharya (Sayanti); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.S. Rich (Stephen); D.R. Jacobs (David); A. Cherubini (Antonio); B. McKnight (Barbara); S. Liang (Shuang); X. Gu (Xiangjun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); C.C. Laurie (Cathy); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.L. Browning (Brian); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); L. Djousse (Luc); J.H.Y. Wu (Jason); D.S. Siscovick (David); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); L.M. Steffen (Lyn); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide

  13. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, N.G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, S.J.; Koulman, A.; Schulze, M.B.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.

    Methods and Findings
    Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography

  14. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes : The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forouhi, Nita G.; Imamura, Fumiaki; Sharp, Stephen J.; Koulman, Albert; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Sluijs, Ivonne; Guevara, Marcela; Huerta, José María; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J M; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Tjonneland, Anne; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Langenberg, Claudia; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings: Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132

  15. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an n-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Thifault, Elisabeth; Garneau, Véronique; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with n-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of n-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (p = 0.02) with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The n-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the FADS gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and FADS1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with n-3 PUFA. PMID:23016130

  16. Impairment of lysophospholipid metabolism in obesity: altered plasma profile and desensitization to the modulatory properties of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bas, Josep M; Caimari, Antoni; Rodriguez-Naranjo, Maria Isabel; Childs, Caroline E; Paras Chavez, Carolina; West, Annette L; Miles, Elizabeth A; Arola, Lluis; Calder, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    Plasma lysophospholipids have emerged as signaling molecules with important effects on inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease, each of which is linked closely to obesity. Dietary n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may be able to improve these conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the response of plasma lysophospholipids to obesity, n-3 PUFA consumption, and a high-fat meal challenge to better understand the role of lysophospholipid metabolism in the progression of obesity-related disorders. We determined the concentrations of 8 lysophosphatidylcholines, 11 lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and 7 lysophosphatidylinositols in the plasma of 34 normal-weight and 38 obese subjects randomly assigned to consume corn oil (control) or n-3 PUFA-rich fish oil (3 g/d; n = 15-19/group) for 90 d. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the study under fasting conditions and 6 h after a high-fat meal (1135 kcal, 86 g fat) challenge. The profile of secreted lysophospholipids was studied in HepG2 cells under palmitate-induced steatosis. Obese and normal-weight subjects had different profiles of plasma lysophospholipids. A multivariate combination of the 26 lysophospholipids could discriminate between normal-weight and obese subjects with an accuracy of 98%. The high-fat meal challenge altered the concentration of plasma lysophosphatidylcholines in an oil treatment-dependent manner in normal-weight but not obese subjects, suggesting that obesity impairs the sensitivity of lysophospholipid metabolism to n-3 PUFAs. Noncytotoxic steatosis in HepG2 cells affected the secretion pattern of lysophospholipids, partially resembling the changes observed in the plasma of obese subjects. Obesity has a substantial impact on lysophospholipid metabolism, altering the plasma lysophospholipid profile and abolishing its sensitivity to dietary n-3 PUFAs. These effects could contribute to the onset or progression of alterations associated with obesity

  17. The effect of n-3 long chain fatty acids supplementation on plasma peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and thyroid hormones in obesity

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    Parizad Taraghijou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ is a transcription factor, which is abundantly expressed in adipose tissue and has a direct link to adiposity. It seems that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs can regulate PPAR γ expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of n-3LC PUFA supplementation on plasma levels of PPAR γ and thyroid hormones in obesity. Materials and Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled trial, 66 subjects with obesity were assigned to 2 groups. Participants in intervention group consumed omega3 capsules contained 1000 mg n-3 fatty acids (180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg of docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and placebo group consumed placebo capsules contained paraffin twice a day for 4 wk. Fasting blood samples and weight measurements were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Plasma PPAR γ and thyroid hormones were measured by ELISA. Data were analyzed using a repeated measure model-two factor for comparing two groups in two times. Results: No significant changes were observed in PPAR γ levels between and within the groups after supplementation (P>0.05. N-3LC PUFA supplementation significantly increased T4 levels after 4 wk (P<0.05 but T3 and TSH did not change significantly. Conclusion: Our study showed that n-3LC PUFAs supplementation increased T4 levels. However, no significant changes in T3, TSH and PPAR γ plasma levels were observed in obese adults.

  18. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

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    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  19. Plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among Japanese: The Japan Public Health Center-based (JPHC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Iso, Hiroyasu; Eshak, Ehab S; Ikehara, Satoyo; Ikeda, Ai; Iwasaki, Motoki; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2018-05-01

    Higher intake of fish or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, it is unclear whether increased blood levels of n-3 PUFAs are associated with reduced risk of CHD in the Japanese population. The relationship between circulating levels of n-3 PUFAs (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) and risk of CHD was examined in a nested case-control study among participants in the Japan Public Health Center (JPHC)-based Study Cohort. Plasma n-3 PUFA phospholipid levels were measured at baseline by gas chromatography in 209 cases with CHD and 418 controls matched for sex, age, date of blood draw, time elapsed since last meal before blood collection, and study location. The CHD cases (n = 209) comprised 168 cases of myocardial infarction and 41 of sudden cardiac death, otherwise classified as 157 non-fatal and 52 fatal coronary events, respectively. Mean duration of follow-up was 13.5 years. Multivariate conditional logistic analysis showed no significant association between n-3 PUFAs and risk of total CHD. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest versus lowest quartiles of plasma n-3 PUFAs was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.41-1.51, p for trend = 0.51). Subtype analysis of CHD revealed that the multivariate ORs for the highest versus lowest quartiles for n-3 PUFAs were 0.91 (95% CI: 0.43-1.89, p for trend = 0.90) for myocardial infarction, 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.88, p for trend = 0.04) for sudden cardiac death, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.42-1.89, p for trend = 0.97) for nonfatal coronary events, and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.02-0.75, p for trend = 0.03) for fatal coronary events. Plasma n-3 PUFA levels were not associated with risk of total CHD but were inversely associated with risks of sudden cardiac death and fatal coronary events among middle-aged Japanese individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  1. The effect of concentrated n-3 fatty acids versus gemfibrozil on plasma lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein heterogeneity and oxidizability in patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalenhoef, A. F.; de Graaf, J.; Wittekoek, M. E.; Bredie, S. J.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated in a double-blind randomized trial with a double-dummy design in 28 patients with primary hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of gemfibrozil (1200 mg/day) versus Omacor (4 g/day), a drug containing the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on lipid and

  2. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J

    2014-04-23

    The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. COMIT was conducted at three clinical sites, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Québec City, Québec, Canada and University Park, Pennsylvania, United States. Inclusion criteria were at least one of the followings: waist circumference (≥90 cm for males and ≥84 cm for females), and at least one other criterion: triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L, high density lipoprotein cholesterol safflower oil blend, and corn oil and safflower oil blend. A per protocol approach with a mixed model analysis was decided to be appropriate for data analysis. One hundred and seventy volunteers were randomized and 130 completed the study with a dropout rate of 23.5%. The mean plasma total DHA concentrations, which were analyzed among all participants as a measure of adherence, increased by more than 100% in the DHA-enriched phase, compared to other phases, demonstrating excellent dietary adherence. Recruitment and retention strategies were effective in achieving a sufficient number of participants who completed the study protocol to enable sufficient statistical power to resolve small differences in outcome measures. It is expected that the study will generate important data thereby enhancing our understanding of the effects of n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acid-containing oils on CVD risks. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01351012.

  3. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  4. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morland, Sarah Louise; Martins, Karen J.B.; Mazurak, Vera C.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from several clinical trials suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation during cancer chemotherapy improves patient outcomes related to chemotherapy tolerability, regardless of the type of chemotherapy used. While the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation during chemotherapy have been the subject of several reviews, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA improve patient responses through improved chemotherapy tolerability are unclear. There are several barriers c...

  5. Genetic predisposition scores for dyslipidaemia influence plasma lipid concentrations at baseline, but not the changes after controlled intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleh, Aseel; Maniou, Zoitsa; Lewis, Fiona J; Hall, Wendy L; Sanders, Thomas A B; O'Dell, Sandra D

    2014-07-01

    Inconsistent effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma lipids may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with dyslipidaemia in genome-wide association studies, in 310 participants randomised to treatment with placebo or 0.45, 0.9 and 1.8 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) (1.51:1) in a 12-month parallel controlled trial. Effects of risk alleles were assessed as trait-specific genetic predisposition scores (GPS) and singly. GPS were positively associated with baseline concentrations of plasma total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) and negatively with high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. The TG-GPS was associated with 0.210 mmol/L higher TG per risk allele (P GPS was associated with 0.023 mmol/L lower TG per risk allele (P = 0.72). No interactions between GPS and treatment were significant; however, FADS1 SNP rs174546 C/T interaction with treatment was a significant determinant of plasma TG concentration (P = 0.047, n = 267). Concentration differed between genotype groups after the 1.8 g/day dose (P = 0.026), decreasing by 3.5 (95 % CI -15.1 to 8.2) % in non-carriers of the risk T-allele (n = 30) and by 21.6 (95 % CI -32.1 to -11.2) % in carriers (n = 37), who showed a highly significant difference between treatments (P = 0.007). Carriers of the FADS1 rs174546 risk allele could benefit from a high intake of EPA and DHA in normalising plasma TG.

  6. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...... in relation to outcomes were performed and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: Absolute n-3 PUFA intake, but not n-3/n-6, was inversely associated with the different measures of body fat. Among n-3 PUFA derivatives, only α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with body fat measures...

  7. Role of n-3 fatty acids in muscle loss and myosteatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaschuk, Julia B; Almasud, Alaa; Mazurak, Vera C

    2014-06-01

    Image-based methods such as computed tomography for assessing body composition enables quantification of muscle mass and muscle density and reveals that low muscle mass and myosteatosis (fat infiltration into muscle) are common in people with cancer. Myosteatosis and low muscle mass have emerged as independent risk factors for mortality in cancer; however, the characteristics and pathogenesis of these features have not been resolved. Muscle depletion is associated with low plasma eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) in cancer and supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has been shown to ameliorate muscle loss and myosteatosis in clinical studies, suggesting a relationship between n-3 fatty acids and muscle health. Since the mechanisms by which n-3 fatty acids alter body composition in cancer remain unknown, related literature from other conditions associated with myosteatosis, such as insulin resistance and obesity is considered. In these noncancer conditions, it has been reported that n-3 fatty acids act by increasing insulin sensitivity, reducing inflammatory mediators, and altering adipokine profiles and transcription factors; therefore, the plausibility of these mechanisms of action in the neoplastic state are considered. The aim of this review is to summarize what is known about the effects of n-3 fatty acids with regards to muscle condition and to discuss potential mechanisms for effects of n-3 fatty acids on muscle health.

  8. Forms of n-3 (ALA, C18:3n-3 or DHA, C22:6n-3) Fatty Acids Affect Carcass Yield, Blood Lipids, Muscle n-3 Fatty Acids and Liver Gene Expression in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Lewandowski, Paul A; Fahri, Fahri T; Burnett, Viv F; Dunshea, Frank R; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2015-11-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on plasma metabolites, carcass yield, muscle n-3 fatty acids and liver messenger RNA (mRNA) in lambs were investigated. Lambs (n = 120) were stratified to 12 groups based on body weight (35 ± 3.1 kg), and within groups randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: basal diet (BAS), BAS with 10.7 % flaxseed supplement (Flax), BAS with 1.8 % algae supplement (DHA), BAS with Flax and DHA (FlaxDHA). Lambs were fed for 56 days. Blood samples were collected on day 0 and day 56, and plasma analysed for insulin and lipids. Lambs were slaughtered, and carcass traits measured. At 30 min and 24 h, liver and muscle samples, respectively, were collected for determination of mRNA (FADS1, FADS2, CPT1A, ACOX1) and fatty acid composition. Lambs fed Flax had higher plasma triacylglycerol, body weight, body fat and carcass yield compared with the BAS group (P DHA supplementation increased carcass yield and muscle DHA while lowering plasma insulin compared with the BAS diet (P DHA treatment increased (P DHA concentration. Liver mRNA FADS2 was higher and CPT1A lower in the DHA group (P DHA diet. In summary, supplementation with ALA or DHA modulated plasma metabolites, muscle DHA, body fat and liver gene expression differently.

  9. Antiatherogenic effects of n-3 fatty acids - evidence and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Zampolli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available N-3 (omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to display a variety of beneficial effects for human health. Clues to the occurrence of cardiovascular protective effects have been, however, the spur for the first biomedical interest in these compounds, and are the best documented. Historically, the epidemiologic association between dietary consumption of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular protection was first suggested by Bang and Dyerberg, who identified the high consumption of fish, and therefore, of fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids, as the likely explanation for the strikingly low rate of coronary heart disease events reported in the Inuit population. Since their initial reports, research has proceeded in parallel to provide further evidence for their cardioprotection and to understand underlying mechanisms. Decreased atherogenesis is currently thought to be a part of the cardiovascular protection by n-3 fatty acids. This article summarizes the evidence for such a claim and the mechanisms putatively involved. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 141-54

  10. Therapeutic potential of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, James W; Zdanowicz, Martin M

    2009-07-01

    The potential therapeutic benefits of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in various diseases are reviewed, and the antiinflammatory actions, activity, and potential drug interactions and adverse effects of n-3 PUFAs are discussed. Fish oils are an excellent source of long-chain n-3 PUFAs, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. After consumption, n-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into cell membranes and reduce the amount of arachidonic acid available for the synthesis of proinflammatory eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes). Likewise, n-3 PUFAs can also reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Considerable research has been conducted to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of fish oils in numerous conditions, including arthritis, coronary artery disease, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and sepsis, all of which have inflammation as a key component of their pathology. Additional investigations into the use of supplementation with fish oils in patients with neural injury, cancer, ocular diseases, and critical illness have recently been conducted. The most commonly reported adverse effects of fish oil supplements are a fishy aftertaste and gastrointestinal upset. When recommending an n-3 PUFA, clinicians should be aware of any possible adverse effect or drug interaction that, although not necessarily clinically significant, may occur, especially for patients who may be susceptible to increased bleeding (e.g., patients taking warfarin). The n-3 PUFAs have been shown to be efficacious in treating and preventing various diseases. The wide variation in dosages and formulations used in studies makes it difficult to recommend dosages for specific treatment goals.

  11. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Barden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g; CoQ (200 mg; both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil, daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F2-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015. Post-intervention plasma F2-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025.The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.

  12. (N-3) fatty acids do not affect electrocardiographic characteristics of healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Kors, J.A.; Swenne, C.A.; Katan, M.B.; Schouten, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    (n-3) Fatty acids may reduce the risk of sudden death by preventing life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. A standard electrocardiogram (ECG) may be used to detect clues as to the mechanism by which (n-3) fatty acids affect the electrophysiology of the heart. An earlier study showed that (n-3) fatty

  13. Long term influence of regular intake of high dose n-3 fatty acids on CD40-ligand, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetøy, Hildegunn; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Hetland, Øyvind; Grundt, Heidi; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2006-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), both zinc-binding endopeptidases, are abundantly expressed in ruptured and eroded plaques in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The adhesion molecule CD-40 ligand (CD40L), expressed on activated platelets and T-lymphocytes, can activate metalloproteinases and thereby promote plaque-rupture. N-3 fatty acids, through their anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties, might reduce the levels of these proatherosclerotic markers and thereby the development of ACS. 300 patients were randomized on day 4 to 6 following an acute myocardial infarction (MI) to receive either 4 g of n-3 fatty acids or a similar daily dose of corn oil for at least one year. We compared levels of PAPP-A, MMP-9 and sCD-40 L at baseline and 12 months in each group, and also looked for inter-group changes. In the omega-3 group, the median level of PAPP-A rose from 0.47 mU/l to 0.56 mU/l (p < 0.001). In the same group, sCD-40 L decreased from a mean baseline value of 5.19 ng/ml to 2.45 ng/ml (p < 0.001) and MMP-9 decreased nonsignificantly from 360.50 ng/ml to 308.00 ng/ml. Corresponding values for the corn oil group were 0.54 mU/l to 0.59 mU/l for PAPP-A (p = 0.007), 5.27 ng/ml to 2.84 ng/ml for sCD-40 L (p < 0.001) and 430.00 ng/ml to 324.00 ng/ml for MMP-9 (p = ns), respectively. In conclusion; both interventions resulted in a significant rise in PAPP-A, a significant decrease in sCD40L and a non-significant decrease in MMP-9 after 12 months of treatment in MI survivors. No inter-group differences were noted.

  14. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil...... Syrian hamsters received hamster feed blended with one of the three butter products. After 6 weeks of feeding, the fatty acid compositions of plasma, erythrocytes, liver, brain, and visceral fat were determined. The intake of butter product with fish oil resulted in a higher level of n-3 PUFA in plasma...... into food. In the present study, fish oil was incorporated into butter blends by enzymatic interesterification. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of this butter product in comparison with a commercial butter blend and a product produced by interesterification but without fish oil. Golden...

  15. N-3 fatty acids and membrane microdomains: from model membranes to lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorella vulgaris had the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3) which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of this study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally expressed in mammalian cells and ...

  17. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  18. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  19. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  20. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments...

  1. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  2. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is well established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  3. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    It is web established that marine n-3 fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids of non-pregnant subjects reflect the subjects' intake of these fatty acids. In 135 pregnant women in the 30th week of gestation we compared intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy, estimated by a combined...... dietary self-administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  4. Antiarrhythmic effects of n-3 fatty acids: evidence from human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review N-3 fatty acids from fish reduce cardiovascular mortality including sudden cardiac death. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of human studies with regard to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of fatal coronary heart disease through antiarrhythmic

  5. Food matrices affect the bioavailability of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a single meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schram, Laurine B; Nielsen, Carina J.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the food matrix on bioavailability of (n - 3) PUFA and oxidative stress in plasma. The study was a randomized, cross-over study and included 12 healthy male participants. The participants ingested a test meal, which consisted of a fitness bar...... products were absorbed differently from those simply administered as supplements alongside of food products, and yoghurt was the best matrix for providing fast absorption of lipids in general, including (n - 3) fatty acids. No significant difference was observed in the level of plasma alpha...

  6. Effect of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guermouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL, and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n-3 PUFAs, by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0 and at adulthood (day 90. Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n-3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation.

  7. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  8. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  9. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu; Wang, Qing; Hou, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings

  10. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jackie; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.......The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown....

  11. n-3 Fatty acids, Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in normal aging: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Maria F; Koyanagi, Ai; Haro, Josep Maria; Tyrovolas, Stefanos

    2017-05-01

    Intake of n-3 fatty acids and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) have been shown to slow the progression of age-related cognitive decline, but the results are mixed. We summarized and evaluated the effect of n-3 fatty acids and MedDiet on cognitive outcomes in a cognitively healthy aged population. Relevant published studies from January 2000 to May 2015 were identified by searching three electronic databases: Pubmed, Web of Science/MEDLINE, and CINHAL. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. Twenty-four studies were included for the systematic review. n-3 fatty acids were associated with better global cognition and some specific cognitive domains though some results were conflicting. Adherence to the MedDiet was also significantly associated with better cognitive performance and less cognitive decline. Finally, better cognitive performance was observed in men compared to women and mixed results were also found for the influence of APOE4 genotype on the association between n-3 fatty acids or MedDiet and cognition. Studies suggest that n-3 fatty acids in the diet and adherence to the MedDiet are beneficial in slowing age-related cognitive decline. However, more high-quality RCTs would be useful to clarify the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplements on cognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. N-3 fatty acids from fish and markers of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.

    2004-01-01

    N‑3 fatty acids from fish may protect against heart disease mortality by preventing fatal arrhythmias. The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether this possible antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 fatty acids is supported by short-term effects on electrophysiological markers. We performed two

  13. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on the pancreatic β-cells and insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Mideksa, Seifu; Ambachew, Sintayehu

    2018-03-14

    Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have multiple effects in peripheral tissues and pancreatic beta cell function. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids prevent and reverse high-fat-diet induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. Insulin secretion is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and glucagon- like peptide-1 in tissue containing high levels of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids than lower level of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids. Also, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids led to decreased production of prostaglandin, which in turn contributed to the elevation of insulin secretion. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent cytokine-induced cell death in pancreatic islets. Supplementation of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty acids for human subjects prevent beta cell destruction and insulin resistance. It also enhances insulin secretion, reduction in lipid profiles and glucose concentration particularly in type II diabetes patients. Therefore there should be a focus on the treatment mechanism of insulin related obesity and diabetes by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  14. Beneficial effect(s) of n-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular diseases: but, why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, U N

    2000-12-01

    Low rates of coronary heart disease was found in Greenland Eskimos and Japanese who are exposed to a diet rich in fish oil. Suggested mechanisms for this cardio-protective effect focused on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism, inflammation, beta oxidation, endothelial dysfunction, cytokine growth factors, and gene expression of adhesion molecules; But, none of these mechanisms could adequately explain the beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids. One attractive suggestion is a direct cardiac effect of n-3 fatty acids on arrhythmogenesis. N-3 fatty acids can modify Na+ channels by directly binding to the channel proteins and thus, prevent ischemia-induced ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Though this is an attractive explanation, there could be other actions as well. N-3 fatty acids can inhibit the synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factoralpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-2 that are released during the early course of ischemic heart disease. These cytokines decrease myocardial contractility and induce myocardial damage, enhance the production of free radicals, which can also suppress myocardial function. Further, n-3 fatty acids can increase parasympathetic tone leading to an increase in heart rate variability and thus, protect the myocardium against ventricular arrhythmias. Increased parasympathetic tone and acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuate the release of TNF, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-18. Exercise enhances parasympathetic tone, and the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 which may explain the beneficial action of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. TNFalpha has neurotoxic actions, where as n-3 fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors and brain is rich in these fatty acids. Based on this, it is suggested that the principle mechanism of cardioprotective and neuroprotective action(s) of n-3

  15. Influence of n-3 fatty acids on cardiac autonomic activity among Nunavik Inuit adults

    OpenAIRE

    Valera, Beatriz; Dewailly, Eric; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Poirier, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Inuit from Nunavik (northern Quebec) consume large amounts of fish and marine mammals, which are important sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). These substances have a beneficial impact on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). However, it is unknown if this beneficial impact remains significant in populations with high mercury exposure. The study assessed the impact of n-3 PUFAs (Docosahexaenoic [DHA] and Eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) on resting HR an...

  16. Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of fish oil rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Hou, Jia; Xiang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoling; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Tian, Gang; Zeng, Qiufeng; Yu, Bing; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Fang, Zhengfeng

    2013-12-31

    Mastitis endangers the health of domestic animals and humans, and may cause problems concerning food safety. It is documented that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play significant roles in attenuating saturated fatty acids (SFA)-induced inflammation. This study was therefore conducted to determine whether mammary inflammation could be affected by consumption of diets rich in n-3 PUFA. Forty-eight rats after mating began to receive diets supplemented with 5% fish oil (FO) or 7% soybean oil (SO). Blood and mammary tissue samples (n = 6) at day 0 and 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum were collected 9 hours after intramammary infusion of saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to determine free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and FA composition in plasma and inflammation mediators in mammary tissues. At day 14 of gestation and day 3 postpartum, the FO-fed rats had lower plasma concentrations of C18:2n6, C20:4n6, total n-6 PUFA and SFA, and higher plasma concentrations of C20:5n3 and total n-3 PUFA than the SO-fed rats. Plasma C22:6n3 concentration was also higher in the FO-fed than in the SO-fed rats at day 3 postpartum. Compared with the SO-fed rats, the FO-fed rats had lower mammary mRNA abundance of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and protein level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but had higher mammary mRNA abundances of interleukin (IL)-10 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ at day 14 of gestation. Following LPS infusion at day 3 postpartum, the SO-fed rats had increased plasma concentrations of FFA, C18:1n9, C18:3n3, C18:2n6 and total n-6 PUFA, higher mammary mRNA abundances of IL-1β, TNF-α and XOR but lower mammary mRNA abundance of IL-10 than the FO-fed rats. Mammary inflammation around parturition appeared to be attenuated by consumption of a diet rich in n-3 PUFA, which was associated with up-regulated expression of IL-10 and PPAR-γ.

  17. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F; Macintosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F; Mann, J Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E

    2014-05-01

    Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, alters unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations and reduces AA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Whole Rye Consumption Improves Blood and Liver n-3 Fatty Acid Profile and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Salen, Patricia; Gaci, Nadia; Tottey, William; Calani, Luca; Bresciani, Letizia; López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, François; Brugère, Jean-François; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Whole rye (WR) consumption seems to be associated with beneficial health effects. Although rye fiber and polyphenols are thought to be bioactive, the mechanisms behind the health effects of WR have yet to be fully identified. This study in rats was designed to investigate whether WR can influence the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and gut microbiota composition. For 12 weeks, rats were fed a diet containing either 50% WR or 50% refined rye (RR). The WR diet provided more fiber (+21%) and polyphenols (+29%) than the RR diet. Fat intake was the same in both diets and particularly involved similar amounts of essential (18-carbon) n-3 and n-6 LCFAs. The WR diet significantly increased the 24-hour urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites-including enterolactone-compared with the RR diet. The WR rats had significantly more n-3 LCFA-in particular, eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) acids-in their plasma and liver. Compared with the RR diet, the WR diet brought significant changes in gut microbiota composition, with increased diversity in the feces (Shannon and Simpson indices), decreased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decreased proportions of uncultured Clostridiales cluster IA and Clostridium cluster IV in the feces. In contrast, no difference was found between groups with regards to cecum microbiota. The WR rats had lower concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in cecum and feces (pconsumption results in major biological modifications-increased plasma and liver n-3 EPA and DHA levels and improved gut microbiota profile, notably with increased diversity-known to provide health benefits. Unexpectedly, WR decreased SCFA levels in both cecum and feces. More studies are needed to understand the interactions between whole rye (fiber and polyphenols) and gut microbiota and also the mechanisms of action responsible for stimulating n-3 fatty acid metabolism.

  19. Mechanisms of n-3 fatty acid-mediated development and maintenance of learning memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hui-Min

    2010-05-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) is specifically enriched in the brain and mainly anchored in the neuronal membrane, where it is involved in the maintenance of normal neurological function. Most DHA accumulation in the brain takes place during brain development in the perinatal period. However, hippocampal DHA levels decrease with age and in the brain disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD), and this decrease is associated with reduced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning memory ability. A potential mechanism is proposed by which the n-3 fatty acids DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) aid the development and maintenance of spatial learning memory performance. The developing brain or hippocampal neurons can synthesize and take up DHA and incorporate it into membrane phospholipids, especially phosphatidylethanolamine, resulting in enhanced neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis and neurogenesis. Exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and synaptic protein expression to increase the dendritic spine density, number of c-Fos-positive neurons and neurogenesis in the hippocampus for learning memory processing. In aged rats, n-3 fatty acid supplementation reverses age-related changes and maintains learning memory performance. n-3 fatty acids have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis effects, leading to neuron protection in the aged, damaged, and AD brain. Retinoid signaling may be involved in the effects of DHA on learning memory performance. Estrogen has similar effects to n-3 fatty acids on hippocampal function. It would be interesting to know if there is any interaction between DHA and estrogen so as to provide a better strategy for the development and maintenance of learning memory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated...... with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status and (ii) affected by fish oil supplementation, in adolescent boys. METHODS: Seventy-eight healthy, slightly overweight 13- to 15-y-old boys were randomly assigned to breads with DHA-rich fish oil (1.1 g/d n-3 LCPUFA) or control for 16 wk. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...

  1. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study.......77, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.10) of marine n-3 PUFA compared with the lowest tertile. Similar trends, but also not statistically significant, were found separately for eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant association between the content...

  2. Effect of Enriched Feed by n-3 fatty acids and 2% of n-6 fatty acid on Danio rerio Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B.P Utomo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the optimum n-3 fatty acid level in the diet containing 2 % of n-6 fatty acid on the reproductive performance of zebra fish (Danio rerio. There experimental diets containing 0.0; 1.0; 1.5 % n-3 fatty acid with 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid was fed to the fish, three times daily, at satiation, for two months. In order to evaluate the gonadal development of the broodstock, two gonads og fish was used for histologis preparation in every 7 days. At the end of the second month, reproductive performance was evaluated through parameters of gonad somato indeks, fecundity, fertilization rate, hatching rate, yolk egg absorbtion rate, survival rate of 3 days old larvae. Sample of fish also was taken for proximate composition as the end of this experiment. Results shows that at the fifth weeks of this experiment, gonad of fish fed on 1.0 % of n-3 fatty acid and 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid already produce eggs with the some size, while others. Still produce small size of eggs. It was found also that the whole body of fish fed an diet with 1.0% n-3 fatty acid contain the highest protein level compare to two other diets. Based on the evaluation of reproduction performance parameters, it was concluded that the optimum dietary level of n-3 fatty acid with 2.0 % n-6 fatty acid for Danio rerio was 0.81 - 0.90 %. Keywords: essential fatty, acids, reproduction, zebra fish, Danio rerio   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar asam lemak n-3 optimum dalam pakan yang mempunyai kadar asam lemak n-6 tetap. Tiga macam pakan dengan kadar asam lemak n-3 berbeda yaitu 0.0; 1.0; dan 2.0 % diberikan pada ikan dengan bobot rata-rata 0.12 g. Pakan diberikan secara at satiation, 4 kali sehari selama 60 hari. Setiap 7 hari sekali diambil sampel ikan untuk pembentukan preparat histologi gonad dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi perkembangan gonad. Pada akhir penelitian, induk dipijahkan dan dievaluasi performan reproduksi berdasarkan

  3. The effect of n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratios on broiler breeder performance, hatchability, fatty acid profile and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibjoo, A; Kermanshahi, H; Golian, A; Zaghari, M

    2018-04-20

    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary omega6 (n-6) to omega3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratios on performance and reproduction of broiler breeders. In experiment 1, 400 females and 40 males (30 week age) of Ross 308 broiler breeder (20 females and two males in each pen) were randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). As a measure of hatchability, fertility of eggs and general incubation traits, 1,200 eggs (60 eggs from each pen) were collected and incubated for 21 days and embryo liver and brain fatty acid profile in 14 and 21 days were determined. In experiment 2, 48 males (three males in each pen) randomly assigned to one of the four diets with n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4, 6, 8 and 16 (control). Semen was collected twice weekly, and semen volume, spermatozoa concentration and motility and alive and dead spermatozoa were estimated. Egg production and egg mass were decreased by n-6/n-3 FA ratios of 4:1 and 6:1 (p n-3 of egg yolk, semen, testis and liver and brain of embryo and day-old chicken were increased while concentration of linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosatetraenoic acid of mentioned tissues were decreased by increasing n-6/n-3 FA ratios (p > .05). In conclusion, absolute amount of n-3 and n-6 FAs in broiler breeder diet may be more important than n-6/n-3 FA ratios and to consider reproductive and performance traits of breeders, it is necessary to supply higher levels of n-3 and n-6 FA with respect to n-6/n-3 FA ratios. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  5. Effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid supplementation on fetal, gestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Essential fatty acids (EFAs) include two series of prostaglandin ... functions such as ovulation, luteolysis and parturition. Actions of PGF2α are ..... cations vary according to the type of polyunsaturated fat and the ratio of n-6: n-3 ...

  6. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism.

  7. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  8. Postpartum responses of dairy cows supplemented with n-3 fatty acids for different durations during the peripartal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, A; Aliverdilou, A; Amanlou, H; Beheshti, M; Dirandeh, E; Masoumi, R; Moosakhani, F; Petit, H V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different durations of n-3 supplementation during the peripartal period on production and reproduction performance of Holstein dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dry cows (16 multiparous and 16 primiparous) were blocked within parity for similar expected calving dates 8 wk before calving. Cows within blocks were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) control without n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation during the dry period; (2) n-3 FA supplementation during the whole dry period (8 wk); and (3) n-3 FA supplementation during the early dry period (first 5 wk; far-off), or (4) n-3 FA supplementation during the late dry period (last 3 wk; close-up). All cows received the same diet without n-3 FA after calving for the first 6 wk of lactation. Ovaries of each cow were examined 10, 17, 24, and 34 d from calving (calving=d 0) by transrectal ultrasonography to determine follicular development. Blood samples were collected at 14-d intervals starting on the first day of the dry period (8 wk before expected calving) to determine plasma concentrations of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids, urea N, aspartate aminotransferase, and insulin. Blood samples were also collected on d 1, 10, 17, 24, 31, and 38 postpartum for determination of progesterone concentration. Milk yield was recorded daily throughout the experiment and samples were taken twice weekly (Monday and Thursday mornings) for analysis of fat, protein, and lactose. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk and milk composition were similar among treatments except for fat proportion, which tended to be lower in cows that were fed n-3 FA throughout the dry period. We observed no differences among treatments for plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. The cows that were fed in the 3 n-3 FA treatments had larger ovulatory follicles compared with those fed the controlled diet. Treatments did not differ significantly in terms of the

  9. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Liu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA, however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research.

  10. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early childhood: effects on blood pressure and arterial structure and function at age 8 y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayer, Julian G; Harmer, Jason A; Xuan, Wei; Toelle, Brett; Webb, Karen; Almqvist, Catarina; Marks, Guy B; Celermajer, David S

    2009-08-01

    n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in adults results in cardiovascular benefits. However, the cardiovascular effects of n-3 supplementation in early childhood are unknown. The objective was to evaluate blood pressure (BP) and arterial structure and function in 8-y-old children who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of dietary n-3 and n-6 modification over the first 5 y of life. The children (n = 616; 49% girls) were randomly assigned antenatally to active (n = 312; increase in n-3 intake and decrease in n-6 intake) or control (n = 304) diet interventions implemented from the time of weaning or introduction of solids until 5 y of age. At age 8.0 +/- 0.1 y, BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, and brachial pulse wave velocity were measured in 405 of these children. Venous blood was collected for measurement of plasma fatty acids, lipoproteins, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Plasma fatty acid concentrations were also assessed during the intervention. Plasma concentrations of n-3 fatty acids were higher and of n-6 were lower in the active than in the control diet group at 18 mo and 3 and 5 y (P n-3 and n-6 fatty acids were similar at 8 y. At 8 y of age, no significant differences were found in BP, carotid intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, augmentation index, asymmetric dimethylarginine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or lipoproteins between diet groups. A dietary supplement intervention to increase n-3 and decrease n-6 intakes from infancy until 5 y does not result in significant improvements in arterial structure and function at age 8 y. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN012605000042640.

  11. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  12. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  13. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  14. Adaptive thermogenesis by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Emerging evidence and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Koehler, Karsten; Chung, Soonkyu

    2018-04-19

    Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence that n-3 PUFA promote brown/beige fat formation and highlight the potential mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFA require GPR120 as a signaling platform or act independently. Human clinical trials are revisited in the context of energy expenditure. Additionally, we explore some future perspective that n-3 PUFA intake might be a useful strategy to boost or sustain metabolic activities of brown/beige fat at different lifecycle stages of pregnancy and senescence. Given that a high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA intake is associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, understanding the impact of n-6/n-3 ratio on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis will inform the implementation of a novel nutritional strategy for preventing obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of n-3 fatty acids from fish on premature ventricular complexes and heart rate in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Katan, M.B.; Schouten, E.G.; Maan, A.C.; Zock, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A large body of evidence suggests that n-3 fatty acids from fish prevent fatal heart disease. They may be an effective and safe alternative to drug treatment for reducing the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Objective: We investigated the effect of n-3 fatty acids on heart

  16. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  17. The effect of n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on acute reflux esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ze-Hao; Xie, Jing-Jing; Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Yang, Li-Yong

    2016-10-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play various roles in inflammation. However, the effect of PUFAs in the development of reflux esophagitis (RE) is unclear. This study is to investigate the potential effect of n-3/n-6 PUFAs on acute RE in rats along with the underlying protective mechanisms. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 in each group). RE model was established by pyloric clip and section ligation. Fish oil- and soybean oil-based fatty emulsion (n-3 and n-6 groups), or normal saline (control and sham operation groups) was injected intraperitoneally 2 h prior to surgery and 24 h postoperatively (2 mL/kg, respectively). The expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in esophageal tissues were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry after 72 h. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression in the esophageal tissues were determined to assess the oxidative stress. The mildest macroscopic/microscopic esophagitis was found in the n-3 group (P < 0.05). The expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6 and MyD88 were increased in all RE groups, while the lowest and highest expression were found in n-3 and n-6 group, respectively (P < 0.05). The MDA levels were increased in all groups (P < 0.05), in an ascending trend from n-3, n-6 groups to control group. The lowest and highest SOD levels were found in the control and n-3 group, respectively (P < 0.05). n-3 PUFAs may reduce acute RE in rats, which may be due to inhibition of the MyD88-NF-kB pathway and limit oxidative damage.

  18. Association between very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland and dry eye resulting from n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hideko; Harauma, Akiko; Takimoto, Mao; Moriguchi, Toru

    2015-06-01

    In our previously study, we reported lower tear volume in with an n-3 fatty acid deficient mice and that the docosahexaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acid levels in these mice are significantly reduced in the meibomian gland, which secretes an oily tear product. Furthermore, we noted very long chain fatty acids (≥25 carbons) in the meibomian gland. To verify the detailed mechanism of the low tear volume in the n-3 fatty acid-deficient mice, we identified the very long chain fatty acids in the meibomian gland, measured the fatty acid composition in the tear product. Very long chain fatty acids were found to exist as monoesters. In particular, very long chain fatty acids with 25-29 carbons existed for the most part as iso or anteiso branched-chain fatty acids. n-3 fatty acid deficiency was decreased the amount of meibum secretion from meibomian gland without change of fatty acid composition. These results suggest that the n-3 fatty acid deficiency causes the enhancement of evaporation of tear film by reducing oily tear secretion along with the decrease of meibomian gland function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldamer, Lobna; Goupille, Caroline; Vildé, Anne; Arbion, Flavie; Body, Gilles; Chevalier, Stephan; Cottier, Jean Philippe; Bougnoux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality. Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality. We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality. These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality.

