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Sample records for plasma n-3 fatty

  1. Plasma n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and inflammatory markers in Chinese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomei; Huang, Tao; Weng, Xiumei; Shou, Tianxing; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoqiong; Hu, Qinxin; Li, Duo

    2014-09-29

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake favorably affects chronic inflammatory-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease; however, the relationship between the PUFA and inflammatory factors in the healthy vegetarians were not clear. We aimed to investigate the plasma fatty acids status, and its association with plasma inflammatory factors in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 89 male vegetarians and 106 male omnivores were participated the study. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA, and as standard methods fatty acids were extracted and determined by chromatography. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians have significant higher interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasma n-6 PUFA, n-6/n-3, and 18:3n-3; while they have significant lower leukotriene B4 (LTB4), cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA. In vegetarians, plasma 20:4n-6 was significant positively related to TNF-α. LTB4 was significantly positively related to plasma 22:6n-3, and negatively associated with n-6 PUFA. Vegetarians have higher plasma n-6 PUFA and IL-6, but lower LTB4, n-3 PUFA, 22:6n-3, COX2 and PGE2 levels. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA, while reduce dietary n-6 PUFA and thus reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory-related diseases.

  2. Plasma Phospholipid Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Body Weight Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Dethlefsen, Claus; Due, Karen M

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between the proportion of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in plasma phospholipids from blood samples drawn at enrollment and subsequent change in body weight. Sex, age, and BMI were considered as potential effect modifiers....

  3. Wheat aleurone fractions and plasma n-3 fatty acids in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Salen, Patricia; Demeilliers, Christine; Calani, Luca; Scazzina, Francesca; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Laporte, Francois; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; de Lorgeril, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the effects of two wheat aleurone (WA) fractions on circulating n-3 fatty acids in rats. We demonstrated that only the fraction able to induce the highest urinary excretion of polyphenol metabolites (>1µmol) resulted in a significant increase in plasma level of Eicosapentanoic acid (+22%, p < 0.05). While other constituents of whole wheat can be involved in this response, our data suggest that cereals containing high levels of phenolic compounds can increase blood n-3 without affecting n-6 fatty acids. Further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis and explore the underlying biological mechanisms.

  4. Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into selective phosphatidylcholine lipids in human plasma after salmon intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease. Intake of n-3 LCPUFA is often quantified by analysis of plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA); however, the typical analysis by gas chromatography does not allow fo...

  5. Plasma n-3 fatty acids and clinical outcomes in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudman, Susanna M; Cleland, Leslie G; Metcalf, Robert G; Sullivan, Thomas R; Spargo, Llewellyn D; James, Michael J

    2015-09-28

    A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of high-dose v. low-dose fish oil in recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) demonstrated that the group allocated to high-dose fish oil had increased remission and decreased failure of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy. This study examines the relationships between plasma phospholipid levels of the n-3 fatty acids in fish oil, EPA and DHA, and remission and DMARD use in recent-onset RA. EPA and DHA were measured in blood samples from both groups of the RCT. The data were analysed as a single cohort, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine relationships between plasma phospholipid (PL) EPA and DHA and various outcome measures. When analysed as a single cohort, plasma PL EPA was related to time to remission, with a one unit increase in EPA (1% total fatty acids) associated with a 12% increase in the probability of remission at any time during the study period (hazard ratio (HR)=1.12; 95% CI 1.02, 1.23; P=0.02). Adjustment for smoking, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and 'shared epitope' HLA-DR allele status did not change the HR. Plasma PL EPA, adjusted for the same variables, was negatively related to time to DMARD failure (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99; P=0.047). The HR for DHA and time to remission or DMARD failure were similar in magnitude to those for EPA, but not statistically significant. Biomarkers of n-3 status, such as plasma PL EPA, have the potential to predict clinical outcomes relevant to standard drug treatment of RA patients.

  6. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men.

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    Rosell, Magdalena S; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Appleby, Paul N; Sanders, Thomas A B; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2005-08-01

    Plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are lower in vegetarians and in vegans than in omnivores. No data are available on whether these concentrations differ between long- and short-term vegetarians and vegans. We compared plasma fatty acid composition in meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and examined whether the proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3; DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; DHA) were related to the subjects' duration of adherence to their diets or to the proportions of plasma linoleic acid (18:2n-6; LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3; ALA). The present cross-sectional study included 196 meat-eating, 231 vegetarian, and 232 vegan men in the United Kingdom. Information on anthropometry, diet, and smoking habits was obtained through a questionnaire. Total fatty acid composition in plasma was measured. The proportions of plasma EPA and DHA were lower in the vegetarians and in the vegans than in the meat-eaters, whereas only small differences were seen for DPA. Plasma EPA, DPA, and DHA proportions were not significantly associated with the duration of time since the subjects became vegetarian or vegan, which ranged from 20 y. In the vegetarians and the vegans, plasma DHA was inversely correlated with plasma LA. The proportions of plasma long-chain n-3 fatty acids were not significantly affected by the duration of adherence to a vegetarian or vegan diet. This finding suggests that when animal foods are wholly excluded from the diet, the endogenous production of EPA and DHA results in low but stable plasma concentrations of these fatty acids.

  7. Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Verhoef, P.; Brouwer, I.A.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3 po

  8. Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Verhoef, P.; Brouwer, I.A.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3

  9. Maternal high fat diet is associated with decreased plasma n-3 fatty acids and fetal hepatic apoptosis in nonhuman primates.

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    Wilmon F Grant

    Full Text Available To begin to understand the contributions of maternal obesity and over-nutrition to human development and the early origins of obesity, we utilized a non-human primate model to investigate the effects of maternal high-fat feeding and obesity on breast milk, maternal and fetal plasma fatty acid composition and fetal hepatic development. While the high-fat diet (HFD contained equivalent levels of n-3 fatty acids (FA's and higher levels of n-6 FA's than the control diet (CTR, we found significant decreases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and total n-3 FA's in HFD maternal and fetal plasma. Furthermore, the HFD fetal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio was elevated and was significantly correlated to the maternal plasma n-6:n-3 ratio and maternal hyperinsulinemia. Hepatic apoptosis was also increased in the HFD fetal liver. Switching HFD females to a CTR diet during a subsequent pregnancy normalized fetal DHA, n-3 FA's and fetal hepatic apoptosis to CTR levels. Breast milk from HFD dams contained lower levels of eicosopentanoic acid (EPA and DHA and lower levels of total protein than CTR breast milk. This study links chronic maternal consumption of a HFD with fetal hepatic apoptosis and suggests that a potentially pathological maternal fatty acid milieu is replicated in the developing fetal circulation in the nonhuman primate.

  10. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Rosenberger, Thad A; Johnson, LuAnn K; Wolters, William W; Burr, Gary S; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-02-01

    Enhanced n-3 fatty acid intake benefits cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level may be better addressed by diet than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of the dose response to fish intake on plasma levels of n-3 fatty acids. To compare the effects of different doses of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid proportions and CVD risk biomarkers (eg, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6) in healthy subjects we performed a randomized three-period crossover-designed trial (4-week treatment, 4- to 8-week washout) to compare the effects of twice per week consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 19 apparently healthy men and women (mean age 40 to 65 years) and a body mass index between 25 and 34.9. All study visits were conducted at the US Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center. Eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 concentrations were increased (Pacid did not change in response to treatment, whereas arachidonic acid (Pfatty acids decreased dose dependently (fatty acid proportions of n-3 and n-6 in a level associated with decreased risk for CVD.

  11. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

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    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  12. Plasma fatty acid composition in French-Canadian children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahis, S; Alvarez, F; Dubois, J; Ahmed, N; Peretti, N; Levy, E

    2015-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents one of the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. As the NAFLD pathogenesis is associated with diet and lifestyle, the aims of the present work are to assess fatty acid (FA) composition in NAFLD young French-Canadian, to determine whether treatment with n-3 FA improves the plasma FA profile, and to define the time on the effectiveness of n-3 FA supplementation. Baseline characteristics of the NAFLD subjects show increased, anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Their plasma FA composition is characterized by a percent increase in total n-6 FA and a high proportion of saturated and total monounsaturated FA, as well as a decrease in Δ5 and increase in Δ6 desaturases. In conclusion, our results document for the first time the composition of plasma FAs in NAFLD young French Canadian and the efficacy of 3-month supplementation to improve the proportion of n-3 FA in their plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Manichaikul (Ani); M. Foy (Millennia); E.K. Kabagambe (Edmond); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); I.B. King (Irena); L.-C. Weng; S. Bhattacharya (Sayanti); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.S. Rich (Stephen); D.R. Jacobs (David); A. Cherubini (Antonio); B. McKnight (Barbara); S. Liang (Shuang); X. Gu (Xiangjun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); C.C. Laurie (Cathy); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.L. Browning (Brian); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); L. Djousse (Luc); J.H.Y. Wu (Jason); D.S. Siscovick (David); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); L.M. Steffen (Lyn); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide associa

  14. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid N-3 fatty acids: A Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide association studies from the charge consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.N. Lemaitre (Rozenn); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); W. Tang (Weihong); A. Manichaikul (Ani); M. Foy (Millennia); E.K. Kabagambe (Edmond); J.A. Nettleton (Jennifer ); I.B. King (Irena); L.-C. Weng; S. Bhattacharya (Sayanti); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); J.C. Bis (Joshua); S.S. Rich (Stephen); D.R. Jacobs (David); A. Cherubini (Antonio); B. McKnight (Barbara); S. Liang (Shuang); X. Gu (Xiangjun); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); C.C. Laurie (Cathy); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.L. Browning (Brian); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Y.D.I. Chen (Yii-Der Ida); Y. Friedlander (Yechiel); L. Djousse (Luc); J.H.Y. Wu (Jason); D.S. Siscovick (David); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); M.Y. Tsai (Michael); D. Mozaffarian (Dariush); L.M. Steffen (Lyn); D.K. Arnett (Donna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractLong-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA) by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide

  15. N-3 Fatty acid proportions in plasma and cognitive performance in older adults 1-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Durga, J.; Brouwer, I.A.; Rest, van de O.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Boxtel, van M.P.J.; Verhoef, P.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Very-long-chain n¿3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n¿3 PUFAs) are suggested to be related to cognitive performance in older adults. However, limited data exist on the association between n¿3 PUFAs and performance in specific cognitive domains. Objective: We evaluated the association betwee

  16. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations during pregnancy and subcutaneous fat mass in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelena Vidakovic, Aleksandra; Santos, Susana; Williams, Michelle A.; Duijts, Liesbeth; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations of maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations during pregnancy with infant subcutaneous fat. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 904 mothers and their infants, we measured maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 PUFA concentrations at mid-pregnancy. Body mass index, total subcutaneous fat and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio were calculated at 1.5, 6 and 24 months. Results Maternal n-3 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant body mass index or total subcutaneous fat. Higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were associated with higher central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months, whereas higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels were associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 6 months (all p-values<0.05). These associations were not present at 24 months. Maternal n-6 PUFA levels were not consistently associated with infant subcutaneous fat. A higher n-6/n-3 ratio was associated with lower central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months only (p-value<0.05). Conclusions Maternal n-3 PUFA levels during pregnancy may have transient effects on infant subcutaneous fat. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of maternal PUFA concentrations on fat mass development during early infancy. PMID:27356181

  17. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

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    Man Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To determine whether red blood cell (RBC membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, arachidonic acid (AA are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma (NTG.METHODS:This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS.RESULTS:When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean deviation (MD score (r=0.617, P<0.001; r=0.727, P<0.001 and r=0.720, P<0.001, respectively, while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score (r=-0.427, P=0.001. When plasma lipids were analyzed, there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score (r=0.648, P<0.001, and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score (r=-0.638, P<0.001.CONCLUSION:The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  18. Association of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cell membrane and plasma with severity of normal tension glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man; Yu; Bo; Chen; Bo; Gong; Ping; Shuai; Zheng-Zheng; Wu; Wei; Lin

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether red blood cell(RBC)membrane and plasma lipids, particularly long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), docosahexaenoic acid(DHA), arachidonic acid(AA) are significantly correlated with severity of normal tension glaucoma(NTG).METHODS: This study included 35 patients with NTG and 12 healthy normal control subjects, matched for age and sex with the study group. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification. Lipids were extracted from RBC membranes and plasma, and fatty acid methyl esters prepared and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).RESULTS: When RBC lipids were analyzed, the levels of EPA, the levels of DHA and the ratio of n3 to n6 were positively associated with the Humphrey Perimetry mean Deviation(MD) score(r =0.617, P <0.001; r =0.727, P <0.001 and r =0.720, P <0.001, respectively), while the level of AA was negatively associated with the MD score(r =-0.427, P =0.001). When plasma lipids were analyzed,there was a significant positive relationship between the levels of EPA and the MD score(r =0.648, P <0.001), and the levels of AA were inversely correlated with the MD score(r =-0.638, P <0.001). CONCLUSION: The levels of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in RBC membrane and plasma lipids were associated with severity of NTG.

  19. Genetic loci associated with plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from the CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenn N Lemaitre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs can derive from diet or from α-linolenic acid (ALA by elongation and desaturation. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid levels of the four major n-3 PUFAs by performing genome-wide association studies in five population-based cohorts comprising 8,866 subjects of European ancestry. Minor alleles of SNPs in FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases were associated with higher levels of ALA (p = 3 x 10⁻⁶⁴ and lower levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, p = 5 x 10⁻⁵⁸ and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, p = 4 x 10⁻¹⁵⁴. Minor alleles of SNPs in ELOVL2 (elongase were associated with higher EPA (p = 2 x 10⁻¹² and DPA (p = 1 x 10⁻⁴³ and lower docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, p = 1 x 10⁻¹⁵. In addition to genes in the n-3 pathway, we identified a novel association of DPA with several SNPs in GCKR (glucokinase regulator, p = 1 x 10⁻⁸. We observed a weaker association between ALA and EPA among carriers of the minor allele of a representative SNP in FADS2 (rs1535, suggesting a lower rate of ALA-to-EPA conversion in these subjects. In samples of African, Chinese, and Hispanic ancestry, associations of n-3 PUFAs were similar with a representative SNP in FADS1 but less consistent with a representative SNP in ELOVL2. Our findings show that common variation in n-3 metabolic pathway genes and in GCKR influences plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFAs in populations of European ancestry and, for FADS1, in other ancestries.

  20. Effects of n3 Intake on Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Sex Hormone Profiles in Postmenopausal Women: Potential for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction

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    Breast cancer risk is associated with dietary fat intake. Omega-6 fatty acids (n6) promote while omega-3 fatty acids (n3) inhibit tumorigenesis. Increased sex hormone (SH) concentrations are associated with risk of breast cancer. The effects of total fat and n3 on SH and PLFA were assessed in a f...

  1. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study

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    Forouhi, Nita G.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Zheng, Jusheng; Ye, Zheng; Kröger, Janine; Wang, Laura Yun; Summerhill, Keith; Griffin, Julian L.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Affret, Aurélie; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kühn, Tilman; Mortensen, Lotte Maxild; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Scalbert, Augustin; Slimani, Nadia; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations. Methods and Findings Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA) was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98), but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA) (0.80; 95% CI 0.77–0.83) and eicosadienoic acid (EDA) (0.89; 95% CI 0.85–0.94) were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA) was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA), dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA), and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA), with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs. Conclusions These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA) but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) with T2D. Moreover, they

  2. Association of Plasma Phospholipid n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita G Forouhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are related to type 2 diabetes (T2D is debated. Objectively measured plasma PUFAs can help to clarify these associations.Plasma phospholipid PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography among 12,132 incident T2D cases and 15,919 subcohort participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-InterAct study across eight European countries. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. We also systematically reviewed published prospective studies on circulating PUFAs and T2D risk and pooled the quantitative evidence for comparison with results from EPIC-InterAct. In EPIC-InterAct, among long-chain n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid (ALA was inversely associated with T2D (HR per standard deviation [SD] 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, but eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not significantly associated. Among n-6 PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA (0.80; 95% CI 0.77-0.83 and eicosadienoic acid (EDA (0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94 were inversely related, and arachidonic acid (AA was not significantly associated, while significant positive associations were observed with γ-linolenic acid (GLA, dihomo-GLA, docosatetraenoic acid (DTA, and docosapentaenoic acid (n6-DPA, with HRs between 1.13 to 1.46 per SD. These findings from EPIC-InterAct were broadly similar to comparative findings from summary estimates from up to nine studies including between 71 to 2,499 T2D cases. Limitations included potential residual confounding and the inability to distinguish between dietary and metabolic influences on plasma phospholipid PUFAs.These large-scale findings suggest an important inverse association of circulating plant-origin n-3 PUFA (ALA but no convincing association of marine-derived n3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA with T2D. Moreover, they highlight that the most abundant n6-PUFA (LA is inversely

  3. Low- and high-dose plant and marine (n-3) fatty acids do not affect plasma inflammatory markers in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Marvasti, Farshad Fani; Harris, William S; Tsao, Philip; Gardner, Christopher D

    2011-12-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Various (n-3) fatty acids (FA) have been reported to have antiinflammatory effects, but there is a lack of consensus in this area, particularly in regard to optimal source(s) and dose(s). This study aimed to determine the effects of high and low doses of (n-3) FA from plant and marine sources on plasma inflammatory marker concentrations. One-hundred adults with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to a low or high dose of plant- (2.2 or 6.6 g/d α-linolenic acid) or marine- (1.2 or 3.6 g/d EPA and DHA) derived (n-3) FA or placebo for 8 wk, using a parallel arm design (n = 20/arm). Fasting blood samples collected at 0, 4, and 8 wk were analyzed for concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and for cardiovascular risk factors. Baseline concentrations across all 5 groups combined were (mean ± SD) 103 ± 32 ng/L for MCP-1, 1.06 ± 0.56 ng/L for IL-6, and 0.197 ± 0.041 ng/L for sICAM-1. There were no significant differences in 8-wk changes in plasma inflammatory marker concentrations among the 5 groups. Plasma TG and blood pressure decreased significantly more and the LDL cholesterol concentration increased more in the high-dose fish oil group compared to the 8-wk changes in some of the other 4 groups (P ≤ 0.04). In conclusion, no beneficial effects were detected for any of the 3 inflammatory markers investigated in response to (n-3) FA in adults with metabolic syndrome regardless of dose or source.

  4. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Lipid Microclusters, and Vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Wassall, Stephen R; Brown, David A; Kosaraju, Rasagna

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of long-chain marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has potential health benefits for the general population and for select clinical populations. However, several key limitations remain in making adequate dietary recommendations on n-3 PUFAs in addition to translating the fatty acids into clinical trials for select diseases. One major constraint is an incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of n-3 PUFAs. In this review, we highlight studies to show n-3 PUFA acyl chains reorganize the molecular architecture of plasma membrane sphingolipid-cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts and potentially sphingolipid-rich cholesterol-free domains and cardiolipin-protein scaffolds in the inner mitochondrial membrane. We also discuss the possibility that the effects of n-3 PUFAs on membrane organization could be regulated by the presence of vitamin E (α-tocopherol), which is necessary to protect highly unsaturated acyl chains from oxidation. Finally, we propose the integrated hypothesis, based predominately on studies in lymphocytes, cancer cells, and model membranes, that the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs disrupt signaling microclusters is highly dependent on the type of lipid species that incorporate n-3 PUFA acyl chains. The current evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA acyl chains disrupt lipid raft formation by incorporating primarily into phosphatidylethanolamines but can also incorporate into other lipid species of the lipidome.

  5. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A low omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-6 PUFA) diet increases omega-3 (n-3) long chain PUFA status in plasma phospholipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K E; Lau, A; Mantzioris, E; Gibson, R A; Ramsden, C E; Muhlhausler, B S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of reducing the dietary linoleic acid (LA) intake from ~5% to PUFA (LCPUFA) status in humans. Thirty-six participants followed a PUFA content of plasma and erythrocyte phospholipids were significantly reduced after the low LA diet phase (P<0.001). The n-3 LCPUFA content of plasma phospholipids was significantly increased after the low LA diet compared to baseline (6.22% vs. 5.53%, P<0.001). These data demonstrate that reducing LA intake for 4 weeks increases n-3 LCPUFA status in humans in the absence of increased n-3 LCPUFA intake.

  7. Associations between dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and arachidonic acid compositions in plasma and erythrocytes in young and elderly Japanese volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Terue

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that the compositions of arachidonic acid (ARA in erythrocytes and plasma phospholipids (PL in the elderly were lower than those in the young, though the ARA intake was nearly identical. Objective We further analyzed data in four study groups with different ages and sexes, and determined that the blood ARA levels were affected by the kinds of dietary fatty acids ingested. Methods One hundred and four healthy young and elderly volunteers were recruited. Dietary records together with photographic records from 28 consecutive days were reviewed and the fatty acid composition in plasma lipid fractions and erythrocyte PL was analyzed. Results No correlations for ARA between dietary fatty acids and blood lipid fractions were observed. A significant negative correlation between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA intake and ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was observed. ARA composition in erythrocyte PL was significantly lower in elderly subjects than in young subjects, because EPA and DHA intake in elderly subjects was higher than in young subjects. However, after removing the effect of dietary EPA+DHA intake, the ARA composition in erythrocyte PL in elderly subjects was significantly lower than that in young subjects. Conclusions Changes in physical conditions with aging influenced the low ARA composition of erythrocyte in elderly subjects in addition to the effects of dietary EPA and DHA.

  8. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity-related i......BACKGROUND: Based on animal studies, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been suggested to lower the risk of obesity and inflammation. We aimed to investigate if, among humans, intake of n-3 PUFAs was associated with i) total body fat, ii) body fat distribution and iii) obesity...

  9. N-3 fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, C; Marangoni, F

    2006-09-01

    Fats in the diet of countries in the Mediterranean basin are typically represented by olive oil, but the high consumptions of vegetables and to some extent also of fish result in appreciable intakes of n-3 fatty acids. In fact, various plant foods are relatively rich in the 18 carbon n-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, ALA, while the generally moderate consumption of fish, except for certain communities living close to the sea, contributes to the intake of the long-chain n-3. Although the amounts of fats in ALA-containing plant foods are low, the relatively high concentrations of this fatty acid and the large size of the portions consumed allow to reach appreciable doses of ALA, an n-3 fatty acid that has been shown to exert favourable effects on various relevant factors in cardiovascular protection. In addition, consumption of relatively small amounts of certain typical dry fruit components of the diet such as walnuts, provides a sizable supply of ALA that is also rather efficiently converted to the ALA derivative eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Additional rather typical wild food components of the diet in certain countries, i.e. snails and frogs, are also appreciable sources of ALA. It appears thus that the consumption of typical Mediterranean foods provides relevant intakes of n-3 fatty acids, especially ALA, that appears to be efficiently absorbed and also transformed at least to the long-chain derivative EPA.

  10. Antiatherogenic effects of n-3 fatty acids - evidence and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Zampolli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available N-3 (omega-3 (polyunsaturated fatty acids are thought to display a variety of beneficial effects for human health. Clues to the occurrence of cardiovascular protective effects have been, however, the spur for the first biomedical interest in these compounds, and are the best documented. Historically, the epidemiologic association between dietary consumption of n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular protection was first suggested by Bang and Dyerberg, who identified the high consumption of fish, and therefore, of fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids, as the likely explanation for the strikingly low rate of coronary heart disease events reported in the Inuit population. Since their initial reports, research has proceeded in parallel to provide further evidence for their cardioprotection and to understand underlying mechanisms. Decreased atherogenesis is currently thought to be a part of the cardiovascular protection by n-3 fatty acids. This article summarizes the evidence for such a claim and the mechanisms putatively involved. (Heart International 2006; 3-4: 141-54

  11. Effects of N-3 Fatty Acids on the Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the coronary heart disease patients. Methods From September 2007 to March 2008, 60 patients with coronary heart disease were randomly assigned to n-3 fatty acids group (group N) and control group (group C). Both groups received standard coronary artery disease secondary prevention treatment and group N also received eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 1.8 g plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1.2 g per day for 12 weeks. Plasma triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and blood pressure were measured before and after the study. Results Plasma triacylglycerols, blood pressure and LDL-C level were lower in group N after n-3 fatty acids treatment while no change was found in group C ( P< 0. 05). HDL-C level slightly increased and total cholesterol level slightly decreased after n-3 fatty acids but both change were not significant ( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusions N-3 fatty acids have beneficial effects on the coronary artery disease patients.

  12. n-3 fatty acids: role in neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, R; Marino, A; Cuzzocrea, S

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential unsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) starting after the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. They are important nutrients but, unfortunately, mammals cannot synthesize them, whereby they must be obtained from food sources or from supplements. Amongst nutritionally important polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are highly concentrated in the brain and have anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. They are involved in many bodily processes and may reportedly lead to neuron protection in neurological diseases. aged or damaged neurons and in Alzheimer's disease. Their effect in cognitive and behavioral functions and in several neurological and psychiatric disorders has been also proven. The dentate gyrus (DG), a sub-region of hippocampus, is implicated in cognition and mood regulation. The hippocampus represents one of the two areas in the mammalian brain in which adult neurogenesis occurs. This process is associated with beneficial effects on cognition, mood and chronic pharmacological treatment. The exposure to n-3 fatty acids enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis associated with cognitive and behavioral processes, promotes synaptic plasticity by increasing long-term potentiation and modulates synaptic protein expression to stimulate the dendritic arborization and new spines formation. On this basis we review the effect of n-3 fatty acids on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Moreover their possible use as a new therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases is pointed out.

  13. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappolino, Valentina; Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Agostoni, Carlo; Mazzocchi, Alessandra; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2017-12-15

    Among emerging treatments for depressive disorders several studies suggested that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) supplementation can be used. However, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) differ in terms of biochemistry, metabolism and therapeutic effects. Therefore, a clear picture of their specific and different role on affective disorders has not yet emerged. To investigate the effects of n-3PUFAs on affective disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder and perinatal depression. a comprehensive search on PUBMED, Medline and PsychINFO of all RCTs using n-3PUFAs patients with depressive symptoms published up to April 2016 was performed. We included trials that examined unipolar or bipolar disorder and trials that investigated depressive symptoms in relation to pregnancy. Trials were excluded if the depressive symptomatology was related to other primary organic diseases. 264 RCT studies were identified but only 36 met the inclusion criteria. First, it has been reported that n-3PUFAs supplementation might have clinical benefits on depressive symptoms. Second, EPA supplement, rather than DHA, seems to be more effective in treating major depression. Third, n-3PUFAs can have beneficial effects in bipolar depression but not in perinatal depression. there are only some evidence on the efficacy of n-3PUFAs in affective disorders especially to unipolar and bipolar depression not powered enough to confirm a therapeutic effect for affective disorder. Therefore, further studies with larger and more homogeneous samples, are required to confirm these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have anti-inflammatory effects and neuronal protective functions and may benefit prevention of dementia; however, the epidemiological evidence is very limited. Therefore, the literature about the association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was searched, by using Pubmed. In the analyses of observational studies, n-3 PUFA has been reported to be beneficially associated with dementia in 17 studies; however, the beneficial association between n-3 PUFA and dementia was denied by three studies. In the analyses of intervention studies, n-3 PUFA supplementation was beneficially associated with dementia in eight studies; however, five studies reported the negligible effect of n-3 PUFA for dementia. N-3 PUFA may improve Alzheimer's disease by increasing clearance of amyloid-β peptide, neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors, and by anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, patients with mild memory and/or cognitive impairment can be treated by a long-term and higher intake of n-3 PUFA.

  15. Dietary (n-3)-fatty acids, prostaglandins, and prolonged gestation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... in human urine. Very little is known about the tissue origin as well as the physiologicalfunctions of those prostaglandins, the metabolites of which are quantitated in urine from non-pregnant humans. In pregnant women the increased amount of prostaglandin F2 alpha-metabolites in urine, plasma and amniotic...... chain (n-3)-fatty acids. We have hypothesized that a high intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids prolongs gestation in humans by interfering with uterine prostaglandin formation, possibly by inhibiting formation of prostaglandin F2 alpha and prostaglandin E2. Preliminary results of an epidemiological...

  16. Modulation of enzymatic activities by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to support cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Rafat A; Harvey, Kevin A; Zaloga, Gary P

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence from Greenland Eskimos and Japanese fishing villages suggests that eating fish oil and marine animals can prevent coronary heart disease. Dietary studies from various laboratories have similarly indicated that regular fish oil intake affects several humoral and cellular factors involved in atherogenesis and may prevent atherosclerosis, arrhythmia, thrombosis, cardiac hypertrophy and sudden cardiac death. The beneficial effects of fish oil are attributed to their n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; also known as omega-3 fatty acids) content, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3). Dietary supplementation of DHA and EPA influences the fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids that, in turn, may affect cardiac cell functions in vivo. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-chain omega-3 fatty acids may exert beneficial effects by affecting a wide variety of cellular signaling mechanisms. Pathways involved in calcium homeostasis in the heart may be of particular importance. L-type calcium channels, the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores are the most obvious key signaling pathways affecting the cardiovascular system; however, recent studies now suggest that other signaling pathways involving activation of phospholipases, synthesis of eicosanoids, regulation of receptor-associated enzymes and protein kinases also play very important roles in mediating n-3 PUFA effects on cardiovascular health. This review is therefore focused on the molecular targets and signaling pathways that are regulated by n-3 PUFAs in relation to their cardioprotective effects.

  17. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne; O'Callaghan, Nathan; Burke, Valerie; Mas, Emile; Beilin, Lawrence J; Fenech, Michael; Irish, Ashley B; Watts, Gerald F; Puddey, Ian B; Huang, Rae-Chi; Mori, Trevor A

    2016-03-19

    DNA telomere shortening associates with the age-related increase cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Reducing oxidative stress, could modify telomere erosion during cell replication, and CVD risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The effect of n-3 fatty acids and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) on telomere length was studied in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial in CKD. Eighty-five CKD patients were randomized to: n-3 fatty acids (4 g); CoQ (200 mg); both supplements; or control (4 g olive oil), daily for 8 weeks. Telomere length was measured in neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at baseline and 8 weeks, with and without correction for cell counts. Main and interactive effects of n-3 fatty acids and CoQ on telomere length were assessed adjusting for baseline values. F₂-isoprostanes were measured as markers of oxidative stress. There was no effect of n-3 fatty acids or CoQ on neutrophil or PBMC telomere length. However, telomere length corrected for neutrophil count was increased after n-3 fatty acids (p = 0.015). Post-intervention plasma F₂-isoprostanes were negative predictors of post-intervention telomere length corrected for neutrophil count (p = 0.025).The effect of n-3 fatty acids to increased telomere length corrected for neutrophil count may relate to reduced oxidative stress and increased clearance of neutrophils with shorter telomeres from the circulation. This may be a novel mechanism of modifying CVD risk in CKD patients.

  18. Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function-a yin yang situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyerberg, Jørn; Christensen, Jeppe H; Eskesen, Dorte; Astrup, Arne; Stender, Steen

    2006-05-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa. Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins.

  19. N-3 fatty acids and membrane microdomains: from model membranes to lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saame Raza; Teague, Heather

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the author's research on fish oil derived n-3 fatty acids, plasma membrane organization and B cell function. We first cover basic model membrane studies that investigated how docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) targeted the organization of sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched lipid microdomains. A key finding here was that DHA had a relatively poor affinity for cholesterol. This work led to a model that predicted DHA acyl chains in cells would manipulate lipid-protein microdomain organization and thereby function. We then review how the predictions of the model were tested with B cells in vitro followed by experiments using mice fed fish oil. These studies reveal a highly complex picture on how n-3 fatty acids target lipid-protein organization and B cell function. Key findings are as follows: (1) n-3 fatty acids target not just the plasma membrane but also endomembrane organization; (2) DHA, but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), disrupts microdomain spatial distribution (i.e. clustering), (3) DHA alters protein lateral organization and (4) changes in membrane organization are accompanied by functional effects on both innate and adaptive B cell function. Altogether, the research over the past 10 years has led to an evolution of the original model on how DHA reorganizes membrane microdomains. The work raises the intriguing possibility of testing the model at the human level to target health and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect the cytokine response to strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, A.D.; Thorn, Mette; Ostrowski, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    (PUFA), for 6 wk or to receive no supplementation (n = 10) before participating in The Copenhagen Marathon 1998. Blood samples were collected before the race, immediately after, and 1.5 and 3 h postexercise. The fatty acid composition in blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) differed between the fish oil......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether fish oil supplementation was able to modulate the acute-phase response to strenuous exercise. Twenty male runners were randomized to receive supplementation (n = 10) with 6.0 g fish oil daily, containing 3.6 g n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids......-supplemented and the control group, showing incorporation of n-3 PUFA and less arachidonic acid in BMNC in the supplemented group. The plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta(1) peaked immediately after the run, the increase being 3-, 92-, and 1.1-fold, respectively...

  1. Potential role of dietary n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia and macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Schaefer, Ernst J

    2006-06-01

    Dementia and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are major causes of disability in the elderly. n-3 Fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are highly concentrated in brain and retinal tissue and may prevent or delay the progression of dementia and AMD. Low dietary intakes and plasma concentrations have been reported to be associated with dementia, cognitive decline, and AMD risk. The major dietary sources of DHA are fish and fish oils, although dietary supplements are available. At this point, it is not possible to make firm recommendations regarding n-3 fatty acids and the prevention of dementia and AMD. Our own unpublished observations from the Framingham Heart Study suggest that > or =180 mg/d of dietary DHA (approximately 2.7 fish servings/wk) is associated with an approximately 50% reduction in dementia risk. At least this amount of DHA is generally found in one commercially available 1-g fish oil capsule given daily.

  2. Dietary (n-3)-fatty acids, prostaglandins, and prolonged gestation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Olsen, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    in human urine. Very little is known about the tissue origin as well as the physiologicalfunctions of those prostaglandins, the metabolites of which are quantitated in urine from non-pregnant humans. In pregnant women the increased amount of prostaglandin F2 alpha-metabolites in urine, plasma and amniotic......Prostaglandins, especially prostaglandin F2 alpha, are important regulators in the onset and maintenance of parturition in humans. Inhibition of prostaglandin formation by drugs can prolong gestation in humans. High dietary intake of long chain (n-3)-fatty acids can inhibit formation of many...... arachidonic acid-derived prostaglandins as well as stimulate formation of eicosapentaenoic acid-derived prostaglandins. The latter ones often have lower biological activity than the former ones. The effect of (n-3)-fatty acids on prostaglandin formation has been shown by analysis of prostaglandin metabolites...

  3. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Metabolic Syndrome Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Fei; Li, Xin; Shi, Meiqi; Li, Duo

    2017-07-06

    The associations between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk have demonstrated inconsistent results. The present study aimed to investigate whether higher circulating n-3 PUFAs and dietary n-3 PUFAs intake have a protective effect on MetS risk. A systematic literature search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases was conducted up to March 2017. Odd ratios (ORs) from case-control and cross-sectional studies were combined using a random-effects model for the highest versus lowest category. The differences of n-3 PUFAs between healthy subjects and patients with MetS were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) by using a random-effects model. Seven case-control and 20 cross-sectional studies were included. A higher plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower MetS risk (Pooled OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.81). The plasma/serum n-3 PUFAs in controls was significantly higher than cases (WMD: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.43), especially docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, no significant association was found between dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs or fish and MetS risk. The present study provides substantial evidence of a higher circulating n-3 PUFAs associated with a lower MetS risk. The circulating n-3 PUFAs can be regarded as biomarkers indicating MetS risk, especially DPA and DHA.

  4. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E R; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Patience, John F; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-12-16

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  5. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E.R. Dugan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6 to omega-3 (n-3 fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices. A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority.

  6. Pork as a Source of Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Michael E.R.; Vahmani, Payam; Turner, Tyler D.; Mapiye, Cletos; Juárez, Manuel; Prieto, Nuria; Beaulieu, Angela D.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Patience, John F.; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world, but typical feeding practices give it a high omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio and make it a poor source of n-3 fatty acids. Feeding pigs n-3 fatty acids can increase their contents in pork, and in countries where label claims are permitted, claims can be met with limited feeding of n-3 fatty acid enrich feedstuffs, provided contributions of both fat and muscle are included in pork servings. Pork enriched with n-3 fatty acids is, however, not widely available. Producing and marketing n-3 fatty acid enriched pork requires regulatory approval, development costs, quality control costs, may increase production costs, and enriched pork has to be tracked to retail and sold for a premium. Mandatory labelling of the n-6/n-3 ratio and the n-3 fatty acid content of pork may help drive production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork, and open the door to population-based disease prevention polices (i.e., food tax to provide incentives to improve production practices). A shift from the status-quo, however, will require stronger signals along the value chain indicating production of n-3 fatty acid enriched pork is an industry priority. PMID:26694475

  7. Specific markers of lipid peroxidation issued from n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichardant, M; Chantegrel, B; Deshayes, C; Doutheau, A; Moliere, P; Lagarde, M

    2004-02-01

    Several markers of lipid peroxidation are available with different degrees of specificity, from malondialdehyde as a global marker, to F(2)-isoprostane, which is specifically produced from arachidonic acid. Among these, 4-hydroxynonenal is recognized as a breakdown product of fatty acid hydroperoxides, such as 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid and 13-hydroperoxy-octade cadienoic acid from the n -6 fatty acids. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) derives from n -3 fatty acid hydroperoxides. We have recently described the occurrence of 4-hydroxydodecadienal (4-HDDE) from the 12-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid 12-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid. These three hydroxy-alkenals may be measured in human plasma by GC-MS, but they may partly be generated in the course of sampling, and the relative volatility of 4-HHE makes its measurement quite unreliable. We have successfully characterized and measured the stable oxidized carboxylic acid products from the hydroxy-alkenals 4-HNA, 4-HHA and 4-HDDA in urine. The ratio between 4-HHA and 4-HNA found in the same urinary sample might provide useful information on the location of lipid peroxidation, accounting for the high enrichment of the cerebrovascular system with docosahexaenoic acid, the main n -3 fatty acid in humans.

  8. Echium oil: A valuable source of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR Miquel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil is a vegetable oil of non-GMO plant origin extracted from the seeds of Echium plantagineum containing significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acid Stearidonic Acid (SDA and omega-6 acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA. Typical fatty acid composition of Echium oil is: Oleic acid (18:1 n-9 16%, Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n-6 19%, γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 n-610%, α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3 30% and Stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4 n-3 13%. This natural ratio of fatty acids, trough their metabolism, deliver enhanced plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3, docosapentaenoic (DPA, 22:5 n-3 and dihomo-γ-linolenic (DGLA, 20:3 n-6 acids without increasing the concentrations of arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6. GLA is commonly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of oils such as evening primrose oil and borage oil. Supplementation with GLA can markedly increase serum AA with subsequent pro-inflammatory effects. The presence of stearidonic acid in echium oil prevents the accumulation of serum AA and AA-derived eicosanoids without preventing the accumulation of DGLA which is the real n-6 precursor of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids. SDA is an intermediate in the biosynthetic conversion of ALA to EPA. As SDA is the product of the rate-limiting ∆6-desaturase step and due the efficiency of the elongase and ∆5-desaturase steps, SDA is readily converted to EPA. SDA has the physiologic benefits of EPA, for instance, lowering the serum triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic subjects. Therefore echium oil is a true alternative for vegetarians or those who do not eat fish, to benefit from the anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  9. The effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G L; Faarvang, K L; Thomsen, B S

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on disease variables in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: Multicenter, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind. SETTING: Three Danish hospital Departments of Rheumato...

  10. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  11. Antiarrhythmic effects of n-3 fatty acids: evidence from human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.; Brouwer, I.A.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review N-3 fatty acids from fish reduce cardiovascular mortality including sudden cardiac death. In this paper, the authors discuss the results of human studies with regard to the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of fatal coronary heart disease through antiarrhythmic effect

  12. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue and depression in different age groups from Crete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mamalakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of cross-sectional studies on the relationship of depression with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been described. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether adipose tissue n-3 fatty acids, an objective index or biomarker of long-term or habitual

  13. Historical overview of n-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Alexander

    2008-06-01

    The first evidence that fish oil fatty acids might have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease came from the discovery that Greenland Eskimos, who have a diet high in n-3 fatty acids, have a lower mortality from coronary heart disease than do Danes and Americans. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in our diets and can be classified in 2 groups: n-6 fatty acids found in plant seeds and n-3 fatty acids found in marine vertebrates. Further evidence of n-3 benefits to human health include a 1989 study demonstrating a 29% reduction in fatal cardiac arrhythmias among subjects with a recent myocardial infarction who had been advised to consume fish oil. The GISSI-Prevenzione Trial found a significant reduction in relative reduction of death, cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and stroke in subjects consuming n-3 fatty acids. In a recent study, subjects with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) at high risk for fatal ventricular arrhythmias were randomly assigned to four 1-g capsules of either an ethyl ester concentrate of n-3 fatty acids or olive oil daily for 12 mo. Subjects receiving n-3 who thus had significantly higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in their red blood cell membranes showed a longer time to first ICD events and had a significantly lower relative risk of having an ICD event or probable event (P = 0.033). These studies demonstrate that fish oil fatty acids have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease.

  14. Effect of Dietary n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Macrosomic Offspring of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guermouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA on oxidant/antioxidant status, in vitro very low and low density lipoprotein (VLDL-LDL, and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition in macrosomic pups of diabetic mothers. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would improve oxidative stress in macrosomia. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats fed with the ISIO diet (control or with the EPAX diet (enriched in n-3 PUFAs, by streptozotocin. The macrosomic pups were killed at birth (day 0 and at adulthood (day 90. Lipid parameters and VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition were investigated. The oxidant/antioxidant status was determined by measuring plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, hydroperoxides, carbonyl proteins, and VLDL-LDL oxidation. Macrosomic rats of ISIO fed diabetic mothers showed an increase in plasma and VLDL-LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-LDL-cholesterol levels and altered VLDL-LDL-fatty acid composition. Plasma ORAC was low with high hydroperoxide and carbonyl protein levels. The in vitro oxidizability of VLDL-LDL was enhanced in these macrosomic rats. The EPAX diet corrected lipid parameters and improved oxidant/antioxidant status but increased VLDL-LDL susceptibility to oxidation. Macrosomia is associated with lipid abnormalities and oxidative stress. n-3 PUFA exerts favorable effects on lipid metabolism and on the oxidant/antioxidant status of macrosomic rats. However, there are no evident effects on VLDL-LDL oxidation.

  15. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.;

    1995-01-01

    dietary self- administered questionnaire and interview, with fatty acids measured in erythrocyte phospholipids. Daily intake (g/d) and nutrient density of marine n-3 fatty acids (mg/MJ) correlated with the n-3 fatty acid: arachidonic acid ratio (FA-ratio) with correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.......54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  16. N-3 fatty acids in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity Ácidos grasos n-3 en el metabolismo de la glucosa y la sensibilidad a la insulina

    OpenAIRE

    L. Martín de Santa Olalla; F. J. Sánchez Muniz; Vaquero, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Higher proportion of n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial roles, such as antiobesity effects and protection against th...

  17. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilan Xue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3, which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells. Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  18. Gene transfer of Chlorella vulgaris n-3 fatty acid desaturase optimizes the fatty acid composition of human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Meilan; Ge, Yinlin; Zhang, Jinyu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Wang, Qing [Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China); Hou, Lin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao Shandong (China)

    2012-09-14

    Chlorella vulgaris has the gene of n-3 fatty acid desaturase (CvFad3), which can synthesize the precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) or convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs. The objective of the present study was to examine whether the CvFad3 gene from C. vulgaris can be functionally and efficiently expressed in human breast cancer cells and whether its expression can exert a significant effect on cell fatty acid composition. We inserted the CvFad3 gene into the plasmid pEGFP-C3 to construct the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-C3-n-3 and to express the n-3 Fad gene in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cells). Transfection of MCF-7 cells with the recombinant vector resulted in a high expression of n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Lipid analysis indicated that the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was decreased from 6:1 in the control cells to about 1:1 in the cells expressing the n-3 fatty acid desaturase. Accordingly, the CvFad3 gene significantly decreased the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs of the MCF-7 cell membrane. The expression of the CvFad3 gene can decrease cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis. This study demonstrates that the CvFad3 gene can dramatically balance the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and may provide an effective approach to the modification of the fatty acid composition of mammalian cells, also providing a basis for potential applications of its transfer in experimental and clinical settings.

  19. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols enriched in n-3 fatty acids by immobilized microbial lipase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco de; Campos, Paula Renata Bueno; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    .... Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free...

  20. Effects of n-3 PUFAs on breast cancer cells through their incorporation in plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berra Bruno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PUFAs are important molecules for membrane order and function; they can modify inflammation-inducible cytokines production, eicosanoid production, plasma triacylglycerol synthesis and gene expression. Recent studies suggest that n-3 PUFAs can be cancer chemopreventive, chemosuppressive and auxiliary agents for cancer therapy. N-3 PUFAs could alter cancer growth influencing cell replication, cell cycle, and cell death. The question that remains to be answered is how n-3 PUFAs can affect so many physiological processes. We hypothesize that n-3 PUFAs alter membrane stability, modifying cellular signalling in breast cancer cells. Methods Two lines of human breast cancer cells characterized by different expression of ER and EGFR receptors were treated with AA, EPA or DHA. We have used the MTT viability test and expression of apoptotic markers to evaluate the effect of PUFAs on cancer growth. Phospholipids were analysed by HPLC/GC, to assess n-3 incorporation into the cell membrane. Results We have observed that EPA and DHA induce cell apoptosis, a reduction of cell viability and the expression of Bcl2 and procaspase-8. Moreover, DHA slightly reduces the concentration of EGFR but EPA has no effect. Both EPA and DHA reduce the activation of EGFR. N-3 fatty acids are partially metabolized in both cell lines; AA is integrated without being further metabolized. We have analysed the fatty acid pattern in membrane phospholipids where they are incorporated with different degrees of specificity. N-3 PUFAs influence the n-6 content and vice versa. Conclusions Our results indicate that n-3 PUFA feeding might induce modifications of breast cancer membrane structure that increases the degree of fatty acid unsaturation. This paper underlines the importance of nutritional factors on health maintenance and on disease prevention.

  1. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with dysglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jackie; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Dagenais, Gilles R

    2012-01-01

    The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.......The use of n-3 fatty acids may prevent cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction or heart failure. Their effects in patients with (or at risk for) type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown....

  2. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n- 3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  3. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Secher, N.J.;

    1995-01-01

    between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n......-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate....

  4. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and their Role in Cancer Chemoprevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Zhennan; Shan, Kai; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.

    2015-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs, are essential for human health. Recent research shows n-3 PUFAs and their mediators can inhibit inflammation, angiogenesis and cancer via multiple mechanisms, including reduced release of n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid from cell membranes, inhibition of enzymatic activities, and direct competition with arachidonic acid for enzymatic conversions. In this review, we discuss inflammation-related cancer, anti-i...

  5. Gestation length and birth weight in relation to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, S F; Hansen, H S; Secher, N J; Jensen, B; Sandström, B

    1995-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that marine n-3 fatty acids ingested during pregnancy prolong duration of pregnancy and increase fetal growth rate in humans. By a combined self-administered questionnaire and interview applied in the 30th week of gestation we assessed dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids and energy in a population-based sample of 965 pregnant Danish women; in a random 14% subsample we also measured marine n-3 fatty acids relative to arachidonic acid (FA-ratio) in erythrocytes. Mean intake of marine n-3 fatty acids was 0.25 (95% range 0-0.75) g/d. We could detect no association between n-3 fatty acid intake and FA-ratio on the one hand, and gestation length, birth weight and birth length on the other. The analyses were adjusted for maternal height, prepregnant weight, parity and smoking. The conclusion from the study was that within the intake range of this population, marine n-3 fatty acids ingested in the weeks prior to the 30th week of pregnancy seem not to be a predictor of gestation length or fetal growth rate.

  6. Protective effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeghichi-Hamri, Sabrina; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Chibane, Mohamed; de Leiris, Joël; Boucher, François; Laporte, François

    2010-12-01

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) complications, such as chronic arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury results in smaller myocardial infarction, which is a major factor in the occurrence of CHD complications. We hypothesized that a specific dietary fatty acid profile (low in saturated and n-6 PUFA but high in plant and marine n-3 PUFA) may improve myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injury and reduce infarct size. To test this assumption, we used a well-defined rat model of myocardial infarction. Based on our results, in comparison to a diet that is high in either saturated or n-6 PUFA but poor in plant and marine n-3 PUFA, a diet that is low in saturated fats and n-6 PUFA but rich in plant and marine n-3 PUFA results in smaller myocardial infarct size (P fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte cell membranes, and the phospholipids of myocardial mitochondria. The results show a great accumulation of n-3 PUFA and a parallel decrease in arachidonic acid, the main n-6 PUFA, in plasma, cell membranes, and cardiac mitochondria (P < .0001). We conclude that improved myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion may be one of the critical factors explaining the protective effects of dietary n-3 PUFA against CHD complications in humans. In addition to increasing n-3 PUFA intake, an optimal dietary pattern aimed at reducing cardiovascular mortality should include a reduction of the intake of both saturated and n-6 PUFA.

  7. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids - New anabolic compounds improving protein metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous animal studies demonstrated that chronic feeding of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA) that modifies muscle membrane fatty acid composition promotes protein anabolism by blunting the age-associated deterioration in insulin sensitivity. The current study assessed, as a pr...