  20. Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.

    1991-01-01

    Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from...... randomly selected groups of 62 Faroese and 37 Danish women with an assessable gestational age. Average ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid [(3/6) ratio] was 0.73 (SD = 0.11) in Faroese women and 0.61 (SD = 0.12) in Danish women (p ...-3 fatty acids in the Faroes. A 20% increase in the (3/6) ratio was associated with an increase in pregnancy duration of 5.7 days in Danish women (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 10.1 days; p = 0.02) and 0.7 days in Faroese women (95% confidence interval, -2.0 to 3.3; p = 0.6). The hypothesized...

  1. DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation decreases DNA methylation in blood leukocytes: the OmegAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Vedin, Inger; Freund Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Faxén Irving, Gerd; Eriksdotter, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Schultzberg, Marianne; Hjorth, Erik; Cederholm, Tommy; Palmblad, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Background: Dietary fish oils, rich in long-chain n-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (FAs) [e.g., docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3)], modulate inflammatory reactions through various mechanisms, including gene expression, which is measured as messenger RNA concentration. However, the effects of long-term treatment of humans with DHA and EPA on various epigenetic factors-such as DNA methylation, which controls messenger RNA generation-are poorly described. Objective: We wanted to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the relation to plasma EPA and DHA concentrations in Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Design: In the present study, DNA methylation in four 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) sites of long interspersed nuclear element-1 repetitive sequences was assessed in a group of 63 patients (30 given the n-3 FA preparation and 33 given placebo) as an estimation of the global DNA methylation in blood cells. Patients originated from the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, in which 174 AD patients received either 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (the n-3 FA group) or placebo daily for 6 mo. Results: At 6 mo, the n-3 FA group displayed marked increases in DHA and EPA plasma concentrations (2.6- and 3.5-fold), as well as decreased methylation in 2 out of 4 CpG sites ( P DHA concentration, and were not related to apolipoprotein E-4 allele frequency. Conclusion: Supplementation with n-3 FA for 6 mo was associated with global DNA hypomethylation in PBLs. Our data may be of importance in measuring various effects of marine oils, including gene expression, in patients with AD and in other patients taking n-3 FA supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00211159. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA on non-fasting triacylglycerol levels and to compare the effects of n-3 PUFA formulated as acylglycerol (AG-PUFA) or ethyl esters (EE-PUFA). The study was a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled interventional trial, and included 120...... subjects with non-fasting plasma triacylglycerol levels of 1.7-5.65 mmol/L (150-500 mg/dL). The participants received approximately 3 g/day of AG-PUFA, EE-PUFA, or placebo for a period of eight weeks. The levels of non-fasting plasma triacylglycerols decreased 28 % in the AG-PUFA group and 22 % in the EE...

  3. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate T cell-mediated hepatitis via autophagy activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  4. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with end-stage renal failure and in subjects without kidney disease: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Christensen, Jeppe H; Svensson, My; Witt, Petra M; Toft, Egon; Schmidt, Erik B

    2011-03-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease treated with chronic hemodialysis (HD) are reported to have low levels of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma and cell membranes compared with healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether n-3 PUFA levels in plasma and cells are lower in HD patients as compared with subjects without kidney disease. A comparative study was carried out. This study was carried out at the Departments of Nephrology and Cardiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. This study consisted of 2 study populations comprising HD patients and 5 study populations comprising subjects without kidney disease. The fatty acid distribution in plasma phospholipids and platelet phospholipids was measured using gas chromatography. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) levels in plasma or serum phospholipids and platelet phospholipids in HD patients were compared with n-3 PUFA levels in subjects without kidney disease. EPA and DHA were lower and AA/EPA was higher in plasma/serum phospholipids in HD patients than in subjects without kidney disease. Similarly, higher AA and AA/EPA and lower EPA and DHA levels were found in platelet phospholipids of HD patients. Adjustment for gender, age, and habitual intake of fish and fish oil supplements did not change these results. HD patients have lower n-3 PUFA levels in plasma and cells compared with subjects without kidney disease. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Calder

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  6. Enriched eggs as a source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to enrich eggs with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by using plant oils and fish oil as dietary supplements in laying hens’ feed. The focus was put on the effect of the daily consumption of 100 g of egg yolk, i.e. 100 g of egg mass, on the human health. The 1st group of laying hens was fed a diet containing soybean and fish oil, and the 2nd group was given feed containing a combination of linseed, rapeseed, soybean, and fish oils. Eggs laid by the 2nd group contained 4.73% α-linolenic acid, 0.20% eicosapentaenoic acid and 2.37% docosahexaenoic acid (% of total fatty acids in yolk lipids, P < 0.001, which marks an increase of × 4.04 for α-linolenic acid, × 3.33 for eicosapentaenoic acid, and × 1.75 for docosahexaenoic acid compared to eggs laid by the 1st group. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in eggs of the 2nd group were × 2.8 higher than in the 1st first group. Calculated per 100 g of eggs of the 2nd group, the intake for the human body corresponds to 435 mg α-linolenic acid, 18.43 mg eicosapentaenoic acid, and 218.2 mg docosahexaenoic acid.

  7. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Faurot, Keturah F.; MacIntosh, Beth; Majchrzak-Hong, Sharon F.; Mann, J. Douglas; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Ringel, Amit; Ramsden, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) lowering in rats reduces n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) plasma concentrations and increases n-3 PUFA (eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) concentrations. Objective To evaluate the extent to which 12 weeks of dietary n-6 PUFA lowering, with or without increased dietary n-3 PUFAs, change unesterified and esterified plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA concentrations in subjects with chronic headache. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Subjects with chronic headache were randomized for 12 weeks to: (1) average n-3, low n-6 (L6) diet; or (2) high n-3, low n-6 LA (H3-L6) diet. Esterified and unesterified plasma fatty acids were quantified at baseline (0 weeks) and after 12 weeks on a diet. Results Compared to baseline, the L6 diet reduced esterified plasma LA and increased esterified n-3 PUFA concentrations (nmol/ml), but did not significantly change plasma arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) concentration. In addition, unesterified EPA concentration was increased significantly among unesterified fatty acids. The H3-L6 diet decreased esterified LA and AA concentrations, and produced more marked increases in esterified and unesterified n-3 PUFA concentrations. Conclusion Dietary n-6 PUFA lowering for 12 weeks significantly reduces LA and increases n-3 PUFA concentrations in plasma, without altering plasma AA concentration. A concurrent increase in dietary n-3 PUFA for 12 weeks further increases n-3 PUFA plasma concentrations, but also reduces AA. PMID:24675168

  8. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMoreno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the effects of PUFAs on cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5 and two potassium channels (Kv (Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. n-3 marine (docohexaenoic and eicohexapentaenoic acid and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid PUFAs block Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 channels at physiological concentrations. Also, DHA and EPA decreased Nav1.5 and calcium channels. These effects on Na and Ca channels theoretically should shorten the cardiac APD, whereas the blocking actions of n-3 PUFAs of Kv channels should lengthen the cardiac action potential. Experiments performed in female rabbits fed with a diet rich in n-3 PUFAs show a longer cardiac action potential and effective refractory period. This study was performed to analyze if their antiarrhythmic effects are due to a reduction of triangulation, reverse use-dependence, instability and dispersion of the cardiac action potential (TRIaD as a measure of proarrhythmic effects. Dietary n-3 PUFAs supplementation markedly reduced dofetilide-induced TRIaD and abolished dofetilide-induced torsades de pointes (TdP. Ultrafast sodium channel block by DHA may account for the antiarrhythmic protection of dietary supplements of n-3 PUFAs against dofetilide induced proarrhythmia observed in this animal model. The cardiac effects of n-3 PUFAs resemble those of amiodarone: both block sodium, calcium and potassium channels, have anti-adrenergic properties, can prolong the cardiac action potential, reverse TRIaD and suppress TdP. The main difference is that sodium channel block by n-3 PUFAs has a much faster onset and offset kinetics. Therefore, the electrophysiological profile of n-3 PUFAs appears more desirable: the duration of reduced sodium current (facilitates re-entry is much shorter. The n-3 PUFAs appear as a safer alternative to other antiarrhythmic

  9. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  10. C-reactive protein, dietary n-3 fatty acids, and the extent of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Skou, Helle Aarup; Hansen, Vibeke Ellegaard

    2001-01-01

    The acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP) has emerged as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Experimental and clinical studies provide evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from fish. We have studied the effect of marin.......003). The inverse correlation between CRP and DHA may reflect an anti-inflammatory effect of DHA in patients with stable coronary artery disease and suggest a novel mechanism by which fish consumption may decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. (C) 2001 by Excerpta Medica, Inc....

  11. Increased blood pressure later in life may be associated with perinatal n-3 fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James A; Pearce, Adrian D; Sinclair, Andrew J; Vingrys, Algis J; Weisinger, Richard S; Weisinger, Harrison S

    2003-04-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Previous work in both animals and humans with high blood pressure has demonstrated the antihypertensive effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), although it is not known whether these nutrients are effective in preventing hypertension. The predominant n-3 PUFA in the mammalian nervous system, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is deposited into synaptic membranes at a high rate during the perinatal period, and recent observations indicate that the perinatal environment is important for the normal development of blood pressure control. This study investigated the importance of perinatal n-3 PUFA supply in the control of blood pressure in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Pregnant rat dams were fed semisynthetic diets that were either deficient in (DEF) or supplemented with (CON) n-3 PUFA. Offspring were fed the same diets as their mothers until 9 wk; then, half of the rats from each group were crossed over to the opposite diet creating four groups, i.e., CON-CON; CON-DEF; DEF-DEF, DEF-CON. Mean arterial blood pressures (MAP) were measured directly, at 33 wk of age, by cannulation of the femoral artery. The phospholipid fatty acid profile of the hypothalamic region was determined by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. The tissue phospholipid fatty acid profile reflected the diet that the rats were consuming at the time of testing. Both groups receiving DEF after 9 wk of age (i.e., DEF-DEF and CON-DEF) had similar profiles with a reduction in DHA levels of 30%, compared with rats receiving CON (i.e., CON-CON and DEF-CON). DEF-DEF rats had significantly raised MAP compared with all other groups, with differences as great as 17 mm Hg. DEF-CON rats had raised MAP compared with CON-CON rats, and DEF-DEF rats had higher MAP than CON-DEF rats, despite the fact that their respective fatty acid profiles were not different. These findings indicate that inadequate levels of DHA in the perinatal

  12. Effects of similar intakes of marine n-3 fatty acids from enriched food products and fish oil on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhus, Bente; Lamglait, Amandine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Falch, Eva; Haider, Trond; Vik, Hogne; Hoem, Nils; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Basu, Samar; Olsen, Elisabeth; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Nyberg, Lena; Elind, Elisabeth; Ulven, Stine M

    2012-05-01

    There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.

  13. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2012-01-01

    , daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P ...The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish......·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance...

  14. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-03-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  15. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobna Ouldamer

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality.Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality.We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality.These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality.

  16. Intake of marine fat, rich in (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids, may increase birthweight by prolonging gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sørensen, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    an important part in the timing of parturition in human beings. Dietary (n-3)-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in high amounts influence endogenous prostaglandin metabolism. Owing to the large consumption of marine fat, the average intake of (n-3)-PUFA in the Faroes by far exceeds that in Denmark...

  17. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Todorčević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3. Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity.

  18. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  19. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Kestemont, P.

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning and...

  20. Enrichment of lecithin with n-3 fatty acids by acidolysis using immobilized phospholipase A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill, Jr, Charles G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A commercial phospholipase A1 (Lecitase® Ultra was immobilized by physical adsorption on Duolite® and then used to mediate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into lecithin. Adsorption isotherms showed that 12 h of contact were sufficient to deposit most of the enzyme onto the carrier. A pH of 7 and 50°C were the best conditions for adsorption. Reaction mixtures consisting of lecithin and a saponified fish oil concentrate (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA were prepared at molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:10. Typically 2 g of total substrates and 200 mg of enzyme preparation were employed in batch reactor trials. The fastest reaction rates were observed when a substrate mole ratio of 1:8 (lecithin:total fatty acids was employed. Use of the enzyme preparation dried at pH 8 and reaction temperatures of 50 and 60°C produced the greatest extent of incorporation of the indicated n-3 fatty acids into the phospholipid after 24h of reaction.Una preparación comercial de fosfolipasa A1 (Lecitase® Ultra fue inmovilizada por adsorción sobre Duolite® y empleada para catalizar la incorporación de ácidos grasos n-3 en lecitina. Las isotermas de adsorción mostraron que en 12 horas de contacto se depositó la mayor cantidad de enzima sobre el soporte. Las mejores condiciones para la adsorción se encontraron a un valor de pH de 7 y 50°C. Las mezclas de reacción consistieron en lecitina y un saponificado de concentrado de aceite de pescado (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA a relaciones molares de 1:2 a 1:10. Una mezcla de reacción típica consistió de 2 g de sustratos y 200 mg del preparado enzimático en un reactor en lotes. Las velocidades de reacción mas altas se encontraron cuando se empleó una relación molar de sustratos de 1:8 (lecitina:ácidos grasos totales. El preparado enzimático secado a pH de 8.0 a 50 o 60°C produjo las más altas incorporaciones de ácidos grasos n-3 en el fosfolípido después de 24 h de reacción.

  1. Effect of Supplementation with n-3 Fatty Acids Extracted from Microalgae on Inflammation Biomarkers from Two Different Strains of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Gutiérrez-Pliego

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus is considered a chronic noncommunicable disease in which inflammation plays a main role in the progression of the disease and it is known that n-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties. One of the most recent approaches is the study of the fatty acids of microalgae as a substitute for fish oil and a source rich in fatty acids EPA and DHA. Objective. To analyze the effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae on the inflammatory markers from two different strains of mice. Methods. Mice of two strains, db/db and CD1, were supplemented with n-3 fatty acids extracted from microalgae in lyophilized form and added to food; the experiment was carried out from week 8 to 16 of life. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Results. Supplementation with microalgae fatty acids decreased the percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α and increased the ones producing IL-17A and IL-12 in both strains; on the other hand, supplementation decreased percentage of TCD4+ cells producing IL-4 and increased the ones producing TGF-β. Conclusions. Microalgae n-3 fatty acids could be a useful tool in the treatment of diabetes as well as in the prevention of the appearance of health complications caused by inflammatory states.

  2. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  3. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for the Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Maguire, Maureen G; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-shuang; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Hardten, David R; Lin, Meng C; Shtein, Roni M

    2018-05-03

    Dry eye disease is a common chronic condition that is characterized by ocular discomfort and visual disturbances that decrease quality of life. Many clinicians recommend the use of supplements of n-3 fatty acids (often called omega-3 fatty acids) to relieve symptoms. In a multicenter, double-blind clinical trial, we randomly assigned patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye disease to receive a daily oral dose of 3000 mg of fish-derived n-3 eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (active supplement group) or an olive oil placebo (placebo group). The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline in the score on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI; scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater symptom severity), which was based on the mean of scores obtained at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included mean changes per eye in the conjunctival staining score (ranging from 0 to 6) and the corneal staining score (ranging from 0 to 15), with higher scores indicating more severe damage to the ocular surface, as well as mean changes in the tear break-up time (seconds between a blink and gaps in the tear film) and the result on Schirmer's test (length of wetting of paper strips placed on the lower eyelid), with lower values indicating more severe signs. A total of 349 patients were assigned to the active supplement group and 186 to the placebo group; the primary analysis included 329 and 170 patients, respectively. The mean change in the OSDI score was not significantly different between the active supplement group and the placebo group (-13.9 points and -12.5 points, respectively; mean difference in change after imputation of missing data, -1.9 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.0 to 1.1; P=0.21). This result was consistent across prespecified subgroups. There were no significant differences between the active supplement group and the placebo group in mean changes from baseline in the conjunctival staining score (mean difference in

  4. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (adjusted hazard ratio for women in lowest versus highest LCn3FA intake group: 1.91 [95% CI: 1.26-2.90]). Restricting the sample to women who had consistently reported similar frequencies of fish intake across 3 different dietary assessment......Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk...... of cardiovascular disease in a large prospective cohort of young women (mean age at baseline: 29.9 years [range: 15.7-46.9]). Exposure information on 48 627 women from the Danish National Birth Cohort was linked to the Danish National Patients Registry for information on events of hypertensive, cerebrovascular...

  5. The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 supplementation on neutrophil leukotrienes, mediators of inflammation resolution and myeloperoxidase in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Shinde, Sujata; Burke, Valerie; Puddey, Ian B; Beilin, Lawrence J; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Mori, Trevor A

    2018-03-22

    Neutrophils release leukotriene (LT)B 4 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) that may be important mediators of chronic inflammation in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have the potential to attenuate inflammation through production of LTB 5 and the Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators (SPM) that promote the resolution of inflammation. In animal models, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) also attenuates inflammation by reducing MPO and LTB 4 . This study evaluated the independent and combined effects of n-3 FA and CoQ supplementation on neutrophil leukotrienes, the pro-inflammatory eicosanoid 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), SPM, and plasma MPO, in patients with CKD. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention of factorial design, 85 patients with CKD were randomized to either n-3 FA (4 g), CoQ (200 mg), both supplements, or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Plasma MPO and calcium ionophore-stimulated neutrophil release of LTs, 5-HETE and SPM were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Seventy four patients completed the intervention. n-3 FA, but not CoQ, significantly increased neutrophil LTB 5 (P n-3 FA or CoQ. Plasma MPO was significantly reduced with n-3 FA alone (P = 0.013) but not when given in combination with CoQ. n-3 FA supplementation in patients with CKD leads to increased neutrophil release of LTB 5 and several SPM, as well as a reduction in plasma MPO that may have important implications for limiting chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal and neonatal dietary intake of balanced n-6/n-3 fatty acids modulates experimental colitis in young adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-08-01

    The imbalance of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the maternal diet impairs intestinal barrier development and sensitizes the colon response to inflammatory insults in the young rats. With a view to overcoming this issue, we designed this study to investigate the effect of maternal and neonatal intake of different proportions of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on colon inflammation in the young adult rats. Female Wistar rats were assigned into four groups, and each group fed one of four semisynthetic diets, namely n-6, low n-3, n-6/n-3 and n-3 fatty acids for 8 weeks prior to mating, during gestation and lactation periods. At weaning, the pups were separated from the dams and fed diet similar to the mothers. Colitis was induced on postnatal day 35, by administering 2 % dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 10 days. Colitis was assessed based on the clinical and inflammatory markers in the colon. Fatty acid analysis was done in liver, RBC, colon and spleen. A balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA diet significantly improved the body weight loss, rectal bleeding and mortality in rats. This was associated with lower myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, TNF-α and IL-6, IL-8, COX-2 and iNOS levels in the colon tissues. Fatty acid analysis has shown that the arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratio was significantly lower in liver, RBC, colon and spleen in n-6/n-3 and n-3 diet groups. We demonstrate that balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA supplementation in maternal and neonatal diet alters systemic AA/DHA ratio and attenuates colon inflammation in the young adult rats.

  7. Interaction of (n-3) and (n-6) fatty acids in desaturation and chain elongation of essential fatty acids in cultured glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, H.W.; Spence, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research in various biological systems has revived interest in interactions between the (n-6) and (n-3) essential fatty acids. We have utilized cultured glioma cells to show that linolenic acid, 18:3(n-3), is rapidly desaturated and chain elongated; 20:5(n-3) is the major product and accumulates almost exclusively in phospholipids. We examined effects of various (n-6), (n-3), (n-9) and (n-7) fatty acids at 40 microM concentration on desaturation and chain elongation processes using [1- 14 C]18:3(n-3) as substrate. In general, monoenoic fatty acids were without effect. The (n-6) fatty acids (18:2, 18:3, 20:3, 20:4 and 22:4) had little effect on total product formed. There was a shift of labeled product to triacylglycerol, and in phospholipids, slightly enhanced conversion of 20:5 to 22:5 was evident. In contrast, 22:6(n-3) was inhibitory, whereas 20:3(n-3) and 20:5(n-3) had much less effect. At concentrations less than 75 microM, all acids were inhibitory. Most products were esterified to phosphatidylcholine, but phosphatidylethanolamine also contained a major portion of 20:5 and 22:5. We provide a condensed overview of how the (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids interact to modify relative rates of desaturation and chain elongation, depending on the essential fatty acid precursor. Thus, the balance between these dietary acids can markedly influence enzymes providing crucial membrane components and substrates for biologically active oxygenated derivatives

  8. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Involvement of gut microbial fermentation in the metabolic alterations occurring in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-depleted mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier Yvon A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Western diet is characterized by an insufficient n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA consumption which is known to promote the pathogenesis of several diseases. We have previously observed that mice fed with a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations exhibit hepatic steatosis together with a decrease in body weight. The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of host energy metabolism, due to symbiotic relationship with fermentable nutrients provided in the diet. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that perturbations of the gut microbiota contribute to the metabolic alterations occurring in mice fed a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations (n-3/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6J mice fed with a control or an n-3 PUFA depleted diet for two generations were supplemented with prebiotic (inulin-type Fructooligosaccharides, FOS, 0.20 g/day/mice during 24 days. Results n-3/-mice exhibited a marked drop in caecum weight, a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase in bifidobacteria in the caecal content as compared to control mice (n-3/+ mice. Dietary supplementation with FOS for 24 days was sufficient to increase caecal weight and bifidobacteria count in both n-3/+ and n-3/-mice. Moreover, FOS increased lactobacilli content in n-3/-mice, whereas it decreased their level in n-3/+ mice. Interestingly, FOS treatment promoted body weight gain in n-3/-mice by increasing energy efficiency. In addition, FOS treatment decreased fasting glycemia and lowered the higher expression of key factors involved in the fatty acid catabolism observed in the liver of n-3/-mice, without lessening steatosis. Conclusions the changes in the gut microbiota composition induced by FOS are different depending on the type of diet. We show that FOS may promote lactobacilli and counteract the catabolic status induced by n-3 PUFA depletion in mice, thereby contributing to restore efficient fat storage.

  10. Deleterious effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the fat-1 mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Shefer-Weinberg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD represents a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from hepatocellular steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. It has been suggested that fish oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA induce beneficial effects in NAFLD. However, n-3 PUFA are sensitive to peroxidation that generate free radicals and reactive aldehydes. We aimed at determining whether changing the tissue ratio of n-3 to n-6 PUFA may be beneficial or alternatively harmful to the etiology of NAFLD. The transgenic Fat-1 mouse model was used to determine whether n-3 PUFA positively or negatively affect the development of NAFLD. fat-1mice express the fat-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans, which encodes an n-3 fatty-acid desaturase that converts n-6 to n-3 fatty acids. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice served as the control group. Both groups of mice were fed methionine and choline deficient (MCD diet, which induces NASH within 4 weeks. The study shows that NASH developed faster and was more severe in mice from the fat-1 group when compared to control C57BL/6 mice. This was due to enhanced lipid peroxidation of PUFA in the liver of the fat-1 mice as compared to the control group. Results of our mice study suggest that supplementing the diet of individuals who develop or have fatty livers with n-3 PUFA should be carefully considered and if recommended adequate antioxidants should be added to the diet in order to reduce such risk.

  11. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation does not affect changes of lipid metabolism induced in rats by altered thyroid status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchová, H; Vokurková, M; Pavelka, S; Behuliak, M; Tribulová, N; Soukup, T

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia. It is well known that lipid metabolism is also influenced by thyroid hormones. The aim of our study was to test whether n-3 PUFA supplementation (200 mg/kg of body weight/day for 6 weeks given intragastrically) would affect lipid metabolism in Lewis male rats with altered thyroid status. Euthyroid, hypothyroid, and hyperthyroid status of experimental groups was well defined by plasma levels of triiodothyronine, the activity of liver mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and by relative heart weight. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the hyperthyroid compared to the euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (5.0±0.2 vs. 3.7±0.4 and 4.4±0.2 mmol/l, respectively). In hyperthyroid animals, the concentration of plasma postprandial triglycerides was also increased compared to euthyroid and hypothyroid rats (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.5±0.1 and 0.4±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). On the other hand, hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid and hyperthyroid status was associated with elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol (2.6±0.2 vs. 1.5±0.1 and 1.6±0.1 mmol/l, respectively), LDL cholesterol (0.9±0.1 vs. 0.4±0.1 and 0.2±0.1 mmol/l, respectively) as well as HDL cholesterol (1.6±0.1 vs. 1.0±0.1 and 1.3±0.1 mmol/l, respectively). Supplementation of n-3 PUFA in the present study did not significantly modify either relative heart weight or glucose and lipid levels in any thyroid status. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Low breast milk levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in allergic women, despite frequent fish intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Wold, A E; Sandberg, A-S

    2011-04-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have immune regulating and anti-inflammatory effects. However, their role in allergic disease is unclear. Allergic diseases are immunologically heterogeneous, and we hypothesized that n-3 fatty acid composition in serum and breast milk may vary according to clinical manifestations. Further, animal studies have shown reduction of serum-PUFA levels during allergic inflammation. To investigate fatty acid composition in breast milk and serum from women with different atopic disease manifestations. Secondly, to determine whether low PUFA levels reflected insufficient intakes. Fatty acids were analysed in breast milk and serum of women with atopic eczema and respiratory allergy (n=16), only respiratory allergy (n=7), as well as healthy women (n=22). Dietary intake of foods expected to affect long-chain n-3 PUFA levels were estimated by food-frequency questionnaire. The fatty acid pattern was related to diagnostic group and intake of relevant food items using a multivariate pattern recognition method (partial least squares projections to latent structures and discriminant analysis). Results Women with a combination of eczema and respiratory allergy had lower breast milk levels of several PUFAs (arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid, DPA), and a lower ratio of long-chain n-3 PUFAs/n-6 PUFAs. Their PUFA levels differed not only from that of healthy women, but also from that of women with only respiratory allergy. The latter had a fatty acid pattern similar to that of healthy women. Despite low EPA, DHA and DPA levels women with eczema and respiratory allergy consumed no less fish than did healthy women. Our data suggest that reduced levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in serum and breast milk characterize women with extensive allergic disease including eczema, and are not related to low fish intake. Consumption of PUFAs during the allergic process may explain

  13. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid DHA during IVM affected oocyte developmental competence in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseikria, Mouhamad; Elis, Sébastien; Maillard, Virginie; Corbin, Emilie; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-06-01

    The positive effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) on fertility in ruminants seems to be partly mediated through direct effects on the oocyte developmental potential. We aimed to investigate whether supplementation with physiological levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during IVM has an effect on oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo development in cattle. We reported that DHA (0, 1, 10, or 100 μM) had no effect on oocyte viability or maturation rate after 22-hour IVM. Incubation of oocyte-cumulus complexes with 1-μM DHA during IVM significantly increased (P DHA during IVM also induced a significant increase in the blastocyst rate at Day 7 after IVF as compared with control (30.6% vs. 17.6%, respectively) and tended to increase the number of cells in the blastocysts (97.1 ± 4.9 vs. 81.2 ± 5.3, respectively; P = 0.08). On the contrary, 10-μM DHA had no effects, whereas 100-μM DHA significantly decreased the cleavage rate compared with control (69.5% vs.78.8%, respectively) and the greater than 4-cell embryo rate at Day 2 after parthenogenetic activation (19.5% vs. 29.7%). As was shown by real-time polymerase chain reaction, negative effects of 100-μM DHA were associated with significant increase of progesterone synthesis by oocyte-cumulus complexes, a three-fold increase in expression level of FA transporter CD36 and a two-fold decrease of FA synthase FASN genes in cumulus cells (CCs) of corresponding oocytes. Docosahexaenoic acid at 1 and 10 μM had no effect on expression of those and other key lipid metabolism-related genes in CC. In conclusion, administration of a low physiological dose of DHA (1 μM) during IVM may have beneficial effects on oocyte developmental competence in vitro without affecting lipid metabolism gene expression in surrounding CCs, contrarily to 100 μM DHA which diminished oocyte quality associated with perturbation of lipid and steroid metabolism in CC. Copyright © 2016

  14. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  15. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Has No Effect on Postprandial Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Kinetics in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Tremblay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been proposed to modulate plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammatory state and to reduce triglyceride (TG concentrations. The present double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation at 3 g/d for 8 weeks on the intravascular kinetics of intestinally derived apolipoprotein (apo B-48-containing lipoproteins in 10 men with type 2 diabetes. In vivo kinetics of the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 were assessed using a primed-constant infusion of L-[5,5,5-D3] leucine for 12 hours in a fed state. Compared with the placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly reduced fasting TG concentrations by −9.7% (P=0.05 but also significantly increased plasma levels of cholesterol (C (+6.0%, P=0.05, LDL-C (+12.2%, P=0.04, and HDL-C (+8.4, P=0.007. n-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant impact on postprandial TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or on the production or catabolic rates of these lipoproteins. These data indicate that 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in men with type 2 diabetes has no beneficial effect on TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or kinetics.

  16. Metabolism of polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids by monkey seminal vesicles: isolation and biosynthesis of omega-3 epoxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliw, E H; Sprecher, H W

    1991-11-27

    Monooxygenases of monkey seminal vesicles can metabolize arachidonic acid (20:4(n-6)) by w3-hydroxylation to 18(R)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (18(R)-HETE) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5(n-3)) to 17,18-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (Oliw, E.H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 17845-17853). The present study aimed to further characterize the oxygenation of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids. 14C-Labelled 22:6(n-3), 20:5(n-3), 20:4-(n-3) and 18:3(n-3) were incubated with microsomes of seminal vesicles of the cynomolgus monkey, NADPH and a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, diclofenac, and the main metabolites were identified by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 22:6(n-3) was slowly metabolized to 19,20-dihydroxy-4,7,10,13,16-docosapentaenoic acid, while 20:5(n-3), 20:4(n-3) and 18:3(n-3) were metabolized more efficiently to the corresponding w4,w3-diols. The w3 epoxides, which were obtained from 20:5(n-3) and 18:3(n-3), were isolated in the presence of an epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, 1(2)epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane, and the geometry of the epoxides was determined to be 17S, 18R and 15S, 16R, respectively. While 20:5(n-3) was metabolized almost exclusively to the epoxide and diol pair of metabolites, 18:3(n-3) was metabolized not only to the w3 epoxide and the corresponding diol, but also to the w2 alcohol, 17(R)-hydroxy-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid. 22:6(n-3) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid inhibited the biosynthesis of 18(R)-HETE from arachidonic acid (IC50 0.16 and 0.14 mM, respectively). In comparison with 20:4 or 18:3(n-3), 18:1(n-9) and 22:5(n-6) appeared to be slowly metabolized by seminal monooxygenases, while 18:2(n-6) was converted to the w3 alcohol and to smaller amounts of the w2 alcohol (4:1). Together, the results indicate that the w3-hydroxylase and w3-epoxygenase enzyme(s) metabolize 20:4(n-6) and 20:5(n-3) almost exclusively to the w3(R) alcohol and the w3(R, S) epoxide, respectively, while longer and shorter fatty acids either are poor

  17. Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psoriatic Arthritis – Inflammation and Cardiac Autonomic and Hemodynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome

    This thesis is based on three studies of patients with established psoriatic arthritis (PsA) aiming at investigating the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on clinical symptoms and selected measures of inflammation, cardiac autonomic and hemodynamic function in these patients...... with either 3 g of marine n-3 PUFA (6 capsules of fish oil) or 3 g of olive oil daily for 24 weeks. A total of 133 patients (92%) completed the study. The difference in the outcomes between baseline and 24 weeks was analysed within and between the two supplemented groups. In Study II, the effects of n-3 PUFA...

  18. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mandal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate. Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21 and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39 phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001 for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05 for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05 for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05 for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products.

  19. Intake of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids from fish and incidence of atrial fibrillation. The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Heeringa, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Zock, P.L.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through an increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Experimental as well as observational evidence suggests that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have antiarrhythmic

  20. Conclusions and recommendations from the symposium, Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckelbaum, Richard J; Leaf, Alexander; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Jacobson, Terry A; Harris, William S; Akabas, Sharon R

    2008-06-01

    After the symposium "Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids," faculty who presented at the conference submitted manuscripts relating to their conference topics, and these are presented in this supplement. The content of these manuscripts was reviewed, and 2 conference calls were convened. The objective was to summarize existing evidence, gaps in evidence, and future research needed to strengthen recommendations for specific intakes of n-3 fatty acids for different conditions relating to cardiovascular disease. The following 2 questions were the main items discussed. What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in primary versus secondary prevention of coronary heart disease? What are the roles of n-3 fatty acids in hypertriglyceridemia, in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, and in sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmias, and vulnerable plaque? Each area was summarized by using 2 general categories: 1) current knowledge for which general consensus exists, and 2) recommendations for research and policy. Additional references for these conclusions can be found in the articles included in the supplement.

  1. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  2. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  3. Uncoupling of interleukin-6 from its signalling pathway by dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation alters sickness behaviour in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingam, Rozenn; Moranis, Aurélie; Bluthé, Rose-Marie; De Smedt-Peyrusse, Véronique; Kelley, Keith W.; Guesnet, Philippe; Lavialle, Monique; Dantzer, Robert; Layé, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Sickness behaviour is an adaptive behavioural response to the activation of the innate immune system. It is mediated by brain cytokine production and action, especially interleukin-6 (IL-6). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential fatty acids that are highly incorporated in brain cells membranes and display immunomodulating properties. We hypothesized that a decrease in n-3 PUFA brain level by dietary means impacts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 production and sickness behaviour. Our results show that mice exposed throughout life to a diet containing n-3 PUFA (n-3/n-6 diet) display a decrease in social interaction that does not occur in mice submitted to a diet devoid of n-3 PUFA (n-6 diet). LPS induced high IL-6 plasma levels as well as expression of IL-6 mRNA in the hippocampus and cFos mRNA in the brainstem of mice fed either diet, indicating intact immune-to-brain communication. However, STAT3 and STAT1 activation, a hallmark of IL-6 signalling pathway, was lower in the hippocampus of LPS-treated n-6 mice as compared to n-3/n-6 mice. In addition, LPS did not reduce social interaction in IL-6 knock-out (IL-6 KO) mice and failed to induce STAT3 activation in the brain of IL-6 KO mice. Altogether, these findings point to alteration in brain STAT3 as a key mechanism for the lack of effect of LPS on social interaction in mice fed with the n-6 PUFA diet. The relative deficiency of Western diets in n-3 PUFA could impact on behavioural aspects of the host response to infection. PMID:18973601

  4. Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD...

  5. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of micro-encapsulated n-3 fatty acids on quality properties of two types of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Pavlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry sausages are popular traditional meat products. As these products are a rich source of animal fat, there is an effort to improve their fatty acid ratio. The aim of this work was to study the effect of micro-encapsulated n-3 fatty acids added into dry sausages. Samples of dry sausages (Poličan and Vysočina enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (36 g for 6 kg of mixture and rosemary extract (0.3 g·kg-1 were made along with control samples. Physicochemical, instrumental analyses were performed, fatty acid profile was measured by gas chromatography, and oxidation processes were monitored by determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 in quality indicators were found between samples, however, there were differences in oxidation processes. Sausages enriched with unsaturated fatty acids showed an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (> 2 mg·kg-1 and > 3 mg·kg-1 in Poličan and Vysočina, respectively, compared to control. Sausages enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and also with rosemary extract have the similar concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as the control. An increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen in samples of Poličan supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids in combination with rosemary extract. The addition of rosemary extract had also a significant effect in increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in samples of Vysočina. From the viewpoint of quality indicators, changes in the properties of the product were not seen in any samples.

  7. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...... risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption...... for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. (C) 2011...

  8. n-3 Fatty acids combined with flavan-3-ols prevent steatosis and liver injury in a murine model of NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Rushbrook, Simon; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio R; Bevan, Damon; Davies, Susan; Tejera, Noemi; Mena, Pedro; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Del Rio, Daniele; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Minihane, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 25% of adults and at present no licensed medication has been approved. Despite its complex patho-physiology, dietary strategies aiming at delaying or preventing NAFLD have taken a reductionist approach, examining the impact of single components. Accumulating evidence suggests that n-3 LC-PUFAs are efficacious in regulating lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, plant derived flavonoids are also emerging as a dietary strategy for NAFLD prevention, with efficacy attributed to their insulin sensitising and indirect antioxidant effects. Based on knowledge of their complementary molecular targets, we aimed to demonstrate that the combination of n-3 LC-PUFA (n-3) and flavan-3-ols (FLAV) prevents NAFLD. In a high-fat high-fructose (HF/HFr) fed C57Bl/6J mouse model, the independent and interactive impact of n-3 and FLAV on histologically defined NAFLD, insulin sensitivity, weight gain, intestinal and hepatic gene expression, intestinal bile acids were examined. Only the combination of FLAV and n-3 (FLAVn-3) prevented steatosis as evidenced by a strong reduction in hepatocyte ballooning. While FLAV reduced body (-28-30%), adipose tissue (-45-50%) weights and serum insulin (-22-25%) as observed following an intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test, n-3 downregulated the expression of Srebf1 and the lipogenic genes (Acaca, Fasn). Significant impacts of interventions on intestinal bile acid metabolism, farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) signalling in the intestine and liver, and hepatic expression of fatty acid transporters (Fabp4, Vldlr, Cd36) were also evident. FLAVn-3 may be a novel intervention for NAFLD. Future research should aim to demonstrate its efficacy in the prevention and treatment of human NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Docosahexaenoyl serotonin, an endogenously formed n-3 fatty acid-serotonin conjugate has anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating IL-23–IL-17 signaling in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poland, Mieke; Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Wang, Zheng; Pieters, Raymond; Boekschoten, Mark; Witkamp, Renger; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong

  10. Docosahexaenoyl serotonin, an endogenously formed n-3 fatty acid-serotonin conjugate has anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating IL-23-IL-17 signaling in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poland, Mieke; Ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Wang, Zheng; Pieters, Raymond; Boekschoten, Mark; Witkamp, Renger; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2016-01-01

    Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signaling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong

  11. Docosahexaenoyl Serotonin, an endogenously formed n-3 fatty acid-serotonin conjugate, has anti-inflammatory properties by attenuating IL23–IL17 signalling in macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poland, M.C.R.; Klooster, ten Jean Paul; Wang, Zheng; Pieters, Raymond; Boekschoten, M.V.; Witkamp, R.F.; Meijerink, J.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugates of fatty acids and amines, including endocannabinoids, are known to play important roles as endogenous signalling molecules. Among these, the ethanolamine conjugate of the n-3 poly unsaturated long chain fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (DHA) was shown to possess strong

  12. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  13. The antidepressant role of dietary long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids in two phases in the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Anete Curte; Kiss, Agata; Araújo, Renata Lins Fuentes; Salles, Hélidy Maria Rossi; Naliwaiko, Katya; Pamplona, Juliana; Matheussi, Francesca

    2008-03-01

    In this work we investigated the effect from fish oil (FO) supplementation, rich in n-3 fatty acids, on an antidepressant effect on adult rats in Phase A (supplementation during pregnancy and lactation) and phase B (supplementation during post-weaning until adulthood). During Phase A, female rats, used as matrix to obtain male rats, were divided in three groups: FO (daily supplemented), CF (coconut fat daily supplemented) and control (not supplemented). Our results showed that adult rats whose mothers were supplemented with FO during Phase A and rats supplemented during phase B demonstrated a significantly decreased immobility time when compared to control and CF groups. There was no difference in neither motor activity nor anxiety behavior in the three groups excluding false positive results. Our results suggest that n-3 fatty acids supplementation during Phases A and B had a beneficial effect on preventing the development of depression-like behavior in adult rats.