  8. N-3 fatty acids from fish and markers of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.

    2004-01-01

    N‑3 fatty acids from fish may protect against heart disease mortality by preventing fatal arrhythmias. The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether this possible antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 fatty acids is supported by short-term effects on electrophysiological markers. We performed two

  9. N-3 fatty acids from fish and markers of cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, A.

    2004-01-01

    N‑3 fatty acids from fish may protect against heart disease mortality by preventing fatal arrhythmias. The objective of this thesis was to investigate whether this possible antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 fatty acids is supported by short-term effects on electrophysiological markers. We performed two h

  10. Gestational age in relation to marine n-3 fatty acids in maternal erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sommer, S.;

    1991-01-01

    Gestation is longer in Faroese than Danish women, possibly because of the high intake of marine long-chain n-3 fatty acids that down regulates formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were quantified in erythrocytes obtained within 2 days of delivery from...

  11. Basic mechanisms behind the effects of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiological association between high intakes of n-3 fatty acids (FA) and decreased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be explained by two main basic mechanisms: (a) an effect on atherothrombosis, and (b) an effect on cardiac arrhythmias. These mechanisms probably reflect different beneficial influences of n-3 FA on cardiovascular biology. Effects on atherothrombosis include the modulation of the expression of pro-atherogenic genes (e.g., endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules, inflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2) and the hepatic synthesis of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), and are slow in onset, requiring incorporation into cell membrane phospholipids, and usually doses in humans in the order of 3g/day or higher. Effects on cardiac arrhythmias include complex interactions with ion channels (sodium, potassium and calcium channels), typically requiring the presence of free FA in extracellular fluids and usually occurring with lower doses (around 1g/day) of nutritional or pharmacological intake. We have focused most of our research effort in unraveling the pathophysiological background of protection by n-3 FA from atherothrombosis. As the result of incorporation of n-3 FA in the sn-2 position predominantly of the phosphatidyl ethanolamine pool in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, n-3 FA appear on the one hand to increase the production of bioactive lipid mediators (protectins and resolvins) affecting cytokine-induced signal transduction; and on the other hand to directly interfere with the generation of reactive oxygen species (mostly hydrogen peroxide), directly responsible for the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, which controls the expression of a variety of pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic genes, including those encoding for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and COX-2. The

  12. N-3 vs. saturated fatty acids: effects on the arterial wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, S; Chang, C C; Deckelbaum, R J

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis and unstable plaques are underlying causes for cardiovascular diseases. Cardiovascular disease is associated with consumption of diets high in saturated fats. In contrast there is increasing evidence that higher intakes of dietary n-3 fatty acids decrease risk for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies are beginning to clarify how n-3 compared with saturated fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease risk via pathways in the arterial wall. In this paper we will review studies that report on mechanisms whereby dietary fatty acids affect atherosclerosis through modulation of arterial wall lipid deposition, inflammation, cell proliferation, and plaque vulnerability.

  13. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, H.S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...... acids in pregnant women may be employed as a qualitative method to rank subjects according to intake of marine n-3 fatty acids; (2) with respect to the power to explain FA-ratio variability, three simple marine food frequency questions were comparable with intake of marine n-3 fatty acids assessed...

  14. Effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids supplementation on fatty acid metabolism in atorvastatin-administered SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Abdullah; Hashimoto, Michio; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Hossain, Shahdat; Shido, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    The effects of cholesterol-lowering statins, which substantially benefit future cardiovascular events, on fatty acid metabolism have remained largely obscured. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin on fatty acid metabolism together with the effects of TAK-085 containing highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester on atorvastatin-induced n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid lowering in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHRcp) rats, as a metabolic syndrome model. Supplementation with 10mg/kg body weight/day of atorvastatin for 17 weeks significantly decreased plasma total cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Atorvastatin alone caused a subtle change in fatty acid composition particularly of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver or erythrocyte membranes. However, the TAK-085 consistently increased both the levels of EPA and DHA in the plasma, liver and erythrocyte membranes. After confirming the reduction of plasma total cholesterol, 300mg/kg body weight/day of TAK-085 was continuously administered for another 6 weeks. Supplementation with TAK-085 did not decrease plasma total cholesterol but significantly increased the EPA and DHA levels in both the plasma and liver compared with rats administered atorvastatin only. Supplementation with atorvastatin alone significantly decreased sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, Δ5- and Δ6-desaturases, elongase-5, and stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase-2 levels and increased 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the liver compared with control rats. TAK-085 supplementation significantly increased stearoyl-CoA desaturase-2 mRNA expression. These results suggest that long-term supplementation with atorvastatin decreases the EPA and DHA levels by inhibiting the desaturation and elongation of n-3 fatty acid metabolism, while TAK-085 supplementation effectively replenishes this effect in SHRcp rat liver.

  15. Rye polyphenols and the metabolism of n-3 fatty acids in rats: a dose dependent fatty fish-like effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia; Laporte, François; Calani, Luca; Mena, Pedro; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Demeilliers, Christine

    2017-01-01

    As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers’ health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats. The intake of plant n-3 alpha-linolenic acid and WR results in a sort of fatty fish-like effect, demonstrating that the n-3 LCFA levels in blood and tissues could be increased without eating marine foods, and therefore without promoting unsustainable overfishing, and without damaging marine ecology. PMID:28071699

  16. Associations of plasma phospholipid fatty acids with plasma homocysteine in Chinese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yu, Xiaomei; Shou, Tianxing; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Li, Duo

    2013-05-01

    The association of plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition with plasma homocysteine (Hcy) in Chinese vegetarians is not understood. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma PL fatty acid status, and its association with plasma Hcy in Chinese vegetarians and omnivores. A total of 103 male vegetarians and 128 male omnivores were recruited in Linyin Temple, Hangzhou. Plasma Hcy and PL fatty acid concentrations were determined by standard methods. Compared with omnivores, plasma PL n-3 PUFA (Pvegetarians. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) in vegetarians (26·47 %) was significantly higher than that in omnivores (13·28 %). In vegetarians, plasma PL 22 : 6n-3 (r − 0·257, P= 0·046) was significantly negatively associated with plasma Hcy. In omnivores, plasma PL 18 : 1n-7 (r 0·237, P= 0·030) was significantly positively associated with plasma Hcy. Plasma PL 22 : 6n-3 (r − 0·217, P= 0·048) was negatively associated with plasma Hcy in omnivores. Plasma PL SFA were positively associated with the prevalence of HHcy. It would seem appropriate for vegetarians to increase their dietary n-3 PUFA and decrease dietary SFA, and thus reduce the risk of HHcy.

  17. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids in health and disease: Part 1--cardiovascular disease and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; Miraliakbari, Homan

    2004-01-01

    The omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have a wide range of beneficial effects in several human health conditions. Animal and in vitro studies have indicated that omega-3 fatty acids affect blood lipid profiles, cardiovascular health, membrane lipid composition, eicosanoid biosynthesis, cell signaling cascades, and gene expression. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that intake of omega-3 fatty acids from natural sources or supplements may influence the onset and progression of several disease states, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. This review highlights some recent research findings that help advance our understanding of how omega-3 fatty acids influence cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  18. New products from the agri-food industry: the return of n-3 fatty acids into the food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simopoulos, A P

    1999-01-01

    The meat from animals and fish in the wild, chicken eggs produced under complete natural conditions, and wild plants contain higher amounts of n-3 fatty acids compared to domesticated or cultivated ones. The composition of meats, fish, and eggs is dependent on animal feed. Fish-meal, flax, and n-3 from algae in animal feeds increase the n-3 fatty acid content of egg yolks and lead to the availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs in the marketplace. Research is ongoing for the production of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products from poultry, beef, lamb, pork, milk, bakery products, etc. In the case of n-3 fatty acid-enriched eggs, the egg under complete natural conditions (Greek or Ampelistra egg) can serve as a guide for proper composition. Otherwise, the amount of n-3 fatty acids is determined by the organoleptic properties of the products. It is essential in the process of returning the n-3 fatty acids into the food supply that the balance of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in the diet that existed during evolution is maintained. Clinical investigations confirm the importance of n-3 fatty acids for normal function during growth and development and in the modulation of chronic diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acid-enriched products should lead to improvements in the food supply. Pregnant and lactating women and infants should benefit since their diet is deficient in n-3 fatty acids, especially for the vegetarians among them. Studies with n-3-enriched eggs lower cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, and blood pressure. Since cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and autoimmune, allergic, and neurological disorders appear to respond to n-3 fatty acid supplementation, a diet balanced in n-3 and n-6 fatty acids consistent with the diet during human evolution should decrease or delay their manifestation.

  19. Erythrocyte stearidonic acid and other n-3 fatty acids and CHD in the Physicians' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Matthan, Nirupa R; Wilk, Jemma B; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Michael Gaziano, J; Djoussé, Luc

    2013-06-01

    Intake of marine-based n-3 fatty acids (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid and DHA) is recommended to prevent CHD. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a plant-based n-3 fatty acid, is a precursor of EPA and may be more readily converted to EPA than a-linolenic acid (ALA). While transgenic soyabeans might supply SDA at low cost, it is unclear whether SDA is associated with CHD risk. Furthermore, associations of other n-3 fatty acids with CHD risk remain inconsistent. The present ancillary study examined the association of erythrocyte SDA as well as other n-3 fatty acids with the risk of CHD. In a prospective nested case-control study of the Physicians' Health Study, we randomly selected 1000 pairs of incident CHD with matching controls. Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured using GC. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate relative risks. Mean age was 68·7 (SD 8·7) years. In a multivariable model controlling for matching factors and established CHD risk factors, OR for CHD for each standard deviation increase of log-SDA was 1·03 (95% CI 0·90, 1·18). Corresponding values for log-ALA and log-marine n-3 fatty acids were 1·04 (95% CI 0·94, 1·16) and 0·97 (95% CI 0·88, 1·07), respectively. In conclusion, the present data did not show an association among erythrocyte SDA, ALA or marine n-3 fatty acids and the risk of CHD in male physicians.

  20. Plasma Fatty Acid Profile of Gestating Ewes Supplemented with Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun M. Or-Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (>18C cannot be adequately synthesized by ruminant tissues to meet their requirements; therefore, their concentration in body depends on the supply through feed. It may be possible to improve the essential fatty acid status of ruminant animals, during gestation by manipulating the maternal diet with Fishmeal (FM. The objectives of this research were to (1 determine the effect of fishmeal supplementation on the plasma fatty acid profile of ewes during late gestation and (2 determine the status of the plasma docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 of lambs born to these ewes. Approach: Eight gestating ewes [Rideau-Arcott, 97±5 kg initial body weight, 100 days of gestation] were used in a completely randomized design. Ewes were individually-housed and fed either a control diet (supplemented with soybean meal or a fishmeal supplemented diet. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture for plasma fatty acids analysis on 100, 114, 128 and 142 days of “gestation”. Blood samples from the lambs were also collected via jugular venipuncture immediately after birth and before receiving their mothers’ colostrum. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Results: The ewes from both groups, i.e., control and fishmeal supplemented, had a similar fatty acid profile prior to supplementation (at 100 days, p>0.05. Thereafter, there was an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosahexaenoic acid, total n3-PUFA and total very long chain n3-PUFA (>C18 contents in plasma for the fishmeal supplemented ewes compared to the control (p0.05 in total saturated fatty acids, total monounsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linoleic acid, total trans-18:1, total cis-18:1, or total n6-PUFA contents in ewe plasma between control and fishmeal supplemented groups. Lambs born to ewes fed the fishmeal supplemented diet had greater (pConclusion: The ewes supplemented

  1. Hepatic steatosis in n-3 fatty acid depleted mice: focus on metabolic alterations related to tissue fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse WJ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only few data relating the metabolic consequences of feeding diets very low in n-3 fatty acids. This experiment carried out in mice aims at studying the impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA depletion on hepatic metabolism. Results n-3 PUFA depletion leads to a significant decrease in body weight despite a similar caloric intake or adipose tissue weight. n-3 PUFA depleted mice exhibit hypercholesterolemia (total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol as well as an increase in hepatic cholesteryl ester and triglycerides content. Fatty acid pattern is profoundly modified in hepatic phospholipids and triglycerides. The decrease in tissue n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio correlates with steatosis. Hepatic mRNA content of key factors involved in lipid metabolism suggest a decreased lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, PPARγ, and an increased β-oxidation (CPT1, PPARα and PGC1α without modification of fatty acid esterification (DGAT2, GPAT1, secretion (MTTP or intracellular transport (L-FABP. Histological analysis reveals alterations of liver morphology, which can not be explained by inflammatory or oxidative stress. However, several proteins involved in the unfolded protein response are decreased in depleted mice. Conclusion n-3 PUFA depletion leads to important metabolic alterations in murine liver. Steatosis occurs through a mechanism independent of the shift between β-oxidation and lipogenesis. Moreover, long term n-3 PUFA depletion decreases the expression of factors involved in the unfolded protein response, suggesting a lower protection against endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes upon n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  2. Brain and Liver Headspace Aldehyde Concentration Following Dietary Supplementation with n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Babay, Slim; Malik, Imran

    2015-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species react with unsaturated fatty acids to form a variety of metabolites including aldehydes. Many aldehydes are volatile enough to be detected in headspace gases of blood or cultured cells and in exhaled breath, in particular propanal and hexanal which are derived from omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Aldehydes are therefore potential non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress and of various diseases in which oxidative stress is thought to play a role including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. It is unclear, however, how changes in the abundance of the fatty acid precursors, for example by altered dietary intake, affect aldehyde concentrations. We therefore fed male Wistar rats diets supplemented with either palm oil or a combination of palm oil plus an n-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, or docosahexaenoic acids) for 4 weeks. Fatty acid analysis revealed large changes in the abundance of both n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in the liver with smaller changes observed in the brain. Despite the altered fatty acid abundance, headspace concentrations of C1-C8 aldehydes, and tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, did not differ between the 4 dietary groups. Our data suggest that tissue aldehyde concentrations are independent of fatty acid abundance, and further support their use as volatile biomarkers of oxidative stress.

  3. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO; ANGULO OFELIA

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01) elevation of...

  4. The effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone formation and growth factors in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Mølgaard, C.; Gyldenløve, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    NTRODUCTION: Animal studies indicate that n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) increase bone formation. To our knowledge, no studies have examined this in growing humans. This study investigated whether bone mass and markers of bone formation and growth were (i) associated......), bone area (BA), bone mineral density (BMD), plasma osteocalcin, and growth factors were measured at wk 0 and wk 16, as well as diet, physical activity, and n-3 LCPUFA status in erythrocytes. RESULTS: Fish oil strongly increased DHA status (P = 0.0001). No associations were found between DHA status...... and BMC, BA, BMD, or the markers of bone formation and growth at baseline. Furthermore, the fish oil intervention did not affect any of the outcomes as compared with control. However, dose-response analyses revealed a positive association between changes in DHA status and plasma insulin-like growth factor...

  5. The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Hanbauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding mice, over 3 generations, an equicaloric diet in which α-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, was substituted by linoleic acid, the dietary precursor of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly increased body weight throughout life when compared with standard diet-fed mice. Adipogenesis observed in the low n-3 fatty acid mice was accompanied by a 6-fold upregulation of stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, whose activity is correlated to plasma triglyceride levels. In total liver lipid and phospholipid extracts, the sum of n-3 fatty acids and the individual longer carbon chain acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n3, docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3 were significantly decreased whereas arachidonic acid (20:4n6 was significantly increased. In addition, low n-3 fatty acid-fed mice had liver steatosis, heart, and kidney hypertrophy. Hence, reducing dietary α-linolenic acid, from 1.02 energy% to 0.16 energy% combined with raising linoleic acid intake resulted in obesity and had detrimental consequences on organ function.

  6. Polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3: new data on heart disease, cancer, immune resistance and mental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2010-01-01

    Attention to the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish (n-3) in human health has remarkably increased during recent decades. Many clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown a positive role for n-3 in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, infant development and more recently, in various mental illnesses, especially in depression. These fatty acids are known to have pleiotropic effects, especially against hypertriglyceridemia and platelet aggregation. These may be mediated through several distinct mechanisms, including alterations in cell membrane composition and function, gene expression, or eicosanoid production. A number of authorities have recently recommended an increase in intakes of n-3 by the general population, because "western" diets are deficient in n-3 and have excessive amounts of n-6 fatty acids. The target EPA + DHA consumption was recommended to be at least 500 mg/day for individuals without heart disease and at least 800 to 1000 mg/day for patients with known coronary heart disease. To comply with this recommendation, a variety of food products, most notably eggs, yogurt, milk and spreads have been enriched with n-3. Additional controlled clinical trials are needed to document whether long-term consumption or supplementation with eicosapentaenoic (EPA) or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids results in better quality of life (Fig. 4, Ref. 47).

  7. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmann Herbert; Nielsen Leif; Stoeckel Katja; Bachmann Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA) content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM), because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of ...

  8. Dietary n-3 fatty acids promote arrhythmias during acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated pig hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic

  9. Dietary n-3 fatty acids promote arrhythmias during acute regional myocardial ischemia in isolated pig hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronel, R.; Wilms-Schopman, F.J.G.; Ruijter, den H.M.; Belterman, C.N.; Schumacher, C.A.; Opthof, T.; Hovernier, R.; Lemmens, A.G.; Terpstra, A.H.M.; Katan, M.B.; Zock, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Dietary supplementation with fish oil-derived n-3 fatty acids reduces mortality in patients with myocardial infarction, but may have adverse effects in angina patients. The underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the arrhythmias and the electrophysiologic

  10. n-3 Fatty acid derived endocannabinoids: a new link between fish oil and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory processes are critical components of many illnesses, and dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown to contribute to a reduction of the inflammatory status, both in in vivo and in vitro studies. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of inflammation are not completely understood, but it

  11. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Varela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented.

  12. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  13. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARVAJAL OCTAVIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05 reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01 elevation of high density lipoproteins. The hypercholesterolemic group reduced significantly the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides; high density lipoproteins were augmented by 11.6%. Conclusions. The hipolipidemic effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was manifest in the Mexican volunteers under the conditions here evaluated.

  14. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food IntakeBrown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Amanda C.; Williams, Lynda M.; Wahle, Klaus W.; Jung-Heun Ha; Shabina Bashir; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Alan A. Sneddon; D. Vernon Rayner

    2009-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression ...

  15. N-6 and n-3 fatty acid cholesteryl esters in relation to incident stroke in a Dutch adult population: A nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims - There are few prospective studies on fatty acid status in relation to incident stroke, with inconsistent results. We assessed the associations of plasma n-6 and n-3 PUFA in cholesteryl esters with the risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes in Dutch adults. Methods and results

  16. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols enriched in n-3 fatty acids by immobilized microbial lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco de; Campos, Paula Renata Bueno; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Carvalho, Patrícia de Oliveira

    The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w) for Aspergillus niger lipase and 1:5 (w/w) for Rhizopus javanicus lipase using Amberlite MB-1. Both lipases maintained constant activity for 6 months at 4°C. Reaction time, sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and initial water content of the lipase were investigated to determine their effects on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporation into soybean oil. Structured triacylglycerols with 11.7 and 7.2% of eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid were obtained using Aspergillus niger lipase and Rhizopus javanicus lipase, decreasing the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of soybean oil (11:1 to 3.5:1 and 4.7:1, respectively). The best reaction conditions were: initial water content of lipase of 0.86% (w/w), sardine-free faty acids:soybean oil mole ratio of 3:1 and reaction time of 36h, at 40°C. The significant factors for the acidolysis reaction were the sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and reaction time. The characterization of structured triacylglycerols was obtained using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. The enzymatic reaction led to the formation of many structured triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or both polyunsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols enriched in n-3 fatty acids by immobilized microbial lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Melo Branco de Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w for Aspergillus niger lipase and 1:5 (w/w for Rhizopus javanicus lipase using Amberlite MB-1. Both lipases maintained constant activity for 6 months at 4 °C. Reaction time, sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and initial water content of the lipase were investigated to determine their effects on n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids incorporation into soybean oil. Structured triacylglycerols with 11.7 and 7.2% of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid were obtained using Aspergillus niger lipase and Rhizopus javanicus lipase, decreasing the n-6/n-3 fatty acids ratio of soybean oil (11:1 to 3.5:1 and 4.7:1, respectively. The best reaction conditions were: initial water content of lipase of 0.86% (w/w, sardine-free faty acids:soybean oil mole ratio of 3:1 and reaction time of 36 h, at 40 °C. The significant factors for the acidolysis reaction were the sardine-free fatty acids:soybean oil mole ratio and reaction time. The characterization of structured triacylglycerols was obtained using easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry. The enzymatic reaction led to the formation of many structured triacylglycerols containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or both polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  18. Hypolipidemic Effects of Phospholipids (PL) Containing n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) Are Not Dependent on Esterification of n-3 PUFA to PL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kenji; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukao, Midori; Miyauchi, Kazumasa; Kanda, Seiji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2016-03-01

    Phospholipids (PL) containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have beneficial effects of maintaining and promoting health compared with triacylglycerols (TAG) containing n-3 PUFA or general PL. This study evaluated the effects of dietary PL containing n-3 PUFA and elucidated the effects of the glycerophosphate structure and n-3 PUFA on fatty acid (FA) metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a basal diet containing soybean oil alone, TAG containing n-3 PUFA (1.8%), soybean PL (2.7%), PL containing n-3 PUFA (2.7%), or TAG containing n-3 PUFA (1.8%) + soybean PL (2.7%). The present n-3 PUFA-supplemented diets had similar FA compositions, and the PL diets had similar PL compositions. TAG containing n-3 PUFA reduced serum TAG contents, but did not affect serum cholesterol contents compared with soybean oil alone. PL diets containing n-3 PUFA and the combination of TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL resulted in decreased serum and liver TAG contents compared with the diet containing soybean oil alone, reflecting enhanced liver FA β-oxidation. The results of this study show that TAG containing n-3 PUFA with added soybean PL affects serum and liver TAG and cholesterol contents to a similar degree as PL containing n-3 PUFA. TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL are widely used as functional food ingredients and pharmaceutical constituents and are inexpensive compared with PL containing n-3 PUFA. Therefore, the combination of TAG containing n-3 PUFA and soybean PL has potential as a useful and inexpensive component of functional foods.

  19. Mechanisms increasing n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Tobias; Rupp, Heinz; Alter, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Due to ambiguous findings on cardiovascular benefits of systemic omega-3 fatty acid therapy, endogenous mechanisms contributing to local organ-specific concentrations of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) were examined. Using gas chromatography, 43 fatty acids were analyzed in atrial and ventricular myocardium and in pericardial fluid of male Wistar rats. To examine the endogenous fatty acid metabolism, precursors were administered into the pericardial sac. Pro- and anti-inflammatory actions were induced by talc or fenofibrate, respectively. Physical exercise and a sedentary obese state were used for increased beta-oxidation. DHA (22:6n-3) was increased in ventricular when compared with atrial myocardium (9.0 ± 2.1% vs. 4.7 ± 1.0%, p acid (24:5n-3) in atrial myocardium, which is a key precursor of DHA. In contrast, proinflammatory stimulation of the n-6 HUFA pathway did not influence the n-3 metabolism. Exercise- and obesity-induced increased beta-oxidation, the finalizing step of DHA synthesis, was associated with increased ventricular DHA concentrations (6.7 ± 1.0% vs. 8.4 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01). It is concluded that the endogenous metabolism contributes markedly to myocardial HUFA concentrations. The findings are supposed to influence the efficacy of oral HUFA treatment and provide a rationale for divergent findings of previous trials on omega-3 therapy.

  20. Marine n-3 fatty acids in adipose tissue and development of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rix, Thomas Andersen; Joensen, Albert Marni; Riahi, Sam

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Consumption of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may be associated with a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but results have been inconsistent. The aim was to investigate this further by measurements of marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue. DESIGN: Cohort study...... of marine n-3 PUFA, which reflects the endogenous exposure and is also an objective marker of the long-term dietary intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident AF during follow-up. RESULTS: 179 cases of AF occurred over 13.6 years. Multivariate, sex-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using...... cubic splines showed a monotonic, negative, dose-response trend, but not statistically significant association, between total marine n-3 PUFA in adipose tissue and incident AF. A similar trend towards a lower risk of AF was seen in the second (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.24) and third tertiles (HR 0...

  1. A new piece in the puzzling effect of n-3 fatty acids on atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) FA are reported to be protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD), notably through their beneficial action on atherosclerosis development. In this context dietary intake of long-chain marine eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is recommended and randomised trials largely support that EPA and DHA intake is associated with a reduction of CVD. However, mechanisms governing the atheroprotective action of n-3 FA are still unclear and numerous studies using mouse models conducted so far do not allow to reach a precise view of the cellular and molecular effects of n-3 FA on atherosclerosis. In the current issue of Atherosclerosis, Chang et al. provide important new information on the anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 FA by analysing the incremental replacement of saturated FA by pure fish oil as a source of EPA and DHA in Ldlr(-/-) mice fed a high fat/high cholesterol diet.

  2. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols enriched in n-3 fatty acids by immobilized microbial lipase

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elisa Melo Branco de Araújo; Paula Renata Bueno Campos; Thiago Grando Alberto; Fabiano Jares Contesini; Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The search for new biocatalysts has aroused great interest due to the variety of micro-organisms and their role as enzyme producers. Native lipases from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus javanicus were used to enrich the n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids content in the triacylglycerols of soybean oil by acidolysis with free fatty acids from sardine oil in solvent-free media. For the immobilization process, the best lipase/support ratios were 1:3 (w/w) for Aspergillus niger lipa...

  3. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on lipids, platelet function, coagulation, fibrinolysis and monocyte chemotaxis in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, E B; Nielsen, L K; Pedersen, J O; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J

    1990-07-01

    We have studied the effect of dietary supplementation with 4 g of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) daily for 6 wk on plasma lipids, haemostasis and monocyte chemotaxis in 10 patients with untreated hypertension. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change, but the ratio of total to HDL-cholesterol was significantly reduced after the fish oil supplement. Platelet function was unaltered by intake of n-3. Plasma fibrinogen and fibronectin decreased after supplementation with n-3 PUFA, while the effects on fibrinolysis were equivocal. Monocyte chemotaxis was reduced by the supplement. These data lend support to a role for an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in the management of patients with hypertension.

  4. Development of Rabbit Meat Products Fortified With n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a “functional food” by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA for n-3 PUFA.

  5. Development of rabbit meat products fortified with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Bianchi, Maurizio; Cavani, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    Rabbit meat is a highly digestible, tasty, low-calorie food, often recommended by nutritionists over other meats. Currently research in the rabbit sector is interested in developing feeding strategies aiming to further increase the nutritional value of rabbit meat as a "functional food" by including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), vitamins and antioxidants in rabbit diets and assessing their effects on both raw and stored/processed meat quality properties. Our recent studies indicate that the dietary inclusion from 3 to 6% of linseed might be considered as a way to achieve the enrichment of the meat with α-linolenic acid and to guarantee satisfactory product stability during further processing and storage. Considering that 6% dietary linseed corresponds to a n-3 PUFA content of 8.5% of the total fatty acids and a lipid content of 4.7 g/100 g of leg meat, a content of 396 mg n-3 PUFA/100g meat can be estimated, which represents about 19% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) for n-3 PUFA.

  6. The effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac autonomic and hemodynamic function in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Schlemmer, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis.......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on cardiac autonomic function and vascular function in patients with psoriatic arthritis....

  7. No effects of n)3 fatty acid supplementation on serum total testosterone levels in older men: the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Heijboer, A.C.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    The intake of the n-3 fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been related to testosterone levels in epidemiological analyses. The aim of this study was to assess whether the n-3 fatty acids affects testosterone levels in post-myocardial infarction (MI)

  8. The Role of Long-Chained Marine N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegunn Aarsetoey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current evidence regarding long-chained marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and cardiovascular disease (CVD, their possible mechanisms of action, and results of clinical trials. Also, primary and secondary prevention trials as studies on antiarrhythmic effects and meta-analyses are summarized. However, the individual bioavailability of n-3 PUFAs along with the highly different study designs and estimations of FAs intake or supplementation dosages in patient populations with different background intake of n-3 PUFAs might be some of the reasons for the inconsistent findings of the studies evaluating the impact of n-3 PUFAs on CVD. The question of an optimum dose of n-3 PUFAs or whether there exists a dose-response relation for n-3 PUFA supplementation is widely discussed. Moreover, the difficulties in interpreting meta-analyses are clearly demonstrated by two recently published meta-analyses (Rizos et al. and Delgado Lista et al., evaluating the efficacy of n-3 PUFAs on CVD, including 12 common studies, but drawing opposite conclusions. We definitely need more large-scale, randomized clinical trials of long duration, also reporting harmful effects of n-3 PUFAs.

  9. N-3 fatty acids reduced trans fatty acids retention and increased docosahexaenoic acid levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandera, Jimena Verónica; Saín, Juliana; Fariña, Ana Clara; Bernal, Claudio Adrián; González, Marcela Aída

    2017-09-01

    The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. These parameters were also investigated in the liver, considering that LC-PUFA are mainly bioconverted from their dietary precursors in this tissue and transported by serum to the brain. Also, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) gene expressions were evaluated. Male CF1 mice were fed (16 weeks) diets containing different oils (olive, corn, and rapeseed) with distinct proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA (55.2/17.2/0.7, 32.0/51.3/0.9, and 61.1/18.4/8.6), respectively, substituted or not with 0.75% of TFA. FA composition of the brain, liver, and serum was assessed by gas chromatography. TFA were incorporated into, and therefore retained in the brain, liver, and serum. However, the magnitude of retention was dependent on the tissue and type of isomer. In the brain, total TFA retention was lower than 1% in all diets. Dietary n-3 PUFA decreased TFA retention and increased DHA accretion in the brain. The results underscore the importance of the type of dietary FA on the retention of TFA in the brain and also on the changes of the FA profile.

  10. Technological challenges to assess n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine oils for nutritional and pharmacological use

    OpenAIRE

    A. Valenzuela; Nieto, S.; Uauy, R

    1993-01-01

    The benefits ascribed to marine oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to efforts to improve the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these oils and to develop procedures for the obtention of pure or highly concentrated fractions of some n-3 fatty acids. Two n-3 fatty acids are of main interest; the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA) and the docosahexaenoic acid (022:6, DHA). The present review is referred to the identification of the main sources of marine n-3 polyunsat...

  11. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rates disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Malan, L.; Arnold, M.; Yee, B.K.; Bianco, L.E.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Muller, M.R.; Langhans, W.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination

  12. (N-3) Fatty Acids: Molecular Role and Clinical Uses in Psychiatric Disorders12

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, Pedro Luis; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandes [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    New discoveries in the field of neurophysiology and neuropharmacology have revealed the role of (n-3) fatty acids in controlling inflammation and protecting neuron cells from oxidative damage, preserving their function. It has also been thought that their psychoactive properties could be beneficial in certain psychiatric illnesses. This article discusses the newest discoveries of the affected activities by these fats in the cerebral cortex and the efforts that have been made to put them in pr...

  13. Dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid plus n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increases food intake and brown adipose tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Alan A; Rayner, D Vernon; Mitchell, Sharon E; Bashir, Shabina; Ha, Jung-Heun; Wahle, Klaus W; Morris, Amanda C; Williams, Lynda M

    2009-02-01

    The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3) was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  14. Effect of antioxidants on stabilization of meat products fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Faustman, C; Djordjevic, D; Faraji, H; Decker, E A

    2006-01-01

    The effects of an n-3 oil emulsion, with and without added antioxidants, on lipid oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-fortified meat products were studied. An emulsion of n-3 PUFAs was prepared (25% algal oil, 2.5% whey protein isolates, 10mM sodium citrate, 0.2% potassium sorbate, 500ppm of 70% mixed tocopherols, 100μM EDTA, pH 3, pasteurized at 75°C for 30min) and incorporated into fresh ground turkey, and fresh pork sausage (20% fat) to achieve a concentration of 500mg n-3 PUFA/110g meat. An antioxidant combination containing rosemary (0.2% w/w; radical quencher), citrate (0.5% w/w; sequestrant) and erythorbate (1g/kg product; reductant) was prepared and incorporated into ground turkey patties (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick) or fresh pork sausages (5cm dia, 1.5cm thick). Meat products were stored at 4°C or -18°C and analyzed for color (L*, a*, b* values), lipid oxidation (TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides) and n-3 PUFA profile. a* Values of refrigerated ground turkey patties decreased with storage, and an antioxidant combination effect was observed after 4 days (Psausages at 4°C, control+antioxidant (CON+ANTI), and n-3+antioxidant (n-3+ANTI) groups showed greater a* values than controls (CON) indicating that the antioxidant combination stabilized meat color. TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides of both n-3 PUFA-enhanced meat products increased with storage (P0.05). These results provide support for including antioxidant protection in n-3 PUFA fortified meat products.

  15. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Promising Nutrients for Preventing Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Aihara, Ken-Ichi; Akaike, Masashi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2017-08-24

    The adoption of the Western-style diet, with decreased fish intake and lack of exercise, has increased the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Japan. Statin treatment has been established to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events; however, 60%-70% of these events occur despite its use. Thus, the residual risk for CVD should be identified and resolved to reduce further cardiovascular events. The serum levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are reportedly associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, whereas the addition of n-3 PUFA treatment to the statin treatment decreases cardiovascular events. Similar to statins, n-3 PUFAs have pleiotropic effects in addition to lipid-modifying effects. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that n-3 PUFAs prevent cardiovascular events by ameliorating endothelial function and attenuating lipid accumulation, vascular inflammation, and macrophage recruitment, thereby causing coronary plaque development and rupture. Taken together, n-3 PUFAs are comprehensively able to attenuate the atherogenic response. Therefore, n-3 PUFA intake is recommended to prevent cardiovascular events, particularly in patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors.

  16. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids through the Lifespan: Implication for Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-12-01

    The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, "n-3 PUFAs," "EPA," and "DHA" in combination with "stress," "cognition," "ADHD," "anxiety," "depression," "bipolar disorder," "schizophrenia," and "Alzheimer." The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. Butter blend containing fish oil improves the level of n-3 fatty acids in biological tissues of hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Overgaard, Jesper; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have shown beneficial effects of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on human health. Regardless of the positive effects of n-3 PUFA, the intake of these fatty acids remains low. An approach to increase the intake of n-3 PUFA in the population is to incorporate fish oil......, erythrocytes, and liver. The incorporation of n-3 PUFA was significantly higher in phospholipids than in triacylglycerols. The results suggest that enriching butter blends with small amounts of fish oil can be used as an alternative method for improving the level of n-3 PUFA in biological tissues....

  18. Alpha-linolenic acid and its conversion to longer chain n-3 fatty acids: benefits for human health and a role in maintaining tissue n-3 fatty acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Murphy, Eric J

    2009-11-01

    There is little doubt regarding the essential nature of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), yet the capacity of dietary ALA to maintain adequate tissue levels of long chain n-3 fatty acids remains quite controversial. This simple point remains highly debated despite evidence that removal of dietary ALA promotes n-3 fatty acid inadequacy, including that of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that many experiments demonstrate that dietary inclusion of ALA raises n-3 tissue fatty acid content, including DHA. Herein we propose, based upon our previous work and that of others, that ALA is elongated and desaturated in a tissue-dependent manner. One important concept is to recognize that ALA, like many other fatty acids, rapidly undergoes beta-oxidation and that the carbons are conserved and reused for synthesis of other products including cholesterol and fatty acids. This process and the differences between utilization of dietary DHA or liver-derived DHA as compared to ALA have led to the dogma that ALA is not a useful fatty acid for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 fatty acids, including DHA. Herein, we propose that indeed dietary ALA is a crucial dietary source of n-3 fatty acids and its dietary inclusion is critical for maintaining tissue long chain n-3 levels.

  19. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil

    2012-12-27

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P plasma (P plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01).In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.

  20. Endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuate T cell-mediated hepatitis via autophagy activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A and IFN-γ. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism, and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis.

  1. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Attenuate T Cell-Mediated Hepatitis via Autophagy Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanli; Tang, Yuan; Wang, Shoujie; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Jia; Lu, Xiao; Bai, Xiaochun; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Zhengliang; Zuo, Daming

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert anti-inflammatory effects in several liver disorders, including cirrhosis, acute liver failure, and fatty liver disease. To date, little is known about their role in immune-mediated liver diseases. In this study, we used fat-1 transgenic mice rich in endogenous n-3 PUFAs to examine the role of n-3 PUFAs in immune-mediated liver injury. Concanavalin A (Con A) was administered intravenously to wild-type (WT) and fat-1 transgenic mice to induce T cell-mediated hepatitis. Reduced liver damage was shown in Con A-administrated fat-1 transgenic mice, as evidenced by decreased mortality, attenuated hepatic necrosis, lessened serum alanine aminotransferase activity, and inhibited production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IFN-γ). In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs significantly inhibited the activation of hepatic T cells and the differentiation of Th1 cells after Con A challenge. Further studies showed that n-3 PUFAs markedly increased autophagy level in Con A-treated fat-1 T cells compared with the WT counterparts. Blocking hepatic autophagy activity with chloroquine diminished the differences in T cell activation and liver injury between Con A-injected WT and fat-1 transgenic mice. We conclude that n-3 PUFAs limit Con A-induced hepatitis via an autophagy-dependent mechanism and could be exploited as a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27679638

  2. Long chain N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of allergic and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Elsen, Lieke; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette

    2012-01-01

    The diet is considered to have a major impact on human health. Dietary lipids including long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) possess potent immunomodulatory activities. Over the last decades the incidence of inflammatory disorders including allergic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been rising. This phenomenon is associated with deficiencies in N-3 LCPUFA, found in fatty fish, and increased content of N-6 LCPUFA in the Western diet. LCPUFA act via different mechanisms including membrane fluidity, raft composition, lipid mediator formation, signaling pathways and transmembrane receptors. N-3 LCPUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can reduce the development of allergic disease by affecting both the innate and adaptive immune system involved in the initiation and persistence of allergic disease. Fish oil has been shown to be effective in the primary prevention of allergic disease in infants at risk when supplemented during pregnancy and lactation. Subtle effects of N-3 LCPUFA on the outcome of the immune response may underlie these protective effects. This review describes the currently reported effects of LCPUFA on dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and mast cells. Also CVD are positively affected by N-3 LCPUFA. Populations consuming high amounts of oily fish are protected against CVD. Moreover N-3 LCPUFA are effective in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. Amongst other effects, EPA and DHA have been shown to suppress endothelial cell activation hereby reducing adhesion molecule expression and endothelial cell - leukocyte interactions. This review describes the mechanistic basis of the preventive role for N-3 LCPUFA in allergic disease and CVD.

  3. The interaction between maternal and post-hatch n-3 fatty acid supplementation in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated whether offspring from n-3-supplemented breeders have an enhanced performance and immune organ weight when fed a post-hatch n-3-enriched diet in comparison with their control-fed counterparts and the importance of timing of omega-3 supplementation. Therefore, 480 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed one of four different diets (120/treatment). The control diet (CON) was a basal diet, rich in n-6 fatty acids (FA). The three other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA) or 2/1 (EPA). At 33 weeks of age, eggs were incubated to obtain 1440 offspring. They were set up according to their maternal diet and sex in 48 pens of 30 chicks each (12 pens per maternal treatment: six male and six female). Half of the offspring were given a post-hatch control diet, whereas to other half received an n-3-supplemented diet. Zootechnical performance was followed for starter, grower and finisher phase, and at the end of each phase two, chicks per pen were sacrificed to determine the weight of the immune organs. No interaction was found between maternal and post-hatch n-3 treatment for zootechnical performance. An interaction arose between the maternal and post-hatch n-3 supplementation for proportional bursa weight at day 1 and day 14 and proportional liver weight at day 14, but effects on immune organ weight were rather limited. Offspring post-hatch n-3 supplementation did not enhance maternal n-3 supplementation.

  4. Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the blood pressure control in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension - a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagge, Carina N; Strandhave, Charlotte; Skov, Charlotte M; Svensson, My; Schmidt, Erik B; Christensen, Jeppe H

    2017-02-28

    Marine long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are recognized for their cardio-protective effects, including potential lowering of blood pressure. We hypothesized that higher habitual fish intake and n-3 PUFA plasma levels were associated with lower blood pressure and being less likely to receive antihypertensive medication after one-year follow-up. In this prospective study of 115 patients, we assessed 24 h ambulatory and central blood pressure, plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition using gas chromatography and participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, including fish-eating habits. All measurements were repeated at one-year follow-up. At baseline, patients consuming fish ≥2 times per month for dinner had significantly higher plasma levels of total marine n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as significantly lower central blood pressure and a trend towards lower peripheral blood pressure. At follow-up, 21 patients (18%) without antihypertensive medication had significantly higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid as well as a higher, but still acceptable 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (137/85 mmHg) compared to subjects receiving antihypertensive medication. The untreated group was more prone to take fish oil capsules and increased their plasma levels of n-3 PUFA compared to baseline. In patients with newly diagnosed, untreated hypertension, regular fish consumption was accompanied by lower blood pressure. After one year, patients without antihypertensive medication were characterized by a significant increase and higher plasma levels of n-3 PUFA. This supports a blood pressure-lowering effect and suggests an increase in marine n-3 PUFA intake as part of non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  5. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from seal oils on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated with hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Shang Zhu; Su Liu; Xi-Mei Chen; Zhi-Gang Huang; Dong-Wei Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from seal oils for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with hyperlipidemia. METHODS: One hundred and forty-four patients with NAFLD associated with hyperlipidemia were included in the 24-wk, randomized, controlled trial. The patients were randomized into two groups. Group A (n = 72) received recommended diet and 2 g n-3 PUFA from seal oils, three times a day. Group B (n = 72) received recommended diet and 2 g placebo, three times a day. Primary endpoints were fatty liver assessed by symptom scores, liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum lipid levels after 8, 12, 16, and 24 wk. Hepatic fat infiltration was detected by ultrasonography at weeks 12 and 24 after treatment. RESULTS: A total of 134 patients (66 in group A, 68 in group B) were included in the study except for 10 patients who were excluded from the study. After 24 wk of treatment, no change was observed in body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG), renal function and blood cells of these patients. Total symptom scores, ALT and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased more significantly in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). As expected, there was a tendency toward improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 7-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), and total cholesterol (TCHO) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.05) after administration in the two groups. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups. The values of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were significantly improved in group A (P < 0.05), but no significant change was found in group B at different time points and after a 24-wk treatment. After treatment, complete fatty liver regression was observed in 19.70% (13/66) of the patients, and an overall reduction was found in 53.03% (35/66) of the patients in group A. In contrast, in group B, only five patients (7.35%, 5/68) achieved complete fatty

  6. The role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2013-03-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been proposed as potential treatments for human heart failure. The cardioprotective effects of n-3 PUFA are supported by extensive cell culture, animal and human studies. Animal studies with n-3 PUFA have shown marked improvements in many independent risk factors for heart failure, including obesity, type II diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension and inflammation. However, the evidence from observational studies, randomised controlled trials and meta-analyses that these benefits on risk factors lead to improvements in the symptoms of heart failure in patients is much less convincing. Further, most studies have used marine n-3 PUFA; the role of the plant-derived PUFA, α-linolenic acid (ALA), is even less clear. This discontinuity of scientific evidence from animal to human studies suggests that future studies should focus on defining the optimal dosage range and the efficacy of n-3 PUFA compared to standard treatments using standardised study designs. Further studies on ALA would seem justified.

  7. Immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Calder

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Fish oils are rich in the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3 acids. Linseed oil and green plant tissues are rich in the precursor fatty acid, a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3. Most vegetable oils are rich in the n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (18:2n-6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. 2. Arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids such as prostaglandin E2 are pro-inflammatory and regulate the functions of cells of the immune system. Consumption of fish oils leads to replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes by eicosapentaenoic acid. This changes the amount and alters the balance of eicosanoids produced. 3. Consumption of fish oils diminishes lymphocyte proliferation, T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity, natural killer cell activity, macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity, monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis, major histocompatibility class II expression and antigen presentation, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, tumour necrosis factor and adhesion molecule expression. 4. Feeding laboratory animals fish oil reduces acute and chronic inflammatory responses, improves survival to endotoxin and in models of autoimmunity and prolongs the survival of grafted organs. 5. Feeding fish oil reduces cell-mediated immune responses. 6. Fish oil supplementation may be clinically useful in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions and following transplantation. 7. n-3 PUFAs may exert their effects by modulating signal transduction and/or gene expression within inflammatory and immune cells.

  8. An increase in dietary n-3 fatty acids decreases a marker of bone resorption in humans

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    Hilpert Kirsten F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human, animal, and in vitro research indicates a beneficial effect of appropriate amounts of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on bone health. This is the first controlled feeding study in humans to evaluate the effect of dietary plant-derived n-3 PUFA on bone turnover, assessed by serum concentrations of N-telopeptides (NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP. Subjects (n = 23 consumed each diet for 6 weeks in a randomized, 3-period crossover design: 1 Average American Diet (AAD; [34% total fat, 13% saturated fatty acids (SFA, 13% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA, 9% PUFA (7.7% LA, 0.8% ALA], 2 Linoleic Acid Diet (LA; [37% total fat, 9% SFA, 12% MUFA, 16% PUFA (12.6% LA, 3.6% ALA], and 3 α-Linolenic Acid Diet (ALA; [38% total fat, 8% SFA, 12% MUFA, 17% PUFA (10.5% LA, 6.5% ALA]. Walnuts and flaxseed oil were the predominant sources of ALA. NTx levels were significantly lower following the ALA diet (13.20 ± 1.21 nM BCE, relative to the AAD (15.59 ± 1.21 nM BCE (p

  9. Role of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention

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    Lee AH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Andy H Lee1, Naoko Hiramatsu21School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Laboratory of Nutritional Science, School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Himeji, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Its prevention through a healthy lifestyle and appropriate diet is important. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA therapy has shown promise in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. This commentary discusses the nutritional role of n-3 PUFA, including its metabolism and physiological role, comparison with n-6 series PUFA, as well as complications due to deficiency. Clinical use of n-3 PUFA for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, recommended intake, and potential adverse effects will also be examined. The available scientific evidence suggests that its supplementation and clinical use ranging from 0.4 to 1 g/day can provide tangible benefits. However, further studies are required to determine optimal dosing and the relative ratio of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid that provides maximal cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, cardiovascular disease, fish oil, polyunsaturated fatty acids

  10. Modulation of phorbol ester-elicited events in mouse epidermis by dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belury, M A; Leyton, J; Patrick, K E; Cumberland, A G; Locniskar, M; Fischer, S M

    1991-09-01

    Because arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids are potent modulators of hyperproliferation and inflammation during skin tumor promotion with the phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (17, 18), it was hypothesized that dietary modification of epidermal fatty acids might modulate TPA-induced biochemical events in mouse skin. Semipurified diets containing 10% total fat composed of corn oil (CO) or a combination of CO and menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CT) were fed to SENCAR mice for 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of epidermal phospholipids generally reflected fatty acid composition of dietary oils fed to the mice. Since fatty acid-derived eicosanoids are thought to be essential in tumorigenesis, we compared the effects of dietary fats on prostaglandin E (PGE) production in epidermis treated with a single dose of TPA. TPA-induced PGE production in mouse epidermis from mice fed the MO diet was significantly reduced compared to PGE production in epidermal homogenates from mice fed the CO or CT diets. Type of dietary fats did not appear to modulate TPA-induced vascular permeability, however hyperplasia was slightly elevated in skins of mice fed MO. The subcellular distribution of protein kinase C, the plasma membrane receptor for TPA predominantly located in the cytosol (80%), was altered in epidermis from mice fed the MO diet compared to preparations from mice fed CO or CT diets which exhibited normal protein kinase C distribution. Our results suggest that n-3 rich dietary lipids modulate TPA-elicited events in mouse skin to a greater extent than diets containing higher proportions of saturated or n-6 fatty acids.

  11. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and bone metabolism%n-3多不饱和脂肪酸与骨代谢

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志平; 白晓春; 金大地

    2011-01-01

    骨质疏松是当今老龄社会的主要健康和经济问题,影响人类生活质量和寿命,基因因素、脂肪酸营养摄人等影响骨质疏松及其并发症.脂肪酸是细胞膜的重要组成部分,通过调节钙吸收、破骨细胞形成、前列腺素的合成、细胞膜n-6/n-3脂肪酸比率、细胞因子及脂质过氧化等可影响骨代谢.本文综述了膳食中n-3脂肪酸的重要性及fat-1基因对骨代谢的影响,n-3脂肪酸影响人类和鼠的骨代谢,分析n-3脂肪酸对骨代谢影响的细胞与分子机制.%Osteoporosis is a major problem of public health and economy in the aged society today, which affects the life equality and life span of human being.The genetic factors and fatty acid nutritional intake affect osteoporosis and its complication.Fatty acids are important ingredients of the cell membrane.The bone metabolism can be affected by the regulation of calcium absorption, formation of osteoclasts, the synthesis of prostagladin, the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids on the cell membrane, the cytokines, and peroxidation of the fat.This paper reviews the importance of dietary n-3 fatty acids and the effect of fat-l gene on bone metabolism.N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids affect bone metabolism of the human and the rat.The paper analyzes the cellular and molecular mechanism of the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone metabolism.