  14. Brain and Hepatic Mt mRNA Is Reduced in Response to Mild Energy Restriction and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency in Juvenile Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Mehus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs perform important regulatory and cytoprotective functions in tissues including the brain. While it is known that energy restriction (ER and dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA deficiency impact postnatal brain growth and development, little data exist regarding the impact of undernutrition upon MT expression in growing animals. We tested the hypothesis that ER with and without dietary n-3 PUFA deficiency reduces MT expression in juvenile rats. ER rats were individually pair-fed at 75% of the ad libitum (AL intake of control rats provided diets consisting of either soybean oil (SO that is α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3 sufficient or corn oil (CO; ALA-deficient. Fatty acids (FA and metal concentrations of liver and brain regions were analyzed. Tissue expression of MTs (Mt1-3 and modulators of MT expression including glucocorticoid receptors (Nr3c1 and Nr3c2 and several mediators of thyroid hormone regulation (Dio1-3, Mct8, Oatp1c1, Thra, and Thrb were measured. Plasma corticosterone and triiodothyronine levels were also evaluated. ER, but not metal deficiency, reduced Mt2 expression in the cerebellum (50% and cerebral cortex (23%. In liver, a reduction in dietary n-3 PUFA reduced Mt1, Mt2, Nr3c1, Mct8, and Thrb. ER elevated Nr3c1, Dio1, and Thrb and reduced Thra in the liver. Given MT’s role in cellular protection, further studies are needed to evaluate whether ER or n-3 PUFA deficiency may leave the juvenile brain and/or liver more susceptible to endogenous or environmental stressors.

  15. Evaluation of negative and positive health effects of n-3 fatty acids as constituents of food supplements and fortified foods

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2011-01-01

    The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (VKM) has on request from The Norwegian Food Safety Authority evaluated negative and positive human health effects from intake of n-3 fatty acids from food supplements and fortified foods. The evidence presented in this evaluation show that it is possible to obtain positive health effects in the Norwegian population from intake of EPA and DHA, including from food supplements, without any appreciable risk of negative or adverse health ...

  16. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve lipoprotein particle size and concentration in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kana; Koshizaka, Masaya; Tokuyama, Hirotake; Tokuyama, Takahiko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Maezawa, Yoshiro; Takemoto, Minoru; Yokote, Koutaro

    2018-03-15

    Patients with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Although hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) can reduce cardiovascular events, residual risk remains even after target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels have been achieved. Lipoprotein particle size and fraction changes are thought to contribute to such risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), predominantly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, on lipoprotein particle size, concentration, and glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. This was a multicenter, prospective, open-label, single arm study. We enrolled 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia treated with statins and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) n-3 PUFAs for 12 weeks. Lipoprotein particle sizes, concentrations, lipoprotein insulin resistance (LPIR) scores, lipid profiles, HbA1c, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured before and after treatment. Lipoprotein profiles were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Concentrations of total cholesterol (P n-3 PUFA administration. N-3 PUFAs decreased the size of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL; P N-3 PUFAs partly improved atherogenic lipoprotein particle size and concentration, and produced less atherogenic lipoprotein subclass ratios in patients that achieved target LDL-C levels and glycemic control. These results suggest that n-3 PUFAs may reduce residual cardiovascular risk factors in statin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia. The study was registered at UMIN-ID: UMIN000013776 .

  17. Incorporation of eicosapentaenioic and docosahexaenoic acids into breast adipose tissue of women at high risk of breast cancer: a randomized clinical trial of dietary fish and n-3 fatty acid capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Shana; Lester, Joanne L; Cole, Rachel M; Andridge, Rebecca R; Puchala, Sarah; Rose, Angela M; Clinton, Steven K; Belury, Martha A; Yee, Lisa D

    2015-09-01

    The fatty acid profile of dietary lipids is reflected in mammary adipose tissue and may influence mammary gland biology and cancer risk. To determine the effects of fish consumption on breast adipose tissue fatty acids, we conducted a study of fish versus n-3 PUFA supplements in women at increased risk of breast cancer. High risk women were randomized to comparable doses of marine n-3 PUFAs as canned salmon + albacore or capsules for 3 months. Pre- and posttreatment fatty acid profiles were obtained by GC. Dietary fish (n = 12) and n-3 PUFA capsules (n = 13) yielded increased eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma (p breast fat (p Women taking capsules had higher plasma and erythrocyte membrane EPA changes (∼four versus twofold, p = 0.002), without significant differences in DHA. Increases in breast adipose EPA, DHA were similar for both groups. Higher BMI correlated with smaller changes in plasma, erythrocyte membrane EPA, and breast adipose EPA, DHA. Adherence was excellent at 93.9% overall and higher in the fish arm (p = 0.01). Fish provides an excellent source of n-3 PUFAs that increases breast adipose EPA, DHA similar to supplements and represents a well-tolerated intervention for future studies of the impact of n-3 PUFAs and dietary patterns on breast cancer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. EPA, DHA, and Lipoic Acid Differentially Modulate the n-3 Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway in Atlantic Salmon Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Marta; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Berge, Gerd M; Ruyter, Bente

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how EPA, DHA, and lipoic acid (LA) influence the different metabolic steps in the n-3 fatty acid (FA) biosynthetic pathway in hepatocytes from Atlantic salmon fed four dietary levels (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) of EPA, DHA or a 1:1 mixture of these FA. The hepatocytes were incubated with [1- 14 C] 18:3n-3 in the presence or absence of LA (0.2 mM). Increased endogenous levels of EPA and/or DHA and LA exposure both led to similar responses in cells with reduced desaturation and elongation of [1- 14 C] 18:3n-3 to 18:4n-3, 20:4n-3, and EPA, in agreement with reduced expression of the Δ6 desaturase gene involved in the first step of conversion. DHA production, on the other hand, was maintained even in groups with high endogenous levels of DHA, possibly due to a more complex regulation of this last step in the n-3 metabolic pathway. Inhibition of the Δ6 desaturase pathway led to increased direct elongation to 20:3n-3 by both DHA and LA. Possibly the route by 20:3n-3 and then Δ8 desaturation to 20:4n-3, bypassing the first Δ6 desaturase step, can partly explain the maintained or even increased levels of DHA production. LA increased DHA production in the phospholipid fraction of hepatocytes isolated from fish fed 0 and 0.5% EPA and/or DHA, indicating that LA has the potential to further increase the production of this health-beneficial FA in fish fed diets with low levels of EPA and/or DHA.

  19. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  20. Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich oil sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kalakuntla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil, SFO with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each prepared by replacing SFO (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO, mustard oil (MO, linseed oil (LO or fish oil (FO on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05 on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01 increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01 with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% levels during starter and finisher phase can enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird's performance and sensory characters of meat.

  1. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3 and n-6 fatty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... or 7% CLA diets were found to have the most inferior weight gain in grower and finisher phases ... inflammatory response in the growing chicks (Cook et al., ..... broiler performance, serum lipoprotein content, muscle fatty sacid.

  2. A randomized study of the effect of fish oil on n-3 fatty acid incorporation and nutritional status in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Dannerfjord, Stina Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have been proposed to have beneficial effect on cancer cachexia. The aims of the present study were to a) determine the incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocytes (RBC) as a measurement of compliance to fish oil (FO)-supplement in lung cancer...

  3. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on diet induced obesity and impaired glucose control do not require Gpr120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available GPR120 (Ffar4 has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model on pure C57bl/6N background was developed to investigate the importance of the receptor for long-term feeding with a diet enriched with fish oil. Male Gpr120 deficient mice were fed two different high fat diets (HFDs for 18 weeks. The diets contained lipids that were mainly saturated (SAT or mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Body composition, as well as glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, was studied. As expected, wild type mice fed the PUFA HFD gained less body weight and had lower body fat mass, hepatic lipid levels, plasma cholesterol and insulin levels and better glucose tolerance as compared to those fed the SAT HFD. Gpr120 deficient mice showed a similar improvement on the PUFA HFD as was observed for wild type mice. If anything, the Gpr120 deficient mice responded better to the PUFA HFD as compared to wild type mice with respect to liver fat content, plasma glucose levels and islet morphology. Gpr120 deficient animals were found to have similar energy, glucose and lipid metabolism when fed HFD PUFA compared to wild type mice. Therefore, GPR120 appears to be dispensable for the improved metabolic profile associated with intake of a diet enriched in n-3 PUFA fatty acids.

  4. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids shift estrogen signaling to inhibit human breast cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Cao

    Full Text Available Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling. The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 β-estradiol (E2 enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2. E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0 as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ERα agonist failed to elicit, and ERα knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1 may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity. These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in BCa treatment.

  5. Thirteen-year prospective study between fish consumption, long-chain n-3 fatty acids intakes and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesse-Guyot, E; Péneau, S; Ferry, M; Jeandel, C; Hercberg, S; Galan, P

    2011-02-01

    Because of their structural, anti-inflammatory and antithrombic properties, long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be key factors in the aging process. We sought to elucidate the association between intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and/or fish and cognitive function evaluated 13 years after dietary assessment. Prospective population-based study. 3,294 adults from the SU.VI.MAX study (Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals study). MEASUREMENTS/STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Subjects underwent a standardized clinical examination which included cognitive tests and self-reported cognitive difficulties scale (2007-2009). Poor scores were defined using percentiles as cut-off. Dietary data were assessed through repeated 24-h dietary records. Odd ratio (OR), comparing the fourth (Q4) to the first quartile (Q1), of having a poor score were calculated using adjusted logistic regression. Self-reported cognitive difficulties were less frequent among subjects with higher intakes of total n-3 long chain fatty acids (OR = 0.72, CI 95%=0.56-0.92) and eicosapentaenoic acid (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.74, CI 95%=0.58-0.95), even after adjustment for depressive symptoms. A borderline significant association was also found with high fish consumption (OR Q4 versus Q1 = 0.80, CI 95%=0.63-1.01). Cognitive complaints, which may be an early indicator of cognitive decline, are less frequent among the elderly who have a high long-chain n-3 acids intake, as assessed 13 years earlier.

  6. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in animal models with neuroinflammation: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Orr, Sarah K; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-08-15

    Neuroinflammation is a characteristic of a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Modulating inflammatory pathways offers a potential therapeutic target in these disorders. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties in the periphery, however, their effect on neuroinflammation is less studied. This review summarizes 61 animal studies that tested the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuroinflammatory outcomes in vivo in various models including stroke, spinal cord injury, aging, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1β injections, diabetes, neuropathic pain, traumatic brain injury, depression, surgically induced cognitive decline, whole body irradiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity and lupus. The evidence presented in this review suggests anti-neuroinflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, however, it is not clear by which mechanism omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids exert their effect. Future research should aim to isolate the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on neuroinflammatory signaling in vivo and elucidate the mechanisms underlying these effects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

  8. Mead acid (20:3n-9) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are not associated with risk of posterior longitudinal ligament ossification: results of a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Kei; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Seki, Shoji; Hori, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Tomohito; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2015-05-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) involves the replacement of ligamentous tissue with ectopic bone. Although genetics and heritability appear to be involved in the development of OPLL, its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Given previous findings that 5,8,11-eicosatrienoic acid [20:3n-9, Mead acid (MA)] has depressive effects on osteoblastic activity and anti-angiogenic effects, and that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a preventive effect on heterotopic ossification, we hypothesized that both fatty acids would be involved in OPLL development. To examine the biological significance of these and other fatty acids in OPLL, we conducted this case-control study involving 106 patients with cervical OPLL and 109 age matched controls. Fatty acid composition was determined from plasma samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident OPLL were evaluated by logistic regression. Contrary to our expectations, we found no significant differences between patients and controls in the levels of MA or n-3 PUFAs (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). Logistic regression analysis did not reveal any associations with OPLL risk for MA or n-3 PUFAs. In conclusion, no potential role was found for MA or n-3 PUFAs in ectopic bone formation in the spinal canal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Claudia; Jahreis, Gerhard; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2012-10-30

    The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC) PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying) which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA.The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123). Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply.Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %), however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4) but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower n-3 PUFA portion in farmed fish can be offset by the

  10. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobel Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower

  11. Differential partitioning of rumen-protected n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into muscles with different metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C; Ulbrich, S E; Kreuzer, M; Berard, J; Giller, K

    2018-03-01

    Bioavailability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminants is enhanced by their protection from ruminal biohydrogenation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA fulfil important physiological functions. We investigated potentially different incorporation patterns of these functional PUFA into three beef muscles with different activity characteristics. We supplemented 33 Angus heifers with rumen-protected oils characterized either by mainly C18:2 n-6 (linoleic acid (LA) in sunflower oil) or by C20:5 (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) and C22:6 (docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)), both prevalent n-3 PUFA in fish oil. Contents and proportions of n-3 and n-6 PUFA of total fatty acids were elevated in the muscles of the respective diet group but they were partitioned differently into the muscles. For EPA and DHA, but not for LA, the diet effect was more distinct in the extensor carpi radialis compared to longissimus thoracis and biceps femoris. Partitioning of PUFA in metabolism could be related to muscle function. This has to be confirmed in other muscles, adipose tissues and organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Hooijdonk, L.W.A.; Doets, E.L.; Schiepers, O.J.G.; Eilander, J.H.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is one of many factors that affect brain development and functioning, and in recent years the role of certain nutrients has been investigated. B vitamins and n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are two of the most promising and widely studied nutritional factors. Methods: In

  13. The effect of n-3 fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flachs, Pavel; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S93-S118 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13763 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : diabetes * obesity * inflammation * metabolic syndrome * omega-3 fatty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  14. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect the cytokine response to strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, A.D.; Thorn, Mette; Ostrowski, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    (PUFA), for 6 wk or to receive no supplementation (n = 10) before participating in The Copenhagen Marathon 1998. Blood samples were collected before the race, immediately after, and 1.5 and 3 h postexercise. The fatty acid composition in blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) differed between the fish oil...

  15. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  16. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chih Wong

    Full Text Available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047. No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  17. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2015-01-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD) treatment for the management of end stage renal disease. In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI) for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively. The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047). No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients. Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  18. Effect of dietary n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different ratio n-6:n-3 on the PPAR expression of rats endometrial tissue. The findings obtained from this study showed significant induction of PPARδ mRNA levels in endomatral cells treatment 1:1 group by 1.38 fold compared with the PPARδ mRNA levels in ...

  19. Decreased n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio reduces chronic reflux esophagitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing-Jing; Tang, Du-Peng; Xie, Jing-Jing; Yang, Li-Yong; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on chronic reflux esophagitis (RE) and lipid peroxidation. Rat RE model were established and then fed on a diet contained different n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios (1:1.5, 5:1, 10:1) or received pure n-6 PUFA diet for 14 days. Esophageal pathological changes were evaluated using macroscopic examination and hematoxyline-eosin staining. IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein levels of were determined using RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were determined using ELISA. The severity of esophagitis was lowest in the PUFA(1:1.5) group (P<0.05). IL-1β, IL-8, and TNFα mRNA and protein and MDA levels were significantly increased in model groups with the increasing n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. SOD levels were significantly decreased in all RE PUFA groups (P<0.05). Esophageal injury and lipid peroxidation appeared to be ameliorated by increased n-3 PUFAs intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product. PMID:24804010

  1. Effects of long-term thyroid hormone level alterations, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and statin administration in rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S119-S131 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1228; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12058; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK123 Grant - others:EC(XE) LSH-CT-2004-511978 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : thyroid hormones * n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) * statin s * rat muscle proteins * cardiac remodeling Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  2. Changes in Fatty Acid Composition and Distribution of N-3 Fatty Acids in Goat Tissues Fed Different Levels of Whole Linseed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Md. Zuki Abu Bakar; Meng, Goh Yong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2014-01-01

    The effects of feeding different levels of whole linseed on fatty acid (FA) composition of muscles and adipose tissues of goat were investigated. Twenty-four Crossed Boer bucks were assigned randomly into three treatment diets: L0, L10, or L20, containing 0%, 10%, or 20% whole linseed, respectively. The goats were slaughtered after 110 days of feeding. Samples from the longissimus dorsi, supraspinatus, semitendinosus, and subcutaneous fat (SF) and perirenal fat (PF) were taken for FA analyses. In muscles, the average increments in α-linolenic (ALA) and total n-3 PUFA were 6.48 and 3.4, and 11.48 and 4.78 for L10 and L20, respectively. In the adipose tissues, the increments in ALA and total n-3 PUFA were 3.07- and 6.92-fold and 3.00- and 7.54-fold in SF and PF for L10 and L20, respectively. The n-6 : n-3 ratio of the muscles was decreased from up to 8.86 in L0 to 2 or less in L10 and L20. The PUFA : SFA ratio was increased in all the tissues of L20 compared to L0. It is concluded that both inclusion levels (10% and 20%) of whole linseed in goat diets resulted in producing meat highly enriched with n-3 PUFA with desirable n-6 : n-3 ratio. PMID:25478601

  3. MODIFICATION OF THE N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Ernoić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find out which combinations of oils give a desirable effect on n-3 PUFA content modification and total values increase in pigs’ meat without negative effects on fattening characteristics and carcass and meat quality of. The standard daily fattening pigs’ diet was supplemented with combinations of fish, linseed and rapeseed oils. The control group (A received 3% of animal (pork fat in their diet while 4 experimental groups received the following oil combinations: fish oil 0.5% + rapeseed oil 2.5% (B; fish oil 0.5% + linseed oil 2.5% (C; fish oil 1.0% + rapeseed oil 2.0% (D, and fish oil 1.0% + linseed oil 2.0% (E. The experiment was carried out in the last 4 weeks of fattening. A random sample of 50 pigs (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain was divided into 5 groups with 10 pigs each of the equal ratio of both sexes. The results showed that the treatment and the sex statistically did not significantly influence daily gains whereas the interaction of the treatment and the sex did have a significant influence (p0.05 between the content of DHA in MLD in treatments A, B, and C. Increasing the content of fish oil in meals from 0.5% to 1% (treatments D and E produced a statistically significant increase of the DHA content compared to other groups (A, B, and C. The supplement of rapeseed oil (2% and fish oil (1% in pigs’ meals (treatment D influenced significantly higher disposal of n-3 PUFA in MLD compared to pigs fed with the supplement of 3% animal fat (treatment A. The ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA u MLD was statistically highly influenced (p<0.001 by the feeding treatment. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio ranged from 4.65:1 (barrows in treatment C to 20.14:1 (barrows in treatment A. The best n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was observed in fattening pigs of both sexes from treatment C (5.00:1. Fattening pigs fed the combination of linseed oil and fish oil (treatments C and E had a better n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in MLD (p<0.05, 5.00:1 and 6

  4. Polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant n-3 fatty acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, L.B.S.; Larsen, L.H.; Ritz, C.

    and polymorphism in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is however unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHA-status. Aim: To investigate the role of diet and FADS polymorphism on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years...... breastfeeding was obtained by questionnaires and fish intake was assessed by 7-day pre-coded food diaries. Results: FADS-genotype, breastfeeding, and fish intake were found to explain 25% of the variation in infant RBC DHA-status (mean±SD: 6.6±1.9% of the fatty acids (FA%)). Breastfeeding was the most important......Background and objectives: Tissue docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in early infancy has been shown to be supported by the DHA-content of breast-milk and thus may decrease once complementary feeding takes over. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from alpha-linolenic acid has been shown to be very low...

  5. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Matthan, Nirupa R; Billheimer, Jeffrey T; Rader, Daniel J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2011-10-21

    The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s) for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA) or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA) (both 10% [w/w]) and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w]) or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]). Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P safflower oil, had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P < 0.001) which were associated with lower hepatic SREBP-1c (p < 0.05) but not apo B-100, apo E or ACAT-2 mRNA or protein levels. Independent of cholesterol status, fish oil fed hamsters had lower HDL cholesterol concentrations (p < 0.001), which were associated with lower hepatic apoA-I protein levels (p < 0.05). These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  6. Oil-in-water emulsions as a delivery system for n-3 fatty acids in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Hanna; Herrmann, Kurt; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-03-01

    The oxidative and physical stabilities of oil-in-water emulsions containing n-3 fatty acids (25 wt.% oil, 2.5 wt.% whey protein, pH 3.0 or pH 6.0), and their subsequent incorporation into meat products were investigated. The physical stability of fish oil emulsions was excellent and neither coalescence nor aggregation occurred during storage. Oxidative stability was better at pH 6.0 compared to pH 3.0 likely due to antioxidative continuous phase proteins. Incorporation of fish oil emulsions into pork sausages led to an increase in oxidation compared to sausages without the added fish oil emulsion. Confocal microscopy of pork sausages with fish oil emulsions revealed that droplets had coalesced in the meat matrix over time which may have contributed to the decreased oxidative stability. Results demonstrate that although interfacial engineering of n-3 fatty acids containing oil-in-water emulsions provides physical and oxidative stability of the base-emulsion, their incorporation into complex meat matrices is a non-trivial undertaking and products may incur changes in quality over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. (n-3) Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health: Are Effects of EPA and DHA Shared or Complementary?123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  8. Prevention of fatal arrhythmias in high-risk subjects by fish oil n-3 fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Alexander; Albert, Christine M; Josephson, Mark; Steinhaus, David; Kluger, Jeffrey; Kang, Jing X; Cox, Benjamin; Zhang, Hui; Schoenfeld, David

    2005-11-01

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids in fish have been demonstrated to have antiarrhythmic properties in experimental models and to prevent sudden cardiac death in a randomized trial of post-myocardial infarction patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that these n-3 fatty acids might prevent potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias in high-risk patients. Four hundred two patients with implanted cardioverter/defibrillators (ICDs) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with either a fish oil or an olive oil daily supplement for 12 months. The primary end point, time to first ICD event for ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT or VF) confirmed by stored electrograms or death from any cause, was analyzed by intention to treat. Secondary analyses were performed for "probable" ventricular arrhythmias, "on-treatment" analyses for all subjects who had taken any of their oil supplements, and "on-treatment" analyses only of those subjects who were on treatment for at least 11 months. Compliance with double-blind treatment was similar in the 2 groups; however, the noncompliance rate was high (35% of all enrollees). In the primary analysis, assignment to treatment with the fish oil supplement showed a trend toward a prolonged time to the first ICD event (VT or VF) or of death from any cause (risk reduction of 28%; P=0.057). When therapies for probable episodes of VT or VF were included, the risk reduction became significant at 31%; P=0.033. For those who stayed on protocol for at least 11 months, the antiarrhythmic benefit of fish oil was improved for those with confirmed events (risk reduction of 38%; P=0.034). Although significance was not achieved for the primary end point, this study provides evidence that for individuals at high risk of fatal ventricular arrhythmias, regular daily ingestion of fish oil fatty acids may significantly reduce potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias.

  9. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation reduces insulin resistance in hepatitis C virus infected patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, T O; Boulhosa, R S S B; Oliveira, L P M; de Jesus, R P; Cavalcante, L N; Lemaire, D C; Toralles, M B P; Lyra, L G C; Lyra, A C

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance promotes liver disease progression and may be associated with a lower response rate in treated hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation may reduce insulin resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on insulin resistance in these patients. In a randomised, double-blind clinical trial, 154 patients were screened. After applying inclusion criteria, 52 patients [homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR ≥2.5)] were randomly divided into two groups: n-3 PUFA (n = 25/6000 mg day(-1) of fish oil) or control (n = 27/6000 mg day(-1) of soybean oil). Both groups were supplemented for 12 weeks and underwent monthly nutritional consultation. Biochemical tests were performed at baseline and after intervention. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test for comparisons and the Wilcoxon test for paired data. Statistical package r, version 3.02 (The R Project for Statistical Computing) was used and P resistance in genotype 1 HCV infected patients. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  11. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = −0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = −0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%–61% vs. 14%–26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  12. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protei...

  13. Fatty acid 16:4(n-3) stimulates a GPR120-induced signaling cascade in splenic macrophages to promote chemotherapy resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houthuijzen, Julia M; Oosterom, Ilse; Hudson, Brian D

    2017-01-01

    Although chemotherapy is designed to eradicate tumor cells, it also has significant effects on normal tissues. The platinum-induced fatty acid 16:4(n-3) (hexadeca-4,7,10,13-tetraenoic acid) induces systemic resistance to a broad range of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutics. We show that 16:4(n-3) exerts....... M., Peeper, D. S., Jafari Sadatmand, S., Roodhart, J. M. L., van de Lest, C. H. A., Ulven, T., Ishihara, K., Milligan, G., Voest, E. E. Fatty acid 16:4(n-3) stimulates a GPR120-induced signaling cascade in splenic macrophages to promote chemotherapy resistance....

  14. Age-related changes of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Sarah M; Runyan, Caroline A; Leonard, Sherry; Reddy, Ravinder D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Yao, Jeffrey K

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating evidence finds a relative deficiency of peripheral membrane fatty acids in persons with affective disorders such as unipolar and bipolar depression. Here we sought to investigate whether postmortem brain fatty acids within the anterior cingulate cortex (BA-24) varied according to the presence of major depression at the time of death. Using capillary gas chromatography we measured fatty acids in a depressed group (n=12), and in a control group without lifetime history of psychiatric diagnosis (n=14). Compared to the control group, the depressed group showed significantly lower concentrations of numerous saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids including both the n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Additionally, significant correlations between age at death and precursor (or metabolites) in the n-3 fatty acid pathway were demonstrated in the depressed group but not in control subjects. In the n-6 fatty acid family, the ratio of 20:3(n-6)/18:2(n-6) was higher in patients than in control groups, whereas the ratio of 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) was relatively decreased in patients. Lastly, a significant negative correlation between age and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) was found in patients, but not in controls. Taken together, decreases in 22:6(n-3) may be caused, at least in part, by the diminished formation of 20:5(n-3), which is derived from 20:4(n-3) through a Delta5 desaturase reaction. The present findings from postmortem brain tissue raise the possibility that an increased ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 22:6(n-3) may provide us with a biomarker for depression. Future research should further investigate these relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of Dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA Ratios on Lipid Levels and Fatty Acid Profile of Cherry Valley Ducks at 15-42 Days of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Zhai, Shuangshuang; Xie, Qiang; Tian, Lu; Li, Xiaocun; Zhang, Jiaming; Ye, Hui; Zhu, Yongwen; Yang, Lin; Wang, Wence

    2017-11-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio on growth performance, serum and tissue lipid levels, fatty acid profile, and hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in ducks. A total of 3168 15-day old ducks were fed different n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios: 13:1 (control), 10:1, 8:1, 6:1, 4:1, and 2:1. The feeding trial lasted 4 weeks. Our results revealed that dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had no effects on growth performance. The 2:1 group had the highest serum triglyceride levels. Serum total cholesterol and HDL levels were higher in the 13:1 and 8:1 groups than in the 6:1 and 2:1 groups. The concentration of C18:3n-3 in serum and tissues (liver and muscle) increased with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. The hepatic expression of FADS2, ELOVL5, FADS1, and ELOVL2 increased on a quadratic function with decreasing dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios. These results demonstrate that lower dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios had strong effects on the fatty acid profile of edible parts and the deposition of n-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue of ducks.

  16. A critical assessment of transmethylation procedures for n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid quantification of lipid classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehl, Anthony; Couëdelo, Leslie; Fonseca, Laurence; Vaysse, Carole; Cansell, Maud

    2018-06-15

    Lipid transmethylation methods described in the literature are not always evaluated with care so to insure that the methods are effective, especially on food matrix or biological samples containing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The aim of the present study was to select a method suitable for all lipid species rich in long chain n-3 PUFA. Three published methods were adapted and applied on individual lipid classes. Lipid (trans)methylation efficiency was characterized in terms of reaction yield and gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The acid-catalyzed method was unable to convert triglycerides and sterol esters, while the method using an incubation at a moderate temperature was ineffective on phospholipids and sterol esters. On the whole only the method using sodium methoxide and sulfuric acid was effective on lipid classes taken individually or in a complex medium. This study highlighted the use of an appropriate (trans)methylation method for insuring an accurate fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Liquid lipases for enzymatic concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in monoacylglycerols via ethanolysis: Catalytic specificity and parameterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongjin; Li, Jingbo; Kodali, Sitharam; Balle, Thomas; Chen, Bilian; Guo, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This work examined catalytic specificity and fatty acid selectivity of five liquid lipases C. antarctica lipase A and B (CAL-A/B), and lipase TL (T. lanuginosus), Eversa Transfrom and NS in ethanolysis of fish oil with the aim to concentrate n-3 PUFAs into monoacylglycerols (MAGs) products. Lipase TL, Eversa Transform & NS entail a much faster reaction and produce higher MAGs yield (>30%); whereas CAL-A obtains the highest concentration of n-3 PUFAs/DHA/EPA into MAGs products (88.30%); followed by lipase NS (81.02%). 13 C NMR analysis indicates that CAL-B and lipase TL are sn-1,3 specific; but CAL-A and lipase Eversa Transform are non-regiospecific or weak sn-2 specific; which plausibly explains high enrichment effect of the latter two lipases. All liquid lipases are observed reusable for a certain times (lipase Eversa Transform up to 12 times), demonstrating their competitive advantage over immobilized form for industrial application because of their higher activity and cheaper operation cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed experime......The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...... experimental diets from the 8(th) day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the offspring were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a specific structured oil, linseed oil or fish oil. In the specific structured oil, a-linolenic acid (18...... fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...

  19. Lower n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid values in patients with phenylketonuria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Fekete, Katalin; Decsi, Tamás

    2013-07-01

    The mainstream of phenylketonuria (PKU) management is lifelong restriction of protein intake; however, this dietary restriction may be accompanied by insufficient dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). The objective of this review was to assess whether significant depletion of LCPUFA can be detected in PKU patients on low-protein diet and whether LCPUFA supplementation is an effective way to increase the availability of LCPUFA in PKU patients. The method included structured search strategy on Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, LILACS, and the Cochrane Library CENTRAL databases, with formal inclusion/exclusion criteria, data extraction procedure, and meta-analysis. We evaluated 9 case-control studies and 6 randomized controlled trials, dated from the inception of the databases to 2012. The meta-analysis of the case-control studies showed significantly lower values of both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in all biomarkers investigated and that of arachidonic acid in total plasma lipids in PKU patients as compared with healthy controls. There were sufficient data to demonstrate that dietary DHA supplementation of patients with PKU significantly increases the contribution of DHA to total plasma lipids. In summary, suboptimal LCPUFA status, especially that of n-3 LCPUFA, can be detected in PKU patients. Supplementing DHA to the diet of PKU patients may improve their LCPUFA status; however, further research is needed to determine the optimal supplementation dosage and to establish beneficial functional outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  1. Women who take n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements during pregnancy and lactation meet the recommended intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Wattar, Nour; Wildgrube, Jamie; Sontag, Stephanie; Andrews, Murphy; Subhan, Fatheema Begum; McCargar, Linda; Field, Catherine J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to estimate total intake and dietary sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentanoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and compare DHA intakes with the recommended intakes in a cohort of pregnant and lactating women. Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls and supplement intake questionnaires were collected from 600 women in the Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort at each trimester of pregnancy and 3 months postpartum. Dietary intake was estimated in 2 ways: by using a commercial software program and by using a database created for APrON. Only 27% of women during pregnancy and 25% at 3 months postpartum met the current European Union (EU) consensus recommendation for DHA. Seafood, fish, and seaweed products contributed to 79% of overall n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake from foods, with the majority from salmon. The estimated intake of DHA and EPA was similar between databases, but the estimated DPA intake was 20%-30% higher using the comprehensive database built for this study. Women who took a supplement containing DHA were 10.6 and 11.1 times more likely to meet the current EU consensus recommendation for pregnancy (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.952-16.07; PDHA during pregnancy and lactation, but taking a supplement significantly improved the likelihood that they would meet recommendations.

  2. Effect of fish oil supplementation on the n-3 fatty acid content of red blood cell membranes in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, S E; Rhodes, P G; Rao, V S; Goldgar, D E

    1987-05-01

    Very low birth weight infants demonstrate significant reductions in red blood cell membrane docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) following delivery unless fed human milk. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a dietary source of DHA (MaxEPA, R. P. Scherer Corporation, Troy, MI) could prevent the decline in red blood cell phospholipid DHA in very low birth weight infants whose enteral feeding consisted of a preterm formula without DHA. Longitudinal data were obtained on membrane phospholipid DHA in both unsupplemented and MaxEPA-supplemented infants by a combination of thin-layer and gas chromatography. These infants (n = 39) ranged in age from 10 to 53 days at enrollment (0 time). At enrollment, phospholipid DHA and arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) were inversely correlated with age in days. During the study, mean red blood cell phospholipid DHA declined without supplementary DHA as determined by biweekly measurement, but infants supplemented with MaxEPA maintained the same weight percent of phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylserine) DHA as at enrollment. The pattern of red blood cell phospholipid fatty acids in supplemented infants was similar to that reported for preterm infants fed human milk.

  3. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer.

  4. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Kelsey D J

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children\\'s PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

  5. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  6. Effects of Different Ratio of n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on the PI3K/Akt Pathway in Rats with Reflux Esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jia-Yuan; Chen, Zhi-Yao; Zhang, Tao; Tang, Du-Peng; Jiang, Xiao-Yin; Zhuang, Ze-Hao

    2017-01-30

    BACKGROUND We designed this study to investigate the influence of different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the diet of reflux esophagitis (RE) rats' and the effect on the PI3K/Akt pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS RE rats were randomly divided into a sham group and modeling groups of different concentrations of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA): 12:1 group, 10:1 group, 5:1 group, and 1:1 group. RT-PCR and Western-blot were used to detect the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, NF-κBp50, and NF-κBp65 proteins in esophageal tissue. RESULTS In the n-6/n-3 PUFAs groups the expression of PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, nf-κbp50, and NF-κBp65 mRNA decreased with the decrease in n-6/n-3 ratios in the diet. The lowest expression of each indicator occurred in the 1:1 n-6/n-3 group compared with other n-6/n-3 groups, the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of n-3 PUFAs in the development of esophageal inflammation in rats with RE was attributed to the function of PI3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Influence of oilseed supplement ranging in n-6/n-3 ratio on fatty acid composition and Δ5-, Δ6-desaturase protein expression in steer muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T D; Mitchell, A; Duynisveld, J; Pickova, J; Doran, O; McNiven, M A

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated effects of roasted or extruded oilseed supplementation ranging in n-6/n-3 ratios from 0.3 to 5.0 on the fatty acid composition and expression of delta-5 desaturase (Δ5d) and Δ6-desaturase (Δ6d) protein in commercial steer cheek (m. masseter) and diaphragm (pars costalis diaphragmatis) muscles. In general, the n-6/n-3 ratio of the diet had a subsequent effect on the muscle n-6/n-3 ratio (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 content relating to proportion of dietary soya bean and linseed (P muscle the Δ5d protein expression had a stronger association with the desaturase products rather than the precursors. The relationship between Δ5d protein expression and the muscle LC n-6/n-3 ratio was negative in both muscles (P muscle 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 deposition, whereas the Δ5d and Δ6d protein expression had some influence on the polar lipid LC-PUFA profile. Results reaffirm that processed oilseeds can be used to increase the proportion of fatty acids potentially beneficial for human health, by influencing the formation of LC-PUFA and reducing the n-6/n-3 ratio.

  8. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We

  9. n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition improves postoperative recovery for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binhao; Wei, Gang; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanjun; Yu, Jie; Wang, Rui; Xiao, Hua; Wu, Chao; Leng, Chao; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2017-10-01

    A new lipid emulsion enriched in n-3 fatty acid has been reported to prevent hepatic inflammation in patients following major surgery. However, the role of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition for postoperative patients with cirrhosis-related liver cancer is unclear. We investigated the safety and efficacy of n-3 fatty acid-based parenteral nutrition for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer followed hepatectomy. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial (Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT02321202) was conducted for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer that underwent hepatectomy between March 2010 and September 2013 in our institution. We compared isonitrogenous total parenteral nutrition with 20% Structolipid and 10% n-3 fatty acid (Omegaven, Fresenius-Kabi, Germany) (treatment group) to Structolipid alone (control group) for five days postoperatively, in the absence of enteral nutrition. We enrolled 320 patients, and 312 (97.5%) were included in analysis (155 in the control group and 157 in the treatment group). There was a significant reduction of morbidity and mortality in the treatment group, when compared with the control group (total complications 78 [50.32%] vs. 46 [29.30%]; P parenteral nutrition significantly improved postoperative recovery for cirrhotic patients with liver cancer following hepatectomy, with a significant reduction in overall mortality and length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p p p p = 0.05, and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05, were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.