  12. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cardiac ion channels

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    Cristina eMoreno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been reported to exhibit antiarrhythmic properties, attributed to their capability to modulate ion channels. In the present review, we will focus on the effects of PUFAs on cardiac sodium channel (Nav1.5 and two potassium channels (Kv (Kv1.5 and Kv11.1. n-3 marine (docohexaenoic and eicohexapentaenoic acid and plant origin (alpha-linolenic acid PUFAs block Kv1.5 and Kv11.1 channels at physiological concentrations. Also, DHA and EPA decreased Nav1.5 and calcium channels. These effects on Na and Ca channels theoretically should shorten the cardiac APD, whereas the blocking actions of n-3 PUFAs of Kv channels should lengthen the cardiac action potential. Experiments performed in female rabbits fed with a diet rich in n-3 PUFAs show a longer cardiac action potential and effective refractory period. This study was performed to analyze if their antiarrhythmic effects are due to a reduction of triangulation, reverse use-dependence, instability and dispersion of the cardiac action potential (TRIaD as a measure of proarrhythmic effects. Dietary n-3 PUFAs supplementation markedly reduced dofetilide-induced TRIaD and abolished dofetilide-induced torsades de pointes (TdP. Ultrafast sodium channel block by DHA may account for the antiarrhythmic protection of dietary supplements of n-3 PUFAs against dofetilide induced proarrhythmia observed in this animal model. The cardiac effects of n-3 PUFAs resemble those of amiodarone: both block sodium, calcium and potassium channels, have anti-adrenergic properties, can prolong the cardiac action potential, reverse TRIaD and suppress TdP. The main difference is that sodium channel block by n-3 PUFAs has a much faster onset and offset kinetics. Therefore, the electrophysiological profile of n-3 PUFAs appears more desirable: the duration of reduced sodium current (facilitates re-entry is much shorter. The n-3 PUFAs appear as a safer alternative to other antiarrhythmic

  13. Cost implications of alternative sources of (n-3) fatty acid consumption in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen T; Luo, Hanqi; Ausman, Lynne M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 provides authoritative advice on what Americans should eat to stay healthy. These guidelines provide a quantitative recommendation to consume 250 mg/d of (n-3) fatty acids (also known as omega-3 fatty acids). To achieve this goal, Americans would need to more than triple the amount of EPA and DHA currently consumed. This paper assessed the cost implications of increased levels of EPA and DHA from marine and nonmarine food sources using data from the 2007-2008 NHANES, USDA nutrient data base, and the USDA Center for the Nutrition Policy and Promotion food price data. Stearidonic acid (SDA)-enhanced soybean oil is a lower cost alternative to commonly consumed marine food as a source of EPA. In addition, given that SDA-enhanced soybean oil is intended to be used as an ingredient in a variety of products, this may enable consumers to increase consumption of EPA through commonly consumed foods.

  14. Cheek cell fatty acids reflect n-3 PUFA in blood fractions during linseed oil supplementation: a controlled human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindel, Annemarie; Staps, Frank; Kuhnt, Katrin

    2013-11-14

    Adequate biomarkers for the dietary supply of fatty acids (FA) are FA of adipose tissue and blood fractions. In human studies, invasive sample collection is unpleasant for subjects. In contrast, cheek cell sampling can be considered as a non-invasive alternative to investigate FA status.The aim of this study was to analyze whether cheek cell FA composition reflect the supplementation of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) using a linseed oil mixture compared to olive oil supplementation. Additionally, it was investigated if cheek cell FA composition correlates with the FA composition of plasma, red blood cells (RBC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) before and during both interventions. During a 10-week randomized, controlled, double-blind human intervention study, 38 subjects provided cheek cell and blood samples. After a two-week run-in period, the test group (n = 23) received 17 g/d of an ALA-rich linseed oil mixture, while the control group (n = 15) received 17 g/d of an omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)-free olive oil. Cheek cells and blood were collected on days 0, 7 and 56 of the 8-week intervention period. Compared to olive oil, the linseed oil intervention increased ALA and also the endogenously converted long-chain n-3 metabolites eicosatetraenoic-, eicosapentaenoic- and docosapentaenoic acid in cheek cells (P ≤ 0.05). Docosahexaenoic acid remained unchanged. Reflecting the treatment, the n-6/n-3 ratio decreased in the test group. In general, cheek cell FA reflected the changes of FA in blood fractions. Independent of treatment, significant correlations (P ≤ 0.05) of n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA between cheek cells and plasma, RBC and PBMC were found, except for linoleic acid and ALA. The changes in FA composition of cheek cells confirmed that ALA from linseed oil increased endogenously derived n-3 PUFA in cheek cell lipids. These changes in cheek cells and their correlation to the respective FA in blood fractions indicate the cheek

  15. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids and inflammation: potential application in surgical and trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calder P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids used in nutritional support of surgical or critically ill patients have been based on soybean oil, which is rich in the n-6 fatty acid linoleic acid (18:2n-6. Linoleic acid is the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6. In turn, arachidonic acid in cell membrane phospholipids is the substrate for the synthesis of a range of biologically active compounds (eicosanoids including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. These compounds can act as mediators in their own right and can also act as regulators of other processes, such as platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, leukocyte chemotaxis, inflammatory cytokine production, and immune function. There is a view that an excess of n-6 fatty acids should be avoided since this could contribute to a state where physiological processes become dysregulated. One alternative is the use of fish oil. The rationale of this latter approach is that fish oil contains long chain n-3 fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid. When fish oil is provided, eicosapentaenoic acid is incorporated into cell membrane phospholipids, partly at the expense of arachidonic acid. Thus, there is less arachidonic acid available for eicosanoid synthesis. Hence, fish oil decreases production of prostaglandins like PGE2 and of leukotrienes like LTB4. Thus, n-3 fatty acids can potentially reduce platelet aggregation, blood clotting, smooth muscle contraction, and leukocyte chemotaxis, and can modulate inflammatory cytokine production and immune function. These effects have been demonstrated in cell culture, animal feeding and healthy volunteer studies. Fish oil decreases the host metabolic response and improves survival to endotoxin in laboratory animals. Recently clinical studies performed in various patient groups have indicated benefit from this approach.

  16. n-3 Fatty acids preserve muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of energy restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galmiche, Guillaume; Huneau, Jean-François; Mathé, Véronique; Mourot, Jacques; Simon, Noémie; Le Guillou, Céline; Hermier, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    In obese subjects, the loss of fat mass during energy restriction is often accompanied by a loss of muscle mass. The hypothesis that n-3 PUFA, which modulate protein homoeostasis via effects on insulin sensitivity, could contribute to maintain muscle mass during energy restriction was tested in rats fed a high-fat diet (4 weeks) rich in 18 : 1 n-9 (oleic acid, OLE-R), 18 : 3 n-3 (α-linolenic acid, ALA-R) or n-3 long-chain (LC-R) fatty acid and then energy restricted (8 weeks). A control group (OLE-ad libitum (AL)) was maintained with AL diet throughout the study. Rats were killed 10 min after an i.v. insulin injection. All energy-restricted rats lost weight and fat mass, but only the OLE-R group showed a significant muscle loss. The Gastrocnemius muscle was enriched with ALA in the ALA-R group and with LC-PUFA in the ALA-R and LC-R groups. The proteolytic ubiquitin-proteasome system was differentially affected by energy restriction, with MAFbx and muscle ring finger-1 mRNA levels being decreased in the LC-R group (-30 and -20 %, respectively). RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase and insulin receptor substrate 1 phosphorylation levels increased in the LC-R group (+70 %), together with insulin receptor mRNA (+50 %). The ALA-R group showed the same overall activation pattern as the LC-R group, although to a lesser extent. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA prevent the loss of muscle mass associated with energy restriction, probably by an improvement in the insulin-signalling pathway activation, in relation to enrichment of plasma membranes in n-3 LC-PUFA.

  17. Fish, n-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mortensen, Erik L

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a protective effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3FAs) against cardiovascular disease; however, women are underrepresented in cardiovascular research. The aim of this study was to explore the association between intake of LCn3FAs and the risk......, and ischemic heart disease used to define a combined measure of cardiovascular diseases. Intake of fish and LCn3FAs was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire and telephone interviews. During follow-up (1996-2008; median: 8 years), 577 events of cardiovascular disease were identified. Low LCn3FA intake...

  18. Effects of trans- and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular risk markers in healthy males. An 8 weeks dietary intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyerberg, J; Eskesen, D C; Andersen, P W

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of long-term intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) suggest opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk. Common mechanisms of action are probable. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on cardiovascular risk markers...... of dietary enrichment with TFA or n-3 PUFA. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, parallel intervention trial. SETTING: Department of Human Nutrition, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University. SUBJECTS: In all, 87 healthy males included, 79 completed. INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to 8...... weeks of a daily intake of 33 g of experimental fats from either partially hydrogenated soy oil containing 20 g of TFA, 12 g of fish oil with approximately 4 g of n-3 PUFA and 21 g of control fat, or 33 g of control fat. The experimental fats were incorporated into bakery products. Plasma lipids, blood...

  19. N-3 fatty acids, cancer and cachexia: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer, Ramón; Moreno-Nogueira, José M; García-Luna, Pedro P; García-Peris, Pilar; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Zarazaga, Antonio; Quecedo, Luis; del Llano, Juan; Usán, Luis; Casimiro, César

    2007-05-01

    Use of n-3 fatty acids (FA) has been reported to be beneficial for cancer patients. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to issue recommendations on the clinical use of n-3 FA in the cancer setting. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane and Healthstar databases. We selected clinical trials or prospective observational studies including patients with cancer and life expectancy >2 months, in which enteral supplements with n-3 FA were administered. Parameters evaluated individually were clinical (nutritional status, tolerance, survival and hospital stays), biochemical (inflammatory mediators), and functional (functional status, appetite and quality of life (QoL)). Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria; eight were of high quality. The panel of experts established the following evidence: (1) oral supplements with n-3 FA benefit patients with advanced cancer and weight loss, and are indicated in tumours of the upper digestive tract and pancreas; (2) the advantages observed were: increased weight and appetite, improved QoL, and reduced post-surgical morbidity; (3) there is no defined pattern for combining different n-3 FA, and it is recommended to administer > 1.5 g/day; and (4) better tolerance is obtained administering low-fat formulas for a period of at least 8 weeks. All the evidences were grade B but for 'length of treatment' and 'advantage of survival' it was grade C. Our findings suggest that administration of n-3 FA (EPA and DHA) in doses of at least 1.5 g/day for a prolonged period of time to patients with advanced cancer is associated with an improvement in clinical, biological and QoL parameters.

  20. N-3 fatty acids modulate Th1 and Th2 dichotomy in diabetic pregnancy and macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naim Akhtar; Yessoufou, Akadiri; Kim, Minji; Hichami, Aziz

    2006-06-01

    We assessed the implication of Th (helper)-cells and the modulation of the Th1/Th2 dichotomy by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in type I diabetic pregnancy (DP) and macrosomia. Female gestant rats fed a standard diet or n-3 PUFA regimen were rendered diabetic by administration of five low doses of streptozotocin. The macrosomic (MAC) offspring were sacrificed at the age of 90 days. The mRNAs of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokines) and IL-4 (Th2 cytokine) were downregulated in the pancreas and spleen of diabetic pregnant rats. The levels of IL-10 mRNA, another Th2 cytokine, were unchanged in the spleen or upregulated in the pancreas of these animals. Feeding an n-3 PUFA diet to rats with DP upregulated IL-10 mRNA in the pancreas and IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA in the spleen. In MAC offspring, high expression of IL-2 and IFN-gamma mRNA, but not of Th2 cytokines, was observed. The n-3 PUFA diet diminished Th1 mRNA quantities and increased the levels of IL-4, but not of IL-10, mRNA in MAC offspring. Our study shows that DP is associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype and IL-4 mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen, and an n-3 PUFA diet upregulates Th2 profile. In MAC offspring, the Th1 phenotype is upregulated and an n-3 PUFA diet downregulates this phenomenon.

  1. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  2. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated cor...

  3. N-3 fatty acids in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity Ácidos grasos n-3 en el metabolismo de la glucosa y la sensibilidad a la insulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Martín de Santa Olalla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA of the n-3 series are essential for normal growth and development. The health effects of these fatty acids include reduction of cardiovascular risk due to antiarrhythmic, antiinflammatory, anti-thrombotic and lipid lowering actions. An increase in unsaturation of the muscle membrane fatty acids is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Higher proportion of n-3 fatty acids may have beneficial roles, such as antiobesity effects and protection against the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus through a number of metabolic effects. However, controversy exists on the different effects of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as on the interacting effect of dietary saturated and monounsaturated fat. In addition, some adverse effects have been described concerning the use of fish oil supplements containing high doses of n-3 fatty acids. Several studies show Eskimos diabetes risk, while results of nutritional interventions on the influence of consuming diets rich in oily fish or other food rich in n-3 fatty acids is very limited. This article reviews the possible mechanisms through which n-3 PUFA are involved in glucose level control and insulin sensitivity. Intervention and epidemiological studies together with recent findings on the nutrigenomic field related with this subject are also briefly reviewed.Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (AGP de la serie n-3 son esenciales para el crecimiento normal y el desarrollo. Los efectos de estos ácidos grasos en la salud incluyen reducción del riesgo cardiovascular debido a acciones antiarrítmicas, antiinflamatorias, antitrombóticas e hipolipemiantes. Un aumento en la insaturación de los ácidos grasos de la membrana muscular se asocia con mejora en la sensibilidad a la insulina. Una mayor proporción de ácidos grasos n-3 puede desempeñar papeles beneficios, tales como efectos antiobesidad y protección frente al síndrome metabólico y la

  4. High-Fat Diets Containing Different Amounts of n3 and n6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Modulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Sneha; Bukowski, Michael R; Lie, Wen-Rong; Picklo, Matthew J; Yan, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Dysregulation of adipokines is a hallmark of obesity. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil may exert anti-inflammatory effects on adipose tissue mitigating the dysregulation of adipokines thereby preventing obesity. This study investigated the effects of high-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on adiposity and adipokine production in mice. Mice were fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet with 16 or 45 % of energy from corn oil (low n3 PUFA) in comparison with a high-fat diet containing soybean or high-oleic sunflower oil (adequate n3 PUFA) or flaxseed or fish oil (high n3 PUFA) for 11 weeks. High-fat diets, regardless of types of oils, significantly increased body fat mass and body weights compared to the low-fat diet. Adipose fatty acid composition and contents reflected dietary fatty acid profiles. The high-fat fish oil diet significantly increased adiponectin and reduced leptin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue; it did not elevate plasma insulin concentration compared to the high-fat corn oil diet. All high-fat diets elevated concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) but lowered resistin concentrations in both plasma and adipose tissue. In conclusion, fish oil may be beneficial in improving insulin sensitivity by upregulation of adiponectin and downregulation of leptin production; n3 and n6 PUFA do not play a role at the dietary levels tested in reducing adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (leptin, PAI-1, MCP-1 and resistin) and anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin.

  5. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  6. (n-3) fatty acids and cardiovascular health: are effects of EPA and DHA shared or complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Wu, Jason H Y

    2012-03-01

    Considerable research supports cardiovascular benefits of consuming omega-3 PUFA, also known as (n-3) PUFA, from fish or fish oil. Whether individual long-chain (n-3) PUFA have shared or complementary effects is not well established. We reviewed evidence for dietary and endogenous sources and cardiovascular effects on biologic pathways, physiologic risk factors, and clinical endpoints of EPA [20:5(n-3)], docosapentaenoic acid [DPA, 22:5(n-3)], and DHA [22:6(n-3)]. DHA requires direct dietary consumption, with little synthesis from or retroconversion to DPA or EPA. Whereas EPA is also largely derived from direct consumption, EPA can also be synthesized in small amounts from plant (n-3) precursors, especially stearidonic acid. In contrast, DPA appears principally derived from endogenous elongation from EPA, and DPA can also undergo retroconversion back to EPA. In experimental and animal models, both EPA and DHA modulate several relevant biologic pathways, with evidence for some differential benefits. In humans, both fatty acids lower TG levels and, based on more limited studies, favorably affect cardiac diastolic filling, arterial compliance, and some metrics of inflammation and oxidative stress. All three (n-3) PUFA reduce ex vivo platelet aggregation and DHA also modestly increases LDL and HDL particle size; the clinical relevance of such findings is uncertain. Combined EPA+DHA or DPA+DHA levels are associated with lower risk of fatal cardiac events and DHA with lower risk of atrial fibrillation, suggesting direct or indirect benefits of DHA for cardiac arrhythmias (although not excluding similar benefits of EPA or DPA). Conversely, EPA and DPA, but not DHA, are associated with lower risk of nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints in some studies, and purified EPA reduced risk of nonfatal coronary syndromes in one large clinical trial. Overall, for many cardiovascular pathways and outcomes, identified studies of individual (n-3) PUFA were relatively limited, especially

  7. Development of an n-3 fatty acid and α-tocopherol enriched dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoz, L; D'Arrigo, M; Cambero, I; Ordóñez, J A

    2004-07-01

    Five batches of "salchichon", which is a dry fermented Spanish sausage, were manufactured using backfat and meat enriched in polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and α-tocopherol. Raw materials were obtained from animals fed on diets of the same ingredients with the exception of the oil source [sunflower oil (batch control, C), linseed oil (L and LE), 1/1 (w/w) linseed and olive oil (LO and LOE)] and α-tocopherol quantity [20 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (C, L and LO) or 200 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol (LOE and LE)]. A final product with a healthier polyunsaturated fatty acid n-6:n-3 ratio (oil-enriched batches as compared with the control (12). The batches of sausages manufactured with backfat and meat from animals fed on diets enriched in α-tocopherol and linseed, or linseed and olive oil with or without α-tocopherol supplementation show a higher lipid oxidative stability than those of diets enriched in linseed oil without α-tocopherol supplementation. Sausages of dietary treatment C, LE, LO and LOE did not show differences in water, protein, fat and ash contents, a(w), pH, texture profile analysis and sensory features (odour, colour, texture, juiciness and taste quality). Sausages manufactured with material from animals fed on linseed oil-enriched diets and no added α-tocopherol (L) showed an unfavourable rancidity degree detected by both 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) index and sensory panel.

  8. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease.

  9. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone1-3

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed...

  10. Fatty acid patterns of dog erythrocyte membranes after feeding of a fish-oil based DHA-rich supplement with a base diet low in n-3 fatty acids versus a diet containing added n-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhrmann Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dogs, increasing the tissue n-3 fatty acid (FA content is associated with potential benefit in some medical conditions, e.g. atopic dermatitis, cancer or heart disease. Therefore effectively and conveniently increasing tissue n-3 FA levels in dogs is of interest. Incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into cell membranes may be studied by FA analysis of erythrocyte membranes (EM, because of the correlation of its FA composition with the FA composition of other cells. Aim of the study was to determine whether an n-3 FA additive added to a control diet is as effective in increasing EM n-3 FA content as feeding an n-3 FA enriched diet. Furthermore the time course of the incorporation of dietary n-3 FA into canine EM was investigated. Methods Thirty dogs were randomly divided into three dietary groups with ten dogs per group. CONT got a dry dog food diet which did not contain EPA or DHA. FO got a dry dog food diet with a high EPA and DHA content. ADD got the CONT diet combined with an n-3 FA additive rich in DHA and EPA. After a feeding period of 12 weeks the additive was discontinued in ADD and these dogs were fed CONT diet for another four weeks to observe washout effects. Erythrocyte lipids were extracted from venous blood samples and their FA composition was determined by gas chromatography. The Mann-Whitney-U-test was used to detect significant differences between the different groups and time points. Results After one week the proportions of n-3 FA, DHA and EPA were already significantly increased in ADD and FO, apparently reaching a plateau within eight weeks. In our study DHA and not EPA was preferably incorporated into the EM. After discontinuing the administration of the additive in ADD, the n-3 FA values declined slowly without reaching baseline levels within four weeks. Conclusions In dogs, an increase of dietary n-3 FA content leads to a rapid inclusion of n-3 FA into EM, regardless of whether the n-3 FA are offered as

  11. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids of Marine Origin and Multifocality in Human Breast Cancer.

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    Lobna Ouldamer

    Full Text Available The microenvironment of breast epithelial tissue may contribute to the clinical expression of breast cancer. Breast epithelial tissue, whether healthy or tumoral, is directly in contact with fat cells, which in turn could influence tumor multifocality. In this pilot study we investigated whether the fatty acid composition of breast adipose tissue differed according to breast cancer focality.Twenty-three consecutive women presenting with non-metastatic breast cancer underwent breast-imaging procedures including Magnetic Resonance Imaging prior to treatment. Breast adipose tissue specimens were collected during breast surgery. We established a biochemical profile of adipose tissue fatty acids by gas chromatography. We assessed whether there were differences according to breast cancer focality.We found that decreased levels in breast adipose tissue of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids, the two main polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids of marine origin, were associated with multifocality.These differences in lipid content may contribute to mechanisms through which peritumoral adipose tissue fuels breast cancer multifocality.

  12. Neuroinflammation and aging: influence of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid*

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    Layé Sophie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system of the brain is principally composed of microglial cells and astrocytes, which, once activated, protect neurons against noxious agents or lesions. Activated glial cells produce inflammatory cytokines that act specifically through receptors expressed in the brain, leading to the development of altered emotional and cognitive behavior. These behavioral alterations cease along with the synthesis of brain cytokines. When the level of expression of these cytokines remains high, they become toxic to neurons possibly leading to neuronal death, as observed in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 (n-3 type polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are essential nutrients and fundamental components of neuronal and glial cell membranes. Additionally, they have immunomodulatory properties. They accumulate in the brain during the perinatal period in a dietary supply-dependant fashion. Their brain levels diminish with age, but can be corrected by a diet enriched in n-3 PUFAs. The increasing exposure of the population to diets unbalanced in n-3 PUFAs could contribute to the deleterious effect of inflammatory cytokines in the brain.

  13. The Effect of Marine Derived n-3 Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Metabolism and Function

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    Marijana Todorčević

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue function is key determinant of metabolic health, with specific nutrients being suggested to play a role in tissue metabolism. One such group of nutrients are the n-3 fatty acids, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3. Results from studies where human, animal and cellular models have been utilised to investigate the effects of EPA and/or DHA on white adipose tissue/adipocytes suggest anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects. We review here evidence for these effects, specifically focusing on studies that provide some insight into metabolic pathways or processes. Of note, limited work has been undertaken investigating the effects of EPA and DHA on white adipose tissue in humans whilst more work has been undertaken using animal and cellular models. Taken together it would appear that EPA and DHA have a positive effect on lowering lipogenesis, increasing lipolysis and decreasing inflammation, all of which would be beneficial for adipose tissue biology. What remains to be elucidated is the duration and dose required to see a favourable effect of EPA and DHA in vivo in humans, across a range of adiposity.

  14. The inhibition of fat cell proliferation by n-3 fatty acids in dietary obese mice

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    Kopecky Jan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA of marine origin exert multiple beneficial effects on health. Our previous study in mice showed that reduction of adiposity by LC n-3 PUFA was associated with both, a shift in adipose tissue metabolism and a decrease in tissue cellularity. The aim of this study was to further characterize the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on fat cell proliferation and differentiation in obese mice. Methods A model of inducible and reversible lipoatrophy (aP2-Cre-ERT2 PPARγL2/L2 mice was used, in which the death of mature adipocytes could be achieved by a selective ablation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in response to i.p. injection of tamoxifen. Before the injection, obesity was induced in male mice by 8-week-feeding a corn oil-based high-fat diet (cHF and, subsequently, mice were randomly assigned (day 0 to one of the following groups: (i mice injected by corn-oil-vehicle only, i.e."control" mice, and fed cHF; (ii mice injected by tamoxifen in corn oil, i.e. "mutant" mice, fed cHF; (iii control mice fed cHF diet with15% of dietary lipids replaced by LC n-3 PUFA concentrate (cHF+F; and (iv mutant mice fed cHF+F. Blood and tissue samples were collected at days 14 and 42. Results Mutant mice achieved a maximum weight loss within 10 days post-injection, followed by a compensatory body weight gain, which was significantly faster in the cHF as compared with the cHF+F mutant mice. Also in control mice, body weight gain was depressed in response to dietary LC n-3 PUFA. At day 42, body weights in all groups stabilized, with no significant differences in adipocyte size between the groups, although body weight and adiposity was lower in the cHF+F as compared with the cHF mice, with a stronger effect in the mutant than in control mice. Gene expression analysis documented depression of adipocyte maturation during the reconstitution of adipose tissue in the cHF+F mutant mice. Conclusion

  15. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids levels on egg and larval quality of Eurasian perch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrotte, E.; Overton, Julia Lynne; Kestemont, P.

    2008-01-01

    Three groups of 40 perch breeders were reared in order to study the effects of 3 different levels of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on egg quality. Two experimental diets, R1 and R2 (n-3/n-6 = 0.13 and 35.54, respectively), were compared to one commercial food, R3 (n-3/n-6 = 3.48.). Spawning...

  16. Enrichment of lecithin with n-3 fatty acids by acidolysis using immobilized phospholipase A1

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    Hill, Jr, Charles G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A commercial phospholipase A1 (Lecitase® Ultra was immobilized by physical adsorption on Duolite® and then used to mediate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into lecithin. Adsorption isotherms showed that 12 h of contact were sufficient to deposit most of the enzyme onto the carrier. A pH of 7 and 50°C were the best conditions for adsorption. Reaction mixtures consisting of lecithin and a saponified fish oil concentrate (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA were prepared at molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:10. Typically 2 g of total substrates and 200 mg of enzyme preparation were employed in batch reactor trials. The fastest reaction rates were observed when a substrate mole ratio of 1:8 (lecithin:total fatty acids was employed. Use of the enzyme preparation dried at pH 8 and reaction temperatures of 50 and 60°C produced the greatest extent of incorporation of the indicated n-3 fatty acids into the phospholipid after 24h of reaction.Una preparación comercial de fosfolipasa A1 (Lecitase® Ultra fue inmovilizada por adsorción sobre Duolite® y empleada para catalizar la incorporación de ácidos grasos n-3 en lecitina. Las isotermas de adsorción mostraron que en 12 horas de contacto se depositó la mayor cantidad de enzima sobre el soporte. Las mejores condiciones para la adsorción se encontraron a un valor de pH de 7 y 50°C. Las mezclas de reacción consistieron en lecitina y un saponificado de concentrado de aceite de pescado (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA a relaciones molares de 1:2 a 1:10. Una mezcla de reacción típica consistió de 2 g de sustratos y 200 mg del preparado enzimático en un reactor en lotes. Las velocidades de reacción mas altas se encontraron cuando se empleó una relación molar de sustratos de 1:8 (lecitina:ácidos grasos totales. El preparado enzimático secado a pH de 8.0 a 50 o 60°C produjo las más altas incorporaciones de ácidos grasos n-3 en el fosfolípido después de 24 h de reacción.

  17. Hepatic lipid characteristics and histopathology of laying hens fed CLA or n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Gita; Goeger, Mary P

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary CLA and n-3 PUFA on hepatic TAG accumulation, histopathology, and FA incorporation in lipid classes by laying chickens was investigated. One hundred twenty 30-wk-old single comb white leghorn laying hens were distributed randomly to four treatments (3 replications of 10 birds) and were fed diets containing CLA and animal fat (Diet I), 18:3n-3 (Diet II), or long-chain n-3 FA (Diet III). A sunflower oil (n-6 FA)-based diet vvas the control. Feeding Diet I resulted in an increase in hepatic total lipids (P < 0.05). The liver TAG content was 32.2, 18.9, 29.4, and 18.7 mg/g for hens fed Diet I, Diet II, Diet III, and the control diet, respectively (P< 0.05). The serum TAG was lowest in birds fed Diet II (P < 0.05). Diet I resulted in an increase in the total number of fat vacuoles and lipid infiltration in hepatocytes (P < 0.05). The number of cells with 75% or higher lipid vacuolation was observed only in birds fed Diet I. Feeding diets containing CLA resulted in an increase in the content of the c9,t11 CLA isomer in liver TAG and PC (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the CLA concentration of hepatic PE fractions. The content of DHA (22:6n-3) was higher in the TAG, PC, and PE of hens fed Diet II and Diet III than Diet I and the control (P < 0.05). Feeding CLA resulted in an increase in total saturated FA in the TAG and PC fractions (P < 0.05). Long-term feeding of CLA in laying birds leads to an increase in liver TAG and may predispose birds to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome.

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. Technological challenges to assess n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine oils for nutritional and pharmacological use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available The benefits ascribed to marine oils rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has led to efforts to improve the chemical and organoleptic characteristics of these oils and to develop procedures for the obtention of pure or highly concentrated fractions of some n-3 fatty acids. Two n-3 fatty acids are of main interest; the eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, EPA and the docosahexaenoic acid (022:6, DHA. The present review is referred to the identification of the main sources of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and to the stabilization of these fatty acids against oxidative rancidity. In addition the procedures for the obtention of EPA and DHA concentrates and the utilization of these fatty acids for nutritional or pharmacological purposes are also discussed.

    Los beneficios atribuidos a los aceites marinos ricos en ácidos grasos n-3 poliinsaturados han conducido a un esfuerzo por mejorar las características químicas y organolépticas de estos aceites y al desarrollo de procedimientos para la obtención de fracciones altamente concentradas o puras de ácidos grasos n-3. Dos ácidos grasos n-3 de interés principal son el ácido eicosapentaenoico (C20:5, EPA y el ácido docosahexaenoico (022:6, DHA. La presente revisión está referida a la identificación de las principales fuentes de ácidos grasos n-3 poliinsaturados marinos, y a la estabilización de estos ácidos frente a la rancidez oxidativa. Además de los procedimientos para la obtención de concentrados de EPA y DHA, es también discutida la utilización de estos ácidos grasos para usos nutricionales y farmacológicos.

  20. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the fatty acid composition of hepatic and plasma bioactive lipids in C57BL/6 mice: a lipidomic approach.

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    Kayode A Balogun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Omega (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are converted to bioactive lipid components that are important mediators in metabolic and physiological pathways; however, which bioactive compounds are metabolically active, and their mechanisms of action are still not clear. We investigated using lipidomic techniques, the effects of diets high in n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of various bioactive lipids in plasma and liver. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Female C57BL/6 mice were fed semi-purified diets (20% w/w fat containing varying amounts of n-3 PUFA before mating, during gestation and lactation, and until weaning. Male offspring were continued on their mothers' diets for 16 weeks. Hepatic and plasma lipids were extracted in the presence of non-naturally occurring internal standards, and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry methods were used to measure the fatty acyl compositions. There was no significant difference in total concentrations of phospholipids in both groups. However, there was a significantly higher concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC, and cholesteryl esters (CE (p < 0.01 in the high n-3 PUFA group compared to the low n-3 PUFA group in both liver and plasma. Plasma and liver from the high n-3 PUFA group also had a higher concentration of free n-3 PUFA (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of different fatty acyl species of phosphatidylethanolamine, triglycerides, sphingomyelin and ceramides. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings reveal for the first time that a diet high in n-3 PUFA caused enrichment of n-3 PUFA in PC, LPC, CE and free fatty acids in the plasma and liver of C57BL/6 mice. PC, LPC, and unesterified free n-3 PUFA are important bioactive lipids, thus altering their fatty acyl composition will have important metabolic and physiological roles.

  1. N-Acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids - from fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijerink, Jocelijn; Balvers, Michiel; Witkamp, Renger

    2013-06-01

    N-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs), in particular α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanisms have been proposed, but their interactions with the endocannabinoid system have received relatively little attention so far. However, it has already been shown some time ago that consumption of n-3 LC-PUFAs not only affects the synthesis of prototypic endocannabinoids like anandamide but also stimulates the formation of specific n-3 LC-PUFA-derived conjugates with ethanolamine, dopamine, serotonin or other amines. Some of these fatty amides show overlapping biological activities with those of typical endocannabinoids, whereas others possess distinct and sometimes largely unknown receptor affinities and other properties. The ethanolamine and dopamine conjugates of DHA have been the most investigated thus far. These mediators may provide promising new leads to the field of inflammatory and neurological disorders and for other pharmacological applications, including their use as carrier molecules for neurotransmitters to target the brain. Furthermore, combinations of n-3 LC-PUFA-derived fatty acid amides, their precursors and FAAH inhibitors offer possibilities to optimise their effects in health and disease.

  2. Healthy yogurt fortified with n-3 fatty acids from vegetable sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bello, B; Torri, L; Piochi, M; Zeppa, G

    2015-12-01

    The concentration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in yogurt was increased using 5 different vegetable oils obtained from flaxseed, Camelina sativa, raspberry, blackcurrant, and Echium plantagineum. The vegetable oils were added to partially skim milk before lactic fermentation at a concentration adequate enough to cover at least 10% of the recommended daily intake of 2 g/d of α-linolenic acid according to EC regulation no. 432/2012. Microbiological (lactobacilli and streptococci, yeast, and molds), chemical (pH, syneresis, proximate composition, fatty acids, oxidation stability), and sensory evaluations were assessed for all of the fortified yogurts after 0, 7, 14, and 21 d of storage at 4°C. Sensory evaluations were conducted at 21 d of storage at 4°C. Among the yogurts produced, those that were supplemented with flaxseed and blackcurrant oils exhibited the highest α-linolenic acid content (more than 200mg/100 g of yogurt) at the end of storage. The addition of oil did not influence the growth of lactic acid bacteria that were higher than 10(7) cfu/g at 21 d of storage. All of the yogurts were accepted by consumers, except for those supplemented with raspberry and E. plantagineum oils due to the presence of off flavors.

  3. The effect of different cooking methods on fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of n-3 fatty acids fortified tilapia meat with or without clove essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Romano, Nicholas; Goh, Yong-Meng; Oskoueian, Ehsan; Ehteshami, Fariborz; Ebrahimi, Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Tilapia farmers are increasingly relying on dietary fish oil alternatives which substantially reduces health beneficial n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in tilapia products.? This may be further exacerbated depending on the cooking method.? This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods on the fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of tilapia minced meat after prior fish oil fortifications with or without clove essential oil. Results showed that frying tilapia in either sunflower or palm oil significantly increased the saturated fatty acid and linoleic acid content, respectively, of tilapia. However, fish oil fortifications significantly increased the n-3 PUFA content, but tended to decrease oxidative stability, particularly when microwaving. This was mitigated by clove essential oil, which significantly improved oxidative stability after cooking. Results indicate that n-3 PUFA and clove essential oil fortifications is an effective method to deliver and protect these beneficial fatty acids for human consumers. ?

  4. Involvement of gut microbial fermentation in the metabolic alterations occurring in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-depleted mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpentier Yvon A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround Western diet is characterized by an insufficient n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA consumption which is known to promote the pathogenesis of several diseases. We have previously observed that mice fed with a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations exhibit hepatic steatosis together with a decrease in body weight. The gut microbiota contributes to the regulation of host energy metabolism, due to symbiotic relationship with fermentable nutrients provided in the diet. In this study, we have tested the hypothesis that perturbations of the gut microbiota contribute to the metabolic alterations occurring in mice fed a diet poor in n-3 PUFA for two generations (n-3/- mice. Methods C57Bl/6J mice fed with a control or an n-3 PUFA depleted diet for two generations were supplemented with prebiotic (inulin-type Fructooligosaccharides, FOS, 0.20 g/day/mice during 24 days. Results n-3/-mice exhibited a marked drop in caecum weight, a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase in bifidobacteria in the caecal content as compared to control mice (n-3/+ mice. Dietary supplementation with FOS for 24 days was sufficient to increase caecal weight and bifidobacteria count in both n-3/+ and n-3/-mice. Moreover, FOS increased lactobacilli content in n-3/-mice, whereas it decreased their level in n-3/+ mice. Interestingly, FOS treatment promoted body weight gain in n-3/-mice by increasing energy efficiency. In addition, FOS treatment decreased fasting glycemia and lowered the higher expression of key factors involved in the fatty acid catabolism observed in the liver of n-3/-mice, without lessening steatosis. Conclusions the changes in the gut microbiota composition induced by FOS are different depending on the type of diet. We show that FOS may promote lactobacilli and counteract the catabolic status induced by n-3 PUFA depletion in mice, thereby contributing to restore efficient fat storage.

  5. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M.; Mersmann, Harry M.; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:27735847

  6. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1 lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2 energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3 inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  7. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Ameliorating the Obesity-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Animal Models and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-Wei; Chien, Yi-Shan; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ajuwon, Kolapo M; Mersmann, Harry M; Ding, Shih-Torng

    2016-10-09

    The incidence of obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and type II diabetes, are increasing dramatically, perhaps caused by the change in the fatty acid composition of common human diets. Adipose tissue plays a role as the major energy reservoir in the body. An excess of adipose mass accumulation caused by chronic positive energy balance results in obesity. The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) exert numerous beneficial effects to maintain physiological homeostasis. In the current review, the physiology of n-3 PUFA effects in the body is delineated from studies conducted in both human and animal experiments. Although mechanistic studies in human are limited, numerous studies conducted in animals and models in vitro provide potential molecular mechanisms of the effects of these fatty acids. Three aspects of n-3 PUFA in adipocyte regulation are discussed: (1) lipid metabolism, including adipocyte differentiation, lipolysis and lipogenesis; (2) energy expenditure, such as mitochondrial and peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation; and (3) inflammation, including adipokines and specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators. Additionally, the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA regulate gene expression are highlighted. The beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA may help to reduce the incidence of obesity and its comorbidities.

  8. The association between n-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and insulin resistance: The Inuit Health in Transition Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseng, Trine; Witte, Daniel R; Vistisen, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between the content of n-3 fatty acids and insulin resistance in an Inuit population. Study design. The Inuit Health in Transition Study was carried out between 2003 and 2007 in Greenland as a cross-sectional study. Our preliminary results are based...... and ethnicity were answered. Insulin resistance was estimated using the HOMA-IR index based on fastingglucose and fasting-insulin. Results. We found an inverse association between C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3, the n-3/n-6 ratio and HOMA-IR and a positive association between C18:3 n-3 cis and HOMA-IR. When...... adjusted for age, gender, BMI and ethnicity, the association remained statistically significant for C20:5 n-3 (EPA), C22:3 n-3 and C18:3 n-3 cis. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that some types of n-3 fatty acids may have a protective effect against insulin resistance. The role of potential confounders...

  9. N-acyl amines of docosahexaenoic acid and other n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids – From fishy endocannabinoids to potential leads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.; Balvers, M.G.J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    N-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs), in particular a-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) are receiving much attention because of their presumed beneficial health effects. To explain these, a variety of mechanism

  10. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in Fat-1 mice is associated with increased mammary gland and liver syndecan-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiguo Sun

    Full Text Available Long chain n-3 PUFA have been shown to have chemopreventive properties against breast cancer through various mechanisms. One pathway, studied in human breast cancer cell lines, involves upregulation of the proteoglycan, syndecan-1 (SDC-1 by n-3 PUFA-enriched LDL. Using Fat-1 mice that are able to convert n-6 to n-3 PUFA, we tested whether SDC-1 level in vivo is elevated in mammary glands due to endogenously synthesized rather than LDL-derived n-3 PUFA. Female Fat-1 and wild type (wt mice were fed an n-6 PUFA- enriched diet for 7 weeks. Fatty acid analysis of plasma lipoproteins showed that total n-6 PUFA reflected dietary intake similarly in both genotypes (VLDL, 36.2±2.2 and 40.9±3.9; LDL, 49.0±3.3 and 48.1±2.0; HDL, 54.6±1.2 and 58.2±1.3, mean ± SEM percent of total fatty acids for Fat-1 and wt animals respectively. Lipoprotein percent n-3 PUFA was also similar between groups. However, phospholipids and triglycerides extracted from mammary and liver tissues demonstrated significantly higher n-3 PUFA and a corresponding decrease in the ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA in Fat-1 compared to wt mice. This was accompanied by higher SDC-1 in mammary glands and livers of Fat-1 mice, thus demonstrating that endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFA may upregulate SDC-1 in the presence of high dietary n-6 PUFA.

  11. Dietary Supplementation with Conjugated Linoleic Acid Plus n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Increases Food Intake and Brown Adipose Tissue in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C. Morris

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with 1% conjugated linoleic acid and 1% n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (CLA/n-3 was assessed in rats. Food intake increased with no difference in body weights. White adipose tissue weights were reduced whereas brown adipose tissue and uncoupling protein-1 expression were increased. Plasma adiponectin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels were reduced while leptin, ghrelin and liver weight and lipid content were unchanged. Hypothalamic gene expression measurements revealed increased expression of orexigenic and decreased expression of anorexigenic signals. Thus, CLA/n-3 increases food intake without affecting body weight potentially through increasing BAT size and up-regulating UCP-1 in rats.

  12. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo M Pusceddu; Sahar El Aidy; Fiona Crispie; Orla O'Sullivan; Paul Cotter; Catherine Stanton; Philip Kelly; John F Cryan; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) o...

  13. [Lipidic pattern of 25 Mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in their n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-González, María Isabel; Ojeda, Anayté; Silencio, José Luis; Cassis, Lorena; Ledesma, Hector; Pérez-Gil, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and to evaluate the lipidic composition of mexican marine fishes with special emphasis in n-3 fatty acids as nutraceuticals. The edible portion of 25 species: humidity (H), crude protein (CP), total lipids (TL) and fatty acids (FA). The average content (g/100g edible portion) of H was 75.20, PC was 18.40, TL was 3.60. Four n-3 FA were identified in all the samples and they were found in the next abundance order (mg/100g edible portion): C22:6n-3 (DHA)(229.60), C20:5 n-3 (EPA)(52.10), C18:3 n-3 (ALA)(11.80) and C20:3 n-3 (2.25). By their origin and climate there were no difference. By their biologycal classification, n-3 FA content was higher in bony fishes than cartilaginous fishes. It was detected a proportional relation with the n-3 FA concentration and total lipid content. According to their ecotic distribution there were numerical differences in DHA content (mg/100g edible portion) between pelagics (420.70), benthopelagics (125.30) and demersals fishes (225.40). Fatty fishes had higher content of EPA and DHA (mg/100g edible portion) (109.27 and 552.72) than semifatty fishes (56.12 and 226.29) and leanness (15.95 and 96.52), respectively. Bony, fatty and pelagic fishes had a higher content of EPA+DHA. According with the international recommendation values (200 to 600 mg EPA+DHA/day) the 44% of the analyzed species could be considered as functional foods due to their high content of EPA + DHA in a range of 220 to 1300 mg/100g.

  14. Dietary polychlorinated biphenyls, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and incidence of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat-Vargas, Carolina; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2017-02-01

    For malignant melanoma, other risk factors aside from sun exposure have been hardly explored. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-mainly from fatty fish- may affect melanogenesis and promote melanoma progression, while long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids seem to exert antineoplastic actions in melanoma cells. We aimed to assess the association of validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA-DHA), accounting for sun habits and skin type, with the risk of malignant melanoma in middle-aged and elderly women. We included 20,785 women at baseline in 2009 from the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and EPA-DHA intake were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. Incident melanoma cases were ascertained through register-linkage. During 4.5 years of follow-up, we ascertained 67 incident cases of melanoma. After multivariable adjustments, exposure to dietary PCBs was associated with four-fold increased risk of malignant melanoma (hazard ratio [HR], 4.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.2-13; P for trend = 0.02]), while EPA-DHA intake was associated with 80% lower risk (HR, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P for trend = 0.03]), comparing the highest exposure tertiles with the lowest. While we found a direct association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of melanoma, EPA-DHA intake showed to have a substantial protective association. Question of benefits and risk from fish consumption is very relevant and further prospective studies in the general population verifying these findings are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Time trend investigation of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides in selected n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich dietary fish oil and vegetable oil supplements; nutritional relevance for human essential n-3 fatty acid requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Miriam N; Covaci, Adrian; Gheorghe, Adriana; Schepens, Paul

    2004-03-24

    In addition to being used in the food and animal feed industry, fish oils have also been used traditionally as dietary supplements. Due to the presence of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, fish oils have therapeutic benefits in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, immunological, and arthritic diseases, as well as childhood deficiency diseases such as rickets, because of a high content of vitamin D. However, fish oils are also susceptible to contamination with lipophilic organic chemicals that are now ubiquitous contaminants of marine ecosystems. Many vegetable oils are sources of the shorter chain precursor forms of n-3 fatty acids, and in recent years the specialist dietary supplement market has expanded to include these oils in a variety of different formulations. This paper reports analytical results of selected contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for a range of commercially available n-3 fatty acid rich fish and vegetable oil dietary supplements. Using principal component analysis, the values are compared with historic samples to elucidate time trends in contamination profiles. Levels of contaminants are discussed in relation to the nutritional benefits to the consumer of long- and short-chain forms of n-3 fatty acids.

  16. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Has No Effect on Postprandial Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Kinetics in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Tremblay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been proposed to modulate plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammatory state and to reduce triglyceride (TG concentrations. The present double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation at 3 g/d for 8 weeks on the intravascular kinetics of intestinally derived apolipoprotein (apo B-48-containing lipoproteins in 10 men with type 2 diabetes. In vivo kinetics of the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 were assessed using a primed-constant infusion of L-[5,5,5-D3] leucine for 12 hours in a fed state. Compared with the placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly reduced fasting TG concentrations by −9.7% (P=0.05 but also significantly increased plasma levels of cholesterol (C (+6.0%, P=0.05, LDL-C (+12.2%, P=0.04, and HDL-C (+8.4, P=0.007. n-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant impact on postprandial TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or on the production or catabolic rates of these lipoproteins. These data indicate that 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in men with type 2 diabetes has no beneficial effect on TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or kinetics.

  17. Effects of an n-3-deficient diet on brain, retina, and liver fatty acyl composition in artificially reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Toru; Lim, Sun-Young; Greiner, Rebecca; Lefkowitz, William; Loewke, James; Hoshiba, Junji; Salem, Norman

    2004-08-01

    Rat pups born to dams fed a diet with 3.1% of total fatty acids as alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) were fed, using an artificial rearing system, either an n-3-deficient (n-3-Def) or an n-3-adequate (n-3-Adq) diet. Both diets contained 17.1% linoleic acid, but the n-3-Adq diet also contained 3.1% LNA. The percentage of brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) continuously decreased (71%) with time over the 29 days of the experiment, with concomitant increases in docosapentaenoic acid (DPAn-6). In the retina, the percentage of DHA rose in the n-3-Adq group, with an apparent increased rate around the time of eye opening. However, there was a flat curve for the percentage of DHA in the n-3-Def group and a rising DPAn-6 with time. Liver DHA was highest at the time of birth in the n-3-Adq group but fell off somewhat over the course of 29 days. This decrease was more pronounced in the n-3-Def group, and the DPAn-6 rose considerably during the second half of the experiment. This method presents a first-generation model for n-3 deficiency that is more similar to the case of human nutrition than is the commonly employed two-generation model.

  18. Very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a head start to win some years between the ears?

    OpenAIRE

    Dullemeijer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Very long-chain n-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted considerable public interest during the past few years for their potential beneficial role in cognitive performance. The proposed benefits stretch from advantages in developing brains of infants and children to preventing cognitive decline at old age. In this thesis, we first examined the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA at the beginning of the lifespan. We investigated the effects of dietary very long-chain n-3 PUFA ...

  19. Effect of Different Dietary n-6 to n-3 Fatty Acid Ratios on the Performance and Fatty Acid Composition in Muscles of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mandal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the different dietary ratios of n-6 to n-3 (n-6/n-3 fatty acid (FA on performance and n-6/n-3 FA in muscles of broiler chickens. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments of 10 replicates in each (10 birds/replicate. Birds were fed on a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 1% oil during starter (day 1 to 21 and 2% oil during finisher (day 22 to 39 phases, respectively. Treatments of high, medium and low dietary n-6/n-3 FA were formulated by replacing rice bran oil with linseed oil to achieve n-6/n-3 FA close to >20:1, 10:1 and 5:1, respectively. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were similar (p>0.05 among the treatments. Serum glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were not affected (p>0.05 by dietary treatments. In breast, concentration of C18:3n-3 was significantly greater (p = 0.001 for medium and low vs high n-6/n-3 FA, while concentrations of C20:5n-3, C22:6n-3, total n-3 FA, and n-6/n-3 FA were significantly higher for low vs medium, and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In contrast, concentrations of C18:2 and mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA were lower for low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In thigh muscles, concentrations of C20:5n-3 were higher (p<0.05 for medium and low vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA, and concentrations of C18:3n-3, C22:6, and n-3 FA were greater (p<0.05 for medium vs high, low vs medium dietary n-6/n-3 FA. However, concentrations of C18:1, MUFA, n-6/n-3 were lower (p<0.05 for low and medium vs high dietary n-6/n-3 FA. In conclusion, lowering the dietary n-6/n-3 FA did not affect the performance of chickens, but enhanced beneficial long-chain n-3 FA and decreased n-6/n-3 FA in chicken breast and thigh, which could be advantageous for obtaining healthy chicken products.

  20. n-3 Fatty Acids Induce Neurogenesis of Predominantly POMC-Expressing Cells in the Hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas F R; Souza, Gabriela F P; Morari, Joseane; Barbosa, Guilherme O; Solon, Carina; Moura, Rodrigo F; Victório, Sheila C; Ignácio-Souza, Letícia M; Razolli, Daniela S; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Velloso, Lício A

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis of hypothalamic neurons is believed to play an important role in the development and perpetuation of obesity. Similar to the hippocampus, the hypothalamus presents constitutive and stimulated neurogenesis, suggesting that obesity-associated hypothalamic dysfunction can be repaired. Here, we explored the hypothesis that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce hypothalamic neurogenesis. Both in the diet and injected directly into the hypothalamus, PUFAs were capable of increasing hypothalamic neurogenesis to levels similar or superior to the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Most of the neurogenic activity induced by PUFAs resulted in increased numbers of proopiomelanocortin but not NPY neurons and was accompanied by increased expression of BDNF and G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40). The inhibition of GPR40 was capable of reducing the neurogenic effect of a PUFA, while the inhibition of BDNF resulted in the reduction of global hypothalamic cell. Thus, PUFAs emerge as a potential dietary approach to correct obesity-associated hypothalamic neuronal loss. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. [A Future Perspective on the Involvement of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in the Development of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; Obata, Tokio; Hirasawa, Akira; Kim, Ke Ih; Kim, Soo Ryang; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by the pathological accumulation of fat in the liver in the absence of any other disease related to liver steatosis, which includes a wide spectrum of liver diseases ranging from mild asymptomatic fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. Recently, it was reported that NAFLD is characterized by the impaired bioavailability of liver n-6 and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). That is, compared with healthy individuals, steatosis and steatohepatitis patients have higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. Furthermore, per recent research, decreasing the intake of total fats and increasing the intake of n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial in the treatment of NAFLD. In contrast, some reports describe that NASH patients have more metabolic abnormalities than NAFLD patients; however, these are not influenced by dietary fatty acids. Thus, at present, various opinions exist regarding the efficacy of n-3 PUFA in the treatment of NAFLD. In this review, we discuss the considerable interest n-3 PUFA has attracted as a potential treatment for NAFLD.

  2. N-3 fatty acids, ventricular arrhythmia-related events, and fatal myocardial infarction in postmyocardial infarction patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Mulder, B.J.M.; Boer, de M.J.; Deckers, J.W.; Boersma, E.; Zock, P.L.; Giltay, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We carried out a secondary analysis in high-risk patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI) and diabetes in the Alpha Omega Trial. We tested the hypothesis that in these patients an increased intake of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an

  3. Endogenously produced n-3 fatty acids protect against ovariectomy induced bone loss in fat-1 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Jameela; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Rahman, Mizanur; Kang, J X; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2010-11-01

    Aging is associated with bone loss, leading to increased risk of fractures. Recently, there is growing interest in identifying nutritional supplements that can prevent bone loss with minimum side effects. There is increasing evidence for the beneficial effects of n-3 fatty acids in the prevention of bone loss. A transgenic mouse model (fat-1) that produces n-3 fatty acids endogenously and its wild type counterpart were used in this study to determine the effects of endogenously produced n-3 fatty acids on serum bone turnover markers, long bones, and lumbar vertebrae. Serum alkaline phosphatase and P1NP levels decreased significantly in wild type mice after ovariectomy. No significant changes were seen in osteocalcin. Cancellous and cortical bone mass were higher in the femur of fat-1 mice. In wild type mice, there was significant loss of bone after ovariectomy in the distal femur, femoral neck, proximal tibia, and fourth lumbar vertebra. However, in fat-1 mice, there was no, or significantly less, bone lost after ovariectomy in all the sites studied. We conclude that endogenously produced n-3 fatty acids can attenuate ovariectomy induced bone loss in the different bone sites studied, mainly as a consequence of decreased bone resorption at the endosteal surface.

  4. Hypocoagulant and lipid-lowering effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with unchanged platelet activation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, C.M.A.; Béguin, S.; Offermans, R.F.G.; Emeis, J.J.; Hornstra, G.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on blood lipids and processes that determine hemostatic potential: platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. For 8 to 10 weeks, Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing various amounts (2% to 16%) of n-3 PUFA

  5. Very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a head start to win some years between the ears?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Very long-chain n-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted considerable public interest during the past few years for their potential beneficial role in cognitive performance. The proposed benefits stretch from advantages in developing brains of infants and children to preventing

  6. Hypocoagulant and lipid-lowering effects of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with unchanged platelet activation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuys, C.M.A.; Béguin, S.; Offermans, R.F.G.; Emeis, J.J.; Hornstra, G.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on blood lipids and processes that determine hemostatic potential: platelet activation, coagulation, and fibrinolysis. For 8 to 10 weeks, Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing various amounts (2% to 16%) of n-3

  7. Fish, fish-derived n-3 fatty acids, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle N Gronroos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of observational and experimental studies investigating the association between intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and risk of atrial fibrillation (AF have been inconsistent. METHODS: We studied the association of fish and the fish-derived n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA with the risk of incident AF in individuals aged 45-64 from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort (n = 14,222, 27% African Americans. Intake of fish and of DHA and EPA were measured via food frequency questionnaire. Plasma levels of DHA and EPA were measured in phospholipids in a subset of participants (n = 3,757. Incident AF was identified through the end of 2008 using ECGs, hospital discharge codes and death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of AF by quartiles of n-3 PUFAs or by fish intake. RESULTS: During the average follow-up of 17.6 years, 1,604 AF events were identified. In multivariable analyses, total fish intake and dietary DHA and EPA were not associated with AF risk. Higher intake of oily fish and canned tuna was associated with a nonsignificant lower risk of AF (p for trend = 0.09. Phospholipid levels of DHA+EPA were not related to incident AF. However, DHA and EPA showed differential associations with AF risk when analyzed separately, with lower risk of AF in those with higher levels of DHA but no association between EPA levels and AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this racially diverse sample, dietary intake of fish and fish-derived n-3 fatty acids, as well as plasma biomarkers of fish intake, were not associated with AF risk.

  8. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  9. Interaction between Marine-Derived n-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Uric Acid on Glucose Metabolism and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kelei; Wu, Kejian; Zhao, Yimin; Huang, Tao; Lou, Dajun; Yu, Xiaomei; Li, Duo

    2015-08-26

    The present case-control study explored the interaction between marine-derived n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFAs) and uric acid (UA) on glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Two hundred and eleven healthy subjects in control group and 268 T2DM subjects in case group were included. Plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acids and biochemical parameters were detected by standard methods. Plasma PL C22:6n-3 was significantly lower in case group than in control group, and was negatively correlated with fasting glucose (r = -0.177, p < 0.001). Higher plasma PL C22:6n-3 was associated with lower risk of T2DM, and the OR was 0.32 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.12 to 0.80; p = 0.016) for per unit increase of C22:6n-3. UA was significantly lower in case group than in control group. UA was positively correlated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, but this correlation became negative in T2DM subjects. A significant interaction was observed between C22:6n-3 and UA on fasting glucose (p for interaction = 0.005): the lowering effect of C22:6n-3 was only significant in subjects with a lower level of UA. In conclusion, C22:6n-3 interacts with UA to modulate glucose metabolism.

  10. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2.

  11. Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: new insights into mechanisms relating to inflammation and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Brouwer, Ingeborg A

    2009-09-01

    Evidence from observational studies, prospective cohort studies and randomized clinical intervention studies indicate that moderate doses of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) significantly decrease risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). Higher doses and longer duration of intervention may also protect from non-fatal CHD events. The exact mechanisms through which LC n-3 PUFA has an effect on CHD are not well established but may include a decrease in fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol levels, a decrease in arrhythmias, modulation of platelet aggregation and decreased synthesis of pro-inflammatory agents. The mechanistic relation between LC n-3 PUFA and inflammation has attracted great interest, and in vitro studies have revealed that these fatty acids decrease endothelial activation, affect eicosanoid metabolism (including epoxygenation pathways) and induce inflammatory resolution. However, the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on established biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial activation in vivo are not strong. Consequently we need new and more sensitive and systemic biomarkers to reveal the effects of LC n-3 PUFA on localized inflammatory processes.

  12. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  13. Fish and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms: Ryukyus Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Arakawa, Masashi

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the role of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake on depression during adolescence is sparse. We examined the association between fish, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake and depressive symptoms in a group of adolescents. This cross-sectional study, conducted in all public junior high schools in Naha City and Nago City, Okinawa, Japan, included 3067 boys and 3450 girls aged 12 to 15 years (52.3% of the eligible sample). Dietary intake was assessed by using a validated, self-administered diet-history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when participants had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale score of >or=16. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.5% for boys and 31.2% for girls. For boys, fish intake was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for depressive symptoms in the highest [compared with the lowest] quintile of intake: 0.73 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.97]; P for trend=.04). EPA intake showed an inverse association with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.71 [95% CI: 0.54-0.94]; P=.04). DHA intake also showed a similar inverse, albeit nonsignificant, association (OR: 0.79 [95% CI: 0.59-1.05]; P=.11). In addition, intake of EPA plus DHA was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (OR: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.55-0.96]; P=.08). Conversely, no such associations were observed among girls. Higher intake of fish, EPA, and DHA was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in early male, but not female, adolescents.

  14. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  15. Incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine or vegetable origin into rat enterocyte phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christian; Christensen, Michael Søberg; Høy, Carl-Erik

    1997-01-01

    were: Palm oil diet (PD), 0.6 wt% n-3 PUFA; fish oil diet (FD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C20-C22); and linseed oil diet (LD), 32 wt% n-3 PUFA (C18:3n-3). Forty weanling male Wistar rats were fed PD for 34 days and then divided into three groups. Two groups of sixteen rats each were then fed FD or LD...

  16. Marine n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Psoriatic Arthritis – Inflammation and Cardiac Autonomic and Hemodynamic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome

    This thesis is based on three studies of patients with established psoriatic arthritis (PsA) aiming at investigating the effect of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on clinical symptoms and selected measures of inflammation, cardiac autonomic and hemodynamic function in these patients...... examination. To investigate effects of marine n-3 PUFA on clinical outcomes, important biochemical markers and cardiovascular risk in patients with PsA a randomized placebo-controlled trial was undertaken (Study II and III). One-hundred and forty-five patients were enrolled and randomized to a supplement...... with either 3 g of marine n-3 PUFA (6 capsules of fish oil) or 3 g of olive oil daily for 24 weeks. A total of 133 patients (92%) completed the study. The difference in the outcomes between baseline and 24 weeks was analysed within and between the two supplemented groups. In Study II, the effects of n-3 PUFA...

  17. Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahaffey, K. R.; Sunderland, E. M.; Chan, H. M.;

    2011-01-01

    risks of certain forms of heart disease in adults. However, fish and shellfish can also be a major source of methylmercury (MeHg), a known neurotoxicant that is particularly harmful to fetal brain development. This review documents the latest knowledge on the risks and benefits of seafood consumption......Fish and shellfish are widely available foods that provide important nutrients, particularly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), to many populations globally. These nutrients, especially docosahexaenoic acid, confer benefits to brain and visual system development in infants and reduce...... for perinatal development of infants. It is possible to choose fish species that are both high in n-3 PUFAs and low in MeHg. A framework for providing dietary advice for women of childbearing age on how to maximize the dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs while minimizing MeHg exposures is suggested. (C) 2011...

  18. The association of n-3 fatty acids with serum High Density Cholesterol (HDL) is modulated by sex but not by Inuit ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity.......To explore the association between dietary n-3 fatty acids and serum lipids in a population with a high intake of marine food. Specifically to test interaction with sex and ethnicity....

  19. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on major cardiovascular events in statin users and non-users with a history of myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.R.B.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Klungel, O.H.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Recent secondary prevention trials have failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular outcomes, which may be due to the growing use of statins since the mid-1990s. The aim of the present study was to assess whether statins modify the effects of n-3 fatty acids

  20. Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and energy balance in overweight or moderately obese men and women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Colleen C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA have been shown to reduce body weight and fat mass in rodents as well as in humans in one small short-term study. We conducted this controlled randomized dietary trial to test the hypothesis that n-3-PUFA lower body weight and fat mass by reducing appetite and ad libitum food intake and/or by increasing energy expenditure. Methods Twenty-six overweight or moderately obese (body mass index 28–33 kg/m2 men and women were included, and received either a diet rich in n-3-PUFA from both plant and marine sources or a control diet. Diets were administered in an isocaloric fashion for 2 weeks followed by 12 weeks of ad libitum intake. The n-3-PUFA and control diets were identical in all regards except for the fatty acid composition. All foods were provided to subjects, and leftovers were weighed back to assess actual food intake accurately for each day of the study. This design gave us 80% power to detect a difference in weight change between the n-3-PUFA and control diet groups of 2.25 kg at an α-error level of 5%. Results Both groups lost similar amounts of weight when these diets were consumed ad libitum for 12 weeks [mean (SD: -3.5 (3.7 kg in the control group vs. -2.8 (3.7 kg in the n-3-PUFA group, F(1,24 = 13.425, p = 0.001 for time effect; F(1,24 = 0.385, p = 0.541 for time × group interaction]. Consistent with this finding, we also found no differences between the n-3-PUFA and control groups with regard to appetite as measured by visual analogue scale, ad libitum food intake, resting energy expenditure as measured by indirect calorimetry, diurnal plasma leptin concentrations, or fasting ghrelin concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary n-3-PUFA do not play an important role in the regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, or body weight in humans.

  1. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis modify the response of F1B hamsters to dietary very long chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plasma lipoprotein response of F1B Golden-Syrian hamsters fed diets high in very long chain (VLC n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA is paradoxical to that observed in humans. This anomaly is attributed, in part, to low lipoprotein lipase activity and is dependent on cholesterol status. To further elucidate the mechanism(s for these responses, hamsters were fed diets containing supplemental fish oil (VLC n-3 PUFA or safflower oil (n-6 PUFA (both 10% [w/w] and either cholesterol-supplemented (0.1% cholesterol [w/w] or cholesterol-depleted (0.01% cholesterol [w/w] and 10 days prior to killing fed 0.15% lovastatin+2% cholestyramine [w/w]. Results Cholesterol-supplemented hamsters fed fish oil, relative to safflower oil, had higher non-high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P Conclusion These data suggest disturbing cholesterol homeostasis in F1B hamsters alters their response to dietary fatty acids, which is reflected in altered plasma lipoprotein patterns and regulation of genes associated with their metabolism.

  2. Postpartum ovarian activity in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, M; Dahlen, C R; Weber, W J; Lamb, G C; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    number of class 2 follicles was reduced by AF. Initiation of bST administration at 12 DIM and dietary n-3 fatty acids altered ovarian activity during the first 90 DIM and could benefit reproductive performance. Dietary n-3 fatty acids interacted with bST administration in early lactation to increase the incidence of estrous cycles with 3 follicular waves. Although these changes could benefit reproductive performance, evaluation with a larger number of cows is needed to determine if these alterations improve fertility.

  3. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on post-operative infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else K; Jensen, Karin H; Damgaard, Birthe M; Halekoh, Ulrich; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) on clinical outcome in a porcine model on early aortic vascular prosthetic graft infection (AVPGI). A total of eighty-four pigs were randomised to a 35 d dietary treatment with 10 % (w/w) fish oil (rich in n-3 LC-PUFA), sunflower oil (rich in n-6 LC-PUFA) or animal fat. After 3 weeks of dietary treatment, the pigs had an aortic vascular prosthetic graft inserted, and it was inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (106 colony-forming units). Changes in selected plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally, daily body-weight gain was determined in both periods. The preoperative changes in plasma and erythrocyte n-3 and n-6 LC-PUFA concentrations reflected the fatty acid compositions of the dietary treatments given, and plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration decreased in the fish oil treatment (P post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance. In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively.

  4. n-3 PUFA Esterified to Glycerol or as Ethyl Esters Reduce Non-Fasting Plasma Triacylglycerol in Subjects with Hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedengran, Anne; Szecsi, Pal B; Dyerberg, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this st......To date, treatment of hypertriglyceridemia with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) has been investigated solely in fasting and postprandial subjects. However, non-fasting triacylglycerols are more strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. The objective...

  5. [Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with high-fat diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhan-jiang; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Tian, Shu-bo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed with normal control diet (CD), HFD, CD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, and HFD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, respectively. Fresh fecal samples were collected to analyze the gut microbiota 10 weeks after feeding. DNA was exacted from the fresh fecal samples. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the composition of the gut microbiota. The endotoxin levels were detected through modified azo chromogenic substrate limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The differences in body weight before breeding in each group were not statistically significant among these four groups (P=0.613). The increase in the body weight was significantly larger in the HFD group than in the CD group (P=0.0002), CD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.0001), and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.022). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.002) and enterobacteriales (P=0.022) and significantly less bacteroidetes (P=0.026) and bifidobactera (P=0.034) in the gut of rats from HFD group than those from the CD group. There were significantly more bacteroidetes in the fecal samples of the rats from the CD+n-3PUFAs group compared to those from the CD group (P=0.043). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.044)and enterobacteriales (P=0.012) and less bacteroidetes (P=0.042) in the fecal samples of the rats from HFD group compared to those from the HFD+n-3PUFAs group. The endotoxin in plasma form portal vein of rats in HFD group were significantly higher than in CD group (P=0.007) and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.042) but showed no significant difference between CD+n-3PUFAs and CD group (P=0.210). HFD can increase body weight and change gut microbiota. Supplementation of n-3PUFAs can partially counteract such gut dysbiosis, lower endotoxin level in portal vein blood, and improve the body

  6. Amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with NPC1L1-targeted IgY or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (pN-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.

  7. Incorporation of n-3 fatty acids by the liver of mice fed linseed oil as a function of feeding duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Angelo Lima Perini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA on male Swiss mice livers receiving diets based on linseed oil (LO for up to 56 days. The mice were sacrificed at 7, 14, 28, 42, 56 days and FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 13 FA were identified on LO feeds presenting alpha-linolenic acid (LNA contents of 26.97 %. A total 22 FA were identified in the livers of the mice. Part of the LNA was converted into n-3 FA (20:3n-3, eicosapentaenoic acid-EPA, 22:5n-3, and docosahexaenoic acid-DHA, and some of the LNA was stored in the liver. LNA, EPA and DHA concentrations (mg/g total lipids from 0 days for up 56 days increased from 1.29 to 18.90 (LNA, 0.20 to 18.90 (EPA and 41.26 to 99.17 (DHA.The concentration of n-3 FA in the livers varied with the duration of the LO diet. During LO feed, n-6 FA concentration fell and n-3 FA concentration rose through the experimental period.

  8. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation enhances hippocampal functionality in aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora eCutuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As major components of neuronal membranes, omega-3 polyunsaturated acids (n-3 PUFA exhibit a wide range of regulatory functions, modulating from synaptic plasticity to neuroinflammation, from oxidative stress to neuroprotection. Recent human and animal studies indicated the n-3 PUFA neuroprotective properties in aging, with a clear negative correlation between n-3 PUFA levels and hippocampal deficits. The present multidimensional study was aimed at associating cognition, hippocampal neurogenesis, volume, neurodegeneration and metabolic correlates to verify n-3 PUFA neuroprotective effects in aging. To this aim 19 month-old mice were given n-3 PUFA mixture, or olive oil or no dietary supplement for 8 weeks during which hippocampal-dependent mnesic functions were tested. At the end of behavioral testing morphological and metabolic correlates were analyzed. n-3 PUFA supplemented aged mice exhibited better object recognition memory, spatial and localizatory memory, and aversive response retention, without modifications in anxiety levels in comparison to controls. These improved hippocampal cognitive functions occurred in the context of an enhanced cellular plasticity and a reduced neurodegeneration. In fact, n-3 PUFA supplementation increased hippocampal neurogenesis and dendritic arborization of newborn neurons, volume, neuronal density and microglial cell number, while it decreased apoptosis, astrocytosis and lipofuscin accumulation in the hippocampus. The increased levels of some metabolic correlates (blood Acetyl-L-Carnitine and brain n-3 PUFA concentrations found in n-3 PUFA supplemented mice also pointed towards an effective neuroprotection.On the basis of the present results n-3 PUFA supplementation appears to be a useful tool in health promotion and cognitive decline prevention during aging.

  9. Food matrices affect the bioavailability of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in a single meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schram, Laurine B; Nielsen, Carina J.; Porsgaard, Trine

    2007-01-01

    , a yoghurt drink, eight oil capsules, bread and butter; 4 g of fish oil was incorporated into one of the matrices. Blood samples were collected and fatty acid composition of chylomicrons was determined together with plasma levels of conjugated dienes and alpha-tocopherol. Fish oil incorporated into food...

  10. Marine n-3 fatty acids are incorporated into atrial tissue but do not correlate with postoperative atrial fibrillation in cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, J; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Eschen, Rikke Bülow;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Postoperative new-onset atrial fibrillation (POAF) in cardiac surgery is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Because n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have an antiarrhythmic effect, we hypothesized that a high content of marine n-3 PUFA in the atrial wall was a...

  11. 4-Hydroxy hexenal derived from dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induces anti-oxidative enzyme heme oxygenase-1 in multiple organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Ugi, Satoshi; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Keiko; Sato, Daisuke; Konno, Shiho; Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Kusunoki, Chisato; Sekine, Osamu; Sunagawa, Akihiro; Kawamura, Masanori; Inoue, Noriko; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    It has recently been reported that expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role against many diseases. Furthermore, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were shown to induce HO-1 expression in several cells in vitro, and in a few cases also in vivo. However, very few reports have demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs induce HO-1 in vivo. In this study, we examined the effect of fish-oil dietary supplementation on the distribution of fatty acids and their peroxidative metabolites and on the expression of HO-1 in multiple tissues (liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, intestine, skeletal muscle, white adipose, brown adipose, brain, aorta, and plasma) of C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups, and fed a control, safflower-oil, and fish-oil diet for 3 weeks. One group was fed a fish-oil diet for just 1 week. The concentration of fatty acids, 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), and 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE), and the expression of HO-1 mRNA were measured in the same tissues. We found that the concentration of 4-HHE (a product of n-3 PUFAs peroxidation) and expression of HO-1 mRNA were significantly increased after fish-oil treatment in most tissues. In addition, these increases were paralleled by an increase in the level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in each tissue. These results are consistent with our previous results showing that DHA induces HO-1 expression through 4-HHE in vascular endothelial cells. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the HO-1-mediated protective effect of the fish oil diet may be through production of 4-HHE from DHA but not EPA in various tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on diet induced obesity and impaired glucose control do not require Gpr120.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available GPR120 (Ffar4 has been postulated to represent an important receptor mediating the improved metabolic profile seen upon ingestion of a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. GPR120 is highly expressed in the digestive system, adipose tissue, lung and macrophages and also present in the endocrine pancreas. A new Gpr120 deficient mouse model on pure C57bl/6N background was developed to investigate the importance of the receptor for long-term feeding with a diet enriched with fish oil. Male Gpr120 deficient mice were fed two different high fat diets (HFDs for 18 weeks. The diets contained lipids that were mainly saturated (SAT or mainly n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Body composition, as well as glucose, lipid and energy metabolism, was studied. As expected, wild type mice fed the PUFA HFD gained less body weight and had lower body fat mass, hepatic lipid levels, plasma cholesterol and insulin levels and better glucose tolerance as compared to those fed the SAT HFD. Gpr120 deficient mice showed a similar improvement on the PUFA HFD as was observed for wild type mice. If anything, the Gpr120 deficient mice responded better to the PUFA HFD as compared to wild type mice with respect to liver fat content, plasma glucose levels and islet morphology. Gpr120 deficient animals were found to have similar energy, glucose and lipid metabolism when fed HFD PUFA compared to wild type mice. Therefore, GPR120 appears to be dispensable for the improved metabolic profile associated with intake of a diet enriched in n-3 PUFA fatty acids.

  13. Effect of Marine-Derived n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Major Eicosanoids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis from 18 Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajing Jiang

    Full Text Available Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may have a beneficial effect on inflammation via lowering pro-inflammatory eicosanoid concentrations. We aimed to assess the effect of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, thromboxane B2 (TXB2, and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 through systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.A structured search strategy on PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane up to November 2015 was undertaken in this meta-analysis. Standard mean difference was used to calculate the effect size of marine-derived n-3 PUFA on PGE2, TXB2 and LTB4 in a random-effect model. A total of 18 RCTs with 826 subjects were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA significantly decreased concentrations of TXB2 in serum/plasma in subjects with high risk of cardiovascular diseases (SMD:-1.26; 95% CI: -1.65, -0.86 and LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects (subjects with non-autoimmune chronic diseases or auto-immune diseases (SMD:-0.59: 95% CI: -1.02, -0.16. Subgroup analyses showed a significant reduction of LTB4 in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (SMD: -0.83; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.29, but not in non-autoimmune chronic disease patients (SMD: -0.33; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.31. No significant publication bias was shown in the meta-analysis.Marine-derived n-3 PUFA had a beneficial effect on reducing the concentration of TXB2 in blood of subjects with high risk of CVD as well as LTB4 in neutrophils in unhealthy subjects, and that subjects with RA showed lower LTB4 content with supplementation of marine-derived n-3 PUFA.

  14. Fatty acid composition of milk from multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on milk fatty acid composition during the first 140 d in milk. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds (SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; n-6/n-3 ratio of 4.6) as a source of linoleic acid or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids (15.7% 18:3, 1.3% 20:5, and 1.3% 22:6). Treatments were derived from a 2 x 2 combination of supplemental fat source (SS, AF) and with 0 (SSN, AFN) or 500 (SSY, AFY) mg of bST administered every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk and at 14-d intervals thereafter. Milk fatty acid composition was determined in samples collected from 32 cows (8 complete blocks) during wk 2, 8, and 20 of lactation. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, week of lactation, and their interactions. Proportions of 18:3 (4.02 vs. 3.59 +/- 0.16%), 20:5 (0.52 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.02%), and 22:6 (0.11 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.02%) were greater and the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio (7.40 vs. 8.80 +/- 0.30) was reduced in milk from cows fed AF compared with SS. Proportions of de novo-synthesized fatty acids increased and preformed fatty acids decreased as lactation progressed, but bST administration delayed this shift in origin of milk fatty acids. Transfer efficiency of 18:3, 20:5, and 22:6 from AF to milk fat averaged 36.2, 4.9, and 5.2%, respectively. These efficiencies increased as lactation progressed, but were delayed by bST. Apparent mammary Delta(9)-desaturase activity and milk conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid) content increased through the

  15. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function in patients with chronic kidney disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional and comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Morten; Svensson, My; Povlsen, Johan V; Schmidt, Erik B; Aalkjær, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe H; Ivarsen, Per

    2016-11-21

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have a markedly increased cardiovascular mortality compared with the general population. Long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been suggested to possess cardioprotective properties. This cross-sectional and comparative study evaluated correlations between hemodynamic measurements, resistance artery function and fish consumption to the content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue, a long-term marker of seafood intake. Seventeen patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 + 5d and 27 healthy kidney donors were evaluated with hemodynamic measurements before surgery; from these subjects, 11 patients and 11 healthy subjects had vasodilator properties of subcutaneous resistance arteries examined. The measurements were correlated to adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Information on fish intake was obtained from a dietary questionnaire and compared with adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fish intake and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue did not differ between patients and controls. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in adipose tissue were positively correlated to systemic vascular resistance index; (r = 0.44; p = 0.07 and r = 0.62; p fatty acid levels in adipose tissue and vasodilator properties in resistance arteries. n-3 PUFA content in adipose tissue increased with increasing self-reported fish intake. The correlations found, suggest a role for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in hemodynamic properties. However, this is apparently not due to changes in intrinsic properties of the resistance arteries as no correlation was found to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  16. The specificity of Several Kinds Lipases on n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

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    Jenny Elisabeth, T Yuliani, P M Tambunan, J M Purba

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Several lipases from microbial and plant, i.e Rhizomucor miehei, Pseudomonas sp., Candida antartica, rice bran, and Carica papaya latex (CPL were examined for synthesis of omega-3 (n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride by hydrolysis and acidolysis reaction. Tuna oil was used in hydrolysis reaction, whereas tuna and palm oils were used as source of triglyceride (TAG molecules and n-3 PUFA concentrate from tuna oil as source of EPA and DHA in acidolysis reaction.For hydrolysis reaction, the rice bran and CPL lipases showed the lowest hydrolytic activity of the tuna oil, whereas the R. miehei lipase showed the highest hydrolytic activity but was unable to hydrolyze EPA and DHA. On the contrary, the C. antartica and Pseudomonas sp. lipases acted stronger on hydrolysis of DHA ester bond than EPA.For acidolysis reaction, all the lipases showed ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into tuna and palm oils. C. antartica lipase had the maximum DHA incorporation into tuna and palm oils, rice bran lipase had relatively similar ability with R. miehei lipase, and the CPL lipase had the lowest ability. This study proved that rice bran and CPL lipases also had transesterification activity and showed the feasibility of the rice bran lipase to be a biocatalyst for n-3 PUFA-rich glyceride production. Increasing the substrate ratio, of n-3 PUFA concentrate and tuna or palm oil, could increase the EPA and DHA incorporation. The R. miehei, rice bran, and CPL lipases unabled to incorporate DHA into DHA-containing glyceride molecule, whereas C. antartica lipase had the capability in high ratio of n-3 PUFA concentrate to oil. Therefore, the lipases were easier to incorporate n-3 PUFA into palm oil than tuna oil, since the TAG molecules of palm oil was not as complex as tuna oil. It could be suggested that the lipases did not only have acyl chain and positional specificity, but also the whole glyceride structure specificity.

  17. n -- 3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in women with allergic disease: effects on blood pressure, and maternal and fetal lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Anne E; Dunstan, Janet A; Beilin, Lawrence J; Prescott, Susan L; Mori, Trevor A

    2006-10-01

    n--3 Fatty acids derived from fish oil reduce plasma triacylglycerols (triglycerides) and increase HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol); however, the effect of n--3 fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy, a hyperlipidaemic state, remains unknown. We took the opportunity to investigate maternal lipid levels and blood pressure during and after pregnancy, and fetal lipid levels at birth, in a study that aimed primarily to examine the effect of fish oil supplementation during pregnancy on immune function in infants born to women with allergic disease. Eighty-three pregnant women who had allergic disease, but were otherwise healthy, completed the study. They were randomly allocated to receive fish oil or olive oil capsules, taken as 4 g/day, from 20 weeks of pregnancy until delivery. Compared with olive oil, fish oil supplementation did not alter triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or HDL-C during or after pregnancy. There was also no effect of fish oil on cord blood triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, LDL-C or HDL-C. Fish oil supplementation during pregnancy did not alter maternal blood pressure during or after pregnancy. The effects of fish oil on lipids and blood pressure in non-pregnant individuals appear to be lost when it is administered during pregnancy.

  18. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in silverside Chirostoma estor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Madrigal, J; Pineda-Delgado, D; Martínez-Palacios, C; Rodríguez, C; Tocher, D R

    2012-08-01

    The genus Chirostoma (silversides) belongs to the family Atherinopsidae, which contains around 150 species, most of which are marine. However, Mexican silverside (Chirostoma estor) is one of the few representatives of freshwater atherinopsids and is only found in some lakes of the Mexican Central Plateau. However, studies have shown that C. estor has improved survival, growth, and development when cultured in water conditions with increased salinity. In addition, C. estor displays an unusual fatty acid composition for a freshwater fish with high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/ eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratios. Freshwater and marine fish species display very different essential fatty acid metabolism and requirements, and so the present study investigated long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis to determine the capacity of C. estor for endogenous production of EPA and DHA, and the effect that salinity has on these pathways. Briefly, C. estor were maintained at three salinities (0, 5, and 15 ppt), and the metabolism of ¹⁴C-labeled 18:3n-3 was determined in isolated hepatocyte and enterocyte cells. The results showed that C. estor has the capacity for endogenous biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from 18-carbon fatty acid precursors, but that the pathway was essentially only active in saline conditions with virtually no activity in cells isolated from fish grown in freshwater. The activity of the LC-PUFA biosynthesis pathway was also higher in cells isolated from fish at 15 ppt compared with fish at 5 ppt. The activity was around fivefold higher in hepatocytes compared with enterocytes; although the majority of 18:3n-3 was converted to 18:4n-3 and 20:4n-3 in hepatocytes, the proportions of 18:3n-3 converted to EPA and DHA were higher in enterocytes. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that conversion of EPA to DHA could contribute, at least in part, to the generally high DHA/EPA ratios observed in the tissue lipids of C. estor.

  19. Cognitive performance in older adults is inversely associated with fish consumption but not erythrocyte membrane n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danthiir, Vanessa; Hosking, Diane; Burns, Nicholas R; Wilson, Carlene; Nettelbeck, Ted; Calvaresi, Eva; Clifton, Peter; Wittert, Gary A

    2014-03-01

    Higher n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and fish intake may help maintain cognitive function in older age. However, evidence is inconsistent; few studies have examined the relation in cognitively healthy individuals across numerous cognitive domains, and none to our knowledge have considered lifetime fish intake. We examined associations between multiple domains of cognition and erythrocyte membrane n-3 PUFA proportions and historical and contemporary fish intake in 390 normal older adults, analyzing baseline data from the Older People, Omega-3, and Cognitive Health trial. We measured n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, and we assessed historical and contemporary fish intake by food-frequency questionnaires. We assessed cognitive performance on reasoning, working memory, short-term memory, retrieval fluency, perceptual speed, simple/choice reaction time, speed of memory-scanning, reasoning speed, inhibition, and psychomotor speed. Cognitive outcomes for each construct were factor scores from confirmatory factor analysis. Multiple linear regression models controlled for a number of potential confounding factors, including age, education, sex, apolipoprotein E-ε 4 allele, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, socioeconomic variables, and other health-related variables. Higher erythrocyte membrane eicosapaentonoic acid proportions predicted slower perceptual and reasoning speed in females, which was attenuated once current fish intake was controlled. No other associations were present between n-3 PUFA proportions and cognitive performance. Higher current fish consumption predicted worse performance on several cognitive speed constructs. Greater fish consumption in childhood predicted slower perceptual speed and simple/choice reaction time. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that higher proportions of long-chain n-3 fatty acids or fish intake benefits cognitive performance in normal older adults.

  20. Survey of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish and fish products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strobel Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The imbalance of the n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet is characterised by a low intake of n-3 long-chain (LC PUFA and a concurrent high intake of n-6 PUFA. Fish, in particular marine fish, is a unique source of n-3 LC PUFA. However, FA composition of consumed fish changed, due to the increasing usage of n-6 PUFA-rich vegetable oils in aquaculture feed and in fish processing (frying which both lead to a further shift in n-6 PUFA to the detriment of n-3 LC PUFA. The aim of this study was to determine the ratio of n-3/n-6 including the contents of EPA and DHA in fish fillets and fish products from the German market (n=123. Furthermore, the study focussed on the FA content in farmed salmon compared to wild salmon as well as in processed Alaska pollock fillet, e.g., fish fingers. Results Total fat and FA content in fish products varied considerably depending on fish species, feed management, and food processing. Mackerel, herring and trout fillets characteristically contained adequate dietary amounts of absolute EPA and DHA, due to their high fat contents. However, despite a lower fat content, tuna, pollock, and Alaska pollock can contribute considerable amounts of EPA and DHA to the human supply. Farmed salmon are an appropriate source of EPA and DHA owing to their higher fat content compared to wild salmon (12.3 vs. 2.1 wt %, however with elevated SFA, n-9 and n-6 FA contents representing the use of vegetable oils and oilseeds in aquaculture feed. The n-3/n-6 ratio was deteriorated (2.9 vs. 12.4 but still acceptable. Compared to pure fish fillets, breaded and pre-fried Alaska pollock fillet contained extraordinarily high fat and n-6 PUFA levels. Conclusions Since fish species vary with respect to their n-3 LC PUFA contents, eating a variety of fish is advisable. High n-6 PUFA containing pre-fried fish support the imbalance of n-3/n-6 ratio in the Western diet. Thus, consumption of pure fish fillets is to be favoured. The lower

  1. Heart rate variability and n-3 fatty acids in patients with chronic renal failure--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J H; Aarøe, J; Knudsen, N; Dideriksen, K; Kornerup, H J; Dyerberg, J; Schmidt, E B

    1998-02-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) often have autonomic cardiac dysfunction, which can be assessed by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). This dysfunction prediposes the patients to sudden cardiac death. This study describes 24-hour HRV in patients with CRF compared to HRV in patients with a previous myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, associations between HRV in patients with CRF and the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in cell membranes were examined, because n-3 PUFA may improve HRV. Twenty-nine patients with CRF treated with dialysis were enrolled. A 24-hour Holter recording was obtained at baseline and the HRV variables, RR (= mean of all normal RR intervals during the 24-hour recording) and SDNN (= standard deviation of all normal RR intervals in the entire 24-hour recording) were analyzed. Also, granulocyte fatty acid composition was determined. The patients were allocated to dietary supplementation with either 5.2 g of n-3 PUFA or a placebo oil (olive oil) daily for 12 weeks in a double-blind design. At the end of the supplementation period the Holter recording and blood sampling were repeated. At baseline the CRF patients' mean SDNN ws 86 ms compared to 118 ms (p < 0.01) in patients with a previous MI. After supplementation with either n-3 PUFA or placebo a highly significant correlation was observed between the content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes and HRV (r = 0.71, p < 0.01). Furthermore, when the patients were dichotomized according to their mean SDNN, it was found, that those with the highest SDNN had a higher content of n-3 PUFA in cell membranes compared to those with the lowest SDNN (7.8% vs 4.2%, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HRV was decreased in CRF patients indicating a cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction. The positive correlation between the n-3 PUFA content in cell membranes and HRV suggests that the effects of an increased intake of n-3 PUFA in CRF patients should be further studied.

  2. Immobilized MAS1 lipase showed high esterification activity in the production of triacylglycerols with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiumei; Li, Daoming; Qu, Man; Durrani, Rabia; Yang, Bo; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-02-01

    Immobilization of lipase MAS1 from marine Streptomyces sp. strain W007 and its application in catalyzing esterification of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with glycerol were investigated. The resin XAD1180 was selected as a suitable support for the immobilization of lipase MAS1, and its absorption ability was 75mg/g (lipase/resin ratio) with initial buffer pH value of 8.0. The thermal stability of immobilized MAS1 was improved significantly compared with that of the free lipase. Immobilized MAS1 had no regiospecificity in the hydrolysis of triolein. The highest esterification degree (99.31%) and TAG content (92.26%) by immobilized MAS1-catalyzed esterification were achieved under the optimized conditions, which were significantly better than those (82.16% and 47.26%, respectively) by Novozym 435. More than 92% n-3 PUFA was incorporated into TAG that had similar fatty acids composition to the substrate (n-3 PUFA). The immobilized MAS1 exhibited 50% of its initial activity after being used for five cycles.

  3. B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids for brain development and function: review of human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Hooijdonk, L.W.A.; Doets, E.L.; Schiepers, O.J.G.; Eilander, J.H.C.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is one of many factors that affect brain development and functioning, and in recent years the role of certain nutrients has been investigated. B vitamins and n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are two of the most promising and widely studied nutritional factors. Methods: In

  4. Erythrocyte levels compared with reported dietary intake of marine n-3 fatty acids in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Sandstrom, B.

    1995-01-01

    .54 respectively. In a linear regression model with three frequency questions about marine sandwiches, marine cooked meals and fish oil as explanatory variables, and the FA-ratio as dependent variable, the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.46. Conclusions from the study were (1) levels of erythrocyte fatty...

  5. [Recent biochemical nutrition knowledge in relation to metabolism and the significance of essential fatty acids and n-3-fatty acids contained in fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, E

    1989-10-01

    A survey is given on some newer knowledge about metabolism and about the importance of the essential fatty acids and of the n-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenic, docosapentaenic, docosahexaenic acids) which occur in fish oils. In the body the linoleic acid via intermediate steps can be transformed into the arachidonic acid, from which various prostaglandins and leucotriens as well as the thromboxane A2 can be formed. The transformation of the linolenic acid into the eicosapentaenic acid is slight in man. The docosahexaenic acid is necessary for the construction of phospholipids in the brain and in the retina. The uptake of fish fatty acids inhibits the formation of thromboxane A2 and of leukotriens from the arachidonic acid. The fish fatty acids further in the liver in the peroxisomas the activity of the enzymes for the beta-oxidation; the formation of lipoproteins of high density increases under their influence: the triacylglyceride content, the cholesterol as well as the lipoprotein content of very low and low density decreases, when there is an adequate part of fish fatty acids in the nutrition.

  6. Ratio of Dietary n-6/n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Independently Related to Muscle Mass Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Chih Wong

    Full Text Available n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might be useful nutritional strategy for treating patients with sarcopenia. We evaluated the effect of the intake of dietary n-3 PUFAs on the skeletal muscle mass (SMM, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM, and its determinants in patients receiving standard hemodialysis (HD treatment for the management of end stage renal disease.In this cross-sectional study, data of 111 HD patients were analyzed. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements used to estimate the muscle mass were performed the day of dialysis immediately after the dialysis session. Routine laboratory and 3-day dietary data were also collected. The cutoff value of adequate intake (AI for both n-3 PUFAs and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA was 1.6 g/day and 1.1 g/day for men and women, respectively.The mean age, mean dietary n-3 PUFAs intake, ALA intake, ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs intake, SMM, and ASM of patients were 61.4 ± 10.4 years, 2.0 ± 1.3 g/day, 1.5 ± 1.0 g/day, 9.5 ± 6.7 g/day, 23.9 ± 5.5 kg, and 17.5 ± 4.5 kg, respectively. A higher SMM and ASM significantly observed in patients who achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Similar trends appeared to be observed among those patients who achieved the AI of ALA, but the difference was not significantly, except for ASM (P = 0.047. No relevant differences in demographics, laboratory and nutritional parameters were observed, regardless of whether the patients achieved an AI of n-3 PUFAs. Multivariate analysis showed that the BMI and equilibrated Kt/V were independent determinants of the muscle mass. Moreover, the ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs was an independent risk determinant of reduced ASM in HD patients.Patients with an AI of n-3 PUFAs had better total-body SMM and ASM. A higher dietary ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs seemed to be associated with a reduced muscle mass in HD patients.

  7. Lack of effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids on intestinal peptide release and adipokines in healthy female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Naverud

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 fatty acids with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by two weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at three and six hours after intake were analysed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 fatty acids from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  8. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  9. Partial replacement of dietary linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids protects against dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Anupama; Kumar, Uday; Santosh, Vadakattu Sai; Reddy, Suryam; Mohammed, Saazida Bhanu; Ibrahim, Ahamed

    2014-12-01

    Imbalances in the dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been implicated in the increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of substitution of linoleic acid with long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence decreasing n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis. Male weanling Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with n-6:n-3 fatty acid in the ratios of 215,50,10 or 5 for 3 months and colitis was induced by administration of dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water during last 11 days. Decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio to 10 and 5 significantly attenuated the severity of colitis as evidenced by improvements in clinical symptoms, reversal of shortening of colon length, reduced severity of anemia, preservation of colonic architecture as well as reduced colonic mucosal myeloperoxidase activity. This protection was associated with suppression of colonic mucosal proinflammatory mediators such as TNFα, IL-1β and nitric oxide. These findings suggest that long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids at a level of 3.0 g/kg diet (n-6:n-3 ratio of 10) prevents dextran sulfate sodium induced colitis by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators.

  10. Beneficial effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on inflammation and analgesic use in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Salome; Schmidt, E B; Schlemmer, A

    2017-01-01

    , double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants received a supplement of 3 g n-3 PUFA/day or 3 g olive oil/day (control) for 24 weeks. Outcome measures for disease activity, use of analgesics, and leukotriene formation from activated granulocytes were assessed at baseline and at study end...

  11. Bio-availability and metabolism of n-3 fatty acid rich garden cress (Lepidium sativum) seed oil in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, B T; Dutta, P K; Lokesh, B R; Naidu, K A

    2008-02-01

    The ratio of fatty acids namely linoleic acid (LA, 18:2, n-6) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, n-3) in the diet plays an important role in enrichment of ALA in tissues and further conversion to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) like eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3). Garden cress seed oil (GCO) is one of the richest sources of omega-3 fatty acid and contains 29-34.5% of ALA. In this study, dietary supplementation of GCO on bio-availability and metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid was investigated in growing rats. Male wistar rats were fed with semi-purified diets supplemented with 10.0% sunflower oil (SFO 10%); 2.5% GCO and 7.5% SFO (GCO 2.5%); 5% GCO and 5% SFO (GCO 5.0%); 10% GCO (GCO 10%) for a period of 8 weeks. There was no significant difference with regard to the food intake, body weight gain and organ weights of rats in different dietary groups. Rats fed with GCO showed significant increase in ALA levels in serum and tissues compared to SFO fed rats. Feeding rats with 10% GCO lowered hepatic cholesterol by 12.3% and serum triglycerides by 40.4% compared to SFO fed group. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels decreased by 9.45% in serum of 10% GCO fed rats, while HDL remained unchanged among GCO fed rats. Adipose tissue showed incorporation of 3.3-17.4% of ALA and correlated with incremental intake of ALA. Except in adipose tissue, the EPA, DHA levels increased significantly in serum, liver, heart and brain tissues in GCO fed rats. A maximum level of DHA was registered in brain (11.6%) and to lesser extent in serum and liver tissues. A significant decrease in LA and its metabolite arachidonic acid (AA) was observed in serum and liver tissue of rats fed on GCO. Significant improvement in n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio was observed in GCO based diets compared to diet containing SFO. This is the first study to demonstrate that

  12. α-lipoic acid ameliorates n-3 highly-unsaturated fatty acids induced lipid peroxidation via regulating antioxidant defenses in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Chen; Jin, Ai; Sun, Jian; Yang, Zhou; Tian, Jing-Jing; Ji, Hong; Yu, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang; Zhou, Ji-Shu; Du, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Li-Qiao

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the protective effect of α-lipoic acid (LA) on n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs)-induced lipid peroxidation in grass carp. The result indicated that diets with n-3 HUFAs increased the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) (P n-3 HUFAs-only group. However, diets with LA remarkably inhibited the n-3 HUFAs-induced increase of HSI, KI, and MDA level in serum, liver and muscle (P n-3 HUFAs in fatty acid composition of muscle and liver (P n-3 HUFAs-induced lipid peroxidation, remit the toxicity of the lipid peroxidant, and protect n-3 HUFAs against lipid peroxidation to promote its deposition in fish, likely strengthening the activity of antioxidant enzymes through regulating mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzyme genes via mediating Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MODIFICATION OF THE N-3 POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Ernoić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find out which combinations of oils give a desirable effect on n-3 PUFA content modification and total values increase in pigs’ meat without negative effects on fattening characteristics and carcass and meat quality of. The standard daily fattening pigs’ diet was supplemented with combinations of fish, linseed and rapeseed oils. The control group (A received 3% of animal (pork fat in their diet while 4 experimental groups received the following oil combinations: fish oil 0.5% + rapeseed oil 2.5% (B; fish oil 0.5% + linseed oil 2.5% (C; fish oil 1.0% + rapeseed oil 2.0% (D, and fish oil 1.0% + linseed oil 2.0% (E. The experiment was carried out in the last 4 weeks of fattening. A random sample of 50 pigs (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain was divided into 5 groups with 10 pigs each of the equal ratio of both sexes. The results showed that the treatment and the sex statistically did not significantly influence daily gains whereas the interaction of the treatment and the sex did have a significant influence (p0.05 between the content of DHA in MLD in treatments A, B, and C. Increasing the content of fish oil in meals from 0.5% to 1% (treatments D and E produced a statistically significant increase of the DHA content compared to other groups (A, B, and C. The supplement of rapeseed oil (2% and fish oil (1% in pigs’ meals (treatment D influenced significantly higher disposal of n-3 PUFA in MLD compared to pigs fed with the supplement of 3% animal fat (treatment A. The ratio n-6/n-3 PUFA u MLD was statistically highly influenced (p<0.001 by the feeding treatment. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio ranged from 4.65:1 (barrows in treatment C to 20.14:1 (barrows in treatment A. The best n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was observed in fattening pigs of both sexes from treatment C (5.00:1. Fattening pigs fed the combination of linseed oil and fish oil (treatments C and E had a better n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in MLD (p<0.05, 5.00:1 and 6

  14. Fish intake, erythrocyte n-3 fatty acid status and metabolic health in Danish adolescent girls and boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Harsløf, Laurine B. S.; Hellgren, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Marine n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) may have a beneficial effect on several aspects of the metabolic syndrome (dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, hypertension and abdominal obesity). The metabolic syndrome is increasing in prevalence during adolescence, but only few studies have investigated...... the effects of n-3 LCPUFA in adolescence. The present study examines associations between fish intake (assessed by a 7 d pre-coded food diary), erythrocyte (RBC) DHA status (analysed by GC) and metabolic syndrome measures (anthropometry, blood pressure and plasma lipids, insulin and glucose) in 109 17-year......-old children from the Copenhagen Birth Cohort Study. Of the children, 8% were overweight or obese and few showed signs of the metabolic syndrome, but all the metabolic syndrome variables were correlated. Median fish intake was 10·7 (interquartile range 3·6–21·2) g/d. Boys tended to have a higher fish intake (P...

  15. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids in captive Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Wang, Y; Ghebremeskel, K; Lendl, C E; Streich, W J

    2003-07-12

    The fatty acid components of the plasma triglycerides and the phospholipid fractions of the red blood cells of a captive group of two African (Loxodonta africana) and four Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants were investigated. All the animals received the same diet of hay, fruits and vegetables, and concentrates. A comparison with data from free-ranging African elephants or Asian work-camp elephants showed that the captive elephants had lower proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and for several lipid fractions a higher n-6:n-3 ratio, than their counterparts in the wild or under the more natural, in terms of diet, work-camp conditions. The difference in PUFA content was smaller in the African than in the Asian elephants. The captive Asian elephants tended to have lower levels of n-3 and total unsaturated fatty acids in their red blood cells than the captive African elephants.

  16. Polymorphism in the fatty acid desaturase genes and diet are important determinants of infant n-3 fatty acid status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harsløf, L.B.S.; Larsen, L.H.; Ritz, C.;

    and polymorphism in the genes that encodes the fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has little effect on DHA-status in adults. It is however unclear to what extent endogenous DHA-synthesis contributes to infant DHA-status. Aim: To investigate the role of diet and FADS polymorphism on DHA-status at 9 months and 3 years....... Methods: This cross-sectional study with Danish infants use data from two prospective studies (EFiON and the SKOT cohort). We measured erythrocyte (RBC) DHA-status at 9 months (n=409) and 3 years (n=176) and genotyped 4 FADS tagSNPs, rs3834458, rs1535, rs174575 and rs174448 (n=401). Information about...... breastfeeding was obtained by questionnaires and fish intake was assessed by 7-day pre-coded food diaries. Results: FADS-genotype, breastfeeding, and fish intake were found to explain 25% of the variation in infant RBC DHA-status (mean±SD: 6.6±1.9% of the fatty acids (FA%)). Breastfeeding was the most important...

  17. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers Efecto de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 en el perfil lipídico de mexicanos voluntarios

    OpenAIRE

    OCTAVIO CARVAJAL; OFELIA ANGULO

    1997-01-01

    Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (p< 0.05) reduction of triglycerides and significant (p< 0.01) elevation of...