  11. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The dietary inclusion of Portulaca oleracea to the diet of laying hens increases the n-3 fatty acids content and reduces the cholesterol content in the egg yolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-enriched diet on yolk fatty acid profile and cholesterol content was evaluated. Dried Poutulaca oleracea (purslane: PO diet was added to a commercial diet (C diet at 20% of inclusion level. The effect of the supplemented diet was compared to that of C diet. Twenty-six laying hens were fed ad libitum for 21 days with the 2 diets, supplemented also with 300 mg α-tocopherol acetate/kg. Eggs were collected and then the fatty acids (FA profile and the cholesterol content were analysed. The PO diet significantly reduced the saturated FA content (P<0.05 and increased that of the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA: 18:2 n-6 (P<0.001, 18:3 n-3 (P<0.001 and 22:6 n-3 (DHA; P<0.01. Both n-6 and n-3 PUFA significantly increased with the PO diet and the n-6/n-3 ratio was improved (10.4 vs 11.3; P<0.05.

  13. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Lei; Pang, Yun-Wei; Gao, Hong-Mei; Tao, Li; Miao, Kai; Wu, Zhong-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. ► fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. ► fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ► The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  14. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  15. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  16. Contaminants, diet, plasma fatty acids and smoking in Greenland 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert

    2006-01-01

    Arctic countries, the predominant source of these contaminants is the local diet. However, other factors such as smoking may influence the metabolism and thereby the accumulation of toxic substances. STUDY DESIGN: This project is part of the human health program of the ongoing circumpolar "Artic......, in particular all the plasma n-3 fatty acids, were significantly correlated with organic contaminant concentrations, (betaHCH, chlordanes, DDTs, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs, and toxaphenes) psmoking was significantly...... correlated with high levels of all the above mentioned POPs. CONCLUSION: The main predictors of high contaminant levels in Greenland were age, district, male gender, smoking and high plasma n-3/n-6 ratio as a marker of high dietary intake of local marine mammals. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan-1...

  17. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid depletion activates caspases and decreases NMDA receptors in the brain of a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calon, Frédéric; Lim, Giselle P; Morihara, Takashi; Yang, Fusheng; Ubeda, Oliver; Salem, Norman; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Greg M

    2005-08-01

    Epidemiological data indicate that low n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA) intake is a readily manipulated dietary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies in animals confirm the deleterious effect of n-3 PFA depletion on cognition and on dendritic scaffold proteins. Here, we show that in transgenic mice overexpressing the human AD gene APPswe (Tg2576), safflower oil-induced n-3 PFA deficiency caused a decrease in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits, NR2A and NR2B, in the cortex and hippocampus with no loss of the presynaptic markers, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25). n-3 PFA depletion also decreased the NR1 subunit in the hippocampus and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) in the cortex of Tg2576 mice. These effects of dietary n-3 PFA deficiency were greatly amplified in Tg2576 mice compared to nontransgenic mice. Loss of the NR2B receptor subunit was not explained by changes in mRNA expression, but correlated with p85alpha phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase levels. Most interestingly, n-3 PFA deficiency dramatically increased levels of protein fragments, corresponding to caspase/calpain-cleaved fodrin and gelsolin in Tg2576 mice. This effect was minimal in nontransgenic mice suggesting that n-3 PFA depletion potentiated caspase activation in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22 : 6n-3) partly protected from NMDA receptor subunit loss and accumulation of fodrin and gelsolin fragments but fully prevented CaMKII decrease. The marked effect of dietary n-3 PFA on NMDA receptors and caspase/calpain activation in the cortex of an animal model of AD provide new insights into how dietary essential fatty acids may influence cognition and AD risk.

  18. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance: The Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    and ethnicity were answered. Insulin resistance was estimated using the HOMA-IR index based on fastingglucose and fasting-insulin. Results. We found an inverse association between C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3, the n-3/n-6 ratio and HOMA-IR and a positive association between C18:3 n-3 cis and HOMA-IR. When...

  19. Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury is Attenuated in Transgenic fat-1 Mice Endogenously Synthesizing Long-chain n-3 Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ruibing; Wang, Yang; Liu, Conghui; Yan, Chunyan; Zhang, Hang; Su, Huanxing; Kang, Jing X; Shang, Chang-Zhen; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2018-04-18

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose-caused hepatotoxicity is the most commonly cause of drugs-induced liver failurecharacterized by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell damage. Therapeutic efficacy of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in several models of liver disease is well documented. However, the impacts of n-3 PUFA on APAP hepatotoxicity are not adequately addressed. In this study, the fat-1 transgenic mice that synthesize endogenous n-3 PUFA and wild type (WT) littermates were injected intraperitoneally with APAP at the dose of 400 mg/kg to induce liver injury, and euthanized at 0 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h post APAP injection for sampling. APAP overdose caused severe liver injury in WT mice as indicated by serum parameters, histopathological changes and hepatocyte apoptosis, which were remarkably ameliorated in fat-1 mice. These protective effects of n-3 PUFA were associated with regulation of the prolonged JNK activation via inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) / mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4) pathway. Additionally, the augment of endogenous n-3 PUFA reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) - mediated inflammation response induced by APAP treatment in the liver. These findings indicate that n-3 PUFA has potent protective effects against APAP-induced acute liver injury, suggesting that n-3 dietary supplement with n-3 PUFA may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of dietary triacylglycerol structure and level of n-3 fatty acids administered during development on brain phospholipids and memory and learning ability of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Hougaard, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    of the nervous system. Methods: Pregnant rats were fed experimental diets from the 8th day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the pups were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a structured oil, a linseed oil, or a fish oil...... and 22:6n-3 adding up to a total of 2 mol% n-3 fatty acids. The effects of the experimental diets were compared to the effect of a chow diet. Results: The amount of 22:6n-3 in brain phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) of dams and offspring (3 and 13 weeks of age) was not affected......The objective of this study was to examine the effects of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on fatty acid profile of brain phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring, and the memory and learning ability of the offspring, when administered during initial development...

  1. Dietary High-Oleic Acid Soybean Oil Dose Dependently Attenuates Egg Yolk Content of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Laying Hens Fed Supplemental Flaxseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Kukorowski, Alexandra N; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2018-02-01

    Chickens can hepatically synthesize eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3) from α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n-3); however, the process is inefficient and competitively inhibited by dietary linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2 n-6). In the present study, the influence of dietary high-oleic acid (OLA; 18:1 n-9) soybean oil (HOSO) on egg and tissue deposition of ALA and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) synthesized from dietary ALA was investigated in laying hens fed a reduced-LNA base diet supplemented with high-ALA flaxseed oil (FLAX). We hypothesized that reducing the dietary level of LNA would promote greater hepatic conversion of ALA to very long-chain (VLC; >20C) n-3 PUFA, while supplemental dietary HOSO would simultaneously further enrich eggs with OLA without influencing egg n-3 PUFA contents. Nine 51-week-old hens each were fed 0, 10, 20, or 40 g HOSO/kg diet for 12 weeks. Within each group, supplemental dietary FLAX was increased every 3 weeks from 0 to 10 to 20 to 40 g/kg diet. Compared to controls, dietary FLAX maximally enriched the total n-3 and VLC n-3 PUFA contents in egg yolk by 9.4-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, while feeding hens 40 g HOSO/kg diet maximally attenuated the yolk deposition of ALA, VLC n-3 PUFA, and total n-3 PUFA by 37, 15, and 32%, respectively. These results suggest that dietary OLA is not neutral with regard to the overall process by which dietary ALA is absorbed, metabolized, and deposited into egg yolk, either intact or in the form of longer-chain/more unsaturated n-3 PUFA derivatives. © 2018 AOCS.

  2. Fish intake, erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid status and metabolic health in Danish adolescent girls and boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Hellgren, Lars

    2012-01-01

    the effects of n-3 LCPUFA in adolescence. The present study examines associations between fish intake (assessed by a 7 d pre-coded food diary), erythrocyte (RBC) DHA status (analysed by GC) and metabolic syndrome measures (anthropometry, blood pressure and plasma lipids, insulin and glucose) in 109 17-year......-old children from the Copenhagen Birth Cohort Study. Of the children, 8% were overweight or obese and few showed signs of the metabolic syndrome, but all the metabolic syndrome variables were correlated. Median fish intake was 10·7 (interquartile range 3·6–21·2) g/d. Boys tended to have a higher fish intake (P......¼0·052), but girls had significantly higher RBC levels of DHA (P¼0·001). Sex and fish intake explained 37% of the variance in RBC-DHA (P,0·001). After adjusting for confounders, high DHA status was found to be significantly correlated with higher systolic blood pressure (P¼0·014) and increased...

  3. Brain histological changes in young mice submitted to diets with different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids during maternal pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunyu; Fan, Chaonan; Liu, Xinli; Xu, Feng; Qi, Kemin

    2011-10-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are essential for brain development and function, but the appropriate quantity of dietary n-3 PUFAs and ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs have not been clearly determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of different dietary ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFAs on the brain structural development in mice and the expression of associated transcription factors. C57 BL/6J mice were fed with one of two categories of n-3 PUFA-containing diets (a flaxseed oil diet and a flaxseed/fish oil mixed diet) or an n-3 PUFA-deficient diet. For each of the n-3 PUFA diets, flaxseed oil or flaxseed/fish oil was combined with other oils to yield three different n-6/n-3 ratios, which ranged from 15.7:1 to 1.6:1. The feeding regimens began two months before mouse conception and continued throughout lactation for new pups. As compared with the n-3 PUFA-deficient diet, both the flaxseed oil n-3 PUFA diets and the flaxseed/fish oil n-3 PUFA diets significantly increased the expression levels of brain neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and myelin basic protein, somewhat dose-dependently, in new pup mice at 21 d and 42 d of age. The expression of PPAR-γ in the brains of pup mice was increased only at 7 d of age with the n-3 PUFA diet, and no changes in the expression of PPAR-α and PPAR-β were found among all the diet groups. These results suggest that the higher intake amount of n-3 PUFAs with a low ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs at about 1-2:1, supplied during both maternal pregnancy and lactation, may be more beneficial for early brain development, and PPAR-γ may act in one of the pathways by which n-3 PUFAs promote early brain development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  6. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    of long-chain n-3 FA to arachidonic acid (the (3/6) ratio) was used as the most relevant single measure of exposure. In 18 women with certain gestational age and with spontaneous onset of delivery, gestational age was significantly associated with the (3/6) ratio quantified in PC (correlation coefficient......Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) may prolong gestation by inhibiting formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. FA were quantified in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and total lipids (TL) of red cells sampled during pregnancy from 29 Faroese women. The ratio...

  7. Toxicity of fatty acid 18:5n3 from Gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi: II. Intracellular pH and K+ uptake in isolated trout hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossat, B; Porthé-Nibelle, J; Sola, F; Masoni, A; Gentien, P; Bodennec, G

    1999-01-01

    Effects of octadecapentaenoic acid 18:5n3 and other related polyunsaturated fatty acids present in gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi were tested in isolated trout hepatocytes. These exotoxins decreased intracellular pH followed by a slow recovery to initial value and alkalinization of acidic compartments, suggesting an inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-ATPases. Moreover, addition of 18:5n3 to the extracellular medium induced a decrease of K+ uptake into hepatocytes as a result of Na,K-ATPase inhibition. However, high concentrations (10(-5)-10(-3) M) are necessary to induce these effects.

  8. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  9. Contribution of fatty acids released from lipolysis of plasma triglycerides to total plasma fatty acid flux and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, Bas; Voshol, Peter J.; Dahlmans, Vivian E. H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A.; Havekes, Louis M.

    2003-01-01

    There is controversy over the extent to which fatty acids (FAs) derived from plasma free FAs (FFAs) or from hydrolysis of plasma triglycerides (TGFAs) form communal or separate pools and what the contribution of each FA source is to cellular FA metabolism. Chylomicrons and lipid emulsions were

  10. Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits, plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and selected coronary disease risk factors in Tanzania. ... Conclusion: Our results indicate that, there are significant differences in dietary patterns among the three study areas, and that the intake of fish is inversely associated with selected risk factors for coronary heart ...

  11. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  12. Restoration of fillet n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid is improved by a modified fish oil finishing diet strategy for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts fed palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codabaccus, Mohamed B; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2012-01-11

    Reducing the lipid content in fish prior to feeding a fish oil finishing diet (FOFD) has the potential to improve n-3 long-chain (≥ C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) restoration. This study had two main objectives: (1) determine whether feeding Atlantic salmon smolt a 75% palm fatty acid distillate diet (75PFAD) improves the apparent digestibility (AD) of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and (2) examine whether a food deprivation period after growth on 75PFAD leads to higher n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet when applying a FOFD. The AD of SFA was higher for 75PFAD compared to that of a fish oil (FO) diet. The relative level (as % total fatty acids (FA)) of n-3 LC-PUFA was higher in unfed fish compared to that in continuously fed fish after 21 and 28 day FOFD periods, respectively. Our results suggest that a food deprivation period prior to feeding a FOFD improves the efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA restoration in the fillet of Atlantic salmon smolt.

  13. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  14. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers Efecto de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 en el perfil lipídico de mexicanos voluntarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIO CARVAJAL

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (pObjetivo. Estudiar el efecto de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 en el perfil lipídico sérico de una población mexicana. Material y métodos. La ingesta diaria del suplemento de aceite de salmón fue de 3 gramos durante cuatro semanas. Se evaluaron los niveles de colesterol total, triglicéridos, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, lipoproteínas de alta densidad y la composición en ácidos grasos de los eritrocitos. Resultados. Muestran una reducción significativa (p< 0.05 en los niveles de triglicéridos y un aumento significativo (p< 0.01 en los niveles de lipoproteínas de alta densidad en los sujetos con hipertrigliceridemia. El grupo con hipercolesterolemia presentó reducción en los niveles de colesterol total y triglicéridos y aumento significativo en los niveles de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (p< 0.01. Conclusiones. El efecto hipolipidemiante de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 se puso de manifiesto en voluntarios mexicanos bajo las condiciones aquí evaluadas.

  15. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tawa, Masashi; Kondo, Keiko; Sekine, Osamu; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-24

    N -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n -3 PUFAs, increased in n -3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n -3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n -3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n -3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect.

  16. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mothers may be reluctant to receive medical treatment of postpartum depression (PPD), despite the detrimental consequences the disorder can impose on mother and child. Research on alternative methods of prevention and treatment of PPD is warranted. Previous studies have suggested...... that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...

  17. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  18. [Comparative study between two different sources of n-3 poliunsaturated fatty acids and it effect on thymus and lipid profile in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Inés; Pallaro, Anabel N; Slobodianik, Nora H

    2007-06-01

    In the present paper we analyzed the effect caused by different recovery diets enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA n-3) on thymus and serum lipid pattern. Severe depleted weanling Wistar rats (D) were divided in three groups that received during 10 days a 20% casein diet supplemented with EPA+DHA (group Cas), a 20% protein milk diet prepared using a commercial reduced-fat product enriched with linolenic and linoleic acids (group L) and a 20% casein diet as control group C. Cas and L gave each other 24 mg/day of PUFA n-3 being the ratio n-6/n-3 8.1/1 and 7.6/1, respectively. Thymus was removed and weighted and cell number were determined; blood was recollected and Total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol fractions and myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, araquidonic, EPA and DHA fatty acid concentrations were measured in serum. Statistical analysis was performed using Anova test. Cell number were higher (p<0.01) in Cas (44.48+/-8.20) and in L (56.45+/-14.72) when compared to group D (1.80+/-0.70) and group C (23.70+/-4.04). L presented lower values of cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.01) and higher values of triacylglycerol (p<0.05) when compared to Cas, being EPA (p<0.05) and DHA (p<0.01) higher in Cas. Being PUFA n-3 contribution the same in Cas and L, both diets were able to reverse the thymic athropy presenting a different hipolipemic behavior due to the different sources of PUFA n-3 used in the diets.

  19. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  20. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  1. Serum Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Mercury, and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death in Men: A Prospective Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Laukkanen, Jari A.; Mursu, Jaakko; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially sudden cardiac death (SCD). Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. Methods A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42–60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984–1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. Results During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR) in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend  = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93), whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction  = 0.01). Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. Conclusion High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD. PMID:22815906

  2. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Improved the Cognitive Function in the Chinese Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may protect against mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, there is still a lack of the n-3 PUFAs intervention in the elderly with MCI in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in the Chinese elderly with MCI. Methods: Eighty six MCI individuals aged 60 years or older were randomly assigned to receive either n-3 PUFAs (480 mg DHA and 720 mg EPA per day, n = 44 or placebo (olive oil, n = 42 capsules. The changes of cognitive functions were assessed using Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests (BCAT. Results: The mean age of participants was 71 years old, and 59% of the participants were men. n-3 PUFA supplementation was associated with improved total BCAT scores, perceptual speed, space imagery efficiency, and working memory (p < 0.01, but not with mental arithmetic efficiency or recognition memory (p > 0.05. Subgroup analysis by sex showed that n-3 PUFAs significantly improved perceptual speed (p = 0.001, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.013, working memory (p = 0.018, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.000 in males. However, in females, the significant beneficial effects can only be observed in perceptual speed (p = 0.027, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.006, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.015—not working memory (p = 0.113. Conclusion: n-3 PUFAs can improve cognitive function in people with MCI. Further studies with different fish oil dosages, longer intervention periods, and larger sample sizes should be investigated before definite recommendations can be made.

  3. Comparison of inferred fractions of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in feral domestic cat diets with those in commercial feline extruded diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Thomas, David G; Fritsche, Kevin L

    2013-04-01

    To compare presumed fatty acid content in natural diets of feral domestic cats (inferred from body fat polyunsatrated fatty acids content) with polyunsaturated fatty acid content of commercial feline extruded diets. Subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue samples (approx 1 g) from previously frozen cadavers of 7 adult feral domestic cats trapped in habitats remote from human activity and triplicate samples (200 g each) of 7 commercial extruded diets representing 68% of market share obtained from retail stores. Lipid, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid fractions in adipose tissue samples and ether extracts of diet samples were determined by gas chromatography of methyl esters. Triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions in the adipose tissue were isolated by thin-layer chromatography. Diet samples were also analyzed for proximate contents. For the adipose tissue samples, with few exceptions, fatty acids fractions varied only moderately with lipid fraction and site from which tissue samples were obtained. Linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid fractions were 15.0% to 28.2%, 4.5% to 18.7%, 0.9% to 5.0%, feral cat diets, in which dietary n-3 and possibly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant. The impact of this difference on the health of pet cats is not known.

  4. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in adults on hemodialysis: The DIET-HD multinational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglimbene, Valeria M; Wong, Germaine; Ruospo, Marinella; Palmer, Suetonia C; Campbell, Katrina; Larsen, Vanessa Garcia; Natale, Patrizia; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Stenvinkel, Peter; Gargano, Letizia; Murgo, Angelo M; Johnson, David W; Tonelli, Marcello; Gelfman, Rubén; Celia, Eduardo; Ecder, Tevfik; Bernat, Amparo G; Del Castillo, Domingo; Timofte, Delia; Török, Marietta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Duława, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Hoischen, Susanne; Hansis, Martin; Fabricius, Elisabeth; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Craig, Jonathan C; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2017-12-06

    Patients on hemodialysis suffer from high risk of premature death, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease, but interventions targeting traditional cardiovascular risk factors have made little or no difference. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are putative candidates to reduce cardiovascular disease. Diets rich in n-3 PUFA are recommended in the general population, although their role in the hemodialysis setting is uncertain. We evaluated the association between the dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and mortality for hemodialysis patients. The DIET-HD study is a prospective cohort study (January 2014-June 2017) in 9757 adults treated with hemodialysis in Europe and South America. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was measured at baseline using the GA 2 LEN Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adjusted Cox regression analyses clustered by country were conducted to evaluate the association of dietary n-3 PUFA intake with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. During a median follow up of 2.7 years (18,666 person-years), 2087 deaths were recorded, including 829 attributable to cardiovascular causes. One third of the study participants consumed sufficient (at least 1.75 g/week) n-3 PUFA recommended for primary cardiovascular prevention, and less than 10% recommended for secondary prevention (7-14 g/week). Compared to patients with the lowest tertile of dietary n-3 PUFA intake (<0.37 g/week), the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular mortality for patients in the middle (0.37 to <1.8 g/week) and highest (≥1.8 g/week) tertiles of n-3 PUFA were 0.82 (0.69-0.98) and 1.03 (0.84-1.26), respectively. Corresponding adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.96 (0.86-1.08) and 1.00 (0.88-1.13), respectively. Dietary n-3 PUFA intake was not associated with cardiovascular or all-cause mortality in patients on hemodialysis. As dietary n-3 PUFA intake was low, the possibility that n-3 PUFA supplementation might mitigate

  5. Evidence from in vivo 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy phosphodiesters that exhaled ethane is a biomarker of cerebral n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Gavin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the hypothesis that exhaled ethane is a biomarker of cerebral n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation in humans. Ethane is released specifically following peroxidation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. We reasoned that the cerebral source of ethane would be the docosahexaenoic acid component of membrane phospholipids. Breakdown of the latter also releases phosphorylated polar head groups, giving rise to glycerophosphorylcholine and glycerophosphorylethanolamine, which can be measured from the 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy phosphodiester peak. Schizophrenia patients were chosen because of evidence of increased free radical-mediated damage and cerebral lipid peroxidation in this disorder. Methods Samples of alveolar air were obtained from eight patients and ethane was analyzed and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (m/z = 30. Cerebral 31-phosphorus spectra were obtained from the same patients at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T using an image-selected in vivo spectroscopy sequence (TR = 10 s; 64 signal averages localized on a 70 × 70 × 70 mm3 voxel. The quantification of the 31-phosphorus signals using prior knowledge was carried out in the temporal domain after truncating the first 1.92 ms of the signal to remove the broad component present in the 31-phosphorus spectra. Results The ethane and phosphodiester levels, expressed as a percentage of the total 31-phosphorus signal, were positively and significantly correlated (rs = 0.714, p Conclusion Our results support the hypothesis that the measurement of exhaled ethane levels indexes cerebral n-3 lipid peroxidation. From a practical viewpoint, if human cerebral n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid catabolism can be measured by ethane in expired breath, this would be more convenient than determining the area of the 31-phosphorus neurospectroscopy phosphodiester peak.

  6. Alterations of Na,K-ATPase isoenzymes in the rat diabetic neuropathy: protective effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbi, A; Maixent, J M; Barbey, O; Jamme, I; Pierlovisi, M; Coste, T; Pieroni, G; Nouvelot, A; Vague, P; Raccah, D

    1998-08-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a degenerative complication of diabetes accompanied by an alteration of nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and Na,K-ATPase activity. The present study in rats was designed first to measure diabetes-induced abnormalities in Na,K-ATPase activity, isoenzyme expression, fatty acid content in sciatic nerve membranes, and NCV and second to assess the preventive ability of a fish oil-rich diet (rich in n-3 fatty acids) on these abnormalities. Diabetes was induced by intravenous streptozotocin injection. Diabetic animals (D) and nondiabetic control animals (C) were fed the standard rat chow either without supplementation or supplemented with either fish oil (DM, CM) or olive oil (DO, CO) at a daily dose of 0.5 g/kg by gavage during 8 weeks. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of purified sciatic nerve membranes from diabetic animals showed a decreased incorporation of C16:1(n-7) fatty acids and arachidonic acids. Fish oil supplementation changed the fatty acid content of sciatic nerve membranes, decreasing C18:2(n-6) fatty acids and preventing the decreases of arachidonic acids and C18:1(n-9) fatty acids. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase alpha subunits, Na,K-ATPase activity, and ouabain affinity were assayed in purified sciatic nerve membranes from CO, DO, and DM. Na,K-ATPase activity was significantly lower in sciatic nerve membranes of diabetic rats and significantly restored in diabetic animals that received fish oil supplementation. Diabetes induced a specific decrease of alpha1- and alpha3-isoform activity and protein expression in sciatic nerve membranes. Fish oil supplementation restored partial activity and expression to varying degrees depending on the isoenzyme. These effects were associated with a significant beneficial effect on NCV. This study indicates that fish oil has beneficial effects on diabetes-induced alterations in sciatic nerve Na,K-ATPase activity and function.

  7. Saturated Branched Chain, Normal Odd-Carbon-Numbered, and n-3 (Omega-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Freshwater Fish in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Hao; Jackson, James R; Twining, Cornelia; Rudstam, Lars G; Zollweg-Horan, Emily; Kraft, Clifford; Lawrence, Peter; Kothapalli, Kumar; Wang, Zhen; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-10-04

    The fatty acid profiles of wild freshwater fish are poorly characterized as a human food source for several classes of fatty acids, particularly for branched chain fatty acids (BCFA), a major bioactive dietary component known to enter the US food supply primarily via dairy and beef fat. We evaluated the fatty acid content of 27 freshwater fish species captured in the northeastern US with emphasis on the BCFA and bioactive polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) most associated with fish, specifically n-3 (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Mean BCFA content across all species was 1.0 ± 0.5% (mean ± SD) of total fatty acids in edible muscle, with rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) the highest at >2% BCFA. In comparison, EPA + DHA constituted 28% ± 7% of total fatty acids. Across all fish species, the major BCFA were iso-15:0, anteiso-15:0, iso-16:0, iso-17:0 and anteiso-17:0. Fish skin had significantly higher BCFA content than muscle tissues, at 1.8% ± 0.7%, but lower EPA and DHA. Total BCFA in fish skins was positively related with that in muscle (r 2 = 0.6). The straight chain saturates n-15:0 and n-17:0 which have been identified previously as markers for dairy consumption were relatively high with means of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, and may be an underappreciated marker for seafood intake. Consuming a standardized portion, 70 g (2.5 oz), of wild freshwater fish contributes only small amounts of BCFA, 2.5-24.2 mg, to the American diet, while it adds surprisingly high amounts of EPA + DHA (107 mg to 558 mg).

  8. Healthy n-6/n-3 fatty acid composition from five European game meat species remains after cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencak, Teresa G; Gamsjäger, Lisa; Ohrnberger, Sarah; Culbert, Nicole J; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-06-27

    Intensive farming of livestock along with recent food scandals and consumer deception have increased awareness about risks for human nutrition. In parallel, the demand for meat obtained under more natural conditions from animals that can freely forage has largely increased. Interestingly, the consumption of game meat has not become more common despite its excellent quality and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). We addressed the question if game meat fatty acid composition is modified through kitchen preparation. By analysing muscle fatty acid (FA) composition (polar and total lipids) of five European game species in a raw and a processed state, we aimed to quantify the proportion of PUFA that are oxidised and hydrogenated during processing. All game meat species originated from local hunters and free-living individuals. To mimic a realistic situation a professional chef prepared the meat samples with gentle use of heat in a standardised way. Expectedly, the overall content of polyunsaturated fatty acids declined during the cooking process but the decrease size was cooking does not substantially alter its favourable fatty acid composition. Further research is needed to elucidate species-specific differences and the role of habitat quality and locomotion for tissue composition.

  9. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J.; Eskesen, D.C.; Andersen, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood...

  10. Effect of consumption of tomato juice enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipid profile, antioxidant biomarker status, and cardiovascular disease risk in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, F J; Jorge-Vidal, V; Ros, G; Periago, M J

    2012-06-01

    We compared the effects of consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-enriched tomato juice versus plain tomato juice on the serum lipid profile and levels of biomarkers related to antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. Eighteen healthy women participated in a 2-week intervention trial involving the daily intake of 500 mL of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice (n = 11) or plain tomato juice (n = 7). Each serving of enriched juice provided 250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexanoic acid (DHA). Both juices provided natural antioxidant compounds such as phenolics (181 mg) and lycopene (26.5 mg). Intervention with the enriched juice had no effect on the lipid profile, and serum levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL) remained unchanged. The serum antioxidant status improved following juice intake, as revealed by an increase in total antioxidant capacity and a slight decrease in lipid peroxidation. The serum levels of homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk factor, decreased following n-3 PUFA-enriched juice consumption. A decrease in vascular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) levels was also noted after intake of either plain or enriched tomato juice, whereas intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) levels only decreased following intake of the enriched juice. Overall, stronger positive amelioration of CVD risk factors was observed following the intake of n-3 PUFA-enriched juice than after plain tomato juice consumption, which suggested a possible synergistic action between n-3 PUFAs and tomato antioxidants.

  11. Food frequency questionnaire as an indicator of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in early pregnancy, according to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, J; Vaz, J S; Moreira, J D; Pinto, T J P; Soares-Mota, M; Kac, G

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be indicative of the serum composition of essential n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in early pregnancy and if correlations are affected by body mass index (BMI). The present study comprised a prospective cohort conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample was composed of 248 women, aged 20-40 years, between 6 and the 13 weeks of gestation. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Fatty acid serum compositions were determined in fasting serum samples, employing a high-throughput robotic direct methylation coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. Spearman's correlation (r(s)) was used to assess the relationship between fatty acid intake and corresponding serum composition. Women were classified according to BMI (kg m(-2) ) as underweight/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 139) or excessive weight (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) ; n = 109). In the total sample, dietary report was significantly correlated with the serum composition of total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; r(s) = 0.232, P < 0.001), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6; r(s) = 0.271, P < 0.001), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3; r(s) = 0.263, P < 0.001) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3; r(s) = 0.209, P = 0.001). When analyses were stratified by BMI, significant correlations between FFQ and serum composition among underweight/normal weight women were observed for total PUFA (r(s) = 0.323, P < 0.001), LA (r(s) = 0.322, P < 0.001), EPA (r(s) = 0.352, P < 0.001) and DHA (r(s) = 0.176, P = 0.039). Among women of excessive weight, significant correlations were observed only for alpha linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3; r(s) = 0.199, P = 0.040) and DHA (r(s) = 0.236, P = 0.014). FFQ in early pregnancy may be used as a possible indicator of serum concentrations of fatty acids. Higher correlations were observed among underweight/normal weight women. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Telomerase level increase is related to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid efficacy in first episode schizophrenia: Secondary outcome analysis of the OFFER randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Szemraj, Janusz; Żurner, Natalia; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-20

    Schizophrenia is associated with shortening of the lifespan mainly due to cardiovascular events, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Both telomere attrition and decrease of telomerase levels were observed in schizophrenia. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influence multiple biochemical mechanisms which are postulated to accelerate telomere shortening and limit the longevity of patients with schizophrenia. Intervention studies based on add-on therapy with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in patients with schizophrenia did not assess the changes in telomerase levels. A randomized placebo-controlled trial named OFFER was designed to compare the efficacy of a 26-week intervention composed of either 2.2g/day of n-3 PUFA or olive oil placebo with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. The secondary outcome measure of the study was to describe the association between the clinical effect of n-3 PUFA and changes in telomerase levels. Seventy-one patients aged 16-35 were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the change in symptom severity. Telomerase levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were assessed at three points: at baseline and at weeks 8 and 26 of the intervention. A significantly greater increase in PBMC telomerase levels in the intervention group compared to placebo was observed (p<0.001). Changes in telomerase levels significantly and inversely correlated with improvement in depressive symptoms and severity of the illness. The efficacy of a six-month intervention with n-3 PUFA observed in first-episode schizophrenia may be related to an increase in telomerase levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary fish oil supplements increase tissue n-3 fatty acid composition and expression of delta-6 desaturase and elongase-2 in Jade Tiger hybrid abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Hintsa T; Lewandowski, Paul A; Su, Xiao Q

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on fatty acid composition and the expression of ∆6 desaturase and elongase 2 genes in Jade Tiger abalone. Five test diets were formulated to contain 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% of FO respectively, and the control diet was the normal commercial abalone diet with no additional FO supplement. The muscle, gonad and digestive glands (DG) of abalone fed with all of the five test diets showed significantly high levels of total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid n-3 (DPAn-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than the control group. In all three types of tissue, abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO showed the highest level of these fatty acids (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 2% FO (P abalone fed diet supplemented with 1.5% FO (P abalone fed with diet containing 0.5% FO supplement (P abalone, with 1.5% being the most effective supplementation level.

  14. Marine fish oil is more potent than plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajie; Abdelmagid, Salma A; Pinelli, Christopher J; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hillyer, Lyn M; Hucik, Barbora; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Muller, William J; Ma, David W L

    2017-12-27

    Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. However, evidence regarding plant-based α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 PUFA in the Western diet, remains equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of lifelong exposure to plant- or marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on pubertal mammary gland and tumor development in MMTV-neu(ndl)-YD5 mice. It is hypothesized that lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA reduces terminal end buds during puberty leading to delayed tumor onset, volume and multiplicity. It is further hypothesized that plant-derived n-3 PUFAs will exert dose-dependent effects. Harems of MMTV-FVB males were bred with wild-type females and fed either a (1) 10% safflower (10% SF, n-6 PUFA, control), (2) 10% flaxseed (10% FS), (3) 7% safflower plus 3% flaxseed (3% FS) or (4) 7% safflower plus 3% menhaden (3% FO) diet. Female offspring were maintained on parental diets. Compared to SF, 10% FS and 3% FO reduced (P<.05) terminal end buds at 6 weeks and tumor volume and multiplicity at 20 weeks. A dose-dependent reduction of tumor volume and multiplicity was observed in mice fed 3% and 10% FS. Antitumorigenic effects were associated with altered HER2, pHER-2, pAkt and Ki-67 protein expression. Compared to 10% SF, 3% FO significantly down-regulated expression of genes involved in eicosanoid synthesis and inflammation. From this, it can be estimated that ALA was 1/8 as potent as EPA+DHA. Thus, marine-derived n-3 PUFAs have greater potency versus plant-based n-3 PUFAs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Jusheng; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies did not draw a consistent conclusion about the effects of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fasting blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). A comprehensive search of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Medline (from 1950 to 2013) and bibliographies of relevant articles was undertaken. Sixty-eight RCTs with a total of 4601 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation showed a lowering effect on Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in three groups of subjects (subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, subjects with chronic autoimmune disease and healthy subjects). A significant negative linear relationship between duration and effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation on fasting blood levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease was observed, indicating that longer duration of supplementation could lead to a greater lowering effect. A similar linear relationship was also observed for IL-6 levels in healthy subjects. Restricted cubic spline analysis and subgroup analysis showed that the lowering effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease became weakened when body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m². The effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs from dietary intake was only assessed in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, and a significant lowering effect was observed on IL-6, but not on CRP and TNF-α. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α level. The lowering effect was most effective in non-obese subjects and consecutive long-term supplementation was recommended.

  16. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Serum Leptin Levels, Appetite Sensations, and Intake of Energy and Macronutrients in Obese People: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payahoo, L; Ostadrahimi, A; Farrin, N; Khaje-Bishak, Y

    2017-10-05

    Obesity is a common health problem. Appetite is one of the main obesity-controlling factors that can be influenced by leptin. Leptin reduces food intake and accelerates energy expenditure. Leptin levels can be affected by dietary factors such as fats, special amino acids, and fructose. This study aimed to determine the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid n-3 (PUFA n-3) supplementation on serum leptin levels, appetite sensations, and dietary intakes in obese people. This study was performed on 60 obese individuals with body mass index (BMI) 30 (kg/m 2 ) and above in 2012 in Tabriz, Iran. The participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (consumed two capsules containing 1 g/day n-3 fatty acids [180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA] for 4 weeks) and control groups. Serum leptin levels were assessed by ELISA method, and visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was completed for evaluating appetite sensations. The mean caloric [before = 1,575.39 (600), after = 1,236.14 (448.40)] and macronutrient intakes were decreased significantly in the intervention group (p macronutrient intakes, probably through the modulating of satiety. The short period of study caused the nonsignificant changes in BMI and circulatory leptin. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  17. Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 and the Beneficial Effects of Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Villarroya, J.; Flachs, Pavel; Redondo-Angulo, I.; Giralt, M.; Medříková, Daša; Villarroya, F.; Kopecký, Jan; Planavila, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 11 (2014), s. 1081-1089 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : fibroblast growth factor-21 * long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fat ty acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  18. Effect of heat treatment on the n-3/n-6 ratio and content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish tissues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schneedorferová, Ivana; Tomčala, Aleš; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 176, JUN 1 2015 (2015), s. 205-211 ISSN 0308-8146 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : n-3 PUFA * n-6 PUFA * Heat treatment * Fish tissue * HPLC/MS * GC/MS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.052, year: 2015

  19. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  20. Insufficient intake of alpha-linolenic fatty acid (18:3n-3 during pregnancy and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Garcia VASCONCELOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze alpha-linolenic fatty acid intake in two cohorts of pregnant women, and to identify factors associated with alpha-linolenic acid intake. Methods: This is a cohort study involving pregnant women with low obstetric risk (N=353 in public health system from a municipality of São Paulo state, Brazil. In each trimester, two 24-hour food recalls were collected. Descriptive analyses of dietary lipid profiles were performed, followed by a multiple comparison test. According to the trimester of pregnancy, differences were assessed using the mean difference test. To evaluate the adequacy of linoleic fatty acid and alpha-linolenic acid intake, the adequate intake test was used. The association between alpha-linolenic acid intake adequacy and maternal characteristics was investigated using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Total lipids intake and the percentage contribution to dietary energy met recommended levels. One-third of the diets demonstrated a lower than daily recommended intake of alpha-linolenic acid. Overweight pregnant women were twice as likely to have inadequate alpha-linolenic acid intake. Pregnant women from a more disadvantaged socioeconomic situation had greater risks of inadequate intake. Conclusion: Over-intake of lipids is not problematic, but quality is an issue, with one third of the pregnant women and their fetuses exposed to adverse effects due to low intake of omega-3 fatty acids, indicating important nutritional vulnerability in this population.