  18. Fish oil and mental health: the role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cognitive development and neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisi, Alessandro; Banzi, Rita; Buonocore, Carmela; Capasso, Filippo; Di Muzio, Valeria; Michelacci, Francesca; Renzo, Danila; Tafuri, Giovanni; Trotta, Francesco; Vitocolonna, Maria; Garattini, Silvio

    2006-11-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated that consumption of more n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may reduce the risk for a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders, diabetes and cancer. This article focuses on the role of marine n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain functions, including the development of the central nervous system and neurological disorders. An overview of the major animal studies and clinical trials is provided here, focusing on fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy and infancy, and prevention and management of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. Although an optimal balance in n-3/n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio is important for proper neurodevelopment and cognitive functions, results from randomized controlled trials are controversial and do not confirm any useful effect of supplementation on development of preterm and term infants. The relationship between fatty acid status and mental disorders is confirmed by reduced levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes of patients with central nervous system disorders. Nevertheless, there are very little data supporting the use of fish oil in those patients. The only way to verify whether n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are a potential therapeutic option in the management and prevention of mental disorders is to conduct a large definitive randomized controlled trials similar to those required for the licensing of any new pharmacological treatment.

  19. Can breeder reproductive status, performance and egg quality be enhanced by supplementation and transition of n-3 fatty acids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delezie, E; Koppenol, A; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of n-3 fatty acid (FA) supplemented diets on breeder performance, productivity and egg quality. Breeders (n = 480) were fed the supplemented diet from 18 weeks onwards; the inclusion level of n-3 FA was increased from 1.5% to 3.0% from 34 weeks of age onwards until 48 weeks of age. Ross-308 broiler breeders (n = 480) were fed one of four different diets: a basal diet rich in n-6 FA (control diet) or one of three diets rich in n-3 FA. For the n-3 FA diets, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) were fed to the broiler breeders at different ratios formulated to obtain EPA/DHA ratios of 1/1, 1/2 or 2/1. Differences in performance, reproduction and egg quality parameters due to n-3 supplementation were noted more for the 1.5% followed by the 3.0% fed broilers than their 1.5% supplemented counterparts. Egg weight (p n-3 FA (at 3.0% inclusion level) fed broilers compared to the control group. For the EPA- and DHA-fed breeders, a higher proportional abdominal fat percentage (p = 0.025) and proportional albumen weight (%) (p = 0.041) were found respectively. Dietary treatments did not affect reproduction. It can be concluded that the results of the present experiment indicate no significant differences between treatments at 1.5% inclusion levels. However, increasing this level to 3.0% is not recommended due to the rather negative effects on the measured parameters. It should be further investigated whether these adverse effects were obtained due to (i) the higher supplementation level, (ii) combining a supplementation level of 1.5% with 3% or (iii) the duration of supplementation.

  20. Forage legumes rich in condensed tannins may increase n-3 fatty acid levels and sensory quality of lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Marion; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Silacci, Paolo; Ampuero Kragten, Silvia; Kreuzer, Michael; Bee, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Tannins intensively interact with rumen microbes, which is expected to have consequences for meat quality. Silages prepared from birdsfoot trefoil (BT), sainfoin (SF), alfalfa (AF) or red clover (RC) were fed alone to 48 lambs. The SF contained five times more condensed tannins than BT, the other tanniferous plant. Growth and carcass performance, but not general meat quality, was reduced with BT and SF compared to AF and RC. Lambs fed SF had half the skatole levels in the perirenal fat than AF-fed lambs. The longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle of the SF-fed lambs, compared to RC and BT, had a lower intensity for 'livery' and 'sheepy' flavors but a stronger 'grassy' flavor. The intramuscular fat of BT- and SF-fed lambs contained less saturated and more polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially 20:4n-6, 20:3n-6, 20:5n-3 and 22:5n-3, with SF being more efficient than BT. The SF was most promising to increase beneficial fatty acids and to reduce skatole content in lamb meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Red Blood Cell Docosapentaenoic Acid (DPA n-3) is Inversely Associated with Triglycerides and C-reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Adults and Dose-Dependently Increases Following n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulas-Ray, Ann C.; Flock, Michael R.; Richter, Chesney K.; Harris, William S.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20–44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20–30 kg/m2, TG = 34–176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22–65 years, BMI 24–37 kg/m2, TG = 141–339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p diseases and warrant further study. PMID:26247967

  2. Hypothalamic fatty acid sensing in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis): response to long-chain saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Sieira, Marta; Bonacic, Kruno; Velasco, Cristina; Valente, Luisa M P; Morais, Sofia; Soengas, José L

    2015-12-15

    We assessed the presence of fatty acid (FA)-sensing mechanisms in hypothalamus of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and investigated their sensitivity to FA chain length and/or level of unsaturation. Stearate (SA, saturated FA), oleate (OA, monounsaturated FA of the same chain length), α-linolenate [ALA, a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of the same chain length], and eicosapentanoate (EPA, a n-3 PUFA of a larger chain length) were injected intraperitoneally. Parameters related to FA sensing and neuropeptide expression in the hypothalamus were assessed after 3 h and changes in accumulated food intake after 4, 24, and 48 h. Three FA sensing systems characterized in rainbow trout were also found in Senegalese sole and were activated by OA in a way similar to that previously characterized in rainbow trout and mammals. These hypothalamic FA sensing systems were also activated by ALA, differing from mammals, where n-3 PUFAs do not seem to activate FA sensors. This might suggest additional roles and highlights the importance of n-3 PUFA in fish diets, especially in marine species. The activation of FA sensing seems to be partially dependent on acyl chain length and degree of saturation, as no major changes were observed after treating fish with SA or EPA. The activation of FA sensing systems by OA and ALA, but not SA or EPA, is further reflected in the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the control of food intake. Both OA and ALA enhanced anorexigenic capacity compatible with the activation of FA sensing systems.

  3. Fortification of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids: effect on off-flavor generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, S; Thurgood, J E; Brothersen, C; Ward, R; McMahon, D J

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to fortify 50% reduced fat Cheddar cheese with n-3 fatty acids and evaluate whether this fortification generated specific off-flavors in the cheese. Docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids were added to the cheese to obtain 3 final fortification levels [18, 35, and 71 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size (28 g) of cheese] representing 10, 20, and 40% of the suggested daily intake level for DHA/EPA. The presence of oxidized, rancid, and fishy flavors as a function of fortification level and cheese aging (6 mo) was evaluated using a sensory descriptive panel. No differences were found in the oxidized and rancid flavors as a consequence of DHA/EPA fortification, with only slight intensities of these flavors. The presence of fishy off-flavor was dependent on the fortification level. Cheeses with low fortification levels (18 and 35 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size) did not develop significant fishy off-flavor compared with the control, whereas at the highest fortification level (71 mg of DHA/EPA per serving size) the fishy off-flavor was significantly stronger in young cheeses. The fishy flavor decreased as a function of age and became nonsignificant compared with the control at 3 mo of storage. Even though fishy flavors were detected in the fortified cheeses, the DHA/EPA content during storage remained constant and complied with the suggested values for food fortification. Results obtained from this research indicate that 50% reduced-fat Cheddar cheese aged for 3 mo can be used as a vehicle for delivery of n-3 fatty acids without generation of off-flavors.

  4. Healthy Spanish salchichón enriched with encapsulated n-3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Jose M; Munekata, Paulo Eduardo Sichetti; Pateiro, Mirian; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Domínguez, Ruben

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of fat content and improving fatty acid composition were the strategies used to reformulate Spanish salchichón with better lipid content by partial substitution of pork backfat by microencapsulated fish oil in konjac glucomannan matrix. For the present study, four different batches were manufactured: control (CO) with 100% of pork backfat and ME25, ME50 and ME75 where the pork backfat was replaced with 25, 50 and 75% by microencapsulated fish oil, respectively. The fat replacement by microencapsulated fish oil was accompanied by a decrease (P0.001) decreased the fat content (30.4%) as compared with the CO group. The total amount of PUFA in the modified sausages increased by 2.3% compared to the control batches. Finally, the reformulation process showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the lipid oxidation (TBARs values and aldehydes content) related to the greater susceptibility to lipid oxidation of unsaturated (particularly EPA and DHA) fatty acids. To conclude, it is technologically feasible to develop Spanish salchichón enriched with microencapsulated n-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition, motor skills and hippocampal neurogenesis in developing C57BL/6J mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Carola I. F.; Zerbi, Valerio; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; de Jong, Bas S. W.; Wiesmann, Maximilian; Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.; Geenen, Bram; Heerschap, Arend; Muskiet, Frits A. J.; Jouni, Zeina E.; van Tol, Eric A. F.; Gross, Gabriele; Homberg, Judith R.; Berg, Brian M.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is critical during perinatal development of the brain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 PUFA in the brain and influences neuronal membrane function and neuroprotection. The present study aims to assess the effect of

  6. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Meschi, Tiziana; Lauretani, Fulvio; Felis, Giovanna; Franchi, Fabrizio; Pedrolli, Carlo; Barichella, Michela; Benati, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Maggio, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes. PMID:27043616

  7. Nutrition and Inflammation in Older Individuals: Focus on Vitamin D, n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Whey Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ticinesi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic activation of the inflammatory response, defined as inflammaging, is the key physio-pathological substrate for anabolic resistance, sarcopenia and frailty in older individuals. Nutrients can theoretically modulate this phenomenon. The underlying molecular mechanisms reducing the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators have been elucidated, particularly for vitamin D, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and whey proteins. In this paper, we review the current evidence emerging from observational and intervention studies, performed in older individuals, either community-dwelling or hospitalized with acute disease, and evaluating the effects of intake of vitamin D, n-3 PUFA and whey proteins on inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α. After the analysis, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect in aging only for n-3 PUFA intake, while the few existing intervention studies do not support a similar activity for vitamin D and whey supplements. There is need in the future of large, high-quality studies testing the effects of combined dietary interventions including the above mentioned nutrients on inflammation and health-related outcomes.

  8. Relationships between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, food consumption, and nutritional status among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana P; Giudici, Kelly V; Marchioni, Dirce M; Fisberg, Regina M; Martini, Lígia A

    2015-08-01

    We have hypothesized that higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake is associated with better lipid profile, higher 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) serum concentrations, and healthy food consumption and nutritional status. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the relationships between n-3 PUFA intake, serum 25(OH)D, lipid profile, nutritional status, and food consumption among adolescents. A total of 198 Brazilian adolescents (51% male), with mean age of 16.3 ± 1.4 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Blood was collected for 25(OH)D and lipid profile serum measurement. Weight and height were measured, and food consumption was accessed by a 24-hour food record (n = 69). Analysis of variance, the Student t test, and Pearson correlation were performed using SPSS software (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D, nutritional status and favorable lipid profile. Food groups usually found in Brazilian traditional meals (characterized by rice, beans, meat, and vegetables) were associated with higher n-3 PUFA intake, which may contribute to prevent the development of noncommunicable diseases in adolescence and adulthood.

  9. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption produces neurobiological effects associated with prevention of depression in rats after the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Kim, Seok-Hyeon

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological data and clinical trials suggest that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have preventive and therapeutic effects on depression; however, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The present study aimed to examine the behavioral effects and antidepressant mechanism of n-3 PUFA using a forced swimming test. Eleven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0%, 0.5% or 1% EPA and DHA relative to the total energy intake in their diet for 12 weeks (n=8 per group). Total dietary intake, body weight and hippocampus weights were not significantly different among groups. The groups administered 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA diets had significantly higher levels of n-3 PUFA in their brain phospholipids compared to those in the control group. The immobility time was significantly decreased and the climbing time was significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Plasma serotonin concentration and hippocampus c-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) expression were significantly increased in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with those in the 0% EPA+DHA group. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-6 expression was significantly reduced in the 0.5% and 1% EPA+DHA groups compared with that in the 0% EPA+DHA group. However, there were no dose-dependent effects of n-3 PUFA and no significant differences in expressions of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, brain-derived neurotrophic factor or phosphorylated CREB. In conclusion, long-term intake of EPA+DHA induced antidepressant-like effects in rats and overexpression of CREB via decreased IL-6 expression.

  10. Fatty acid binding protein 7 and n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acid supply in early rat brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximin, Elise; Langelier, Bénédicte; Aïoun, Josiane; Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Bordat, Christian; Lavialle, Monique; Heberden, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7), abundant in the embryonic brain, binds with the highest affinity to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and is expressed in the early stages of embryogenesis. Here, we have examined the consequences of the exposure to different DHA levels and of the in utero depletion of FABP7 on early rat brain development. Neurodevelopment was evaluated through the contents of two proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), both involved in neuroblast proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The dams were fed with diets presenting different DHA contents, from deficiency to supplementation. DHA brain embryos contents already differed at embryonic day 11.5 and the differences kept increasing with time. Cx43 and CDK5 contents were positively associated with the brain DHA levels. When FABP7 was depleted in vivo by injections of siRNA in the telencephalon, the enhancement of the contents of both proteins was lost in supplemented animals, but FABP7 depletion did not modify phospholipid compositions regardless of the diets. Thus, FABP7 is a necessary mediator of the effect of DHA on these proteins synthesis, but its role in DHA uptake is not critical, although FABP7 is localized in phospholipid-rich areas. Our study shows that high contents of DHA associated with FABP7 are necessary to promote early brain development, which prompted us to recommend DHA supplementation early in pregnancy.

  11. A randomized study of the effect of fish oil on n-3 fatty acid incorporation and nutritional status in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Dannerfjord, Stina Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have been proposed to have beneficial effect on cancer cachexia. The aims of the present study were to a) determine the incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocytes (RBC) as a measurement of compliance to fish oil (FO)-supplement in lung canc...... in the ROg roup. Neither intention-to-treat analysis nor per-protocol-analysis revealed any statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to clinical outcomes....

  12. Effect of n-3 fatty acids on patients with advanced lung cancer: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Concetta; Segre, Olivia; Fadda, Maurizio; Monge, Taira; Scigliano, Mara; Schena, Marina; Tinivella, Marco; Tiozzo, Elisa; Catalano, Maria G; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Aragno, Manuela; Muzio, Giuliana; Maggiora, Marina; Oraldi, Manuela; Canuto, Rosa A

    2012-07-01

    PUFA from fish oil appear to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and improve nutritional status in cancer patients. With this as background, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of EPA plus DHA on inflammatory condition, and oxidative and nutritional status in patients with lung cancer. In our multicentre, randomised, double-blind trial, thirty-three patients with a diagnosis of advanced inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer and undergoing chemotherapy were divided into two groups, receiving four capsules/d containing 510 mg of EPA and 340 mg of DHA, or 850 mg of placebo, for 66 d. At the start of chemotherapy (T₀), after 8 d (T₁), 22 d (T₂) and 66 d (T₃), biochemical (inflammatory and oxidative status parameters) and anthropometric parameters were measured in both groups. A significant increase of body weight in the n-3 group at T₃ v. T₀ was observed. Concerning inflammation, C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels differed significantly between the n-3 and placebo groups at T₃, and progressively decreased during chemotherapy in the n-3 group, evidencing n-3 PUFA anti-inflammatory action. Concerning oxidative status, plasma reactive oxygen species levels increased in the placebo group v. the n-3 group at the later treatment times. Hydroxynonenal levels increased in the placebo group during the study, while they stabilised in the n-3 group. Our data confirm that the continual assumption of EPA plus DHA determined an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative action which could be considered a preliminary goal in anti-cachectic therapy.

  13. Endogenous synthesis of n-3 PUFA modifies fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids and eicosanoid levels in the fat-1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, D; Lysecki, C; Aukema, H; Anderson, B; Kang, J X; Ma, D W L

    2013-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether endogenous synthesis of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the fat-1 mouse is comparable to fish oil feeding with respect to kidney n-3 PUFA composition and eicosanoid levels. Wild-type and heterozygous fat-1 mice, capable of synthesizing n-3 PUFA endogenously, were given diets enriched in either n-3 or n-6 PUFA in a 2×2 factorial design and terminated after 12 weeks. Kidney phospholipid fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Kidney eicosanoids were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Relative to control mice fed n-6 PUFA, n-3 PUFA fed and fat-1 mice had higher levels of kidney phospholipid n-3 PUFA, and lower levels of n-6 PUFA and eicosanoids. However, mice fed n-3 PUFA mice had higher levels of n-3 PUFA and lower levels of eicosanoids as compared to fat-1 mice. In conclusion, diet feeding had a greater impact on kidney fatty acid composition and eicosanoid levels than the genetic effect of the fat-1 gene. However, the fat-1 mouse remains a close approximation that can be used as a complementary model to study the role of n-3 PUFA in the kidney.

  14. Composition of fatty acids in plasma and erythrocytes and eicosanoids level in patients with metabolic syndrome

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    Antonyuk Marina V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disturbances of the fatty acids composition in plasma and red blood cells and eicosanoid synthesis play an important role in the metabolic syndrome (MS formation. Methods The observation group included 61 people with metabolic syndrome (30 patients with MS and normal levels of insulin, 31 people with MS and insulin resistance - IR. The parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in blood serum were examined. The composition of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, fatty acid (FA of red blood cells lipids was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. Eicosanoids level in MS patients blood serum was studied by enzyme immunoassay. Results In MS patients in the absence of glucose-insulin homeostasis disturbances and in patients with IR the accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (18:2 n6, 18:3 n3, 22:4 n6 and lower pool of saturated FA (12:0, 14:0, 16: 0, 17:0 in plasma were discovered. A deficit of polyunsaturated FA (18:3 n3, 20:4 n6 with a predominance of on-saturated FA (14:0, 18:0 in erythrocyte membranes was revealed. In MS patients regardless of the carbohydrate metabolism status high levels of leukotriene B4 and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1α in serum were found. The development of IR in MS patients leads to increased synthesis of thromboxane A2. Conclusion The results revealed a disturbance in nonesterified fatty acids of plasma lipids and red blood cells, eicosanoid synthesis in MS patients. The breach of the plasma and cell membranes fatty acids compositions, synthesis of vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids is an important pathogenetic part of the MS development.

  15. Enzymatic modification of phosphatidylcholine with n-3 PUFA from silkworm oil fatty acids

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    Shanker Kaki, Shiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available α-Linolenic acid (ALA containing phosphatidylcholine (PC was prepared by an enzymatic method employing natural substrates comprising of egg and eri silkworm oil. Eri silkworm oil extracted from eri pupae was saponified to obtain the fatty acid mixture which was further subjected to urea complexation to obtain an ALA rich fraction with a purity of about 93%. Transesterification of PC with the ALA rich fraction with three immobilized lipases namely Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM and lipase from Candida Antarcticaz showed that only the lipase from Candida antarctica was successful for the incorporation of ALA into egg yolk PC. It was found that ALA was incorporated by up to 27% in the sn-1 position of egg PC and the positional distribution analysis of fatty acids in the modified PC showed that the sn-1 position was found to contain about 59% ALA.El ácido α-linolénico (ALA contenido en fosfatidilcolina (PC se preparó mediante un método enzimático empleando sustratos naturales que comprenden huevo y aceite de gusanos de seda. El aceite extraído de las crisálidas de gusanos de seda se saponificó para obtener la mezcla de ácidos grasos que se sometió a complejación con urea para obtener la fracción rica en ALA, con una pureza aproximadamente del 93%. La transesterificación de PC con fracción rica en ALA con tres lipasas inmovilizadas, Lipozyme TL IM, Lipozyme RM IM y lipasa de Candida antárctica, mostró que sólo la lipasa de Candida antarctica tuvo éxito en la incorporación de ALA en PC de yema de huevo. Se encontró que el ALA fue incorporado hasta 27% en la posición sn-1 de PC de huevo y el análisis de la distribución de los ácidos grasos en PC modificado mostró que la posición sn-1 que contenía aproximadamente 59% de ALA.

  16. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs Reverse the Impact of Early-Life Stress on the Gut Microbiota.

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    Matteo M Pusceddu

    Full Text Available Early life stress is a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders ranging from depression to anxiety. Stress, especially during early life, can induce dysbiosis in the gut microbiota, the key modulators of the bidirectional signalling pathways in the gut-brain axis that underline several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Despite their critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system, the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs on the regulation of gut-microbiota in early-life stress has not been explored.Here, we show that long-term supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (80% EPA, 20% DHA n-3 PUFAs mixture could restore the disturbed gut-microbiota composition of maternally separated (MS female rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4 g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1 g/kg/day, respectively. Analysis of the gut microbiota in adult rats revealed that EPA/DHA changes composition in the MS, and to a lesser extent the NS rats, and was associated with attenuation of the corticosterone response to acute stress.In conclusion, EPA/DHA intervention alters the gut microbiota composition of both neurodevelopmentally normal and early-life stressed animals. This study offers insights into the interaction between n-3 PUFAs and gut microbes, which may play an important role in advancing our understanding of disorders of mood and cognitive functioning, such as anxiety and depression.

  17. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskanich, C O; Matthews, K R; Warkup, C C; Noble, R C; Hazzledine, M

    1997-03-01

    An investigation was made to alter the fatty acid composition of pork and a pork product in line with human dietary advice while not adversely affecting factors controlling consumer acceptability. Pigs (n = 150) were assigned to three dietary treatments with 25 intact male-female pairs per treatment. Diet A (control) contained 3% of a 4:1 (wt/ wt) tallow-soybean oil mixture. Diets B and C contained 2% rapeseed oil plus 1% fish oil. Diets A, B, and C were supplemented with 100, 100, and 250 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, respectively. Pigs were given ad libitum access to feed from 52 kg live weight until 95 kg (slaughter). Sausages were prepared from the resulting cuts. Tissues of pigs were evaluated in terms of fat firmness, color, fatty acid composition, and contents of alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Organoleptic characteristics of chops and sausages were evaluated by a trained taste panel. Pigs fed Diets B and C had improved feed conversion ratios (P sausage from pigs fed Diets B and C with associated alterations in n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios that accorded with contemporary human dietary recommendations. Levels of alpha-tocopherol and TBARS were significantly altered in the tissues. There were no appreciable differences between treatments in carcass characteristics, including color. The overall organoleptic acceptability of chops and sausages was not different between the treatments.

  18. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C W; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M; Holven, Kirsten B

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions.

  19. Lack of Effects of a Single High-Fat Meal Enriched with Vegetable n-3 or a Combination of Vegetable and Marine n-3 Fatty Acids on Intestinal Peptide Release and Adipokines in Healthy Female Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narverud, Ingunn; Myhrstad, Mari C. W.; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Karhu, Toni; Dahl, Tuva B.; Halvorsen, Bente; Ulven, Stine M.; Holven, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Peptides released from the small intestine and colon regulate short-term food intake by suppressing appetite and inducing satiety. Intake of marine omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) from fish and fish oils is associated with beneficial health effects, whereas the relation between intake of the vegetable n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid and diseases is less clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effects of a single high-fat meal enriched with vegetable n-3 or a combination of vegetable and marine n-3 FAs with their different unsaturated fatty acid composition on intestinal peptide release and the adipose tissue. Fourteen healthy lean females consumed three test meals with different fat quality in a fixed order. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat, linseed oil, and a combination of linseed and cod liver oil. The test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analyzed. A significant postprandial effect was observed for cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, amylin and insulin, which increased, while leptin decreased postprandially independent of the fat composition in the high-fat meal. In conclusion, in healthy, young, lean females, an intake of a high-fat meal enriched with n-3 FAs from different origin stimulates intestinal peptide release without any difference between the different fat compositions. PMID:27630989

  20. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and mechanisms to mitigate inflammatory paracrine signaling in obesity-associated breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Turk, Harmony F; Liddle, Danyelle M; De Boer, Anna A; Power, Krista A; Ma, David W L; Robinson, Lindsay E

    2014-10-30

    Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer.

  1. Inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome after the intake of fatty acids n-3 and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA

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    Campos Mondragón, M.G; Oliart Ros, R. M. ; Angulo Guerrero, J. O.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS increa -ses the odds of dying for cardiovascular disease, theworld’s leading cause of death. It has been shown thatpolyunsaturated fatty acids have a protective role in cardiovascular disease and its comorbidities.Objective: To assess the effect of three kinds ofpolyunsaturated fatty acids on the chronic inflammation in MS.Methods: The study group was 45 adults with MSdiagnose according to IDF criteria. Each group of treatment was assigned cuasi-randomly to 15 subjects during six weeks: a 1.8 g/d n-3 (1.08 g eicosapentoaenoicacid EPA + 0.72 g docosahexaenoic acid DHA, b 2.0g/d conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 50:50, cis9:trans11,trans10:cis12, c 40 g/d walnut Juglans regia. The results at the beginning and the end of the essay werecompared in each group, using the t-Student test and p <0.01 as statistical signification value.Results:In the patients supplemented with n-3 fattyacids, significantly decreased the level of IL-6 (from9.81 ±1.28 to 8.47 ±0.81 pg/ml, p=0.002, leptin(from 25.94 ±5.06 ng/ml to 20.53 ±3.96 ng/ml,p=0.003 and homocysteine (from 18.80 ±1.95 to16.72 ±1.99 µmol/l, p=0.007, in erythrocytes decreased the percentage α-linolenic content (from 1.90±0.77 to 1.26 ±0.17 %, p=0.004 and the n6/n3 rate(from 4.48 ±1.06 to 3.11 a ±0.60, p=0.000, while increased the percentage of EPA (from 1.13 ±0.45 to1.58 ±0.42 %, p=0.009 and DHA (from 2.61 ±0.36 to4.64 ±0.91 %, p=0.000. In the group that consumedwalnut declined the levels of TNF-α (from 8.75 ±2.06pg/ml to 6.68 ±0.97 pg/ml, p=0.002 and IL-6 (from10.61 ±1.45 to 8.72 ±0.79 pg/ml, p=0.000, in erythrocytes increased the α-linolenic content (from 1.86±0.65 to 2.62 ±0.72 %, p=0.005. In the group thatconsumed CLA decreased the level of homocysteine(from 18.01 ±2.65 to 15.34 ±2.26 µmol/l, p=0.006.Conclusions: The groups that consumed n-3 fattyacids in supplements (EPA/DHA and in walnut, becameevident the modification in

  2. Effect of rapeseed oil and dietary n-3 fatty acids on triacylglycerol synthesis and secretion in Atlantic salmon hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, M A; Vegusdal, A; Gjøen, T; Rustan, A C; Todorcević, M; Ruyter, B

    2008-03-01

    Fish oil (FO) has traditionally been used as the dominating lipid component in fish feed. However, FO is a limited resource and the price varies considerably, which has led to an interest in using alternative oils, such as vegetable oils (VOs), in fish diets. It is far from clear how these VOs affect liver lipid secretion and fish health. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanioc acid (DHA), reduce the secretion of lipoproteins rich in triacylglycerols (TAGs) in Atlantic salmon, as they do in humans. The mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids (FAs) in the diet reduce TAG secretion is not known. We have therefore investigated the effects of rapeseed oil (RO) and n-3 rich diets on the accumulation and secretion of (3)H-glycerolipids by salmon hepatocytes. Salmon, of approximately 90 g were fed for 17 weeks on one of four diets supplemented with either 13.5% FO, RO, EPA-enriched oil or DHA-enriched oil until a final average weight of 310 g. Our results show that the dietary FA composition markedly influences the endogenous FA composition and lipid content of the hepatocytes. The intracellular lipid level in hepatocytes from fish fed RO diet and DHA diet were higher, and the expressions of the genes for microsomal transfer protein (MTP) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) were lower, than those in fish fed the two other diets. Secretion of hepatocyte glycerolipids was lower in fish fed the EPA diet and DHA diet than it was in fish fed the RO diet. Our results indicate that EPA and DHA possess different hypolipidemic properties. Both EPA and DHA inhibit TAG synthesis and secretion, but only EPA induces mitochondrial proliferation and reduce intracellular lipid. Expression of the gene for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was higher in the DHA dietary group than it was in the other groups.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-mediated up-regulation of syndecan-1 by n-3 fatty acids promotes apoptosis of human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Berquin, Isabelle M; Owens, Rick T; O'Flaherty, Joseph T; Edwards, Iris J

    2008-04-15

    Diets enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) may protect against breast cancer but biochemical mechanisms are unclear. Our studies showed that the n-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up-regulated syndecan-1 (SDC-1) in human breast cancer cells, and we tested the hypothesis that DHA-mediated up-regulation of SDC-1 induces apoptosis. DHA was delivered to MCF-7 cells by n-3 PUFA-enriched low-density lipoproteins (LDL) or by albumin in the presence or absence of SDC-1 small interfering RNA. The n-3 PUFA induced apoptosis, which was blocked by SDC-1 silencing. We also confirmed that SDC-1 up-regulation and apoptosis promotion by n-3 PUFA was mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). Using a luciferase gene driven by either a PPAR response element or a DR-1 site present in the SDC-1 promoter, reporter activities were enhanced by n-3 LDL, DHA, and PPAR gamma agonist, whereas activity of a luciferase gene placed downstream of a mutant DR-1 site was unresponsive. Cotransfection with dominant-negative PPAR gamma DNA eliminated the increase in luciferase activity. These data provide strong evidence that SDC-1 is a molecular target of n-3 PUFA in human breast cancer cells through activation of PPAR gamma and that n-3 PUFA-induced apoptosis is mediated by SDC-1. This provides a novel mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of n-3 PUFA in breast cancer.

  4. Identification of fatty acids in canine seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R; Inostroza, K; Risopatrón, J; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2014-03-01

    Seminal plasma contains various biochemical components associated with sperm function. However, there is limited information regarding the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and their effect on sperm. The aim of this study was to identify the fatty acid content in canine seminal plasma using gas chromatography. Twelve ejaculates were studied, the seminal plasma was obtained by centrifugation and then the lipids were extracted, methylated and analysed by chromatography. The total lipids in the seminal plasma were 2.5 ± 0.3%, corresponding to 85% saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 15% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). The greatest proportions of SFA were palmitic acid (30.4%), stearic acid (23.4%) and myristic acid (5.3%) and of UFA oleic acid (9.0%). Therefore, the protocols and techniques used enabled the identification of 18 different fatty acids in canine seminal plasma, which constitutes a good method to evaluate and quantify the fatty acid profile in this species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Short-term consumption of n-3 PUFAs increases murine IL-5 levels, but IL-5 is not the mechanistic link between n-3 fatty acids and changes in B-cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Heather; Harris, Mitchel; Whelan, Jarrett; Comstock, Sarah S; Fenton, Jenifer I; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2016-02-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert immunomodulatory effects on B cells. We previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs enhanced the relative percentage and/or frequency of select B2 cell subsets. The objectives here were to determine if n-3 PUFAs (a) could boost cytokines that target B-cell frequency, (b) enhance the frequency of the B1 population and (c) to identify the mechanism by which n-3 PUFAs modify the proportion of B cells. Administration of n-3 PUFAs as fish oil to C57BL/6 mice enhanced secretion of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 but not IL-9 or IL-13. N-3 PUFAs had no influence on the percentage or frequency of peritoneal B1 or B2 cells. Subsequent experiments with IL-5(-/-) knockout mice showed n-3 PUFAs decreased the percentage of bone marrow B220(lo)IgM(hi) cells and increased the proportion and number of splenic IgM(+)IgD(lo)CD21(lo) cells compared to the control. These results, when compared with our previous findings with wild-type mice, suggested IL-5 had no role in mediating the effect of n-3 PUFAs on B-cell populations. To confirm this conclusion, we assayed IL-5 secretion in a diet-induced obesity model in which n-3 PUFAs enhanced the frequency of select B-cell subsets. N-3 PUFA supplementation as ethyl esters to obesogenic diets did not alter circulating IL-5 levels. Altogether, the data establish that n-3 PUFAs as fish oil can increase circulating IL-5 in lean mice, which has implications for several disease end points, but this increase in IL-5 is not the mechanistic link between n-3 PUFAs and changes in B-cell populations.

  6. Relation of whole blood n-3 fatty acid levels to exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease (from the heart and soul study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Brian; Farzaneh-Far, Ramin; Harris, William S; Garg, Sachin; Na, Beeya; Whooley, Mary A

    2011-04-15

    Dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events. Mechanisms underlying this association are poorly understood but may include beneficial effects on physical conditioning and vagal tone. We investigated the association of n-3 fatty acid levels to exercise parameters in 992 subjects with stable coronary artery disease. Cross-sectional associations of heart rate recovery time, treadmill exercise capacity, and exercise time with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels were evaluated in multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, co-morbidities, self-reported physical activity, medication use, and left ventricular function. After multivariable adjustment, n-3 fatty acid levels (DHA + EPA) were strongly associated with heart rate recovery (beta 2.1, p = 0.003), exercise capacity (beta 0.8, p 0.1 for all comparisons). In conclusion, an independent association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and important exercise parameters in patients with stable coronary artery disease. These findings support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may increase vagal tone and physical conditioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Differences in the intramolecular structure of structured oils do not affect pancreatic lipase activity in vitro or the absorption by rats of (n-3) fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Xu, Xuebing; Göttsche, Jesper; Mu, Huiling

    2005-07-01

    The fatty acid composition and intramolecular structure of dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) influence their absorption. We compared the in vitro pancreatic lipase activity and the lymphatic transport in rats of fish oil and 2 enzymatically interesterified oils containing 10:0 and (n-3) PUFAs of marine origin to investigate whether the positional distribution of fatty acids influenced the overall bioavailability of (n-3) PUFAs in the body. The structured oils had the (n-3) PUFA either mainly at the sn-1,3 position (LML, M = medium-chain fatty acid, L = long-chain fatty acid) or mainly at the sn-2 position (MLM). Oils were administered to lymph-cannulated rats and lymph was collected for 24 h. The fatty acid composition as well as the lipid class distribution of lymph samples was determined. In vitro pancreatic lipase activity was greater when fish oil was the substrate than when the structured oils were the substrates (P fish oil compared with the 2 structured oils (P lipase activity did not differ. This indicates that the absorption rate is highly influenced by the lipase activity, which in turn is affected by the fatty acid composition and intramolecular structure. The lipid class distribution in lymph collected from the 3 groups of rats did not differ. In conclusion, the intramolecular structure did not affect the overall absorption of (n-3) PUFAs.

  8. Combination of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice by inhibiting macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Akira; Fukuda, Daiju; Tanaka, Kimie; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Hirata, Yoichiro; Nishimoto, Sachiko; Yagi, Shusuke; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Taketani, Yutaka; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2016-11-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are major components of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) which inhibit atherogenesis, although few studies have examined the effects of the combination of EPA and DHA on atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DHA has additional anti-atherosclerotic effects when combined with EPA. Male 8-week-old apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice were fed a western-type diet supplemented with different amounts of EPA and DHA; EPA (2.5%, w/w), low-dose EPA + DHA (2.5%, w/w), or high-dose EPA + DHA (5%, w/w) for 20 weeks. The control group was fed a western-type diet containing no n-3 PUFA. Histological and gene expression analysis were performed in atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. To address the mechanisms, RAW264.7 cells were used. All n-3 PUFA treatments significantly attenuated the development and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaques compared with the control. The anti-atherosclerotic effects were enhanced in the high-dose EPA + DHA group (p < 0.001), whereas the pure EPA group and low-dose EPA + DHA group showed similar results. EPA and DHA additively attenuated the expression of inflammatory molecules in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. DHA or EPA + DHA suppressed LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in lipid rafts on RAW264.7 cells (p < 0.05). Lipid raft disruption by methyl-β-cyclodextrin suppressed mRNA expression of inflammatory molecules in LPS-stimulated macrophages. n-3 PUFAs suppressed atherogenesis. DHA combined with EPA had additional anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited atherogenesis in Apoe(-/-) mice. The reduction of TLR4 expression in lipid rafts in macrophages by DHA might be involved in this mechanism, at least partially. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct supplementation of diet is the most efficient way of enriching broiler meat with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T; Lordelo, M M; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Costa, P; Lemos, J P C; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Prates, J A M

    2013-01-01

    1. Concentrations of beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) in poultry meat can be improved by increasing the concentration of n-3 PUFA in poultry diets. 2. A decrease in flavour quality is, however, usually associated with the dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA, which is due to the susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation. 3. This experiment was conducted to study the effects of introducing two different n-3 fatty acid sources (extruded linseed and DHA Gold™, a proprietary algal product rich in docosahexaenoic acid), either separately or together, on broiler productive performance, and meat quality, oxidative stability, sensory traits and LC-PUFA profile. 4. Birds given the algal product displayed better productive performances than animals from other groups. 5. The data revealed an improvement in the fatty acid nutritional value of meat from birds receiving the algal product and an inefficient conversion of α-linolenic acid (LNA) into LC-PUFA. 6. Metabolisation of LNA in vivo is not sufficient to improve meat quality in n-3 LC-PUFA and direct supplementation of the diet with n-3 LC-PUFA is a better alternative to modulate an increase in beneficial fatty acids of broiler meat. 7. The overall acceptability of meat was negatively affected by the dietary supplementation with 7.4% of DHA, in contrast to the supplementation with 3.7% of DHA, which showed to be efficient in improving LC-PUFA meat content without affecting its sensory properties.

  10. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    and the fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland are the major determinants of the fatty acid profile of breast milk, whereas the liver does not significantly add to this. The 20:4n-6 was decreased in breast milk lipids and liver PL of dams and offspring when 18:3n-3 was increased in the diet. When the diet......The impact of triacylglycerol (TAG) structure and level of n-3 fatty acids on the fatty acid profile of total breast milk lipids and total liver phospholipids (PL) of dams and offspring (1, 3 and 13 weeks of age), when administered during development, was examined. Pregnant rats were fed...... fatty acids. Samples from three animals in each group were analyzed. The highest level of 22:6n-3 in the breast milk was obtained with diets containing this fatty acid itself. The fatty acid profile of rat dam liver PL was very different from the milk lipids indicating that the maternal dietary fats...

  11. Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2α) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2α). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2α) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle.

  12. n-6/n-3多不饱和脂肪酸不同比例对乳腺癌细胞膜脂组成和膜功能的影响%Effects of different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid on membrane lipid composition and membrane function in human breast cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱小文; 韦娜; 蒋薇; 刘慧; 肖桂珍; 谭泽威; 黄英; 王钦先

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察n-6/n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(polyunsaturated fatty acid,PUFA)不同比例对乳腺癌细胞增殖能力、膜脂构成和膜功能的影响.方法:n-6/n-3 PUFA不同比例处理MCF-7和MDA-MB-231乳腺癌细胞,气相色谱法分析细胞膜脂构成,共聚焦显微镜监测细胞膜流动性、膜电位和Ca2+跨膜内流.结果:单纯n-6和10∶1 n-6/n-3 PUFA组细胞膜较对照组合有更多的C18∶2和C20∶4,无n-3 PUFA蓄积;但单纯n-3和1∶1 n-6/n-3 PUFA组细胞膜EPA含量显著增加,且未检测到C20∶4.另外,单纯n-6和10∶1 n-6/n-3 PUFA组可增加两种乳腺癌细胞的膜流动性,并诱导膜去极化和细胞外Ca2+内流;而单纯n-3和1∶1 n-6/n-3 PUFA组则降低细胞膜流动性,诱导细胞膜超极化改变和减缓细胞外Ca2+内流.结论:不同比例n-6/n-3 PUFA明显改变MCF-7和MDA-MB-231乳腺癌细胞膜脂组成、膜流动性、超极化和Ca2+内流,这些改变可能参与其影响乳腺癌细胞生长的分子机制.%Objective To investigate the effects of different ratios of n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) on proliferation capacity, membrane lipid composition, and membrane function in MCF-7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-) human breast cancer cell lines. Methods MCF-7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER-) human breast cancer cell lines were treated with different ratios of n-6/n-3 PUFA. Then the membrane lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography, and membrane fluidity, membrane potential, and Ca2+ influx were observed by confocal laser microscopy. Results As compared to those in control group, there were more C18:2 and C20:4 and no n-3 PUFA accumulation in plasma membrane in n-6 PUFA and 10:1 n-6/n-3 PUFA groups; in contrast, there were more EPA and no C20:4 accumulation in plasma membrane in n-3 PUFA and 1:1 n-6/n-3 PUFA groups. Additionally, the membrane fluidity, membrane depolarization, and Ca2+ influx were elevated in n-6 PUFA and 10:1 n-6/n-3 PUFA groups, whereas the opposites were found in

  13. Plasma fatty acid lipidomics in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuliano, Luigi; Pacelli, Antonio; Ciacciarelli, Marco; Zerbinati, Chiara; Fagioli, Sabrina; Piras, Fabrizio; Orfei, Maria Donata; Bossù, Paola; Pazzelli, Floriana; Serviddio, Gaetano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the n-3 series have been linked to brain physiology and cognitive decline, but little is known about the other components of the complex fatty acids category. Here, we compared 30 molecular species pertaining to saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids, measured in plasma by gas chromatography, in 14 patients with a diagnosis of amnestic single domain mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), 30 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 30 healthy controls (HC). As no participants showed neuroimaging evidence of cerebrovascular disease, patients could be considered as purely neurodegenerative. We found differences in specific components of almost all fatty acid classes except n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids. Compared with HC, aMCI and AD patients had higher levels of arachidic (C20:0), erucic (C22:1, n-9), and vaccenic acid (C18:1, n-9) and lower levels of cerotic (C26:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6). In particular, level of linoleic acid decreased and level of mead acid increased progressively from HC to aMCI to AD patients, and they were also inversely correlated in AD and aMCI patients. In conclusion, we found a previously unrecognized linoleic acid deficiency in the early phase of neurodegeneration that was strongly supported by an increased, compensatory mead acid level. These findings suggest the importance of creating new dietary manipulation strategies to counteract disease progression.

  14. Hepatic gene expression in multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed n-3 fatty acids in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Fahrenkrug, S C; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows were fed supplemental dietary fat and treated with bST to assess effects of n-3 fatty acid supply, bovine somatotropin (bST), and stage of lactation on hepatic gene expression. Cows were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatment. Supplemental dietary fat was provided from calving as either whole high-oil sunflower seeds (SS; 10% of dietary dry matter; n-6/n-3 ratio of 4.6) as a source of linoleic acid or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary dry matter, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids. Cows were treated with 0 (SSN, AFN) or 500 (SSY, AFY) mg of bST every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk (DIM) and at 14-d intervals thereafter. Liver biopsies were collected on -12, 10, 24, and 136 DIM for gene expression analysis. Growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) were the target genes and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) was used as an endogenous control gene. Expression was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses of 4 samples from each of 32 cows (8 complete blocks). Amounts of hepatic HPRT mRNA were not affected by bST or diet but were increased by approximately 3.8% in early lactation (3.42, 3.52, 3.54, and 3.41 x 10(4) message copies for -12, 10, 24, and 136 DIM, respectively). This small change had little detectable impact on the ability of HPRT to serve as an internal control gene. Amounts of hepatic GHR, IGF-I, and IGFBP3 mRNA were reduced by 1.5 to 2-fold after calving. Expression of GHR and IGF-I increased and IGFBP3 tended to increase within 12 d (by 24 DIM) of bST administration. These effects of bST persisted through 136 DIM. Hepatic HNF4alpha mRNA was not altered by DIM or

  15. Maternal Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Fatty Acids and Atopy and Wheeze in the Offspring at Age of 6 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine C. Pike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs might influence the development of atopy, asthma, and wheeze. This study aimed to determine whether differences in PUFA concentrations in maternal plasma phosphatidylcholine are associated with the risk of childhood wheeze or atopy. For 865 term-born children, we measured phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition in maternal plasma collected at 34 weeks’ gestation. Wheezing was classified using questionnaires at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and 6 years. At age of 6 years, the children underwent skin prick testing, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement, and spirometry. Maternal n-6 fatty acids and the ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids were not associated with childhood wheeze. However, higher maternal eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 fatty acids were associated with reduced risk of non-atopic persistent/late wheeze (RR 0.57, 0.67 and 0.69, resp. P=0.01, 0.015, and 0.021, resp.. Maternal arachidonic acid was positively associated with FENO (P=0.024. A higher ratio of linoleic acid to its unsaturated metabolic products was associated with reduced risk of skin sensitisation (RR 0.82, P=0.013. These associations provide some support for the hypothesis that variation in exposure to n-6 and n-3 fatty acids during pregnancy influences the risk of childhood wheeze and atopy.

  16. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation decreases asymmetric dimethyl arginine and arachidonate accumulation in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Laura; Lodovici, Maura; Visioli, Francesco; Sartiani, Laura; Cioni, Laura; Alfarano, Chiara; Banchelli, Grazia; Pirisino, Renato; Cecchi, Enrica; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Mugelli, Alessandro

    2005-09-01

    Plasma accumulation of asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is considered as a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and a strong predictor for coronary heart diseases. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) increasing plasma levels have been positively associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality with a mechanism( s) yet unclear. We hypothesised that ADMA reduction might be a part of EPA and DHA beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. To verify this hypothesis we measured ADMA plasma levels in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) supplemented for 8 weeks with EPA and DHA. 16-month-old SHR were supplemented with EPA and DHA (EPA-DHA) or with olive oil (1 g/kg/day; OLIVE). At the end of the treatments, the plasma of each animal was analysed for 1) the total fatty acid composition, by gas-cromatography, 2) ADMA levels, by high pressure liquid chromatography, 3) nitrite and homocysteine concentration by chemiluminescence and by polarisation immunoassay respectively. Moreover, the activity of dimethyl arginine dimethyl amino hydrolase, the main enzyme involved in ADMA metabolism, was measured spectrophotometrically in the kidney from each rat. Animals supplemented with EPA and DHA showed: 1) lower ADMA and arachidonate plasma levels (587.4 +/- 113.7 nM and 0.49 +/- 0.11 mM respectively) than the values found in OLIVE rats (1365 +/- 399 nM and 1.07 +/- 0.07 mM respectively) 2) higher nitrite content (0.73 +/- 0.05 microM) than OLIVE (0.23 +/- 0.08 microM). EPA and DHA supplementation reduced ADMA accumulation in SHR in parallel with a decrease of arachidonate availability. This finding suggests that the control of the inflammatory ground of endothelium might play an important role in EPA and DHA effect on this novel and highly predictive cardiovascular risk factor.

  17. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA.

  18. The effects of n-3 fatty acids on inflammatory cytokines in osteoporotic spinal cord injured patients: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Sabour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical studies have reported that osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI can be the inflammation-induced base condition and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study documents the effects of n-3 PUFAs on cytokines in a group of patients after chronic SCI. Methods: This double-blind, placebo- controlled trial was designed in 82 (69 males and 13 females osteoporotic patients with SCI for 4 months. All participants received 1000 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily. The patients received two MorDHA capsules (435 g of DHA and 65 mg of EPA per day or two placebo capsules (one with lunch, and the other with dinner in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Serum interleukins and Dietary intakes were assessed in the beginning and end of the study. Mean difference for each group was compared by using Student′s t test. Results: A total of 75 (13 females, 62 males participants completed the study over 4 months. The supplemented and control groups did not show any difference in their baseline characteristics. There were significant difference neither between two groups at the end of the study nor in each group between beginning and end of the study. Conclusins: MorDHA supplementation for 4 months had no significant effect on inflammatory markers. Although mean difference in all pro-inflammatory cytokines were not significant in both treatment and control groups during the study (P>0.05, the decrease in treatment group was weakly higher that it may be important in point of clinical view.

  19. Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed as an n-3 fatty acid source for finishing pigs: effects on fatty acid composition and fat stability of the meat and internal fat, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, W; Ayerza, R

    2009-11-01

    Coronary heart disease is caused by arteriosclerosis, which is triggered by an unbalanced fatty acid profile in the body. Today, Western diets are typically low in n-3 fatty acids and high in SFA and n-6 fatty acids; consequently, healthier foods are needed. Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.), which contains the greatest known plant source of n-3 alpha-linolenic acid, was fed at the rate of 10 and 20% to finishing pigs, with the goal to determine if this new crop would increase the n-3 content of the meat as has been reported for other n-3 fatty acid-rich crops. The effects of chia on fatty acid composition of the meat, internal fats, growth performance, and meat sensory characteristics were determined. Productive performance was unaffected by dietary treatment. Chia seed modified the fatty acid composition of the meat fat, but not of the internal fat. Significantly (P < 0.05) less palmitic, stearic, and arachidic acids were found with both chia treatments. This is different than trials in which flaxseed, another plant based source of omega-3 fatty acid, has been fed. Alpha-linolenic acid content increased with increasing chia content of the diet; however, only the effect of the 20% ration was significantly (P < 0.05) different from that of the control. Chia seed increased panel member preferences for aroma and flavor of the meat. This study tends to show that chia seems to be a viable feed that can produce healthier pork for human consumption.

  20. Influence of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids on breast milk and liver lipids of rat dams and offspring - a preliminary study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    experimental diets from the 8(th) day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the offspring were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a specific structured oil, linseed oil or fish oil. In the specific structured oil, a-linolenic acid (18......:3n-3) was predominantly located in the sn-2 position of the TAG and the level of 18:3n-3 was 2 mol% or 10 mol%. In the linseed oil diets the level of 18:3n-3 was 2 mol% or 10 mol% as well. Finally, the fish oil diet contained 18:3n-3 as well as 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 adding up to a total of 2 mol% n-3...... was based on 10 mol% 18:3n-3 from structured lipid trace levels of 22:6n-3 occurred in breast milk. The 22:6n-3 in liver PL of 1 week old offspring was significantly higher when the diet was based on the specific structured oil (2 mol%) compared to linseed oil. The metabolism of fatty acids may therefore...

  1. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Kelsey D J

    2015-01-01

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children\\'s PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

  2. A randomized study of the effect of fish oil on n-3 fatty acid incorporation and nutritional status in lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Dannerfjord, Stina Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    either 20 ml of FO or 20 ml of rapeseed oil (RO) daily. Patients were evaluated every three weeks. Twenty-five patients participated in the study for more than 21 days. The RBC content in FO-group increased with 35%, 137% and 44%, respectively (p ...Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) have been proposed to have beneficial effect on cancer cachexia. The aims of the present study were to a) determine the incorporation of n-3 LCPUFA in erythrocytes (RBC) as a measurement of compliance to fish oil (FO)-supplement in lung cancer...

  3. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Mechanisms to Mitigate Inflammatory Paracrine Signaling in Obesity-Associated Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Monk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, the prevalence of obesity is increasing which subsequently increases the risk of the development of obesity-related chronic diseases. Low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated adipose tissue inflammatory mediator/adipokine secretion are well-established in obesity, and these factors increase the risk of developing inflammation-associated cancer. Breast cancer is of particular interest given that increased inflammation within the subcutaneous mammary adipose tissue depot can alter the local tissue inflammatory microenvironment such that it resembles that of obese visceral adipose tissue. Therefore, in obese women with breast cancer, increased inflammatory mediators both locally and systemically can perpetuate inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic signaling pathways, thereby increasing disease severity. Herein, we discuss some of these inflammation-associated pro-carcinogenic mechanisms of the combined obese breast cancer phenotype and offer evidence that dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA may have utility in mitigating the severity of obesity-associated inflammation and breast cancer.

  4. Transgenesis of humanized fat1 promotes n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis and expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in goat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yixuan; Ren, Caifang; Wang, Zhibo; Jia, Ruoxin; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yanli; Zhang, Guomin; Wan, Yongjie; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-15

    The n-3 fatty acid desaturase gene fat1 codes for the n-3 desaturase enzyme, which can convert n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to n-3 PUFAs. The n-3 PUFAs are essential components required for normal cellular function and have preventive and therapeutic effects on many diseases. Goat is an important domestic animal for human consumption of meat and milk. To elevate the concentrations of n-3 PUFAs and examine the regulatory mechanism of fat1 in PUFA metabolism in goat cells, we successfully constructed a humanized fat1 expression vector and confirmed the efficient expression of fat1 in goat ear skin-derived fibroblast cells (GEFCs) by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Fatty acid analysis showed that fat1 overexpression significantly increased the levels of total n-3 PUFAs and decreased the levels of total n-6 PUFAs in GEFCs. In addition, qRT-PCR results indicate that the FADS1 and FADS2 desaturase genes, ELOV2 and ELOV5 elongase genes, ACO and CPT1 oxidation genes, and PPARa and PPARγ transcription factors are up-regulated, and transcription factors of SREBP-1c gene are down-regulated in the fat1 transgenic goat cells. Overall, fat1-overexpression resulted in an increase in the n-3 fatty acids and altered expression of PUFA synthesis related genes in GEFCs. This work lays a foundation for both the production of fat1 transgenic goats and further study of the mechanism of fat1 function in the PUFAs metabolism.

  5. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p p p p = 0.05, and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05, were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.

  6. Prescription n-3 fatty acids, but not eicosapentaenoic acid alone, improve reference memory-related learning ability by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Hossain, Shahdat; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is implicated in the decline of cognitive ability. We investigated whether the prescription n-3 fatty acid administration improves cognitive learning ability in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHR-cp) rats, a metabolic syndrome model, in comparison with administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) alone. Administration of TAK-085 [highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation containing EPA ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ethyl ester] at 300 mg/kg body weight per day for 13 weeks reduced the number of reference memory-related errors in SHR-cp rats, but EPA alone had no effect, suggesting that long-term TAK-085 administration improves cognitive learning ability in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. However, the working memory-related errors were not affected in either of the rat groups. TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels of SHR-cp rats, associating with an increase in EPA and DHA in the cerebral cortex. The TAK-085 administration decreased the lipid peroxide levels and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-cp rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. Its administration also increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues of TAK-085-administered rats. The present study suggests that long-term TAK-085 administration is a possible therapeutic strategy for protecting against metabolic syndrome-induced learning decline.

  7. Long-chain n-3 fatty acids enhance neonatal insulin-regulated protein metabolism in piglets by differentially altering muscle lipid composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the role of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFAs) of muscle phospholipids in the regulation of neonatal metabolism. Twenty-eight piglets were weaned at 2 days of age and raised on one of two milk formulas that consisted of either a control formula supplying ...

  8. A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Szostak, Agnieszka; Pas, te M.F.W.; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R.; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The level of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may affect many cellular systems and functions via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulate

  9. Dietary intake and adipose tissue content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and subsequent 5-y change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne U; Madsen, Lise; Skjøth, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adding long-chain n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to a rodent diet reduces fat mass and prevents the development of obesity, but evidence of a similar effect in humans is rather limited.Objectives: We investigated the associations between dietary intake and adipose tissue...

  10. Effects of n-3 fatty acids on cognitive decline: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in stable myocardial infarction patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect of n-3 fatty acids derived from fish (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) against cognitive decline. For a-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from vegetable sources, the effect on cognitive decline is unknown. We exami

  11. Treatment of flaxseed to reduce biohydrogenation of a-linolenic acid by ruminal microbes in sheep and cattle and increase n-3 fatty acid concentrations in red meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our study determined if flaxseed treated with a formaldehyde-free process increased n-3 fatty acid (FA) levels in ruminant muscle. Twenty-four lambs (initial BW 43.8 ± 4.4 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups for a 90-d trial. One treatment group (FLX) was fed 136 g/d of non-treated ground flaxse...

  12. Dietary long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent impaired social behaviour and normalize brain dopamine levels in food allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2015-03-01

    Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation.

  13. Heterologous expression of C. elegans fat-1 decreases the n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio and inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Lei, E-mail: anleim@yahoo.com.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Pang, Yun-Wei, E-mail: yunweipang@126.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Gao, Hong-Mei, E-mail: Gaohongmei_123@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Research Unit for Animal Life Sciences, Animal Resource Science Center, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Ibaraki-Iwama 319-0206 (Japan); Tao, Li, E-mail: Eunice8023@yahoo.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin 130118 (China); Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaokai7@163.com [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Zhong-Hong, E-mail: wuzhh@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); and others

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of C. elegans fat-1 reduces the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in 3T3-L1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer fat-1 reduces lipid deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lower n-6/n-3 ratio induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. -- Abstract: In general, a diet enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) inhibits the development of obesity and decreases adipose tissue. The specific impacts of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on adipogenesis, however, have not been definitively determined. Traditional in vivo and in vitro supplementation studies have yielded inconsistent or even contradictory results, which likely reflect insufficiently controlled experimental systems. Caenorhabditiselegans fat-1 gene encodes an n-3 fatty acid desaturase, and its heterologous expression represents an effective method both for altering the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and for evaluating the biological effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. We sought to determine whether a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio could influence adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Lentivirus-mediated introduction of the fat-1 gene into 3T3-L1 preadipocytes significantly reduced the n-6/n-3 ratio and inhibited preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. In mature adipocytes, fat-1 expression reduced lipid deposition, as measured by Oil Red O staining, and induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that a reduced n-6/n-3 ratio inhibits adipogenesis through several mechanisms and that n-3 PUFAs more effectively inhibit adipogenesis (but not lipogenesis) than do n-6 PUFAs.

  14. The dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio during pregnancy is inversely associated with child neurodevelopment in the EDEN mother-child cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jonathan Y; De Agostini, Maria; Forhan, Anne; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Heude, Barbara

    2013-09-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) of the n6 (ω6) and n3 series are essential for the development of a child's brain. Fetal LC-PUFA exposure as well as infant exposure via breast milk depend on the maternal intake of these LC-PUFAs and of their respective dietary precursors (PUFAs). We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal LC-PUFA and PUFA [(LC)PUFA] dietary intake during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 3 y. In 1335 mother-child pairs from the EDEN cohort, we evaluated associations between daily maternal (LC)PUFA intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child's language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y. Associations were investigated separately in breastfed and never-breastfed children. We examined interactions between the ratios of n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intakes (n6:n3 fatty acid ratio) and duration of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers had a lower n6:n3 fatty acid ratio (8.4 vs. 8.8; P = 0.02). Among never-breastfed children (n = 338), we found negative associations between maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratios and neurodevelopment, as reflected by the child's language at age 2 y (β ± SE = -2.1 ± 0.7; P = 0.001) and development assessed with the Ages and Stages Questionnaire at age 3 y (-1.5 ± 0.8; P = 0.05). Among mothers with a high n6:n3 fatty acid ratio only, breastfeeding duration was positively associated with language at age 2 y (P-interaction < 0.05). This suggests that the ratio between maternal dietary n6 and n3 (LC)PUFA intake possibly influences the child's brain development during fetal life but not during or by breastfeeding. However, breastfeeding might compensate for prenatal imbalance in maternal dietary n6:n3 fatty acid ratio.

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids status in human subjects estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and plasma phospholipids levels

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    Garneau Véronique

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intakes of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids (FA are associated with several health benefits. The aim of this study was to verify whether intakes of n-3 FA estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ correlate with n-3 FA levels measured in plasma phospholipids (PL. Methods The study sample consisted of 200 French-Canadians men and women aged between 18 to 55 years. Dietary data were collected using a validated FFQ. Fasting blood samples were collected and the plasma PL FA profile was measured by gas chromatography. Results Low intakes of n-3 long-chain FA together with low percentages of n-3 long-chain FA in plasma PL were found in French-Canadian population. Daily intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were similar between men and women. Yet, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA and total n-3 FA intakes were significantly higher in men compared to women (ALA: 2.28 g and 1.69 g, p n-3 FA: 2.57 g and 1.99 g, p n-3 FA (men: r = 0.47, p  Conclusion Estimated n-3 long-chain FA intake among this young and well-educated French-Canadian population is lower than the recommendations. Further, FFQ data is comparable to plasma PL results to estimate DHA and total n-3 FA status in healthy individuals as well as to evaluate the EPA and DPA status in women. Overall, this FFQ could be used as a simple, low-cost tool in future studies to rank n-3 FA status of individuals.

  16. Effects of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (ω-3 Supplementation on Some Cardiovascular Risk Factors with a Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet

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    Antonio Paoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ketogenic diet (KD has become a widely used nutritional approach for weight loss. Some of the KD’s positive effects on metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors are similar to those seen after n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 supplementation. We hypothesized that a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts combined with ω-3 supplementation may have increased positive effects on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation. Methods: We analyzed 34 male overweight subjects; aged between 25 and 65 years who were overall healthy apart from overweight. The subjects followed a ketogenic diet protocol for four weeks; with (KDO3 or without (KD ω-3 supplementation. Results: All subjects experienced a significant loss of body weight and body fat and there was no significant differences between treatment (body weight: KD—4.7 kg, KDO3—4.03 kg, body fat KD—5.41 kg, KDO3—5.86 kg. There were also significant decreases in total cholesterol, LDL-c, and glucose levels. Triglycerides and insulin levels decreased more in KDO3 vs. KD subjects, with a significant difference. All the investigated inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α decreased significantly in KDO3 subjects whilst only TNF-α showed a significant decrease in KD subjects over the 12 month study period. No significant changes were observed in anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Adiponectin increased significantly only in the KDO3 group. Conclusions: ω-3 supplementation improved the positive effects of a ketogenic Mediterranean diet with phytoextracts on some cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors and inflammatory state.

  17. Different kinetic in incorporation and depletion of n-3 fatty acids in erythrocytes and leukocytes of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Thogersen, Regitze Louise; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    n-3 PUFA are well known for their anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been only limited study on the kinetics of incorporation and depletion of n-3 PUFA in immune cells. In the present study we investigated the incorporation and depletion of n-3 PUFA in erythrocytes and leukocytes in mice...... during a 6-wk feeding period. Over the first 3-wk period (the incorporation period) the mice were fed a special diet with a high n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio. In the following 3-wk period (the depletion period) the mice were fed a standard chow diet. A linear increase of the concentration of EPA and DHA...... that of depletion for n-3 PUFA. More n-3 PUFA can be incorporated into leukocytes in comparison with erythrocytes. The ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFA is more important than the amount of n-3 FA in changing the FA compositions of membrane lipids....

  18. Influence of dietary triacylglycerol structure and level of n-3 fatty acids administered during development on brain phospholipids and memory and learning ability of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, M.S.; Mu, Huiling; Hougaard, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    of the nervous system. Methods: Pregnant rats were fed experimental diets from the 8th day of pregnancy throughout lactation. After weaning and until 13 weeks of age, the pups were fed the same diet as their dams. The experimental diets contained either a structured oil, a linseed oil, or a fish oil....... In the structured oil, alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was predominantly located in the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols and the level of 18:3n-3 was 2 mol or 10 mol%. In the linseed oil diets the level of 18:3n-3 was 2 mol or 10 mol% as well. Finally, the fish oil diet contained 18:3n-3 as well as 20:5n-3...... and 22:6n-3 adding up to a total of 2 mol% n-3 fatty acids. The effects of the experimental diets were compared to the effect of a chow diet. Results: The amount of 22:6n-3 in brain phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) of dams and offspring (3 and 13 weeks of age) was not affected...

  19. Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strand Elin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA and/or high-dose fish oil (FO on cardiac fatty acid (FA composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO. Results After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated. Conclusions Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.

  20. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra S Diep

    Full Text Available Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults.Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated to 5 (most acculturated points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake.Absence of associations between

  1. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  2. Relationship of estimated dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish with peripheral nerve function after adjusting for mercury exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Werner, Robert; Gillespie, Brenda; Basu, Niladri; Franzblau, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background Some clinical studies have suggested that ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has neuroprotective effects on peripheral nerve function. However, few epidemiological studies have examined the effect of dietary n-3 PUFA intake from fish consumption on peripheral nerve function, and none have controlled for co-occurrence of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption. Objectives We evaluated the effect of estimated dietary n-3 PUFA intake on peripheral nerve function after adjusting for biomarkers of methylmercury and elemental mercury in a convenience sample of 515 dental professionals. Methods We measured sensory nerve conduction (peak latency and amplitude) of the median, ulnar and sural nerves and total mercury concentrations in hair and urine samples. We estimated daily intake (mg/day) of the total n-3 PUFA, n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) based on a self-administrated fish consumption frequency questionnaire. We also collected information on mercury exposure, demographics and other covariates. Results The estimated median intakes of total n-3 PUFA, n-3 EPA, and n-3 DHA were 447, 105, and 179 mg/day, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (1.05μg/L) and hair (0.49μg/g) were not significantly different from the US general population. We found no consistent association between n-3 PUFA intake and sensory nerve conduction after adjusting for mercury concentrations in hair and urine although some positive associations were observed with the sural nerve. Conclusions In a convenience sample of dental professionals, we found little evidence suggesting that dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs from fish has any impact on peripheral nerve function after adjustment for methylmercury exposure from fish and elemental mercury exposure from dental amalgam. PMID:23538138

  3. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat.

  4. B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation and health-related quality of life: ancillary findings from the SU.FOL.OM3 randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Andreeva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite growing attention to nutrition and quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors, the impact of dietary factors according to disease type or to quality of life domain is poorly understood. We investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or n-3 fatty acid supplementation on health-related quality of life among survivors of stroke, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina. METHODS: We performed ancillary analyses of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial (2003-2009; France. In total, 2,501 men (mean age = 61 y and women (mean age = 63 y were randomized in a 2×2 factorial design to: 1 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate, 3 mg vitamin B6, 0.02 mg vitamin B12; 2 600 mg eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in a 2∶1 ratio; 3 B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids combined; or 4 placebo. Health-related quality of life was evaluated at follow-up with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data from 2,029 individuals were used in this analysis. RESULTS: After 3.1±0.4 y, no effects of supplementation with either B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on quality of life (physical or mental health domains were found. However, participants receiving B vitamins had slightly more activity limitations due to emotional problems compared with those not receiving B vitamins (mean difference = 3.8; 95% CI: 0.4, 7.1. A significant interaction of treatment by prior disease revealed an inverse association between n-3 fatty acids and vitality among myocardial infarction survivors (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI: 0.5, 5.2. CONCLUSIONS: There were no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on health-related quality of life in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of B vitamins on activity limitations and of n-3 fatty acids on vitality among individuals with prior myocardial infarction merit confirmation.

  5. 膳食摄入n-3脂肪酸与结直肠癌发生风险的Meta分析%Dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk:a meta analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁凯涛; 张展强; 冯伟东; 石英英; 于淼; 胡春雷; 石汉平; 余红兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective A meta analysis was conducted to examine the association between the dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk. Methods Articles published from Jan 1995 to May 2013 were identified through PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and Cochrane Library database, and relevant references of the included studies were also retrieved. Two authors independently reviewed articles, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. Meta-analyses were conducted by using STATA 11.0 software. Results A total of 7 case-control studies and 4 prospective cohort studies involving 253 479 participants were included. The pooled relative risks for the highest compared with the lowest n-3 fatty acids dietary intake were 0.88 (95%CI:0.68-1.13;P=0.316, quartiles of intake, 6 studies) and 1.03 (95%CI:0.92-1.16;P=0.606, quintile of intake, 5 studies) for colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to suggest a significant association between dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids and colorectal cancer incidence. The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty on colorectal cancer risk needs further investigation.%目的:探讨n-3脂肪酸的膳食摄入量与结直肠癌发生风险的关系。方法计算机检索PubMed、EMBASE、CNKI数据库和Cochrane图书馆已发表的相关研究文献。由2名评价者独立筛选文章、提取数据及评价纳入研究的质量,采用STATA11.0软件完成Meta分析。结果最终共纳入7项病例对照研究和4项前瞻性队列研究,共253479名研究对象。n-3脂肪酸膳食摄入最高量部分的人群相比摄入最低量部分的人群发生结直肠癌的风险是0.88(95%CI:0.68~1.13;P=0.316,4分类,6项研究)和1.03(95%CI:0.92~1.16;P=0.606,5分类,5项研究)。结论 n-3脂肪酸的摄入量与结直肠癌的发生没有显著相关性,膳食摄入n-3脂肪酸与结直肠癌的发生风险之间的关系尚需进一步研究证实。

  6. Effect of a long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diet on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Desmarchais, Alice; Freret, Sandrine; Maillard, Virginie; Labas, Valérie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Hivelin, Celine; Dupont, Joëlle; Uzbekova, Svetlana

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether fish oil supplement has an effect on adipose tissue lipid profiles and gene expression in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows were supplemented with either long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA; protected fish oil) or control PUFA (n-6; toasted soybeans) for 2mo after calving (n=23 per diet). These cows showed no difference in milk production or metabolic parameters, but exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in early embryo mortality rate after artificial insemination. We hypothesized that, in addition to this effect, modifications in adipose tissue (AT) gene expression and lipid profiles would occur in response to diet. Subcutaneous AT samples were thus collected from the dewlaps of n-3 and n-6 dairy cows at 1mo antepartum, and 1wk, 2mo, and 5mo postpartum for the analysis of lipids and gene expression. Lipid profiles were obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in both positive and negative modes. We found 37 lipid species in the 200 to 1,200 m/z range, which differed between the n-3 and control groups, suggesting that the n-3 supplement affected the lipid composition through the enrichment of lipids integrating long-chain PUFA from fish oil sources: eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Moreover, a decrease in triacylglycerolipids was observed in AT of n-3 supplemented cows. The expression of 44 genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and the adipokine system was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Hierarchical clustering, according to either postpartum stage or diet, enabled us to group genes exhibiting similar kinetic properties during lactation or by those that varied in similar ways after n-3 supplementation, respectively. Among the genes exhibiting a dietary effect, FABP4, LIPE, CD36, and PLIN1 were overexpressed in n-3 AT samples compared with the control, suggesting an increase in lipolysis due to n-3 supplementation, which

  7. Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in hepatocytes and ad hoc cell culture optimisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramez Alhazzaa

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18:3n-3 (ALA bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA, and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20:5n-3 (EPA production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125 µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22:5n-3 (DPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB method on cell culture system (cells with medium enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km of the theoretical maximal (V max = 3654 µmol.g(-1 of cell protein.hour(-1 Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20:5n-3 elongation was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro.

  8. Studies on very long chain marine n-3 fatty acids in patients with atherosclerotic heart disease with special focus on mechanisms, dosage and formulas of supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, H; Seljeflot, I

    2010-02-25

    Based on experience from randomised trials with n-3 PUFA we intend to answer some relevant questions in patients with coronary heart disease. In the SHOT study supplementation with 3.4 g/day of highly concentrated n-3 PUFA for 1 year significantly reduced the occlusion rate of venous aortocoronary bypass grafts, and this effect correlated significantly to the change in serum levels of n-3 fatty acids. In the CART study 5.1 g/day of highly concentrated n-3 PUFA did not reduce the incidence of restenosis after 6 months. If anything, a negative effect was observed. The background for this was probably a pro-oxidative and proinflammatory mechanism as elucidated in substudies. In the OVITES trial the addition of vitamin E did not counteract the proinflammatory effect of high amounts of n-3 PUFA supplementation as observed in CART, although circulating oxidative substances were unaffected. In the "Fiord-to-table" study replacement of fish oils by vegetable oils in the feed of farmed Atlantic salmon was mirrored in the fatty acid profile of the salmon fillets as well as in that of serum from patients after ingesting about 700 g/week for six weeks. A parallel reduction of the proinflammatory profile was observed only in patients who ingested salmon fed on fish oil.

  9. Differential effect of maternal diet supplementation with α-Linolenic adcid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on glial cell phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine fatty acid profile in neonate rat brains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Hernandez Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA are of crucial importance for the development of neural tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a dietary supplementation in n-3 fatty acids in female rats during gestation and lactation on fatty acid pattern in brain glial cells phosphatidylethanolamine (PE and phosphatidylserine (PS in the neonates. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were fed during the whole gestation and lactation period with a diet containing either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 0.55% and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 0.75% of total fatty acids or α-linolenic acid (ALA, 2.90%. At two weeks of age, gastric content and brain glial cell PE and PS of rat neonates were analyzed for their fatty acid and dimethylacetal (DMA profile. Data were analyzed by bivariate and multivariate statistics. Results In the neonates from the group fed with n-3 LC-PUFA, the DHA level in gastric content (+65%, P Conclusion The present study confirms that early supplementation of maternal diet with n-3 fatty acids supplied as LC-PUFA is more efficient in increasing n-3 in brain glial cell PE and PS in the neonate than ALA. Negative correlation between n-6 DPA, a conventional marker of DHA deficiency, and DMA in PE suggests n-6 DPA that potentially be considered as a marker of tissue ethanolamine plasmalogen status. The combination of multivariate and bivariate statistics allowed to underline that the accretion pattern of n-3 LC-PUFA in PE and PS differ.

  10. Conversion of α-linolenic acid to long-chain omega-3 fatty acid derivatives and alterations of HDL density subfractions and plasma lipids with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzinger, C; Larner, C; Heatley, J J; Bailey, C A; MacFarlane, R D; Bauer, J E

    2014-04-01

    The effect of α-linolenic acid from a flaxseed (FLX)-enriched diet on plasma lipid and fatty acid metabolism and possible atherosclerosis risk factors was studied in Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus). Twenty-four Monk parrots were randomly assigned to diets containing either 10% ground SUNs or 10% ground FLXs. Feed intake was calculated daily. Blood samples, body condition scores and body weights were obtained at -5 weeks, day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 70. Plasma samples were analysed for total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoproteins. Phospholipid subfraction fatty acid profiles were determined. By day 70, the FLX group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid fatty acids including 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid), 20:5n-3 (eicosapentaenoic acid) and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid). The sunflower group had significantly higher plasma phospholipid levels of 20:4n-6 (arachidonic acid). By day 70, the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) peak shifted resulting in significantly different HDL peak densities between the two experimental groups (1.097 g/ml FLX group and 1.095 g/ml SUN group, p = 0.028). The plasma fatty acid results indicate that Monk parrots can readily convert α-linolenic acid to the long-chain omega-3 derivatives including docosahexaenoic acid and reduce 20:4n-6 accumulation in plasma phospholipids. The reason for a shift in the HDL peak density is unknown at this time.

  11. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate B cell activity in pre-clinical models: Implications for the immune response to infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Jarrett; Gowdy, Kymberly M; Shaikh, Saame Raza

    2016-08-15

    B cell antigen presentation, cytokine production, and antibody production are targets of pharmacological intervention in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Here we review recent pre-clinical evidence demonstrating that pharmacologically relevant levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) derived from marine fish oils influence key aspects of B cell function through multiple mechanisms. N-3 PUFAs modestly diminish B cell mediated stimulation of classically defined naïve CD4(+) Th1 cells through the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II pathway. This is consistent with existing data showing that n-3 PUFAs suppress the activation of Th1/Th17 cells through direct effects on helper T cells and indirect effects on antigen presenting cells. Mechanistically, n-3 PUFAs lower antigen presentation and T cell signaling by disrupting the formation of lipid microdomains within the immunological synapse. We then review data to show that n-3 PUFAs boost B cell activation and antibody production in the absence and presence of antigen stimulation. This has potential benefits for several clinical populations such as the aged and obese that have poor humoral immunity. The mode of action by which n-3 PUFA boost B cell activation and antibody production remains unclear, but may involve Th2 cytokines, enhanced production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, and targeting of protein lateral organization in lipid microdomains. Finally, we highlight evidence to show that different n-3 PUFAs are not biologically equivalent, which has implications for the development of future interventions to target B cell activity.

  12. When balanced for precursor fatty acid supply echium oil is not superior to linseed oil in enriching lamb tissues with long-chain n-3 PUFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Young, Paul; Nattrass, Greg; Gardner, Graham; Pearce, Kelly; Pethick, David W

    2012-07-14

    Vegetable oils containing stearidonic acid (SDA, 18 : 4n-3) are considered better precursors of long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) than those with only α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 : 3n-3). The present study re-examined this premise using treatments where added ALA from linseed oil was matched with ALA plus SDA from echium oil. Lambs (n 6) were abomasally infused with saline (control (C), 25 ml), echium oil low (EL, 25 ml), echium oil high (EH, 50 ml), linseed oil low (LL, 25 ml) or linseed oil high (LH, 50 ml) for 4 weeks. The basal ration used was identical across all treatments. EPA (20 : 5n-3) in meat increased from 6·5 mg in the C lambs to 16·8, 17·7, 13·5 and 11·7 (SEM 0·86) mg/100 g muscle in the EL, EH, LL and LH lambs, respectively. For muscle DPA (docosapentaenoic acid; 22 : 5n-3), the corresponding values were 14·3, 22·2, 18·6 18·2 and 19·4 (SEM 0·57) mg/100 g muscle. The DHA (22 : 6n-3) content of meat was 5·8 mg/100 g in the C lambs and ranged from 4·53 to 5·46 (SEM 0·27) mg/100 g muscle in the oil-infused groups. Total n-3 PUFA content of meat (including ALA and SDA) increased from 39 mg to 119, 129, 121 and 150 (SEM 12·3) mg/100 g muscle. We conclude that both oil types were effective in enhancing the EPA and DPA, but not DHA, content of meat. Furthermore, we conclude that, when balanced for precursor n-3 fatty acid supply, differences between linseed oil and echium oil in enriching meat with LC n-3 PUFA were of little, if any, nutritional significance.

  13. Maternal supplementation with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during perinatal period alleviates the metabolic syndrome disturbances in adult hamster pups fed a high-fat diet after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbi-Chadli, Fatima; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Simard, Gilles; Ulmann, Lionel; Mimouni, Virginie; Leray, Véronique; Meynier, Anne; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Champ, Martine; Nguyen, Patrick; Ouguerram, Khadija

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal nutrition is thought to affect the long-term risk of the adult to develop metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that maternal supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy and lactation would protect offspring fed a high-fat diet from developing metabolic disturbances. Thus, two groups of female hamsters were fed a low-fat control diet, either alone (LC) or enriched with n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) (LO), through the gestational and lactation periods. After weaning, male pups were randomized to separate groups that received either a control low-fat diet (LC) or a high-fat diet (HC) for 16 weeks. Four groups of pups were defined (LC-LC, LC-HC, LO-LC and LO-HC), based on the combinations of maternal and weaned diets. Maternal n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation was associated with reduced levels of basal plasma glucose, hepatic triglycerides secretion and postprandial lipemia in the LO-HC group compared to the LC-HC group. Respiratory parameters were not affected by maternal supplementation. In contrast, n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced the activities of citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase compared to the offspring of unsupplemented mothers. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 and tumor necrosis factor α expression levels were not affected by n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation. These results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of n-3 LC-PUFA maternal supplementation in hamsters on the subsequent risk of metabolic syndrome. Underlying mechanisms may include improved lipid metabolism and activation of the mitochondrial oxidative pathway.

  14. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids reflect intakes of saturated and n-6 PUFA within a similar time frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Leanne; Eyles, Helen C; McLachlan, Kirsten J; Bell, Melanie L; Green, Timothy J; Skeaff, C Murray

    2014-01-01

    Erythrocytes, compared with plasma, are considered more robust markers of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake, because dietary-induced change in fatty acid (FA) composition takes longer to complete. The extent to which this applies to intakes of saturated fatty acid (SFA) or n-6 PUFA is unclear. We compared the pattern of change over time in the fatty acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, buccal cell, and adipose tissue lipids when changing between diets high in SFA or n-6 PUFA. Twenty-four (n = 7 male) healthy participants were instructed to consume either an SFA-rich (18% energy) or n-6 PUFA-rich (10% energy) diet for 8 wk before crossing over, without washout, to the alternate diet. The FA composition of plasma triacylglycerol (TG), nonesterified FAs, cholesterol ester, total phospholipids, erythrocyte total phospholipids, erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine, and buccal cell total phospholipids was measured every 2 wk and adipose tissue TG every 4 wk during the 16-wk intervention. Linoleic acid composition of plasma, erythrocyte, and buccal cell lipids increased (P acid composition of plasma and erythrocyte lipids; however, the pentadecanoic acid composition of buccal cell lipids did not differ between the diet periods. There were no differences in linoleic or pentadecanoic acid composition of adipose tissue TG. These results suggest plasma and erythrocyte FAs reflect intakes of SFA and n-6 PUFA over a similar period of time.

  15. Gender-specific Associations of Marine n-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Consumption with 10-year Incidence of Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence that the association of fish and marine fatty acids with stroke risk differs between men and women. We investigated the gender-specific associations of habitual intake of the marine fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and fish on

  16. Intakes of (n-3) Fatty Acids and Fatty Fish Are Not Associated with Cognitive Performance and 6-Year Cognitive Change in Men Participating in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, van de O.; Spiro, A.; Krall-Kaye, E.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Tucker, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    High intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results are inconsistent and limited data exist regarding changes in multiple cognitive functions over a longer period of time. In this study, we assessed the association between fatty fish intake as well

  17. n-3多不饱和脂肪酸与老年性黄斑变性研究进展%Research advances on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids for the age-related macular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴兵

    2011-01-01

    目的 老年性黄斑变性(AMD)已成为老年人视功能障碍的主要原因之一,其确切发病机制至今未明,治疗效果也不满意.当前研究表明多不饱和脂肪酸在降低AMD 发病的危险性和阻止AMD进程中可能起了一定的作用,本文主要对n-3多不饱和脂肪酸与AMD的研究进展进行综述.%The age-related macular degeneration( AMD )is one of the most primary cause of visual function to the health of the Western elderly , the exact pathogenesis is currently unknown and related treatment is also dissatisfied too,current research shows that polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a role in reducing AMD incidence and preventing the risk of AMD process, This article reviews the recents studies of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on AMD。

  18. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation during the Suckling Period on Auditory Neural Conduction in n-3 Fatty Acid-Deficient Rat Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vida rahimi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Omega 3 fatty acid especially in the form of fish oil, has structural and biological role in the body's various systems especially nervous system. Numerous studies have tried to research about it. Auditory is one of the affected systems. Omega 3 deficiency can have devastating effects on the nervous system and auditory. This study aimed to evaluate neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil consumption during the suckling period Materials and Methods: In this interventional and experimental study, one sources of omega3 fatty acid (fish oil were fed to rat pups of n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in their auditory neural conduction with that of control and n-3 PUFA-deficient groups, using Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR. The parameters of interest were P1, P3, P4 absolute latency, P1-P3, P1-P4 and P3-P4 IPL , P4/P1 amplitude ratio . The rat pups were given oral fish oil, 5 Ml /g weight for 17 days, between the age of 5 and 21 days. Results There were no significant group differences in P1 and P3 absolute latency (p > 0.05. but the result in P4 was significant(P ≤ 0.05 . The n-3 PUFA deficient +vehicle had the most prolonged (the worst P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL compared with control and n-3 PUFA deficient + FO groups. There was no significant difference in P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between n-3 PUFA deficient + FO and control groups (p > 0.05.There was a significant effect of diet on P1-P4 IPL and P3-P4 IPL between groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of present study showed the effect of omega3 deficiency on auditory neural structure during pregnancy and lactation period. Additionally, we observed the reduced devastating effects on neural conduction in n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups following the supplementation of fish oil during the suckling period

  19. Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure in broiler chickens reared at high altitude is affected by dietary source of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, A; Zamani Moghaddam, A K; Hassanpour, H; Khajali, F

    2016-08-01

    The present study evaluated the development of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular failure in broiler chickens reared at high altitude (2100 m) as affected by dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid sources. Flax oil and soy oil were used as sources of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, respectively, either with or without α-tocopheryl acetate. A total of 192 day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were used in a completely randomized design using isoenergetic and isonitrogenous experimental diets. Results showed that dietary flax oil significantly (p right-to-total ventricle weight ratio (RV/TV) and mortality from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in birds that received flax oil. In conclusion, n-3 fatty acids could significantly reduce RV:TV and PAH mortality in birds by increasing circulatory level of NO and suppressing hepatic lipogenesis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  1. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: Effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, L.; Jørgensen, M.H.; Mikkelsen, T.B.;

    2004-01-01

    of fish oil (FO) supplements in lactating mothers. In this double-blinded randomized trial, Danish mothers with habitual fish intake below the 50th percentile of the Danish National Birth Cohort were randomized to microencapsulated FO [1.3 g/d long-chain n-3 FA (n-3 LCPUFA)] or olive oil (00...

  2. High content of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in red blood cells of Kenyan Maasai despite low dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiage-Mokua Beatrice N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing land restrictions and a reduced livestock-to-human ratio during the 20th century led the Maasai to lead a more sedentary, market-orientated lifestyle. Although plant-derived food nowadays contributes substantially to their diet, dairy products being high in saturated fatty acids (SFA and low in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA still are an important energy source. Since reliable data regarding the Maasai diet date back to the 1980s, the study objective was to document current diet practices in a Kenyan Maasai community and to investigate the fatty acid distribution in diet and red blood cells. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 Maasai (20 women, 6 men from Loodokilani, Kajiado District, Kenya. Food intake was described by the subjects via 24-h recall, and both food and blood samples were analysed. Results Two main foods - milk and ugali - constituted the Maasai diet in this region. A total of 0.9 L of milk and 0.6 kg of ugali were consumed per person and day to yield an energy intake of 7.6 MJ/d per person. A major proportion of ingested food contributing 58.3% to the total dietary energy (en% was plant-derived, followed by dairy products representing 41.1 en%. Fat consumed (30.5 en% was high in SFA (63.8% and low in PUFA (9.2%. Long-chain n-3 PUFA (EPA, DPA and DHA made up only 0.15% of the ingested fatty acids, but 5.9% of red blood cell fatty acids. Conclusion The study indicates the Maasai diet is rich in SFA and low in PUFA. Nevertheless, red blood cells are composed of comparable proportions of long-chain n-3 PUFA to populations consuming higher amounts of this fatty acid group.

  3. The fatty acid compositions of erythrocyte and plasma polar lipids in children with autism, developmental delay or typically developing controls and the effect of fish oil intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, John Gordon; Miller, Deborah; MacDonald, Donald J; MacKinlay, Elizabeth E; Dick, James R; Cheseldine, Sally; Boyle, Rose M; Graham, Catriona; O'Hare, Anne E

    2010-04-01

    The erythrocyte and plasma fatty acid compositions of children with autism were compared in a case-control study with typically developing (TD) children and with children showing developmental delay (DD). Forty-five autism subjects were age-matched with TD controls and thirty-eight with DD controls. Fatty acid data were compared using paired t tests. In addition, blood fatty acids from treatment-naive autism subjects were compared with autism subjects who had consumed fish oil supplements by two-sample t tests. Relatively few differences were seen between erythrocyte fatty acids in autism and TD subjects although the former had an increased arachidonic acid (ARA):EPA ratio. This ratio was also increased in plasma samples from the same children. No changes in n-3 fatty acids or ARA:EPA ratio were seen when comparing autism with DD subjects but some SFA and MUFA were decreased in the DD subjects, most notably 24 : 0 and 24 : 1, which are essential components of axonal myelin sheaths. However, if multiple comparisons are taken into account, and a stricter level of significance applied, most of these values would not be significant. Autism subjects consuming fish oil showed reduced erythrocyte ARA, 22 : 4n-6, 22 : 5n-6 and total n-6 fatty acids and increased EPA, 22 : 5n-3, 22 : 6n-3 and total n-3 fatty acids along with reduced n-6:n-3 and ARA:EPA ratios. Collectively, the autism subjects did not have an underlying phospholipid disorder, based on erythrocyte fatty acid compositions, although the increased ARA:EPA ratio observed suggested that an imbalance of essential highly unsaturated fatty acids may be present in a cohort of autism subjects.

  4. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease the Protein Expression of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase via Oxidative Stress-Induced P38 Kinase in Rat Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Morino, Katsutaro; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tawa, Masashi; Kondo, Keiko; Sekine, Osamu; Imamura, Takeshi; Okamura, Tomio; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-06-24

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) improve endothelial function. The arachidonic acid-derived metabolites (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)) are part of the endothelial hyperpolarization factor and are vasodilators independent of nitric oxide. However, little is known regarding the regulation of EET concentration by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in blood vessels. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control or fish oil diet for 3 weeks. Compared with the control, the fish oil diet improved acetylcholine-induced vasodilation and reduced the protein expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key EET metabolic enzyme, in aortic strips. Both DHA and EPA suppressed sEH protein expression in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Furthermore, the concentration of 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE), a lipid peroxidation product of n-3 PUFAs, increased in n-3 PUFA-treated RAECs. In addition, 4-HHE treatment suppressed sEH expression in RAECs, suggesting that 4-HHE (derived from n-3 PUFAs) is involved in this phenomenon. The suppression of sEH was attenuated by the p38 kinase inhibitor (SB203580) and by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. In conclusion, sEH expression decreased after n-3 PUFAs treatment, potentially through oxidative stress and p38 kinase. Mild oxidative stress induced by n-3 PUFAs may contribute to their cardio-protective effect.

  5. Dietary Buglossoides Arvensis Oil Increases Circulating n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Dose-Dependent Manner and Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Whole Blood Interleukin-10-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Surette, Marc E

    2017-03-10

    Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi. No clinically significant changes in blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests nor hematology were measured. Linear mixed models (repeated measures design) probed for differences in time, and time × treatment interactions. Amongst significant changes, plasma and MC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) levels increased from baseline at day 28 in all Ahiflower groups (p interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in the 100% Ahiflower oil group compared to 100% HOSO group (p < 0.05). IL-10 production was also increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated M2-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the presence of 20:4 n-3 or EPA (p < 0.05). Overall; this indicates that the consumption of Ahiflower oil is associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype in healthy subjects.

  6. Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the lipidic profile of healthy Mexican volunteers Efecto de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 en el perfil lipídico de mexicanos voluntarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIO CARVAJAL

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the serum lipid profile in a Mexican population was evaluated. Material and methods. Three g of salmon oil was the daily intake during four weeks. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and erythrocyte fatty acid composition were analyzed. Results. The hypertriglyceridemic group showed a statistically significant (pObjetivo. Estudiar el efecto de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 en el perfil lipídico sérico de una población mexicana. Material y métodos. La ingesta diaria del suplemento de aceite de salmón fue de 3 gramos durante cuatro semanas. Se evaluaron los niveles de colesterol total, triglicéridos, lipoproteínas de baja densidad, lipoproteínas de alta densidad y la composición en ácidos grasos de los eritrocitos. Resultados. Muestran una reducción significativa (p< 0.05 en los niveles de triglicéridos y un aumento significativo (p< 0.01 en los niveles de lipoproteínas de alta densidad en los sujetos con hipertrigliceridemia. El grupo con hipercolesterolemia presentó reducción en los niveles de colesterol total y triglicéridos y aumento significativo en los niveles de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (p< 0.01. Conclusiones. El efecto hipolipidemiante de los ácidos grasos polinsaturados n-3 se puso de manifiesto en voluntarios mexicanos bajo las condiciones aquí evaluadas.

  7. Ready-to-use therapeutic food with elevated n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content, with or without fish oil, to treat severe acute malnutrition: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Ali, Rehema; Khasira, Maureen A; Odera, Dennis; West, Annette L; Koster, Grielof; Akomo, Peter; Talbert, Alison W A; Goss, Victoria M; Ngari, Moses; Thitiri, Johnstone; Ndoro, Said; Knight, Miguel A Garcia; Omollo, Kenneth; Ndungu, Anne; Mulongo, Musa M; Bahwere, Paluku; Fegan, Greg; Warner, John O; Postle, Anthony D; Collins, Steve; Calder, Philip C; Berkley, James A

    2015-04-23

    Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are lipid-based pastes widely used in the treatment of acute malnutrition. Current specifications for RUTF permit a high n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and low n-3 PUFA, with no stipulated requirements for preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. The objective of this study was to develop an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA and measure its impact, with and without fish oil supplementation, on children's PUFA status during treatment of severe acute malnutrition. This randomized controlled trial in children with severe acute malnutrition in rural Kenya included 60 children aged 6 to 50 months who were randomized to receive i) RUTF with standard composition; ii) RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA; or iii) RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA plus fish oil capsules. Participants were followed-up for 3 months. The primary outcome was erythrocyte PUFA composition. Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content declined from baseline in the two arms not receiving fish oil. Erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA content following treatment was significantly higher for participants in the arm receiving fish oil than for those in the arms receiving RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA or standard RUTF alone: 3 months after enrollment, DHA content was 6.3% (interquartile range 6.0-7.3), 4.5% (3.9-4.9), and 3.9% (2.4-5.7) of total erythrocyte fatty acids (P RUTF with elevated short chain n-3 PUFA and fish oil capsules were acceptable to participants and carers, and there were no significant differences in safety outcomes. PUFA requirements of children with SAM are not met by current formulations of RUTF, or by an RUTF with elevated short-chain n-3 PUFA without additional preformed long-chain n-3 PUFA. Clinical and growth implications of revised formulations need to be addressed in large clinical trials. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01593969. Registered 4 May 2012.

  8. Fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes during pregnancy and risk of postpartum depression: a prospective study based on a large national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Marin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2009-01-01

    that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might have a beneficial effect on depression. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the association between intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs during pregnancy and PPD in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). DESIGN: Exposure information from the DNBC...... was linked to the Danish patient and prescription registries for data on clinically identified cases of depression up to 1 y postpartum. Intake of fish and n-3 PUFAs was assessed in midpregnancy with a food-frequency questionnaire. Admission to the hospital for PPD (PPD-admission) and prescription...... of antidepressants (PPD-prescription) were treated as separate outcomes. A total of 54,202 women were included in the present study sample. RESULTS: Rates of depression were 0.3% (PPD-admission) and 1.6% (PPD-prescription). No association was observed between fish intake and risk of PPD-admission [crude odds ratio...

  9. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA levels are modified by dietary n-3 fatty acid restriction and energy restriction in the brain and liver of growing rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without dietary sources of long chain (LC) n-3 fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA;18:3n-3) is the precursor for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3). It is not known how energy restriction (ER) impacts ALA conversion to DHA. We tested the hypothesis that ER reduces LCn-3 content in growing rats ...

  11. The n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Improved the Cognitive Function in the Chinese Elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacong Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may protect against mild cognitive impairment (MCI. However, there is still a lack of the n-3 PUFAs intervention in the elderly with MCI in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on cognitive function in the Chinese elderly with MCI. Methods: Eighty six MCI individuals aged 60 years or older were randomly assigned to receive either n-3 PUFAs (480 mg DHA and 720 mg EPA per day, n = 44 or placebo (olive oil, n = 42 capsules. The changes of cognitive functions were assessed using Basic Cognitive Aptitude Tests (BCAT. Results: The mean age of participants was 71 years old, and 59% of the participants were men. n-3 PUFA supplementation was associated with improved total BCAT scores, perceptual speed, space imagery efficiency, and working memory (p < 0.01, but not with mental arithmetic efficiency or recognition memory (p > 0.05. Subgroup analysis by sex showed that n-3 PUFAs significantly improved perceptual speed (p = 0.001, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.013, working memory (p = 0.018, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.000 in males. However, in females, the significant beneficial effects can only be observed in perceptual speed (p = 0.027, space imagery efficiency (p = 0.006, and total BCAT scores (p = 0.015—not working memory (p = 0.113. Conclusion: n-3 PUFAs can improve cognitive function in people with MCI. Further studies with different fish oil dosages, longer intervention periods, and larger sample sizes should be investigated before definite recommendations can be made.

  12. Serum long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mercury, and risk of sudden cardiac death in men: a prospective population-based study.

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    Jyrki K Virtanen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Fish consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD, especially sudden cardiac death (SCD. Fish is the major source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also a major source of methylmercury, which was associated with increased risk of CVD in this study population. Impact of interaction between long-chain n-3 PUFA and methylmercury on the SCD risk is unknown. METHODS: A total of 1857 men from the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study, aged 42-60 years and free of CVD at baseline in 1984-1989, were studied. Serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was used as the marker for long-chain n-3 PUFA intake and hair mercury as the marker for mercury exposure. RESULTS: During the mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 91 SCD events occurred. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models, serum long-chain n-3 PUFA concentration was not associated with the risk of SCD until hair mercury was accounted for; then the hazard ratio (HR in the highest vs. lowest tertile was 0.54 [95% confidence interval (CI 0.32 to 0.91, p for trend = 0.046]. When the analyses were stratified by hair mercury content, among those with lower hair mercury, each 0.5 percentage unit increase in the serum long-chain n-3 PUFA was associated with HR of 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 to 0.93, whereas no association was seen among those with higher hair mercury (p for interaction = 0.01. Among the individual long-chain n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid was most strongly associated with the risk. CONCLUSION: High exposure to mercury may reduce the benefits of long-chain n-3 PUFA on SCD.

  13. Comparison of inferred fractions of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in feral domestic cat diets with those in commercial feline extruded diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Thomas, David G; Fritsche, Kevin L

    2013-04-01

    To compare presumed fatty acid content in natural diets of feral domestic cats (inferred from body fat polyunsatrated fatty acids content) with polyunsaturated fatty acid content of commercial feline extruded diets. Subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue samples (approx 1 g) from previously frozen cadavers of 7 adult feral domestic cats trapped in habitats remote from human activity and triplicate samples (200 g each) of 7 commercial extruded diets representing 68% of market share obtained from retail stores. Lipid, triacylglycerol, and phospholipid fractions in adipose tissue samples and ether extracts of diet samples were determined by gas chromatography of methyl esters. Triacylglycerol and phospholipid fractions in the adipose tissue were isolated by thin-layer chromatography. Diet samples were also analyzed for proximate contents. For the adipose tissue samples, with few exceptions, fatty acids fractions varied only moderately with lipid fraction and site from which tissue samples were obtained. Linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acid fractions were 15.0% to 28.2%, 4.5% to 18.7%, 0.9% to 5.0%, feral cat diets, in which dietary n-3 and possibly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids were more abundant. The impact of this difference on the health of pet cats is not known.

  14. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant

  15. Associations of Whole Blood n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents – Results from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Valeria; Russo, Paola; Risé, Patrizia; Moreno, Luis A.; De Henauw, Stefaan; Mehlig, Kirsten; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Denés; Tornaritis, Michael; Galli, Claudio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Börnhorst, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. Methods In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2–9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured at baseline and after two and six years. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between fatty acids at baseline and BP z-scores over time adjusting for relevant covariables. Models were further estimated stratified by sex and weight status. Results The baseline level of arachidonic acid was positively associated with subsequent systolic BP (β = 0.08, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (β = 0.07, P<0.001). In thin/normal weight children, baseline alpha-linolenic (β = -1.13, P = 0.003) and eicosapentaenoic acid (β = -0.85, P = 0.003) levels were inversely related to baseline and also to subsequent systolic BP and alpha-linolenic acid to subsequent diastolic BP. In overweight/obese children, baseline eicosapentaenoic acid level was positively associated with baseline diastolic BP (β = 0.54, P = 0.005). Conclusions Low blood arachidonic acid levels in the whole sample and high n-3 PUFA levels in thin/normal weight children are associated with lower and therefore healthier BP. The beneficial effects of high n-3 PUFA on BP were not observed in overweight/obese children, suggesting that they may have been overlaid by the unfavorable effects of excess weight. PMID:27806134

  16. Associations of Whole Blood n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids with Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents - Results from the IDEFICS/I.Family Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Maike; Pala, Valeria; Russo, Paola; Risé, Patrizia; Moreno, Luis A; De Henauw, Stefaan; Mehlig, Kirsten; Veidebaum, Toomas; Molnár, Denés; Tornaritis, Michael; Galli, Claudio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Börnhorst, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2-9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method. Systolic and diastolic BP was measured at baseline and after two and six years. Mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between fatty acids at baseline and BP z-scores over time adjusting for relevant covariables. Models were further estimated stratified by sex and weight status. The baseline level of arachidonic acid was positively associated with subsequent systolic BP (β = 0.08, P = 0.002) and diastolic BP (β = 0.07, P<0.001). In thin/normal weight children, baseline alpha-linolenic (β = -1.13, P = 0.003) and eicosapentaenoic acid (β = -0.85, P = 0.003) levels were inversely related to baseline and also to subsequent systolic BP and alpha-linolenic acid to subsequent diastolic BP. In overweight/obese children, baseline eicosapentaenoic acid level was positively associated with baseline diastolic BP (β = 0.54, P = 0.005). Low blood arachidonic acid levels in the whole sample and high n-3 PUFA levels in thin/normal weight children are associated with lower and therefore healthier BP. The beneficial effects of high n-3 PUFA on BP were not observed in overweight/obese children, suggesting that they may have been overlaid by the unfavorable effects of excess weight.