  1. Effect of caloric restriction with or without n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity in obese subjects: A randomized placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razny, Urszula; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Goralska, Joanna; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Wnek, Dominika; Zdzienicka, Anna; Gruca, Anna; Childs, Caroline E; Kapusta, Maria; Slowinska-Solnica, Krystyna; Calder, Philip C; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona

    2015-12-01

    Caloric restriction and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation protect from some of the metabolic complications. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a low calorie diet with or without n-3 PUFA supplementation on glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) output and insulin sensitivity markers in obese subjects. Obese, non-diabetic subjects (BMI 30-40 kg/m(2)) and aged 25-65 yr. were put on low calorie diet (1200-1500 kcal/day) supplemented with either 1.8 g/day n-3 PUFA (DHA/EPA, 5:1) (n = 24) or placebo capsules (n = 24) for three months in a randomized placebo controlled trial. Insulin resistance markers and GIP levels were analysed from samples obtained at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Caloric restriction with n-3 PUFA led to a decrease of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and a significant reduction of insulin output as well as decreased GIP secretion during the OGTT. These effects were not seen with caloric restriction alone. Changes in GIP output were inversely associated with changes in red blood cell EPA content whereas fasting GIP level positively correlated with HOMA-IR index. Blood triglyceride level was lowered by caloric restriction with a greater effect when n-3 PUFA were included and correlated positively with fasting GIP level. Three months of caloric restriction with DHA + EPA supplementation exerts beneficial effects on insulin resistance, GIP and triglycerides. Combining caloric restriction and n-3 PUFA improves insulin sensitivity, which may be related to a decrease of GIP levels.

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  3. DietaryFish and Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake and Risk of Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Rong Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Findings on the association between long-term intake of fish or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF are inconsistent in observational studies. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to separately examine the associations between fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs with the risk of AF. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Seven prospective cohort studies covering 206,811 participants and 12,913 AF cases were eligible. The summary relative risk of AF for the highest vs. lowest category of fish consumption and dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs was 1.01(95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.09 and 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.97–1.09, respectively. These null associations persisted in subgroup and dose-response analyses. There was little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that neither long-term intake of fish, nor of n-3 PUFAs were significantly associated with lower risk of AF.

  4. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  5. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio as biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk factors in normal-weight rabbits fed high fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Gabriela; Roco, Julieta; Medina, Analia; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina; Medina, Mirta; Jerez, Susana

    2016-01-20

    Biomarkers for cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors would be important tools to maximize the effectiveness of dietary interventions to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) indexes and n-6/n-3 fatty acids (FA) ratio as biomarkers of CMR induced by feeding rabbits on high fat diets (HFDs). Rabbits were fed either regular diet or 18 % fat in regular diet (HFD) or 1 % cholesterol diet (HD) or diet containing 1 % cholesterol and 18 % fat (HFD-HD) during 6 weeks. Body weights (BW), blood pressure, visceral abdominal fat (VAF) and glucose tolerance test were determined. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), fasting glucose (FG), and FA levels from plasma were measured. SCD indexes were calculated as product/precursor ratios of individual FA. BW was similar in all diet groups. HD increased TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. HFD increased TG, VAF and FG, and decreased HDL-C. The addition of HFD to HD joined to dyslipidemia increased VAF and FG. SCD indexes were increased and n-6/n-3 was unchanged in HD. SCD indexes were reduced and n-6/n-3 FA ratio was increased in HFD and HFD-HD. CMR factors were correlated positively with n-6/n-3 FA ratio. Although VAF had a stronger correlation with n-6/n-3 FA ratio than with SCD indexes, VAF was associated independently to both markers. HFD simulating lipid composition of the average Western-style diet induced experimental rabbit models of normal-weight metabolic syndrome (MS). SCD indexes and n-6/n-3 were modified according to the type of dietary fat. Considering that VAF and CMR factors appear to be stronger associated to n-6/n-3 FA ratio than to SCD indexes, n-6/n-3 FA ratio may be a better biomarker of MS and CMR in normal-weight subjects than SCD indexes.

  6. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  7. The free fractions of circulating docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentenoic acid as optimal end-point of measure in bioavailability studies on n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsi, Claudia; Levesque, Ann; Lisi, Lucia; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2015-05-01

    The high complexity of n-3 fatty acids absorption process, along with the huge amount of endogenous fraction, makes bioavailability studies with these agents very challenging and deserving special consideration. In this paper we report the results of a bioequivalence study between a new formulation of EPA+DHA ethyl esters developed by IBSA Institut Biochimique and reference medicinal product present on the Italian market. Bioequivalence was demonstrated according to the criteria established by the EMA Guideline on the Investigation of Bioequivalence. We found that the free fractions represent a better and more sensitive end-point for bioequivalence investigations on n-3 fatty acids, since: (i) the overall and intra-subject variability of PK parameters was markedly lower compared to the same variability calculated on the total DHA and EPA fractions; (ii) the absorption process was completed within 4h, and the whole PK profile could be drawn within 12-15 h from drug administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A prospective evaluation of plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chajès, V; Assi, N; Biessy, C; Ferrari, P; Rinaldi, S; Slimani, N; Lenoir, G M; Baglietto, L; His, M; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Trichopoulou, A; Lagiou, P; Katsoulis, M; Kaaks, R; Kühn, T; Panico, S; Pala, V; Masala, G; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; van Gils, C; Hjartåker, A; Standahl Olsen, K; Borgund Barnung, R; Barricarte, A; Redondo-Sanchez, D; Menéndez, V; Amiano, P; Wennberg, M; Key, T; Khaw, K T; Merritt, M A; Riboli, E; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I

    2017-11-01

    Intakes of specific fatty acids have been postulated to impact breast cancer risk but epidemiological data based on dietary questionnaires remain conflicting. We assessed the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and breast cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Sixty fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in pre-diagnostic plasma phospholipids from 2982 incident breast cancer cases matched to 2982 controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk of breast cancer by fatty acid level. The false discovery rate (q values) was computed to control for multiple comparisons. Subgroup analyses were carried out by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in the tumours. A high level of palmitoleic acid [odds ratio (OR) for the highest quartile compared with the lowest OR (Q4-Q1) 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.64; P for trend = 0.0001, q value = 0.004] as well as a high desaturation index (DI16) (16:1n-7/16:0) [OR (Q4-Q1), 1.28; 95% C, 1.07-1.54; P for trend = 0.002, q value = 0.037], as biomarkers of de novo lipogenesis, were significantly associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Levels of industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with ER-negative tumours [OR for the highest tertile compared with the lowest (T3-T1)=2.01; 95% CI, 1.03-3.90; P for trend = 0.047], whereas no association was found for ER-positive tumours (P-heterogeneity =0.01). No significant association was found between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and breast cancer risk, overall or by hormonal receptor. These findings suggest that increased de novo lipogenesis, acting through increased synthesis of palmitoleic acid, could be a relevant metabolic pathway for breast tumourigenesis. Dietary trans-fatty acids derived from industrial processes may specifically increase ER-negative breast cancer

  9. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans.To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure.The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry.Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders.High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  10. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Cejudo, M. Gorety; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana; Guadarrama-López, Ana L.; Pardo-Morales, Rosa-Virgen; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz E.; Harbige, Laurence S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. PMID:28587203

  11. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gorety Jacobo-Cejudo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG or a placebo (PG daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac, leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively. Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004, leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000, and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000 decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively. Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001, insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000, and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000 increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002 and atherogenic index (p = 0.031; in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000, non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000, and atherogenic index (p = 0.017. Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups.

  12. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  13. Identification and quantification of intermediates of unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in plasma of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onkenhout, W.; Venizelos, V.; van der Poel, P. F.; van den Heuvel, M. P.; Poorthuis, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The free fatty acid and total fatty acid profiles in plasma of nine patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, two with very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and two with mild-type multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MAD-m) deficiency, were analyzed by gas

  14. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  15. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00......). The intervention started within a week after delivery and lasted 4 mon. Mothers with habitual high fish intake and their infants were included as a reference group. Ninety-seven infants completed the trial (44 OO-group, 53 FO-group) and 47 reference infants were followed up. The primary outcome measures were: DHA...... content of milk samples (0, 2, and 4 mon postnatal) and of infant red blood cell (RBC) membranes (4 mon postnatal), and infant visual acuity (measured by swept visual evoked potential at 2 and 4 mon of age). FO supplementation gave rise to a threefold increase in the DHA content of the 4-mon milk samples...

  16. Mining microarray datasets in nutrition: expression of the GPR120 (n-3 fatty acid receptor/sensor) gene is down-regulated in human adipocytes by macrophage secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayhurn, Paul; Denyer, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Microarray datasets are a rich source of information in nutritional investigation. Targeted mining of microarray data following initial, non-biased bioinformatic analysis can provide key insight into specific genes and metabolic processes of interest. Microarrays from human adipocytes were examined to explore the effects of macrophage secretions on the expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) genes that encode fatty acid receptors/sensors. Exposure of the adipocytes to macrophage-conditioned medium for 4 or 24 h had no effect on GPR40 and GPR43 expression, but there was a marked stimulation of GPR84 expression (receptor for medium-chain fatty acids), the mRNA level increasing 13·5-fold at 24 h relative to unconditioned medium. Importantly, expression of GPR120, which encodes an n-3 PUFA receptor/sensor, was strongly inhibited by the conditioned medium (15-fold decrease in mRNA at 24 h). Macrophage secretions have major effects on the expression of fatty acid receptor/sensor genes in human adipocytes, which may lead to an augmentation of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue in obesity.

  17. Antioxidant status, lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on high-cholesterol diet containing currant oil rich in n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecera, R; Skottová, N; Vána, P; Kazdová, L; Chmela, Z; Svagera, Z; Walterá, D; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2003-01-01

    Plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) possess a prospective antiatherogenic potential. Currant oil from Ribes nigrum L. is one of the few plant oils containing PUFAn-3 (15.3 mol%) in addition to PUFAn-6 (60.5 mol%). This study was aimed at comparing the effects of currant oil with those of lard fat, rich in saturated (43.8 mol%) and monounsaturated (47.0 mol%) fatty acids, on antioxidant parameters, the lipoprotein profile and liver lipids in rats fed on 1 % (w/w) cholesterol diets containing either 10 % of currant oil (COD) or lard fat (LFD). After 3 weeks of feeding, the COD induced a significant decrease in blood glutathione (GSH) and an increase in Cu(2+) induced oxidizability of serum lipids, but did not affect liver GSH and t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced lipoperoxidation of liver microsomes. Although the COD did not cause accumulation of liver triacylglycerols as LFD, the lipoprotein profile (VLDL, LDL, HDL) was not significantly improved after COD. The consumption of PUFAn-3 was reflected in LDL as an increase in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. These results suggest that currant oil affects positively the lipid metabolism in the liver, above all it does not cause the development of a fatty liver. However, adverse effects of currant oil on the antioxidant status in the blood still remain of concern.

  18. Dairy fat blends high in α-linolenic acid are superior to n-3 fatty-acid-enriched palm oil blends for increasing DHA levels in the brains of young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qin; Martin, Jean-Charles; Agnani, Genevieve; Pages, Nicole; Leruyet, Pascale; Carayon, Pierre; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2012-12-01

    Achieving an appropriate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both male and female rats. Forty rats of each gender were born from dams fed over gestation and lactation with a low α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (0.4% of fatty acids) and subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to a palm oil blend-based diet (10% by weight) that provided either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid or to an anhydrous dairy fat blend that provided 1.5% or 2.3% ALA. Fatty acids in the plasma, red blood cells (RBCs) and whole brain were determined by gas chromatography. The 1.5% ALA dairy fat was superior to both the 1.5% ALA palm oil blends for increasing brain DHA (14.4% increase, PDHA due to a gender-to-diet interaction, with dairy fats attenuating the gender effect. Brain DHA was predicted with a better accuracy by some plasma and RBC fatty acids when used in combination (R(2) of 0.6) than when used individually (R(2)=0.47 for RBC n-3 docosapentaenoic acid at best). In conclusion, dairy fat blends enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of postweaning rats. Human applications are worth considering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  20. Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Pestka

    Full Text Available Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1 n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO, 2 n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN or 3 n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS. Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other

  1. Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullen, D.L.; Emergy, R.S.; Palmquist, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-[ 14 C]palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO 2 were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min -1 ; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnover incorporated into triglyceride and CO 2 were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased 14 C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO 2 , and percent of CO 2 from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected

  2. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P  0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P < 0.01). In conclusion, altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in gestation-lactating sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Interplay Between n-3 and n-6 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and the Endocannabinoid System in Brain Protection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Simon C

    2017-11-01

    The brain is enriched in arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of the n-6 and n-3 series, respectively. Both are essential for optimal brain development and function. Dietary enrichment with DHA and other long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), has shown beneficial effects on learning and memory, neuroinflammatory processes, and synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. ARA, DHA and EPA are precursors to a diverse repertoire of bioactive lipid mediators, including endocannabinoids. The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, and their biosynthetic and degradation enzymes. Anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are the most widely studied endocannabinoids and are both derived from phospholipid-bound ARA. The endocannabinoid system also has well-established roles in neuroinflammation, synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, suggesting an overlap in the neuroprotective effects observed with these different classes of lipids. Indeed, growing evidence suggests a complex interplay between n-3 and n-6 LCPUFA and the endocannabinoid system. For example, long-term DHA and EPA supplementation reduces AEA and 2-AG levels, with reciprocal increases in levels of the analogous endocannabinoid-like DHA and EPA-derived molecules. This review summarises current evidence of this interplay and discusses the therapeutic potential for brain protection and repair.

  4. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on C-Reactive Protein, Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor α: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Huang, Tao; Zheng, Jusheng; Wu, Kejian; Li, Duo

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies did not draw a consistent conclusion about the effects of marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on fasting blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods and Findings A comprehensive search of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase and Medline (from 1950 to 2013) and bibliographies of relevant articles was undertaken. Sixty-eight RCTs with a total of 4601 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation showed a lowering effect on Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP in three groups of subjects (subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, subjects with chronic autoimmune disease and healthy subjects). A significant negative linear relationship between duration and effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation on fasting blood levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease was observed, indicating that longer duration of supplementation could lead to a greater lowering effect. A similar linear relationship was also observed for IL-6 levels in healthy subjects. Restricted cubic spline analysis and subgroup analysis showed that the lowering effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease became weakened when body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m2. The effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFAs from dietary intake was only assessed in subjects with chronic non-autoimmune disease, and a significant lowering effect was observed on IL-6, but not on CRP and TNF-α. Conclusions Marine-derived n-3 PUFAs supplementation had a significant lowering effect on CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α level. The lowering effect was most effective in non-obese subjects and consecutive long-term supplementation was recommended. PMID:24505395

  5. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  6. Bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids as affected by the delivery system: simple, double and gelled double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofrades, Susana; Bou, Ricard; Flaiz, Linda; Garcimartín, Alba; Benedí, Juana; Mateos, Raquel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Olivero-David, Raúl; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the influence of different food-grade n-3 PUFA-enriched simple emulsion (SE), double emulsion (DE) and gelled double emulsion (GDE) delivery systems on the extent of lipolysis, antioxidant capacity and the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol (HTy). GDE emulsion offered better protection for HTy (89%) than the other systems (79% in SE and DE). The reducing capacity of the emulsions containing HTy were not altered during oral digestion. However, "in vitro" gastric and intestinal phases significantly reduced the antioxidant activity of all systems. The structural and physical state of GDE entailed a slowing-down of triacylglyceride hydrolysis (36.4%) in comparison with that of SE and DE (22.7 and 24.8% for SE and DE, respectively).

  7. Different kinetic in incorporation and depletion of n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and leukocytes of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Thogersen, Regitze Louise; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    during a 6-wk feeding period. Over the first 3-wk period (the incorporation period) the mice were fed a special diet with a high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. In the following 3-wk period (the depletion period) the mice were fed a standard chow diet. A linear increase of the concentration of EPA and DHA...... in erythrocyte membranes was observed during the incorporation period, whereas a stagnation was observed after the second week for leukocytes. The level of EPA did not fall to the background level after the depletion period, and the level of DHA was kept almost constant during the depletion period...... in the erythrocyte membranes. In leukocytes the concentration of both EPA and DHA decreased during the depletion period, but did not reach the background level after the 3-wk depletion. In conclusion, the kinetics of EPA and DHA in the different cells are different. The rate of incorporation is faster than...

  8. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Anoja W; Makrides, Maria; Collins, Carmel T

    2015-07-22

    Allergies have become more prevalent globally over the last 20 years. Dietary consumption of n-3 (or omega 3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) has declined over the same period of time. This, together with the known role of n-3 LCPUFA in inhibiting inflammation, has resulted in speculation that n-3 LCPUFA may prevent allergy development. Dietary n-3 fatty acids supplements may change the developing immune system of the newborn before allergic responses are established, particularly for those with a genetic predisposition to the production of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody. Individuals with IgE-mediated allergies have both the signs and symptoms of the allergic disease and a positive skin prick test (SPT) to the allergen. To assess the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation in pregnant and/or breastfeeding women on allergy outcomes (food allergy, atopic dermatitis (eczema), allergic rhinitis (hay fever) and asthma/wheeze) in their children. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 August 2014), PubMed (1966 to 01 August 2014), CINAHL via EBSCOhost (1984 to 01 August 2014), Scopus (1995 to 01 August 2014), Web of Knowledge (1864 to 01 August 2014) and ClinicalTrials.gov (01 August 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation of pregnant and/or lactating women (compared with placebo or no treatment) on allergy outcomes of the infants or children. Trials using a cross-over design and trials examining biochemical outcomes only were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and performed data extraction. Where the review authors were also investigators on trials selected, an independent reviewer assessed trial quality and performed data extraction. Eight trials involving 3366 women and their 3175 children were included in the review. In these trials, women

  9. Alterations of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-activated K2P channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P ) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved...... in pulmonary vasorelaxation and that alterations of channel expression are pathophysiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension. Expression of PUFA-activated K2P in the murine lung was investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), by patch...... clamp (PC) and myography. K2P -gene expression was examined in chronic hypoxic mice. qRT-PCR showed that the K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 were the predominantly expressed K2P in the murine lung. IHC revealed protein expression of K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries and of K2P 6...

  10. A meta-analysis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effects on circulating acute-phase protein and cytokines in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel C; Fernandes, Ricardo; Chagas, Thayz R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2018-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is related with cancer and leads to worsening prognosis in cancer patients. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) supplementation has been proposed as adjuvant treatment in cancer due anti-inflammatory properties. In the present meta-analysis, we pooled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of n-3 PUFAs (from fish oil isolated or added in an immunonutrition formula) on inflammatory markers in gastric cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed in Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, Science Direct and Web of Science, besides GOOGLE Scholar and a hand searching of reference lists, through July 2016. We pooled the effect size from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses. Nine trials (698 patients) fulfilled the entry criteria and were included in the synthesis of the systematic review. Eight were carried out in surgical patients and one in patients that received chemotherapy. Four used only fish oil as intervention and five used an immunonutrition formula. Global meta-analysis demonstrated higher albumin (7 studies, SMD 0.28; 95% CI 0.07, 0.48) and prealbumin (4 studies, SMD 0.56; 95% CI 0.12, 1.00) concentrations, and lower IL-6 (2 studies, SMD -0.71; 95% CI -1.15, -0.27) and TNF-α (2 studies, SMD -0.92; 95% CI -1.58, -0.26) concentrations in patients of the intervention group as compared to control group. However, total protein, transferrin and CRP concentrations were not improved by n-3 PUFAs supplementation. This study provides evidence that n-3 PUFAs supplementation from fish oil or added an immunonutrition formula has favorable effects on inflammatory markers in gastric cancer patients undergoing surgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent actin remodelling during CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; Monk, Jennifer M; Fan, Yang-Yi; Barhoumi, Rola; Chen, Yong Q; Rivera, Gonzalo M; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2012-04-01

    n-3 PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), i.e. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), found in fish oil, exhibit anti-inflammatory properties; however, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Since PtdIns(4,5)P2 resides in raft domains and DHA can alter the size of rafts, we hypothesized that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and downstream actin remodelling are perturbed by the incorporation of n-3 PUFA into membranes, resulting in suppressed T-cell activation. CD4+ T-cells isolated from Fat-1 transgenic mice (membranes enriched in n-3 PUFA) exhibited a 50% decrease in PtdIns(4,5)P2. Upon activation by plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28 or PMA/ionomycin, Fat-1 CD4+ T-cells failed to metabolize PtdIns(4,5)P2. Furthermore, actin remodelling failed to initiate in Fat-1 CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation; however, the defect was reversed by incubation with exogenous PtdIns(4,5)P2. When Fat-1 CD4+ T-cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28-coated beads, WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) failed to translocate to the immunological synapse. The suppressive phenotype, consisting of defects in PtdIns(4,5)P2 metabolism and actin remodelling, were recapitulated in CD4+ T-cells isolated from mice fed on a 4% DHA triacylglycerol-enriched diet. Collectively, these data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA, such as DHA, alter PtdIns(4,5)P2 in CD4+ T-cells, thereby suppressing the recruitment of WASP to the immunological synapse, and impairing actin remodelling in CD4+ T-cells.

  12. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Turk, Harmony F; Weeks, Brad; Wu, Chaodong; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site) and spleen (systemic inflammatory site), and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF) diet (59.2% kcal) alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO) for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i) serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin), ii) adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21) and iii) total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺) and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺) macrophage content compared to HF (Pdiet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ) and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ) versus HF (P<0.05). Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05). Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05). Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  13. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Monk

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site and spleen (systemic inflammatory site, and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF diet (59.2% kcal alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin, ii adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21 and iii total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺ and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺ macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05. In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ versus HF (P<0.05. Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05. Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  14. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Does not Affect Changes of Lipid Metabolism Induced in Rats by Altered Thyroid Status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rauchová, Hana; Vokurková, Martina; Pavelka, Stanislav; Behuliak, Michal; Tribulová, N.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 7 (2013), s. 507-512 ISSN 0018-5043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/09/0570; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/08/0256; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : hypothyriodism * hyperthyroidism * mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase * glucose * plasma lipids Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2013

  15. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation in Mothers, Preterm Infants, and Term Infants and Childhood Psychomotor and Visual Development: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkin, Masha; Pimpin, Laura; Bellinger, David; Kranz, Sarah; Fawzi, Wafaie; Duggan, Christopher; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies link maternal seafood and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption with improved childhood cognitive development; trials show mixed results. We investigated effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on child cognitive and visual outcomes. We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed randomized controlled trials of n-3 PUFA supplementation in mothers or infants (age ≤2 y) and evaluated standardized measures of cognitive or visual development up to age 18 y. Of 6286 abstracts and 669 full-text articles, 38 trials with 53 intervention arms were included. Data were extracted independently in duplicate. Findings were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis across supplementation periods (maternal, preterm, term infant); we also explored subgroup analyses stratified by supplementation period. Heterogeneity was explored using I2, stratified analysis, and meta-regression. Cognitive development was assessed by Bayley Scales of Infant Development mental and psychomotor developmental indexes (MDI, PDI) and intelligence quotient (IQ); visual acuity was assessed by electrophysiological or behavioral measures. The 38 trials (mothers: n = 13; preterm infants: n = 7; term infants: n = 18) included 5541 participants. When we explored effects during different periods of supplementation, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI in preterm infants (3.33; 95% CI: 0.72, 5.93), without statistically significant effects on PDI or IQ in different intervention period subgroups. Visual acuity [measured as the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR)] was improved by supplementation in preterm (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.01 logMAR) and term infants (-0.08 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.05 logMAR), with a nonsignificant trend for maternal supplementation (-0.02 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.04, 0.00 logMAR). In main analyses pooling all supplementation periods, compared with placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation improved MDI (n = 21 trials; 0.91; 95% CI

  16. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  17. Immune dysfunction and increased oxidative stress state in diet-induced obese mice are reverted by nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsche, Caroline; Hernandez, Oskarina; Gheorghe, Alina; Díaz, Ligia Esperanza; Marcos, Ascensión; De la Fuente, Mónica

    2018-04-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired immune defences and chronic low levels of inflammation and oxidation. In addition, this condition may lead to premature aging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on several functions and oxidative stress parameters in peritoneal immune cells of obese mice, as well as on the life span of these animals. Obesity was induced in adult female ICR/CD1 by the administration of a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. During the last 6 weeks of HFD feeding, one group of obese mice received the same HFD, supplemented with 1500 mg of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2-OHOA) and another with 3000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Several functions and oxidative stress parameters of peritoneal leukocytes were evaluated. The groups of obese mice treated with 2-OHOA or with EPA and DHA showed a significant improvement in several functions such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, digestion capacity, Natural killer activity and lymphoproliferation in response to mitogens. All of these functions, which were decreased in obese mice, increased reaching similar levels to those found in non-obese controls. Both treatments also improved oxidative stress parameters such as xanthine oxidase activity, which decreased, catalase activity and glutathione levels, which increased. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could be an effective nutritional intervention to restore the immune response and oxidative stress state, which are impaired in obese mice.

  18. Protective effects of prescription n-3 fatty acids against impairment of spatial cognitive learning ability in amyloid β-infused rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Katakura, Masanori; Shahdat, Hossain; Haque, Abdul Md; Tanabe, Yoko; Gamoh, Shuji; Shido, Osamu

    2011-07-01

    Deposition of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) into the brain causes cognitive impairment. We investigated whether prescription pre-administration of n-3 fatty acids improves cognitive learning ability in young rats and whether it protects against learning ability impairments in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease that was prepared by infusion of Aβ(1-40) into the cerebral ventricles of rats. Pre-administration of TAK-085 (highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acids containing eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester) at 300 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 12 weeks significantly reduced the number of reference memory errors in an 8-arm radial maze, suggesting that long-term administration of TAK-085 improves cognitive leaning ability in rats. After pre-administration, the control group was divided into the vehicle and Aβ-infused groups, whereas the TAK-085 pre-administration group was divided into the TAK-085 and TAK-085 + Aβ groups (TAK-085-pre-administered Aβ-infused rats). Aβ(1-40) or vehicle was infused into the cerebral ventricle using a mini osmotic pump. Pre-administration of TAK-085 to the Aβ-infused rats significantly suppressed the number of reference and working memory errors and decreased the levels of lipid peroxide and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Aβ-infused rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. The present study suggests that long-term administration of TAK-085 is a possible therapeutic agent for protecting against Alzheimer's disease-induced learning deficiencies. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Seasonal variation in plasma nonesterified fatty acids of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) in the vicinity of hydroelectric facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.; Power, G.; Singer, T.D.; Ballantyne, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the effects of hydroelectric generation on the health of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), seasonal variations in plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) upstream and downstream from hydroelectric stations were measured over a 2-y period. Plasma NEFA profiles were also compared up- and downstream of the stations for differences in utilization of individual NEFA species as substrates for lipid oxidation. Significantly higher levels of total plasma NEFA were found in lake sturgeon upstream (2355 ± 395.9 nmole/ml) compared with those downstream (798 ± 133.5 nmole/ml) of the generating stations during the spring. The NEFA profiles for several key fatty acid species differed significantly among seasons up- and downstream of the facilities. In particular, during spring and summer, the levels of oleic acid (18:1n9) were highest upstream of the stations and levels of a polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3), were higher below rather than above the stations. The differences in plasma NEFA concentration may be attributed to altered nutritional status due to the varying flow regime located downstream of the hydroelectric stations. 33 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on Toll-like receptor activation in primary leucocytes from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnemo, Marianne; Kavaliauskis, Arturas; Andresen, Adriana Magalhaes Santos; Bou, Marta; Berge, Gerd Marit; Ruyter, Bente; Gjøen, Tor

    2017-08-01

    The shortage of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the international markets has led to increasing substitution of fish oil by plant oils in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed and thereby reducing the EPA and DHA content in salmon. However, the minimum required levels of these fatty acids in fish diets for securing fish health are unknown. Fish were fed with 0, 1 or 2% EPA or DHA alone or in combination of both over a period, growing from 50 to 400 g. Primary head kidney leucocytes were isolated and stimulated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to determine if EPA and DHA deficiency can affect expression of important immune genes and eicosanoid production. Several genes related to viral immune response did not vary between groups. However, there was a tendency that the high-level EPA and DHA groups expressed lower levels of IL-1β in non-stimulated leucocytes. These leucocytes were also more responsive to the TLR ligands, inducing higher expression levels of IL-1β and Mx1 after stimulation. The levels of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4 in serum and media from stimulated leucocytes were lower in both low and high EPA and DHA groups. In conclusion, leucocytes from low EPA and DHA groups seemed to be less responsive towards immunostimulants, like TLR ligands, indicating that low levels or absence of dietary EPA and DHA may have immunosuppressive effects.

  1. Validity of food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of long-term long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Alice; Di Giuseppe, Daniela; Burgaz, Ann; Håkansson, Niclas; Cederholm, Tommy; Michaëlsson, Karl; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate how long-term dietary intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs), estimated by repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) over 15 years, is correlated with LCn-3 PUFAs in adipose tissue (AT). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained in 2003-2004 (AT-03) from 239 randomly selected women, aged 55-75 years, after completion of a 96-item FFQ (FFQ-03). All participants had previously returned an identical FFQ in 1997 (FFQ-97) and a 67-item version in 1987-1990 (FFQ-87). Pearson product-moment correlations were used to evaluate associations between intake of total and individual LCn-3 PUFAs as estimated by the three FFQ assessments and AT-03 content (% of total fatty acids). FFQ-estimated mean relative intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (% of total fat intake) increased between all three assessments (FFQ-87, 0.55 ± 0.34; FFQ-97, 0.74 ± 0.64; FFQ-03, 0.88 ± 0.56). Validity, in terms of Pearson correlations between FFQ-03 estimates and AT-03 content, was 0.41 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) for total LCn-3 PUFA and ranged from 0.29 to 0.48 for individual fatty acids; lower correlation was observed among participants with higher percentage body fat. With regard to long-term intake estimates, past dietary intake was also correlated with AT-03 content, with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.21-0.33 and 0.21-0.34 for FFQ-97 and FFQ-87, respectively. The correlations were improved by using average estimates from two or more FFQ assessments. Exclusion of fish oil supplement users (14%) did not alter the correlations. These data indicate reasonable validity of FFQ-based estimates of long-term (up to 15 years) LCn-3 PUFA intake, justifying their use in studies of diet-disease associations.

  2. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids effects on inflammatory markers in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel C; Camargo, Carolina Q; Nunes, Everson Araujo; Fiates, Giovanna M R; Trindade, Erasmo B S M

    2016-04-01

    Cancer and inflammation are closely related and an exacerbated inflammatory process can lead to tumor progression and a worse prognosis for the patient with cancer. Scientific literature has shown evidence that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have anti-inflammatory action, and for this reason could be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of some cancers. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted until September, 2014, to evaluate the effects of n-3 PUFA on inflammatory mediators in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Clinical trials were systematically searched in three electronic databases and screening reference lists. Random meta-analysis model was used to calculate the overall and stratified effect sizes. Nine trials, representing 475 patients with CRC, evaluated effects of n-3 PUFA on cytokines (n = 6) and/or acute phase proteins (n = 5) levels. n-3 PUFA reduce the levels of IL-6 (SMD -2.34; 95% CI -4.37, -0.31; p = 0.024) and increase albumin (SMD 0.31; 95% CI 0.06, 0.56; p = 0.014) in overall analyses. In stratified analyses, reduction in IL-6 levels occurs in surgical patients that received 0.2 g/kg of fish oil parenterally at postoperative period (SMD -0.65; 95% CI -1.06, -0.24; p = 0.002), while, increase in albumin concentration occurs in surgical patients that received ≥ 2.5 g/d of EPA + DHA orally at preoperative period (SMD 0.34; 95% CI 0.02, 0.66; p = 0.038). In patients undergoing chemotherapy, the supplementation of 0.6 g/d of EPA + DHA during 9 week reduces CRP levels (SMD -0.95; 95% CI -1.73, -0.17; p = 0.017), and CRP/albumin ratio (SMD -0.95; 95% CI -1.73, -0.18; p = 0.016). The results suggest benefits on some inflammatory mediators with the use of n-3 PUFA on CRC patients, but these benefits are specific to certain supplementation protocols involving duration, dose and route of administration, and also, the concomitant anti-cancer treatment adopted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and

  5. Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin

    2008-01-01

    With the unsatisfaction of monoamine-based pharmacotherapy and the high comorbidity of other medical illness in depression, the serotonin hypothesis seems to fail in approaching the aetiology of depression. Based upon the evidence from epidemiological data, case-control studies of phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in human tissues, and antidepressant effect in clinical trials, PUFAs have shed a light to discover the unsolved of depression and connect the mind and body. Briefly, the deficit of n-3 PUFAs has been reported to be associated with neurological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases and cancers. Recent studies revealed that the deficit of n-3 PUFAs is also associated with depression. For example, societies that consume a small amount of omega-3 PUFAs appear to have a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder. In addition, depressive patients had showed a lower level of omega-3 PUFAs; and the antidepressant effect of PUFAs had been reported in a number of clinical trials. The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not synthesized in human body and can only be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish. DHA deficit is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression. On the other hand, EPA is important in balancing the immune function and physical healthy by reducing arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA) level on cell membrane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Interestingly, animals fed with high AA diet or treated with PGE2 were observed to present sickness behaviours of anorexia, low activity, change in sleep pattern and attention, which are similar to somatic symptoms of depression in

  6. Effects of Ramadan fasting on plasma free fatty acids in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mostafa Arabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a global disease which its prevalence is about 10-35%. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fasting during Ramadan on plasma free fatty acids in patients with NAFLD.Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed during the month of Ramadan in June-July, 2014 (Islamic year: 1435 with 50 patients who were living in Mashhad, Iran. The participants were recruited from 18-65 years old patients. The inclusion criteria were 1 patients with NAFLD that diagnosed fatty liver by ultrasonography and 2 being at least 10 hours fasting. Levels of plasma free fatty acids (Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acid were analyzed in blood sample of all patients by gas chromatography apparatus equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID.Result: results indicated that there was no significant changes were observed in plasma levels of Palmitic, Elaidic and Oleic fatty acids in overweight patients (BMI 25-30 , but plasma levels of Elaidic acid significantly increased in obese patients (P

  7. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    OpenAIRE

    Anna A. De Boer; Jennifer M. Monk; Jennifer M. Monk; Danyelle M. Liddle; Krista A. Power; David W.L. Ma; Lindsay E. Robinson

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an es...

  8. A fish protein hydrolysate alters fatty acid composition in liver and adipose tissue and increases plasma carnitine levels in a mouse model of chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Berge, Christ; Ramsvik, Marie Sannes; Svardal, Asbjørn; Bohov, Pavol; Skorve, Jon; Berge, Rolf K

    2013-10-07

    There is growing evidence that fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) diets affect mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in animals. The aim of the study was to determine if FPH could influence fatty acid metabolism and inflammation in transgene mice expressing human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNFα). hTNFα mice (C57BL/6 hTNFα) were given a high-fat (23%, w/w) diet containing 20% casein (control group) or 15% FPH and 5% casein (FPH group) for two weeks. After an overnight fast, blood, adipose tissue, and liver samples were collected. Gene expression and enzyme activity was analysed in liver, fatty acid composition was analyzed in liver and ovarian white adipose tissue, and inflammatory parameters, carnitine, and acylcarnitines were analyzed in plasma. The n-3/n-6 fatty acid ratio was higher in mice fed the FPH diet than in mice fed the control diet in both adipose tissue and liver, and the FPH diet affected the gene expression of ∆6 and ∆9 desaturases. Mice fed this diet also demonstrated lower hepatic activity of fatty acid synthase. Concomitantly, a lower plasma INF-γ level was observed. Plasma carnitine and the carnitine precursor γ-butyrobetaine was higher in the FPH-group compared to control, as was plasma short-chained and medium-chained acylcarnitine esters. The higher level of plasma acetylcarnitine may reflect a stimulated mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids, as the hepatic activities of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase 1 and mitochondrial carnitine palmitoyltransferase-II were higher in the FPH-fed mice. The FPH diet was shown to influence hepatic fatty acid metabolism and fatty acid composition. This indicates that effects on fatty acid metabolism are important for the bioactivity of protein hydrolysates of marine origin.

  9. Beneficial effects of enrichment of chicken meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and selenium on health parameters: a study on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczka, P; Rozbicka-Wieczorek, A J; Czauderna, M; Smulikowska, S

    2017-08-01

    Consumption of chicken meat enriched with bioactive compounds such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAn-3), vitamin E (vE) and selenium (Se) can help prevent many diseases and can be used to deliver those substances to humans. This might be of importance as chicken meat consumption is increasing worldwide. The effects of enriching chicken meat with PUFAn-3, vE and Se through dietary interventions were studied in rats. Four groups of Ross 308 female broilers from day 22 to day 35 of age were fed control diet (L) that contained lard and 80 mg vE and 0.3 mg Se/kg, or diets that contained rape seeds and fish oil with the same level of Se and vE as in the control diet, the same level of Se as in the control and 150 mg vE/kg, or 150 mg of vE and 0.7 mg Se/kg. Broiler carcasses were boiled, deboned, lyophilized and pooled by group. Boiled edible components of chicken carcass (BECC) were included (240 g/kg) in the diets fed to four groups of ten 10-week-old Wistar male rats for 8 weeks. Inclusion of BECCs modulated dietary fatty acid profile in the rat diets. Feeding these diets did not influence parameters related to growth or relative weights of internal organs in the rats. Feeding BECCs with lower PUFAn-6/n-3 decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the rat brain and liver, and increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain lipids. Liver cholesterol level was similar among the experimental groups, whereas the concentration of vE in the liver of rats fed BECC with increased vE levels was higher than that in the rats fed BECC with the basal vE level. Haematological and biochemical parameters in blood were within the normal range for rats, but a few rats showed a tendency towards increased levels because of the higher vE and Se level. The health-promoting effect of feeding rats PUFAn-3 enriched BECC was more pronounced when an increased dietary level of vE was used, but the increased level of Se did not provide the rats with additional benefits. Thus, the

  10. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Pegolo

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet. The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography. In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy

  11. Alternation of plasma fatty acids composition and desaturase activities in children with liver steatosis.

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    Man-Chin Hua

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate changes in plasma fatty acids proportions and estimated desaturase activities for variable grading of liver steatosis in children.In total, 111 schoolchildren (aged 8-18 years were included in the analysis from March 2015 to August 2016. Anthropometric evaluation, liver ultrasound examination and scoring for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD score = 0-6, and biochemical and plasma fatty acids analysis were performed. We compared the composition ratio of fatty acids between children with high-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 4-6, low-grade liver steatosis (NAFLD score = 1-3, and healthy controls (NAFLD score = 0. In addition, correlation coefficients (r between NAFLD score, metabolic variables, and estimated activity of desaturase indices (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD1, delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase were calculated.Compared with healthy controls, children with liver steatosis showed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (21.16 ± 2.81% vs. 19.68 ± 2.71%, p = 0.024. In addition, children with high- grade liver steatosis exhibited higher proportions of palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1n-7, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6, adrenic acid (C22:4n-6, and docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n-6; and lower proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3 (P< 0.05. In all subjects, the NAFLD score was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI (kg/m2 (r = 0.696, homeostasis model of assessment ratio-index (HOMA-IR (r = 0.510, SCD1(16 (r = 0.273, and the delta-6 index (r = 0.494; and inversely associated with the delta-5 index (r = -0.443.Our current data suggested that children with liver steatosis was highly associated with obesity, and insulin resistance. In addition, increased endogenous lipogenesis through altered desaturase activity may contribute to the progression of liver steatosis in children.

  12. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Olívia RC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma. Quantification of fatty acids in the total lipids of the sample groups was performed through the use of gas-liquid chromatography. Results The maternal and umbilical cord plasma of the adolescents showed a greater concentration of AA than did that of the adults (P  Conclusions This suggests that in situations of greater nutritional risk, as in adolescent pregnancy, n-3PUFA concentrations have a greater influence on the proper development of newborns. Moreover, variations in fatty acid concentrations in the maternal and cord plasma of adolescents and adults may indicate that pregnancy affects the LC-PUFA status of adults and adolescents in distinct ways.

  13. Dietary Alfalfa and Calcium Salts of Long-Chain Fatty Acids Alter Protein Utilization, Microbial Populations, and Plasma Fatty Acid Profile in Holstein Freemartin Heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Qiu, Qinghua; Shao, Taoqi; Niu, Wenjing; Xia, Chuanqi; Wang, Haibo; Li, Qianwen; Gao, Zhibiao; Yu, Zhantao; Su, Huawei; Cao, Binghai

    2017-12-20

    This study presented the effects of alfalfa and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CSFA) on feed intake, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial community, plasma biochemical parameters, and fatty acid profile in Holstein freemartin heifers. Eight Holstein freemartin heifers were randomly divided into a 4 × 4 Latin Square experiment with 2 × 2 factorial diets, with or without alfalfa or CSFA. Dietary supplementation of CSFA significantly increased the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, organic matter, and significantly reduced N retention (P fatty acids in the plasma, which was expressed in reducing saturated fatty acid (ΣSFA) ratio and C14-C17 fatty acids proportion except C16:0 (P fatty acid (ΣPUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (ΣUFA) (P fatty acids in plasma. Alfalfa and CSFA had mutual interaction effect on fat digestion and plasma triglycerides.

  14. 不同智力水平人群n-3 PUFAs差异及膳食补充对体内脂肪酸组成的影响研究%Differences of fatty acid composition between children with high and low intelligence quotient and the influence of dietary supply of n-3 fatty adds on children with tow intelligence quotient in Yuyao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷婷; 彭咏梅; 王艳艳; 马丽萍; 元冬娟; 康景轩

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究高智商(IQ>135)与低智商(IQ135的学生两组,采集静脉血分析其脂肪酸组成.采用随机对照研究方法,将IQ135的学生其体内花生四稀酸(arachidonic acid,AA)、二十碳五烯酸(eicosapentaenoic acid,EPA)、二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid,DHA)以及n-3 PUFAs水平明显高于IQ<90的学生(P<0.001或<0.05);而亚油酸(linoleic acid,LA)水平以及n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例明显低于IQ<90的学生(P<0.05或<0.01).同时,在对IQ<90的学生补充富含n-3PUFAs的食物后,其体内脂肪酸组成也发生显著变化,表现为:α-亚麻酸(α-linolenic acid,ALA)、EPA、DHA以及n-3 PUFAs水平显著提高(P<0.05或<0.001),而n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例明显下降(P<0.001).[结论]智商高的学生体内AA及DHA水平较高而n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例较低.同时,对智商低的学生补充n-3 PUFAs可以改变其体内的脂肪酸组成,使其更为接近高智商学生体内的脂肪酸组成.%[Objective] To investigate the differences of fatty acid(FA) composition between children with high(>135) and low(<90) intelligence quotient(IQ) and the influence of dietary supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs) on children with low IQ(<90) in Yuyao. [Methods] In two common primary schools of Yuyao, students from Grade two to Grade five were selected to two groups (IQ > 135 and IQ < 90) by intelligence test (Combined Raven Test,CRT). Their blood were collected and the FA composition was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. In the IQ<90 group, students were randomly assigned to receive either control food or food supplemented with n-3 PUFAs according to the randomized controlled trial(RCT) rules. Data of fatty acid composition were collected before and after the dietary supplementation. [Results] There were significant differences of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids(LC-PUFAs)composition in these students with high and low intelligence quotient. Among students with high lQ, arachidonic acid (AA

  15. Food sources and intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in low-income countries with emphasis on infants, young children (6-24 months), and pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim F; Dewey, Kathryn G; Perez-Exposito, Ana B; Nurhasan, Mulia; Lauritzen, Lotte; Roos, Nanna

    2011-04-01

    With increasing interest in the potential effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in early life, there is a need for data on the dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in low-income countries. This review compiles information on the content in breast milk and in foods that are important in the diets of low-income countries from the few studies available. We also estimate the availability of fat and fatty acids in 13 low-income and middle-income countries based on national food balance sheets from the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FOASTAT). Breast milk docosahexaenoic acid content is very low in populations living mainly on a plant-based diet, but higher in fish-eating countries. Per capita supply of fat and n-3 fatty acids increases markedly with increasing gross domestic product (GDP). In most of the 13 countries, 70-80% of the supply of PUFA comes from cereals and vegetable oils, some of which have very low α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. The total n-3 fatty acid supply is below or close to the lower end of the recommended intake range [0.4%E (percentage of energy supply)] for infants and young children, and below the minimum recommended level (0.5%E) for pregnant and lactating women in the nine countries with the lowest GDP. Fish is important as a source of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but intake is low in many countries. The supply of n-3 fatty acids can be increased by using vegetable oils with higher ALA content (e.g. soybean or rapeseed oil) and by increasing fish production (e.g. through fish farming). © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Exposure to DEHP decreased four fatty acid levels in plasma of prepartum mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Yumi; Khalequzzaman, Md.; Jia, Xiaofang; Wang, Dong; Naito, Hisao; Ito, Yuki; Kamijima, Michihiro; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Nakajima, Tamie

    2013-01-01

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) decreased the plasma triglyceride in prepartum mice. To identify the fatty acid (FA) species involved and to understand the underlying mechanisms, pregnant Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-null (Pparα-null) and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% or 0.1% DEHP. Dams were dissected on gestational day 18 together with fetuses, and on postnatal day 2 together with newborns. n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated FAs in maternal plasma and in liver of wild-type offspring, and representative enzymes for FA desaturation and elongation in maternal liver, were measured. The plasma levels of linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were higher in the pregnant control mPPARa mice than in Ppara-null and hPPARa mice. DEHP exposure significantly decreased the levels of these four FAs only in pregnant mPPARα mice. Plasma levels of many FAs were higher in pregnant mice than in postpartum ones in a genotype-independent manner, while it was lower in the livers of fetuses than pups. DEHP exposure slightly increased hepatic arachidonic acid, α-linolenic acid, palmitoleic acid and oleic acid in fetuses, but not in pups. However, DEHP exposure did not clearly influence FA desaturase 1 and 2 nor elongase 2 and 5 expressions in the liver of all maternal mice. Taken together, the levels of plasma four FAs with shorter carbon chains were higher in pregnant mPPARα mice than in other genotypes, and DEHP exposure decreased these specific FA concentrations only in mPPARα mice, similarly to triglyceride levels

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association between dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, D; Väisänen, S B; Bouchard, C; Halle, M; Lakka, T A; Baumstark, M W; Alen, M; Berg, A; Rauramaa, R

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relation between (1) cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and (2) the interactions between cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary fat intake and plasma fatty acid composition. Cross-sectional analysis. The subjects were randomly selected, 127 middle-aged Finnish men participating in the DNASCO exercise intervention study. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined spiroergometrically, dietary intake of macro- and micronutrients by 4-day food records and plasma fatty acids by gas chromatography. The subjects were divided into tertiles of aerobic fitness. Differences between fitness tertiles were not observed for dietary intake of total fat, and saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids (percent of total energy). In contrast, plasma saturated fatty acids were significantly lower (P cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with different levels in plasma saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lead to modifications in the association between dietary and plasma fatty acids. These findings can perhaps be explained by a reduced hepatic fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis as well as by an enhanced muscular lipid utilization, which are commonly seen in those who are physically active and who exhibit a higher level of fitness.

  18. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  19. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  20. Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C; Harwood, John L; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50μM). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in

  1. Early infant adipose deposition is positively associated with the n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratio in human milk independent of maternal BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M C; Young, B E; Lemas, D J; Palmer, C E; Hernandez, T L; Barbour, L A; Friedman, J E; Krebs, N F; MacLean, P S

    2017-04-01

    Excessive infant weight gain in the first 6-month of life is a powerful predictor of childhood obesity and related health risks. In mice, omega-6 fatty acids (FAs) serve as potent ligands driving adipogenesis during early development. The ratio of omega-6 relative to omega-3 (n-6/n-3) FA in human milk (HM) has increased threefold over the last 30 years, but the impact of this shift on infant adipose development remains undetermined. This study investigated how maternal obesity and maternal dietary FA (as reflected in maternal red blood cells (RBCs) composition) influenced HM n-6 and n-3 FAs, and whether the HM n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with changes in infant adipose deposition between 2 weeks and 4 months postpartum. Forty-eight infants from normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB) mothers were exclusively or predominantly breastfed over the first 4 months of lactation. Mid-feed HM and maternal RBC were collected at either transitional (2 weeks) or established (4 months) lactation, along with infant body composition assessed using air-displacement plethysmography. The FA composition of HM and maternal RBC was measured quantitatively by lipid mass spectrometry. In transitional and established HM, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was lower (P=0.008; 0.005) and the arachidonic acid (AA)/DHA+eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio was higher (P=0.05; 0.02) in the OB relative to the NW group. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and AA/DHA+EPA ratios in transitional and established HM were moderately correlated (P=0.018; 0.001). Total infant fat mass was increased in the upper AA/DHA+EPA tertile of established HM relative to the lower tertile (P=0.019). The amount of changes in infant fat mass and percentage of body fat were predicted by AA/EPA+DHA ratios in established HM (P=0.038; 0.010). Perinatal infant exposures to a high AA/EPA+DHA ratio during the first 4 months of life, which is primarily reflective of maternal dietary FA, may significantly contribute to

  2. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Stewart, Michael S; de la Houssaye, Becky A; Janssen, Rachel C; Friedman, Jacob E

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (Pmaternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, Pmaternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (Pmaternal inflammation may be a promising target for preventing adverse fetal metabolic outcomes in pregnancies complicated by maternal obesity.

  3. Low dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids, niacin, folate, and vitamin C in Korean patients with schizophrenia and the development of dietary guidelines for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jin; Lim, So Young; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seunggi; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Yang, Soo Jin; Kim, Sung-Wan

    2017-09-01

    Inappropriate dietary intake and poor nutritional status are reported to be associated with metabolic syndrome and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. We hypothesized that inappropriate dietary habits and insufficient dietary intake of specific nutrients are associated with schizophrenia. To test the hypothesis, we assessed the dietary habits and nutritional intake of patients with schizophrenia and then developed suitable dietary guidelines. In total, 140 subjects (73 controls and 67 patients with schizophrenia from community mental health centers) were included, and dietary intakes were analyzed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. As a result, the proportion of overweight or obese patients was significantly higher in schizophrenia subjects (64.2%) compared with control subjects (39.7%) (P=.004). The male schizophrenia patients had significantly lower dietary intakes of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), vitamin K, niacin, folate, and vitamin C than the male control subjects. In all multiple logistic regression models, subjects with the "low" dietary intake of protein, n-3 PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C had a significantly higher odds ratios for schizophrenia compared with those with the "high" dietary intake category of each nutrient. Therefore, maintenance of a healthy body weight and sufficient dietary intake of protein, PUFAs, niacin, folate, and vitamin C are recommended for Korean patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (n-3) Fatty acid content of red blood cells does not predict risk of future cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsetoey, Hildegunn; Pönitz, Volker; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Harris, William S; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2009-03-01

    A reduced risk of fatal coronary artery disease has been associated with a high intake of (n-3) fatty acids (FA) and a direct cardioprotective effect by their incorporation into myocardial cells has been suggested. Based on these observations, the omega-3 index (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid in cell membranes of RBC expressed as percent of total FA) has been suggested as a new risk marker for cardiac death. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the omega-3 index as a prognostic risk marker following hospitalization with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The omega-3 index was measured at admission in 460 patients with an ACS as defined by Troponin-T (TnT) > or = 0.02 microg/L. During a 2-y follow-up, recurrent myocardial infarctions (MI) (defined as TnT > 0.05 microg/L with a typical MI presentation) and cardiac and all-cause mortality were registered. Cox regression analyses were used to relate the risk of new events to the quartiles of the omega-3 index at inclusion. After correction for age, sex, previous heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol, homocysteine, BMI, and medication, there was no significant reduction in risk for all-cause mortality, cardiac death, or MI with increasing values of the index. In conclusion, we could not confirm the omega-3 index as a useful prognostic risk marker following an ACS.

  5. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: Design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Katan, M.B.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  6. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Schouten, Evert G.; de Goede, Janette; Oude Griep, Linda M.; Teitsma-Jansen, Anna M.; Katan, Martijn B.; Kromhout, Daan; Kromhout, D.; Schouten, E. G.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Giltay, E. J.; de Goede, J.; Oude Griep, L. M.; Mulder, B. J. M.; Mulder, J. W.; Zock, P. L.; de Boer, M. J.; de Leeuw, H.; Boersma, E.; Jukema, J. W.; van Binsbergen, J. J.; van der Kuip, D. A. M.; Thomas, K.; Rivero-Ayerza, M.; Vollaard, A. M.; Fieren, C. J.; van Kempen, L. H. J.; Bakx, A.; Sedney, M. I.; Hertzberger, D. P.; Michels, H. R.; de Rotte, A. A.; van Rugge, R. P.; Klootwijk, A.; Verheul, J. A.; Nicastia, D. M.; Robles de Medina, R.; van Rossem, M.; Leenders, C. M.; van der Meer, P.; Uppal, S. C.; Blok, J. G.; Visser, R. F.; Mosterd, A.; Umans, V. A.; Reichert, C. L. A.; Louwerenburg, J. W.; Liem, A. H.; van Rees, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  7. Effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diets on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral compartments of female rat liver lobules and the consequences for cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a low fat diet or diets enriched with either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower or fish oil, respectively) on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral zones of female rat liver lobules were investigated in relation with cell proliferation after partial

  8. Determining the fatty acid composition in plasma and tissues as fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography – a comparison of different derivatization and extraction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Annika I; Müller, Maike; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of the fatty acid (FA) composition in biological samples is commonly carried out using gas liquid chromatography (GC) after transesterification to volatile FA methyl esters (FAME). We compared the efficacy of six frequently used protocols for derivatization of different lipid classes as well as for plasma and tissue samples. Transesterification with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH) led to insufficient derivatization efficacies for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA, ester (CE) as well as triacylglycerols (TGs). In contrast, methanolic hydrochloric acid (HCl) as well as a combination of BF3 with methanolic sodium hydroxide (NaOH+BF3) were suitable for the derivatization of FFAs, polar lipids, TGs, and CEs (derivatization rate >80% for all tested lipids). Regarding plasma samples, all methods led to an overall similar relative FA pattern. However, significant differences were observed, for example, for the relative amount of EPA+DHA (n3-index). Absolute FA plasma concentrations differed considerably among the methods, with low yields for KOH and BF3. We also demonstrate that lipid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether/methanol (MTBE/MeOH) is as efficient as the classical method according to Bligh and Dyer, making it possible to replace (environmentally) toxic chloroform.We conclude that HCl-catalyzed derivatization in combination with MeOH/MTBE extraction is the most appropriate among the methods tested for the analysis of FA concentrations and FA pattern in small biological samples. A detailed protocol for the analysis of plasma and tissues is included in this article.

  9. Simultaneous analysis of plasma free fatty acids and their 3-hydroxy analogs in fatty acid beta-oxidation disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, C. G.; Dorland, L.; Holwerda, U.; de Almeida, I. T.; Poll-The, B. T.; Jakobs, C.; Duran, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a new derivatization procedure for the simultaneous gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of free fatty acids and 3-hydroxyfatty acids in plasma. Derivatization of target compounds involved trifluoroacetylation of hydroxyl groups and tert-butyldimethylsilylation of the carboxyl

  10. [The profile of plasma non-esterified fatty acids in children with different terms of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmurzina, V A; Petryairina, E E; Saveliev, S V; Selishcheva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Composition and quantitative content of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were investigated in plasma samples of healthy children (12) and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (31) by gas chromatography (GC) after preliminary NEFA solid-phase extraction from plasma lipids. There was a significant (p<0.001) 1.6-fold increase in the total level of NEFA regardless of the disease duration. In the group of DM1 children with the disease period less than 1 year there was an increase in the arachidonic acid (20:4) content (30%) and the oleic acid trans-isomer (18:1) content (82%), and also a decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3) content (26% ) and the docosapentaenoic acids (22:5 n-6) content (60%). In the group of DM1 children with prolonged course of this disease the altered NEFA levels returned to the normal level.

  11. Establishment of the fatty acid profile of the brain of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) at hatch: effects of a yolk that is naturally rich in n-3 polyunsaturates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speake, Brian K; Decrock, Frederic; Surai, Peter F; Wood, Nicholas A R; Groscolas, René

    2003-01-01

    Because the yolk lipids of the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) contain the highest concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids yet reported for an avian species, the consequences for the establishment of the brain's fatty acid profile in the embryo were investigated. To place the results in context, the fatty acid compositions of yolk lipid and brain phospholipid of the king penguin were compared with those from three other species of free-living birds. The proportions of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) in the total lipid of the initial yolks for the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and king penguin were (% w/w of fatty acids) 1.0+/-0.1, 1.9+/-0.2, 3.3+/-0.1, and 5.9+/-0.2, respectively. The respective concentrations of DHA (% w/w of phospholipid fatty acids) in brains of the newly hatched chicks of these same species were 18.5+/-0.2, 19.6+/-0.7, 16.9+/-0.4, and 17.6+/-0.1. Thus, the natural interspecies diversity in yolk fatty acid profiles does not necessarily produce major differences in the DHA content of the developing brain. Only about 1% of the amount of DHA initially present in the yolk was recovered in the brain of the penguin at hatch. There was no preferential uptake of DHA from the yolk during development of the king penguin.

  12. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Thatiana J P; Farias, Dayana R; Rebelo, Fernanda; Lepsch, Jaqueline; Vaz, Juliana S; Moreira, Júlia D; Cunha, Geraldo M; Kac, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes. A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models. The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA) and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio. Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  13. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

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    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  14. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpma, Anne; Meulenbroek, Olga; van Hees, Anneke M J; Sijben, John W C; Vellas, Bruno; Shah, Raj C; Bennett, David A; Scheltens, Philip; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of uridine, selenium, vitamins B12, E and C, folate, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to be lower in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) than in healthy individuals. These low levels may affect disease pathways involved in synapse formation and neural functioning. Here, we investigated whether, and to what extent, circulating levels of micronutrients and fatty acids can be affected by oral supplementation with Souvenaid (containing a specific nutrient combination), using data derived from three randomized clinical trials (RCT) and an open-label extension (OLE) study with follow-up data from 12 to 48 weeks. Subjects with mild (RCT1, RCT2) or mild-to-moderate AD (RCT3) received active or control product once daily for 12-24 weeks or active product during the 24-week OLE following RCT2 (n = 212-527). Measurements included plasma levels of B vitamins, choline, vitamin E, selenium, uridine and homocysteine and proportions of DHA, EPA and total n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes. Between-group comparisons were made using t tests or non-parametric alternatives. We found that 12-24-week active product intake increased plasma and/or erythrocyte micronutrients: uridine; choline; selenium; folate; vitamins B6, B12 and E; and fatty acid levels of DHA and EPA (all p Souvenaid. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the effects of sustained dietary intake of uridine monophosphate on plasma uridine levels in humans. Uptake of nutrients is observed within 6 weeks, and a plateau phase is reached for most nutrients during prolonged intake, thus increasing the availability of precursors and cofactors in the circulation that may be used for the formation and function of neuronal membranes and synapses in the brain.

  15. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

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    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic

  16. Long-chain n-3 PUFA supplied by the usual diet decrease plasma stearoyl-CoA desaturase index in non-hypertriglyceridemic older adults at high vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Mayneris-Perxachs, Jordi; Cofán, Montserrat; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Castellote, Ana I; López-Sabater, Carmen; Fitó, Montserrat; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel-Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Sala-Vila, Aleix

    2018-02-01

    The activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), the central enzyme in the synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), has been associated with de novo lipogenesis. In experimental models SCD1 is down-regulated by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), but clinical studies are scarce. The effect of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCn-3PUFA) supplied by the regular diet, in the absence of fatty fish or fish oil supplementation, remains to be explored. We related 1-y changes in plasma SCD1 index, as assessed by the C16:1n-7/C16:0 ratio, to both adiposity traits and nutrient intake changes in a sub-cohort (n = 243) of non-hypertriglyceridemic subjects of the PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterranea) trial. After adjustment for confounders, including changes in fasting triglycerides, plasma SCD1 index increased in parallel with body weight (0.221 [95% confidence interval, 0.021 to 0.422], P = 0.031) and BMI (0.115 [0.027 to 0.202], P = 0.011). Additionally, dietary LCn-3PUFA (but not MUFA or plant-derived PUFA) were associated with decreased plasma SCD1 index (-0.544 [-1.044 to -0.043], P = 0.033, for each 1 g/d-increase in LCn-3PUFA). No associations were found for other food groups, but there was a trend for fatty fish intake (-0.083 [-0.177 to 0.012], P = 0.085, for each 10 g/d-increase). Our data add clinical evidence on the down-regulation of plasma SCD1 index by LCn-3PUFA in the context of realistic changes in fish consumption in the customary, non-supplemented diet. http://www.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modify phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and lipid synthesis from glucose in adipose tissue of rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Lisiane G; Rieger, Débora K; Hansen, Fernanda; Silveira, Simone L; Martins, Tiago L; Lulhier, Francisco; da Silva, Roselis S; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S; de Assis, Adriano M

    2013-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) have hypolipidemic effects and modulate intermediary metabolism to prevent or reverse insulin resistance in a way that is not completely elucidated. Here, effects of these fatty acids on the lipid profile, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity, lipid synthesis from glucose in epididymal adipose tissue (Ep-AT) and liver were investigated. Male rats were fed a high-sucrose diet (SU diet), containing either sunflower oil or a mixture of sunflower and fish oil (SU-FO diet), and the control group was fed a standard diet. After 13 weeks, liver, adipose tissue and blood were harvested and analysed. The dietary n-3 LCPUFAs prevented sucrose-induced increase in adiposity and serum free fat acids, serum and hepatic triacylglycerol and insulin levels. Furthermore, these n-3 LCPUFAs decreased lipid synthesis from glucose and increased PEPCK activity in the Ep-AT of rats fed the SU-FO diet compared to those fed the SU diet, besides reducing lipid synthesis from glucose in hepatic tissue. Thus, the inclusion of n-3 LCPUFAs in the diet may be beneficial for the prevention or attenuation of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, and for reducing the risk of related chronic diseases. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and

  19. Characterisation of (R-2-(2-Fluorobiphenyl-4-yl-N-(3-Methylpyridin-2-ylPropanamide as a Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor.

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    Sandra Gouveia-Figueira

    Full Text Available Increased endocannabinoid tonus by dual-action fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH and substrate selective cyclooxygenase (COX-2 inhibitors is a promising approach for pain-relief. One such compound with this profile is 2-(2-fluorobiphenyl-4-yl-N-(3-methylpyridin-2-ylpropanamide (Flu-AM1. These activities are shown by Flu-AM1 racemate, but it is not known whether its two single enantiomers behave differently, as is the case towards COX-2 for the parent flurbiprofen enantiomers. Further, the effects of the compound upon COX-2-derived lipids in intact cells are not known.COX inhibition was determined using an oxygraphic method with arachidonic acid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG as substrates. FAAH was assayed in mouse brain homogenates using anandamide (AEA as substrate. Lipidomic analysis was conducted in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Both enantiomers inhibited COX-2 in a substrate-selective and time-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the absence of a preincubation phase of: (R-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid 6 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid 20 μM; COX-2 (2-AG 1 μM; (S-Flu-AM1, COX-1 (arachidonic acid 3 μM; COX-2 (arachidonic acid 10 μM; COX-2 (2-AG 0.7 μM. The compounds showed no enantiomeric selectivity in their FAAH inhibitory properties. (R-Flu-AM1 (10 μM greatly inhibited the production of prostaglandin D2 and E2 in both unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Levels of 2-AG were not affected either by (R-Flu-AM1 or by 10 μM flurbiprofen, either alone or in combination with the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (1 μM.Both enantiomers of Flu-AM1 are more potent inhibitors of 2-AG compared to arachidonic acid oxygenation by COX-2. Inhibition of COX in lipopolysaccharide + interferon γ- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells is insufficient to affect 2-AG levels despite the large induction of COX-2 produced by this treatment.

  20. Transgenic increase in N-3/n-6 Fatty Acid ratio reduces maternal obesity-associated inflammation and limits adverse developmental programming in mice.

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    Margaret J R Heerwagen

    Full Text Available Maternal and pediatric obesity has risen dramatically over recent years, and is a known predictor of adverse long-term metabolic outcomes in offspring. However, which particular aspects of obese pregnancy promote such outcomes is less clear. While maternal obesity increases both maternal and placental inflammation, it is still unknown whether this is a dominant mechanism in fetal metabolic programming. In this study, we utilized the Fat-1 transgenic mouse to test whether increasing the maternal n-3/n-6 tissue fatty acid ratio could reduce the consequences of maternal obesity-associated inflammation and thereby mitigate downstream developmental programming. Eight-week-old WT or hemizygous Fat-1 C57BL/6J female mice were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD for 8 weeks prior to mating with WT chow-fed males. Only WT offspring from Fat-1 mothers were analyzed. WT-HFD mothers demonstrated increased markers of infiltrating adipose tissue macrophages (P<0.02, and a striking increase in 12 serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (P<0.05, while Fat1-HFD mothers remained similar to WT-CD mothers, despite equal weight gain. E18.5 Fetuses from WT-HFD mothers had larger placentas (P<0.02, as well as increased placenta and fetal liver TG deposition (P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively and increased placental LPL TG-hydrolase activity (P<0.02, which correlated with degree of maternal insulin resistance (r = 0.59, P<0.02. The placentas and fetal livers from Fat1-HFD mothers were protected from this excess placental growth and fetal-placental lipid deposition. Importantly, maternal protection from excess inflammation corresponded with improved metabolic outcomes in adult WT offspring. While the offspring from WT-HFD mothers weaned onto CD demonstrated increased weight gain (P<0.05, body and liver fat (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively, and whole body insulin resistance (P<0.05, these were prevented in WT offspring from Fat1-HFD mothers. Our results

  1. Efeito dos ácidos graxos n-3 e n-6 na expressão de genes do metabolismo de lipídeos e risco de aterosclerose Effects of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in the lipid metabolism and risk of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fonseca Raposo

    2010-10-01

    mortality in Western populations. Roughly 17.5 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2005, representing 30% of the causes of death in that year, and in 2015, another 20 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases around the world. The n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain n-3 found in fish, have been shown to be particularly effective in the prevention and treatment of diseases such as dyslipidemias, diabetes mellitus and obesity, presenting an important cardioprotective effect. In this context, studies have found that at least some of the cardiovascular benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids regard the modulation of genes that respond to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors involved in lipid metabolism. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms of action of some n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on the metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins. In conclusion, many aspects that contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases are affected by n-3 intake. N-3 fatty acids not only reduce triglycerides, but also promote factors that increase adiponectin, reduce blood cholesterol levels and improve the reverse cholesterol transport, and all of these contribute to reducing the risk of atherosclerosis. However, additional studies are still necessary to elucidate all the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the cardioprotective effect of n-3 fatty acids.

  2. Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilby, T R; Sozzi, A; Lopez, M M; Silvestre, F T; Ealy, A D; Staples, C R; Thatcher, W W

    2006-09-01

    The objective was to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST), pregnancy, and dietary fatty acids on reproductive responses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning at approximately 17 d in milk (DIM), a comparison was made of isoenergetic diets comprising supplementary lipids of whole cottonseed vs. calcium salts of fish oil enriched lipid (FO). Ovulation was synchronized in cows with a presynchronization plus Ovsynch protocol, and cows were inseminated artificially by appointment or not inseminated (d 0 = time of synchronized ovulation; 77 +/- 12 DIM). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST. All cows were slaughtered on d 17. Number of cows in each group was as follows: control diet had 5 bST-treated cyclic (bST-C), 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-C), 4 bST-treated pregnant (bST-P), and 5 non-bST-treated pregnant (no bST-P) cows; and cyclic cows fed FO diet had 4 bST-treated (bST-FO) and 5 non-bST-treated cyclic (no bST-FO-C) cows. Feeding FO increased milk production, number of class 1 follicles (2 to 5 mm), and decreased insulin during the period before d 0 compared with control-fed cows. The bST increased milk production, pregnancy rate [83% (5/6) vs. 40% (4/10)], conceptus length (45 vs. 34 cm), and interferon-tau in the uterine luminal flushings (9.4 vs. 5.3 microg) with no effect on interferon-tau mRNA concentration in the conceptus. Treatment with bST increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. Among control-fed cows (cyclic and pregnant), bST decreased progesterone concentration in plasma. Cows fed FO had less plasma insulin than control-fed cyclic cows, and FO altered the plasma GH (bST-FO > bST-C) and IGF-I (bST-C > bST-FO-C) responses to bST injections. Endometrial IGF-I mRNA was reduced in pregnant cows and tended to decrease in those fed FO. The IGF-II mRNA was increased in the endometrium of pregnant and bST-treated cows fed the control diet. Cows fed FO had increased concentrations of IGF-II mRNA, when b

  3. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard-Mercier, Annie; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG) response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208) participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA). Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187) and ACOX1 (rs17583163) genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation. PMID:24647074

  4. Polymorphisms in Genes Involved in Fatty Acid β-Oxidation Interact with Dietary Fat Intakes to Modulate the Plasma TG Response to a Fish Oil Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Bouchard-Mercier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large inter-individual variability in the plasma triglyceride (TG response to an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA supplementation has been observed. The objective was to examine gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response after a fish oil supplementation, between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes. Two hundred and eight (208 participants were recruited in the greater Quebec City area. The participants completed a six-week fish oil supplementation (5 g fish oil/day: 1.9–2.2 g EPA and 1.1 g DHA. Dietary fat intakes were measured using three-day food records. SNPs within RXRA, CPT1A, ACADVL, ACAA2, ABCD2, ACOX1 and ACAA1 genes were genotyped using TAQMAN methodology. Gene-diet interaction effects on the plasma TG response were observed for SNPs within RXRA (rs11185660, rs10881576 and rs12339187 and ACOX1 (rs17583163 genes. For rs11185660, fold changes in RXRA gene expression levels were different depending on SFA intakes for homozygotes T/T. Gene-diet interaction effects of SNPs within genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation and dietary fat intakes may be important in understanding the inter-individual variability in plasma TG levels and in the plasma TG response to a fish oil supplementation.

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of opiate (enkephalin) receptor of rat brain plasma membranes with 125I(D-Ala2, p-N3-Phe4-Met5)-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, C.W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive (D-Ala 2 , p-N 3 -Phe 4 -Met 5 )enkephalin derivative was prepared, iodinated with carrier free 125 I and then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The purified radioactive photoprobe was monoiodinated at the amino terminal tyrosine residue. This radioactive photoprobe was used to photoaffinity label plasma membranes prepared from rat brain, spinal cord and cerebellum. The photolabeled plasma membranes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. A 46,000-daltons band was specifically photolabeled in the plasma membranes of brain and spinal cord but not in the plasma membranes from cerebellum. The photolabeling of this band was inhibited by peptides related to enkephalin by not but substance P or gastrin tetrapeptide. These data demonstrate that the labeled 46,000-daltons band is a protein of the opiate (enkephalin)receptor

  6. The effect of pomegranate seed oil and grapeseed oil on cis-9, trans-11 CLA (rumenic acid), n-3 and n-6 fatty acids deposition in selected tissues of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, A; Białek, M; Lepionka, T; Kaszperuk, K; Banaszkiewicz, T; Tokarz, A

    2018-04-23

    The aim of this study was to determine whether diet modification with different doses of grapeseed oil or pomegranate seed oil will improve the nutritive value of poultry meat in terms of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, as well as rumenic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content in tissues diversified in lipid composition and roles in lipid metabolism. To evaluate the influence of applied diet modification comprehensively, two chemometric methods were used. Results of cluster analysis demonstrated that pomegranate seed oil modifies fatty acids profile in the most potent way, mainly by an increase in rumenic acid content. Principal component analysis showed that regardless of type of tissue first principal component is strongly associated with type of deposited fatty acid, while second principal component enables identification of place of deposition-type of tissue. Pomegranate seed oil seems to be a valuable feed additive in chickens' feeding. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to lactating sows on growth and indicators of stress in post-weaned pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 PUFA are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation, and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protecte...

  8. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of 9 studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Follis, Jack L.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Foy, Millennia; Wu, Jason H.Y.; Ma, Yiyi; Tanaka, Toshiko; Manichakul, Ani W.; Wu, Hongyu; Chu, Audrey Y.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Fornage, Myriam; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Ferruci, Luigi; da Chen, Yii-Der I; Rich, Stephen S.; Djoussé, Luc; Ridker, Paul M.; Tang, Weihong; McKnight, Barbara; Tsai, Michael Y.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rotter, Jerome I.; Hu, Frank B.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Arnett, Donna K.; King, Irena B.; Sun, Qi; Wang, Lu; Lumley, Thomas; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Siscovick, David S; Ordovás, José M.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.

    2015-01-01

    Scope Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. Objective We evaluated interactions between genetic variants and fatty acid intakes for circulating alpha-linoleic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Methods and Results We conducted meta-analyses (N to 11,668) evaluating interactions between dietary fatty acids and genetic variants (rs174538 and rs174548 in FADS1 (fatty acid desaturase 1), rs7435 in AGPAT3 (1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate), rs4985167 in PDXDC1 (pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing 1), rs780094 in GCKR (glucokinase regulatory protein) and rs3734398 in ELOVL2 (fatty acid elongase 2)). Stratification by measurement compartment (plasma vs. erthyrocyte) revealed compartment-specific interactions between FADS1 rs174538 and rs174548 and dietary ALA and linoleic acid for DHA and DPA. Conclusion Our findings reinforce earlier reports that genetically-based differences in circulating fatty acids may be partially due to differences in the conversion of fatty acid precursors. Further, fatty acids measurement compartment may modify gene-diet relationships, and considering compartment may improve the detection of gene-fatty acids interactions for circulating fatty acid outcomes. PMID:25626431

  9. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  10. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  11. High Fat Diet Exposure during Fetal Life Enhances Plasma and Hepatic Omega-6 Fatty Acid Profiles in Fetal Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon E. Cerf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant rats were fed a high fat diet (HFD for the first (HF1, second (HF2, third (HF3 or all three weeks (HFG of gestation. Maintenance on a HFD during specific periods of gestation was hypothesized to alter fetal glycemia, insulinemia, induce insulin resistance; and alter fetal plasma and hepatic fatty acid (FA profiles. At day 20 of gestation, fetal plasma and hepatic FA profiles were determined by gas chromatography; body weight, fasting glycemia, insulinemia and the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-insulin resistance were also determined. HF3 fetuses were heaviest concomitant with elevated glycemia and insulin resistance (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had elevated plasma linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6 acid proportions (p < 0.05. In the liver, HF3 fetuses displayed elevated linoleic, eicosatrienoic (20:3 n-6 and arachidonic acid proportions (p < 0.05. HFG fetuses had reduced hepatic docosatrienoic acid (22:5 n-3 proportions (p < 0.05. High fat maintenance during the final week of fetal life enhances hepatic omega-6 FA profiles in fetuses concomitant with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance thereby presenting a metabolically compromised phenotype.

  12. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-01-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the

  13. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were...

  14. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between plasma free fatty acids and experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. J.; Bosman, D. K.; Jörning, G. G.; de Haan, J. G.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy in the rat have been investigated in order to study the postulated relationship between plasma free fatty acids concentration (C6 - C22:0) and the degree of hepatic encephalopathy. As a model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy, porta caval shunted

  16. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid profiles in Korean adults with and without acute coronary syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a clinical manifestation of coronary artery disease presenting as unstable angina and/or myocardial infarction, is the third-leading cause of death in South Korea. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid profiles are considered objective biomarke...

  17. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2018-01-01

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Folate and vitamin B12 concentrations are associated with plasma DHA and EPA fatty acids in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesia, I; Huybrechts, I; González-Gross, M; Mouratidou, T; Santabárbara, J; Chajès, V; González-Gil, E M; Park, J Y; Bel-Serrat, S; Cuenca-García, M; Castillo, M; Kersting, M; Widhalm, K; De Henauw, S; Sjöström, M; Gottrand, F; Molnár, D; Manios, Y; Kafatos, A; Ferrari, M; Stehle, P; Marcos, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Moreno, L A

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value DHA (P value acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.

  19. Maternal Diet Supplementation with n-6/n-3 Essential Fatty Acids in a 1.2 : 1.0 Ratio Attenuates Metabolic Dysfunction in MSG-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Morais Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs prevent cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to study whether a diet supplemented with a mixture of n-6/n-3 PUFAs, during perinatal life, attenuates outcomes of long-term metabolic dysfunction in prediabetic and obese mice. Seventy-day-old virgin female mice were mated. From the conception day, dams were fed a diet supplemented with sunflower oil and flaxseed powder (containing an n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 throughout pregnancy and lactation, while control dams received a commercial diet. Newborn mice were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG, 4 mg g−1 body weight per day for the first 5 days of age. A batch of weaned pups was sacrificed to quantify the brain and pancreas total lipids; another batch were fed a commercial diet until 90 days of age, where glucose homeostasis and glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS as well as retroperitoneal fat and Lee index were assessed. MSG-treated mice developed obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pancreatic islet dysfunction, and higher fat stores. Maternal flaxseed diet-supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 PUFAs ratio in the brain and pancreas and blocked glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, GIIS impairment, and obesity development. The n-6/n-3 essential PUFAs in a ratio of 1.2 : 1.0 supplemented in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation prevent metabolic dysfunction in MSG-obesity model.

  20. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  1. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    -s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre...

  2. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    , plasma fatty acids, and preheparin lipoprotein lipase and cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activities. Design: Six test fats high (approximate to 43% by wt) in stearic acid, palmitic acid, palmitic + myristic acid, oleic acid, elaidic acid (trans 18:1), and linoleic acid were produced...... to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted......Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations...

  3. Use of milk fatty acids to estimate plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations as an indicator of animal energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, J R R; French, E A; Armentano, L E

    2017-08-01

    Negative energy balance is an important part of the lactation cycle, and measuring the current energy balance of a cow is useful in both applied and research settings. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if milk fatty acid (FA) proportions were consistently related to plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA); (2) to determine if an individual cow with a measured milk FA profile is above or below a NEFA concentration, (3) to test the universality of the models developed within the University of Wisconsin and US Dairy Forage Research Center cows. Blood samples were collected on the same day as milk sampling from 105 Holstein cows from 3 studies. Plasma NEFA was quantified and a threshold of 600 µEq/L was applied to classify animals above this concentration as having high NEFA (NEFA high ). Thirty milk FA proportions and 4 milk FA ratios were screened to evaluate their capacity to classify cows with NEFA high according to determined milk FA threshold. In addition, 6 linear regression models were created using individual milk FA proportions and ratios. To evaluate the universality of the linear relationship between milk FA and plasma NEFA found in the internal data set, 90 treatment means from 21 papers published in the literature were compiled to test the model predictions. From the 30 screened milk FA, the odd short-chain fatty acids (C7:0, C9:0, C11:0, and C13:0) had sensitivity slightly greater than the other short-chain fatty acids (83.3, 94.8, 80.0, and 85.9%, respectively). The sensitivities for milk FA C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, and C12:0 were 78.8, 85.3, 80.1, and 83.9%, respectively. The threshold values to detect NEFA high cows for the last group of milk FA were ≤2.0, ≤0.94, ≤1.4, and ≤1.8 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The milk FA C14:0 and C15:0 had sensitivities of 88.7 and 85.0% and a threshold of ≤6.8 and ≤0.53 g/100 g of FA, respectively. The linear regressions using the milk FA ratios C18:1 to C15:0 and C17:0 to C15:0 presented lower

  4. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease : The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, Martin H.; Baia, Leandro C.; Hoogeveen, Ellen K.; Giltay, Erik J.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Kromhout, Daan; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S.

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids

  5. Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich fish oil on the endometrial prostaglandin production in the doe (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ravjibhai K; Mahla, Ajit Singh; Singh, Amit Kumar; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Pawde, Abhijit M; Gandham, Ravi Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra; Sarkar, Mihir; Kumar, Harendra; Krishnaswamy, Narayanan

    2018-03-01

    Recently, we showed that dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA rich fish oil (FO) decreased the metabolites of serum prostaglandin (PG) F 2α and E 2 during the window of pregnancy recognition in the doe. In this study, we investigated its effect on the changes on endometrial PG production in vitro. Cycling does (n = 12) of Rohilkhand region were divided into two equal groups and fed a concentrate diet supplemented with either FO containing 26% n-3 PUFA (TRT; n = 6) or palm oil (CON; n = 6) @ 0.6 mL/kg body weight for 57 days. Estrus was synchronized by two injections of PGF 2α analogue viz, on day 25 and 36 of supplementation and laparo-hysterotomy was performed to obtain endometrial tissue on day 16 of the synchronized estrus. Endometrial explant culture was done using a defined medium.The basal PG production was assayed at 6 and 12 h. Endometrial explant was stimulated with oxytocin (OXT) and/or recombinant ovine interferon tau (roIFN-τ) and PGs were assayed at 3 and 12 h post-treatment. The relative expression of genes related to PG metabolism in the endometrium was done by Quantitative Real Time PCR technique (qRT-PCR). There was a significant (P  0.05) effect on the PGF 2α and PGE 2 production in the TRT group. Similarly, the PG production in the OXT and roIFN-τ was comparable with the control in TRT. Expression of mRNA for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) and PGF synthase (PGFS) was lower (P n-3 PUFA fed doe. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of FO decreased the endometrial production of PGF 2α and PGE 2 by downregulating the COX-2, cPLA 2 and PGFS transcripts in the doe. The findings suggest that n-3 PUFA influence embryo survival by modulating the endometrial PG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AMP-activated Protein Kinase alfa2 Subunit Is Required for the Preservation of Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity by n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeleník, Tomáš; Rossmeisl, Martin; Kuda, Ondřej; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Medříková, Daša; Kůs, Vladimír; Hensler, Michal; Janovská, Petra; Mikšík, Ivan; Baranowski, M.; Gorski, J.; Hébrard, S.; Jensen, T. E.; Flachs, Pavel; Hawley, S.; Viollet, B.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 11 (2010), s. 2737-2746 ISSN 0012-1797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1420; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA MŠk(CZ) OC08007 Grant - others:EC(CZ) LSHM-CT-2004-005272 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : AMPK * n-3 LC-PUFA * insulin resistance Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 8.889, year: 2010

  7. Low eficiency of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the reversal of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Zuzana; Rossmeisl, Martin; Flachs, Pavel; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 345-346 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : insulin resistance * n-3 PUFA * high fat diet Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  8. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia G. Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC, cholesteryl ester (CE and triglyceride (TAG and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC, red blood cells (RBC and platelets (PLAT. Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group. We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  9. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Celia G; West, Annette L; Browning, Lucy M; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M; Jebb, Susan A; Calder, Philip C

    2015-08-03

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0-4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC), cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglyceride (TAG) and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC), red blood cells (RBC) and platelets (PLAT). Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%-64% of placebo in the four portions group). We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  10. Dietary advice on Inuit traditional food use needs to balance benefits and risks of mercury, selenium, and n3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Goncharov, Alexey B; Egeland, Grace M; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-06-01

    Elevated concentrations of mercury (Hg) are commonly found in the traditional foods, including fish and marine mammals, of Inuit living in Canada's Arctic. As a result, Inuit often have higher dietary Hg intake and elevated Hg blood concentrations. However, these same traditional foods are excellent sources of essential nutrients. The goals of this study were 1) to identify the traditional food sources of Hg exposure for Inuit, 2) to estimate the percentage of Inuit who meet specific nutrient Dietary Reference Intakes and/or exceed the Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs), and 3) to evaluate options that maximize nutrient intake while minimizing contaminant exposure. A participatory cross-sectional survey was designed in consultation with Inuit in 3 Canadian Arctic jurisdictions (Nunatsiavut, Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region). Estimated intakes for EPA (20:5n3) and DHA (22:6n3) met suggested dietary targets, and estimated selenium (Se) intake fell within the Acceptable Range of Oral Intake. Estimated intakes of Hg (rs = 0.41, P Inuit.

  11. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, to prevent the adverse effects observed by MCT (pure medium-chain fatty acids) regarding gastrointestinal distress. Seven well-trained subjects cycled 3 h at 55......% of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...... of plasma triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and phospholipids was determined. Performance was similar after administration of CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerol [medium-, long-, and medium-chain fatty acid (MLM)] compared with CHO (50.0 +/- 1.8 and 50.8 +/- 3.6 min, respectively). No plasma 8...

  12. Effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on plasma oxysterols and fatty acids in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Franco, Marie; Zerbinati, Chiara; Pacelli, Antonio; Palmaccio, Giuseppina; Lubrano, Carla; Ducheix, Simon; Guillou, Hervé; Iuliano, Luigi

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and the related entity metabolic syndrome are characterized by altered lipid metabolism and associated with increased morbidity risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer. Oxysterols belong to a large family of cholesterol-derived molecules known to play crucial role in many signaling pathways underlying several diseases. Little is known on the potential effect of obesity and metabolic syndrome on oxysterols in human. In this work, we questioned whether circulating oxysterols might be significantly altered in obese patients and in patients with metabolic syndrome. We also tested the potential correlation between circulating oxysterols and fatty acids. 60 obese patients and 75 patients with metabolic syndrome were enrolled in the study along with 210 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects, used as control group. Plasma oxysterols were analyzed by isotope dilution GC/MS, and plasma fatty acids profiling was assessed by gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detection. We found considerable differences in oxysterols profiling in the two disease groups that were gender-related. Compared to controls, males showed significant differences only in 4α- and 4β-hydroxycholesterol levels in obese and metabolic syndrome patients. In contrast, females showed consistent differences in 7-oxocholesterol, 4α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol and triol. Concerning fatty acids, we found minor differences in the levels of these variables in males of the three groups. Significant changes were observed in plasma fatty acid profile of female patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome. We found significant correlations between various oxysterols and fatty acids. In particular, 4β-hydroxycholesterol, which is reduced in obesity and metabolic syndrome, correlated with a number of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids that are end-products of de novo lipogenesis. Our data provide the first evidence that obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with

  13. A diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil reduces the lipoprotein cholesterol concentration and increases the relative content of n-3 fatty acids in serum in hyperlipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, I B; Vessby, B; Ohrvall, M; Nydahl, M

    1994-03-01

    The effects of 3 wk on a diet rich in monounsaturated rapeseed oil were compared with those of a diet containing sunflower oil within a lipid-lowering diet. Ninety-five subjects with moderate hyperlipoproteinemia were randomly assigned to one of the two well-controlled diets prepared at the hospital kitchen. Total serum, low-density- and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 15%, 16%, and 11% (P oil diet and by 16%, 14%, and 13% (P oil diet. Serum triglycerides decreased more markedly (by 29%, P oil than on the rapeseed oil diet (14%, P oil diet but decreased on the sunflower oil diet. There was an increase in the alpha-tocopherol concentrations after both diets. The findings indicate that low erucic acid rapeseed oil can replace oils and fats rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids in a lipid-lowering diet.

  14. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  15. Taurine supplementation of plant derived protein and n-3 fatty acids are critical for optimal growth and development of cobia, Rachycentron canadum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Aaron M; Barrows, Frederic T; Place, Allen R

    2013-09-01

    We examined growth performance and the lipid content in juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum, fed a taurine supplemented (1.5 %), plant protein based diet with two fish oil replacements. The first fish oil replacement was a thraustochytrid meal (TM + SOY) plus soybean oil (~9 % CL) and the second was a canola oil supplemented with the essential fatty acids (EFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) (~8 % CL). The diet using the thraustochytrid meal plus soybean oil performed equivalently to the fish oil diet; both resulting in significantly higher growth rates, lower feed conversion ratios, and higher survival than the supplemented canola oil diet, even though all three diets were similar in overall energy and met known protein and lipid requirements for cobia. The poor performance of the canola oil diet was attributed to insufficient addition of EFA in the supplemented canola oil source. Increasing levels of EFA in the supplemented canola oil above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1) would likely improve results with cobia. When fish fed either of the fish oil replacement diets were switched to the fish oil control diet, fatty acid profiles of the fillets were observed to transition toward that of the fish oil diet and could be predicted based on a standard dilution model. Based on these findings, a formulated diet for cobia can be produced without fish products providing 100 % survivorship, specific growth rates greater than 2.45 and feed conversion ratios less than 1.5, as long as taurine is added and EFA levels are above 0.5 g EFA kg(-1).

  16. In Vitro Effect of Fatty Acids Identified in the Plasma of Obese Adolescents on the Function of Pancreatic ?-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Velasquez, Claudia; Vasquez, Juan Sebastian; Balcazar, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Background The increase in circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels is a major factor that induces malfunction in pancreatic ?-cells. We evaluated the effect of FFAs reconstituted according to the profile of circulating fatty acids found in obese adolescents on the viability and function of the murine insulinoma cell line (mouse insulinoma [MIN6]). Methods From fatty acids obtained commercially, plasma-FFA profiles of three different youth populations were reconstituted: obese with metabolic ...

  17. Fish oil-derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce expression of M1-associated macrophage markers in an ex vivo adipose tissue culture model, in part through adiponectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. De Boer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue (AT macrophages (ATM play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad, may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish-oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM. We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute (18 h ACM plus LPS for the last 6 h or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2 and Ccl5 compared with CON ACM (p≤0.05; however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p>0.05. Further, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2 and Il1β and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p≤0.05; however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT inflammation.

  18. Fish Oil-Derived Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Expression of M1-Associated Macrophage Markers in an ex vivo Adipose Tissue Culture Model, in Part through Adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) macrophages (ATM) play a key role in obesity-associated pathologies, and their phenotype can be influenced by the local tissue microenvironment. Interestingly, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) and the LC n-3 PUFA-upregulated adipokine, adiponectin (Ad), may mitigate excessive ATM inflammatory M1-polarization responses. However, to what extent LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to affect macrophage phenotype has not been examined. Thus, we used an established ex vivo AT organ culture model using visceral AT from mice fed a control (CON; 10% w/w safflower oil) n-6 PUFA-rich diet or an isocaloric fish oil (FO; 3% w/w menhaden oil + 7% w/w safflower oil)-derived LC n-3 PUFA-rich diet to generate AT conditioned media (ACM). We then evaluated if CON or FO ACM affected macrophage polarization markers in a model designed to mimic acute [18 h ACM plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for the last 6 h] or chronic (macrophages treated with LPS-challenged CON or FO ACM for 24 h) inflammation ± Ad-neutralizing antibody and the LPS-neutralizing agent, polymyxin B. In the acute inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased lipid uptake and mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Nfκb, Il6, Il18, Ccl2, and Ccl5) compared with CON ACM (p ≤ 0.05); however, these effects were largely attenuated when Ad was neutralized (p > 0.05). Furthermore, in the chronic inflammation model, macrophages treated with FO ACM had decreased mRNA expression of M1 markers (Nos2, Tnfα, Ccl2, and Il1β) and IL-6 and CCL2 secretion (p ≤ 0.05); however, some of these effects were lost when Ad was neutralized, and were further exacerbated when both Ad and LPS were neutralized. Taken together, this work shows that LC n-3 PUFA and Ad work in concert to suppress certain M1 macrophage responses. Thus, future strategies to modulate the ATM phenotype should consider the role of both LC n-3 PUFA and Ad in mitigating obese AT

  19. Effect of flaxseed oil and microalgae DHA on the production performance, fatty acids and total lipids of egg yolk and plasma in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neijat, M; Ojekudo, O; House, J D

    2016-12-01

    The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0.40% and 0.60% total omega-3s. The control diet was practically low in omega-3s. Study parameters included monitoring the changes of fatty acid contents in yolk, measures of hen performance, eggshell quality, total lipids and fatty acid contents of plasma. Data were analysed as a complete randomized design using Proc Mixed procedure of SAS. No significant differences were observed between treatments with respect to hen performance, eggshell quality and cholesterol content in plasma and egg yolk. Individual and total omega-3 PUFA in the yolk and plasma increased (PDHA-fed hens incorporated 3-fold more DHA in eggs compared with ALA-fed hens (179±5.55 vs. 66.7±2.25mg/yolk, respectively). In both treatment groups, maximal enrichment of total n-3 PUFA was observed by week-2, declined by week-4 and leveled thereafter. In addition, accumulation of DHA in egg yolk showed linear (PDHA (R 2 =0.95). The current data, based on defined level of total omega-3s in the background diet, provides evidence to suggest that exogenous as well as endogenous synthesis of DHA may be subject to a similar basis of regulation, and serve to highlight potential regulatory aspects explaining the limitations in the deposition of endogenously produced omega-3 LCPUFA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Análise de ácidos graxos em plasma humano Analysis of fatty acids in human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse fascículo da revista, o estudo de Morais et al. (2010 avaliou quatro metodologias clássicas de extração de lipídeos (métodos de Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb e Gerber e uma técnica alternativa, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da extração e a composição em ácidos graxos de plasma humano. O método alternativo proposto pelos autores usou o forno de micro-ondas como ferramenta e foi considerado muito rápido na extração lipídica e adequado na identificação de ácidos graxos, mas não em sua quantificação. O método de extração mais indicado para quantificação de ácidos graxos em plasma humano foi o método de Folch.In this issue of the journal, the study by Morais et al. (2010 evaluated four classical methodologies of lipid extraction (methods of Folch, Bligh-Dyer, Rose-Gottlieb and Gerber, and an alternative technique, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction and fatty acid composition of human plasma. The alternative method proposed by the authors used the microwave oven as a tool, and was considered very fast in lipid extraction and identification of fatty acids, but not in their quantification. The most suitable extraction method for quantification of fatty acids in human plasma was the method of Folch.

  1. What health professionals should know about omega-3 fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this article is to equip health .... of EPA and DHA into the red blood cell membrane fatty acids (a 160% increase ... non-significant changes between plasma EPA and DHA for fish oil. (864 mg .... displayed higher CD levels than the vegetable oils.30 ... analysis, on the n-3 fatty acid content of supplements.

  2. Efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and feasibility of optimizing preventive strategies in patients at high cardiovascular risk: rationale, design and baseline characteristics of the Rischio and Prevenzione study, a large randomised trial in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimization of preventive strategies in patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and the evaluation of bottlenecks and limitations of transferring current guidelines to the real world of clinical practice are important limiting steps to cardiovascular prevention. Treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improves prognosis after myocardial infarction, but evidence of this benefit is lacking in patients at high cardiovascular risk, but without a history of myocardial infarction. Methods/design Patients were eligible if their general practitioner (GP considered them at high cardiovascular risk because of a cardiovascular disease other than myocardial infarction, or multiple risk factors (at least four major risk factors in non-diabetic patients and one in diabetics. Patients were randomly allocated to treatment with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (1 g daily or placebo in a double-blind study and followed up for five years by their GPs to assess the efficacy of the treatment in preventing cardiovascular mortality (including sudden death and hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. The secondary, epidemiological, aim of the study is to assess whether it is feasible to adopt current guidelines in everyday clinical practice, with a view to optimizing all the available preventive strategies in people at high cardiovascular risk. A nation-wide network of 860 GPs admitted 12,513 patients to the study between February 2004 and March 2007. The mean age was 64 years and 62% were males. Diabetes mellitus plus one or more cardiovascular risk factors was the main inclusion criterion (47%. About 30% of patients were included because of a history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, 21% for four or more risk factors, and less than 1% for other reasons. Discussion The Rischio and Prevenzione (R&P project provides a feasible model to test the efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid therapy in patients at high

  3. The influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and very low calorie diet during a short-term weight reducing regimen on weight loss and serum fatty acid composition in severely obese women

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunešová, M.; Braunerová, R.; Hlavatý, P.; Tvrzická, E.; Staňková, B.; Škrha, J.; Hilgertová, J.; Hill, M.; Kopecký, Jan; Wagenknecht, M.; Hainer, V.; Matoulek, M.; Pařízková, J.; Žák, A.; Svačina, Š.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2006), s. 63-72 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NB7031; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : obesity * fatty acids * diet Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  4. The effect of dietary fatty acid composition on the hepatic fatty acid content and plasma lipid profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Komprda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate in a model organism the effect of different dietary lipids on plasma concentration of total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triacylglycerols (TAG. One hundred adult male rats (Wistar Albino were divided into 10 groups with 10 animals each and fed for 7 weeks either basic feed mixture (control diet, C or basic feed mixture with 5% of palm oil (P, safflower oil (SF, salmon oil (S, fish oil (F, Schizochytrium microalga oil (A, and 20% of beef tallow (T; four groups, respectively. The T-groups were fed for another 7 weeks T-, SF-, F- and A-diet, respectively. At the end of both the first and the second 7-week fattening period, plasma lipid concentration and hepatic fatty acid content was determined. Both A and F diets fed for 7 weeks decreased (P -1 compared to control (1.19 mmol∙l-1. The highest (P -1. A-diet had the most positive (decreasing effect on TAG concentrations (0.68–0.86 mmol∙l-1 compared to 1.22 and 2.88 mmol∙l-1 found in the C and T diets, respectively; P P Schizochytrium microalga oil (with high DHA content may have the potential for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. The effect of fish oil supplementation on brain DHA and EPA content and fatty acid profile in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Kelly J; Pickens, C Austin; Wiesinger, Jason A; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2017-12-18

    Supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may improve cognitive performance and protect against cognitive decline. However, changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition after supplementation with n-3 fatty acids are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to feed increasing n-3 fatty acids and characterise the changes in brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and correlate the changes with red blood cells (RBCs) and plasma in mice. Increasing dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) did not alter brain DHA. Brain EPA increased and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased across treatment groups, and correlated with fatty acid changes in the RBC (r > 0.7). Brain cis-monounsaturated fatty acids oleic and nervonic acid (p acids arachidic, behenic, and lignoceric acid (p acid changes upon increasing n-3 intake should be further investigated to determine their effects on cognition and neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Fish oil decreases C-reactive protein/albumin ratio improving nutritional prognosis and plasma fatty acid profile in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Michel Carlos; Pastore e Silva, Juliana de Aguiar; Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Fabre, Maria Emília de Souza; Gevaerd, Scheila; Naliwaiko, Katya; Moreno, Yara Maria Franco; Nunes, Everson Araújo; Trindade, Erasmo Benicio Santos de Moraes

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (n-3 PUFA) have several anticancer effects, especially attributed to their ability to modulate a variety of genomic and immune responses. In this context, this randomized, prospective, controlled clinical trial was conducted in order to check whether supplementation of 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks alters the production of inflammatory markers, the plasma fatty acid profile and the nutritional status in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Eleven adults with CRC in chemotherapy were randomized into two groups: (a) supplemented (SG) daily with 2 g/day of encapsulated fish oil [providing 600 mg/day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] for 9 weeks (n = 6), and (b) control (CG) (n = 5). All outcomes were evaluated on the day before the first chemotherapy session and 9 weeks later. Plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17A, the pro/anti-inflammatory balance (ratio TNF-α/IL-10 and IL-1β/IL10) and serum albumin, showed no significant changes between times and study groups (p > 0.05). C-reactive protein (CRP) and the CRP/albumin ratio showed opposite behavior in groups, significantly reducing their values in SG (p < 0.05). Plasma proportions of EPA and DHA increased 1.8 and 1.4 times, respectively, while the ARA reduced approximately 0.6 times with the supplementation (9 weeks vs baseline, p < 0.05). Patients from SG gained 1.2 kg (median) while the CG lost -0.5 kg (median) during the 9 weeks of chemotherapy (p = 0.72). These results demonstrate that 2 g/day of fish oil for 9 weeks of chemotherapy improves CRP values, CRP/albumin status, plasma fatty acid profile and potentially prevents weight loss during treatment.

  7. The impact of probiotics and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on intestinal permeability in pregnancy: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkala, K; Pussinen, P; Houttu, N; Koivuniemi, E; Vahlberg, T; Laitinen, K

    2018-02-27

    A disruption in intestinal barrier integrity may predispose individuals to metabolic aberrations, particularly during the vulnerable period of pregnancy. We investigated whether intestinal permeability, as measured by serum zonulin concentration, changes over the duration of pregnancy and whether this change is reflected in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity. Second, we tested in a randomised double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the impact of consuming dietary probiotics and/or long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) supplements in lowering serum zonulin concentration and LPS activity. The probiotic supplement was a combination of two bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. This study included 200 overweight pregnant women participating in an on-going study; participants were randomised to consume either (1) probiotics, (2) LC-PUFA, (3) probiotics and LC-PUFA, or (4) placebo for each supplement. Blood samples were obtained at early, the baseline, and late pregnancy (mean 14 and 35 weeks of gestation, respectively). Serum zonulin concentration increased from early (mean (standard deviation): 62.7 (12.9) ng/ml) to late pregnancy by 5.3 (95%CI 3.7-6.9) ng/ml, and LPS activity increased from (0.16 (0.04) EU/ml) by 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.05) EU/ml. No differences among the intervention groups were detected in the change from early to late pregnancy in serum zonulin concentration (P=0.8) or LPS activity (P=0.2). The change in serum zonulin concentration during the pregnancy was associated with the weeks of follow up (r=0.25, Pzonulin concentration or LPS activity.

  8. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P= 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (PHOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R=-0.57, P... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, P

  9. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    . Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P = 0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P = 0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P = 0.003). Long......-chain PUFAn-3 increased 51% (P = 0.0001), mainly due to a 75% increase (P HOMA-IR correlated significantly with changes in long-chain PUFAn-3 (R = -0.57, P ... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P

  10. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  11. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid measurement of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment using LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Xuan-Mai T.; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka Urszula; Jensen, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) concentration and isotopic enrichment are commonly used to evaluate FFA metabolism. Until now, gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) was the best method to measure isotopic enrichment in the methyl derivatives of 13C-labeled fatty acids. Although IRMS is excellent for analyzing enrichment, it requires time-consuming derivatization steps and is not optimal for measuring FFA concentrations. We developed a new, rapid, and reliable method for simultaneous quantification of 13C-labeled fatty acids in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). This method involves a very quick Dole extraction procedure and direct injection of the samples on the HPLC system. After chromatographic separation, the samples are directed to the mass spectrometer for electrospray ionization (ESI) and analysis in the negative mode using single ion monitoring. By employing equipment with two columns connected parallel to a mass spectrometer, we can double the throughput to the mass spectrometer, reducing the analysis time per sample to 5 min. Palmitate flux measured using this approach agreed well with the GC/C/IRMS method. This HPLC/MS method provides accurate and precise measures of FFA concentration and enrichment. PMID:20526002

  13. Plasma and erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and fatty acids in Italian general population and hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, Mariarita; Noce, Annalisa; Bertucci, Pierfrancesco; Noce, Gianluca; Rizza, Stefano; De Stefano, Alessandro; Manca di Villahermosa, Simone; Bernardini, Sergio; De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2014-03-21

    Dyslipidemia and abnormal phospholipid metabolism are frequent in uremic patients and increase their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD): ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may reduce this risk in the general population. In this study we compared the plasma and erythrocyte cell membrane composition of PUFAs in a group of Caucasian hemodialysis (HD) patients and in a control group of healthy subjects and evaluated the erythrocyte/cell membrane fatty acid ratio as a marker of the dietary intake of phospholipids. The relationship between ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and the possible differences in PUFAs concentrations were also investigated. After obtaining a fully informed consent, a total of ninety-nine HD patients and 160 non uremic control subjects from "Tor Vergata" University Hospital were enrolled into the study. None of them took antioxidant drugs or dietary supplements for at least 90 days prior to the observation. Blood samples were analysed by gas-chromatographic coupled to a mass spectrometric detector.The daily intake of total calories, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates is significantly lower in HD patients than in controls (p HD patients (p HD patients, due to the removal of nutrients during the dialysis and to persistent malnutrition. A dietary treatment addressed to increase plasma ω-3 PUFAs and to optimize ω-6/ω-3 ratio may exert a protective action and reduce the risk of CVD in HD patient.

  14. Early behavior and development are influenced by the n-6 and n-3 status in prematures*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strandvik Birgitta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cohort of premature infants, consecutively included in the study at birth and followed to 18 months of age, the neonatal status of essential fatty acids and longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA were investigated and correlated to the development at 40 and 44 weeks gestational age and at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. The diet reported by the mothers contained low EFA, 98% had an intake < 1 energy% of n-3 fatty acids. Fatty acid analyses were performed in early breast milk and in mothers’ and infants’ plasma phospholipids early after birth and at gestational age 40 and 44 weeks. The development of the infants were assessed with Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS at 40 and 44 weeks and with Bayley’s Scales of Infant Development (Second Edition (BSID-II at 3, 6, 10 and 18 months corrected age. At 40 weeks and 3 months videotapes were made of the infants’ spontaneous motor behavior to assess the quality of their general movements. Adjustments for confounding background factors were made in multiple logistic regression analyses and mothers’ education had the highest impact of the background variables. At all ages tested the n-6 fatty acid concentrations, expressed as total concentrations, LA, AA or as ratios to n-3 fatty acids in breast milk and early plasma phospholipids were negatively associated with development. Positive associations with LCPUFA, especially DHA, were mainly found after 10 months of age. Both mental and motor developments had similar pattern of associations, fatty acid concentrations and background factors explaining 20-50% (R2 of the developmental scores. This was only an observational study, and it cannot be excluded that the highly negative influence of n- 6 fatty acids was an effect of the low intake of n-3 fatty acids, which in the context of the changes generally seen in Western diet imply urgent need for larger studies.

  15. Effects of n-3 fatty acids, EPA v. DHA, on depressive symptoms, quality of life, memory and executive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: a 6-month randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Natalie; Milte, Catherine M; Street, Steven J; Buckley, Jonathan D; Coates, Alison M; Petkov, John; Howe, Peter R C

    2012-06-01

    Depressive symptoms may increase the risk of progressing from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia. Consumption of n-3 PUFA may alleviate both cognitive decline and depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of supplementing a diet with n-3 PUFA, DHA and EPA, for depressive symptoms, quality of life (QOL) and cognition in elderly people with MCI. We conducted a 6-month double-blind, randomised controlled trial. A total of fifty people aged >65 years with MCI were allocated to receive a supplement rich in EPA (1·67 g EPA + 0·16 g DHA/d; n 17), DHA (1·55 g DHA + 0·40 g EPA/d; n 18) or the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA; 2·2 g/d; n 15). Treatment allocation was by minimisation based on age, sex and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS). Physiological and cognitive assessments, questionnaires and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes were obtained at baseline and 6 months (completers: n 40; EPA n 13, DHA n 16, LA n 11). Compared with the LA group, GDS scores improved in the EPA (P=0·04) and DHA (P=0·01) groups and verbal fluency (Initial Letter Fluency) in the DHA group (P=0·04). Improved GDS scores were correlated with increased DHA plus EPA (r 0·39, P=0·02). Improved self-reported physical health was associated with increased DHA. There were no treatment effects on other cognitive or QOL parameters. Increased intakes of DHA and EPA benefited mental health in older people with MCI. Increasing n-3 PUFA intakes may reduce depressive symptoms and the risk of progressing to dementia. This needs to be investigated in larger, depressed samples with MCI.

  16. Changes in relative and absolute concentrations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids observed in a randomized trial of Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoling; Diep, Pho; Schenk, Jeannette M; Casper, Corey; Orem, Jackson; Makhoul, Zeina; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2016-11-01

    Expressing circulating phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in relative concentrations has some limitations: the total of all fatty acids are summed to 100%; therefore, the values of individual fatty acid are not independent. In this study we examined if both relative and absolute metrics could effectively measure changes in circulating PLFA concentrations in an intervention trial. 66 HIV and HHV8 infected patients in Uganda were randomized to take 3g/d of either long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (1856mg EPA and 1232mg DHA) or high-oleic safflower oil in a 12-week double-blind trial. Plasma samples were collected at baseline and end of trial. Relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations of 41 plasma PLFAs were measured using gas chromatography. Total cholesterol was also measured. Intervention-effect changes in concentrations were calculated as differences between end of 12-week trial and baseline. Pearson correlations of relative and absolute concentration changes in individual PLFAs were high (>0.6) for 37 of the 41 PLFAs analyzed. In the intervention arm, 17 PLFAs changed significantly in relative concentration and 16 in absolute concentration, 15 of which were identical. Absolute concentration of total PLFAs decreased 95.1mg/L (95% CI: 26.0, 164.2; P=0.0085), but total cholesterol did not change significantly in the intervention arm. No significant change was observed in any of the measurements in the placebo arm. Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma PLFA concentrations. EPA and DHA supplementation changes the concentrations of multiple plasma PLFAs besides EPA and DHA.Both relative weight percentage and absolute concentrations could effectively measure changes in plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Identification of Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitors in bovine plasma as fatty acids and hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tal, D M; Yanuck, M D; Van Hall, Gerrit

    1989-01-01

    A preparative purification of endogenous inhibitors of the Na+/K+-ATPase has been carried out from bovine blood. Dried plasma was deproteinized, hexane-extracted and desalted, followed by further purification through a series of reverse-phase HPLC fractionations. Fractions active in inhibiting Na...... ouabain, and in addition it enhanced ouabain binding at high dilutions. These properties are indicative of nonspecific interactions with the Na+/K+-ATPase. The active fraction was identified by TLC, HPLC, NMR, GLC and GC-MS, to be a mixture of three unesterified fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (72...

  19. Fish-oil-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce NLRP3 inflammasome activity and obesity-related inflammatory cross-talk between adipocytes and CD11b(+) macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, Anna A; Monk, Jennifer M; Liddle, Danyelle M; Hutchinson, Amber L; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2016-08-01

    Adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk propagates immune responses in obese adipose tissue (AT). Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) mitigate inflammation, partly through up-regulation of adiponectin; however, specific mechanisms are unclear. We determined if adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk could be mitigated by dietary LC n-3 PUFA and if this was dependent on adiponectin-mediated signaling. We utilized an in vitro co-culture model mimicking the ratio of adipocytes:macrophages in obese AT, whereby 3T3-L1 adipocytes were co-cultured with splenic CD11b(+) macrophages from C57BL/6 mice fed high-fat control (HF-CON; 34% w/w fat) or fish oil diets (HF-FO; 34% w/w fat containing 7.6% w/w FO), as well as mice fed low-fat control (LF-CON; 10% w/w fat) or FO diets (LF-FO; 10% w/w fat containing 3% w/w FO). Co-culture conditions tested effects of soluble mediator-driven mechanisms (trans-well system), cell contact and low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking acute or chronic inflammatory conditions. HF-FO macrophages from acute LPS-stimulated trans-well co-cultures had decreased mRNA expression of Casp1, Il1β and Il18, as well as cellular caspase-1 activity compared to HF-CON macrophages (P≤.05). Moreover, adipocytes from acute LPS-stimulated HF-FO co-cultures had decreased caspase-1 activity and decreased IL-1β/IL-18 levels following chronic LPS pretreatment compared to HF-CON co-cultures (P≤.05). Additionally, in contact co-cultures with adiponectin-neutralizing antibody, the FO-mediated modulation of NFκB activity and decrease in phosphorylated p65 NFκB, expression of NLRP3 inflammasome genes, M1 macrophage marker genes and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine secretion were controlled partly through adiponectin, while cellular caspase-1 activity and IL-1β/1L-18 levels were decreased independently of adiponectin (P≤.05). LC n-3 PUFA may decrease the intensity of adipocyte-macrophage cross-talk to mitigate obesity-associated pathologies. Copyright

  20. Models of plasma membrane organization can be applied to mitochondrial membranes to target human health and disease with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza Shaikh, Saame; Brown, David A

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), abundant in fish oil, have potential for treating symptoms associated with inflammatory and metabolic disorders; therefore, it is essential to determine their fundamental molecular mechanisms. Recently, several labs have demonstrated the n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) exerts anti-inflammatory effects by targeting the molecular organization of plasma membrane microdomains. Here we briefly review the evidence that DHA reorganizes the spatial distribution of microdomains in several model systems. We then emphasize how models on DHA and plasma membrane microdomains can be applied to mitochondrial membranes. We discuss the role of DHA acyl chains in regulating mitochondrial lipid-protein clustering, and how these changes alter several aspects of mitochondrial function. In particular, we summarize effects of DHA on mitochondrial respiration, electron leak, permeability transition, and mitochondrial calcium handling. Finally, we conclude by postulating future experiments that will augment our understanding of DHA-dependent membrane organization in health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  2. Effect of fortification with multiple micronutrients and n-3 fatty acids on growth and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren: the CHAMPION (Children's Health and Mental Performance Influenced by Optimal Nutrition) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Eilander, Ans; Transler, Catherine; Thomas, Tinku; van der Knaap, Henk C M; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; van Klinken, B Jan Willem; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Kurpad, Anura V

    2009-06-01

    Fortification with multiple micronutrients has been shown to improve growth and cognitive performance among children in developing countries, but it is unknown whether higher concentrations are more effective than lower concentrations. We compared the effect of 2 different concentrations of a combination of micronutrients and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on indicators of growth and cognitive performance in low-income, marginally nourished schoolchildren in Bangalore, India. In a 2-by-2 factorial, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 598 children aged 6-10 y were individually allocated to 1 of 4 intervention groups to receive foods fortified with either 100% or 15% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients in combination with either 900 mg alpha-linolenic acid plus 100 mg docosahexaenoic acid or 140 mg alpha-linolenic acid for 12 mo. Anthropometric and biochemical assessments were performed at baseline and 12 mo. Cognitive performance was measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 mo. The high micronutrient treatment significantly improved linear growth at 12 mo (0.19 cm; 0.01, 0.36) and short-term memory at 6 mo (0.11 SD; 0.01, 0.20) and was less beneficial on fluid reasoning at 6 (-0.10 SD; -0.17, -0.03) and 12 (-0.12 SD; -0.20, -0.04) mo than was the low micronutrient treatment, whereas no differences were observed on weight, retrieval ability, cognitive speediness, and overall cognitive performance. No significant differences were found between the n-3 treatments. The high micronutrient treatment was more beneficial for linear growth than was the low micronutrient treatment. However, with some small differential effects, higher micronutrient concentrations were as effective as lower concentrations on cognitive performance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00467909.

  3. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  4. Plasma fatty acid profile in depressive disorder resembles insulin resistance state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareka, Tomas; Vecka, Marek; Jirak, Roman; Tvrzicka, Eva; Macasek, Jaroslav; Zak, Ales; Zeman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorder is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Insulin resistance (IR), connected with altered fatty acid (FA) composition, namely with decreased proportion of polyunsaturated FA could participate in these associations. The aim of the study was to investigate the composition of FA in plasma cholesterol esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) as well as indices of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in the patients with depressive disorder. Parameters of lipid and glucose homeostasis, concentrations of FA in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) and conjugated dienes in LDL were investigated in a group of 47 patients (9M/38F) with depression and compared with 47 control persons (16M/31F). Delta-9 desaturase (D9D) and D6D desaturase were estimated as product to precursor fatty acid ratios. In depressive patients increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid and total monounsaturated FA with decreased proportion of total polyunsaturated FA n-6 (PUFA n-6) (all pinsulin resistance. Dysregulation of FA could participate in the pathogenesis of depression and be associated with an increased risk of CVD and DM2.

  5. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community, South West of France. The basal diet of the study cohort contained SFA in a proportion of 13.5% of their total energy intake (TEI). They were submitted to two experimental isocaloric diets containing either 8.4% of the TEI in SFA (diet A) or 11% (diet B), each lasting 5 weeks. The elevation of SFA in diet B was mainly obtained by decreasing carbohydrates. The only significant difference among total fats between diets A and B was the myristic acid content (0.6 and 1.2% of TEI, respectively). The elevation in SFA in diet B resulted in a significant increase of HDL-C (P<0.04), while plasma apo A-I concentration and LCAT activity both decreased (P<0.02). Altogether, these results are consistent with a negative effect of SFA on reverse cholesterol transport.

  6. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  7. IL-1β and TNFα inhibit GPR120 (FFAR4) and stimulate GPR84 (EX33) and GPR41 (FFAR3) fatty acid receptor expression in human adipocytes: implications for the anti-inflammatory action of n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muredda, Laura; Kępczyńska, Małgorzata A; Zaibi, Mohamed S; Alomar, Suliman Y; Trayhurn, Paul

    2018-05-01

    Regulation of the expression of GPCR fatty acid receptor genes has been examined in human adipocytes differentiated in culture. TNFα and IL-1β induced a marked reduction in GPR120 expression, mRNA level falling 17-fold at 24 h in adipocytes incubated with TNFα. In contrast, GPR84 mRNA was dramatically increased by these cytokines (>500-fold for IL-1β at 4 h); GPR41 expression was also stimulated. Rosiglitazone did not affect GPR84 expression, but GPR120 and GPR41 expression increased. Dexamethasone, insulin, linoleic and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), and TUG891 (GPR120 agonist) had little effect on GPR120 and GPR84 expression. TUG891 did not attenuate the pro-inflammatory actions of TNFα and IL-1β. DHA slightly countered the actions of IL-1β on CCL2, IL6 and ADIPOQ expression, though not on secretion of these adipokines. GPR120 and GP84 gene expression in human adipocytes is highly sensitive to pro-inflammatory mediators; the inflammation-induced inhibition of GPR120 expression may compromise the anti-inflammatory action of GPR120 agonists.

  8. Release of endothelial cell lipoprotein lipase by plasma lipoproteins and free fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Witte, L.D.; Goldberg, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) bound to the lumenal surface of vascular endothelial cells is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins. Studies were performed to investigate whether human plasma lipoproteins and/or free fatty acids would release LPL which was bound to endothelial cells. Purified bovine milk LPL was incubated with cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells resulting in the association of enzyme activity with the cells. When the cells were then incubated with media containing chylomicrons or very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), a concentration-dependent decrease in the cell-associated LPL enzymatic activity was observed. In contrast, incubation with media containing low density lipoproteins or high density lipoproteins produced a much smaller decrease in the cell-associated enzymatic activity. The addition of increasing molar ratios of oleic acid:bovine serum albumin to the media also reduced enzyme activity associated with the endothelial cells. To determine whether the decrease in LPL activity was due to release of the enzyme from the cells or inactivation of the enzyme, studies were performed utilizing radioiodinated bovine LPL. Radiolabeled LPL protein was released from endothelial cells by chylomicrons, VLDL, and by free fatty acids (i.e. oleic acid bound to bovine serum albumin). The release of radiolabeled LPL by VLDL correlated with the generation of free fatty acids from the hydrolysis of VLDL triglyceride by LPL bound to the cells. Inhibition of LPL enzymatic activity by use of a specific monoclonal antibody, reduced the extent of release of 125 I-LPL from the endothelial cells by the added VLDL. These results demonstrated that LPL enzymatic activity and protein were removed from endothelial cells by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons and VLDL) and oleic acid

  9. Interaction between dietary marine-derived n-3 fatty acids intake and J-point elevation on the risk of cardiac death: a 24-year follow-up of Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamatsu, Takashi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miyagawa, Naoko; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Okuda, Nagako; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Yoshita, Katsushi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Horie, Minoru; Okayama, Akira; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2013-07-01

    Higher marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (MDn3FAs) intake reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death via antiarrhythmic effects. The article evaluates whether MDn3FAs intake attenuates the increased risk of cardiac death associated with J-point elevation (JPE), characterised by an elevation of QRS-ST junction (J-point) ≥0.1 mV on electrocardiography. A prospective population-based cohort study. The National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and the National Nutrition Survey of Japan. A total of 4348 community-dwelling men (mean age 49.3 years), without cardiovascular diseases at baseline, from randomly selected areas across Japan. Cardiac death (200 men) during the 24-year follow-up. Dietary MDn3FAs intake was assessed using a dietary method to estimate individual intake of household-based weighed food records for 3 days. Cox models were used to calculate HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for possible confounding factors. JPE was present in 340 participants (7.8%). The median daily intake of MDn3FAs was 0.35%kcal (0.92 g/day). The risk of cardiac death was significantly higher in participants with JPE than in those without JPE in the low intake group (death was statistically significant (p=0.006). The increased risk of cardiac death associated with JPE may be attenuated by higher dietary MDn3FAs intake.

  10. Fatty acid profiles from the plasma membrane and detergent resistant membranes of two plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Salazar, Laura; El Hafidi, Mohammed; Gutiérrez-Nájera, Nora; Noyola-Martínez, Liliana; González-Solís, Ariadna; Gavilanes-Ruíz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish the composition of the plant plasma membrane in order to understand its organization and behavior under continually changing environments. Knowledge of the lipid phase, in particular the fatty acid (FA) complex repertoire, is important since FAs determine many of the physical-chemical membrane properties. FAs are constituents of the membrane glycerolipid and sphingolipid backbones and can also be linked to some sterols. In addition, FAs are components of complex lipids that can constitute membrane micro-domains, and the use of detergent-resistant membranes is a common approach to study their composition. The diversity and cellular allocation of the membrane lipids containing FAs are very diverse and the approaches to analyze them provide only general information. In this work, a detailed FA analysis was performed using highly purified plasma membranes from bean leaves and germinating maize embryos and their respective detergent-resistant membrane preparations. The analyses showed the presence of a significant amount of very long chain FAs (containing 28C, 30C and 32C), in both plasma membrane preparations from bean and maize, that have not been previously reported. Herein is demonstrated that a significant enrichment of very long chain saturated FAs and saturated FAs can occur in detergent-resistant membrane preparations, as compared to the plasma membranes from both plant species. Considering that a thorough analysis of FAs is rarely performed in purified plasma membranes and detergent-resistant membranes, this work provides qualitative and quantitative evidence on the contributions of the length and saturation of FAs to the organization of the plant plasma membrane and detergent-resistant membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Composition of fatty acids in the maternal and umbilical cord plasma of adolescent and adult mothers: relationship with anthropometric parameters of newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ol?via RC; Santana, Michelle G; Santos, Fl?via S; Concei??o, Felipe D; Sardinha, F?tima LC; Veiga, Gl?ria V; Tavares do Carmo, Maria G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Considering the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to fetal development and the lack of studies that have compared the status of fatty acids between adolescents and adults mothers, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the composition of fatty acids in maternal and umbilical cord plasma from adolescent and adults mothers. Methods Forty pregnant adolescents and forty pregnant adults were selected to assess the distribution profile of fatty acids in the...

  12. The Modification of Cellulosic Surface with Fatty Acids via Plasma Mediated Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    Much attention has been paid recently to understand the healing process made by the human body, in order to develop new approaches for promoting healing. The wound healing process includes four main phases, namely, hemostatic, inflammatory, proliferation, and remodeling, which take place successively. The human body can provide all the requirements of the healing process in normal wounds, unless there is a kind of deficiency of the skin function or massive fluid losses of vast wounds. Therefore, wound care of non-healing wounds has recently been the growing concern of many applications. The goal of this work is to explore the development of a new cellulose-based wound dressing composite that contain or release wound healing agents attained via dry textile chemical finishing techniques (thermal curing-plasma treatment). The synthesis of different wound healing agents derived from fatty acids and attached chemically to cellulose or even delivered through cyclodextrine modified cellulose are reported in this work. First, free fatty acids, which are obtained from commercial vegetable oils, were identified as wound healing agents. Many of these free acids are known to bind with and deactivate the proteases associated with inflammation at a wound site. Linoleic acid is extracted from commercial products of safflower seed oil while ricinoleic acid is obtained from castor oil. Conjugated linoleic acid was synthesized. Un-conjugated linoleic acid was used to prepare two derivatives namely linoleic azide and allylic ketone of linoleic acid. Different cellulose derivatives such as cellulose peroxide, iododeoxycellulose and cellulose diazonium salt in different degree of substitutions were synthesized in order to facilitate the free radical reaction with the fatty acid derivatives. New modified cellulosic products were synthesized by reacting the cellulosic and the linoleic acid derivatives via thermal or plasma technique and characterized by FT-IR ATR, the wettability test

  13. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid profile in professional basketball and football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija

    2009-10-01

    The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.

  14. Whey protein delays gastric emptying and suppresses plasma fatty acids and their metabolites compared to casein, gluten, and fish protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanstrup, Jan; Schou, Simon S; Holmer-Jensen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ), and cod (COD). Obese, nondiabetic subjects were included in the randomized, blinded, crossover meal study. Subjects ingested a high fat meal containing one of the four protein sources. Plasma samples were collected at five time points and metabolites analyzed using LC-Q-TOF-MS. In contrast to previous...... studies, the WI meal caused a decreased rate of gastric emptying compared to the other test meals. The WI meal also caused elevated levels of a number of amino acids, possibly stimulating insulin release leading to reduced plasma glucose. The WI meal also caused decreased levels of a number of fatty acids......, while the GLU meal caused elevated levels of a number of unidentified hydroxy fatty acids and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Also reported are a number of markers of fish intake unique to the COD meal....

  15. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Alpha Omega Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H. de Borst

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula, plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172 RU/mL (mean (95% CI. After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p < 0.0001 to 212 (183 to 241 RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI of −17 (−97, 62 RU/mL (p = 0.7. Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115 RU/mL and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113 RU/mL. Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma

  16. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term increase of plasma free fatty acids does not interfere with intrinsic mitochondrial function in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, Myrte; Hoeks, Joris; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Ouwens, Margriet; Lammers, Nicolette M.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Groen, Albert K.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2011-01-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA)- and obesity-induced insulin resistance has been associated with disturbed mitochondrial function. Elevated plasma FFA can impair insulin-induced increase of adenosine triphosphate synthesis and downregulate the expression of genes important in the biogenesis of mitochondria in

  18. Effects of malnutrition on the erythrocyte fatty acid composition and plasma vitamin E levels of Pakistani children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Dijkstra, JM; Schnater, TA; Seerat, E; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma vitamin E concentrations were determined in 47 grade 2, and 21 grade 3 malnourished Pakistani children (ages 4-56 months). Data were compared with those of 26 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy controls. Evaluation with three statistical approaches revealed

  19. Plasma total odd-chain fatty acids in the monitoring of disorders of propionate, methylmalonate and biotin metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coker, M.; de Klerk, J. B.; Poll-The, B. T.; Huijmans, J. G.; Duran, M.

    1996-01-01

    Total plasma odd-numbered long-chain fatty acids were analysed in patients with methylmalonic acidaemia (vitamin B12-responsive and unresponsive), combined methylmalonic acidaemia/homocystinuria (CblC), propionic acidaemia (both neonatal-onset and late-onset), biotinidase deficiency and

  20. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, C. Leigh; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Nguyen, Julie K.; Qin, Jianwei; Chao, Kuanglin; Bauchan, Gary L.; Shelton, Daniel R.

    2016-05-01

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolute necessity of the LC-PUFA docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in these fast signal processing tissues. A lipid of the same chain length with just one less diene group, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-6) is fairly abundant in terrestrial food chains yet cannot substitute for DHA. Gradient Temperature Raman spectroscopy (GTRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur near and at phase transitions. Herein we apply GTRS to DPA, and DHA from -100 to 20°C. 20 Mb three-dimensional data arrays with 1°C increments and first/second derivatives allows complete assignment of solid, liquid and transition state vibrational modes, including low intensity/frequency vibrations that cannot be readily analyzed with conventional Raman. DPA and DHA show significant spectral changes with premelting (-33 and -60°C, respectively) and melting (-27 and -44°C, respectively). The CH2-(HC=CH)-CH2 moieties are not identical in the second half of the DHA and DPA structures. The DHA molecule contains major CH2 twisting (1265 cm-1) with no noticeable CH2 bending, consistent with a flat helical structure with small pitch. Further modeling of neuronal membrane phospholipids must take into account this structure for DHA, which would be configured parallel to the hydrophilic head group line.

  1. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larrañaga, Gabriela; Wingeyer, Silvia Perés; Graffigna, Mabel; Belli, Susana; Bendezú, Karla; Alvarez, Silvia; Levalle, Oscar; Fainboim, Hugo

    2008-07-01

    Fatty liver represents the liver component of metabolic syndrome and may be involved in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) synthesis. We studied plasma PAI-1 levels and relationships with risk factors for metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver, in 170 patients. Liver ultrasound scan was performed on all patients, and a liver biopsy was performed on those patients with chronically elevated transaminase levels. Plasma PAI-1 levels correlated significantly (P < .05) with body mass index, degree of steatosis, insulin resistance, insulin level, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol. However, only body mass index (beta = .455) and HDL-cholesterol (beta = .293) remained predictors of PAI-1 levels. Liver biopsy revealed a significant correlation (P < .05) between insulin resistance (r = 0.381) or insulin level (r = 0.519) and liver fibrosis. In patients presenting features of metabolic syndrome, plasma PAI-1 levels were mainly conditioned by the whole-body fat content.

  2. Early Effect of High Dose of Ionizing Radiation Exposure on Plasma Lipids Profile and Liver Fatty Acids Composition in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaman, E.; Mansour, S.Z.; Ibrahim, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to analyze the effect of acute gamma-irradiation on rats at supralethal doses of 20 Gy to determine the synthesis and amounts of free fatty acids, neutral lipids and phospholipids of plasma and liver after 24 and 48 h of gamma-irradiation. Male Wistar rats weighing 120+- 20 g were exposed to 20 Gy of gamma radiation (dose rate of 0.59 Gy/min). Exposure of rats to ionizing radiation resulted in significant alterations in the assayed parameters indicating lipid metabolism disturbance. Plasma cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased up to 71.3 and 71.5 %, respectively, after 24 h from radiation exposure and then returned to 28 and 27 % change in-compare with control values after 48 h post-irradiation. Plasma triacylglycerol concentrations increased concomitantly with irradiation, but their values are less high than cholesterol and phospholipid levels recording significant changes at 19 and 9 % comparing with control rats. Lipid peroxidation measured as MDA recorded significant elevation after 24 and 48 h post irradiation. It was shown that the synthesis of free fatty acids, cholesterol, cholesterol ethers and phospholipids was activated 48 h after irradiation at 20 Gy. The amount of free fatty acids of the rat liver decreased at 20 Gy exposures. This is assumed to be a result of the radioresistance to some degree in the system of free fatty acid synthesis of the rat to the gamma-irradiation in the lethal doses

  3. Effect of DHA on plasma fatty acid availability and oxidative stress during training season and football exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Joan M; Llompart, Isabel; Argelich, Emma; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with 1.14 g per day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for eight weeks on the plasma oxidative balance and anti-inflammatory markers after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male football players were randomly assigned to placebo or experimental and supplemented groups. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and after eight weeks of training under resting and post-exercise conditions. The experimental beverage increased the plasma DHA availability in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFAs) and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction of NEFAs but had no effects on the biomarkers for oxidative balance in plasma. During training, plasma protein markers of oxidative damage, the haemolysis degree and the antioxidant enzyme activities increased, but did not affect lipid oxidative damage. Training season and DHA influenced the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Acute exercise did not alter the basal levels of plasma markers for oxidative and nitrosative damage of proteins and lipids, and the antioxidant enzyme activities, although DHA-diet supplementation significantly increased the PGE2 in plasma after acute exercise. In conclusion, the training season and acute exercise, but not the DHA diet supplementation, altered the pattern of plasma oxidative damage, as the antioxidant system proved sufficient to prevent the oxidative damage induced by the acute exercise in well-trained footballers. The DHA-diet supplementation increased the prostaglandin PGE2 plasma evidencing anti-inflammatory effects of DHA to control inflammation after acute exercise.

  4. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO.

  5. Association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory markers in patients with and without insulin resistance and in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch-Ferreira, Ângela Cristine; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Gehringer, Marcella Omena; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Ross-Fernandes, Maria Beatriz; da Silva, Jacqueline Tereza; Torreglosa, Camila Ragne; Kovacs, Cristiane; Alves, Renata; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Weber, Bernardete; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo

    2018-02-21

    Proinflammatory biomarkers levels are increased among patients with cardiovascular disease, and it is known that both the presence of insulin resistance and diet may influence those levels. However, these associations are not well studied among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Our objective is to compare inflammatory biomarker levels among cardiovascular disease secondary prevention patients with and without insulin resistance, and to evaluate if there is any association between plasma fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarker levels among them. In this cross-sectional sub-study from the BALANCE Program Trial, we collected data from 359 patients with established cardiovascular disease. Plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) were measured. Biomarkers and plasma fatty acid levels of subjects across insulin resistant and not insulin resistant groups were compared, and general linear models were used to examine the association between plasma fatty acids and inflammatory biomarkers. Subjects with insulin resistance had a higher concentration of hs-CRP (p = 0.002) and IL-6 (p = 0.002) than subjects without insulin resistance. Among subjects without insulin resistance there was a positive association between stearic fatty acid and IL-6 (p = 0.032), and a negative association between alpha-linolenic fatty acid and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p fatty acids and arachidonic fatty acid and adiponectin (p fatty acids and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (p fatty acids and adiponectin (p fatty acids. Subjects in secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease with insulin resistance have a higher concentration of hs-CRP and IL-6 than individuals without insulin resistance, and these inflammatory biomarkers are positively associated with saturated fatty acids and negatively associated with

  6. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Masayuki; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf A; Onoda, Atsuto; Shaheen, Hazem M; Hori, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yusuke; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H; Takeda, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and may systemically affect lipid metabolism. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, but many daily diets are deficient in this nutrient. Therefore, the effect of DE exposure in mice fed n-3 PUFA-deficient diet was investigated. Mice were fed control chow or n-3 PUFA-deficient diet for 4 weeks, then exposed to clean air or DE by inhalation for further 4 weeks. Liver histology, plasma parameters, and expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes were evaluated. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1. DE further increased the plasma leptin and the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes: Acacb, Fasn, and Scd1. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet and DE exposure potentially enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and subsequently accumulation of lipid droplets. The combination of low-dose DE exposure and intake of n-3 PUFA-deficient diet may be an additional risk factor for the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study suggests an important mechanism for preventing toxicity of DE on the liver through the incorporation of n-3 PUFAs in the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  8. Absolute versus relative measures of plasma fatty acids and health outcomes: example of phospholipid omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and all-cause mortality in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Smith, David D; Green, Adèle C

    2018-03-01

    In a well-characterised community-based prospective study, we aimed to systematically assess the differences in associations of plasma omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid (FA) status with all-cause mortality when plasma FA status is expressed in absolute concentrations versus relative levels. In a community sample of 564 women aged 25-75 years in Queensland, Australia, baseline plasma phospholipid FA levels were measured using gas chromatography. Specific FAs analysed were eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total long-chain omega-3 FAs, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and total omega-6 FAs. Levels of each FA were expressed in absolute amounts (µg/mL) and relative levels (% of total FAs) and divided into thirds. Deaths were monitored for 17 years and hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated to assess risk of death according to absolute versus relative plasma FA levels. In total 81 (14%) women died during follow-up. Agreement between absolute and relative measures of plasma FAs was higher in omega-3 than omega-6 FAs. The results of multivariate analyses for risk of all-cause mortality were generally similar with risk tending to inverse associations with plasma phospholipid omega-3 FAs and no association with omega-6 FAs. Sensitivity analyses examining effects of age and presence of serious medical conditions on risk of mortality did not alter findings. The directions and magnitude of associations with mortality of absolute versus relative FA levels were comparable. However, plasma FA expressed as absolute concentrations may be preferred for ease of comparison and since relative units can be deduced from absolute units.

  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  10. Omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon (goat meat) lowers plasma cholesterol levels and alters gene expressions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Rajion, Mohamed Ali; Meng, Goh Yong; Soleimani Farjam, Abdoreza

    2014-01-01

    In this study, control chevon (goat meat) and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA) in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon) that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 in each group) for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P < 0.05) in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  11. Can polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster alter the effects of fish oil supplementation on plasma and erythrocyte fatty acid profiles? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, Suzanne J; Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Guicheng; Heaton, Alexandra E M; D'Vaz, Nina; Manz, Judith; Reischl, Eva; Koletzko, Berthold V; Prescott, Susan L; Simmer, Karen

    2017-09-19

    The enzymes encoded by fatty acid desaturases (FADS) genes determine the desaturation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). We investigated if haplotype and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FADS gene cluster can influence LCPUFA status in infants who received either fish oil or placebo supplementation. Children enrolled in the Infant Fish Oil Supplementation Study (IFOS) were randomly allocated to receive either fish oil or placebo from birth to 6 months of age. Blood was collected at 6 months of age for the measurement of fatty acids and for DNA extraction. A total of 276 participant DNA samples underwent genotyping, and 126 erythrocyte and 133 plasma fatty acid measurements were available for analysis. Twenty-two FADS SNPs were selected on the basis of literature and linkage disequilibrium patterns identified from the HapMap data. Haplotype construction was completed using PHASE. For participants allocated to the fish oil group who had two copies of the FADS1 haplotype consisting of SNP minor alleles, DHA levels were significantly higher compared to other haplotypes. This finding was not observed for the placebo group. Furthermore, for members of the fish oil group only, the minor homozygous carriers of all the FADS1 SNPs investigated had significantly higher DHA than other genotypes (rs174545, rs174546, rs174548, rs174553, rs174556, rs174537, rs174448, and rs174455). Overall results of this preliminary study suggest that supplementation with fish oil may only significantly increase DHA in minor allele carriers of FADS1 SNPs. Further research is required to confirm this novel finding.

  12. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  13. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  14. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  15. Elevated prostaglandin E metabolites and abnormal plasma fatty acids at baseline in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael Glenn; Thomsen, Kelly; Brown, Rebekah F; Laposata, Michael; Seegmiller, Adam

    2016-10-01

    Airway inflammation is a significant contributor to the morbidity of cystic fibrosis (CF) disease. One feature of this inflammation is the production of oxygenated metabolites, such as prostaglandins. Individuals with CF are known to have abnormal metabolism of fatty acids, typically resulting in reduced levels of linoleic acid (LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This is a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial of DHA supplementation with endpoints of plasma fatty acid levels and prostaglandin E metabolite (PGE-M) levels. Patients with CF age 6-18 years with pancreatic insufficiency were recruited. Each participant completed 3 four-week study periods: DHA at two different doses (high dose and low dose) and placebo with a minimum 4 week wash-out between each period. Blood, urine, and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) were collected at baseline and after each study period for measurement of plasma fatty acids as well as prostaglandin E metabolites. Seventeen participants were enrolled, and 12 participants completed all 3 study periods. Overall, DHA supplementation was well tolerated without significant adverse events. There was a significant increase in plasma DHA levels with supplementation, but no significant change in arachidonic acid (AA) or LA levels. However, at baseline, AA levels were lower and LA levels were higher than previously reported for individuals with CF. Urine PGE-M levels were elevated in the majority of participants at baseline, and while levels decreased with DHA supplementation, they also decreased with placebo. Urine PGE-M levels are elevated at baseline in this cohort of pediatric CF patients, but there was no significant change in these levels with DHA supplementation compared to placebo. In addition, baseline plasma fatty acid levels for this cohort showed some difference to prior reports, including higher levels of LA and lower levels of AA, which may reflect changes in clinical care, and consequently warrants further

  16. L-CARNITINE-INDUCED MODULATION OF PLASMA FATTY ACIDS METABOLISM IN HYPERLIPIDEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hernández Rosales PhD

    2006-02-01

    mejoramiento del metabolismo de las lipoproteínas. ABSTRACTThe present study was designed to examine whether the hipocholesterolemic effect of L-carnitine supplementation is related with lipoprotein fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid compositional and cholesterol content changes were measured in lipoproteins of six different groups of rabbits. Group 1, rabbits fed a standard diet; group 2, rabbits fed standard diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg bw; group 3, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet; group 4, rabbits fed a 0.5 % cholesterol diet plus L-carnitine 80 mg/kg b.w. These four groups were fed their diets during 126 days. Group 5 and 6 were fed the same diet as group 4 in a previous period of 126 days, and after this time, group 5 was fed the same diet as group 1, and group 6 fed the same diet as group 2, during a second period of 65 days.However, the progression of hypercholesterolemia was reduced 50 % by L-carnitine administration in those animals fed cholesterol diet. Fatty acid compositional changes in lipoprotein-cholesteryl esters were found in all groups of animals supplemented with L-carnitine. During the standard-fed period the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid ratio was increased in VLDL and HDL particles whereas was decreased in LDL. In the hyperlipidemia progression period the saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio in HDL fraction was slightly enhanced and in the VLDL+LDL modified particle was diminished. In the hyperlipidemia regression period, plasma cholesterol level was additionally reduced in a 33 % in the group 6; and the saturated to unsaturated fatty ratio had the same behaviour from that observed in the progression period for HDL and VLDL+LDL particles. A remarkable reduction (75% of aorta atherosclerotic plaques in the group 6 was found. From these results we concluded that L-carnitine, in this experimental model, induces an improved lipoprotein metabolism.

  17. Effects of replacing fish oil with microalgae biomass (Schizochytrium spp) as a source of n-3 LC-PUFA to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on growth performance, fillet quality and fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Mizambwa, Hellen Edward

    2017-01-01

    Low levels of EFA in fish feed as a result of changes in diet composition brings a need of finding a novel ingredient that will supplement Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in fish feed. Microalgae have ability of producing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and for that are predicted to be a reliable feed ingredients in replacing fish oil in the near future. Main objective of present study was to evaluate effects of replacing fish oil (FO) with microalgae biomass (Schizochytrium spp.) (AA)...

  18. Majority of cellular fatty acid acylated proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, C.A.; Olson, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    The BC 2 Hl muscle cell line was previously reported to contain a broad array of fatty acid acylated proteins. Palmitate was shown to be attached to membrane proteins posttranslationally through thiol ester linkages, whereas myristate was attached cotranslationally, or within seconds thereafter, to soluble and membrane-bound proteins through amide linkages. The temporal and subcellular differences between palmitate and myristate acylation suggested that these two classes of acyl proteins might follow different intracellular pathways to distinct subcellular membrane systems or organelles. In this study, the authors examined the subcellular localization of the major fatty acylated proteins in BC 4 Hl cells. Palmitate-containing proteins were localized to the plasma membrane, but only a subset of myristate-containing proteins was localized to this membrane fraction. The majority of acyl proteins were nonglycosylated and resistant to digestion with extracellular proteases, suggesting that they were not exposed to the external surface of the plasma membrane. Many proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins were, however, digested during incubation of isolated membranes with proteases, which indicates that these proteins face the cytoplasm. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with [ 3 H]palmitate and [ 3 H]myristate revealed that individual proteins were modified by only one of the two fatty acids and did not undergo both N-linked myristylation and ester-linked palmitylation. Together, these results suggest that the majority of cellular acyl proteins are routed to the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, and they raise the possibility that fatty acid acylation may play a role in intracellular sorting of nontransmembranous, nonglycosylated membrane proteins

  19. Low-fat diet with omega-3 fatty acids increases plasma insulin-like growth factor concentration in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lindsay R; Kurzer, Mindy S; Thomas, William; Redmon, J Bruce; Raatz, Susan K

    2013-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor pathway plays a central role in the normal and abnormal growth of tissues; however, nutritional determinants of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding proteins in healthy individuals are not well defined. Three test diets-high-fat diet (40% energy as fat), low-fat diet (LF; 20% energy as fat), and a diet with low fat and high omega-3 fatty acid (LFn3; 23% energy as fat)--were tested in a randomized crossover designed controlled feeding trial in healthy postmenopausal women. Plasma IGF-I, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, glucose, and ratio of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 concentrations were measured in response to diets. Insulin sensitivity was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance We hypothesized that IGF-I, insulin, and glucose concentrations would decrease and IGFBP-3 concentration would increase in response to the low-fat diets. Eight weeks of the LFn3 diet increased circulating IGF-I (P diet increased IGFBP-3 (P = .04), resulting in trends toward an increased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LFn3 diet and a decreased IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio with the LF diet (P = .13 for both comparisons). No statistically significant differences were detected between treatments at baseline or 8 weeks for IGF-1, IGFBP-3, or the ratio of IGF-1/IGFBP-3. Insulin, glucose, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were not altered by the interventions. Low-fat diet with high n-3 fatty acids may increase circulating IGF-I concentrations without adversely affecting insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-28

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid.

  1. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids are directly associated with cognition in overweight children but not in normal weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapala, E A; Viitasalo, A; Venäläinen, T; Eloranta, A-M; Ågren, J; Lindi, V; Lakka, T A

    2016-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for the normal development of the brain. We investigated the associations between plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognition in normal weight and overweight children. The study recruited 386 normal weight children and 58 overweight children aged six to eight years and blood samples were drawn after a 12-hour fast. We assessed plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids using gas chromatography, cognition using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and overweight and obesity using the age-specific and sex-specific cut-offs from the International Obesity Task Force. The data were analysed by linear regression analyses adjusted for age and sex. Higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.311, p = 0.020, p = 0.029 for interaction) and docosahexaenoic acid in plasma triacylglycerols (β = 0.281, p = 0.038, p = 0.049 for interaction) were both associated with higher Raven's scores in overweight children but not in normal weight children. Higher eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid ratios in triacylglycerols (β = 0.317, p = 0.019) and phospholipids (β = 0.273, p = 0.046) were directly associated with the Raven's score in overweight children but not in normal weight children. These findings suggest that increasing the consumption of fish and other sources of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may improve cognition among overweight children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dietary fatty acids modulate associations between genetic variants and circulating fatty acids in plasma and erythrocyte membranes: meta-analysis of nine studies in the CHARGE consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scope: Tissue concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, and genetic variants are associated with circulating fatty acids concentrations. Whether dietary fatty acids interact with genetic variants to modify circulating omega-3 fatty acids is unclear. We evaluated i...

  3. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 /sup 123/I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F. (C.H.R.U. de Grenoble (France)); Vidal, M. (U.S.M.G., 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of /sup 123/I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid.

  4. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 123I hexadecene 9 oique acid: influence of plasma concentrations of fatty acids and glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M.; Pilichowski, P.; Wolf, J.E.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.

    1983-01-01

    After I.V. injection of 123 I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Then the procedure is repeated after I.V. injection of heparin alone (6 dogs), of heparin during an intralipid perfusion (6 dogs) and lastly during a perfusion of a solution of glucose, insulin and potassium (7 dogs). In the two last protocols only, the period of the curve is significantly increased. The increase of the period means perhaps an increase of the intracellular accumulation of fatty acids. Patients must be in the same nutritional state to allow comparison between periods and a measure of the plasma level of NEFA is necessary before each injection of the labelled fatty acid [fr

  5. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid allow a higher accretion of n-3 LCPUFA in the plasma, liver and adipose tissue of the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ALA is the precursor of EPA and DHA and its dietary availability is limited. Vegetable oils rich in ALA (48–64% are alternatives for increasing its consumption. The conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA and the ratio (EPA+DHA/ALA was evaluated in different tissues from male Wistar rats fed ALA –rich oils. Four groups (n=12/group were fed for 21 days with oils from: a corn (CO, 3% ALA; b soybean (SO, 6% ALA; c sacha inchi (SIO, 48% ALA and; d chia (ChO, 64% ALA. SO, SIO and ChO significantly increased ALA levels (pALA es precursor de EPA y DHA y sus fuentes dietarias son limitadas. Aceites ricos en ALA (48–64% son una alternativa para incrementar su consumo. En este trabajo se evaluó la conversión de ALA a EPA y DHA, y la relación (EPA+DHA/ALA en tejidos de ratas macho Wistar alimentadas con aceites con alto contenido en ALA. Cuatro grupos (n=12/grupo recibieron durante 21 días aceite de: a maíz (CO, 3% ALA; b soja (SO, 6% ALA; c sacha inchi (SIO, 48% ALA y; d chía (ChO, 64% ALA. SO, SIO y ChO incrementaron ALA (p<0,05 en los tejidos. Solo SIO y ChO incrementaron el EPA y DHA, disminuyendo la relación n-6/n-3 (p<0,05. Se propone SIO y ChO como fuentes de ALA para incrementar EPA y DHA en los tejidos.

  6. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids Docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5n-6) and Docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) from -100 to 20° C

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural, cognitive and visual development of the human brain and retina strictly require long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Excluding water, the mammalian brain is about 60% lipid. One of the great unanswered questions with respect to biological science in general is the absolu...

  7. BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOENGINEERING ‘‘NEW APPLICATION OF LIPASES IN LIPID TRANSFORMATION’’ Enzyme-catalysed enrichment of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of salmon oil: optimisation of reaction conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linder Michel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid from salmon oil (Salmo salar by enzymatic hydrolysis were studied. Enzymatic aqueous extraction of oil with Neutrase® 0.5l was applied to the salmon flesh in batch reactor. Reaction kinetics were monitored under nitrogen by measuring the degree of hydrolysis (DH% using the pH-stat method, in order to preserve the functional and nutritional values of hydrolysates. Lipids were separated by centrifugation yielding 14.3% (w/w for the product, compared to 15.2% (w/w obtained using the classical method with solvent. Lipase hydrolysis by Novozym® SP 398, a specific sn-1, sn-3 enzyme, and membrane filtration, were evaluated as means of selectively concentrating polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA fractions. A Doehlert matrix was used to study the effect of reaction time, flow and enzyme/protein ratio. Quadratic models were used to generate response surfaces of the liberation of fatty acids during the lipolysis and the composition of major saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the permeate.

  8. Hypercholesterolemia increases plasma saturated and n-6 fatty acids altering prostaglandin homeostasis and promotes endothelial dysfunction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, M; Alberto, M R; Sierra, L; Van Nieuwenhove, C; Saad, S; Isla, M I; Jerez, S

    2014-07-01

    The present study evaluated the plasma fatty acid levels and the vascular prostaglandin (PG) release in a rabbit model of early hypercholesterolemia with endothelial dysfunction. Rabbits were fed either a control diet (CD) or a diet containing 1 % cholesterol (HD) for 5-6 weeks. The level of fatty acids was measured in plasma. The levels of PG and nitric oxide (NO) released from the aorta were also determined. Vascular morphology of the aorta was characterized by intima and media thickness measurements. The rabbits fed with HD had higher levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) and lower levels of oleic acid. The linoleic acid level was unchanged. PGI(2) and NO were diminished and PGF(2α) levels, the PGI(2)/TXA(2) ratio and the intima/media ratio were increased in rabbits fed with HD. In conclusion, feeding HD for a short period increased ARA plasma levels and unbalanced release of vasodilator/vasoconstrictor PG redirected the pathway to vasoconstrictor metabolite release. These lipid metabolism alterations in addition to the reduced NO levels and the moderate changes in the vascular morphology contributed to the endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. Therefore, the present findings support the importance of early correction or prevention of high cholesterol levels to disrupt the endothelial dysfunction process that leads to cardiovascular disease.

  9. Fatty acid profile in patients with phenylketonuria and its relationship with bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Sergio; Bueno, María; Andrade, Fernando; Prieto, José Angel; Delgado, Carmen; Legarda, María; Sanjurjo, Pablo; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis Jose

    2010-12-01

    Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) undergo a restrictive vegan-like diet, with almost total absence of n-3 fatty acids, which have been proposed as potential contributors to bone formation in the healthy population. The PKU diet might lead these patients to bone mass loss and, consequently, to the development of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Therefore, we proposed to analyze their plasma fatty acid profile status and its