  17. Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic fatty acid derived from chia when fed as ground seed, whole seed and oil on lipid content and fatty acid composition of rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, Ricardo; Coates, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death in the Western world. In both the USA and the EU it accounts for over 600,000 deaths yearly. Early data showing the benefits n-3 fatty acids provide in preventing CHD disease were obtained using 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 fatty acids derived from fish. Recently, however, it has been shown that reduced risks of CHD and other cardiovascular diseases are found with 18:3n-3 fatty acid as well. To determine if 18:3n-3 fatty acids positively influence plasma composition, 32 male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum four isocaloric diets with the energy derived from corn oil (T(1)), whole chia seed (T(2)), ground chia seed (T(3)), or chia oil (T(4)) for 30 days. At the end of the feeding period the rats were sacrificed, and blood samples were analyzed to determine serum CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG content, hemogram, and fatty acid composition. Chia decreased serum TG content and increased HDL content. Only with the T(2) diet was TG significantly (p Chia significantly (p chia diets detected. Significant (p chia diets when compared to the control.

  18. Effects of n-3 fatty acid, fructose-1,6-diphosphate and glutamine on mucosal cell proliferation and apoptosis of small bowel graft after transplantation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ting Wu; Jie-Shou Li; Xiao-Fei Zhao; Ning Li; Yu-Kui Ma; Wen Zhuang; Yong Zhou; Gang Yang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acids (n-3FA),fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) and glutamine (GLN) on mucosal cell proliferation and apoptosis of small bowel graft. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-six inbred strain Wistar rats were grouped as donors and recipients, and underwent heterotopic small bowel transplantation (SBT). n-3FA, FDP and GLN were administered via gastric tube as well as venous infusion for 10 days before and after surgery, respectively.The proliferation and apoptosis of mucosal cells were analyzed with flow cytometry and in situ cell death detection kits. RESULTS: Apparent apoptosis and minor proliferation of mucosal cells of small bowel graft after transplantation were observed. A higher mucosal cell proliferative index and lower apoptotic index were found in all small bowel grafts after supplying with n-3FA, FDP and GLN. CONCLUSION: Nutritional support with n-3FA, FDP and GLN promotes mucosal cell proliferation significantly, and prevents mucosal cell from undergoing apoptosis with different degrees. These regulatory effects on the apoptosis alter the structure and absorption function of transplanted small bowel favorably.

  19. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched lipid emulsion improves Paneth cell function via the IL-22/Stat3 pathway in a mouse model of total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwei; Tian, Feng; Zheng, Huijun; Tian, Hao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Gao, Xuejin; Wang, Xinying

    2017-08-19

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure. Long-term TPN impairs gut barrier function and contributes to infections and poor clinical outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related gut barrier damage have not been fully elucidated, and effective measures are still rare. Here, we compared the effects of a predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsion (PUFAs; Intralipid) and a lipid emulsion containing n-3 PUFAs (Intralipid plus Omegaven) on antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells. Our results show for the first time that n-3 PUFAs markedly ameliorated intestine atrophy, and increased protein levels of lysozyme, RegIIIγ, and α-cryptdin 5, and their mRNA expression, compared to the n-6 PUFAs emulsion. Importantly, our study reveals that downregulation of IL-22 and phosphorylated Stat3 (p-Stat3) is associated with Paneth cell dysfunction, which may mediate TPN-related gut barrier damage. Lastly, n-3 PUFAs upregulated levels of IL-22 and increased the p-Stat3/Stat3 ratio in ileal tissue, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs improve Paneth cell function through activation of the IL-22/Stat3 pathway. Therefore, our study provides a cogent explanation for the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFAs, and indicates the IL-22/Stat3 pathway as a promising target in the treatment of TPN-related gut barrier damage. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. N-3 fatty acid intake altered fat content and fatty acid distribution in chicken breast muscle, but did not influence mRNA expression of lipid-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Nyquist, Nicole F; Thomassen, Magny; Høstmark, Arne T; Ostbye, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter

    2014-06-03

    The conversions of the n-3 and n-6 fatty acid of plant origin to the C20 and C22 very long chain fatty acids (LCPUFAs) is regulated by several cellular enzymes such as elongases and desaturases. Sixty-five male one-day old chickens (Ross 308) were randomly divided into four groups and given one of four diets; with or without linseed oil (LO), (the diets contained equal amounts of fat) and with low or high selenium (Se). Final body weight, amount of Se and fat in breast muscle, fatty acid profile, and gene expression for fatty acid desaturases (Fads1, Fads2, Fads9), HMG-CoA reductase, Acyl-CoA oxidase (Acox), carnitine palmitoyl transferase1 (Cpt1), superoxide dismutase (Sod) and glutathione peroxidase4 (Gpx4) were analyzed in all animals, and Gpx activity in whole blood was determined. mRNA expression of elongases and desaturases in chicken breast muscle was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied. mRNA expression in chicken breast muscle of elongases and desaturases was not affected by feed rich in C18:3n-3. The highly positive correlation between amount of fat in breast muscle and the product/precursor indices of monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis, and the negative correlation between muscle fat and indices of LCPUFA synthesis should be further studied.

  1. Supplementation of DHA-rich microalgal oil or fish oil during the suckling period in mildly n-3 fatty acid-deficient rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Shiho; Endo, Yasushi; Doisaki, Nobushige; Koriyama, Tsuyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo; Fujimoto, Kenshiro

    2011-12-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), particularly arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are considered critical for the development of infants and are commonly supplemented in infant formulae. In this study, two common sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, fish oil (FO) and DHA-rich microalgal oil (DMO), were fed to rat pups of mildly n-3 PUFA-deficient dams to compare changes in LC-PUFA of tissue phospholipids. The milk from dams fed a n-3 PUFA-deficient diet contained less n-3 LC-PUFA than that of dams fed a control diet (AIN-93G). The pups' were given orally 1 mg/g weight of either FO or DMO for 17 days between the ages of 5 and 21 days, the pups were weaned, and sacrificed 1 week later for analysis of fatty acid compositions of brain, heart, kidney, spleen, and thymus phospholipids. Although both FO and DMO brought about a recovery in the tissue DHA levels compared to those of the control group (pups from AIN-93G-fed dams), DMO was more effective at restoring tissue LC-PUFA status because it was richer in DHA than FO. FO had a slightly lower PUFA level than that required to bring the LC-PUFA status completely to normal levels in this experiment, and EPA did not accumulate in tissues under the conditions tested here. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of ingesting either FO or DMO in the pre-weaning period for improving mild n-3 PUFA deficiency.

  2. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Verónica M; Actis, Adriana B

    2012-02-01

    The role of dietary fatty acids on cancer is still controversial. To examine the current literature on the protective role of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and marine long-chain fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and the risk of breast and prostate cancer, data from 41 case-control and cohort studies and relevant in vitro and animal experiments were included in this 2000-2010 revision. Epidemiological studies on CLA intake or its tissue concentration related to breast and prostate tumorigenesis are not conclusive; EPA and DHA intake have shown important inverse associations just in some studies. Additional research on the analysed association is required.

  3. Role of T-Cell Polarization and Inflammation and Their Modulation by n-3 Fatty Acids in Gestational Diabetes and Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichami, A.; Grissa, O.; Mrizak, I.; Benammar, C.; Khan, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Th (T helper) cells are differentiated into either Th1 or Th2 phenotype. It is generally considered that Th1 phenotype is proinflammatory, whereas Th2 phenotype exerts anti-inflammatory or protective effects. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with a decreased Th1 phenotype, whereas macrosomia is marked with high expression of Th1 cytokines. Besides, these two pathological situations are marked with high concentrations of inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), known to play a pivotal role in insulin resistance. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may exert a beneficial effect by shifting Th1/Th2 balance to a Th2 phenotype and increasing insulin sensitivity. In this paper, we shed light on the role of T-cell malfunction that leads to an inflammatory and pathophysiological state, related to insulin resistance in GDM and macrosomia. We will also discuss the nutritional management of these pathologies by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PMID:27313878

  4. CD4(+) T-cell activation is differentially modulated by bacteria-primed dendritic cells, but is generally down-regulated by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Susanne; Lund, Pia; Kjaer, Tanja M R; Straarup, Ellen M; Hellgren, Lars I; Frøkiaer, Hanne

    2010-03-01

    Appropriate activation of CD4(+) T cells is fundamental for efficient initiation and progression of acquired immune responses. Here, we showed that CD4(+) T-cell activation is dependent on changes in membrane n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and is dynamically regulated by the type of signals provided by dendritic cells (DCs). Upon interaction with DCs primed by different concentrations and species of gut bacteria, CD4(+) T cells were activated according to the type of DC stimulus. The levels of CD80 were found to correlate to the levels of expression of CD28 and to the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, while the presence of CD40 and CD86 on DCs inversely affected inducible costimulator (ICOS) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) levels in CD4(+) T cells. For all DC stimuli, cells high in n-3 PUFAs showed reduced ability to respond to CD28 stimulation, to proliferate, and to express ICOS and CTLA-4. Diminished T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 signalling was found to be responsible for n-3 PUFA effects. Thus, the dietary fatty acid composition influences the overall level of CD4(+) T-cell activation induced by DCs, while the priming effect of the DC stimuli modulates CD80, CD86 and CD40 levels, thereby affecting and shaping activation of acquired immunity by differential regulation of proliferation and costimulatory molecule expression in CD4(+) T cells.

  5. Plasma phospholipid omega-3 fatty acids and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in the OPERA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H Y; Marchioli, Roberto; Silletta, Maria G; Macchia, Alejandro; Song, Xiaoling; Siscovick, David S; Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Latini, Roberto; Albert, Christine; Brown, Nancy J; Lamarra, Mauro; Favaloro, Roberto R; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2013-10-21

    Long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) demonstrated antiarrhythmic potential in experimental studies. In a large multinational randomized trial (OPERA), perioperative fish oil supplementation did not reduce the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) in cardiac surgery patients. However, whether presupplementation habitual plasma phospholipid n-3 PUFA, or achieved or change in n-3 PUFA level postsupplementation are associated with lower risk of PoAF is unknown. In 564 subjects undergoing cardiac surgery between August 2010 and June 2012 in 28 centers across 3 countries, plasma phospholipid levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were measured at enrollment and again on the morning of cardiac surgery following fish oil or placebo supplementation (10 g over 3 to 5 days, or 8 g over 2 days). The primary endpoint was incident PoAF lasting ≥ 30 seconds, centrally adjudicated, and confirmed by rhythm strip or ECG. Secondary endpoints included sustained (≥ 1 hour), symptomatic, or treated PoAF; the time to first PoAF; and the number of PoAF episodes per patient. PoAF outcomes were assessed until hospital discharge or postoperative day 10, whichever occurred first. Relative to the baseline, fish oil supplementation increased phospholipid concentrations of EPA (+142%), DPA (+13%), and DHA (+22%) (P < 0.001 each). Substantial interindividual variability was observed for change in total n-3 PUFA (range = -0.7% to 7.5% after 5 days of supplementation). Neither individual nor total circulating n-3 PUFA levels at enrollment, morning of surgery, or change between these time points were associated with risk of PoAF. The multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) across increasing quartiles of total n-3 PUFA at enrollment were 1.0, 1.06 (0.60 to 1.90), 1.35 (0.76 to 2.38), and 1.19 (0.64 to 2.20); and for changes in n-3 PUFA between enrollment and the morning of surgery were 1.0, 0.78 (0.44 to 1

  6. Intake of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids in relation to coronary calcification: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heine-Bröring, R.C.; Brouwer, I.A.; Vliegenthart, P.R.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Hofman, A.; Oudkerk, M.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a cardioprotective effect of n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. Objective: The objective was to examine the association of fish and EPA plus DHA intakes with coronary calcification

  7. Plasma and brain fatty acid profiles in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g for brain). Differences in plasma fatty acid profiles between AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with no cognitive impairment (NCI) were most apparent in the plasma free fatty acids (lower oleic acid isomers and omega-6 fatty acids in AD) and phospholipids (lower omega-3 fatty acids in AD). In brain, % DHA was lower only in phosphatidylserine of mid-frontal cortex and superior temporal cortex in AD compared to NCI (-14% and -12%, respectively; both p < 0.05). The only significant correlation between plasma and brain fatty acids was between % DHA in plasma total lipids and % DHA in phosphatidylethanolamine of the angular gyrus, but only in the NCI group (+0.77, p < 0.05). We conclude that AD is associated with altered plasma status of both DHA and other fatty acids unrelated to DHA, and that the lipid class-dependent nature of these differences reflects a combination of differences in intake and metabolism.

  8. Effect of natural antioxidants in Spanish salchichón elaborated with encapsulated n-3 long chain fatty acids in konjac glucomannan matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekata, P E S; Domínguez, R; Franco, D; Bermúdez, R; Trindade, M A; Lorenzo, Jose M

    2017-02-01

    The effect of natural antioxidants on physicochemical properties, lipid and protein oxidation, volatile compounds and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined in Spanish salchichón enriched with n-3 fatty acids encapsulated and stabilized in konjac matrix. Phenolic compounds of beer residue extract (BRE), chestnut leaves extract (CLE) and peanut skin extract (PSE) were also identified and quantified. Five batches of salchichón were prepared: control (CON, without antioxidants), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), BRE, CLE and PSE. The main phenolic compounds were catechin and benzoic acid for BRE, gallic acid and catechin for CLE and catechin and protocatechuic acid for PSE. Statistical analysis did not show significant differences on chemical composition among treatments. Reductions in luminosity (Pantioxidants. Finally, the inclusion of antioxidants (P<0.001) decreased the hexanal content, whereas the FFA content increased by the addition of natural extracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Global metabolomic profiling reveals an association of metal fume exposure and plasma unsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyue Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Welding-associated air pollutants negatively affect the health of exposed workers; however, their molecular mechanisms in causing disease remain largely unclear. Few studies have systematically investigated the systemic toxic effects of welding fumes on humans. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of welding fumes on the plasma metabolome, and to identify biomarkers for risk assessment of welding fume exposure. METHODS: The two-stage, self-controlled exploratory study included 11 boilermakers from a 2011 discovery panel and 8 boilermakers from a 2012 validation panel. Plasma samples were collected pre- and post-welding fume exposure and analyzed by chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Eicosapentaenoic or docosapentaenoic acid metabolic changes post-welding were significantly associated with particulate (PM2.5 exposure (p<0.05. The combined analysis by linear mixed-effects model showed that exposure was associated with a statistically significant decline in metabolite change of eicosapentaenoic acid [β(95% CI = -0.013(-0.022 ≈ -0.004; p = 0.005], docosapentaenoic acid n3 [β(95% CI = -0.010(-0.018 ≈ -0.002; p = 0.017], and docosapentaenoic acid n6 [β(95% CI = -0.007(-0.013 ≈ -0.001; p = 0.021]. Pathway analysis identified an association of the unsaturated fatty acid pathway with exposure (p Study-2011 = 0.025; p Study-2012 = 0.021; p Combined = 0.009. The functional network built by these fatty acids and their interactive genes contained significant enrichment of genes associated with various diseases, including neoplasms, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism disorders. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose exposure of metal welding fumes decreases unsaturated fatty acids with an exposure-response relationship. This alteration in fatty acids is a potential biological mediator and biomarker for exposure-related health disorders.

  10. Echium oil increased the expression of a Δ4 Fads2 fatty acyl desaturase and the deposition of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in comparison with linseed oil in striped snakehead (Channa striata) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya-Ram, Annette; Shu-Chien, Alexander Chong; Kuah, Meng-Kiat

    2016-08-01

    Despite the potential of vegetable oils as aquafeed ingredients, a major drawback associated with their utilization is the inferior level of beneficial n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Echium oil (EO), which is rich in stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3), could potentially improve the deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA as the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA is enhanced through bypassing the rate-limiting ∆6 desaturation step. We report for the first time an attempt to investigate whether the presence of a desaturase (Fads2) capable of ∆4 desaturation activities and an elongase (Elovl5) will leverage the provision of dietary SDA to produce a higher rate of LC-PUFA bioconversion. Experimental diets were designed containing fish oil (FO), EO or linseed oil (LO) (100FO, 100EO, 100LO), and diets which comprised equal mixtures of the designated oils (50EOFO and 50EOLO) were evaluated in a 12-week feeding trial involving striped snakeheads (Channa striata). There was no significant difference in growth and feed conversion efficiency. The hepatic fatty acid composition and higher expression of fads2 and elovl5 genes in fish fed EO-based diets indicate the utilization of dietary SDA for LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, this resulted in a higher deposition of muscle eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) compared to LO-based diets. Dietary EO improved the ratio of n-3 LC-PUFA to n-6 LC-PUFA in fish muscle, which is desirable for human populations with excessive consumption of n-6 PUFA. This study validates the contribution of SDA in improving the content of n-3 LC-PUFA and the ratio of EPA to arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) in a freshwater carnivorous species.

  11. Pregnancy duration and the ratio of long-chain n-3 fatty acids to arachidonic acid in erythrocytes from Faroese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.F.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1989-01-01

    Dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA) may prolong gestation by inhibiting formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. FA were quantified in phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and total lipids (TL) of red cells sampled during pregnancy from 29 Faroese women. The ratio...... of long-chain n-3 FA to arachidonic acid (the (3/6) ratio) was used as the most relevant single measure of exposure. In 18 women with certain gestational age and with spontaneous onset of delivery, gestational age was significantly associated with the (3/6) ratio quantified in PC (correlation coefficient...... 0.50, P = 0.035), but not with the (3/6) radio in PE (correlation coefficient 0.21, P = 0.40) or TL (correlation coefficient 0.29, P = 0.26). The association with the (3/6) ratio in PC could not be attributed to confounding by maternal age, weight, marital status or smoking....

  12. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations – Focus on Specific Population Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C.; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. Summary The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. Results The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6–12 months, 6 in children 1–3 years, 11 in children 4–9 years, 8 in adolescents 10–18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. PMID:28190013

  13. Systematic Review on N-3 and N-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Intake in European Countries in Light of the Current Recommendations - Focus on Specific Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; van Lieshout, Lilou; Eilander, Ans; Fleith, Mathilde; Lohner, Szimonetta; Szommer, Alíz; Petisca, Catarina; Eussen, Simone; Forsyth, Stewart; Calder, Philip C; Campoy, Cristina; Mensink, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    Earlier reviews indicated that in many countries adults, children and adolescents consume on an average less polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organisation. The intake of total and individual n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in European infants, children, adolescents, elderly and pregnant/lactating women was evaluated systematically. The evaluations were done against recommendations of the European Food Safety Authority. Key Messages: Fifty-three studies from 17 different European countries reported an intake of total n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and/or individual n-3 or n-6 PUFAs in at least one of the specific population groups: 10 in pregnant women, 4 in lactating women, 3 in infants 6-12 months, 6 in children 1-3 years, 11 in children 4-9 years, 8 in adolescents 10-18 years and 11 in elderly >65 years. Mean linoleic acid intake was within the recommendation (4 energy percentage [E%]) in 52% of the countries, with inadequate intakes more likely in lactating women, adolescents and elderly. Mean α-linolenic acid intake was within the recommendation (0.5 E%) in 77% of the countries. In 26% of the countries, mean eicosapentaenoic acid and/or docosahexaenoic acid intake was as recommended. These results indicate that intake of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs may be suboptimal in specific population groups in Europe. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Adjunct therapy of n-3 fatty acids to 5-ASA ameliorates inflammatory score and decreases NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbodji, Khaly; Charpentier, Cloé; Guérin, Charlène; Querec, Coraline; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Aziz, Moutaz; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the potential of nutritional intervention as adjunct therapy to 5-ASA in IBD. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties in gut inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the dual therapy (n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA) in rats with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of TNBS while control rats received the vehicle. Rats received by gavage a fish oil-rich formula (n-3 groups) or an isocaloric and isolipidic oil formula supplemented with 5-ASA for 14 days. A dose response of 5-ASA (5-75 mg. suppression mg kg(-1) d(-1)) was tested. Colitis was evaluated and several inflammatory markers were quantified in the colon. COX-2 expression (Pinducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression (Pinduce PPARγ. By contrast, the dual therapy did not improve the effects of individual treatments on eicosanoids or cytokine production. Use of n-3 PUFA in addition to 5-ASA may reduce dose of standard therapy.

  15. Randomized controlled trial examining the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipingas, Andrew; Cockerell, Robyn; Grima, Natalie; Sinclair, Andrew; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Myers, Stephen; Croft, Kevin; Sali, Avni; Pase, Matthew P

    2014-05-14

    The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160) were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial Examining the Effects of Fish Oil and Multivitamin Supplementation on the Incorporation of n-3 and n-6 Fatty Acids into Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Pipingas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-groups clinical trial examined the effects of fish oil and multivitamin supplementation on the incorporation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids into red blood cells. Healthy adult humans (n = 160 were randomized to receive 6 g of fish oil, 6 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin, 3 g of fish oil plus a multivitamin or a placebo daily for 16 weeks. Treatment with 6 g of fish oil, with or without a daily multivitamin, led to higher eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA composition at endpoint. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA composition was unchanged following treatment. The long chain LC n-3 PUFA index was only higher, compared to placebo, in the group receiving the combination of 6 g of fish oil and the multivitamin. Analysis by gender revealed that all treatments increased EPA incorporation in females while, in males, EPA was only significantly increased by the 6 g fish oil multivitamin combination. There was considerable individual variability in the red blood cell incorporation of EPA and DHA at endpoint. Gender contributed to a large proportion of this variability with females generally showing higher LC n-3 PUFA composition at endpoint. In conclusion, the incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA into red blood cells was influenced by dosage, the concurrent intake of vitamin/minerals and gender.

  17. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Hansen, H S; Jakobsen, P H;

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5 g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre......-s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...

  18. No effect of human serum and erythrocytes enriched in n-3 fatty acids by oral intake on Plasmodium falciparum bloodstage parasites in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y.A.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jakobsen, P.H.;

    1993-01-01

    To examine the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on the erythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum, serum and erythrocytes were separated from blood of a healthy donor before and after he had taken fish oil capsules for 8 days. Such intake supplied an amount of eicosapentaenoic...... acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) of 3.5g/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) of 2.5 g/d and 24 mg/d of total tocopherol. Post-intake fish oil serum (post-s) and erythrocytes (post-e) were tested in vitro for inhibitory activity against blood stages of P. falciparum compared with pre-intake serum (pre......-s) and pre-intake erythrocyte (pre-e). Also the effect of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) on the erythrocytic growth of P. falciparum was tested using in vitro assays. The results show that both post-s and post-e had no antimalarial activity on P. falciparum. No differential antimalarial effect...

  19. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders, and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193 were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%, EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%, and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96% and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%. Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107. Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0 and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0. Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA.

  20. Relationship between Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Case-Control and Randomised Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazahery, Hajar; Stonehouse, Welma; Delshad, Maryam; Kruger, Marlena C.; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Beck, Kathryn L.; von Hurst, Pamela R.

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation (n-3 LCPUFA) for treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is popular. The results of previous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on ASD outcomes were inconclusive. Two meta-analyses were conducted; meta-analysis 1 compared blood levels of LCPUFA and their ratios arachidonic acid (ARA) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), ARA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or total n-6 to total n-3 LCPUFA in ASD to those of typically developing individuals (with no neurodevelopmental disorders), and meta-analysis 2 compared the effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation to placebo on symptoms of ASD. Case-control studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were identified searching electronic databases up to May, 2016. Mean differences were pooled and analysed using inverse variance models. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistic. Fifteen case-control studies (n = 1193) were reviewed. Compared with typically developed, ASD populations had lower DHA (−2.14 [95% CI −3.22 to −1.07]; p < 0.0001; I2 = 97%), EPA (−0.72 [95% CI −1.25 to −0.18]; p = 0.008; I2 = 88%), and ARA (−0.83 [95% CI, −1.48 to −0.17]; p = 0.01; I2 = 96%) and higher total n-6 LCPUFA to n-3 LCPUFA ratio (0.42 [95% CI 0.06 to 0.78]; p = 0.02; I2 = 74%). Four RCTs were included in meta-analysis 2 (n = 107). Compared with placebo, n-3 LCPUFA improved social interaction (−1.96 [95% CI −3.5 to −0.34]; p = 0.02; I2 = 0) and repetitive and restricted interests and behaviours (−1.08 [95% CI −2.17 to −0.01]; p = 0.05; I2 = 0). Populations with ASD have lower n-3 LCPUFA status and n-3 LCPUFA supplementation can potentially improve some ASD symptoms. Further research with large sample size and adequate study duration is warranted to confirm the efficacy of n-3 LCPUFA. PMID:28218722

  1. n-3多不饱和脂肪酸对肥胖小鼠肠道菌群的影响%Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the gut microbiota in diet-induced obese mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路媛媛; 颜克松; 樊超男; 丁绪; 王翠; 夏露露; 战大伟; 齐可民

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,n-3 PUFAs)对饮食诱导肥胖小鼠肠道菌群的影响.方法 将30只3~4周龄C57BL/ 6J雄性小鼠,随机分为3组(10只/组),分别给予高脂饲料、鱼油n-3 PU-FAs高脂饲料(脂肪含量均为34.9%,供能比均为60%)以及正常脂饲料(脂肪来源于猪油和葵花籽油,脂肪含量为4.3%,供能比为10%)喂养16周.然后采集粪便,采用16sDNA-实时荧光定量PCR方法检测肠道菌群变化;取结肠组织,采用实时荧光定量PCR方法检测白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、白细胞介素-10(IL-10)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)以及单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(monocyte chemoattractant protein-1,MCP-1)的mRNA表达水平.结果 与正常脂饲料喂养对照组小鼠相比,高脂饲料诱导肥胖小鼠粪便中厚壁菌门及乳杆菌属的数量显著增多,而拟杆菌门、放线菌门、变形菌门以及双歧杆菌属的数量则显著减少(P<0.05).两组肥胖小鼠相比,鱼油n-3 PUFAs高脂组肥胖小鼠的粪便双歧杆菌属数量明显增加,而乳杆菌属数量显著减少(P<0.05).对结肠炎性因子mRNA表达水平检测显示,高脂饲料组肥胖小鼠的IL-1β、IL-6、TNF-α及MCP-1表达量较正常脂饲料组小鼠均明显升高(P<0.05),而IL-10的表达量无变化;鱼油n-3PUFAs高脂饲料组肥胖小鼠的IL-1β、TNF-α较高脂饲料组肥胖小鼠有显著性的降低(P<0.05).结论 鱼油n-3 PU-FAs可以改善肥胖状态下的肠道菌群紊乱及肠道炎症状态.

  2. Plasma and Brain Fatty Acid Profiles in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Schneider, Julie A.; Tangney, Christine; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Fortier, Mélanie; Bennett, David A; Morris, Martha Clare

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is generally associated with lower omega-3 fatty acid intake from fish but despite numerous studies, it is still unclear whether there are differences in omega-3 fatty acids in plasma or brain. In matched plasma and brain samples provided by the Memory and Aging Project, fatty acid profiles were quantified in several plasma lipid classes and in three brain cortical regions. Fatty acid data were expressed as % composition and as concentrations (mg/dL for plasma or mg/g...

  3. Dietary n-3:n-6 fatty acid ratios differentially influence hormonal signature in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome relative to healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Lauren G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dietary ratios of omega-3 (n-3 to omega-6 (n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been implicated in controlling markers of the metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, inflammation, lipid profiles and adiposity. However, the role of dietary PUFAs in regulating energy systems in healthy relative to metabolic diseased backgrounds has not been systematically addressed. We used dietary manipulation of n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in an animal model of metabolic syndrome and a related healthy line to assay feeding behavior and endocrine markers of feeding drive and energy regulation. Two related lines of rodents with a healthy and a metabolic syndrome phenotype were fed one of two isocaloric diets, comprised of either a 1:1 or a 1:30 n-3 to n-6 ratio, for 30 days. Food intake and weight gain were monitored; and leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin and a suite of hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in energy regulation were assayed following the dietary manipulation period. There was no difference in caloric intake or weight gain between diet groups, however there was a significant interaction between diet and phenotypic line on central and peripheral markers of energy homeostasis. Thus serum levels of leptin, acylated-ghrelin and adiponectin, and mRNA levels of the anorexigenic hypothalamic neuropeptide, cocaine-amphetamine related transcript (CART, showed differential, dietary responses with HCR rats showing an increase in anorexigenic signals in response to unbalanced n-3:6 ratios, while LCR did not. These data are the first to demonstrate that a rodent line with a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype responds differentially to dietary manipulation of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids relative to a related healthy line with regard to endocrine markers of energy homeostasis. The dietary n-3:n-6 ratios used in this experiment represent extreme points of natural human diets, however the data suggest that optimal recommendations regarding omega-3 and

  4. The association of red blood cell n-3 and n-6 fatty acids with bone mineral density and hip fracture risk in the women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Tonya S; Ing, Steven W; Lu, Bo; Belury, Martha A; Johnson, Karen; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2013-03-01

    Omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells (RBCs) are an objective indicator of PUFA status and may be related to hip fracture risk. The primary objective of this study was to examine RBC PUFAs as predictors of hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women. A nested case-control study (n = 400 pairs) was completed within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) using 201 incident hip fracture cases from the Bone Mineral Density (BMD) cohort, along with 199 additional incident hip fracture cases randomly selected from the WHI Observational Study. Cases were 1:1 matched on age, race, and hormone use with non-hip fracture controls. Stored baseline RBCs were analyzed for fatty acids using gas chromatography. After removing degraded samples, 324 matched pairs were included in statistical analyses. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were constructed according to case-control pair status; risk of fracture was estimated for tertiles of RBC PUFA. In adjusted hazard models, lower hip fracture risk was associated with higher RBC α-linolenic acid (tertile 3 [T3] hazard ratio [HR]: 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-0.85; p for linear trend 0.0154), eicosapentaenoic acid (T3 HR: 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.87; p for linear trend 0.0181), and total n-3 PUFAs (T3 HR: 0.55; 95% CI, 0.30-1.01; p for linear trend 0.0492). Conversely, hip fracture nearly doubled with the highest RBC n-6/n-3 ratio (T3 HR: 1.96; 95% CI, 1.03-3.70; p for linear trend 0.0399). RBC PUFAs were not associated with BMD. RBC PUFAs were indicative of dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs (Spearman's rho = 0.45, p acid (rho = 0.09, p acid, as well as eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 PUFAs, may predict lower hip fracture risk. Contrastingly, a higher RBC n-6/n-3 ratio may predict higher hip fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

  5. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvig, Stine Erbs; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2013-01-01

    compared with a control (CONT) and if increasing n-3LCPUFA intake giving fish oil (FO) compared with sunflower oil (SO) would affect bone parameters in piglets in two sets of controlled 14d-interventions (n=12/group). We assessed this by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative...

  6. The effect of fatty acid positioning in dietary triacylglycerols and intake of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on bone mineral accretion in growing piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Ludvig, Stine E; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab;

    2013-01-01

    Long-chain n-3 PUFA (LCPUFA) and palmitate (16:0) positioning in the triacylglycerol (TAG) of infant formula may affect calcium-uptake which could affect bone health. We investigated if a human milk fat substitute (HMFS) with a modified TAG structure holding 16:0 predominantly in the sn-2-position...

  7. Neuroinflammatory processes in cognitive disorders: Is there a role for flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in counteracting their detrimental effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Martinsen, Anneloes; Layé, Sophie

    2015-10-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are known to contribute to the cascade of events culminating in the neuronal damage that underpins neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. With the ageing population and increased cases of neurodegenerative diseases, there is a crucial need for the development of new strategies capable to prevent, delay the onset or treat brain dysfunction and associated cognitive decline. Growing evidence sheds light on the use of dietary polyphenols and n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids to improve cognitive performance and reduce the neuroinflammatory and oxidative stress responses occurring with age and neurodegenerative pathologies. This review will summarise the most recent information related to the impact and mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammatory processes in neurodegenerative disorders. We will also detail the current evidence indicating that flavonoids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are strong candidates in preventing neuroinflammation and modulating age-related memory decline, and we will describe the potential mechanisms of action underlying their neuroprotective effects. As such, these dietary bioactives represent important precursor molecules in the quest to develop a new generation of drugs capable of counteracting neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Dietary n-3 Fatty Acid, α-Tocopherol, Zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene are Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Aya; Inoue, Maiko; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Obata, Ryo; Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Shinkai, Shoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2016-02-05

    This case-control study reports the association between nutrient intake and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Japan. The nutrient intake of 161 neovascular AMD cases from two university hospitals and 369 population-based control subjects from a cohort study was assessed using a brief-type self-administered questionnaire on diet history, which required respondent recall of the usual intake of 58 foods during the preceding month. Energy-adjusted nutrient intake values were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs adjusted for smoking history, age, sex, chronic disease history, supplement use, and alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that low intakes of n-3 fatty acid, α-tocopherol, zinc, vitamin D, vitamin C, and β-carotene were associated with neovascular AMD (Trend P < 0.0001 for n-3 fatty acid, Trend P < 0.0001 for α-tocopherol, Trend P < 0.0001 for zinc, Trend P = 0.002 for vitamin D, Trend P = 0.04 for vitamin C, Trend P = 0.0004 for β-carotene). There was no association with retinol or cryptoxanthin intake and neovascular AMD (P = 0.67, 0.06).

  9. Plasma long-chain free fatty acids predict mammalian longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Aledo, Juan Carlos; Cabré, Rosanna; Ayala, Victoria; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Barja, Gustavo; Pamplona, Reinald

    2013-11-28

    Membrane lipid composition is an important correlate of the rate of aging of animals and, therefore, the determination of their longevity. In the present work, the use of high-throughput technologies allowed us to determine the plasma lipidomic profile of 11 mammalian species ranging in maximum longevity from 3.5 to 120 years. The non-targeted approach revealed a specie-specific lipidomic profile that accurately predicts the animal longevity. The regression analysis between lipid species and longevity demonstrated that the longer the longevity of a species, the lower is its plasma long-chain free fatty acid (LC-FFA) concentrations, peroxidizability index, and lipid peroxidation-derived products content. The inverse association between longevity and LC-FFA persisted after correction for body mass and phylogenetic interdependence. These results indicate that the lipidomic signature is an optimized feature associated with animal longevity, emerging LC-FFA as a potential biomarker of longevity.

  10. Contaminants, diet, plasma fatty acids and smoking in Greenland 1999-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Bente; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Asmund, Gert

    2006-01-01

    , especially in the North where people depend on local food. In East Greenland (Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund)) the population shows the highest blood levels of several persistent organic pollutants found in Arctic countries, especially PCB, the levels of which exceed Canadian guideline levels. As in other...... Arctic countries, the predominant source of these contaminants is the local diet. However, other factors such as smoking may influence the metabolism and thereby the accumulation of toxic substances. STUDY DESIGN: This project is part of the human health program of the ongoing circumpolar "Artic......, in particular all the plasma n-3 fatty acids, were significantly correlated with organic contaminant concentrations, (betaHCH, chlordanes, DDTs, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs, and toxaphenes) psmoking was significantly...

  11. Dietary patterns, n-3 fatty acids intake from seafood and high levels of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about relationships between dietary patterns, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake and excessive anxiety during pregnancy.To examine whether dietary patterns and n-3 PUFA intake from seafood are associated with high levels of anxiety during pregnancy.Pregnant women enrolled from 1991-1992 in ALSPAC (n 9,530. Dietary patterns were established from a food frequency questionnaire using principal component analysis. Total intake of n-3 PUFA (grams/week from seafood was also examined. Symptoms of anxiety were measured at 32 weeks of gestation with the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index; scores ≥ 9 corresponding to the 85(th percentile was defined as high anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR and 95% CI, adjusted by socioeconomic and lifestyle variables.Multivariate results showed that women in the highest tertile of the health-conscious (OR 0.77; 0.65-0.93 and the traditional (OR 0.84; 0.73-0.97 pattern scores were less likely to report high levels of anxiety symptoms. Women in the highest tertile of the vegetarian pattern score (OR 1.25; 1.08-1.44 were more likely to have high levels of anxiety, as well as those with no n-3 PUFA intake from seafood (OR 1.53; 1.25-1.87 when compared with those with intake of >1.5 grams/week.The present study provides evidence of a relationship between dietary patterns, fish intake or n-3 PUFA intake from seafood and symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy, and suggests that dietary interventions could be used to reduce high anxiety symptoms during pregnancy.

  12. Endocannabinoids may mediate the ability of (n-3) fatty acids to reduce ectopic fat and inflammatory mediators in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batetta, Barbara; Griinari, Mikko; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Ligresti, Alessia; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sanna, Francesca; Bisogno, Tiziana; Uda, Sabrina; Collu, Maria; Bruheim, Inge; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Banni, Sebastiano

    2009-08-01

    Dietary (n-3) long-chain PUFA [(n-3) LCPUFA] ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, although the mechanisms of these beneficial effects are not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effects of dietary (n-3) LCPUFA, in the form of either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO) balanced for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content, with a control (C) diet containing no EPA and DHA and similar contents of oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids, on ectopic fat and inflammation in Zucker rats, a model of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Diets were fed for 4 wk. Given the emerging evidence for an association between elevated endocannabinoid concentrations and metabolic syndrome, we also measured tissue endocannabinoid concentrations. In (n-3) LCPUFA-supplemented rats, liver triglycerides and the peritoneal macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus were significantly lower than in rats fed the control diet, and heart triglycerides were lower, but only in KO-fed rats. These effects were associated with a lower concentration of the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, in the visceral adipose tissue and of anandamide in the liver and heart, which, in turn, was associated with lower levels of arachidonic acid in membrane phospholipids, but not with higher activity of endocannabinoid-degrading enzymes. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of a diet enriched with (n-3) LCPUFA are the result of changes in membrane fatty acid composition. The reduction of substrates for inflammatory molecules and endocannabinoids may account for the dampened inflammatory response and the physiological reequilibration of body fat deposition in obese rats.

  13. Plant compared with marine n-3 fatty acid effects on cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes: what is the verdict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2014-07-01

    Plants provide α-linolenic acid [ALA; 18:3n-3 (18:3ω-3)], which can be converted via eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), which is required for normal visual and cognitive function. Dietary ALA is provided mainly by vegetable oils, especially soybean and rapeseed oils, but is destroyed by partial hydrogenation; it is also present in high amounts in walnuts and flaxseed. Dietary EPA and DHA are provided mainly by fish and so are absent from vegan diets and only present in trace amounts in vegetarian diets. Vegetarians and vegans have lower proportions of DHA in blood and tissue lipids compared with omnivores. High intakes of EPA and DHA (typically in the range of 3-5 g/d) but not ALA have favorable effects on several cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and have been postulated to delay arterial aging and cardiovascular mortality, but these intakes are beyond the range of normal dietary intake. Arterial stiffness, which is a measure of arterial aging, appears to be lower in vegans than in omnivores; and risk of CVD in vegetarians and vegans is approximately one-third that in omnivores. Prospective cohort studies showed higher intakes of EPA+DHA, and less consistently ALA, to be associated with a lower risk of CVD, especially fatal coronary heart disease, but meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of supplementation of EPA+DHA or ALA in secondary prevention of CVD showed no clear benefit. Current evidence is insufficient to warrant advising vegans and vegetarians to supplement their diets with EPA or DHA for CVD prevention.

  14. Effects of dietary fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio fed to high-yielding dairy cows on fatty acid composition of ovarian compartments, follicular status, and oocyte quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Lehrer, H; Arieli, A; Arav, A; Livshitz, L; Yakoby, S; Moallem, U

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to determine the incorporation of dietary encapsulated fats differing in n-6:n-3 ratio into milk fat, plasma, and various ovarian compartments and to examine the effects on ovarian follicular status, preovulatory follicle characteristics, and oocyte quality. Twenty-four multiparous Israeli Holstein cows, averaging 114 d in milk, were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 1) control (n=7), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet; 2) E-FLAX (n=8), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% flaxseed oil, providing 242.2g of C18:3n-3 (low n-6:n-3 ratio); or 3) E-SUN (n=9), in which cows were fed a lactating cow diet that consisted of 1kg/d of encapsulated fat (3.8% of dry matter) containing 40.8% sunflower oil, providing 260.0g of C18:2n-6 (high n-6:n-3 ratio). Ovaries were monitored by ultrasonography for follicular status, and after synchronization, follicles >7mm were aspirated and evaluated. Ovum pickup was performed (19 sessions for the control and E-FLAX groups and 11 for the E-SUN group), and in vitro maturation and oocyte fertilization were conducted. The E-FLAX treatment increased the proportions of C18:3n-3 (5.8 fold), C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 (approximately 4-fold) in milk fat as compared with the other 2 treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 fatty acid in plasma increased dramatically with the E-FLAX treatment, from 1.43 and 1.49% in the control and E-SUN groups, respectively, to 7.98% in the E-FLAX group. Consequently, the n-6:n-3 ratio in plasma was reduced from approximately 42 in the control and E-SUN groups to 6.74 in the E-FLAX group. Proportions of C18:3n-3 in follicular fluid and granulosa cells were approximately 5-fold higher in the E-FLAX group than in the other 2 groups. The percentage of C18:2n-6 in cumulus-oocyte complexes of cows in the E-SUN group was 54% higher than that in the E-FLAX group and was 2.4-fold higher than that in the

  15. Quantitation of alpha-linolenic acid elongation to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as affected by the ratio of n6/n3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somoza Veronika

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conversion of linoleic acid (LA and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA to their higher chain homologues in humans depends on the ratio of ingested n6 and n3 fatty acids. Design and methods In order to determine the most effective ratio with regard to the conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, human hepatoma cells were incubated with varying ratios of [13C] labeled linoleic acid ([13C]LA- and alpha-linolenic acid ([13C]ALA-methylesters. Regulative cellular signal transduction pathways involved were studied by determinations of transcript levels of the genes encoding delta-5 desaturase (D5D and delta-6 desaturase (D6D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1 were also examined. Results Maximum conversion was observed in cells incubated with the mixture of [13C]LA/[13C]ALA at a ratio of 1:1, where 0.7% and 17% of the recovered [13C]ALA was converted to DHA and EPA, respectively. Furthermore, differential regulation of enzymes involved in the conversion at the transcript level, dependent on the ratio of administered n6 to n3 fatty acids in human hepatocytes was demonstrated. Conclusion Formation of EPA and DHA was highest at an administered LA/ALA ratio of 1:1, although gene expression of PPARα, SREBP-1c and D5D involved in ALA elongation were higher in the presence of ALA solely. Also, our findings suggest that a diet-induced enhancement of the cell membrane content of highly unsaturated fatty acids is only possible up to a certain level.

  16. Comparative effects of n-3, n-6 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acid-rich diet consumption on lupus nephritis, autoantibody production and CD4+ T cell-related gene responses in the autoimmune NZBWF1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, James J; Vines, Laura L; Bates, Melissa A; He, Kaiyu; Langohr, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Mortality from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototypical autoimmune disease, correlates with the onset and severity of kidney glomerulonephritis. There are both preclinical and clinical evidence that SLE patients may benefit from consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) found in fish oil, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we employed the NZBWF1 SLE mouse model to compare the effects of dietary lipids on the onset and severity of autoimmune glomerulonephritis after consuming: 1) n-3 PUFA-rich diet containing docosahexaenoic acid-enriched fish oil (DFO), 2) n-6 PUFA-rich Western-type diet containing corn oil (CRN) or 3) n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-rich Mediterranean-type diet containing high oleic safflower oil (HOS). Elevated plasma autoantibodies, proteinuria and glomerulonephritis were evident in mice fed either the n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets, however, all three endpoints were markedly attenuated in mice that consumed the n-3 PUFA diet until 34 wk of age. A focused PCR array was used to relate these findings to the expression of 84 genes associated with CD4+ T cell function in the spleen and kidney both prior to and after the onset of the autoimmune nephritis. n-3 PUFA suppression of autoimmunity in NZBWF1 mice was found to co-occur with a generalized downregulation of CD4+ T cell-related genes in kidney and/or spleen at wk 34. These genes were associated with the inflammatory response, antigen presentation, T cell activation, B cell activation/differentiation and leukocyte recruitment. Quantitative RT-PCR of representative affected genes confirmed that n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with reduced expression of CD80, CTLA-4, IL-10, IL-18, CCL-5, CXCR3, IL-6, TNF-α and osteopontin mRNAs in kidney and/or spleens as compared to mice fed n-6 PUFA or n-9 MUFA diets. Remarkably, many of the genes identified in this study are currently under consideration as biomarkers and/or biotherapeutic targets for SLE and other autoimmune

  17. Effects of iron and n-3 fatty acid supplementation, alone and in combination, on cognition in school children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, J.; Smuts, C.M.; Malan, L.; Kvalsvig, J.; Stuijvenberg, van M.E.; Hurrell, R.F.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the combined effects of iron and n-3 (omega-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation on cognitive performance. The provision of either DHA/EPA or iron alone in rats with combined iron and n-3 FA deficiency has been reported to exacerbate cognitive deficits associated with

  18. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  19. Feeding laying hens stearidonic acid-enriched soybean oil, as compared to flaxseed oil, more efficiently enriches eggs with very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Robert G; Ying, Yun; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2015-03-18

    The desaturation of α-linolenic acid (ALA) to stearidonic acid (SDA) is considered to be rate-limiting for the hepatic conversion of ALA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, rodents, and chickens. Thus, we hypothesized that feeding laying hens SDA, as a component of the oil derived from the genetic modification of the soybean, would bypass this inefficient metabolic step and result in the enrichment of eggs with EPA and DHA at amounts comparable to that achieved by direct supplementation of hens' diet with these very long-chain (VLC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a 28-d study, laying hens incorporated 0.132 mg, 0.041 mg, or 0.075 mg of VLC n-3 PUFAs into egg yolk for each milligram of ingested dietary ALA derived primarily from conventional soybean oil (CON), dietary ALA derived primarily from flaxseed oil (FLAX), or dietary SDA derived from SDA-enriched soybean oil, respectively. Moreover, the amounts of total yolk VLC n-3 PUFAs in eggs from hens fed the CON (51 mg), FLAX (91 mg), or SDA (125 mg) oils were markedly less than the 305 mg found in eggs from fish oil-fed hens. Unexpectedly, SDA appeared to be more readily incorporated into adipose tissue than into egg yolk. Since egg yolk FAs typically reflect the hens' dietary pattern, these tissue-specific differences suggest the existence of an alternate pathway for the hepatic secretion and transport of SDA in the laying hen.

  20. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pfat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  1. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in skeletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Implications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, S.B.; Madsbad, S.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2006-01-01

    Objective Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... analysis that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R-2 = 0.33, P fat dietary intervention programme increased....... Design Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  2. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pdietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long....... DESIGN Muscle membrane FA profiles were determined in muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies from 21 obese subjects before and after 6 months of dietary restriction. Diet instructions emphasized low intake of FA of marine origin by recommending lean fish and prohibiting fatty fish and fish oil supplements...

  3. n-3多不饱和脂肪酸、内质网应激与非酒精性脂肪肝病的研究进展%Research progress of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the endoplasmic re-ticulum stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁发浒; 赵秀举; 刘志国

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a worldwide public health problem. The underly-ing causes of NAFLD are unclear. Endoplasmic reticulum is the main site of protein processing, lipid synthesis and storage of calcium. Disruption of Endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, which often induces endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), plays an important regulatory role in lipid metabolism and cell function. Recent evi-dence implicated the ERS in both the development of steatosis and progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. In the current review, we discussed the involvement of different fatty acids in the pathogenesis of NAFLD with particular emphasis on the role of ERS, explored the mechanism of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pre-vention and treatment of NAFLD.%  非酒精性脂肪性肝病(nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD)已逐渐成为一个全球性健康问题,但其发病的具体机制不甚明朗。内质网是细胞内蛋白质加工、脂质合成和钙储存的主要场所,内质网结构和功能的失常所致的内质网应激(endoplasmic reticulum stress, ERS)对脂代谢和细胞功能具有重要调控作用,可能是NAFLD 的发生和发展的重要机制。近来大量研究显示,脂类中特定的脂质负荷(饱和脂肪酸、胆固醇)可能是诱导ERS导致NAFLD重要原因,而另一方面, n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3 PUFA)的摄入量却与NAFLD患病率呈负相关。本文就脂肪酸与内质网应激及其与NAFLD的联系作一综述,进一步探讨n-3多不饱和脂肪酸防治NAFLD的机制。

  4. Fish oil and inflammatory status alter the n-3 to n-6 balance of the endocannabinoid and oxylipin metabolomes in mouse plasma and tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, M.G.J.; Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Meijerink, J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids is associated with anti-inflammatory effects, and this has been linked to modulation of the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolomes. However, the amount of data on specific tissue effects is limited, and it is not known how inflammation

  5. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Association of Fish Consumption-Derived Ratio of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Risk With the Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-05-13

    We investigated the relationships between the ratio of serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs: eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) to n-6PUFA (arachidonic acid [AA]) and the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and assessed the association of the ratio of serum n-3 to n-6 PUFAs with atherosclerosis-related markers.This study was designed as a hospital-based cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive outpatients who had undergone regular examinations between April 2009 and October 2009. We divided the patients into 5 groups based on the quintiles of the EPA/AA ratio or quintiles of the DHA/AA ratio to determine independent factors for the prevalence of CAD.In multivariate logistic regression analyses after adjustment for coronary risk factors and serum n-3PUFAs levels to minimize confounding factors to the extent possible because the serum levels of EPA and DHA showed a strong correlation (r = 0.812, P < 0.0001), the group with the highest EPA/AA ratio had a lower probability of CAD prevalence (odds ratio: 0.328, 95% confidence interval: 0.113 to 0.956, P = 0.041), but this was not true for the DHA/AA ratio. Multivariate analysis showed an increase in the EPA/AA ratio, but not in the DHA/AA ratio, was associated with effects on atherosclerosis-related markers, especially triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) containing apolipoprotein A-1, and leukocyte count in an anti-atherogenic direction.The results suggest a higher EPA/AA ratio, but not a higher DHA/AA ratio, might be associated with a lower prevalence of CAD and improvements of triglyceride metabolism and HDL metabolism, and systemic inflammation.

  7. Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from weaning limits brain biochemistry and behavioural changes elicited by prenatal exposure to maternal inflammation in the mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Leung, Y O; Zhou, I; Ho, L C; Kong, W; Basil, P; Wei, R; Lam, S; Zhang, X; Law, A C K; Chua, S E; Sham, P C; Wu, E X; McAlonan, G M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA) increases the risk of schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. The MIA rodent model provides a valuable tool to directly test the postnatal consequences of exposure to an early inflammatory insult; and examine novel preventative strategies. Here we tested the hypotheses that behavioural differences in the MIA mouse model are accompanied by in vivo and ex vivo alterations in brain biochemistry; and that these can be prevented by a post-weaning diet enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). The viral analogue PolyI:C (POL) or saline (SAL) was administered to pregnant mice on gestation day 9. Half the resulting male offspring (POL=21; SAL=17) were weaned onto a conventional lab diet (n-6 PUFA); half were weaned onto n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy measures were acquired prior to behavioural tests; glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and tyrosine hydroxylase protein levels were measured ex vivo. The main findings were: (i) Adult MIA-exposed mice fed a standard diet had greater N-acetylaspartate/creatine (Cr) and lower myo-inositol/Cr levels in the cingulate cortex in vivo. (ii) The extent of these metabolite differences was correlated with impairment in prepulse inhibition. (iii) MIA-exposed mice on the control diet also had higher levels of anxiety and altered levels of GAD67 ex vivo. (iv) An n-3 PUFA diet prevented all the in vivo and ex vivo effects of MIA observed. Thus, n-3 PUFA dietary enrichment from early life may offer a relatively safe and non-toxic approach to limit the otherwise persistent behavioural and biochemical consequences of prenatal exposure to inflammation. This result may have translational importance. PMID:26393487

  8. Endogenous n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs mitigate ovariectomy-induced bone loss by attenuating bone marrow adipogenesis in FAT1 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tian-yu Chen,1,2,* Zhong-min Zhang,1,2,* Xiao-chen Zheng,1,2 Liang Wang,1,2 Min-jun Huang,1,2 Si Qin,3 Jian Chen,1,2 Ping-lin Lai,4 Cheng-liang Yang,1,2 Jia Liu,1,2 Yi-fan Dai,5 Da-di Jin,1,2 Xiao-chun Bai1,2,4 1Department of Orthopaedic, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 2Academy of Orthopaedics, Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Dermatology and STD, Guangdong No.2 Provincial People's Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 4Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Science, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China; 5Center of Metabolic Disease Research, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: To investigate the effect of endogenous n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on bone marrow adipogenesis under osteoporosis conditions. Methods: A mouse osteoporosis model overexpressing the FAT1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans and converting n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs endogenously was used. Results: The mice presented significantly lower bone marrow adiposity (adipocyte volume/tissue volume, mean adipocyte number but increased the bone parameters (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone volume/total volume in the distal femoral metaphysis. Conclusion: Endogenous n-3 PUFAs protect bone marrow adipogenesis, which provides a novel drug target. Keywords: antiosteoporosis, n-3 PUFAs, bone marrow, adipogenesis

  9. Alterations of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-activated K2P channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    relaxations that were resistant to endothelial removal and inhibition of NO and prostacyclin synthesis and to a cocktail of blockers of calcium-activated K(+) channels but were abolished by high extracellular (30 mM) K(+) -concentration. Gene expression and protein of K2P 2.1 were not altered in chronic...... hypoxic mice, while K2P 6.1 was up-regulated by fourfold. In conclusion, the PUFA-activated K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 are expressed in murine lung and functional K2P -like channels contribute to endothelium hyperpolarization and pulmonary artery relaxation. The increased K2P 6.1-gene expression may represent......Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P ) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved...

  10. High levels of both n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in cord serum phospholipids predict allergy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Barman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs reduce T-cell activation and dampen inflammation. They might thereby counteract the neonatal immune activation and hamper normal tolerance development to harmless environmental antigens. We investigated whether fatty acid composition of cord serum phospholipids affects allergy development up to age 13 years. METHODS: From a population-based birth-cohort born in 1996/7 and followed until 13 years of age (n = 794, we selected cases with atopic eczema (n = 37 or respiratory allergy (n = 44, as well as non-allergic non-sensitized controls (n = 48 based on diagnosis at 13 years of age. Cord and maternal sera obtained at delivery from cases and controls were analysed for proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids among serum phospholipids. RESULTS: The cord serum phospholipids from subject who later developed either respiratory allergy or atopic eczema had significantly higher proportions of 5/8 LCPUFA species, as well as total n-3 LCPUFA, total n-6 LCPUFA and total LCPUFA compared to cord serum phospholipids from controls who did not develop allergy (P<0.001 for all comparisons. Conversely, individuals later developing allergy had lower proportion of the monounsaturated fatty acid 18∶1n-9 as well as total MUFA (p<0.001 among cord serum phospholipids. The risk of respiratory allergy at age 13 increased linearly with the proportion of n-3 LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001, n-6 LCPUFA (Ptrend = 0.001, and total LCPUFA (Ptrend<0.001 and decreased linearly with the proportions of total MUFA (Ptrend = 0.025 in cord serum phospholipids. Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier estimates of allergy development demonstrated that total LCPUFA proportion in cord serum phospholipids was significantly associated with respiratory allergy (P = 0.008 and sensitization (P = 0.002, after control for sex and parental allergy. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of long

  11. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA decrease obesity-associated Th17 cell-mediated inflammation during colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Monk

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that obesity-associated inflammation increases disease activity during colitis, attributed in part to the effects of Th17 cells. Using a model of concurrent obesity and colitis, we monitored changes in critical immune cell subsets and inflammatory biomarker expression in three key tissues: visceral adipose tissue, colon (local inflammatory site and spleen (systemic inflammatory site, and we hypothesized that n-3 PUFA would reduce the percentage of inflammatory immune cell subsets and suppress inflammatory gene expression, thereby improving the disease phenotype. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6 mice by feeding a high fat (HF diet (59.2% kcal alone or an isocaloric HF diet supplemented with fish oil (HF-FO for 12 weeks. Colitis was induced via a 2.5% trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS enema. The HF-FO diet improved the obese phenotype by reducing i serum hormone concentrations (leptin and resistin, ii adipose tissue mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (MCP-1, IFNγ, IL-6, IL17F and IL-21 and iii total (F4/80⁺ CD11b⁺ and inflammatory adipose tissue M1 (F4/80⁺ CD11c⁺ macrophage content compared to HF (P<0.05. In addition, the HF-FO diet reduced both colitis-associated disease severity and colonic mRNA expression of the Th17 cell master transcription factor (RORγτ and critical cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and IFNγ versus HF (P<0.05. Compared to HF, the percentage of both splenic Th17 and Th1 cells were reduced by the HF-FO group (P<0.05. Under ex vivo polarizing conditions, the percentage of HF-FO derived CD4⁺ T cells that reached Th17 cell effector status was suppressed (P = 0.05. Collectively, these results indicate that n-3 PUFA suppress Th1/Th17 cells and inflammatory macrophage subsets and reconfigure the inflammatory gene expression profile in diverse tissue sites in obese mice following the induction of colitis.

  12. n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulate prostaglandin E secretion but not markers of lipogenesis in adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Arnold M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A dramatic rise in the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has accelerated the search for interventions that may impact this epidemic. One recently recognized target for such intervention is adipose tissue, which secretes a variety of bioactive substances including prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 has been shown to decrease lipolysis in adipocytes, but limited studies have explored alternative mechanisms by which PGE2 might impact obesity, such as adipogenesis or lipogenesis. Studies conducted on ApcMin/+ mice indicated that selective inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-2 enzyme led to significant reductions in fatty acid synthase (FAS activity in adipose tissue suggesting lipogenic effects of PGE2. To further investigate whether these lipid mediators directly regulate lipogenesis, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to determine the impact of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and celecoxib on PGE2 formation and FAS used as a lipogenic marker. Both arachidonic acid (AA and EPA dose-dependently increased PGE secretion from adipocytes. AA was expectedly more potent and exhibiting at 150 uM dose a 5-fold increase in PGE2 secretion over EPA. Despite higher secretion of PGE by EPA and AA compared to control, neither PUFA significantly altered FAS activity. By contrast both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA levels. Addition of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, significantly decreased PGE2 secretion (p 2 and celecoxib further decreased the FAS activity compared to PGE2 alone or untreated controls. In conclusion, EPA-mediated inhibition of AA metabolism did not significantly alter FAS activity while both AA and EPA significantly decreased FAS mRNA expression. COX-2 inhibition significantly decreased PGE2 production resulting in a decrease in FAS activity and expression that was not reversed with the addition of exogenous PGE2, suggesting an additional mechanism that is independent of COX-2.

  13. Effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on clinical outcome in a porcine model on postoperative infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2012-01-01

    ·001). In the post-operative period, feed intake (P = 0·004) and body-weight gain (P = 0·038) were higher in the fish oil treatment compared with the sunflower oil treatment. The dietary treatments did not affect the number of days pigs were showing fever, weakness in the hindquarters or impaired general appearance......-6 LC-PUFA concentrations and in plasma PGE2 metabolite concentration were determined in the 3-week preoperative period. Clinical signs of infection, i.e. rectal temperature, hindquarter function, general appearance and feed intake, were monitored daily in the 14 d post-operative period, and, finally....... In conclusion, preoperative treatment with dietary fish oil compared with sunflower oil improved clinical outcome in pigs with AVPGI by improving feed intake and body-weight gain post-operatively....

  14. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids high fat diet intervention on the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in obesity-insulin resistance rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianxing; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Shuang; Li, Wei; Ma, Lanzhi; Ding, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2016-04-22

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have previously been demonstrated in association with a reduced risk of chronic diseases, including insulin resistance, cancer and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA-rich perilla oil (PO) and fish oil (FO) high fat diet intervention against the synthesis of hepatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obesity-insulin resistance model rats. In the modeling period, the male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups. The rats in the high fat (HF) group were given a high fat pure diet containing 20.62% lard. In the intervention period, the model rats were intervened with purified high-fat diets rich in PO or FO, containing same energy content with high fat pure diet in HF. After the intervention, the protein and mRNA expressions status of the key genes involved in synthesis of hepatic HDL-c were measured for further analytic comparison. The obesity-insulin resistance model rats were characterized by surprisingly high levels of serum triglyceride (TG) and increased body weight (P hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mRNA (P hepatic apoA-1mRNA expression (P hepatic ABCA1mRNA expression (P obesity-insulin resistance rats.

  16. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-06-08

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P sows (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Mind-body interface: the role of n-3 fatty acids in psychoneuroimmunology, somatic presentation, and medical illness comorbidity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuan-Pin

    2008-01-01

    With the unsatisfaction of monoamine-based pharmacotherapy and the high comorbidity of other medical illness in depression, the serotonin hypothesis seems to fail in approaching the aetiology of depression. Based upon the evidence from epidemiological data, case-control studies of phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) levels in human tissues, and antidepressant effect in clinical trials, PUFAs have shed a light to discover the unsolved of depression and connect the mind and body. Briefly, the deficit of n-3 PUFAs has been reported to be associated with neurological, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, autoimmune, metabolic diseases and cancers. Recent studies revealed that the deficit of n-3 PUFAs is also associated with depression. For example, societies that consume a small amount of omega-3 PUFAs appear to have a higher prevalence of major depressive disorder. In addition, depressive patients had showed a lower level of omega-3 PUFAs; and the antidepressant effect of PUFAs had been reported in a number of clinical trials. The PUFAs are classified into n-3 (or omega-3) and n-6 (or omega-6) groups. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major bioactive components of n-3 PUFAs, are not synthesized in human body and can only be obtained directly from the diet, particularly by consuming fish. DHA deficit is associated with dysfunctions of neuronal membrane stability and transmission of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine, which might connect to the aetiology of mood and cognitive dysfunction of depression. On the other hand, EPA is important in balancing the immune function and physical healthy by reducing arachidonic acid (AA, an n-6 PUFA) level on cell membrane and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. Interestingly, animals fed with high AA diet or treated with PGE2 were observed to present sickness behaviours of anorexia, low activity, change in sleep pattern and attention, which are similar to somatic symptoms of depression in

  18. Long-term feeding of Atlantic salmon in seawater with low dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids affects tissue status of the brain, retina and erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, N H; Torstensen, B E; Stubhaug, I; Rosenlund, G

    2016-06-01

    In two long-term feeding trials in seawater, Atlantic salmon were fed EPA+DHA in graded levels, from 1·3 to 7·4 % of fatty acids (FA, 4-24 g/kg feed) combined with approximately 10 % 18 : 3n-3, at 6 and 12°C. Dietary EPA appeared to be sufficient in all diet groups, as no differences were seen in polar lipid tissue concentrations of either the brain, retina or erythrocytes. For DHA, a reduction in tissue levels was observed with low dietary supply. Effects on brain DHA at ≤1·4 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA and retina DHA at ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of dietary FA were only observed in fish reared at 6°C, suggesting an effect of temperature, whereas tissue levels of n-6 FA increased as a response to increased dietary n-6 FA in both the brain and the retina at both temperatures. DHA levels in erythrocytes were affected by ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA at both temperatures. Therefore, DHA appears to be the limiting n-3 FA in diets where EPA and DHA are present in the ratios found in fishmeal and fish oil. To assess the physiological significance of FA differences in erythrocytes, the osmotic resistance was tested, but it did not vary between dietary groups. In conclusion, ≤2·7 % EPA+DHA of FA (≤9 g/kg feed) is not sufficient to maintain tissue DHA status in important tissues of Atlantic salmon throughout the seawater production cycle despite the presence of dietary 18 : 3n-3, and effects may be more severe at low water temperatures.

  19. Transcriptomic Changes in Liver of Young Bulls Caused by Diets Low in Mineral and Protein Contents and Supplemented with n-3 Fatty Acids and Conjugated Linoleic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegolo, Sara; Cecchinato, Alessio; Mach, Núria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Pauletto, Marianna; Bargelloni, Luca; Schiavon, Stefano; Bittante, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify transcriptional modifications and regulatory networks accounting for physiological and metabolic responses to specific nutrients in the liver of young Belgian Blue × Holstein bulls using RNA-sequencing. A larger trial has been carried out in which animals were fed with different diets: 1] a conventional diet; 2] a low-protein/low-mineral diet (low-impact diet) and 3] a diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids (FAs), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E (nutraceutical diet). The initial hypothesis was that the administration of low-impact and nutraceutical diets might influence the transcriptional profiles in bovine liver and the resultant nutrient fluxes, which are essential for optimal liver function and nutrient interconversion. Results showed that the nutraceutical diet significantly reduced subcutaneous fat covering in vivo and liver pH. Dietary treatments did not affect overall liver fat content, but significantly modified the liver profile of 33 FA traits (out of the total 89 identified by gas-chromatography). In bulls fed nutraceutical diet, the percentage of n-3 and CLA FAs increased around 2.5-fold compared with the other diets, whereas the ratio of n6/n3 decreased 2.5-fold. Liver transcriptomic analyses revealed a total of 198 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) when comparing low-impact, nutraceutical and conventional diets, with the nutraceutical diet showing the greatest effects on liver transcriptome. Functional analyses using ClueGo and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis evidenced that DEGs in bovine liver were variously involved in energy reserve metabolic process, glutathione metabolism, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Modifications in feeding strategies affected key transcription factors regulating the expression of several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, e.g. insulin-induced gene 1, insulin receptor substrate 2, and RAR-related orphan receptor C. This study provides noteworthy insights into

  20. Effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid flows and fatty acid profiles of plasma and milk fat in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, A; Vlaeminck, B; van Vuuren, A M; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding different linseed sources on omasal fatty acid (FA) flows, and plasma and milk FA profiles in dairy cows. Four ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a 4×4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crushed linseed (CL), extruded whole linseed (EL), formaldehyde-treated linseed oil (FL) and linseed oil in combination with marine algae rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DL). Each period in the Latin square design lasted 21 d, with the first 16 d for adaptation. Omasal flow was estimated by the omasal sampling technique using Cr-EDTA, Yb-acetate, and acid detergent lignin as digesta flow markers. The average DM intake was 20.6 ± 2.5 kg/d, C18:3n-3 intake was 341 ± 51 g/d, and milk yield was 32.0 ± 4.6 kg/d. Milk fat yield was lower for the DL treatment (0.96 kg/d) compared with the other linseed treatments (CL, 1.36 kg/d; EL, 1.49 kg/d; FL, 1.54 kg/d). Omasal flow of C18:3n-3 was higher and C18:3n-3 biohydrogenation was lower for the EL treatment (33.8 g/d; 90.9%) compared with the CL (21.8 g/d; 94.0%), FL (15.5 g/d; 95.4%), and DL (4.6 g/d; 98.5%) treatments, whereas whole-tract digestibility of crude fat was lower for the EL treatment (64.8%) compared with the CL (71.3%), FL (78.5%), and DL (80.4%) treatments. The proportion of C18:3n-3 (g/100 g of FA) was higher for the FL treatment compared with the other treatments in plasma triacylglycerols (FL, 3.60; CL, 1.22; EL, 1.35; DL, 1.12) and milk fat (FL, 3.19; CL, 0.87; EL, 0.83; DL, 0.46). Omasal flow and proportion of C18:0 in plasma and milk fat were lower, whereas omasal flow and proportions of biohydrogenation intermediates in plasma and milk fat were higher for the DL treatment compared with the other linseed treatments. The results demonstrate that feeding EL did not result in a higher C18:3n-3 proportion in plasma and milk fat despite the higher omasal C18:3n-3 flow

  1. 不同智力水平人群n-3 PUFAs差异及膳食补充对体内脂肪酸组成的影响研究%Differences of fatty acid composition between children with high and low intelligence quotient and the influence of dietary supply of n-3 fatty adds on children with tow intelligence quotient in Yuyao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周婷婷; 彭咏梅; 王艳艳; 马丽萍; 元冬娟; 康景轩

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究高智商(IQ>135)与低智商(IQ135的学生两组,采集静脉血分析其脂肪酸组成.采用随机对照研究方法,将IQ135的学生其体内花生四稀酸(arachidonic acid,AA)、二十碳五烯酸(eicosapentaenoic acid,EPA)、二十二碳六烯酸(docosahexaenoic acid,DHA)以及n-3 PUFAs水平明显高于IQ<90的学生(P<0.001或<0.05);而亚油酸(linoleic acid,LA)水平以及n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例明显低于IQ<90的学生(P<0.05或<0.01).同时,在对IQ<90的学生补充富含n-3PUFAs的食物后,其体内脂肪酸组成也发生显著变化,表现为:α-亚麻酸(α-linolenic acid,ALA)、EPA、DHA以及n-3 PUFAs水平显著提高(P<0.05或<0.001),而n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例明显下降(P<0.001).[结论]智商高的学生体内AA及DHA水平较高而n-6/n-3 PUFAs比例较低.同时,对智商低的学生补充n-3 PUFAs可以改变其体内的脂肪酸组成,使其更为接近高智商学生体内的脂肪酸组成.%[Objective] To investigate the differences of fatty acid(FA) composition between children with high(>135) and low(<90) intelligence quotient(IQ) and the influence of dietary supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids(PUFAs) on children with low IQ(<90) in Yuyao. [Methods] In two common primary schools of Yuyao, students from Grade two to Grade five were selected to two groups (IQ > 135 and IQ < 90) by intelligence test (Combined Raven Test,CRT). Their blood were collected and the FA composition was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. In the IQ<90 group, students were randomly assigned to receive either control food or food supplemented with n-3 PUFAs according to the randomized controlled trial(RCT) rules. Data of fatty acid composition were collected before and after the dietary supplementation. [Results] There were significant differences of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids(LC-PUFAs)composition in these students with high and low intelligence quotient. Among students with high lQ, arachidonic acid (AA

  2. Different intakes of n-3 fatty acids among pregnant women in 3 regions of China with contrasting dietary patterns are reflected in maternal but not in umbilical erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Gao, Yixiong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Song, Pengkun; Meng, Liping; Du, Zhen-Yu; Miles, Elizabeth A; Lie, Øvyind; Calder, Philip C; Frøyland, Livar

    2013-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the intake and status of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in Chinese pregnant women with different dietary patterns. We hypothesize that there will be significant differences in long chain n-3 and n-6 PUFA status in pregnant women from 3 regions of China (river/lake, coastal and inland). Dietary fatty acid intakes and fatty acid profiles in maternal and umbilical erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine (PC) were analyzed. The median daily intakes (mg) of eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the coastal group (64.6 and 93.9, n = 42) were significantly higher than those in the river/lake group (27.9 and 41.8, n = 41) and the inland group (12.1 and 41.1, n = 40). Daily intake of arachidonic acid (AA) was highest (170.2 mg) in the inland group. The median DHA level (%) of maternal erythrocyte PC was comparable between river/lake and inland groups (5.7 vs. 5.6) while both were significantly lower than in coastal group (8.4). The median AA level (%) of maternal erythrocyte PC tended to be lower in the coastal group than in the inland group but the difference was not significant. The AA and DHA levels in umbilical erythrocyte PC were comparable among the 3 groups. In conclusion, differences in long chain n-3 PUFA intake between geographic regions, in particular in DHA, were reflected in differences in maternal erythrocyte PC DHA status but did not result in differences in umbilical erythrocyte PC.

  3. Maternal n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deprivation during pregnancy and lactation affects neurogenesis and apoptosis in adult offspring: associated with DNA methylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chaonan; Fu, Huicong; Dong, Hua; Lu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yanfei; Qi, Kemin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency during pregnancy and lactation will make a lasting impact on brain neurogenesis and apoptosis of the adult offspring and that these harmful effects cannot be reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms may be attributable to the epigenetic changes of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). C57BL/6J female mice were fed with n-3 PUFA-deficient diet (n-3 def) or n-3 PUFA-adequate diet (n-3 adq) throughout pregnancy and lactation. At postnatal 21 days, equal numbers of male pups from both groups were fed the opposite diet, and the remaining male pups were fed with the same diets as their mothers until 3 months of age. Feeding the n-3 adq diet to pups from the maternal n-3 def group significantly increased the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not change expressions of calretinin, Bcl2, and Bax in the hippocampus. Feeding the n-3 def diet to pups from the maternal n-3 adq group significantly reduced the n-3 PUFA concentration but did not reduce expressions of calretinin and Bcl2. Similarly, BDNF levels, especially mRNA expressions of BDNF transcripts IV and IX, were also reduced by maternal n-3 def and not reversed by n-3 PUFA supplementation after weaning. The decrease in BDNF expression by maternal n-3 def diet was associated with greater DNA methylation at special CpG sites. These results suggested that the maternal n-3 PUFA deficiency during pregnancy and lactation imprints long-term changes of brain development in adult offspring.

  4. Transition of maternal dietary n-3 fatty acids from the yolk to the liver of broiler breeder progeny via the residual yolk sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, Astrid; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia; Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Franssens, Lies; Delezie, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the transfer of maternal dietary fatty acids (FA) from the yolk to the developing offspring, with special emphasis on n-3 FA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Six hundred forty Ross 308 breeders were housed from 6 to 58 wk of age in 16 pens resulting in 4 replicates per dietary treatment. They were fed 1 of 4 diets: a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA (CON), or an n-3 FA enriched diet formulated to obtain an EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA=DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). At 28, 43, and 58 wk of age, 20 eggs per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At these same breeder ages, 600 fertilized eggs per treatment were incubated. At hatch the residual yolks of 25 chicks per treatment were collected and analyzed for FA composition. At every hatch, 180 chicks per treatment were raised under standard conditions and livers were sampled at d 1, 14, 28, and 38 d for FA analysis. Concentrations of EPA in the yolk and residual yolk of eggs laid by EPA-fed breeders were highest, next-to-highest for EPA=DHA-fed breeders, next-to-lowest for DHA-fed breeders, and lowest in those laid by control hens, reflecting the inclusion levels in the maternal diets. Yolk and residual yolk DHA concentrations, however, were not only elevated due to DHA supplementation, compared with the control diet, but also due to EPA supplementation. Offspring hepatic EPA concentrations were elevated until d 28 in all n-3 enriched groups, whereas hepatic DHA concentrations were only affected by EPA=DHA and DHA supplementation at d 1. No differences were found in hepatic DHA concentrations at later offspring ages. Considering the role of EPA and DHA in early development and growth, the maternal supply of these n-3 FA might improve offspring health and performance.

  5. Maternal and neonatal plasma antioxidant levels in normal pregnancy, and the relationship with fatty acid unsaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G.S.; Mensink, R.P.; Al, M.D.M.; Houwelingen, A.C. van; Hornstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    During pregnancy, maternal plasma concentrations of the peroxidation-susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids (polyenes) increase. In addition, the proportion of polyenes is higher in neonatal plasma than in maternal plasma. To study whether these increased amounts of polyenes affect antioxidant leve

  6. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Superoxide Dismutase Underpins Persistent Cardiac Nutritional-Preconditioning by Long Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace G. Abdukeyum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species paradoxically underpin both ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R damage and ischaemic preconditioning (IPC cardioprotection. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to peroxidation, but are paradoxically cardioprotective. This study tested the hypothesis that LCn-3 PUFA cardioprotection is underpinned by peroxidation, upregulating antioxidant activity to reduce I/R-induced lipid oxidation, and the mechanisms of this nutritional preconditioning contrast to mechanisms of IPC. Rats were fed: fish oil (LCn-3 PUFA; sunflower seed oil (n-6 PUFA; or beef tallow (saturated fat, SF enriched diets for six weeks. Isolated hearts were subject to: 180 min normoxic perfusion; a 30 min coronary occlusion ischaemia protocol then 120 min normoxic reperfusion; or a 3 × 5 min global IPC protocol, 30 min ischaemia, then reperfusion. Dietary LCn-3 PUFA raised basal: membrane docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA; fatty acid peroxidisability index; concentrations of lipid oxidation products; and superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity (but not CuZnSOD or glutathione peroxidase. Infarct size correlated inversely with basal MnSOD activity (r2 = 0.85 in the ischaemia protocol and positively with I/R-induced lipid oxidation (lipid hydroperoxides (LPO, r2 = 0.475; malondialdehyde (MDA, r2 = 0.583 across ischaemia and IPC protocols. While both dietary fish oil and IPC infarct-reduction were associated with reduced I/R-induced lipid oxidation, fish oil produced nutritional preconditioning by prior LCn-3 PUFA incorporation and increased peroxidisability leading to up-regulated mitochondrial SOD antioxidant activity.

  7. Dietary intervention increases n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in sceletal muscle membrane phospholipids of obese subjects. Inplications for insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Madsbad, Sten; Høy, C-E

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in skeletal muscle cell membrane may modulate insulin sensitivity in humans. We examined the impact of a hypocaloric low-fat dietary intervention on membrane FA composition and insulin sensitivity....... Insulin resistance was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). RESULTS The mean weight loss was 5.1 kg (range -15.3 to +1.3 kg). BMI decreased from 36.5 to 34.9 kg/m(2) (P=0.003). Saturated FA (SFA) decreased 11% (P=0.0001). Polyunsaturated FA (PUFA)n-6 increased 4% (P =0.003). Long...... that included changes in weight, fat mass, waist circumference, plasma lipids, PUFA, SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 indicated that SFA and long-chain PUFAn-3 were independent predictors of HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.33, Pfat dietary intervention programme increased incorporation of long...

  8. A randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on cognitive and retinal function in cognitively healthy older people: the Older People And n-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (OPAL study protocol [ISRCTN72331636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letley Louise

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of individuals with age-related cognitive impairment is rising dramatically in the UK and globally. There is considerable interest in the general hypothesis that improving the diet of older people may slow the progression of cognitive decline. To date, there has been little attention given to the possible protective role of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPs most commonly found in oily fish, in age-related loss of cognitive function. The main research hypothesis of this study is that an increased dietary intake of n-3 LCPs will have a positive effect on cognitive performance in older people in the UK. To test this hypothesis, a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial will be carried out among adults aged 70–79 years in which the intervention arm will receive daily capsules containing n-3 LCP (0.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid and 0.2 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid while the placebo arm will receive daily capsules containing olive oil. The main outcome variable assessed at 24 months will be cognitive performance and a second major outcome variable will be retinal function. Retinal function tests are included as the retina is a specifically differentiated neural tissue and therefore represents an accessible window into the functioning of the brain. The overall purpose of this public-health research is to help define a simple and effective dietary intervention aimed at maintaining cognitive and retinal function in later life. This will be the first trial of its kind aiming to slow the decline of cognitive and retinal function in older people by increasing daily dietary intake of n-3 LCPs. The link between cognitive ability, visual function and quality of life among older people suggests that this novel line of research may have considerable public health importance.

  9. Lipid functions in skin: Differential effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cutaneous ceramides, in a human skin organ culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alexandra C; Kiezel-Tsugunova, Magdalena; Brownbridge, Luke C; Harwood, John L; Nicolaou, Anna

    2017-09-01

    Ceramides are important for skin health, with a multitude of species found in both dermis and epidermis. The epidermis contains linoleic acid-Ester-linked Omega-hydroxylated ceramides of 6-Hydroxy-sphingosine, Sphingosine and Phytosphingosine bases (CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP], respectively), that are crucial for the formation of the epidermal barrier, conferring protection from environmental factors and preventing trans-epidermal water loss. Furthermore, a large number of ceramides, derivatives of the same sphingoid bases and various fatty acids, are produced by dermal and epidermal cells and perform signalling roles in cell functions ranging from differentiation to apoptosis. Supplementation with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown promise as therapeutic agents in a number of inflammatory skin conditions, altering the lipid profile of the skin and production of bioactive lipids such as the eicosanoids, docosanoids and endocannabinoids. In this study we wished to investigate whether EPA and DHA could also affect the ceramide profile in epidermis and dermis, and, in this way, contribute to formation of a robust lipid barrier and ceramide-mediated regulation of skin functions. Ex vivo skin explants were cultured for 6days, and supplemented with EPA or DHA (50μM). Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation was used to assess the prevalence of 321 individual ceramide species, and a number of sphingoid bases, phosphorylated sphingoid bases, and phosphorylated ceramides, within the dermis and epidermis. EPA augmented dermal production of members of the ceramide families containing Non-hydroxy fatty acids and Sphingosine or Dihydrosphingosine bases (CER[NS] and CER[NDS], respectively), while epidermal CER[EOH], CER[EOS] and CER[EOP] ceramides were not affected. DHA did not significantly affect ceramide production. Ceramide-1-phosphate levels in

  10. [The profile of plasma non-esterified fatty acids in children with different terms of type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmurzina, V A; Petryairina, E E; Saveliev, S V; Selishcheva, A A

    2016-01-01

    Composition and quantitative content of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were investigated in plasma samples of healthy children (12) and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) (31) by gas chromatography (GC) after preliminary NEFA solid-phase extraction from plasma lipids. There was a significant (p1) 1.6-fold increase in the total level of NEFA regardless of the disease duration. In the group of DM1 children with the disease period less than 1 year there was an increase in the arachidonic acid (20:4) content (30%) and the oleic acid trans-isomer (18:1) content (82%), and also a decrease in the docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n3) content (26% ) and the docosapentaenoic acids (22:5 n-6) content (60%). In the group of DM1 children with prolonged course of this disease the altered NEFA levels returned to the normal level.

  11. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette;

    2001-01-01

    to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted...... in a relatively lower lipemic response than did intake of the unsaturated fatty acids, probably because the saturated fatty acids were absorbed less and at a lower rate; therefore, the lipemic response took longer to return to postabsorptive values. Conclusions: Fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation...

  12. Recent findings of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD) contrasting studies in Western countries to Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekikawa, Akira; Doyle, Margaret F; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-11-01

    Recent long-term randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3 PUFAs) on coronary heart disease (CHD) among high-risk patients conducted in Western countries all failed to show their clinical benefits. In striking contrast, an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on CHD conducted in Japan, which is a combination of secondary and primary prevention, showed a significant 19% reduction. Potential reasons for this discrepancy are large differences in doses of LCn-3 PUFAs administered (300-900 mg/day in Western countries vs. 1800 mg/day in Japan) and background dietary intake of LCn-3 PUFAs (1000 mg/day in Japan). These observations suggest that higher doses of LCn-3 PUFAs than examined in RCTs in Western countries may be cardio-protective. Atherosclerosis is the major underlying cause of CHD. Recent observational studies and an RCT of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis in Japan show that LCn-3 PUFAs are anti-atherogenic. In this brief review, we focus on recent epidemiological and clinical findings of LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis and CHD, contrasting studies in Western countries to those in Japan. We also discuss mechanisms of high-dose LCn-3 PUFAs on atherosclerosis.

  13. 饲粮n-6/n-3多不饱和脂肪酸比例对畜禽健康和产品品质的影响%Effects of Dietary n-6 to n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio on Health and Product Quality of Livestock and Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巧仙; 宋代军; 靳露

    2013-01-01

    现今人类膳食中n-6多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)大多都是过量的,但n-3 PUFA却严重不足.研究表明,n-6/n-3 PUFA比例平衡对畜禽健康和产品品质有着重要意义,n-6/n-3 PUFA比例平衡成为当下最受关注的问题.本文综述了n-6/n-3 PUFA比例平衡的营养生理作用以及对畜禽产品品质的影响及如何改善畜禽产品中的n-6/n-3 PUFA比例.%Nowadays,n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) is mostly excessive,but n-3 PUFA is serious lack in the human diet.There is an increasing interest in the balance of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio,because it is important for health and product quality of livestock and poultry.This paper reviewed the nutritional and physiological functions of the balance of dietary n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio,the impacts on health and product quality of livestock and poultry and the methods of how to obtain appropriate n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in livestock and poultry products.

  14. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE2 synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Haring, M.M.G.; Keestra, N.G.M.; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE2 in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid

  15. Effect of low doses of n-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases in 4,837 post-myocardial infarction patients: Design and baseline characteristics of the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Giltay, E.J.; Schouten, E.G.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Teitsma-Jansen, A.M.; Katan, M.B.; Kromhout, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weekly fish consumption has been related to a lower risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) and incident stroke in populations with a low fish intake. This relation has mainly been attributed to n-3 fatty acids in fish, that is, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid

  16. The role of cyclooxygenase in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid mediated effects on cell proliferation, PGE2 synthesis and cytotoxicity in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Haring, M.M.G.; Keestra, N.G.M.; Alink, G.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and its prostaglandin product PGE2 in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-mediated effects on cellular proliferation of two human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. The long chain PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid

  17. Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid plasma levels during pregnancy and childhood adiposity. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidakovic, Aleksandra Jelena; Gishti, Olta; Voortman, Trudy; Felix, Janine F.; Williams, Michelle A.; Hofman, Albert; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels during pregnancy may have persistent effects on growth and adiposity in the offspring. Suboptimal maternal diet during pregnancy might lead to fetal cardio-metabolic adaptations with persistent consequences in the offspring. Objective We examined the associations of maternal PUFA levels during pregnancy with childhood general and abdominal fat distribution measures. Design In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4,830 mothers and their children, we measured maternal second trimester n-3 and n-6 PUFA plasma levels. At the median age of 6.0 years (95% range, 5.6–7.9), we measured childhood body mass index, fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat ratio with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and pre-peritoneal abdominal fat area with ultrasound. Analyses were adjusted for maternal and childhood socio-demographic and lifestyle related characteristics. Results We observed that higher maternal total n-3 PUFA levels, and specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels, were associated with lower childhood total body fat percentage and lower android/gynoid fat mass ratio (p-values<0.05), but not with childhood body mass index and abdominal pre-peritoneal fat mass area. Higher maternal total n-6 PUFA levels and specifically dihomo-gamma linolenic acid (DGLA) were associated with a higher childhood total body fat percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio and abdominal pre-peritoneal fat mass area (p-values<0.05), but not with childhood body mass index. In line with these findings, a higher maternal n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio was associated with higher childhood total body and abdominal fat mass levels. Conclusions Lower maternal n-3 PUFA levels and higher n-6 PUFA levels during pregnancy are associated with higher total body fat and abdominal fat levels in childhood. Further studies are needed to replicate these observations and to explore the causality

  18. Changes in milk and plasma fatty acid profile in response to fish and soybean oil supplementation in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Zervas, George

    2013-05-01

    An effective strategy for enhancing the bioactive fatty acids (FA) in sheep milk could be dietary supplementation with a moderate level of a combination of soybean oil with fish oil (SFO) without negative effects on milk yield and its chemical composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of a moderate forage diet supplementation with SFO on milk chemical composition and FA profile, as well as on plasma FA. Twelve dairy sheep were assigned to two homogenous sub-groups. Treatments involved a control diet without added oil, and a diet supplemented with 23.6 g soybean oil and 4.7 g fish oil per kg dry matter (DM) of the total ration. The results showed that SFO diet had no effect on milk yield and chemical composition. In blood plasma the concentrations of trans-11 C(18:2) (VA), C(18:2n-6), C(20:5n-3) (EPA) and C(22:6n-3) (DHA) were significantly higher while those of C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(18:0) were lower in sheep fed with SFO diet compared with control. The SFO supplementation of sheep diet increased the concentrations of VA, cis-9, trans-11 C(18:2) CLA, trans-10, cis-12, C(18:2) CLA, EPA, DHA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), polyusaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and n-3 FA and decreased those of short chain FA (SCFA), medium chain FA (MCFA), the saturated/unsaturated ratio and the atherogenicity index value in milk compared with the control. In conclussion, the SFO supplementation at the above levels in a sheep diet, with moderate forage to concentrate ratio, improved the milk FA profile from human health standpoint without negative effects on its chemical composition.

  19. Effect of the ratio of dietary n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on broiler breeder performance, egg quality, and yolk fatty acid composition at different breeder ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenol, A; Delezie, E; Aerts, J; Willems, E; Wang, Y; Franssens, L; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2014-03-01

    When added to the feed of broiler breeder hens, dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can be incorporated into the yolk and therefore become available to the progeny during their early development. The mechanism involved in lipid metabolism and deposition in the egg may be influenced by breeder age. Before the effect of an elevated concentration of certain polyunsaturated FA on the embryo can be investigated, the effect at breeder level and egg quality must be further assessed. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate the effects of dietary n-6/n-3 ratios and dietary eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) ratios, provided to broiler breeder hens, in terms of their zoo technical performance, egg quality, and yolk FA composition. Starting at 6 wk of age, 640 Ross-308 broiler breeder hens were fed 1 of 4 different diets. The control diet was a basal diet, rich in n-6 FA. The 3 other diets were enriched in n-3 FA, formulated to obtain a different EPA/DHA ratio of 1/1 (EPA = DHA), 1/2 (DHA), or 2/1 (EPA). In fact, after analysis the EPA/DHA ratio was 0.8, 0.4, or 2.1, respectively. Dietary EPA and DHA addition did not affect the performance of the breeder hens, except for egg weight. Egg weight was lower (P < 0.001) for all n-3 treatments. Dietary EPA improved number of eggs laid in the first 2 wk of the production cycle (P = 0.029). The absolute and relative yolk weight of eggs laid by EPA = DHA fed hens was lowest (P = 0.004 and P = 0.025, respectively). The EPA and DHA concentrations in the yolk were highly dependent on dietary EPA and DHA concentrations with a regression coefficient equal to 0.89. It can be concluded that dietary EPA and DHA can be incorporated in the breeder egg yolk to become available for the developing embryo, without compromising the performance and egg quality of the flock.

  20. Exploratory investigation reveals parallel alteration of plasma fatty acids and eicosanoids in coronary artery disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong-Jiang; Ho, Wanxing Eugene; Xu, Fengguo; Wen, Tao; Ong, Choon Nam

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acids and eicosanoids are two important classes of signaling lipid molecules involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. To investigate the physiological functions and interplay between fatty acids and eicosanoids in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients, we developed an analytical approach for parallel quantitative analysis of plasma fatty acids and eicosanoids, using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, 26 fatty acids and 12 eicosanoids were confidently detected in 12 patients with confirmed coronary artery disease and 11 healthy subjects. Pattern recognition analysis (principal components analysis, orthogonal partial least-square discriminate analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis) demonstrated that the plasma lipid profile of fatty acids and eicosanoids enabled robust discrimination of CAD patients versus healthy subjects. Significant differences in six fatty acids and five eicosanoids were noted among CAD patients and healthy subjects. The development of cardiovascular disease-induced metabolic change of fatty acids and eicosanoids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, were consistent with previous isolated observations. Moderate-strong correlations between three plasma fatty acids and three eicosanoids from arachidonic acid metabolism were also observed. In brief, findings from this exploratory study offered a new insight on the roles of various bioactive lipid molecules in the development of coronary artery disease biomarkers.

  1. Determination of fatty acid profile in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, R; Torres, M A; Bravo, S; Sanchez, R; Sepúlveda, N

    2016-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in male reproductive function because they are associated with membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction, sperm motility and viability, but limited information exists about the fatty acid profile of ram semen. Our aim was to determine the fatty acid composition in ram spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Sixty ejaculates were obtained from three ram (20 ejaculates/ram) using artificial vagina. Ram spermatozoa (RS) and seminal plasma (SP) were separated using centrifugation, and the fatty acids were analysed by gas chromatography. Total lipids obtained in ram spermatozoa were 1.8% and 1.6% in seminal plasma. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) was proportionally major in SP (66.6%) that RS (49.9%). The highest proportions of SFA corresponded to C4:0 (RS = 16.3% and SP = 28.8%) and C16:0 (RS = 16.3% and PS = 20%). The most important unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 44.9% in RS and 31.5% in SP. The profile of fatty acid and their proportions showed differences between spermatozoa and seminal plasma.

  2. Dietary cholesterol, female gender and n-3 fatty acid deficiency are more important factors in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease than the saturation index of the fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Caraballo Sonia C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central feature of NAFLD is a disturbed fatty-acid metabolism with hepatic lipid accumulation. However, the factors that determine the severity of NAFLD, including the role of nutrition, gender, and plasma lipid levels, remain to be determined. Methods High-fat diets (42 en% fat, containing 0.2% cholesterol, were fed to male and female wild-type and hyperlipidemic APOE2ki C57BL/6J mice for three weeks. The fats were, in order of decreasing saturation, fractionated palm fat (fPF; ~95%, cocoa butter (CB; ~60%, olive oil (OO; ~15%, sunflower oil (SO; ~12%, and high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (hoSO; ~7%. Plasma and liver triglycerides (concentration and composition, liver inflammation (Ccl2, Cd68, Tnf-α mRNA, and infiltration of macrophages (Cd68, Cd11b immunohistochemistry and neutrophils (Mpo were quantified. Results Addition of cholesterol to a low-fat diet decreased plasma HDL and increased (VLDL levels in APOE2ki mice. Plasma cholesterol levels in female, but not male APOE2ki mice correlated significantly with inflammation. Kupffer cells of inflamed livers were swollen. Wild-type mice refused the highly saturated fPF diet. The high-fat CB, OO, and SO diets induced hyperglycemia and a 2-fold increase in hepatic fat content in male, but not female wild-type mice (in females, hepatic fat content was similar to that in males fed a high-fat diet. All high-fat diets induced macrovesicular setatosis. APOE2ki mice were protected against high-fat diet-induced steatosis and hyperglycemia, except when fed a hoSO diet. This diet caused a 5-fold increase in liver triglyceride and mead-acid content, and an increased expression of lipogenic genes, suggesting a deficiency in poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Irrespective of the composition of the high-fat diet, oleic acid was the main triglyceride component of liver fat in wild-type and APOE2ki mouse livers. Liver inflammation was dependent on genotype (APOE2ki > wild type, gender (female

  3. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana J P Pinto

    Full Text Available To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes.A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models.The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio.Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  4. Effect of maternally supplied n-3 and n-6 oils on the fatty acid composition and mononuclear immune cell distribution of lymphatic tissue from the gastrointestinal tract of suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Claudia; Khol-Parisini, Annabella; Gerner, Wilhelm; Schäfer, Klaus; Hulan, Howard W; Saalmüller, Armin; Zentek, Jürgen

    2011-10-01

    Fatty acids are essential for immune cell function. Maternal dietary fatty acid supply influences body fat composition of their offspring. As a first step to study immunonutritional interactions at an early age of pigs, four sows were fed a diet containing sunflower oil or oil from seal blubber during pregnancy and lactation. Corresponding piglets were sacrificed at three consecutive time points in the suckling period and their mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were analysed by gas chromatography for levels of fatty acid. At the same time mononuclear cells of these organs and of the intestinal lymphoid tissue from the jejunum were isolated and subpopulations characterised by flow cytometry. Levels of fatty acids from the lymphatic organs of the piglets were significantly influenced by the maternal diet. The concentration of the fatty acids 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were higher in the spleen and mesenteric lymph node of piglets suckled to sows of the test diet. Additionally, suckling time affected the levels of some long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dietary effects were seen on some subpopulations including CD4-CD8alpha+ lymphocytes of the mesenteric lymph nodes and CD4+CD8alpha+ lymphocytes of the lamina propria, which were higher in the group fed seal blubber oil. The levels of CD21+ B-cells were higher in the group fed sunflower oil. The results indicate that the maternal diet and suckling time affect the fatty acid status of the investigated lymphatic tissues of piglets, but may have minor effects on the investigated lymphocyte subpopulations.

  5. Nutritional enrichment of vegetable oils with long-chain n-3 fatty acids through enzymatic interesterification with a new vegetable lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa, J. S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce vegetable oils enriched with long-chain n-3 fatty acids of nutraceutical interest, through an enzyme-catalyzed interesterification with a new lipase, from physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.. The Vegetable Lipase Powder (biocatalyst called VLP, which has never been applied in functional foods, was obtained from the physic nut seed, and efficiently hydrolyzed the 95% of waste fish oil in 24 h. Urea precipitation was used to concentrate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and was further interesterified with oils of different sources by means of enzymatic catalysis. After the interesterification reaction, which was also catalyzed by the VLP, the PUFA content in coconut oil increased almost ten-fold from 1.8% to 17.7%. In palm oil, the PUFA content increased two-fold from 10.5% to 21.8%, while in olive oil the level of PUFA increased from 8.6% to 21.3%. The mixture of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (3.7% to 3.9% was incorporated into the triacylglycerol fraction of each of the coconut, palm and olive oils. Through the hydroesterification (hydrolysis followed by interesterification all the interesterified vegetable oils tested presented sufficient EPA and DHA levels to satisfy the levels recommended for intake by human adults in one tablespoon.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue producir aceites vegetales enriquecidos con ácidos grasos n-3 de cadena larga de interés nutraceutico, por interesterificación catalizada mediante una nueva lipasa, una enzima de semilla de Jatropha curcas L. La lipasa vegetal en polvo (biocatalizador llamada VLP, nunca ha sido aplicada en alimentos funcionales, se obtuvo mediante procedimientos físicos con semillas de nueces, e hidrolizó eficientemente el 95% de aceites de residuos de pescado en 24 h. La precipitación con urea se utilizó para concentrar los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA que fueron posteriormente interesterificados con aceites de

  6. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and uri

  7. Production response of multiparous Holstein cows treated with bovine somatotropin and fed diets enriched with n-3 or n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiry, M; Weber, W J; Dahlen, C R; Lamb, G C; Baumgard, L H; Crooker, B A

    2009-10-01

    Multiparous cows (n = 59) were blocked by expected calving date and previous milk yield and assigned randomly to treatments to determine the effects of bovine somatotropin (bST; Posilac, Monsanto Animal Agricultural Group, St. Louis, MO) and source of dietary fat on production responses. Diets were provided from calving and included whole, high-oil sunflower seeds [SS; 10% of dietary dry matter (DM); n-6:n-3 ratio of 4.6] as a source of linoleic acid (18:2) or a mixture of Alifet-High Energy and Alifet-Repro (AF; Alifet USA, Cincinnati, OH; 3.5 and 1.5% of dietary DM, respectively; n-6/n-3 ratio of 2.6) as a source of protected n-3 fatty acids. Diets contained 181 versus 188 g of crude protein and 183 versus 186 g of acid detergent fiber/kg of DM and 1.54 versus 1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation at the actual DM intake for SS versus AF, respectively. Cows received 0 or 500 mg of bST every 10 d from 12 to 70 d in milk (DIM) and at 14-d intervals through 280 DIM. The 2 x 2 factorial combination of diet (SS or AF) with or without bST administration resulted in treatments designated as SSY, SSN, AFY, and AFN, respectively. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using mixed model procedures to determine the effects of diet, bST, and their interactions. Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was not altered by diet, but was increased by 4.0 +/- 1.9 kg/d from 12 to 70 DIM and by 5.1 +/- 1.2 kg/d from 12 to 280 DIM by bST. Treatment did not affect DM intake or energy balance (EB) nadir. There was an interaction of bST and diet on EB because AF decreased the impact of bST on overall EB and allowed AFY cows to reach a positive EB earlier than SSY cows. Gross feed efficiency adjusted for body weight change was greater for bST-treated cows (1.03 vs. 1.15 +/- 0.03 kg of fat-corrected milk/Mcal of net energy for lactation). Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations were increased by bST (85 vs. 125 +/- 8 ng/mL). Body weight, body condition score, and backfat

  8. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic