WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma multicouches utilises

  1. SEMINAIRE DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE Nouvelles Technologies en Tuyauteries Multicouches - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2002-01-01

    Mardi 28 mai, mercredi 29 mai 28 mai, 9:30 - 12:00 - Training Centre Auditorium, Room 11, bldg. 593 28 mai, 14:00 - 17:00; 29 mai, 9:00 - 12:00 - Training Centre Rooms 13 and 15, bldg. 593 Nouvelles Technologies en Tuyauteries Multicouches Jacques Dougoud / GEBERIT SA, Lausanne, Suisse Mario Bettini / GEORG FISCHER PFCI S.r.l., Peschiera del Garda, Brescia, Italie Christian Tacco / VALSIR S.P.A., Vestone, Brescia, Italie Depuis quelques années l'apparition de tubes multicouches a changé radicalement la conception des tuyauteries, tant pour les applications industrielles que domestiques. Les utilisations au CERN concernent pratiquement tous les fluides, c'est-à-dire eau sanitaire, eau déminéralisée, air comprimé, fluorocarbones liquides ou gazeux, et tous les gaz, depuis l'hélium jusqu'au xénon. Ce séminaire de l'Enseignement Technique est adressé à toute personne concern&eac...

  2. Experimental studies of X-UV rays by a laser plasma: X-UV strioscopy by means of multilayer mirrors; Etude experimentale de la refraction X-UV par un plasma laser: strioscopie X-UV a l`aide de miroirs multicouches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutrin, F

    1996-05-20

    This thesis studies a new instrument -from its conception to the measures interpretation- that analyses electronic density gradient in the super critical transportation area of a laser plasma (0,35 {mu}m). This device, so-called of X-UV Schlieren, is based on the refraction property of a probe beam by an index gradient. Its specificity is the use of the X-UV emission at 13 nm (92 eV) of another laser plasma as X-UV probe. The conception and characterization of this instrument are defined thanks to both the emissivity and reflectivity properties of laser plasmas and the reflectivity properties of multilayers. Within this report are presented strioscopy images, spatially and spectrally resolved of an aluminium plasma from a 3.10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} laser flux, probed by a 13 nm wavelength. The device has to be closely aligned so as to obtain good contrast and good spatial resolution. For the first time, the refraction of a X-UV probe beam by a laser plasma is displayed. The experiments show that this refraction is all the more obvious for a gold probe plasma of energy 105 J and an aluminium probed plasma of energy 1 J. According to our plasma hydrodynamic simulation, the detected refraction corresponds to an electronic density gradient of 6,5.10{sup 25} electrons/cm{sup 4} in the two first microns of the sur-critical area. To study the parameters dependence of this gradient in the sur-critical area, several solutions for improving the instrument are produced. (author) 168 refs.

  3. Les effets des interfaces sur les proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches nickel/iron et cobalt/silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Teodor

    Cette these est consacree a l'etude de l'evolution structurale des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches Ni/Fe et nanostructures a base de Co et de l'Ag. Dans une premiere partie, essentiellement bibliographique, nous introduisons quelques concepts de base relies aux proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches metalliques. Ensuite, nous presentons une breve description des methodes d'analyse des resultats. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude des proprietes magnetiques et de transport des multicouches ferromagnetiques/ferromagnetiques Ni/Fe. Nous montrerons qu'une interpretation coherente de ces proprietes necessite la prise en consideration des effets des interfaces. Nous nous attacherons a mettre en evidence, a evaluer et a etudier les effets de ces interfaces ainsi que leur evolution, et ce, suite a des traitements thermiques tel que le depot a temperature elevee et l'irradiation ionique. Les analyses correlees de la structure et de la magnetoresistance nous permettront d'emettre des conclusions sur l'influence des couches tampons entre l'interface et le substrat ainsi qu'entre les couches elles-memes sur le comportement magnetique des couches F/F. La troisieme partie est consacree aux systemes a Magneto-Resistance Geante (MRG) a base de Co et Ag. Nous allons etudier l'evolution de la microstructure suite a l'irradiation avec des ions Si+ ayant une energie de 1 MeV, ainsi que les effets de ces changements sur le comportement magnetique. Cette partie debutera par l'analyse des proprietes d'une multicouche hybride, intermediaire entre les multicouches et les materiaux granulaires. Nous analyserons a l'aide des mesures de diffraction, de relaxation superparamagnetique et de magnetoresistance, les evolutions structurales produites par l'irradiation ionique. Nous etablirons des modeles qui nous aideront a interpreter les resultats pour une serie des multicouches qui couvrent un large eventail de differents comportements magnetiques

  4. Experimental studies and modeling of X-Rays multilayer mirrors damages under high X-Ray flux generated by a laser-plasma experiment; Etude experimentale et modelisation de l`endommagement des miroirs multicouches X soumis a de hauts flux de rayonnement X dans le cadre de l`experience plasma-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guern, F

    1996-05-24

    We have been able with this work to point out characterize X-Rays multilayers mirrors damages. We have designed two experimental set-up which have been installed in the HELIOTROPE experimental chamber of the OCTAL facility located at the CEA in Limeil-Valenton. We have demonstrated that X-Rays multilayer mirrors properties were drastically modified by X-Rays emitted by a golden laser plasma. We have, more precisely, introduced the damage speed concept to quantify the expansion of the multilayer mirror period. We have been able to classify different multilayer mirrors in function of their resistance to damage and we have demonstrated that a silicate layer deposited on a mirror allowed to increase his resistance to damage. In a second part we have developed a simulation tool in order to simulate the X-Rays multilayer mirrors optical properties modifications. We have therefore coupled a thermo-mechanic code with an optical program. The results of the simulations are in a rather good agreement with the experiments and can be used to predict, before experiments, the multilayer mirror behavior under X-Rays irradiation. (author) 55 refs.

  5. Elagage d'un perceptron multicouches : utilisation de l'analyse de la variance de la sensibilit\\'e des param\\`etres

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The stucture determination of a neural network for the modelisation of a system remain the core of the problem. Within this framework, we propose a pruning algorithm of the network based on the use of the analysis of the sensitivity of the variance of all the parameters of the network. This algorithm will be tested on two examples of simulation and its performances will be compared with three other algorithms of pruning of the literature

  6. Elément coque multicouches basé sur la théorie ZPST pour l'analyse dynamique

    OpenAIRE

    Chettah, Ameur; Chazot, Jean-Daniel

    2010-01-01

    National audience; La théorie de déformation en cisaillement d'ordre p combinée avec la théorie de zig-zag (zig-zag p-order shear deformation theory - ZPST) a été utilisée pour l'analyse modale de structures multicouches. Dans la théorie traditionnelle de Reissner-Mindlin, le champ de déplacement inclus un déplacement linéaire dans le plan qui se traduit par une déformation en cisaillement transverse constante dans l'épaisseur nécessitant ainsi l'introduction d'un facteur de correction de cis...

  7. Gas utilisation developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsall, G.J.; Fantom, I.R.; Laughlin, K.M.; King, R.J.; Watkins, C.J.; Williams, J.D.H.; Blenkin, P. [British Coal Corporation (United Kingdom). Coal Technology Development Division

    1995-08-01

    Advanced coal based power generation systems such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), formerly known as the CTDD Topping Cycle, offer the potential for high efficiency electricity generation with low environmental impact. An important component of the ABGC development programme has been the determination of alkali metal compounds, dust and other trace contaminant species concentrations that would be contained in the combusted fuel gas presented to the gas turbine. These species are an important factor in the prediction of gas turbine component lifetimes when firing coal derived fuel gas. A project supported under the UK Department of Trade and Industry`s Coal Research and Development programme and the European Communities Commission THERMIE programme, was therefore devised to measure these contaminant species in a purpose built gas cleaning and combustion facility (Gas Utilisation Facility). This facility contained gas cleaning and combustion sytems representative of those that would be used in an ABGC utility application. The objective of this project was therefore to provide data on the level of certain contaminants present in the turbine expansion gas after passing through a low calorific value fuel gas, gas turbine combustor. This fuel gas was produced by the CTDD spouted fluidised bed gasifier and cleaned by filtration at up to 600{degree}C in the purpose built Gas Utilisation Facility. The data has been related to an existing materials test programme associated with the Grimethorpe Topping Cycle Project, which had the objective of predicting gas turbine component lifetimes in utility gas turbine machines. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Study of oxygen diluted silane plasmas applied for the deposition of silicium oxyde; Etudes des plasmas organoscilicies dilues en oxygene utilises pour la deposition d'oxyde de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin films such as silicon dioxide is used in many applications such as the insulator production in semiconductor technology or anticorrosion coating in packaging industry as a substitute for aluminium which is less ecological. Oxygen diluted silane plasmas are often utilized to produce SiO{sub 2} film, but the tendency is to work with organosilicon precursors such as HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ) described as non-toxic and requiring less stringent safety and costly installation. In this study, the species in gaseous phase and the powder produced in oxygen-diluted HMDSO plasmas were experimentally characterized in a radiofrequency (RF) capacitively-coupled reactor at 13.56 MHz. Some aspects of plasma enhanced deposition of SiO{sub 2} were studied in a RF magnetron reactor . The gaseous phase of the oxygen-diluted plasmas were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .The complementarity of these diagnostics allowed to show that the dominant species in gaseous phase come from the homogeneous reaction between oxygen and the radical CH{sub x} (with x 1,2 and 3), abundantly produced in the plasma. Two principal pathways were shown to occur. A first way leads to hydrocarbon formation such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), whose partial pressures are close to 2 %. A second way leads to the formation of molecules from the combustion of CH{sub x}, such as formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. Moreover it is shown that the CO{sub 2} results from a heterogeneous reaction between the carbon on the surfaces and the oxygen coming from the plasma. At low dilution conditions, the partial pressures of CO and CO{sub 2} were estimated at 25 and 10 % of the total pressure respectively. In argon or helium diluted HMDSO plasmas, methane, acetylene and hydrogen are the main stable molecules produced in the gaseous

  9. Study of oxygen diluted silane plasmas applied for the deposition of silicium oxyde; Etudes des plasmas organoscilicies dilues en oxygene utilises pour la deposition d'oxyde de silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magni, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin films such as silicon dioxide is used in many applications such as the insulator production in semiconductor technology or anticorrosion coating in packaging industry as a substitute for aluminium which is less ecological. Oxygen diluted silane plasmas are often utilized to produce SiO{sub 2} film, but the tendency is to work with organosilicon precursors such as HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ) described as non-toxic and requiring less stringent safety and costly installation. In this study, the species in gaseous phase and the powder produced in oxygen-diluted HMDSO plasmas were experimentally characterized in a radiofrequency (RF) capacitively-coupled reactor at 13.56 MHz. Some aspects of plasma enhanced deposition of SiO{sub 2} were studied in a RF magnetron reactor . The gaseous phase of the oxygen-diluted plasmas were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .The complementarity of these diagnostics allowed to show that the dominant species in gaseous phase come from the homogeneous reaction between oxygen and the radical CH{sub x} (with x 1,2 and 3), abundantly produced in the plasma. Two principal pathways were shown to occur. A first way leads to hydrocarbon formation such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), whose partial pressures are close to 2 %. A second way leads to the formation of molecules from the combustion of CH{sub x}, such as formaldehyde (CH{sub 2}O), formic acid (CH{sub 2}O{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. Moreover it is shown that the CO{sub 2} results from a heterogeneous reaction between the carbon on the surfaces and the oxygen coming from the plasma. At low dilution conditions, the partial pressures of CO and CO{sub 2} were estimated at 25 and 10 % of the total pressure respectively. In argon or helium diluted HMDSO plasmas, methane, acetylene and hydrogen are the main stable molecules produced in the gaseous

  10. The use of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of a magnetic field (1960); Utilisation des caracteristiques de sondes dans des plasmas en presence de champ magnetique (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunet, A.; Geller, R.; Leroy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In this article we recall the principal methods of interpretation of probe characteristics in plasma in the presence of magnetic fields. Our purpose is to resume and to present the methods in such a form as to be immediately applicable in a particular case. This article is therefore principally useful to experimenters. Finally we expose our practical view points by comparing of experimental methods. (author) [French] Dans cet article, nous rappelons les principales methodes d'interpretation des caracteristiques de sonde dans des plasmas en presence de champs magnetiques. Notre but est de resumer et de presenter sous forme inmediatement applicable ces methodes. Cet article est donc destine aux experimentateurs. Enfin, nous developpons nos etudes pratiques sur la question en etablissant des comparaisons experimentales entre les methodes. (auteur)

  11. utilisation of synthetic amino acids

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    student

    intake, bodyweight gain, egg weight or efficiency of lysine utilisation, but ... When modelling the amino acid requirements of broiler breeder ... Two hundred and forty Cobb broiler breeder hens aged 27 weeks were housed in individual cages. ..... feeds with synthetic amino acids is of importance not only on nutritional and.

  12. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  13. Coke: its constitution and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth Callcott; Tom Callcott [Callcott Consulting (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Coke made in coke ovens from coal and used in iron blast furnaces is a strategically critical manufactured product for contemporary and future world iron production. The important physical, chemical and microscopic properties of cokes are examined and explained, drawing on both an exhaustive literature review and the extensive R&D, consulting and industrial experience of the authors. The emphasis is on characterising the family of cokes as materials rather than considering the raw materials of carbonisation and the carbonisation processes. The term 'coke' covers a wide range of materials that can be classified in a number of ways based either on properties or utilisation practices. With few exceptions, these materials are manufactured for specific industrial purposes such as metallurgical processes, making gases or filtering fluids. This report primarily concerns industrial cokes with special concern for blast furnace cokes and their utilisation in iron making. Other industrial cokes and those made in pilot plants or laboratory ovens receive attention where their properties help understand primary utilisation as blast furnace coke.

  14. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  15. Maternal health care utilisation in Teso District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic visits, the level of utilisation of maternal health care, to identify the main service .... number of antenatal care visits which have impact .... to or experience with modern health services may ..... diet/nutrition ..... Human Fertility.

  16. Utilisation de la post-décharge d'un plasma micro-ondes d'air ou d'azote pour valoriser le méthane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumghar, A.; Legrand, J. C.; Diamy, A. M.; Turillon, N.; Ben-Aïm, R. I.

    1994-01-01

    Valorization of methane is obtained by means of the reaction with a plasma. The plasma is produced in a quartz tube (30 mm in diameter) crossing a wave guide. The energy is supplied by a generator (Thomson CSF, 2 450 MHz, 15 to 1 500 W). Directional couplers followed by an attenuator and thermistor detectors enable forward Pi_i and reflected Pi_r power to be measured. Methane is introduced in the post-discharge zone through five tubes symmetrically arranged around the reactor. Methane consumption α, selectivity SX and yield RX are measured as a function of the following parameters : β methane/air ratio, F gaz flow, d distance where methane is introduced in the plasma, P pressure, Pi microwave power absorbed by air or nitrogen. It appears that acetylene is the major hydrocarbon obtained. The corresponding selectivity is increased when Pi and P are increased or when d and F are decreased. The optimum value of β is 4/5. If the best experimental conditions are selected, selectivity of total C2 reaches 44 % with a conversion ratio of 80 %. By decreasing methane/air ratio, carbon monoxide yield is increased. The ratio acetylene/ethylene can by varied without changing the conversion ratio, by introducing a catalyst in the post reaction zone. La valorisation du méthane est réalisée dans la post-décharge d'un plasma microondes (2 450 MHz) d'air ou d'azote. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'azote, les principaux produits dosés sont l'acétylène, l'éthylène, l'éthane et l'hydrogène. Lorsque la décharge est produite dans l'air, on dose en outre le monoxyde de carbone. Le taux de conversion du méthane ainsi que la sélectivité des produits ont été déterminés en fonction des paramètres expérimentaux suivants : proportion méthane/gaz plasmagène, flux gazeux, distance d'introduction du méthane dans la post-décharge, pression et puissance micro-ondes. Le procédé expérimenté permet d'obtenir des rendements chimiques importants et d'éviter la

  17. Pattern of Smartphones Utilisation among Engineering Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliati Sedek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The smartphones ownership among the undergraduates in Malaysia was recorded as high. However, little was known about its utilization patterns, thus, the focus of this research was to determine the utilisation patterns of smartphones based on the National Education Technology Standard for Students (NETS.S among engineering undergraduates in Malaysia. This study was based on a quantitative research and the population comprised undergraduates from four Malaysian Technical Universities. A total of 400 questionnaires were analyzed. Based on the results, the undergraduates’ utilisation level of smartphones for communication and collaboration tool was at a high level. Meanwhile, utilisation for operations and concepts tool and research and information fluency tool were at moderate level. Finally, smartphones utilisation as digital citizenship tool and critical thinking, problem solving and creativity tool were both at a low level. Hence, more training and workshops should be given to the students in order to encourage them to fully utilise smartphones in enhancing the higher order thinking skills.

  18. Comment les jeunes gens utilisent les cartes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sandford

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Des recherches sur l’utilisation des cartes dans les collèges et les lycées révèlent une hiérarchie de procédés qui met au jour des lacunes dans la formation au niveau secondaire.

  19. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  20. Carbon dioxide utilisation in the chemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I. [Universita di Bari (Italy). Centro METEA e Dipartimento di Chimica

    1997-12-31

    The amount of carbon dioxide available for industrial utilisation may expand to unprecedented levels if the recovery of carbon dioxide from energy plants flue gases is implemented. The potential of each of the three possible uses (technological, chemical, and biological) is far from being clearly defined. The chemical utilisation option, that has intrinsic thermodynamic and kinetic constraints, may raise controversial positions, depending on the criteria used for the analysis. The estimate of its real potential demands a thorough comparative analysis, using the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, of existing processes/products with the new ones based on CO{sub 2}, in order to establish whether, or not, the latter avoid carbon dioxide (either directly or indirectly) and their economics. The rejection/consideration assessment methodology will produce reliable results only if an exhaustive number of parameters is used. The analysis cannot be limited to practiced industrial processes, but must be extended to an exhaustive inventory of cases. (Author)

  1. Future trends in steam coal utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, G.A.

    1999-07-01

    The history of coal production in important regions of the world and the evolution of the international steam coal trade is reviewed. Then the four main drivers for the evolution of steam coal utilisation and how they may impact different regions of the world are discussed. These drivers are: social issues, including population, wealth and employment; strategic issues like energy security and balance of payments; competitiveness; and environment.

  2. Utilisation of magnets to enhance gastrointestinalendoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Methods to assess, access and treat pathology withinthe gastrointestinal tract continue to evolve with videoendoscopy replacing radiology as the gold standard.Whilst endoscope technology develops further with theadvent of newer higher resolution chips, an array ofadjuncts has been developed to enhance endoscopy inother ways; most notable is the use of magnets. Magnetsare utilised in many areas, ranging from endoscopictraining, lesion resection, aiding manoeuvrability ofcapsule endoscopes, to assisting in easy placement oftubes for nutritional feeding. Some of these are still at anexperimental stage, whilst others are being increasinglyincorporated in our everyday practice.

  3. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... comprised internationallyadopted children (n = 6,820), adopted between 1994 and2005, and all non-adopted children (n = 492,374) who couldbe matched with the adopted children on sex, age, municipalityand family constellation at the time of adoption. Results: International adoption increased the use...

  4. Fuel gas from biomass - utilisation concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Vierrath, H. [Lurgi Envirotherm GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the Lurgi-Circulating Fluidized Bed technology (CFB). CFB units are state of the art and have proven their capability of converting biomass, waste of coal into power and/or steam. CFB reactors are in commercial operation for reduction processes and for combustion and gasification of solid fuels. In this paper reduction processes are not considered. The fact, that world-wide over 80 CFB combustion plants using Lurgi technology are commercially operating proves that this technology is well accepted. Lurgi's CFB gasification technology is at present applied in two industrial plants. It is the key process for our advanced biomass or waste utilisation plants. The subject paper will focus on CFB fuel gas production for combined cycle plants (IGCC) and for co-firing into existing boiler plants. (orig.)

  5. Climate impact from peat utilisation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uppenberg, S.; Zetterberg, L.; Aahman, M.

    2001-08-01

    The climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden has been evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. This was done by attempting to answer the question 'What will be the climate impact if one would use 1 m{sup 2} of mire for peat extraction during 20 years?'. Two different methods of after-treatment were studied: afforestation and restoration of wetland. The climate impact from a peatland - wetland energy scenario and a peatland - forestry energy scenario was compared to the climate impact from coal, natural gas and forest residues. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate which parameters that are important to take into consideration in order to minimize the climate impact from peat utilisation.

  6. Increased health care utilisation in international adoptees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Heidi Jeannet; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kragstrup, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    after adoption. Our study aimed to theassess health-care utilisation of international adoptees inprimary and secondary care for somatic and psychiatricdiagnoses in a late post-adoption period. Is there an increaseduse of the health-care system in this period, evenwhen increased morbidity in the group...... of allservices in primary care, while in secondary care only fewareas showed an increased long-term morbidity. Conclusion: International adoptees use medical servicesin primary care at a higher rate than non-adoptees someyears after adoption. Excess use of services in secondarycare is also present, but only......Introduction: Several studies have documented thatinternational adoptees have an increased occurrence ofhealth problems and contacts to the health-care systemafter arriving to their new country of residence. This maybe explained by pre-adoption adversities, especially for theperiod immediately...

  7. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  8. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill.

  9. Determination of iodine at ppt level in a nitric acid medium by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry: influence of the chemical forms; Etude de la determination de traces d'iode en solution par spectrometrie de masse a secteur magnetique utilisant un plasma a couplage inductif comme source d'ionisation: influence de la forme chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, B

    2001-07-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP/SFMS) was used to determine several chemical forms of iodine, at ppt level, in a nitric acid media. Ascorbic acid was added as a reducing agent in order to maintain iodine as iodide. In a preliminary approach, the influence of the chemical form was studied by comparing inorganic iodine (NaI) and organic iodine (CH3I). Different signal responses were observed. With a conventional sample introduction system, sensitivities obtained for iodo-methane could differ by a factor of 5. This was not caused by a problem of atomization or by a change in the ionization efficiency of the iodo-compound into the plasma. The low volatilization temperature of iodo-methane (315.5 K) seemed to be the main explanation of this phenomena. Actually, nebulization resulted in the volatilization of a 2% nitric acid solution containing iodo-methane. As a result, the transport efficiency of iodo-methane between the nebulizer and the torch was approaching 100%. A Direct Injection High Efficiency Nebulizer (DIHEN) allowed us to minimize the behavior difference between the two iodine species, but the sensitivity ratio was inverted and still differed by 20 - 40%. Moreover, the association of a guard electrode and the direct injection system was studied in order to apply these equipments to the determination of iodine. This association allowed us to improve the sensitivity by a factor of 10 and to minimize memory effects, when compared with a conventional system. Further studies indicated that signal responses obtained with different iodine-containing species, except for iodo-methane, were found to be similar. (author)

  10. Utilisation of Estonian energy wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muiste, P.; Tullus, H.; Uri, V. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia)

    1996-12-31

    In the end of the Soviet period in the 1980s, a long-term energy programme for Estonia was worked out. The energy system was planned to be based on nuclear power and the share of domestic alternative sources of energy was low. The situation has greatly changed after the re-establishment of the Estonian independence, and now wood and peat fuels play an important role in the energy system. Energy consumption in Estonia decreased during the period 1970-1993, but this process has less influenced the consumption of domestic renewable fuels - peat and wood. It means that the share of these fuels has grown. The investment on substitution of imported fossil fuels and on conversion of boiler plants from fossil fuels to domestic fuels has reached the level of USD 100 million. The perspectives of the wood energy depend mainly on two factors; the resources and the price of wood energy compared with other fuels. The situation in wood market influences both the possible quantities and the price. It is typical that the quickly growing cost of labour power in Estonia is greatly affecting the price of energy wood. Though the price level of fuel peat and wood chips is lower than the world market price today, the conditions for using biofuels could be more favourable, if higher environmental fees were introduced. In conjunction with increasing utilisation of biofuels it is important to evaluate possible emissions or removal of greenhouse gases from Estonian forests 3 refs.

  11. Effective Utilisation of Waste Glass in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shaikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass is a widely used product throughout the world; it is versatile, durable and reliable. The uses of glass ranges drastically, therefore waste glass is discarded, stockpiled or land filled. About million tons of waste glass is generated and around large percent of this glass is disposed of in landfills. This pattern has influenced environmental organizations to pressure the professional community to lower the amount of glass being discarded as well as find use to the non-recycled glass in new applications. In relation, the recycling of waste glass as a component in concrete gives waste glass a sustainable alternative to land filling and therefore makes it economically viable.The proposed study of utilising waste glass powder(GLP in concrete as partial replacement of cement as well as the use of crushed glass particles(CGP retained on 1.18mm & 2.36mm IS sieve as a partial replacement to sand, which offers important benefits related to strength of concrete as well as it is eco-friendly. Recycling of mixed-colour waste glass possesses major problems for municipalities, and this problem can be greatly eliminated by re-using waste glass as sand/cement replacement in concrete. Moreover, re-using waste materials in construction can reduce the demand on the sources of primary materials.In this project the attempts have been made to partially replace the cement as well as sand by waste glass powder and crushed glass particles with equal combination by 5% interval up to 20% replacement and observe its effect on the strength of concrete after 7 days and 28 days of curing.

  12. Co-utilisation of coal and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal Kubacki; Andrew B. Ross; Jenny M. Jones; Alan Williams [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Energy and Resources Research Institute, School of Process

    2007-07-01

    Co-utilisation of coal and biomass for energy production results in pollutant reduction. Most notable is the impact on NOx, SOx, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the synergy in toxic organic emission reduction from co-firing or co-gasifying coal and biomass. A new technique was developed to study co-pyrolysis, heated wire mesh pyrolysis coupled to a GC-mass-spectrometer via a probe, which can sample at varying heights from the pyrolysing fuel. The results from this technique were compared to more conventional pyrolysis-GC-MS as well as thermogravimetric (TGA) and batch reactor studies. Co-combustion was studied by TGA and by burning briquettes supported on a needle in a methane air flame. A range of coals of varying rank, different biomass, as well as model compounds were used. Results show that non-additive combustion behaviour is not easily explained by studying devolatilisation because of the difficulty in replicating the conditions of temperature profile and residence time experienced by the volatiles. Thus, conflicting behaviour is exhibited depending upon pyrolysis technique. However, the atmosphere during experiments appears to be more important. Non-additive combustion for both powdered and pelletised fuels was seen by TGA and studies in a methane-air burner. The coal ignites and burns at a lower temperature because of the interaction with the biomass volatile combustion region. Thus it is proposed that the reduction in emissions from co-combustion arises from enhanced reaction of the coal volatiles by mixing with biomass volatiles in a hot oxidising atmosphere. 14 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Wood torrefaction. Pilot tests and utilisation prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C.; Jukola, P.; Jarvinen, T.; Sipila, K. [VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Verhoeff, F.; Kiel, J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, LE Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    operation. The market is expected to move forward but the available public information is very limited, especially concerning the technologies used and volumes produced. Woody feedstocks will be the main raw material source. The utilisation rate of forest industry residues and by-products is relatively high in the EU and wood supply in Central Europe remains more or less stable, hence the price of the raw material is at a fairly high level. The utilities' capability to pay for the product depends mainly on the national feed-in tariffs of green electricity. The energy price for the user is at least twice as high as that of coal. (orig.)

  14. Utilisation of Riverine Dom By Coastal Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, E.; Pizay, M.-D.; Gattuso, J.-P.

    utilise different sources of DOM.

  15. Consumer Involvement and Knowledge Influence on Wine Choice Cue Utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruwer, Johan; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Lesschaeve, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the utilisation of product choice cues in a retail environment and the impact of consumer involvement on this utilisation. It further investigates the impact of product knowledge on product choice cue utilisation and its moderating role on the impact...... of consumer involvement. Design/methodology/approach The case of wine as an exemplary product category is considered, given the importance and variability of choice cues that have been found to affect product choice. Analysis is conducted on survey data from a sample of wine consumers in Ontario, Canada....... Product choice cues are grouped into extrinsic, intrinsic and marketing mix. The importance of how these cues are influenced from different dimensions of consumer involvement is illustrated. Findings The results show that product knowledge has a positive impact on intrinsic product cue utilisation...

  16. Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' Information Needs in Soap Opera Utilisation for Agricultural Enterprise ... (means and percentages) and inferential (Chi-square) statistics at p=0.05. ... to cover crop planting procedure (95.3%), marketing strategies (91.3%), rural ...

  17. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...

  18. Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment Of Factors Affecting Farmers' Adoption And Utilisation Of Major ... Level of respondents' education, participation in on-farm trials, contact with extension ... The study therefore recommended intensification of adequate and effective ...

  19. Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a specialist ... use in the management of essential hypertension in a specialist hospital and its ... of encounters, there were a total of 1544 drugs and 28 non-drug interventions.

  20. Jarosite characteristics and its utilisation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, Asokan; Saxena, Mohini; Asolekar, Shyam R

    2006-04-15

    During metallic zinc extraction from zinc sulphide or sulphide ore, huge quantity of jarosite is being released universally as solid residues. The jarosite mainly contains iron, sulphur, zinc, calcium, lead, cadmium and aluminium. Jarosite released from such industrial process is complex and its quality and quantity make the task more complex for safe disposal. Apart from water contamination, jarosite already accumulated and its increasing annual production is a major source of pollution for surrounding environment including soil, vegetation and aquatic life and hence its disposal leads to major concern because of the stringent environmental protection regulations. An attempt was made to evaluate the characteristics of Indian jarosite with an objectives to understand its potentials for recycling and utilising as raw materials for developing value added products. Sand and Coal Combustion Residues (CCRs) was used as an admixture to attain good workability and detoxify the toxic substance in the jarosite. Result revealed that jarosite is silty clay loam in texture having 63.48% silt sized and 32.35% clay sized particles. The particle size of jarosite (D90=16.21+/-0.20 microm) is finer than the CCRs (D90=19.72+/-0.18 microm). The jarosite is nonuniform in structure and shape as compared to the CCRs having spherical, hollow shaped and some of them are cenosphere in nature. The major mineral phase of jarosite is Potassium Iron Sulphate Hydroxide {KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6}and Iron Sulphate Hydrate {2 Fe2O3SO3 x 5 H2O}. In CCRs the dominant phases are quartz {SiO2}, mullite {3 Al2O3 x 2 SiO2} and hematite {Fe2O3}. The high electrical conductivity of jarosite (13.26+/-0.437 dS/m) indicates that the presence of cations and anions are predominant over CCRs (0.498+/-0.007 dS/m). The major portion of jarosite consists of iron (23.66+/-0.18%), sulphur (12.23+/-0.2%) and zinc (8.243+/-0.075%). But CCRs main constituents are silicon (27.41+/-0.74%), aluminium (15.167+/-0.376%) and iron (4

  1. A norm utilisation for scarce hospital resources: Evidence from operating rooms in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houdenhoven, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Klein, Jan; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, Geert

    2007-01-01

    Background: Utilisation of operating rooms is high on the agenda of hospital managers and researchers. Many efforts in the area of maximising the utilisation have been focussed on finding the holy grail of 100% utilisation. The utilisation that can be realised, however, depends on the patient mix an

  2. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  3. Effect of ethnic background on Danish hospital utilisation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Sorensen, Tine Moller;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine possible ethnic differences in the utilisation patterns of hospitalised immigrants versus patients born in Denmark. Data were obtained from the Register of Prevention at Statistics Denmark. This register includes both clinical and socio-demographic data. All pat...... on duration of hospital stay and consequently the utilisation patterns of inpatient care seem to reflect equal care for equal needs....... patients discharged as inpatients during 1997 at Bispebjerg Hospital (a major hospital in Copenhagen) were identified through the Register of Prevention and linked to data concerning diagnosis, place of birth, age and gender. To compare immigrants with patients born in Denmark, a study group...... contacts characterised by the same diagnostic categories among a random sample of 10,000 patients born in Denmark. The measure of utilisation employed was length of inpatient stay determined by the total number of days that each admission lasted. Data were analysed by a multiple regression analysis...

  4. COPD: Health Care Utilisation Patterns with Different Disease Management Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Edwin K; Hutchinson, Anastasia F; Tacey, Mark; Irving, Louis; Khan, Fary

    2017-08-01

    The management of COPD is a significant and costly issue worldwide, with acute healthcare utilisation consisting of admissions and outpatient attendances being a major contributor to the cost. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and integrated disease management (IDM) are often offered. Whilst there is strong evidence of physical and quality of life outcomes following IDM and PR, few studies have looked into healthcare utilisation. The aims of this study were to confirm whether IDM and PR reduce acute healthcare utilisation and to identify factors which contribute to acute health care utilisation or increased mortality. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with COPD who were referred to IDM over a 10-year period. Patients were also offered an 8-week PR program. Data collected were matched with the hospital dataset to obtain information on inpatient, ED and outpatient attendances. 517 patients were enrolled to IDM. 315 (61%) also commenced PR and 220 (43%) completed PR. Patients who were referred to PR were younger and had less comorbidities (p < 0.001). Both groups (IDM only and IDM + PR referred) had reductions in healthcare utilisation but the IDM-only group had greater reductions. A survival benefit (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50-0.92) was seen in those who were PR completers compared to patients who received IDM only. Patients with COPD who successfully complete PR in addition to participating in IDM have improved survival. IDM alone was effective in the reduction of healthcare utilisation; however, the addition of PR did not reduce healthcare usage further.

  5. Influence of C-Peptide on Glucose Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the recent years, multiple studies demonstrated that C-peptide is not an inert peptide, but exerts important physiological effects. C-peptide binds to cell membranes, stimulates the Na,K-ATPase and the endothelial nitric oxide (NO synthase. Moreover, there is evidence that C-peptide decreases glomerular hyperfiltration and increases glucose utilisation. Nevertheless, there is still limited knowledge concerning mechanisms leading to an increased glucose utilisation either in rats or in humans. The aim of this paper is to give an overview over the published studies regarding C-peptide and glucose metabolism from in vitro studies to longer lasting studies in humans.

  6. Potential of the technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M. [Univ. Bari (Italy). Dip. di Chimica e Centro METEA

    1998-10-01

    The carbon dioxide mitigation has been agreed at international level. Besides the efficiency technologies, the recovery of CO{sub 2} from power-plants flue gases is a most innovative approach. This would make available large amounts of CO{sub 2}, either for disposal or for utilisation. The technological and chemical utilisation of carbon dioxide are options whose potential is under evaluation. The Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) study seems to be the most effective tool for their assessment. The two options are considered in this paper and the synthetic methodologies that appear as most likely to be implemented are analysed.

  7. High-performance hybrid-fibre concrete: development and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, I.

    2006-01-01

    Although concrete is the most utilised building material nowdays, this material has a large shortcoming: it has a good resistance against compressive stresses, but a very low resistance against tensile stresses. Usual way to solve this problem is the application of steel reinforcement in concrete st

  8. Designing Experiences to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods...

  9. CERN un physicien dénonce des utilisations militaires

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    André Gsponer, ancien chercheur au CERN, a écrit un rapport qui dénone les utilisations militaires développées par certains Etat, dont l'Irak, sur la base des technologies mises au point au CERN (1 page).

  10. Utilisation of medical technology assessment in health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, WJA; Wieringh, R; van den Heuvel, LPM

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To assess the contribution of medical technology assessment (MTA) to health policy decision making, the question has to be answered whether MTA is actually being used in decision-making processes and what factors are related to its utilisation. Design: We investigated recent Dutch policy

  11. Glucose utilisation in the lungs of septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, L.; Jeppsson, B. [Department of Surgery, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ohlsson, T.; Sandell, A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Valind, S. [Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Luts, A. [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Wollmer, P. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Malmoe University Hospital (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    Sequestration and degranulation of leucocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation is considered to be a key event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with sepsis. Glucose serves as the main source of energy in activated leucocytes. The aim of this study was to assess whether glucose utilisation in the lungs can be used as an indicator of pulmonary leucocyte accumulation in an experimental model of sepsis of intra-abdominal origin. Sepsis was induced in rats by abdominal implantation of a gelatine capsule containing bacteria and rat colonic contents. Empty gelatine capsules were implanted in control animals. Animals were studied 6 and 12 h after sepsis induction. Glucose utilisation was measured as the tissue uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) 1 h after intravenous injection of the tracer. Micro-autoradiography was also performed after injection of tritiated deoxyglucose. We found increased uptake of {sup 18}FDG in the lungs of septic animals. The uptake also increased with time after sepsis induction. {sup 18}FDG uptake in circulating leucocytes was increased in septic animals compared with controls, and micro-autoradiography showed intense accumulation of deoxyglucose in leucocytes in the lungs of septic animals. We conclude that glucose utilisation is increased in the lungs of septic rats. Measurements of pulmonary glucose utilisation as an index of leucocyte metabolic activity may open new possibilities for studies of the pathophysiology of sepsis and for evaluation of therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  12. Improving the Utilisation of Management Information Systems in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support to schools, which are increasingly being granted…

  13. Montelukast use-a 19-year nationwide drug utilisation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Laursen, Christian B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Montelukast is a leukotriene receptor antagonist used in asthma and rhinitis treatment. Despite being marketed nearly two decades ago, little is known about its utilisation pattern. METHODS: Using the Danish National Prescription Registry, we identified subjects filling a montelukast pre...

  14. Improving the utilisation of management information systems in secondary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, R. J.; Branderhorst, E. M.; Visscher, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although most secondary schools do use management information systems (MISs), these systems tend not to be used to support higher order managerial activities but are currently primarily used for clerical purposes. This situation is unsatisfactory as MISs fully utilised could offer invaluable support

  15. Fuel peat utilisation in Finland: resource use and emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leijting, J.

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study was to inventorize the emissions and other stressors caused by fuel peat use in Finland. The life cycle approach was used to organise and compile the burdens associated with the fuel peat utilisation sector in the years 1994 and 1995. Fuel peat accounts for about 6.5 % of the total primary energy production in Finland. The study showed that most emissions out into the air occur during combustion of peat in energy plants. The emissions account for about 13 - 14 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions released by fossil fuel utilisation in Finland, for 12 % of the SO{sub 2} for 8 % of the N{sub 2}O and approximately 4 % of the NOR emissions released by anthropogenic sources in Finland. Phosphorus releases into waters contributes for about 0.2 % while nitrogen releases account for 0.3 % in the total anthropogenic discharge in Finland. (orig.) 88 refs.

  16. Utilisation of macroalgae from the Sopot beach (Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Filipkowska

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to explore the possibilities of utilising the macroalgae accumulating on the Sopot beach, a part of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea.During this work (2004-2006 a range of activities were undertaken: monitoring the occurrence of macroalgae, collection of plant material, taxonomic identification, laboratory analyses of contamination (metals - Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Hg;radionuclides - 137Cs, 40K; organic contaminants - polychlorinated biphenyls,polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the stage of algal degradation and studying possible uses of the plant material collected on the beach. The most suitable way of utilising the plant material seems to be as a biofertiliser. Laboratorygrowth tests were carried out to assess this possible use; they were successful.

  17. Spore-forming bacteria and their utilisation as probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J; Albin, A; Stahl, U

    2012-03-01

    In this review article, the beneficial application of bacterial spore formers as probiotics in the food industry is discussed based on the knowledge gleaned from current publications. The summary of new scientific results provides evidence of the advantages of the utilisation of Bacillus or Clostridium strains in the food industry. Both bacteria are able to produce a very stable duration form: the endospore. Compared to the widely used lactic acid bacteria, bacterial spores offer the advantage of a higher survival rate during the acidic stomach passage and better stability during the processing and storage of the food product. In many food products, germination of the spores does not occur. Hence the product quality of the food is not affected because of their inactive metabolism. Besides the possible utilisation and functional properties, an overview of the fast-developing knowledge about the mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of spore-forming bacteria is provided.

  18. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  19. Healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather; Callands, Tamora A; Bradley, Elizabeth; Harris, Benjamin; Johnson, Billy; Hansen, Nathan B

    2013-11-01

    Many efforts have been undertaken to improve access to healthcare services in low-income settings; nevertheless, underutilisation persists. Women's lack of empowerment may be a central reason for underutilisation, but empirical literature establishing this relationship is sparse. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from the 2007 Liberia Demographic and Health Survey. Our sample included all non-pregnant women who were currently married or living with a partner (N=3925 unweighted). We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the associations between constructs derived from the Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) and healthcare utilisation. Two-thirds of women (65.6%) had been to a healthcare facility for herself or her children in the past 12 months. Constructs from the three major theoretical structures were associated with healthcare utilisation. Women with no education, compared with women with some education, were less likely to have been to a healthcare facility (OR=0.76; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.93) as were women who had experienced sexual abuse (OR=0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.95) and women who were married (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.88). Women in higher wealth quintiles, compared with women in the next lower wealth quintile, and women with more decision-making power had greater odds of having been to a healthcare facility (OR=1.22; 95% CI 1.10 to 1.36 and OR=1.10; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.20; respectively). Strong associations exist between healthcare utilisation and empowerment among women in Liberia, and gender imbalances are prevalent. This fundamental issue likely needs to be addressed before large-scale improvement in health service utilisation can be expected.

  20. Basic phenomena utilised in aerosol particle measurement techniques; Hiukkasmittaustekniikoiden perusilmioet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, K. [Dekati Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    2006-10-15

    The project deals with development of basic phenomena and mechanism utilised in aerosol particle measurement techniques. The areas under development are: particle-charging techniques, photoelectric charging, particle concentrating using virtual-impactor technique, and optical characterising techniques of particles. Results will be applied on detection techniques of bioaerosol attract, particle emission sensors for diesel exhaust gases, and widening the application areas of existing measurement techniques. (orig.)

  1. The Utilisation of Music by Casino Managers: An Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.

  2. An analysis of partial efficiencies of energy utilisation of different macronutrients by barramundi (Lates calcarifer) shows that starch restricts protein utilisation in carnivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Brett D; Blyth, David; Bourne, Nicholas; Cheers, Susan; Irvin, Simon; Wade, Nicholas M

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effect of including different dietary proportions of starch, protein and lipid, in diets balanced for digestible energy, on the utilisation efficiencies of dietary energy by barramundi (Lates calcarifer). Each diet was fed at one of three ration levels (satiety, 80 % of initial satiety and 60 % of initial satiety) for a 42-d period. Fish performance measures (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio) were all affected by dietary energy source. The efficiency of energy utilisation was significantly reduced in fish fed the starch diet relative to the other diets, but there were no significant effects between the other macronutrients. This reduction in efficiency of utilisation was derived from a multifactorial change in both protein and lipid utilisation. The rate of protein utilisation deteriorated as the amount of starch included in the diet increased. Lipid utilisation was most dramatically affected by inclusion levels of lipid in the diet, with diets low in lipid producing component lipid utilisation rates well above 1·3, which indicates substantial lipid synthesis from other energy sources. However, the energetic cost of lipid gain was as low as 0·65 kJ per kJ of lipid deposited, indicating that barramundi very efficiently store energy in the form of lipid, particularly from dietary starch energy. This study defines how the utilisation efficiency of dietary digestible energy by barramundi is influenced by the macronutrient source providing that energy, and that the inclusion of starch causes problems with protein utilisation in this species.

  3. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Davis

    Full Text Available The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year (ii interrupted peristence (iii delayed recruitment (iv facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological

  4. Fish utilisation of wetland nurseries with complex hydrological connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ben; Johnston, Ross; Baker, Ronald; Sheaves, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The physical and faunal characteristics of coastal wetlands are driven by dynamics of hydrological connectivity to adjacent habitats. Wetlands on estuary floodplains are particularly dynamic, driven by a complex interplay of tidal marine connections and seasonal freshwater flooding, often with unknown consequences for fish using these habitats. To understand the patterns and subsequent processes driving fish assemblage structure in such wetlands, we examined the nature and diversity of temporal utilisation patterns at a species or genus level over three annual cycles in a tropical Australian estuarine wetland system. Four general patterns of utilisation were apparent based on CPUE and size-structure dynamics: (i) classic nursery utlisation (use by recently settled recruits for their first year) (ii) interrupted peristence (iii) delayed recruitment (iv) facultative wetland residence. Despite the small self-recruiting 'facultative wetland resident' group, wetland occupancy seems largely driven by connectivity to the subtidal estuary channel. Variable connection regimes (i.e. frequency and timing of connections) within and between different wetland units (e.g. individual pools, lagoons, swamps) will therefore interact with the diversity of species recruitment schedules to generate variable wetland assemblages in time and space. In addition, the assemblage structure is heavily modified by freshwater flow, through simultaneously curtailing persistence of the 'interrupted persistence' group, establishing connectivity for freshwater spawned members of both the 'facultative wetland resident' and 'delayed recruitment group', and apparently mediating use of intermediate nursery habitats for marine-spawned members of the 'delayed recruitment' group. The diversity of utilisation pattern and the complexity of associated drivers means assemblage compositions, and therefore ecosystem functioning, is likely to vary among years depending on variations in hydrological connectivity

  5. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable.

  6. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  7. Utilisation and Management Changes in South Kyrgyzstan's Mountain Forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthias Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Using political ecology as its conceptual framework, this paper focuses on the changes in forest utilisation and management of South Kyrgyzstan's walnut-fruit forests over the last century. The aim of this study on human-environment interactions is to investigate the relationship between actors on the one side, their interests and demands, and the forests and forested lands on the other. Forest resource utilisation and management - and even the recognition of different forest products as resources - are connected with political and socio-economic conditions that change with time. The walnut-fruit forests of South Kyrgyzstan are unique, characterised by high biodiversity and a multiplicity of usable products; and they have been utilised for a long time. Centralised and formal management of the forests started with the Russian occupation and was strengthened under Soviet rule, when the region became a part of the USSR. During this era, a state forest administration that was structured from Moscow all the way down to the local level drew up detailed plans and developed procedures for utilising the different forest products. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the socio-political and economic frame conditions have changed significantly, which has brought not only the sweeping changes in the managing institutions, but also the access rights and interests in the forest resources. At present, the region is suffering from a high unemployment rate, which has resulted in the forests' gaining considerable importance in the livelihood strategies of the local population. Political and economic liberalization, increased communication and trans-regional exchange relations have opened the door for international companies and agents interested in the valuable forest products. Today, walnut wood and burls, walnuts, wild apples and mushrooms are all exported to various countries in the world. Scientists and members of various international organisations stress the ecological

  8. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. L'utilisation des hydro-éjecteurs au CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Deleval, S

    2002-01-01

    Les éjecteurs à buse variable sont destinés à remplacer les vannes trois voies conventionnelles et les pompes secondaires de circulation dans les installations de chauffage à eau chaude et de conditionnement d'air. Ces éjecteurs liquide - liquide utilisent l'énergie d'un fluide primaire pour maintenir le débit d'un fluide secondaire grâce à un saut de pression. L'utilisation de ces éjecteurs permet notamment de réduire les co ts d'investissement, de consommation énergétique et aussi de maintenance. Cette technique qui a fait ses preuves depuis plus de 20 ans, est abondamment utilisée en Allemagne, Italie et Belgique (50 000 boucles) et peu dans d'autres pays comme la France (500 boucles). Au CERN, aucune application d'hydro-éjecteur de ce type n'a encore été mise en oeuvre à ce jour. Ce document présente cette technique en détail avec ses avantages, ses inconvénients et ses possibles applications.

  10. Energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuels from landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheut, Martin; Quicker, Peter

    2017-02-19

    The residence of municipal solid waste within a landfill body results in a significant change of material properties. Experiences with the energetic utilisation of the burnable fractions from formerly landfilled waste are hardly documented, the influence of refuse derived fuels (RDF) from such materials on the performance of modern waste-to-energy plants is not sufficiently described in scientific literature. Therefore this study focuses on the energetic utilisation of refuse derived fuel from landfilled waste, processed in a mechanical waste treatment facility, and the impact of the material on the operation of the incineration plant. Additionally, the possibility of direct combustion of non-pre-treated excavated landfill material has been evaluated in the same facility. First, sampling and analysis of the fuel has been carried out. Based on this, a large-scale combustion experiment was planned and conducted in an industrial waste-to-energy plant. Steam mass flow rate, concentration of harmful substances in the raw gas, as well as total emissions of the facility have been monitored in detail. Furthermore, the influence of the landfilled material on the additive consumption has been determined. The combustion residues (bottom ash) were also sampled and analysed. Based on the evaluation of operating data and analysis of both fuel and residue, suitable thermal treatment approaches for the refuse-derived fuel and the non-pre-treated excavated material have been assessed.

  11. The utilisation of reed (Phragmites australis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Köbbing

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reed (Phragmites is a wetland plant genus that has been utilised by man since ancient times. It is a tall, thin, highly productive grass (Poaceae with an above-ground biomass of up to 30 t ha-1 y-1. Due to its world-wide dominance, it is often cheap and readily available as a raw material. Reed has been used for centuries as a fodder plant in summer, and the stems have traditionally been harvested in winter as a raw material for crafts and for construction materials including roofing. It became popular for pulp and paper production in the middle of the twentieth century and, in recent years, has been used in sewage water treatment and as a source of renewable energy that is unlikely to compete with food production. This article explores the global extent of reedbeds and potential yields; and catalogues historical uses of reed, forgotten applications and new opportunities for its utilisation. Quality requirements, products and related stand management (such as harvesting time are also reviewed.

  12. Trace compounds affecting biogas energy utilisation - A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasi, S., E-mail: saija.rasi@gmail.com [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland); Laentelae, J.; Rintala, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} In regards to trace compounds, landfill gases are the most studied biogases. {yields} More strict requirements are set for biogas purity with new biogas applications. {yields} With traditional applications, small variations in biogas quality are acceptable. {yields} New requirements set challenges on raw material control and biogas quality. {yields} In this study, variations in analysing methods and biogas quality are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigates the trace compounds affecting energy utilisation in biogas that come from different production sites. With biogas being more widely used in different energy applications more interest has arisen for the specific composition of biogas. In traditional energy applications, methane and hydrogen sulphide contents have had the most influence when energy utilisation application has been considered. With more advanced processes also the quantity and quality of trace compounds is more important. In regards to trace compounds, it was found that the concentrations and the variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be high in different landfills, especially, with compounds originating from the biological degradation process (like aromatics and terpenes) as seasonal variations affect the biological degradation. Trace compounds produced by direct volatilisation (halogenated and silicon compounds) show a smaller seasonal variation. Halogenated compounds are rarely present in high concentrations in waste water treatment plant (WWTP) biogas, but the concentrations of organic silicon compounds and their variation is high. Organic silicon compounds are usually detected only in low concentrations in co-digestion plant biogas, when no WWTP sludge is used as a raw material.

  13. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus.

  14. Efficiency of energy utilisation and voluntary feed intake in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkamp, B J

    2010-07-01

    Energy requirements of animals are most readily expressed in terms of net energy (NE), while the energy yield of feed is, at least initially, expressed in terms of metabolisable energy (ME). Energy evaluation systems 'translate' NE requirements into ME requirements (ME systems) or assign NE values to feeds (NE systems). Efficiency of ME utilisation is higher for maintenance than for production and the NE yield of a feed varies, therefore, with ME intake. In addition, energetic efficiency for maintenance and production is thought to be different for lactating and non-lactating animals and to be affected by diet quality. As a result, there are currently many national energy evaluation systems that are complex, differ in their approach and are, as a result, difficult to compare. As ruminants in most production systems are fed ad libitum, this is also the most appropriate intake level at which to estimate energetic efficiency. Analyses of older as well as more recent data suggest that ad libitum feeding (i) abolishes the effects of diet quality on energetic efficiency (almost) completely, (ii) abolishes the differences between lactating and non-lactating animals (almost) entirely and (iii) results in overall energetic efficiencies that are always close to 0.6. The paper argues that there is now sufficient information to develop an international energy evaluation system for ad libitum fed ruminants. Such a system should (i) unify ME and NE systems, (ii) avoid the systematic bias and large errors that can be associated with current systems (iii) be simpler than current systems and (iv) have as a starting point a constant efficiency of ME utilisation, with a value of around 0.6. The remarkably constant efficiency of ME utilisation in ad libitum fed ruminants could be the result of energetic efficiency as well as feed intake regulation being affected by the same variables or of a direct role of energetic efficiency in feed intake regulation. Models to predict intake on the

  15. Hospital Resource Utilisation by Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, S

    2017-09-01

    Little data is available on the resource utilisation of patients admitted with Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Ireland. A retrospective review of 50 randomly-selected patients admitted to Beaumont Hospital with CAP was undertaken. The mean length of stay of patients with CAP was 12 days (+\\/- 16 days). All patients were emergency admissions, all had a chest x-ray, a C-reactive protein blood test, and occupied a public bed at some point during admission. Common antimicrobial therapies were intravenous (IV) amoxicillin\\/clavulanic acid and oral clarithromycin; 60% received physiotherapy. The estimated mean cost of CAP per patient was €14,802.17. Costs arising from admission to hospital with CAP are substantial, but efforts can be undertaken to ensure that resources are used efficiently to improve patient care such as discharge planning and fewer in-hospital ward transfers

  16. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  17. Ethanol production by recombinant and natural xylose-utilising yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliasson, Anna

    2000-07-01

    The xylose-fermenting capacity of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying XYL1 and XYL2 from Pichia stipitis, which encode xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively, is poor due to high xylitol formation. Whereas, P. stipitis exhibits high ethanol yield on xylose, the tolerance towards inhibitors in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate is low. A recombinant strain possessing the advantageous characteristics of both S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis would constitute a biocatalyst capable of efficient ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. In the work presented in this thesis, factors influencing xylose fermentation in recombinant S. cerevisiae and in the natural xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis have been identified and investigated. Anaerobic xylulose fermentation was compared in strains of Zygosaccharomyces and S. cerevisiae, mutants and wild-type strains to identify host strain background and genetic modifications beneficial for xylose fermentation. The greatest positive effect was found for over-expression of the gene XKS1 for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzyme xylulokinase (XK), which increased the ethanol yield by almost 85%. The Zygosaccharomyces strains tested formed large amounts of polyols, making them unsuitable as host strains. The XR/XDH/XK ratio was found to determine whether carbon accumulated in a xylitol pool or was further utilised for ethanol production in recombinant xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae. Simulations, based on a kinetic model, and anaerobic xylose cultivation experiments implied that a 1:{>=}10:{>=}4 relation was optimal in minimising xylitol formation. Ethanol formation increased with decreasing XR/XDH ratio, whereas xylitol formation decreased and XK overexpression was necessary for adequate ethanol formation. Based on the knowledge of optimal enzyme ratios, a stable, xylose-utilising strain, S. cerevisiae TMB 3001, was constructed by chromosomal integration of the XYL1 and XYL2 genes

  18. Voiture et peinture: de l’utilisation à la pratique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Landowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Constituer le monde comme univers de sens, c’est se poser en tant que sujet en interagis- sant avec les éléments du monde qui nous entoure, en faisant usage. Dans ce cadre, il faut distinguer deux formes d’interactions correspondant à deux acceptions du mot «usage»: l’une renvoie à l’idée d’utilisation, l’autre à celle de pratique. Une fois définies, ces deux notions sont ici appliquées à une analyse des usages de la peinture, ce qui amène à distinguer, du côté de l’observateur, la lecture et la saisie, du côté du créateur le procédé et la vision.

  19. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  20. Utilising shade to optimize UV exposure for vitamin D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Turnbull

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have stated that humans need to utilise full sun radiation, at certain times of the day, to assist the body in synthesising the required levels of vitamin D3. The time needed to be spent in the full sun depends on a number of factors, for example, age, skin type, latitude, solar zenith angle. Current Australian guidelines suggest exposure to approximately 1/6 to 1/3 of a minimum erythemal dose (MED, depending on age, would be appropriate to provide adequate vitamin D3 levels. The aim of the study was to determine the exposure times to diffuse solar UV to receive exposures of 1/6 and 1/3 MED for a changing solar zenith angle in order to assess the possible role that diffuse UV (scattered radiation may play in vitamin D3 effective UV exposures (UVD3. Diffuse and global erythemal UV measurements were conducted at five minute intervals over a twelve month period for a solar zenith angle range of 4° to 80° at a latitude of 27.6° S. For a diffuse UV exposure of 1/3 MED, solar zenith angles smaller than approximately 50° can be utilised for exposure times of less than 10 min. Spectral measurements showed that, for a solar zenith angle of 40°, the UVA (315–400 nm in the diffuse component of the solar UV is reduced by approximately 62% compared to the UVA in the global UV, whereas UVD3 wavelengths are only reduced by approximately 43%. At certain latitudes, diffuse UV under shade may play an important role in providing the human body with adequate levels of UVD3 (290–315 nm radiation without experiencing the high levels of UVA observed in full sun.

  1. Utilisation of payment instruments at a retail chain in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan M. Bester

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of race and income on the preferred payment instrument at pay points in a retail store in Pretoria Gauteng.Problem investigated: The method of payment, as well as the way these payment methods have been utilised, has evolved throughout history. Cash has stayed at the top of the payment instrument deck as a payment choice for the past 10 decades. With the expansion of technology payment instruments evolved to facilitate exchange between merchant and consumer. The preferred method of payment at a retail store in Gauteng, indicating whether consumers prefer cash payments or the use of cards was investigated. Further to this the difference in payment method between the different races and income groups was identified.Methodology: A quantitative survey research method was used. The statistical analysis entailed correlations using the Cramer’s V to test the dependency between two variables and the degree of dependency of variables, after which the Chi-Square test was also applied.Value of the research: The indication of consumer preference of payment method will have implications on which possibilities are available at the point of sale. Cash is no longer the only possible payment instrument; cards, debit and credit, are as easily used by consumers. Both banks and merchants will find this information important, since they need to make provision for different payment options. The results further distinguished consumer behaviour amongst different race groups and income groups.Conclusion: The research confirmed the previous findings in other countries that consumers have preconceived ideas on which payment instrument they would utilise at point of sale(POS.

  2. Swarm Utilisation Analysis: LEO satellite observations for the ESA's SSA Space Weather network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervalishvili, Guram; Stolle, Claudia; Rauberg, Jan; Olsen, Nils; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Gullikstad Johnsen, Magnar; Hall, Chris

    2017-04-01

    ESA's (European Space Agency) constellation mission Swarm was successfully launched on 22 November 2013. The three satellites achieved their final constellation on 17 April 2014 and since then Swarm-A and Swarm-C orbiting the Earth at about 470 km (flying side-by-side) and Swarm-B at about 520 km altitude. Each of Swarm satellite carries instruments with high precision to measure magnetic and electric fields, neutral and plasma densities, and TEC (Total Electron Content) for which a dual frequency GPS receiver is used. SUA (Swarm Utilisation Analysis) is a project of the ESA's SSA (Space Situational Awareness) SWE (Space Weather) program. Within this framework GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany) and DTU (National Space Institute, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark) have developed two new Swarm products ROT (Rate Of change of TEC) and PEJ (Location and intensity level of Polar Electrojets), respectively. ROT is derived as the first time derivative from the Swarm measurements of TEC at 1 Hz sampling. ROT is highly relevant for users in navigation and communications: strong plasma gradients cause GPS signal degradation or even loss of GPS signal. Also, ROT is a relevant space weather asset irrespective of geomagnetic activity, e.g., high amplitude values of ROT occur during all geomagnetic conditions. PEJ is derived from the Swarm measurements of the magnetic field strength at 1 Hz sampling. PEJ has a high-level importance for power grid companies since the polar electrojet is a major cause for ground-induced currents. ROT and PEJ together with five existing Swarm products TEC, electron density, IBI (Ionospheric Bubble Index), FAC (Field-Aligned Current), and vector magnetic field build the SUA service prototype. This prototype will be integrated into ESA's SSA Space Weather network as a federated service and will be available soon from ESA's SSA SWE Ionospheric Weather and Geomagnetic Conditions Expert Service Centres (ESCs).

  3. Utilisation of rheumatology care services in Germany: the case of physical therapy and self-help groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Holm; Borgetto, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physical Therapy (PT) and self-help groups (SHG) are important components of health care in rheumatic diseases. The utilisation of PT and SHG by patients with rheumatic diseases may be influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on PT and SHG utilisation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. We systematically searched the MEDLINE-database for studies that evaluated the utilisation and factors that possibly influence the utilisation of PT and SHG. Eight studies were found for PT-utilisation and one for SHG-utilisation. Between 25 and 59 percent of patients with rheumatic diseases received PT services. Several individual and contextual factors that may influence the utilisation could be identified. In conclusion, evidence exists for wide variations in the utilisation of PT services and an underuse of such services among patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. By contrast, little evidence exists on the utilisation of SHG.

  4. Utilisation of rheumatology care services in Germany: the case of physical therapy and self-help groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Holm; Borgetto, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Physical Therapy (PT) and self-help groups (SHG) are important components of health care in rheumatic diseases. The utilisation of PT and SHG by patients with rheumatic diseases may be influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is to summarize the evidence on PT and SHG utilisation of patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. We systematically searched the MEDLINE-database for studies that evaluated the utilisation and factors that possibly influence the utilisation of PT and SHG. Eight studies were found for PT-utilisation and one for SHG-utilisation. Between 25 and 59 percent of patients with rheumatic diseases received PT services. Several individual and contextual factors that may influence the utilisation could be identified. In conclusion, evidence exists for wide variations in the utilisation of PT services and an underuse of such services among patients with rheumatic diseases in Germany. By contrast, little evidence exists on the utilisation of SHG. PMID:23133502

  5. Gender and the utilisation of health services in the Ashanti Region, Ghana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buor, D.

    2004-01-01

    The survey seeks to structure a model for gender-based health services utilisation for the Ashanti Region of Ghana, and in addition, recommend intervention measures to ensure gender equity in the utilisation of health services. A sample size of 650 covered over 3108 houses, and the main research ins

  6. Muscle glycogen utilisation during Rugby match play: Effects of pre-game carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Morehen, James C; Haigh, Julian; Clarke, Jon; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Cotton, Caroline; Shepherd, Sam; Cocks, Matthew; Sharma, Asheesh; Impey, Samuel G; Cooper, Robert G; Maclaren, Don P M; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-12-01

    Although the physical demands of Rugby League (RL) match-play are well-known, the fuel sources supporting energy-production are poorly understood. We therefore assessed muscle glycogen utilisation and plasma metabolite responses to RL match-play after a relatively high (HCHO) or relatively low CHO (LCHO) diet. Sixteen (mean±SD age; 18±1 years, body-mass; 88±12kg, height 180±8cm) professional players completed a RL match after 36-h consuming a non-isocaloric high carbohydrate (n=8; 6gkgday(-1)) or low carbohydrate (n=8; 3gkgday(-1)) diet. Muscle biopsies and blood samples were obtained pre- and post-match, alongside external and internal loads quantified using Global Positioning System technology and heart rate, respectively. Data were analysed using effects sizes ±90% CI and magnitude-based inferences. Differences in pre-match muscle glycogen between high and low carbohydrate conditions (449±51 and 444±81mmolkg(-1)d.w.) were unclear. High (243±43mmolkg(-1)d.w.) and low carbohydrate groups (298±130mmolkg(-1)d.w.) were most and very likely reduced post-match, respectively. For both groups, differences in pre-match NEFA and glycerol were unclear, with a most likely increase in NEFA and glycerol post-match. NEFA was likely lower in the high compared with low carbohydrate group post-match (0.95±0.39mmoll(-1) and 1.45±0.51mmoll(-1), respectively), whereas differences between the 2 groups for glycerol were unclear (98.1±33.6mmoll(-1) and 123.1±39.6mmoll(-1)) in the high and low carbohydrate groups, respectively. Professional RL players can utilise ∼40% of their muscle glycogen during a competitive match regardless of their carbohydrate consumption in the preceding 36-h. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Possibilities for the efficient utilisation of spent geothermal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Barbara; Szczepański, Andrzej

    2014-10-01

    Waters located at greater depths usually exhibit high mineral content, which necessitates the use of closed systems, i.e. re-injecting them into the formation after recovering the heat. This significantly reduces investment efficiency owing to the need to drill absorption wells and to perform anti-corrosion and anti-clogging procedures. In this paper, possibilities for the efficient utilisation of cooled geothermal waters are considered, particularly with respect to open or mixed geothermal water installations. Where cooled water desalination technologies are used, this allows the water to be demineralised and used to meet local needs (as drinking water and for leisure purposes). The retentate left as a by-product of the process contains valuable ingredients that can be used for balneological and/or leisure purposes. Thus, the technology for desalinating spent geothermal waters with high mineral content allows improved water management on a local scale and makes it possible to minimise the environmental threat resulting from the need to dump these waters into waterways or surface water bodies and/or inject them into the formation. The paper is concerned with Polish geothermal system and provides information about the parameters of Polish geothermal waters.

  8. Chronic catecholamine depletion switches myocardium from carbohydrate to lipid utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake-Holland, A J; Van der Vusse, G J; Roemen, T H; Hynd, J W; Mansaray, M; Wright, Z M; Noble, M I

    2001-03-01

    Chronic cardiac transplantation denervation (i.e., global sympathetic denervation with myocardial catecholamine depletion, plus parasympathetic denervation) is known to inhibit myocardial oxidation of glucose. It is not known whether this is due to increased utilization of lactate, lipid or ketone bodies. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the extraction and contribution of blood-borne fatty acids (FA) to overall oxidative energy conversion is increased. In anaesthetised dogs (control n = 6, cardiac denervated n = 6), we investigated fatty acid (FA) utilization. The studies were made at least four weeks after surgical cardiac denervation. Measurements were made of total FAs and with a radio-labelled tracer (U-14C palmitate). The contribution of FA utilisation to overall substrate oxidation rose from 31% (control) to 48% (cardiac denervated). The increase in the ratio (%) of CO2 production from palmitate oxidation to total CO2 production increased from 4.0 +/- 1.8 (control) to 10.6 +/- 5.8 (denervated, p = 0.04). The time from uptake of FA to release of CO2 product was unaltered. We conclude that the contribution of FA oxidation to overall energy conversion is increased in chronically denervated hearts, which is postulated to result from a decline in the active form of pyruvate dehydrogenase. This would appear to be a result of chronic catecholamine depletion.

  9. Convention internationale sur l’utilisation pacifique du cyberespace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward M. Roche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Les armes cybernétiques sont à présent une extension du pouvoir de l’Etat. Dans l’espoir de gagner un avantage stratégique, un certain nombre de pays, dont les Etats-Unis, la Russie et la Chine sont en train de développer des cyber-capacités offensives afin de perturber les institutions politiques, économiques, et sociales de nations concurrentes. Ces activités ont conduit à une course aux armes cybernétiques qui se développe de manière incontrôlable. L’imminence de cette menace globale incite la communauté internationale à la pro-activité. L’objectif de cet article est de proposer une convention internationale afin de mettre un terme au développement, à la prolifération, et à l’utilisation d’armes cybernétiques avant qu’elles ne causent un Armageddon électronique. Nous commencerons d’abord par l’examen de trois efforts successifs de contrôle des armements, puis en utiliserons les leçons retenues pour rédiger une convention pouvant servir de point de départ à des négociations multilatérales.

  10. Why utilisation of medicines is a public health interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Folino-Gallo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of medicines exerts important effects on public health and health systems in different ways, including their pharmacological properties, their economic impact on health systems and their impact on the environment. Medicines cause intended therapeutic effects. Medicines are able to treat diseases, slow their progression or prevent their appearance as well as relieve symptoms. This is the reason why physicians prescribe, patients use and governments pay for medicines. Some therapeutic classes of drugs represent important progress in medicine and have dramatically improved the therapeutic approach to several diseases.As an example antiulcer agents have changed a severe disease (with fatal complications, requiring gastric surgical resection, into a disease requiring only the consumption of few pills each day for a short period of time, with a substantial improvement in prognosis and quality of life for patients. Avoiding the surgical intervention of gastric resection, and all of its complications, has resulted in substantial gains for individual patients and public health as well as a substantial reduction in the costs of hospitalisation. For other therapeutic classes the benefits are more limited, while the advantages of their use in everyday practice are less evident.

  11. Research utilisation in sonographic practice: Attitudes and barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Vicki [Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: vicki.elliott@anglia.ac.uk; Wilson, Stephanie E. [University of London External System, University of London, Stewart House, 32, Russell Square, London WC1B 5DN (United Kingdom); Svensson, Jon [Radiography, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2009-08-15

    Statutory agents have stipulated that research activity is a fundamental component of the healthcare professional's activity. Whilst the College of Radiographers have emphasised the importance of imaging personnel embracing this research ethos, there is little available data on the level of research activity within sonographic practice or on the factors that influence a sonographer's involvement in research activities. This work attempts to address these deficiencies. A questionnaire was sent to 300 UK-based sonographers of whom 218 responded (72%). The questionnaire was specifically designed to establish the level of involvement in research, the utilisation of research findings, attitudes towards research and perceived barriers to active research involvement. Responses were analysed investigating any correlations with the population demographics. The data collected showed the majority of sonographers (89%) were enthusiastic about research but with only 33% and 60% currently or previously performing research, respectively, and 73% using research findings to modify their clinical practice. Certain barriers to an active research involvement were shown, with 63%, 55% and 40% citing lack of time, education and collegial support, respectively. A range of statistical findings were linked to particular sonographer groups. The importance of good organisational structures and effective support from fellow health professionals was highlighted. The results confirm sonographers' appreciation of the benefits of research and it is suggested that if this enthusiasm is translated into effective research strategies, research output from ultrasound and other clinical departments should be enhanced.

  12. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  13. Briquetting of EAF Dust for its Utilisation in Metallurgical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziarz Aneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dust generated at an electric arc furnace during steel production industry is still not a solved problem. Electric arc furnace dust (EAF is a hazardous solid waste. Sintering of well-prepared briquetted mixtures in a shaft furnace is one of possible methods of EAFD utilisation. Simultaneously some metal oxides from exhaust gases can be separated. In this way, various metals are obtained, particularly zinc is recovered. As a result, zinc-free briquettes are received with high iron content which can be used in the steelmaking process. The purpose of the research was selecting the appropriate chemical composition of briquettes of the required strength and coke content necessary for the reduction of zinc oxide in a shaft furnace. Based on the results of the research the composition of the briquettes was selected. The best binder hydrated lime and sugar molasses and the range of proper moisture of mixture to receive briquettes of high mechanical strength were also chosen and tested. Additionally, in order to determine the thermal stability for the selected mixtures for briquetting thermal analysis was performed. A technological line of briquetting was developed to apply in a steelworks.

  14. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hoskins

    Full Text Available Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search. For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a

  15. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison C Pitts

    Full Text Available Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  16. Structural insight into the Clostridium difficile ethanolamine utilisation microcompartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Alison C; Tuck, Laura R; Faulds-Pain, Alexandra; Lewis, Richard J; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments form a protective proteinaceous barrier around metabolic enzymes that process unstable or toxic chemical intermediates. The genome of the virulent, multidrug-resistant Clostridium difficile 630 strain contains an operon, eut, encoding a bacterial microcompartment with genes for the breakdown of ethanolamine and its utilisation as a source of reduced nitrogen and carbon. The C. difficile eut operon displays regulatory genetic elements and protein encoding regions in common with homologous loci found in the genomes of other bacteria, including the enteric pathogens Salmonella enterica and Enterococcus faecalis. The crystal structures of two microcompartment shell proteins, CD1908 and CD1918, and an uncharacterised protein with potential enzymatic activity, CD1925, were determined by X-ray crystallography. CD1908 and CD1918 display the same protein fold, though the order of secondary structure elements is permuted in CD1908 and this protein displays an N-terminal β-strand extension. These proteins form hexamers with molecules related by crystallographic and non-crystallographic symmetry. The structure of CD1925 has a cupin β-barrel fold and a putative active site that is distinct from the metal-ion dependent catalytic cupins. Thin-section transmission electron microscopy of Escherichia coli over-expressing eut proteins indicates that CD1918 is capable of self-association into arrays, suggesting an organisational role for CD1918 in the formation of this microcompartment. The work presented provides the basis for further study of the architecture and function of the C. difficile eut microcompartment, its role in metabolism and the wider consequences of intestinal colonisation and virulence in this pathogen.

  17. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  18. Utilisation of intensive foraging zones by female Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J; Costa, Daniel P; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity 'hot spots' were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch.

  19. Utilisation of Intensive Foraging Zones by Female Australian Fur Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Andrew J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Within a heterogeneous environment, animals must efficiently locate and utilise foraging patches. One way animals can achieve this is by increasing residency times in areas where foraging success is highest (area-restricted search). For air-breathing diving predators, increased patch residency times can be achieved by altering both surface movements and diving patterns. The current study aimed to spatially identify the areas where female Australian fur seals allocated the most foraging effort, while simultaneously determining the behavioural changes that occur when they increase their foraging intensity. To achieve this, foraging behaviour was successfully recorded with a FastLoc GPS logger and dive behaviour recorder from 29 individual females provisioning pups. Females travelled an average of 118 ± 50 km from their colony during foraging trips that lasted 7.3 ± 3.4 days. Comparison of two methods for calculating foraging intensity (first-passage time and first-passage time modified to include diving behaviour) determined that, due to extended surface intervals where individuals did not travel, inclusion of diving behaviour into foraging analyses was important for this species. Foraging intensity ‘hot spots’ were found to exist in a mosaic of patches within the Bass Basin, primarily to the south-west of the colony. However, the composition of benthic habitat being targeted remains unclear. When increasing their foraging intensity, individuals tended to perform dives around 148 s or greater, with descent/ascent rates of approximately 1.9 m•s-1 or greater and reduced postdive durations. This suggests individuals were maximising their time within the benthic foraging zone. Furthermore, individuals increased tortuosity and decreased travel speeds while at the surface to maximise their time within a foraging location. These results suggest Australian fur seals will modify both surface movements and diving behaviour to maximise their time within a foraging patch

  20. Advances in understanding and utilising ELM control in JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, I. T.; de la Luna, E.; Lang, P. T.; Liang, Y.; Alper, B.; Denner, P.; Frigione, D.; Garzotti, L.; Ham, C. J.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Jachmich, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lennholm, M.; Lupelli, I.; Rimini, F. G.; Sips, A. C. C.; Contributors, JET

    2016-01-01

    Edge localised mode (ELM) control may be essential to develop ITER scenarios with a reasonable lifetime of divertor components, whilst ELM pacing may be essential to develop stationary ITER scenarios with a tungsten divertor. Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have mitigated ELMs in high collisionality plasmas in JET. The efficacy of RMPs in mitigating the ELMs is found to depend on plasma shaping, with the change in magnetic boundary achieved when non-axisymmetric fields are applied facilitating access to small ELM regimes. The understanding of ELM pacing by vertical kicks or pellets has also been improved in a range of pedestal conditions in JET ({{T}\\text{ped}}=0.7 -1.3 keV) encompassing the ITER-expected domain ({β\\text{N}}=1.4 -2.4, H 98(y, 2)  =  0.8-1.2, {{f}\\text{GW}}˜ 0.7 ). ELM triggering is reliable provided the perturbation is above a threshold which depends on pedestal parameters. ELM triggering is achieved even in the first 10% of the natural ELM cycle suggesting no inherent maximum frequency. At high normalised pressure, the peeling-ballooning modes are stabilised as predicted by ELITE, necessitating a larger perturbation from either kicks or pellets in order to trigger ELMs. Both kicks and pellets have been used to pace ELMs for tungsten flushing. This has allowed stationary plasma conditions with low gas injection in plasmas where the natural ELM frequency is such that it would normally preclude stationary conditions.

  1. Systems for hydrogen utilisation; Geraete fuer die Wasserstofftechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulien, S. [AGAFE, Ruesselsheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The hydrogen technology has better prospects than renewable fuels as it can rely on the coal gasification and liquefaction processes developed in Germany in the twenties and thirties of the past century. Hydrogen produced with renewable fuels or from fossil energy sources can be used partly for hydrogenation of CO and CO2 as in these earlier coal hydrogenation processes for producing synthesis gas and liquid energy sources. The public and the scientific experts should be made aware of this fact. Coal utilisation technologies should be re-introduced in order to produce synthesis gas, gasoline and hydrogen. This will result in a high demand for hydrogen consumers, hydrogen storage vessels and small-scale hydrogen generators. Once the expert German industry will get aware of this, electrolysers, H2 burners, H2 motors, storage tanks, measuring instruments, safety systems etc. will be developed. Related technologies like oxygen technology, decentralised power supply systems, catalysts in technical facilities etc. will become interesting as well. Industry will start to work on this once its experts have realised that this is an interesting production sector and not just fantasy. [German] Die Wasserstofftechnik wird sich vor den regenerativen Energien durchsetzen. Denn es besteht eine enge Verwandtschaft zwischen der Wasserstofftechnik und den Techniken zur Kohleverfluessigung und -vergasung, die in Deutschland in den zwanziger und dreissiger Jahren entwickelt worden sind. Der mit regenerativen Energien oder aus fossilen Energietraegern erzeugte Wasserstoff kann z.T. zur Hydrierung von CO und CO{sub 2} verwendet werden, wie er frueher bei der Hydrierung von Kohle verwendt wurde, um so Synthesegas und fluessige Energietraeger zu erzeugen. Die Oeffentlichkeit und die Wirtschaft muessten auf diese Zusammenhaenge hingewiesen werden. Es werden im grossen Massstab wieder Kohlevergasung und Kohleverfluessigung angewandt werden muessen, um Synthesegas, Benzin und Wasserstoff zu

  2. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...... of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy...

  3. eye care utilisation among slum dwellers in the greater accra region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-07

    Jul 7, 2011 ... factors influencing eye care utilisation in the general population. .... Student. T rader. Un emp loy ed. Those who had not registered with the NHIS gave .... Pharmacy .... training of optometrists in Ghana only began in the.

  4. Validity and accuracy of interview and diary data on children's medical utilisation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Bruijnzeels (Marc); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen); A. Prins (Ad); W.J. van den Heuvel

    1998-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and accuracy of children's medical utilisation estimates from a health interview and diary and the possible consequences for morbidity estimates. The influence of recall bias and respondent characteristics on the repor

  5. Hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms from Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Twenty-three hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria and one yeast were isolated, using enrichment techniques, from water and sediment samples. Vibrio and Pseudomonas were the predominant genera. Of the different organisms screened, Bacillus, Candida...

  6. Selected Conditions for the Management of Underwater Systems Utilising Unmanned Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejski Mariusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents selected issues related to the management of underwater systems utilising remotely controlled unmanned vehicles, constructed and used at the Faculty of Maritime Technology and Transport of the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin. System managements covers a number of activation levels connected with the current utilisation of systems, as well as developmental works. The article accentuates the conditions of use for the said systems with the main consideration of didactic purposes.

  7. Utilisation of aromatic organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources by Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 1807.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Tomas

    2016-10-01

    Aromatic organosulfur compounds that contain aryl carbon-sulfur bonds are rare in nature but occur frequently in industrial processes and products. The utilisation of aryl sulfur compounds as a sulfur source has not been described previously among the budding yeasts (phylum Ascomycota, sub-phylum Saccharomycotina). A total of 31 strains representing 30 species and 28 genera of the budding yeasts were assayed for utilisation of benzene sulfonate as source of sulfur. Lipomyces starkeyi CBS 1807 was the only strain in this screen that was able to utilise benzene sulfonate as a sulfur source. Further study of L. starkeyi demonstrated that it could also utilise methyl phenyl sulfoxide, 1-naphthalene sulfonate, 2-naphthalene sulfonate, 1-anthraquinone sulfonate and 2-anthraquinone sulfonate as sulfur sources but not diphenylsulfone. This study represents the first reported case of the utilisation of sulfonated naphthalenes and anthraquinones as sulfur sources by a fungus. However, it should be stressed that the remaining 30 strains in this study were not assayed for the utilisation of these additional aryl sulfur compounds as sulfur sources. The present study highlights the potential of L. starkeyi and related species as a source of novel enzyme activities with possible applications in chemical manufacturing, disposal of xenobiotics and bioremediation.

  8. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  9. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ji Eun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB, mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K, are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Methods Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Results Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Conclusion Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation.

  10. The experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people from culturally and linguistically diverse groups are underrepresented in residential aged care but overrepresented in community aged care in Australia. However, little is known about culturally and linguistically diverse family caregivers in utilising dementia services in Australia because previous studies mainly focused on the majority cultural group. Experiences of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups who are eligible to utilise dementia services in Australia are needed in order to optimize the utilisation of dementia services for these caregivers. Methods The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of family caregivers from Chinese, Greek, Italian and Vietnamese groups in utilising dementia services. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret the experiences of the participants. Focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews were used to collect data. Data collection was conducted over a six month period in 2011. In total, 46 family caregivers who were caring for 39 persons with dementia participated. Results Four themes were revealed: (1) negotiating services for the person with dementia; (2) the impact of acculturation on service utilisation; (3) the characteristics of satisfactory services; and (4) negative experiences in utilising services. The present study revealed that the participation of caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups in planning and managing dementia services ranged markedly from limited participation to full participation. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that caregivers from culturally and linguistically diverse groups need to be fully prepared so they can participate in the utilisation of dementia services available to them in Australia. PMID:24148155

  11. Conversion and utilisation of biomass from Swedish agriculture; Foeraedling och avsaettning av jordbruksbaserade biobraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    2007-05-15

    Biomass feedstock from agriculture can be refined and converted into several different energy carriers and utilised for different energy services, such as production of heat, electricity or transportation fuel. The feedstock may be residues and by-products, such as straw and manure, or energy crops cultivated under different conditions depending on variations in regional and local conditions. Similar variations exist in the regional and local conditions for the refining and utilisation of the bioenergy and its by-products. The overall aim of this report is to analyse and describe the technical and physical conditions of different agriculture-based bioenergy systems using the existing infrastructure and potential new systems expected to be developed in the future. To which extent this technical/physical potential will be utilised in the future depends mainly on economic conditions and financial considerations. These aspects are not included in this study. Furthermore, potential possibilities to utilise existing infrastructure within the forest industry are not included. The report starts with an analysis and description of the energy efficiency of different bioenergy systems, from the production of the biomass to the final use of the refined energy carrier, expressed as the amount of heat, electricity or transportation fuel produced per hectare and year. The possibilities to co-produce different energy carries in bio-refineries are also analysed. The next part of the report includes an analysis of the variation in the regional conditions for the conversion and utilisation of the different energy carriers, based on existing infrastructure, for instance, district heating systems, individual heating systems, combined heat and power production, utilisation of by-products as feed in animal production, utilisation of digestion residues as fertilisers, the supply of forest fuels, etc. The report also includes a discussion of the environmental impact of an increased

  12. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  13. Gender analysis of technology utilisation among small scale oil palm fruits processors in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koledoye Gbenga F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the types of improved technologies utilised, tracked gender involvement at the various stages of oil palm fruits processing activities with a view to highlighting differences in the utilisation of these technologies among male and female processors. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 240 (120 males and 120 females oil palm fruits processors using structured interview schedule. Focus Group Discussion (FGD and Gender Mapping (GM were used to elicit qualitative data. Data collected were summarised with the aid of descriptive statistics while t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results showed that sterilizer, digester and hydraulic hand press were utilised by both male and female processors. Results of t-test revealed that at P ≤ 0.01, significant differences were found between male and female processors level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies with male having a higher mean score than the female. The study concluded that gender differences exited in the level of utilisation of oil palm processing technologies among male and female processors in Ondo State, Nigeria.

  14. Region-Specific Indicators for Assessing the Sustainability of Biomass Utilisation in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kudoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an expert working group of researchers from East Asian countries. The group was tasked with developing a theoretically sound and practically implementable methodology for assessing the sustainability of biomass utilisation in East Asian countries based on the needs and potential of biomass resources in this region. Building on six years of research conducted between 2007 and 2013, the working group formulated a set of main and secondary indicators for biomass utilisation under three pillars of sustainability. For the environmental pillar, the main indicator was life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and secondary indicators were water consumption and soil quality. For the economic pillar, the main indicator was total value added and secondary indicators were net profit, productivity, and net energy balance. For the social pillar, the main indicators were employment generation and access to modern energy, and the secondary indicator was the human development index. The application of the working group methodology and indicators in sustainability assessments of biomass utilisation will enable decision makers in East Asian countries to compare the sustainability of biomass utilisation options and to make decisions on whether or not to launch or sustain biomass utilisation initiatives.

  15. Determinants of utilisation differences for cancer medicines in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Alessandra

    2016-12-09

    Little comparative evidence is available on utilisation of cancer medicines in different countries and its determinants. The aim of this study was to develop a statistical model to test the correlation between utilisation and possible determinants in selected European countries. A sample of 31 medicines for cancer treatment that obtained EU-wide marketing authorisation between 2000 and 2012 was selected. Annual data on medicines' utilisation covering the in- and out-patient public sectors were obtained from national authorities between 2008 and 2013. Possible determinants of utilisation were extracted from HTA reports and complemented by contacts with key informants. A longitudinal mixed effect model was fitted to test possible determinants of medicines utilisation in Belgium, Scotland and Sweden. In the all-country model, the number of indications reimbursed positively correlated with increased consumption of medicines [one indication 2.6, 95% CI (1.8-3.6); two indications 2.4, 95% CI (1.4-4.3); three indications 4.9, 95% CI (2.2-10.9); all P marketing authorisation [1.2, 95% CI (1.02-1.4); p marketing authorisation. Prices had a negative effect on consumption in Belgium and Sweden. The positive impact of financial MEAs in Scotland suggests that the latter may remove the regressive effect of list prices on consumption.

  16. Comparison of methodologies for the in vivo assessment of {sup 18}FLT utilisation in colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); INSERM ERM0102, Laboratoire de Traitement d' Information Medicale, Equipe ' Quantification en Tomographie d' Emission' , CHU Morvan, 5 avenue Foch, 29609, Brest (France); Francis, D. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Mulligan, R.; Costa, D.C.; Croasdale, I.; Ell, P.J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, Mortimer Street, W1T 3AA, London (United Kingdom); Luthra, S.K. [IRSL Cyclotron Unit, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, I. [Department of Surgery, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    Fluorine-18 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine ({sup 18}FLT) is a tissue proliferation marker which has been suggested as a new tumour-specific imaging tracer in positron emission tomography (PET). The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics of {sup 18}FLT in patients with colorectal cancer, defining methodologies for the quantitative analysis of the in vivo {sup 18}FLT uptake and subsequently assessing the accuracy of semi-quantitative measures. Dynamic acquisitions over a single field of view of interest identified by computed tomography were carried out for up to 60 min following injection of {sup 18}FLT (360{+-}25 MBq). Dynamic arterial blood sampling was carried out in order to provide a blood input function. Simultaneous venous samples were also taken in order to investigate their potential utilisation in deriving a hybrid input function. Arterial and venous blood samples at 5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 min p.i. were used for metabolite analysis. Eleven patients with primary and/or metastatic colorectal cancer were studied on a lesion by lesion basis (n=21). All acquired images were reconstructed using ordered subsets expectation maximisation and segmented attenuation correction. Time-activity curves were derived by image region of interest (ROI) analysis and image-based input functions were obtained using abdominal or thoracic aorta ROIs. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated to provide semi-quantitative indices of uptake, while non-linear regression (NLR) methodology in association with a three-compartment model and Patlak analysis were carried out to derive the net influx constant K{sub i}. The metabolite analysis revealed two radioactive metabolites, with the parent compound representing 80% of the total radioactivity in the 30-min plasma sample. In the case of NLR, better fits were obtained with a 3k model (i.e. k{sub 4}=0) for both lesion and bone marrow time-activity curves. For the same lesions, a high correlation was

  17. Silages containing buckwheat and chicory: quality, digestibility and nitrogen utilisation by lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2012-02-01

    The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.

  18. Health care utilisation and characteristics of long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuckmann, V; Ekholm, O; Sjøgren, P;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate long-term female breast cancer survivors' (BCS') health care utilisation, health, and employment. METHODS: An age-stratified random sample of 2000 female breast cancer survivors (BCS) 5-15 years after primary surgery without recurrence was drawn from the Danish Breast Cancer...... Cooperative Group register. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemography, health care utilisation, employment, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Associations with breast cancer treatment were investigated. RESULTS: Response rate was 79%. Significantly more BCS than the general women...... population reported health care utilisation (61% versus. 56%; age-standardised risk ratio (SRR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.15), but significantly fewer BCS were disability pensioners (15% versus 19%; SRR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.64-0.93). 'Daily activities limited due to sequelae' were reported by 20...

  19. Association between subjective memory complaints and health care utilisation: a three-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans Boch; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among elderly patients and little is know about the association between SMC and health care utilisation. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate health care utilisation during a three-year follow-up among elderly patients consulting...... their general practitioner and reporting subjective memory complaints (SMC). METHODS: This study was conducted as a prospective cohort survey in general practice with three-year follow-up. Selected health care utilisation or costs relative to SMC adjusted for potential confounders were analyzed in a two...... aged 65 years and older consulted their GP in October and November 2002 and participated in the present study. The adjusted probability of nursing home placement was significantly increased in subjects with SMC relative to subjects without SMC (RR = 2.3). More generally, SMC was associated...

  20. The effect of non-response on estimates of health care utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundgaard, Jens; Ekholm, Orla; Hansen, Ebba Holme;

    2008-01-01

    living in Funen County. Data were linked with register information on health care utilisation in hospitals and primary care. Health care utilisation was estimated for respondents and non-respondents, and the difference was explained by a decomposition method of bias components. RESULTS: The surveys......-contact, and other reasons were less frequent. Respondents used 3-6% less health care than non-respondents at the aggregate level, but the opposite was true for some specific types of health care. Non-response due to illness was the main contributor to non-response bias. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of non......BACKGROUND: Non-response in health surveys may lead to bias in estimates of health care utilisation. The magnitude, direction and composition of the bias are usually not well known. When data from health surveys are merged with data from registers at the individual level, analyses can reveal non...

  1. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Joyce L.; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, which included 2987 women who provided information on maternal health insurance status. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: Utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Multivar...

  2. Adolescents' utilisation of psychiatric care, neighbourhoods and neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Ivert

    Full Text Available Mental health problems among adolescents have become a major public health issue, and it is therefore important to increase knowledge on the contextual determinants of adolescent mental health. One such determinant is the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The present study has two central objectives, (i to examine if neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated to individual variations in utilisation of psychiatric care in a Swedish context, and (ii to investigate if neighbourhood boundaries are a valid construct for identifying contexts that influence individual variations in psychiatric care utilization. Data were obtained from the Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis in Scania (LOMAS database. The study population consists of all boys and girls aged 13-18 years (N=18,417, who were living in the city of Malmö, Sweden, in 2005. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the probability of psychiatric care utilisation. The results from the study indicate that the neighbourhood of residence had little influence on psychiatric care utilisation. Although we initially found a variation between neighbourhoods, this general contextual effect was very small (i.e. 1.6%. The initial conclusive association between the neighbourhood level of disadvantage and psychiatric care utilisation (specific contextual effect disappeared following adjustment for individual and family level variables. Our results suggest the neighbourhoods in Malmö (at least measured in terms of SAMS-areas, do not provide accurate information for discriminating adolescents utilisation of psychiatric care. The SAMS-areas appears to be an inappropriate construct of the social environment that influences adolescent utilisation of psychiatric care. Therefore, public health interventions should be directed to the whole city rather than to specific neighbourhoods. However, since geographical, social or cultural contexts may be important for our

  3. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  4. Utilisation of coal and natural gas for the production of synfuels and chemicals in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.H.; Marriott, J.N.; Stones, J.D.A. (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs, Lynwood Ridge (South Africa). Energy Branch)

    1992-01-01

    Initially, the paper discusses coal, natural gas, condensate and crude-oil resources in South Africa. Aspects of the utilisation of coal for synfuels and chemicals manufacture discussed include: background; strategic and economic considerations; and technological developments. Aspects of the utilisation of natural gas and condensate for synfuels manufacture discussed include: continuation of synfuels programme in the eighties; financing principles and economic viability. Other aspects of synfuels manufacture in general covered are: macro-economics of the synfuels programme; chemicals production from coal; environmental considerations and future prospects. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Mind control: The secret weapon utilised by religious cults to control their followers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Pretorius

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to create awareness of the dangers of religious cults. The process utilised by these cults to recruit members and to control their lives is so subtle that members are led to believe that they joined out of their own free will. A brief discussion of what religious cults are as well as how they function is followed by an explanation of mind control and how it is utilised by cults. This article maintains that mind control is the secret weapon with which leaders of cults lure their followers under false pretences to mislead, control and make them dependent on the cult.

  6. Characteristics and utilisation of high-temperature (HTHP) filter dusts from pfb gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the study was to survey characteristics, utilisation and possible environmental impacts of solid wastes, i.e., in case of biomass, mainly high-temperature filter ash (HTHP) from pressurised fluidised-bed gasification (PFBG). The aim is to utilise solid wastes (slag, filter dust, additives) from biomass gasification instead of dumping. One alternative is recycling to the soil as liming material or fertiliser. It is expected that the ash recycled to forest soils changes the environment less than non-recycled ash. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  8. Variation in nitrogen source utilisation by nine Amanita muscaria genotypes from Australian Pinus radiata plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Nicole A; Chambers, Susan M; Cairney, John W G

    2003-08-01

    The abilities of nine genotypes of Amanita muscaria (L.:Fr) Pers. to utilise a range of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for growth was examined in axenic liquid cultures. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed in biomass yields on all substrates; however biomass yield was highest on glutamine and/or NH4+ for all genotypes. Yields on aspartic acid, glutamic acid and histidine were generally low relative to NH4+, while utilisation of arginine and glycine showed marked variation between genotypes. Eight genotypes produced significantly less biomass on bovine serum albumin than on NH4+, raising questions regarding classification of A. muscaria as a 'protein fungus'.

  9. Intracavity frequency doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm.......Utilising BiBO nonlinear crystal frequency doubling a Ti:Sapphire CW laser gave 100 mW at 405 nm and 53 mW at 392 nm. Stability proved excellent without servo control. Broad tunability was shown around 392 nm....

  10. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or ena

  12. Exploring the Extent to Which ELT Students Utilise Smartphones for Language Learning Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ismail; Senel, Müfit; Yesilel, Deren Basak Akman

    2015-01-01

    The advent of smartphones has had dramatic influences on our daily lives and has rendered human beings "walking computers." This holds important reflections in the realm of language learning, as well as in many other areas. This study aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise smartphones for…

  13. To fractionate municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash: Key for utilisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Laura Annika; Rantsi, Riina

    2015-11-01

    For the past decade, the Finnish waste sector has increasingly moved from the landfilling of municipal solid waste towards waste incineration. New challenges are faced with the growing amounts of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash, which are mainly landfilled at the moment. Since this is not a sustainable or a profitable solution, finding different utilisation applications for the municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is crucial. This study reports a comprehensive analysis of bottom ash properties from one waste incineration plant in Finland, which was first treated with a Dutch bottom ash recovery technique called advanced dry recovery. This novel process separates non-ferrous and ferrous metals from bottom ash, generating mineral fractions of different grain sizes (0-2 mm, 2-5 mm, 5-12 mm and 12-50 mm). The main aim of the study was to assess, whether the advanced bottom ash treatment technique, producing mineral fractions of different grain sizes and therefore properties, facilitates the utilisation of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash in Finland. The results were encouraging; the bottom ash mineral fractions have favourable behaviour against the frost action, which is especially useful in the Finnish conditions. In addition, the leaching of most hazardous substances did not restrict the utilisation of bottom ash, especially for the larger fractions (>5 mm). Overall, this study has shown that the advanced bottom ash recovering technique can be one solution to increase the utilisation of bottom ash and furthermore decrease its landfilling in Finland.

  14. Closing the Gap between Research Evidence and Clinical Practice: Jordanian Nurses' Perceived Barriers to Research Utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad; Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Khawaldeh, Omar A.; Al Qudah, Hani; Alhabahbeh, Atalla

    2016-01-01

    Background: The nursing profession is a combination of theory and practical skill, and nurses are required to generate and develop knowledge through implementing research into clinical practice. Considerable number of barriers could hind implementing research findings into practice. Barriers to research utilisation are not identified in the…

  15. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I.; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W.; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, Francois; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  16. Validity and accuracy of interview and diary data on children's medical utilisation in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeels, M.A.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Foets, M.; Prins, A.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: to assess the validity and accuracy of children's medical utilisation estimates from a health interview and diary and the possible consequences for morbidity estimates. The influence of recall bias and respondent characteristics on the reporting levels was also investigated. Design:

  17. Validity and accuracy of interview and diary data on children's medical utilisation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnzeels, M.A.; van der Wouden, Joke; Foets, M.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective-To assess the validity and accuracy of children's medical utilisation estimates from a health interview and diary and the possible consequences for morbidity estimates. The influence of recall bias and respondent characteristics on the reporting levels was also investigated. Design-V

  18. Infant care practices in rural China and their relation to prenatal care utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, B I; Wu, Z; Hemminki, E

    2011-01-01

    Studies describing postpartum childcare practices and the influence of prenatal care on infant care outcomes in rural China are scarce. This study looked at data for 1479 women who had given birth during the preceding 2 years (median age of the child was 8 months). Data were available from a Knowledge, Attitude and Perception cross-sectional survey collected from 2001 to 2003, after a prenatal care intervention in Anhui County, China, with a response rate of 97%. Prenatal care utilisation was categorised using the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index. Logistic regression was used to study the association between prenatal care utilisation and infant care practices. Mothers' uptake of breastfeeding, introduction of milk formula, cereal/porridge, meat and uptake of any immunisation were found to be in accordance with national recommendations. Intermediate prenatal care uptake was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of cereal/porridge. Inadequate care was positively associated with never breastfeeding, early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge, and early start of work after delivery. Initiation to prenatal care after the third month was positively associated with early introduction of milk formula and cereal/porridge. Having no prenatal care was positively associated with never breastfeeding and early introduction of milk formula. Mothers' uptake of infant care practices in this population was largely in accordance with national recommendations. Women with less than adequate utilisation of prenatal care and those who had initiated prenatal care late were less likely to follow recommendations on infant care.

  19. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D.E.M.C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the

  20. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  1. Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares G M; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members...

  2. Utilisation of N in perennial ryegrass cultivars by stall-fed lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.; Taweel, H.Z.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2006-01-01

    In the summers of 2000 and 2001, the effect of six diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the N utilisation by 12 high productive dairy cows was determined. Experiments were conducted according to a double 3 × 3 Latin square design; within each Latin square, three cultivars were

  3. The Utilisation of Outer Texts in the Practical Lexicography of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    training and contributions in lexicographic journals such as Lexikos, always in- vestigating and .... utilisation of outer texts to improve dictionary functionality and user-friendli- ness. .... Zvivanduriro zvezviito (An outline of verbal extentions). — .... Duramazwi reMimhanzi (Shona dictionary of music terms), Isichazamazwi Sezo-.

  4. The utilisation of the right of children to shelter to alleviate poverty in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This article will focus on the utilisation of the right to shelter of the child to ..... show that it has paid specific attention to providing safe housing to children ...... May J 1998 Poverty and Inequality in South Africa [Found on the Internet] HYPERLINK.

  5. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  6. Science Teachers' Utilisation of Innovative Strategies for Teaching Senior School Science in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelekan, Oloyede Solomon; Igbokwe, Emoyoke Faith; Olorundare, Adekunle Solomon

    2017-01-01

    Efforts have been made to improve science teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria, yet, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects. Many innovative teaching strategies have been developed by educators and found to impact significantly on students' academic performance when utilised. Hence, this study was aimed at examining science…

  7. Utilising Benchmarking to Inform Decision-Making at the Institutional Level: A Research-Informed Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarking has traditionally been viewed as a way to compare data only; however, its utilisation as a more investigative, research-informed process to add rigor to decision-making processes at the institutional level is gaining momentum in the higher education sector. Indeed, with recent changes in the Australian quality environment from the…

  8. Stoichiometric modelling of assimilatory and dissimilatory biomass utilisation in a microbial community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kristopher A.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Inskeep, William P.; Carlson, Ross P.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Assimilatory and dissimilatory utilisation of autotroph biomass by heterotrophs is a fundamental mechanism for the transfer of nutrients and energy across trophic levels. Metagenome data from a tractable, thermoacidophilic microbial community in Yellowstone National Park was used to build an in silico model to study heterotrophic utilisation of autotroph biomass using elementary flux mode analysis and flux balance analysis. Assimilatory and dissimilatory biomass utilisation was investigated using 29 forms of biomass-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) including individual monomer pools, individual macromolecular pools and aggregate biomass. The simulations identified ecologically competitive strategies for utilizing DOC under conditions of varying electron donor, electron acceptor or enzyme limitation. The simulated growth environment affected which form of DOC was the most competitive use of nutrients; for instance, oxygen limitation favoured utilisation of less reduced and fermentable DOC while carbon-limited environments favoured more reduced DOC. Additionally, metabolism was studied considering two encompassing metabolic strategies: simultaneous versus sequential use of DOC. Results of this study bound the transfer of nutrients and energy through microbial food webs, providing a quantitative foundation relevant to most microbial ecosystems. PMID:27387069

  9. Tailoring Spectator Experiences for Non-Regular Attendants to Increase Stadium Capacity Utilisation in Football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junghagen, Sven; Besjakov, Simon D; Lund, Anders Alrø

    The aim of this paper is to show in what way football clubs in smaller leagues with limited capacity utilisation can increase their per-game revenue by increasing the attendance frequency. A sequential mixed method research design was employed, involving both qualitative and quantitative methods,...

  10. Utilisation of Used Palm Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permchart, W.; Tanatvanit, S.

    2007-10-01

    This paper summarises the overview of the current situation of alternative energies in Thailand. The utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative energy in two economic sectors (i.e. transport and industrial sectors), which have the largest energy consumption in the country, is mainly presented because it has seemed to be the most promising project among various energy conservation projects of the Thai government. Actually, there is another bio-fuel project, namely, the ethanol project for blending with gasoline to produce gasohol (E10) used in gasoline engines, which has been developed and already become to an important policy for energy conservation of the country. Due to much more large number of diesel has been utilised, the bio-diesel project has been the first priority one to solve the petroleum crisis problems. However, it is remarked that the utilisation of bio-diesel as an alternative fuel seems to be unsatisfactory because of various reasons. Some issues in terms of both government policies and technical problems have not been clearly addressed. Therefore, this paper not only presents the utilisation of bio-diesel in these two sectors but also discusses the production processes, characterisations and some experimental testing results of bio-diesel.

  11. ICT and OTs: a model of information and communication technology acceptance and utilisation by occupational therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Louise K; Pervan, Graham P

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence to suggest that health professionals are reluctant to accept and utilise information and communication technologies (ICT) and concern is growing within health informatics research that this is contributing to the lag in adoption and utilisation of ICT across the health sector. Technology acceptance research within the field of information systems has been limited in its application to health and there is a concurrent need to develop and gain empirical support for models of technology acceptance within health and to examine acceptance and utilisation issues amongst health professionals to improve the success of information system implementation in this arena. This paper outlines a project that examines ICT acceptance and utilisation by Australian occupational therapists. It describes the theoretical basis behind the development of a research model and the methodology being employed to empirically validate the model using substantial quantitative, qualitative and longitudinal data. Preliminary results from Phase II of the study are presented. The theoretical significance of this work is that it uses a thoroughly constructed research model, with potentially the largest sample size ever tested, to extend technology acceptance research into the health sector.

  12. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  13. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  14. Different initiatives across Europe to enhance losartan utilisation post generics: impact and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eMoon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an urgent need for health authorities across Europe to fully realise potential savings from increased use of generics to sustain their healthcare systems. A variety of strategies were used across Europe following the availability of generic losartan, the first angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB] to be approved and marketed, to enhance its prescribing versus single-sourced drugs in the class. Demand-side strategies ranged from 100% co-payment for patented ARBs in Denmark to no specific measures. We hypothesised this heterogeneity of approaches would provide opportunities to explore prescribing in a class following patent expiry. Objective: Contrast the impact of the different approaches among European countries and regions to the availability of generic losartan to provide future guidance. Methodology: Retrospective segmented regression analyses applying linear random coefficient models with country specific intercepts and slopes were used to assess the impact of the various initiatives across Europe following the availability of generic losartan. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs. Price reductions for generic losartan were also measured. Results: Utilisation of losartan was over 90% of all ARBs in Denmark by the study end. Multiple measures in Sweden and one English primary care group also appreciably enhanced losartan utilisation. Losartan utilisation actually fell in some countries with no specific demand-side measures. Considerable differences were seen in the prices of generic losartan. Conclusion: Delisting single-sourced ARBs produced the greatest increase in losartan utilisation. Overall, multiple demand-side measures are needed to change physician prescribing habits to fully realise savings from generics. There is no apparent ‘spill over’ effect from one class to another to influence future prescribing patterns even if these are closely related.

  15. Selective habitat utilisation and impact on vegetation by African elephant within a heterogeneous landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steyn

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, a total of 33 elephants have been reintroduced to a 31 000 ha game-fenced section of the Songimvelo Game Reserve in the Barberton Mountainland, South Africa. The impact from elephant was assessed on the attainment of the primary management objectives which are the conservation of plant community and plant species diversity. A total of 160 semi-quantitative plots were systematically sampled along foraging paths. Vegetation was assessed in terms of dominant species composition and species utilised. Elephant activity is mostly confined to a rugged 1 200 ha portion of the reserve. Forest, thickets and woodlands are positively selected, whereas shrublands and grasslands are little utilised. A total of 73 woody species were recorded within the sample plots. Thirtynine of these species were utilised in the woodlands, 31 in the forest and thickets, and only 18 in the shrublands. Acacia ataxacantha, Dalbergia armata and Acacia caffra are ranked highest in dominance and in utilisation values. In contrast, Cussonia spicata and Pterocarpus angolensis are less common but are much selected. Continued utilisation at present levels could significantly threaten their persistence. These preliminary results indicate that the present low overall density of elephants relative to many other conservation areas already has a marked effect on certain plant species. Absolute elephant density figures are relatively meaningless within a heterogeneous landscape. The specific community and species make-up of the landscape needs to be taken into account for the determination of bounds to elephant numbers in order to ensure the maintenance of present plant species diversity levels.

  16. Health insurance determines antenatal, delivery and postnatal care utilisation : evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Joyce L; Kayode, Gbenga A; Arhinful, Daniel; Fidder, Samuel A J; Grobbee, Diederick E; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of maternal health insurance status on the utilisation of antenatal, skilled delivery and postnatal care. DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We utilised the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey data of Ghana, wh

  17. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  18. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Bramsen, I.; Devillé, W.; Willigen, L.H.M. van; Hovens, J.E.; Ploeg, H.M. van der

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental) and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of th

  19. Hospital emergency department utilisation rates among the immigrant population in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Oscar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in the number of immigrants of Barcelona represents a challenge for the public healthcare system, the emergency department being the most used healthcare service by this group. However, utilisation rates in our environment have not yet been studied. We aimed to compare emergency department utilisation rates between Spanish-born and foreign-born residents in a public hospital of Barcelona. Methods The study population included all adults residing in the area of study and visiting the emergency department of Hospital del Mar in 2004. The emergency care episodes were selected from the Emergency Department register, and the population figures from the Statistics Department of Barcelona. Emergency care episodes were classified into five large clinical categories. Adjusted rate ratios (RR of utilisation among foreign-born vs. Spanish-born residents were assessed through negative binomial regression. Results The overall utilisation rate was 382 emergency contacts per 1,000 persons-years. The RR for foreign-born versus Spanish-born residents was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.52; 0.74%. The RR was also significantly below one in surgery (0.51, 95% CI: 0.42; 0.63, traumatology (0.47, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59, medicine (0.48, 95% CI: 0.38; 0.59 and psychiatry (0.42, 95% CI: 0.18; 0.97. No differences were found in utilisation of gynaecology and minor emergency services. Conclusion The overall lower utilisation rates obtained for foreign-born residents is consistent with previous studies and is probably due to the "healthy immigrant effect". Thus, the population increase due to immigration does not translate directly into a corresponding increase in the number of emergency contacts. The lack of differences in minor and gynaecological emergency care supports the hypothesis that immigrants overcome certain barriers by using the emergency department to access to health services. The issue of healthcare barriers should therefore be addressed

  20. Changes in substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, Tanja; Avidon, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have evaluated substrate utilisation and protein catabolism during multiday strenuous exercise in athletes. Eleven well-trained male cyclists completed 3 h of race-simulated cycling on 4 consecutive days. Cyclist exercised 2 h postprandially and with carbohydrate supplementation (~50 g · h(-1)) during exercise. Whole body substrate utilisation was measured by indirect calorimetry, protein catabolism from sweat and urine urea excretion, and blood metabolite concentration was evaluated. Protein catabolism during exercise was significantly greater on days 2-4 (29.9 ± 8.8; 34.0 ± 11.2; 32.0 ± 7.3 g for days 2, 3, and 4, respectively) compared to day 1 (23.3 ± 7.6 g), P catabolism on all successive days.

  1. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus of the implementa......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus...... biogas for energy. Two different Danish joint biogas plants are evaluated with the aim of determining the role of transportation and co-fermentation on the energy and the balance of greenhouse gases from the biogas fuel cycle....

  2. Context-Aware Service Utilisation in the Clouds and Energy Conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiani, Saad Liaquat; Antonopoulos, Nick; Knappmeyer, Michael; Baker, Nigel; McClatchey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing environments are characterised by smart, interconnected artefacts embedded in our physical world that are projected to provide useful services to human inhabitants unobtrusively. Mobile devices are becoming the primary tools of human interaction with these embedded artefacts and utilisation of services available in smart computing environments such as clouds. Advancements in capabilities of mobile devices allow a number of user and environment related context consumers to be hosted on these devices. Without a coordinating component, these context consumers and providers are a potential burden on device resources; specifically the effect of uncoordinated computation and communication with cloud-enabled services can negatively impact the battery life. Therefore energy conservation is a major concern in realising the collaboration and utilisation of mobile device based context-aware applications and cloud based services. This paper presents the concept of a context-brokering component to aid...

  3. Une utilisation des enzymes proteolytiques extraites des visceres de poissons: La coagulation du lait.

    OpenAIRE

    Guerard, F.

    1985-01-01

    En industrie laitière, le caractère fluctuant de l'approvisionnement en présure a conduit à l'emploi de préparations enzymatiques d'origines diverses, coagulant le lait de façon analogue à la présure. Une protease extraite de la muqueuse gastrique de roussette possède une activité coagulante vis-à-vis du lait avec des propriétés compatibles avec une utilisation en industrie fromagère, en référence au modèle fourni par la présure. L'utilisation des enzymes protéolytiques de roussette ainsi que...

  4. Pella vilya: Near earth objects—Planetary defence through the regulation of resource utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2010-07-01

    Reactions to near earth objects (NEOs) in the past decade have run the gamut from expectations of Armageddon-type scenarios to Eureka moments of revolutionary scientific ideas. Concerns over the potentially devastating effects of an unmitigated collision jostle with forecasts of untold economic returns from the utilisation of NEO resources. Drawing from recent analogies and examples from the field of international environmental law, this paper proposes the development of a legal framework for the regulation of NEO resource utilisation. The proposed legal framework also includes a mechanism to ensure the political will and economic investment necessary for technological advances in planetary defence. By twinning the threats and opportunities presented by NEOs, this paper also analyses the position of theme-specific space law development in the overall legal framework of space exploration and traffic management.

  5. Energy and Greenhouse gas balances of the utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    of the implementation programmes has been on development of technologies for joint biogas plants, where more than one farm supplies the animal slurry. The joint biogas plants are dependent on industrial organic wastes to obtain high biogas yields for making the biogas plant economical. The industrial organic waste will......The utilisation of biogas for energy is an important part of the Danish energy plan for reducing Danish emissions of greenhouse gases. Implementation programmes for new biogas plants have been in operation since 1990, promoted by the Ministry of Environment and Energy. The focus......, however, be the scarce factor in a further development of the joint biogas plants in Denmark. The purpose of the present study is related to the discussion on the role of transportation in the biogas fuel chain. Transportation plays a central role in the assessment of environmental advantages of utilising...

  6. Investment utilisation, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Henningsen, Arne

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for adjustment costs and investment utilisation that illustrates their causes and types and shows in which phases of an investment they occur. Furthermore, we develop an empirical framework for analysing the size and the timing of adjustment costs......, as well as the effect of investments on adjustment costs and investment utilisation. These results are robust to different ways of measuring capital....... that investments have a negative effect on farm efficiency in the year of the investment and the year after accruing from adjustment costs. There is a large positive effect on efficiency two and three years after the investment. The farmer’s age and the farm size significantly influence technical efficiency...

  7. Digestibility in selected rainbow trout families and relation to growth and feed utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Jokumsen, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out aimed at clarifying variations in the digestibility of dietary nutrients in rainbow trout families and studying how differences in digestibility may be related to growth and feed utilisation at various growth rates. The digestibility of protein, lipid...... reared for 84 days at 16.8A degrees C. In both experiments, the fish were fed ad libitum and reared from an initial weight of 70-100 g to a final weight of 500-700 g. When the fish reached a weight of approximately 200 g, some individuals were moved to another experimental system in which...... the digestibility of protein, lipid, nitrogen-free extracts and dry matter was measured. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that selective breeding still offers a large potential for improved growth and feed utilisation in rainbow trout strains. In the first study, family Dc showed a higher specific growth rate...

  8. Utilisation of health care system by chronic pain patients who applied for disability pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højsted, J; Alban, A; Hagild, K; Eriksen, J

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how economic compensation for disability (disability pensions) to chronic pain patients affected their utilisation of health care services. The study was carried out as a register investigation. Inclusion of 144 study patients was based on records from 1989 and 1990 of the Rehabilitation and Pension Board in the Municipality of Copenhagen. Only patients of Danish origin with chronic non-malignant pain were included. The study period was divided into three: Subperiod 1: The year preceding the submission of the application for a disability pension. Subperiod 2: The period from the submission of the application to the decision was made. Subperiod 3: The year following the final decision of the health authorities. The patients were divided into 4 Subgroups according to whether disability pensions was awarded or rejected, or whether the patients accepted or appealed the decision. Based on number and charges of visits to the GPs the total costs of care in the primary sector were calculated. By means of number of bed days, visits to outpatients clinics, operations, blood samples, and various investigations, the total costs of hospital care were calculated. We found that application for a disability pension in chronic pain patients significantly influenced the health care utilisation. Chronic pain patients had a significantly lower health care utilisation after receiving a disability pension than before the pension was awarded. Chronic pain patients who did not get a disability pension and those who were not satisfied with the level of the pension awarded, maintained their health care utilisation after the decision. The mean health care use by the patients who appealed the level of the pension was three times higher than the mean health care use by the patients who accepted the level of the pension awarded. The study may indicate that lack of or insufficient economic compensation from the social system in chronic pain patients

  9. Validity and reliability of the Evidence Utilisation in Policymaking Measurement Tool (EUPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, M H; Yazdizadeh, B; Salehi, M; Seyedin, H; Majdzadeh, R

    2017-08-04

    As a well-known theory in studying the effective factors on behaviour, the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is frequently used in evaluating the health behaviour of people and healthcare providers, but rarely applied in studying the behaviour of health policymakers. The aim of the present study is to design and validate a TPB-based measurement tool for evidence utilisation in health policymaking (the EUPMT) through a mixed approach using confirmatory factor analysis. The study population consisted of all the specialised units and their employees in the five deputies of Iran's Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2013. All those eligible were invited to participate in the study, which comprised 373 persons. The reliability of the EUPMT was determined through test-retest and internal consistency. Additionally, its validity was determined by face, content, convergent, discriminant and construct validities. SPSS-20 and LISREL-8.8 were employed to analyse the data. To assess the fitness of the measurement models, three groups of indices were used, i.e. absolute, relative and parsimonious. The content and face validities of the tool were 83% and 67%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha of different constructs ranged from 0.7 to 0.9. In the test-retest method, the intra-class correlations were between 0.75 and 0.87. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the penta-factorial structure of the experimental data had acceptable fitness with the TPB (GFI = 0.86, NFI = 0.94, RSMEA = 0.075). TPB is able to explain the behaviour of evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The finalised TPB-based tool has relatively good reliability and validity to assess evidence utilisation in health policymaking. The EUPMT can be applied to determine the status quo of evidence utilisation in health policymaking, whilst designing interventions for its improvement and assessing their outcomes.

  10. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.; Baarveld, F.; Boerleider, A.W.; Spelten, E.; Schellevis, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. Aim: We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in pr...

  11. Increased utilisation of existing biogas plants; Oekat utnyttjande av befintliga biogasanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Mikael

    2007-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to analyse how existing biogas plants in Sweden could be utilised more efficiently, by increase the organic loading rate, and to calculate the cost efficiency of such measures. Biogas plants treating sewage sludge are currently operated with low organic loading rates and it is likely that there could be a considerable potential of increased utilisation of existing capacity. However, disposal costs of digested sewage sludge have a great impact on the economic result. Thus, the cost must be low, below 200 - 850 SEK/tonne DS, for co-digestion of sewage sludge and organic household waste to be economic competitive, compared to building of a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, using manure and organic waste as feedstock, it is not possible to say whether it is more economic to increase the utilisation of existing capacity or to increase the reactor volume. Therefore, more specific studies are required for individual plants and cases. Regarding the need for a more sophisticated monitoring and control of the biogas process, it can be established that the utilisation of sewage sludge digestion plants could be increased considerably without exceptionally high organic loading rates, thus probably without any additional monitoring and control. However, indicated prices for such applications are probably acceptable compared to establishing a new reactor. For co-digestion plants, the scope for investments is smaller and more dependent on the alternative cost for new reactors. Also, any process disturbances, which may appear even at low organic loading rates, could be very costly and result in costs in the same range as for monitoring and control equipment. Finally, the reader should observe that the analyses conducted here assume that funding and physical space for additional reactors is available at the existing site. If not, there could be situations where it is economic interesting to increase the organic loading rate although cost estimates

  12. Thermal waste utilisation by means of rotating fluidised beds. Thermische Abfallverwertung mit rotierender Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzerow, H.G. (Hoelter-ABT GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    The legal requirement of material and thermal waste utilisation prior to disposal opens up a wide field of application for the rotating fluidised-bed technique. The advantages of this method are its applicability to processing plants for different types of waste and the large range of possible plant capacity from 0.8 MW upwards. The article presents a special variation of the process and gives application examples. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of unturned eggs: critical period, retarded embryonic growth and poor albumen utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeming, D C

    1989-06-01

    1. The physiological effects of egg turning during incubation are described. 2. There was a critical period for turning, from days 3 to 7 of incubation, which affected hatchability, embryo growth and utilisation of extra-embryonic fluids. 3. Failure to turn eggs retarded formation of allantoic and amniotic fluids, restricted alumen uptake and retarded growth of the embryo, but only after day 12 of incubation.

  14. The Effect of Armed Conflict on Modern Contraception Utilisation – the Case of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Svallfors, Signe

    2016-01-01

    This MA Thesis explores the effect of the armed conflict on modern contraceptive utilisation in Colombia, using a departmental random-effects logistic regression model on novel cross-sectional data from the Uppsala Peace and Conflict Database Georeferenced Event Data and the Colombian Demographic and Health Surveys from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Reproductive health and rights has enormous consequences for women’s lives, but their relationship to conflict in Colombia has barely been analysed. Explo...

  15. Utilisation of nitrates--a decisive criterion in the selection of Lactobacilli for bioconservation of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybenová, E; Drdák, M; Guoth, R; Gracák, J

    1995-03-01

    This work presents results of the observations of cabbage and carrot juice fermentation after inoculation with pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria. From the point of view of nitrates, utilisation, the most suitable microorganisms found from those studied were Lactobacillus plantarum 92H, Lb. plantarum 90H and Lb. delbrueckii 37H. At the same time, other observed parameters were assessed as well for their suitability for vegetable bioconservation.

  16. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  17. Determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation in Georgia: can the approach help inform benefit package design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotsadze, George; Tang, Wenze; Shengelia, Natia; Zoidze, Akaki

    2017-05-02

    The healthcare financing reforms initiated by the Government of Georgia in 2007 have positively affected inpatient service utilisation and enhanced financial protection, especially for the poor, but they have failed to facilitate outpatient service use among chronic patients. Non-communicable diseases significantly affect Georgia's ageing population. Consequently, in this paper, we look at the evidence emerging from determinants analysis of outpatient service utilisation and if the finding can help identify possible policy choices in Georgia, especially regarding benefit package design for individuals with chronic conditions. We used Andersen's behavioural model of health service utilisation to identify the critical determinants that affect outpatient service use. A multinomial logistic regression was carried out with complex survey design using the data from two nationally representative cross-sectional population-based health utilisation and expenditure surveys conducted in Georgia in 2007 and 2010, which allowed us to assess the relationship between the determinants and outpatient service use. The study revealed the determinants that significantly impede outpatient service use. Low income, 45- to 64-year-old Georgian males with low educational attainment and suffering from a chronic health problem have the lowest odds for service use compared to the rest of the population. Using Andersen's behavioural model and assessing the determinants of outpatient service use has the potential to inform possible policy responses, especially those driving services use among chronic patients. The possible policy responses include reducing financial access barriers with the help of public subsidies for sub-groups of the population with the lowest access to care; focusing/expanding state-funded benefits for the most prevalent chronic conditions, which are responsible for the greatest disease burden; or supporting chronic disease management programs for the most prevalent chronic

  18. Opportunities for early Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage development in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, D. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The outline of the presentation shows the following elements: China CCUS (Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage) policy, strategy and development status; International developments in CCUS; High-purity CO2 sources and potential EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) locations in China; Capture routes: (a) Separation technologies/processes, (b) CO2 purity specifications, compression and after treatment, (c) CO2 transportation options, (d) Associated Cost; Potential cost-effective full-chain CCUS projects in Shaanxi; Barriers to CCUS development in Shaanxi; and Conclusions.

  19. Utilisation of Business Advice in Small Innovative Firms: the Role of Trust and Tacit Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Łobacz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to expand the understanding of the influence of trust relationship, as well as tacit knowledge on the process of business advice utilisation in small innovative firms. Research Design & Methods: The  analysis  is  based  on  empirical  research  conducted with the use of the explorative approach. The multiple case study methodology was used. Findings: Trust relationships as well as tacit knowledge were identified as factors essential to the process of utilisation of business advice in small innovative firms. It was recognised that the significance of both factors is related not only to the process of advice, but also as a purpose of activities happening prior to advice. They are referred to as the initial phase. Implications & Recommendations: The  findings  provide  implications  for  further  research of the structure of the process of business advice utilisation. It is related to the inclusion of the “initial phase”, as well as to the  necessity to include both factors in further research. The paper also provides implicationsrelated to the measurement of business advice output, and recommendations on the construction of public policy instruments. Contribution & Value Added: The originality of this work lies in using the process perspective and qualitative methodology in the field of the utilisation of business advice. It extends our understanding of the processes of business advice with regard to trust, as well as the use of tacit knowledge. The original contribution is to add the “initial phase” to the description of the business advice process.

  20. A Study on Water Treatment Induced by Plasma with Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡中爱; 王晓艳; 高锦章; 邓华陵; 侯经国; 卢小泉; 康敬万

    2001-01-01

    Oxidative degradation of eight kinds of dyes induced by plasma in aqueous solution was investigated with contact glow discharge electrolysis (CGDE). It has been demonstrated that these eight dyes underwent degradation in CGDE, where Fe2+ could be utilised to raise the efficiency of degradation of dyes.

  1. Impact of delisting ARBs, apart from losartan, on ARB utilisation patterns in Denmark: implications for other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Ulrik; Godman, Brian; Petzold, Max; Martin, Andrew; Malmström, Rickard E

    2013-12-01

    Renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs have been a target for health authority initiatives across Europe with the potential for substantial savings once generic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) became available without compromising care. Recently, losartan was the first angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to lose its patent. In Denmark, the authorities removed all other ARBs from the reimbursement list, apart from losartan, as they were all seen as essentially similar for the management of hypertension or congestive heart failure at appropriate doses, but more expensive. Similarly, all other ARB fixed-dose combinations (FDCs), apart from losartan, were removed from the reimbursement list. The aims of the study were to (i) assess the impact of these reimbursement changes on the subsequent utilisation of losartan and other ARBs alone or as FDCs; (ii) assess changes in the prices of losartan and other ARBs post-generic losartan to calculate potential savings; and (iii) compare the impact of the policies in Denmark with other European countries to provide guidance. This was a retrospective segmented regression analysis of an interrupted time-series design comparing utilisation patterns before and after the changes in ARB reimbursement status. Utilisation was measured in defined daily doses (DDDs). Changes in total expenditure and expenditure/DDD were also assessed over time. Losartan utilisation grew from 31 to 33 % of total single ARB utilisation before generic losartan, to 93 % by October 2011. There was a corresponding decrease in the utilisation of all other ARBs. Both changes were significant (p expenditure on single ARBs in 2011 was 77 % below 2009 levels despite a 16 % increase in utilisation. Estimated savings were 290.5 million Danish Kroner (DKK). A similar trend was seen for losartan FDCs, which was also significant (p switching programmes plus education and financial incentives also significantly enhanced losartan utilisation following generics in

  2. Health care utilisation and problems in accessing health care of female undocumented immigrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, Marianne A; Loeffen, Maartje J; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2010-10-01

    To obtain information about the actual use of health care facilities by undocumented women and to identify obstacles they experience in accessing health care facilities. A mixed methods study, with structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, was chosen to obtain a complete understanding. One-hundred undocumented women were recruited. Diversity was sought according to age, origin and reason for being undocumented. Undocumented female immigrants have unmet health care needs (56%) and low health care utilisation. Sixty-nine per cent of the women reported obstacles in accessing health care facilities. These included many personal obstacles such as shame, fear and/or lack of information. Poor language proficiency (OR 0.28;. CI 0.09-0.90) reduces utilisation of primary health care services. Health care utilisation of undocumented women is low. Undocumented women refrain from seeking health care because of personal obstacles. These women need to be identified and informed about their rights, the health care system and the duty of professional confidentiality of doctors. Finally, institutional obstacles to access care should be removed since they strengthen reluctance to seek help.

  3. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for language learning purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yaman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The advent of smartphones has had dramatic influences on our daily lives and has rendered human beings 'walking computers' . This holds important reflections in the realm of language learning, as well as in many other areas. This study aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT students utilise smartphones for language learning purposes. To this end, a 25-item questionnaire was administered to 120 Grade Three and Four ELT students at Ondokuz Mayis University in Turkey. Following the questionnaire, a follow-up oral interview was conducted with 29 of the participants on a voluntary basis in order to further investigate their perceptions of smartphones. The statistical analysis of the participants' responses to the items in the questionnaire clearly shows that smartphones are actively used for language learning purposes. In particular, their contribution to the development of vocabulary skills is frequently reported, which is also verified by the answers given during the interview. The analysis regarding the 'gender' and 'length of the students' possession of a smartphone' variables does not yield any statistically significant effect on the degree to which students utilise smartphones for language learning purposes. Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it very often, and considering the findings of this study, it is suggested that students be encouraged to utilise the invaluable language learning opportunities offered by smartphones when put to conscious use.

  4. Influence of palm olein on protein utilisation in the growing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

    1999-03-01

    In view of our preliminary findings that refined palm oil (RPOL) enhanced protein utilisation, and because of the growing importance of palm oil in human diets, two separate studies were conducted. The first study aimed to investigate the effect of the palm oil source and fraction on protein utilisation, as determined by net protein utilization (NPU) in growing rats. The second study aimed to investigate the influence of the dietary concentration of one particular palm oil fraction, refined palm olein (RPO) on net protein utilisation. The fat source of each of the semi-purified diets was as follows: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm kernel oil (RKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), and refined palm oil (RPOL). A sixth control group was offered an identical diet but with olive oil (OO, control) as the fat source. Both the oil source (P < 0.01) and the oil level (P < 0.05) influenced NPU in rats. NPU values were generally higher for rats given the RPO-containing diets, particularly at the 20% dietary level (P < 0.01) compared to the diets containing ground nut oil (GNO). The results of these two experiments indicate that RPO influences protein metabolism specifically at a concentration of at least 20% in the diet. This may suggest that RPO is superior to GNO as a source of fat for the rehabilitation of malnourished children. Human trials notably during the rehabilitation of malnourished children may therefore be the next step in this line of research.

  5. Energetic utilisation of biomass. In concord with Eastern Europe. Proceedings. Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse. Im Konsens mit Osteuropa. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The event focussed on energetic, economic, ecological, and logistical aspects and solutions to problems of biomass utilisation in practice. The growing attractivity of biomass utilisation both nationally and internationally is highlighted by the proliferation of applications in the heat production market and in cogeneration plants. With this international conference the Forum for Future Energy Resources gave a balanced and unbiased presentation and problem-oriented discussion on the continued market introduction of techniques of energetic biomass utilisation. Sixteen papers were abstracted individually. (orig./EF)

  6. Utilisation of Products of the Thermal Reclamation of Post Reclamation Dusts in the Production Technology of Ceramic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem related to the management of post reclamation dusts generated in the reclamation process of waste moulding sands with organic binders is presented in the hereby paper. Waste materials generated in this process are products hazardous for the environment and should be utilised. The prototype stand for the utilisation of this dangerous material in its co-burning with coal was developed and patented in AGH in Krakow. The stand was installed in one of the domestic casting houses. As the utilisation result the transformed waste product is obtained and its management in the production of ceramic materials constitutes the subject of the presented publication.

  7. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  8. Extreme climatic conditions and health service utilisation across rural and metropolitan New South Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegasothy, Edward; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert; Scalley, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Periods of successive extreme heat and cold temperature have major effects on human health and increase rates of health service utilisation. The severity of these events varies between geographic locations and populations. This study aimed to estimate the effects of heat waves and cold waves on health service utilisation across urban, regional and remote areas in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, during the 10-year study period 2005-2015. We divided the state into three regions and used 24 over-dispersed or zero-inflated Poisson time-series regression models to estimate the effect of heat waves and cold waves, of three levels of severity, on the rates of ambulance call-outs, emergency department (ED) presentations and mortality. We defined heat waves and cold waves using excess heat factor (EHF) and excess cold factor (ECF) metrics, respectively. Heat waves generally resulted in increased rates of ambulance call-outs, ED presentations and mortality across the three regions and the entire state. For all of NSW, very intense heat waves resulted in an increase of 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5, 17.4%) in mortality, 3.4% (95% CI 0.8, 7.8%) in ED presentations and 10.9% (95% CI 7.7, 14.2%) in ambulance call-outs. Cold waves were shown to have significant effects on ED presentations (9.3% increase for intense events, 95% CI 8.0-10.6%) and mortality (8.8% increase for intense events, 95% CI 2.1-15.9%) in outer regional and remote areas. There was little evidence for an effect from cold waves on health service utilisation in major cities and inner regional areas. Heat waves have a large impact on health service utilisation in NSW in both urban and rural settings. Cold waves also have significant effects in outer regional and remote areas. EHF is a good predictor of health service utilisation for heat waves, although service needs may differ between urban and rural areas.

  9. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  10. Impacts of HIV/AIDS mortality on food security and natural resource utilisation in rural South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available AIDS mortality, its linkages as a determinant and consequence of food security and its impact on natural resource utilisation by mainly rural populations, has not been well researched, especially their effects on rural livelihoods. Determining...

  11. Physical and thermal waste utilisation in the nonferrous metal industry; Stoffliche und thermische Abfallverwertung in der Nichteisenmetallindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In its amended form the German Household Waste Technical Code favours physical and thermal utilisation of wastes against dumping. Industrial processes offer various ways of utilising wastes with a high calorific value, e.g. in nonferrous metal production. Besides portraying this branch of industry in Germany the present paper investigates to what extent this topic has already found coverage and what potential it holds for the utilisation of wastes. By way of example it describes a successful demonstration of the physical utilisation of sewage sludge in lead production. [Deutsch] Die Neugestaltung der TA Siedlungsabfall favorisiert die thermische und stoffliche Verwertung von Abfallstoffen gegenueber der Deponierung. Moeglichkeiten fuer die Verwertung heizwertreicher Abfaelle bieten auch industrielle Produktionsprozesse, z.B. auch in der Nichteisenmetallerzeugung. Neben einer Charakterisierung der Branche wird untersucht, inwieweit dieses Thema bereits aufgegriffen worden ist und welches Verwertungspotential zur Verfuegung steht. An einem Beispiel wird die erfolgreiche Demonstration der stofflichen Verwertung von Klaerschlamm in der Bleierzeugung dargestellt. (orig.)

  12. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  13. Association between inadequate antenatal care utilisation and severe perinatal and maternal morbidity: an analysis in the PreCARE cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, M; Blondel, B; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Luton, D; Oury, J F; Schmitz, T; Mandelbrot, L; Azria, E

    2017-06-20

    Because the effectiveness of antenatal care in reducing pregnancy complications is still discussed despite widespread recommendations of its use, we sought to assess the association between utilisation of recommended antenatal care and severe maternal (SMM) and perinatal morbidity (SPM). Prospective cohort study. Four maternity units around Paris in 2010-2012. 9117 women with singleton pregnancies. Logistic regression models adjusted for maternal social, demographic and medical characteristics. Antenatal care utilisation was assessed by: (1) initiation of care after 14 weeks, (2) Prenatal Care Utilisation indexes, combining these components. The two main outcomes were composite variables of SMM and SPM. According to the modified Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilisation index, 34.6% of women had inadequate antenatal care utilisation; the incidence of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) was 2.9% and severe perinatal morbidity (SPM) 5.5%. A percentage of recommended visits below 50% (2.6% of women) was associated with SMM [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.40 (1.38-4.17)] and SPM [aOR 2.27 (1.43-3.59)]. Late initiation of care (17.0% of women) was not associated with SMM or SPM. Failure to undergo the recommended ultrasounds (16, 17 and 22% of women) was associated with SPM. Inadequate antenatal care utilisation according to the index was associated with SPM [aOR 1.37 (1.05-1.80)]. Inadequate antenatal care utilisation is associated with SMM and SPM, to degrees that vary with the component of care and the outcome considered. Inadequate antenatal care utilisation is associated with severe maternal and perinatal morbidity. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Disparities in healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Albertan residents, 1997-2006: a population database study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that significant discrepancies exist between the health of indigenous and non-indigenous populations. Whilst the reasons are incompletely defined, one potential cause is that indigenous communities do not access healthcare to the same extent. We investigated healthcare utilisation rates in the Canadian Aboriginal population to elucidate the contribution of this fundamental social determinant for health to such disparities. METHODS: Healthcare utilisation data over a nine-year period were analysed for a cohort of nearly two million individuals to determine the rates at which Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations utilised two specialties (Cardiology and Ophthalmology in Alberta, Canada. Unadjusted and adjusted healthcare utilisation rates obtained by mixed linear and Poisson regressions, respectively, were compared amongst three population groups - federally registered Aboriginals, individuals receiving welfare, and other Albertans. RESULTS: Healthcare utilisation rates for Aboriginals were substantially lower than those of non-Aboriginals and welfare recipients at each time point and subspecialty studied [e.g. During 2005/06, unadjusted Cardiology utilisation rates were 0.28% (Aboriginal, n = 97,080, 0.93% (non-Aboriginal, n = 1,720,041 and 1.37% (Welfare, n = 52,514, p = <0.001]. The age distribution of the Aboriginal population was markedly different [2.7%≥65 years of age, non-Aboriginal 10.7%], and comparable utilisation rates were obtained after adjustment for fiscal year and estimated life expectancy [Cardiology: Incidence Rate Ratio 0.66, Ophthalmology: IRR 0.85]. DISCUSSION: The analysis revealed that Aboriginal people utilised subspecialty healthcare at a consistently lower rate than either comparatively economically disadvantaged groups or the general population. Notably, the differences were relatively invariant between the major provincial centres and over a nine year period

  15. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  16. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  17. Utilisation of public eye care services by the rural community residents in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mologadi D. Ntsoane

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual impairment and blindness are major health problems worldwide, especially in the rural and remote areas of developing countries. Utilisation of eye care services is essential to reduce the burden of visual impairment and blindness, and it is therefore important that it is monitored.Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the level of utilisation of public eye care services and factors that might have influenced their usage in rural communities, Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Method: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were residents in selected rural villages located within approximately 5 km of six Government hospitals. Following ethical approval and receipt of informed consent, a questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used to collect information on the utilisation of eye care services and factors that might influence utilisation. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s Chisquare test were used to analyse and compare the data.Results: Many (62.7% of the respondents had used the government eye care services in the past. Over fifty-nine per cent (59.3% of them were satisfied with the services. Factors reported to influence utilisation (such as monthly income, knowledge of available services and the need for regular eye tests were positively associated with utilisation of eye care services in this study (p < 0.05.Conclusion: Utilisation of eye care services was relatively good, but varied significantly between sites. An awareness campaign by government and non-governmental organisations about eye care services may increase utilisation amongst rural communities.

  18. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  19. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treanor Charlene

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are

  20. Introduction and utilisation of high priced HCV medicines across Europe; implications for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie de Bruijn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is a widespread transmittable disease with a diagnosed prevalence of 2.0%. Fortunately, it is now curable in most patients. Sales of medicines to treat HCV infection grew 2.7% per year between 2004 and 2011, enhanced by the launch of the protease inhibitors (PIs boceprevir (BCV and telaprevir (TVR in addition to ribavirin and pegylated interferon (pegIFN. Costs will continue to rise with new treatments including sofosbuvir, which now include interferon free regimens. Objective: Assess the uptake of BCV and TVR across Europe from a health authority perspective to offer future guidance on dealing with new high cost medicines. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study of medicines to treat HCV (pegIFN, ribavirin, BCV and TVR among European countries from 2008 to 2013. Utilisation measured in defined daily doses (DDDs/ 1000 patients/ quarter (DIQs and expenditure in Euros/ DDD. Health authority activities to influence treatments categorised using the 4E methodology (Education, Engineering, Economics and Enforcement. Results: Similar uptake of BCV and TVR among European countries and regions, ranging from 0.5 DIQ in Denmark, Netherlands and Slovenia to 1.5 DIQ in Tayside and Catalonia in 2013. However, different utilisation of the new PIs versus ribavirin indicates differences in dual versus triple therapy, which is down to factors including physician preference and genotypes. Reimbursed prices for BCV and TVR were comparable across countries. Conclusion: There was reasonable consistency in the utilisation of BCV and TVR among European countries in comparison with other high priced medicines. This may reflect the social demand to limit the transmission of HCV. However, the situation is changing with new curative medicines for HCV genotype 1 (GT1 with potentially an appreciable budget impact. These concerns have resulted in different prices negotiations across countries, with their impact

  1. Determinants of prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Baarveld, Frank; Boerleider, Agatha W; Spelten, Evelien; Schellevis, François; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal health care is pivotal in providing adequate prevention and care to pregnant women. We examined the determinants of inadequate prenatal health care utilisation by low-risk women in primary midwifery-led care in the Netherlands. We used longitudinal data from the population-based DELIVER study with 20 midwifery practices across the Netherlands in 2009 and 2010 as the experimental setting. The participants were 3070 pregnant women starting pregnancy care in primary midwifery care. We collected patient-reported data on potential determinants of prenatal care utilisation derived from the Andersen model. Prenatal health care utilisation was measured by a revised version of the Kotelchuck Index, which measures a combination of care entry and number of visits. Low-risk pregnant women (not referred during pregnancy) were more likely to use prenatal care inadequately if they intended to deliver at a hospital, if they did not use folic acid adequately periconceptionally, or if they were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Among those who were referred to secondary care, women reporting a chronic illnesses or disabilities, and women who did not use folic acid periconceptionally were more likely to make inadequate use of prenatal care. Inadequate prenatal health care use in primary midwifery care is more likely in specific groups, and the risk groups differ when women are referred to secondary care. The findings suggest routes that can target interventions to women who are at risk of not adequately using prenatal prevention and care services. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Counting the costs: Comparing depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone oenanthate utilisation patterns in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Andrew

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, where health care resources are limited, it is important to ensure that drugs provision and use is rational. The Essential Drug List includes depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and norethisterone oenanthate (NET-EN as injectable progestagen-only contraceptives (IPCs, and both products are extensively used. Objectives and Methods Utilisation patterns of the injectable contraceptive products DMPA and NET-EN are compared in the context of current knowledge of the safety and efficacy of these agents. Utilisation patterns were analysed by means of a Pareto (ABC analysis of IPCs issued from 4 South African provincial pharmaceutical depots over 3 financial years. A case study from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is used to examine utilisation patterns and self-reported side effects experienced by 187 women using IPCs. Results IPCs accounted for a substantial share of total state expenditure on drugs. While more DMPA than NET-EN was issued, NET-EN distribution from 2 depots increased over the 3-year period. Since DMPA was cheaper, if all NET-EN clients in the 1999/2000 financial year (annualised had used DMPA, the 4 depots could have saved 4.95 million South African Rands on product acquisition costs alone. The KZN case study showed slightly more NET-EN (54% than DMPA (46% use; no significant differences in self-reported side effects; and that younger women were more likely to use NET-EN than DMPA (p = 0.0001. Conclusions Providing IPCs on the basis of age is not appropriate or cost effective. Rational use of these products should include consideration of the cost of prescribing one over another.

  3. Pattern of Utilisation of Dental Health Care Among HIV-positive Adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedigba, Michael A; Adekanmbi, Victor T; Asa, Sola; Fakande, Ibiyemi

    2016-01-01

    To determine the pattern of dental care utilisation of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 239 PLHIV patients in three care centres was done. Information on sociodemographics, dental visit, risk groups, living arrangement, medical insurance and need of dental care was recorded. The EC Clearinghouse and WHO clinical staging was used to determine the stage of HIV/AIDS infection following routine oral examinations under natural daylight. Multivariate logistic regression models were created after adjusting for all the covariates that were statistically significant at univariate/bivariate levels. The majority of subjects were younger than 50 years, about 93% had not seen a dentist before being diagnosed HIV positive and 92% reported no dental visit after contracting HIV. Among nonusers of dental care, 14.3% reported that they wanted care but were afraid to seek it. Other reasons included poor awareness, lack of money and stigmatisation. Multivariate analysis showed that lack of dental care was associated with employment status, living arrangements, educational status, income per annum and presenting with oral symptoms. The area under the receiver operating curve was 84% for multivariate logistic regression model 1, 70% for model 2, 67% for model 3 and 71% for model 4, which means that the predictive power of the models were good. Contrary to our expectations, dental utilisation among PLHIV was generally poor among this group of patients. There is serious and immediate need to improve the awareness of PLHIVs in African settings and barriers to dental care utilisation should also be removed or reduced.

  4. An international review of the patterns and determinants of health service utilisation by adult cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a need to review factors related to health service utilisation by the increasing number of cancer survivors in order to inform care planning and the organisation and delivery of services. Methods Studies were identified via systematic searches of Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index and the SEER-MEDICARE library. Methodological quality was assessed using STROBE; and the Andersen Behavioural Model was used as a framework to structure, organise and analyse the results of the review. Results Younger, white cancer survivors were most likely to receive follow-up screening, preventive care, visit their physician, utilise professional mental health services and least likely to be hospitalised. Utilisation rates of other health professionals such as physiotherapists were low. Only studies of health service use conducted in the USA investigated the role of type of health insurance and ethnicity. There appeared to be disparate service use among US samples in terms of ethnicity and socio-demographic status, regardless of type of health insurance provision s- this may be explained by underlying differences in health-seeking behaviours. Overall, use of follow-up care appeared to be lower than expected and barriers existed for particular groups of cancer survivors. Conclusions Studies focussed on the use of a specific type of service rather than adopting a whole-system approach and future health services research should address this shortcoming. Overall, there is a need to improve access to care for all cancer survivors. Studies were predominantly US-based focussing mainly on breast or colorectal cancer. Thus, the generalisability of findings to other health-care systems and cancer sites is unclear. The Andersen Behavioural Model provided an appropriate framework for studying and understanding health service use among cancer survivors. The active involvement of physicians and use of personalised care plans are required in order to ensure

  5. Understanding the reasons behind the low utilisation of thrombolysis in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Eissa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThrombolysis remains the only approved therapy for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS; however, its utilisation is reported to be low.AimsThis study aimed to determine the reasons for the low utilisation of thrombolysis in clinical practice.MethodFive metropolitan hospitals comprising two tertiary referral centres and three district hospitals conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study. Researchers identified patients discharged with a principal diagnosis of AIS over a 12-month time period (July 2009–July 2010, and reviewed the medical record of systematically chosen samples.ResultsThe research team reviewed a total of 521 records (48.8% females, mean age 74.4 ± 14 years, age range 5-102 years from the 1261 AIS patients. Sixty-nine per cent of AIS patients failed to meet eligibility criteria to receive thrombolysis because individuals arrived at the hospital later than 4.5 hours after the onset of symptoms. The factors found to be positively associated with late arrival included confusion at onset, absence of a witness at onset and waiting for improvement of symptoms. However, factors negatively associated with late arrival encompassed facial droop, slurred speech and immediately calling an ambulance. Only 14.7% of the patients arriving within 4.5 hours received thrombolysis. The main reasons for exclusion included such factors as rapidly improving symptoms (28.2%, minor symptoms (17.2%, patient receiving therapeutic anticoagulation (6.7% and severe stroke (5.5%.ConclusionA late patient presentation represents the most significant barrier to utilising thrombolysis in the acute stroke setting. Thrombolysis continues to be currently underutilised in potentially eligible patients, and additional research is needed to identify more precise criteria for selecting patients for thrombolysis.

  6. Women’s perceived susceptibility to and utilisation of cervical cancer screening services in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Y. Hami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malawi provides cervical cancer screening services free of charge at some public health facilities. Few women make use of these cancer screening services in Malawi and many women continue to be diagnosed with cervical cancer only during the late inoperable stages of the condition. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to discover whether the perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, amongst Malawian women aged 42 and older, influenced their intentions to utilise the available free cervical cancer screening services. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. Structured interviews were conducted with 381 women who visited 3 health centres in the Blantyre District of Malawi. Results: A statistically-significant association existed between women’s intentions to be screened for cervical cancer and their knowledge about cervical cancer (X² = 8.9; df = 1; p = 0.003 and with having heard about HPV infection (X² = 4.2; df = 1; p = 0.041 at the 5% significance level. Cervical cancer screening services are provided free of charge in government health institutions in Malawi. Nevertheless, low perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer amongst women, aged 42 and older, might contribute to limited utilisation of cervical screening services, explaining why 80% of cervical cancer patients in Malawi were diagnosed during the late inoperable stages. Conclusion: Malawian women lacked awareness regarding their susceptibility to cervical cancer and required information about the available cervical cancer screening services. Malawi’s women, aged 42 and older, must be informed about the advantages of cervical cancer screening and about the importance of effective treatment if an early diagnosis has been made. Women aged 42 and older rarely attend antenatal, post-natal, well baby or family-planning clinics, where health education about cervical cancer screening is often provided. Consequently, these women

  7. Informations sur le projet Changement d’ Utilisation et de Couverture des Sols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Podaire

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La communauté travaillant sur les changements de l’environnement global accorde une importance croissante aux modifications d’occupation et d’utilisation des sols et la nécessité d’une approche multidisciplinaire de ce sujet. En effet, ces changements ont un impact significatif sur les intéractions surface terrestre - atmosphère (biogéochimie, chimie de l’atmosphère, eau et énergie, la biodiversité (structure et fonctionnement des écosystèmes, diversité des espèces, fragmentation de la couv...

  8. An algorithmic approach for static and dynamic gesture recognition utilising mechanical and biomechanical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Farid; Shahabi, Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for recognising static and dynamic hand gestures by analysing the raw data streams generated by the sensors attached to the human hands. We utilise the concept of 'range of motion' in the movement of fingers and exploit this characteristic to analyse the acquired data for recognising hand signs. Our approach for hand gesture recognition addresses two major problems: user-dependency and device-dependency. Furthermore, we show that our approach neither requires calibration nor involves training. We apply our approach for recognising American Sign Language (ASL) signs and show that more than 75% accuracy in sign recognition can be achieved.

  9. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Tom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. Methods Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60 and refugees (n = 28 from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36, presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. Results Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2–17.9 and depression/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2–15.4, while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3–12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.1, high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1–11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0–10.4 or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9–60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.3 were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (χ2 = 19.74, df = 1, P In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found

  10. Comparison of self-reported health & healthcare utilisation between asylum seekers and refugees: an observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toar, Magzoub

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult refugees and asylum seekers living in Western countries experience a high prevalence of mental health problems, especially post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study compares and contrasts the prevalence of health problems, and potential risk factors as well as the utilisation of health services by asylum seekers and refugees in the Irish context. METHODS: Cross sectional study using validated self reported health status questionnaires of adult asylum seekers (n = 60) and refugees (n = 28) from 30 countries, living in Ireland. Outcome measures included: general health status (SF-36), presence of PTSD symptoms and anxiety\\/depression symptoms. Data on chronic conditions and pre or post migration stressors are also reported. The two groups are compared for utilisation of the health care system and the use of over the counter medications. RESULTS: Asylum seekers were significantly more likely than refugees to report symptoms of PTSD (OR 6.3, 95% CI: 2.2-17.9) and depression\\/anxiety (OR 5.8, 95% CI: 2.2-15.4), while no significant difference was found in self-reported general health. When adjusted by multivariable regression, the presence of more than one chronic disease (OR 4.0, 95%CI: 1.3-12.7; OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2-10.1), high levels of pre migration stressors (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-11.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.0-10.4) or post migration stressors (OR 17.3, 95% CI: 4.9-60.8; OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2-12.3) were independent predictors of self reported PTSD or depression\\/anxiety symptoms respectively, however, residence status was no longer significantly associated with PTSD or depression\\/anxiety. Residence status may act as a marker for other explanatory variables; our results show it has a strong relationship with post migration stressors (chi2 = 19.74, df = 1, P < 0.001).In terms of health care utilisation, asylum seekers use GP services more often than refugees, while no significant difference was found between these groups

  11. A modelling approach for tropical pig manure nitrogen utilisation and evaluation at the landscape scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tee, T. P.; Hilger, T. H.; Lean, I. J.; Cadisch, G.

    2009-07-01

    Intensive pig production units in the humid tropics excrete large and excessive amounts of manure daily. This manure is poorly handled in pond systems and under-utilised as a fertiliser resource. This may result in becoming an environmental hazard that contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and waterway pollution. The application manure as an organic substitute for mineral fertiliser in neighbouring annual or perennial cropping systems may provide a viable alternative to the problem. Optimising application rate and distribution of manure in neighbouring cropping systems would minimise environmental pollution loading and contribute to improvement of farm economics. (Author)

  12. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for procesing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agricultural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises all three reports. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  13. Morbidity and health care utilisation among elderly people in Mmankgodi village, Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, F.; SANDBERG, E.; Ingstad, B.; Hjortdahl, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the health status among the elderly in a village in Botswana and their pattern of health care utilisation.
DESIGN—A descriptive study where all persons 60 years and older were invited to participate, including a medical examination, laboratory testing and a questionnaire aiming at gathering sociodemographic data.
SETTING—Mmankgodi village of Botswana.
SUBJECTS—419 persons were identified as elderly in the village, out of which 337 were included.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The...

  14. Simulation of Utilisation of Pressure Propagation for Increased Efficiency of Secondary Controlled Discrete Displacement Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    in multiple cylinder chambers using on/off valves, the energy efficiency of the performed shifts is essential for the total system efficiency. However, pressure shifting on a volume, where the dynamics of pressure propagation in the pipelines is negligible have been proved to have an unavoidable minimum loss...... due to the compressibility of the fluid. This paper performs a simulation study, showing that an improved energy efficient shift may be implemented by utilising the pressure propagation in the line between valve and cylinder chamber....

  15. Hierarchical zeolites: Enhanced utilisation of microporous crystals in catalysis by advances in materials design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Ramirez, Javier; Christensen, Claus H.; Egeblad, Kresten

    2008-01-01

    in these materials often imposes intracrystalline diffusion limitations, rendering low utilisation of the zeolite active volume in catalysed reactions. This critical review examines recent advances in the rapidly evolving area of zeolites with improved accessibility and molecular transport. Strategies to enhance...... the properties of the resulting materials and the catalytic function. We particularly dwell on the exciting field of hierarchical zeolites, which couple in a single material the catalytic power of micropores and the facilitated access and improved transport consequence of a complementary mesopore network...

  16. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  17. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  18. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  19. Ultrasound enhanced plasma surface modification at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Norrman, Kion

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be highly enhanced by simultaneous high power ultrasonic irradiation onto the treating surface. It is because ultrasonic waves with a sound pressure level (SPL) above ∼140 dB can reduce the thickness of a boundary gas layer between the plasma...... and the material surface, and thus, many reactive species generated in the plasma can reach the surface before they are inactivated and can be efficiently utilised for surface modification. In the present work, glass fibre reinforced polyester plates were treated using a dielectric barrier discharge and a gliding...... arc at atmospheric pressure to study adhesion improvement. The effect of ultrasonic irradiation with the frequency diapason between 20 and 40 kHz at the SPL of ∼150 dB was investigated. After the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, the wettability was significantly improved...

  20. Estimation of an optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate for cancer: setting an evidence-based benchmark for quality cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, S A; Ng, W L; Do, V

    2015-02-01

    There is wide variation in the proportion of newly diagnosed cancer patients who receive chemotherapy, indicating the need for a benchmark rate of chemotherapy utilisation. This study describes an evidence-based model that estimates the proportion of new cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is indicated at least once (defined as the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate). The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can act as a benchmark for measuring and improving the quality of care. Models of optimal chemotherapy utilisation were constructed for each cancer site based on indications for chemotherapy identified from evidence-based treatment guidelines. Data on the proportion of patient- and tumour-related attributes for which chemotherapy was indicated were obtained, using population-based data where possible. Treatment indications and epidemiological data were merged to calculate the optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate. Monte Carlo simulations and sensitivity analyses were used to assess the effect of controversial chemotherapy indications and variations in epidemiological data on our model. Chemotherapy is indicated at least once in 49.1% (95% confidence interval 48.8-49.6%) of all new cancer patients in Australia. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rates for individual tumour sites ranged from a low of 13% in thyroid cancers to a high of 94% in myeloma. The optimal chemotherapy utilisation rate can serve as a benchmark for planning chemotherapy services on a population basis. The model can be used to evaluate service delivery by comparing the benchmark rate with patterns of care data. The overall estimate for other countries can be obtained by substituting the relevant distribution of cancer types. It can also be used to predict future chemotherapy workload and can be easily modified to take into account future changes in cancer incidence, presentation stage or chemotherapy indications.

  1. Trends in hospital bed utilisation in New Zealand 1989 to 2006: more or less beds in the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Laurence

    2007-10-26

    Reduction in hospital bed utilisation has been a key factor in controlling costs in recent decades in many health systems, including New Zealand's. This paper has the following aims: to analyse trends in hospital bed utilisation from 1988 to 2006; to examine variation between district health boards (DHBs); to consider factors which may explain the trends observed; to compare the results with international trends; and to discuss future need for beds and factors affecting this need, including the integrated DHB system. Ministry of Health Hospital Throughput reports for 1988/89 to 2005/06 were accessed and present standardised, filtered, and truncated data on discharges, average length of stay (ALOS), bed days, and DHB comparisons. Data on beds were also obtained from the Private Surgical Hospitals Association. Rates of utilisation were calculated using Statistics New Zealand and the Ministry of Health population data. Australian, UK, and US comparisons were obtained. The New Zealand data showed a continuing rise in discharge rates, especially case weighted. This was almost entirely due to the increase in day patients. There was a marked downward trend in bed day rates due to a more than 50% decline in the ALOS and a corresponding decline in bed availability. There was a marked variation between DHBs in standardised discharge ratios in 2005/06, with low rates indicating potential benchmarks to which higher utilisation DHBs might aspire. New Zealand was well ahead of both Australia and the UK National Health System (NHS) in reducing bed utilisation but comparisons with Kaiser Permanente indicated that DHBs could potentially, even dramatically, reduce bed utilisation through reducing admissions. The findings point to important progress in New Zealand in containing costs associated with hospital bed utilisation. Future strategies need to focus strongly on reducing hospital admissions through PHO action to provide community alternatives and chronic disease management.

  2. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  3. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  4. Drug utilisation study in a tertiary care center: Recommendations for improving hospital drug dispensing policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug therapy accounts for a major portion of health expenditure. A useful strategy for achieving cost efficient healthcare is drug utilisation research as it forms the basis for making amendments in drug policies and helps in rational drug use. The present observational study was conducted to generate data on drug utilization in inpatients of our tertiary care hospital to identify potential targets for improving drug prescribing patterns. Data was collected retrospectively from randomly selected 231 medical records of patients admitted in various wards of the hospital. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose methodology was used to assess drug utilisation data and drug prescriptions were analysed by WHO core drug indicators. Antibiotics were prescribed most frequently and also accounted for majority of drug costs. The prescribed daily dose for most of the antibiotics corresponded to defined daily dose reflecting adherence to international recommendations. Brand name prescribing and polypharmacy was very common.78% of the total drugs prescribed were from the National List of Essential Medicines 2003. Restricting the use of newer and costlier antibiotics, branded drugs and number of drugs per prescription could be considered as targets to cut down the cost of drug therapysignificantly.

  5. Primary care utilisation patterns among an urban immigrant population in the Spanish National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordonaba-Bosque Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence suggesting that the use of health services is lower among immigrants after adjusting for age and sex. This study takes a step forward to compare primary care (PC utilisation patterns between immigrants and the native population with regard to their morbidity burden. Methods This retrospective, observational study looked at 69,067 individuals representing the entire population assigned to three urban PC centres in the city of Zaragoza (Aragon, Spain. Poisson models were applied to determine the number of annual PC consultations per individual based on immigration status. All models were first adjusted for age and sex and then for age, sex and case mix (ACG System®. Results The age and sex adjusted mean number of total annual consultations was lower among the immigrant population (children: IRR = 0.79, p Conclusions Although immigrants make lower use of PC services than the native population after adjusting the consultation rate for age and sex, these differences decrease significantly when considering their morbidity burden. These results reinforce the 'healthy migration effect' and discount the existence of differences in PC utilisation patterns between the immigrant and native populations in Spain.

  6. Investigating the accessibility factors that influence antenatal care services utilisation in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugli, Augustine K.; Mpofu, Molyn

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal and infant mortality remains a huge public health problem in developing countries. One of the strategies to minimise the risks of both maternal and infant mortality is access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC) services. Aim This study aimed to investigate the accessibility factors that influence the use of ANC services in Mangwe district. Methods A qualitative approach using explorative design was adopted to target women who have babies under 1 year of age. The study was conducted in Mangwe district, Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Data saturation was reached after 15 women who were conveniently sampled were interviewed. Field notes were analysed thematically using Tech’s steps. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings. Results Accessibility factors such as lack of transport, high transport costs and long distances to health care facilities, health care workers’ attitudes, type and quality of services as well as delays in receiving care influence women’s utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe. Conclusion The study concluded that women were still facing problems of unavailability of nearby clinics; therefore, it was recommended that the government should avail resources for women to use. Recommendations Mangwe District Health Department should provide mobile clinics rendering ANC services in distant rural areas. PMID:28697619

  7. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  8. Reflective topical autobiography: an under utilised interpretive research method in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, M J

    1999-01-01

    Reflective topical autobiography (an autobiographical method) belongs to the genre of testimonial research and is located within the postpositivist interpretive research paradigm. Despite the (reflective) topical autobiographical method enjoying a 'rebirth' in recent years and being utilised by a range of researchers in the human and literary disciplines, it remains largely unknown and under utilised in nursing research domains. In this article it is proposed that reflective topical autobiography is an important research method in its own right, and one which promises to make a substantive contribution to the overall project of advancing nursing inquiry and knowledge. This is particularly so where nursing research shares in the affirming projects of interpretive research generally and the relatively new sociology of the emotions in particular apropos: (i) increasing understanding of subjectivity and making subjective experiences more visible and intelligible, (ii) the search for meaning and increasing understanding of the commonality of existential human experience, and (iii) decentring the detached observer and his/her privileging the objectivist illusion in the hierarchy of research discourses, paving the way for the admission of multiple realities and interpretations of lived experience. In this article, a coherent reflective topical autobiographical research method is advanced for use in nursing education and research contexts.

  9. National health insurance subscription and maternal healthcare utilisation across mothers' wealth status in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyaw, Edward Kwabena; Kofinti, Raymond Elikplim; Appiah, Francis

    2017-12-01

    This study is against the backdrop that despite the forty-nine percent decline in Maternal Mortality Rate in Ghana, the situation still remains high averaging 319 per 100,000 live births between 2011 and 2015. To examine the relationship between National Health Insurance and maternal healthcare utilisation across three main wealth quintiles (Poor, Middle and Rich). The study employed data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were conducted. Descriptively, rich women had high antenatal attendance and health facility deliveries represented by 96.5% and 95.6% respectively. However, the binary logistic regression results revealed that poor women owning NHIS are 7% (CI = 1.76-2.87) more likely to make at least four antenatal care visits compared to women in the middle wealth quintile (5%, CI = 2.12-4.76) and rich women (2%, CI = 1.14-4.14). Similarly, poor women who owned the NHIS are 14% (CI = 1.42-2.13) likely to deliver in health facility than women in the middle and rich wealth quintile. The study has vindicated the claim that NHIS Scheme is pro-poor in Ghana. The Ministry of Health should target women in the rural area to be enrolled on the NHIS to improve maternal healthcare utilisation since poverty is principally a rural phenomenon in Ghana.

  10. Health insurance and healthcare utilisation for Shenzhen residents: a tale of registrants and migrants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Kelvin KF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shenzhen’s rapid growth and urbanisation has attracted a large, mobile, migrant working population. This article explores health protection through the means of social health insurance between migrants and registrants and their point of access to healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Shenzhen, with a random sample of 793 registered and 750 non-registered residents. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyse the association between health insurance coverage with Hukou registration status and healthcare utilisation. Results Amongst 1543 respondents, 43.1% of non-registered residents were uninsured. Being non-registered strongly predicted for no insurance (OR = 5.00; CI 3.53,7.07 and have purchased additional/ private insurance (OR = 2.99; CI 1.66,5.37. Migrants who self-reported chronic health conditions were also more likely to utilise health services in general (OR = 2.77; CI 1.18,6.52. Conclusions Inadequate health insurance coverage for migrants as observed in Shenzhen remains a challenge for the Chinese health reform. Our results suggest that the current insurance system must seek to include migrants in order to achieve universal coverage and improved health protection for its population.

  11. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  12. Investigating the accessibility factors that influence antenatal care services utilisation in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoba Nyathi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal and infant mortality remains a huge public health problem in developing countries. One of the strategies to minimise the risks of both maternal and infant mortality is access to and utilisation of antenatal care (ANC services.Aim: This study aimed to investigate the accessibility factors that influence the use of ANC services in Mangwe district.Methods: A qualitative approach using explorative design was adopted to target women who have babies under 1 year of age. The study was conducted in Mangwe district, Matabeleland South province, Zimbabwe. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and observations. Data saturation was reached after 15 women who were conveniently sampled were interviewed. Field notes were analysed thematically using Tech’s steps. Lincoln and Guba’s criteria ensured trustworthiness of the study findings.Results: Accessibility factors such as lack of transport, high transport costs and long distances to health care facilities, health care workers’ attitudes, type and quality of services as well as delays in receiving care influence women’s utilisation of ANC services in Mangwe district, Zimbabwe.Conclusion: The study concluded that women were still facing problems of unavailability of nearby clinics; therefore, it was recommended that the government should avail resources for women to use.Recommendations: Mangwe District Health Department should provide mobile clinics rendering ANC services in distant rural areas.

  13. Heating Has No Effect on the Net Protein Utilisation from Egg Whites in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Kimura, Mamoru; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Egg whites (EW) are a good source of protein; however, they are typically heated prior to consumption. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different heating conditions on the protein utilisation rate of EW. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 36, 198 ± 1 g) were divided into six groups and fed American Institute of Nutrition-76 chow containing unheated EW, soft-boiled EW, boiled EW, milk whey protein, soybean protein, or no protein over a 10-day period using pair-feeding. Urine and faeces were sampled daily beginning on day 5 to measure nitrogen content and the net protein utilisation (NPU) rate. The soybean protein group had a significantly lower level of food intake and was thus excluded from subsequent analyses. The NPU value was similar among the unheated, soft-boiled, and boiled EW groups (97.5 ± 0.4, 96.5 ± 0.1, and 96.5 ± 0.7, resp.). The EW group values were significantly higher than the whey group values (90.5 ± 1.0). These results show that EW serve as a good source of protein, irrespective of heating. PMID:28337477

  14. An environmental analysis of options for utilising wasted food and food residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-12-01

    The potential environmental impact of wasted food minimisation versus its utilisation in a circular bioeconomy is investigated based on a case study of Ireland. The amount of wasted food and food residue (WFFR) produced in 2010 was used for business-as-usual, (a) and four management options were assessed, (b) minimisation, (c) composting, (d) anaerobic digestion and (e) incineration. The environmental impacts Global Warming Potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP) and Eutrophication Potential (EP) were considered. A carbon return on investment (CRoI) was calculated for the three processing technologies (c-e). The results showed that a minimisation strategy for wasted food would result in the greatest reduction of all three impacts, -4.5 Mt CO2-e (GWP), -11.4 kt PO4(3)-e (EP) and -43.9 kt SO2-e (AP) compared to business as usual. For WFFR utilisation in the circular bioeconomy, anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest environmental impact and best CRoI of -0.84 kg CO2-e per Euro. From an economic perspective, for minimisation to be beneficial, 0.15 kg of wasted food would need to be reduced per Euro spent.

  15. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  16. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  17. Wildlife resource utilisation at Moremi Game Reserve and Khwai community area in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaiwa, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    This paper uses the concept of sustainable development to examine the utilisation of wildlife resources at Moremi Game Reserve (MGR) and Khwai community area (NG 18/19) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Using both secondary and primary data sources, results show that the establishment of MGR in 1963 led to the displacement of Khwai residents from their land; affected Basarwa's hunting and gathering economy; marked the beginning of resource conflicts between Khwai residents and wildlife managers; and, led to the development of negative attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation. Since the late 1980s, a predominantly foreign owned tourism industry developed in and around MGR, however, Khwai residents derive insignificant benefits from it and hence resource conflicts increased. In an attempt to address problems of resource conflicts and promote sustainable wildlife utilisation, the Botswana Government adopted the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) programme, which started operating at Khwai village in 2000. The CBNRM programme promotes local participation in natural resource management and rural development through tourism. It is beginning to have benefits to Khwai residents such as income generation, employment opportunities and local participation in wildlife management. These benefits from CBNRM are thus having an impact in the development of positive attitudes of Khwai residents towards wildlife conservation and tourism development. This paper argues that if extended to MGR, CBNRM has the potential of minimising wildlife conflicts between Khwai residents and the wildlife-tourism sectors. This approach may in the process promote the sustainable wildlife use in and around MGR.

  18. A situational analysis of current antimicrobial governance, regulation and utilisation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellack, Natalie; Benjamin, Deon; Brink, Adrian; Duse, Adriano; Faure, Kim; Goff, Debra; Mendelson, Marc; Meyer, Johanna; Miot, Jacqui; Perovic, Olga; Pople, Troy; Suleman, Fatima; van Vuuren, Moritza; Essack, Sabiha

    2017-09-08

    The Global Action Plan (GAP) on AMR calls for optimising the use of antimicrobial medicines in human and animal health, in tandem with strengthening of the knowledge and evidence base through surveillance and research. However, there is a paucity of consumption data in African countries such as South Africa. Determining antimicrobial consumption data in low resource settings remains a challenge. This paper describes alternative mechanisms of assessing antimicrobial consumption data such as Intercontinental Marketing Services (IMS), and contract data arising from tenders (an open Request for Proposal, RFP) as opposed to the international norms of daily defined doses per 100 patient days, or per 1000 of the population. Despite its limitations, this serves as an indicator of antimicrobial exposure at population level and as an alternate method for ascertaining antimicrobial consumption in human health. Furthermore, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme globally and carries a high burden of tuberculosis (TB). This prompted the inclusion of antiretroviral and anti-TB antibiotic consumption data. Knowledge of antimicrobial utilisation is imperative to make meaningful future interventions. Baseline antimicrobial utilisation data could guide future research initiatives that could provide a better understanding of the different measures of antibiotic use and the level of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  20. The effect of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on health service utilisation of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cindy L K; Fong, Daniel Y T; Lauder, Ian J; Lam, Tai-Pong D

    2002-11-01

    This study was designed to find out whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was an independent determinant of health service utilisation of a Chinese population and to determine whether the addition of HRQOL data to sociodemographic and morbidity factors could significantly increase the explanatory power of risk-adjustment models. A cross-sectional random telephone survey of the general adult Chinese population in Hong Kong was conducted among 2410 Chinese aged 18-88yr old, 52% were females and 38% had one or more chronic diseases. Health service utilisation was measured by annual consultation, monthly consultation and hospitalisation rates. HRQOL was measured by the SF-36. Multivariate regressions were used to test the dependence of service utilisation rates on sociodemographic factors, chronic morbidity and the SF-36 scores. Structured multiphase regression analyses were used to determine the magnitude of the effect of the SF-36 scores, in addition to those of sociodemographic and chronic morbidity factors, on service utilisation. Five of eight SF-36 scores were independent determinants of consultation rates. They doubled and tripled the percentages of variance explained for annual and monthly consultation rates, respectively. Role limitation by physical problems and bodily pain scores had a significant effect on hospitalisation rates. This was the first study showing a linear relationship between HRQOL and service utilisation on a Chinese population. It confirmed the clinical relevance of the SF-36 to a culture and health care system that is different from that of the United States where the instrument originated.

  1. Bed utilisation and increased risk of Clostridium difficile infections in acute hospitals in England in 2013/2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Venanzio; Aylin, Paul P; Moore, Luke; King, Alice; Naylor, Nichola R; Birgand, Gabriel J C; Lishman, Hannah; Holmes, Alison

    2017-06-01

    The study aimed to identify thresholds for hospital bed utilisation which are independently associated with significantly higher risks for Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in acute hospitals in England. A retrospective analysis was carried out on reported data from the English National Health Service (NHS) for the financial year 2013/2014. Reported rates of CDI were used as a proxy for hospital infection rates in acute NHS hospital trusts. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship between bed utilisation values and CDI controlling for confounding factors. Hospitals were finally plotted in a Pabon Lasso graph according to their average bed occupancy rate (BOR) and bed turnover rate (BTR) per year to visualise the relationship between bed utilisation and CDI. Among English hospital NHS trusts, increasing BTR and decreasing BOR were associated with a decrease in CDI. However, this effect was not large, and patient mix had a larger impact on CDI rates than bed utilisation. While policymakers and managers wishing to target healthcare providers with high CDI rates should look at bed utilisation measures, focusing on these alone is unlikely to have the desired impact. Instead, strategies to combat CDI must take a wider perspective on contributory factors at the institutional level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Techno-Economic Models for Optimised Utilisation of Jatropha curcas Linnaeus under an Out-Grower Farming Scheme in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Osei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Techno-economic models for optimised utilisation of jatropha oil under an out-grower farming scheme were developed based on different considerations for oil and by-product utilisation. Model 1: Out-grower scheme where oil is exported and press cake utilised for compost. Model 2: Out-grower scheme with six scenarios considered for the utilisation of oil and by-products. Linear programming models were developed based on outcomes of the models to optimise the use of the oil through profit maximisation. The findings revealed that Model 1 was financially viable from the processors’ perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg. All scenarios considered under Model 2 were financially viable from the processors perspective but not for the farmer at seed price of $0.07/kg; however, at seed price of $0.085/kg, financial viability was achieved for both parties. Optimising the utilisation of the oil resulted in an annual maximum profit of $123,300.

  3. A random plasma glucose method for screening for gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari J

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Low renal threshold for glucose during pregnancy renders glycosuria less specific for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Screening for gestational diabetes was done by utilising random plasma glucose (RPG. RPG was done at the first antenatal visit. In 12,623 patients who registered for antenatal care at the N.W.M. Hospital, 1371 patients had a RPG more than 100 mg%. An oral glucose tolerance test was advised in these patients. The pick-up rate of gestational diabetes correlated with RPG level. Thirty-six cases of gestational diabetes were picked up. The pick up rate is significantly higher as compared to that which would have been detected utilising conventional screening criteria.

  4. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  5. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of bragg-Fresnel optics etched on multilayer structures. Application: lenses for X-Ray imaging; Etude experimentale et theorique d`optiques de bragg-Fresnel gravees sur miroirs interferentiels multicouches. Application: lentilles pour l`imagerie X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soullie, G.

    1996-10-01

    This work concerns the study of a new type of X-ray focusing optics known as Bragg-Fresnel lenses developed for imaging in the X and X-UV range. These optics, etched on multilayer structure, combine the focusing properties of zone plate with the Bragg reflection of multilayer used like support. Using synchrotron sources and a plasma source produced by a laser, we tested the efficiency and the spatial resolution of these lenses. With a monochromatic beam, we first obtained the image of a object by using the first order diffraction of an elliptical off-axis Bragg-Fresnel lens. By using only one part of a lens, the superposition of different diffraction orders in focal plane can be avoided, thus improving the image contrast. In order to evaluate the chromatic aberrations of these lenses, we have summed on the same image, three exposures at different energies in the band pass of the multilayer. To reduce these kind of aberrations, we used a system composed of two off-axis lenses. To simplify the alignment, we tested an elliptical off-axis lens associated with a lamellar grating. Thus we are able to validate the theoretical approximation of an off-axis Bragg-Fresnel lens to a variable spaced grating. Finally, to show the perturbation brought by the zeroth order, we successively imaged a laser plasma source with a centred and an off-axis elliptical lenses. As with the synchrotron source, a set of images of a test object enabled us to improve the spatial resolution. (author).

  7. The importance of plasma volume expansion and nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D M; MacGillivray, I

    1984-01-01

    Physiological adaptation including expansion in plasma volume is exaggerated in women with twin pregnancies. In singleton pregnancy and multiparous twin pregnancies there is an association between plasma volume expansion and birth weight, but this is not so in primigravid twin pregnancies. Women with twin pregnancies have a similar dietary intake to singleton pregnancies, but it is not known whether there are differences with parity or zygosity. Absorption and utilisation of nutrients may be increased to meet demands for extra fetal growth. Nutrient supply and plasma volume expansion will be further discussed and their association with birth weight presented.

  8. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design: A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10 from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices. Results: Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural. Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural to 11.96% in the

  9. Identification des objets et detection de leur alignement en utilisant la technologie RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahma, Zayoud

    De nos jours, les vehicules motorises sont essentiels dans notre vie quotidienne, d'ou la necessite de leur approvisionnement en carburant. L'approvisionnement en carburant peut entrainer certains inconvenients, tels que: les files d'attente, la disponibilite non-continuelle du carburant et les fraudes. Les problemes d'attente et de disponibilite non-continuelle du carburant peuvent etre facilement resolus en allant a une autre station d'essence aux alentours si disponibles. Par contre le probleme de fraudes est plus difficile a resoudre. De ce fait, decoule notre solution qui consiste a developper un systeme intelligent pour la gestion d'approvisionnement en carburant afin de remedier a ce probleme de fraudes. Pour des raisons de surete, il faut eviter les risques d'etincelles dans l'environnement du carburant. En particulier, il convient de ne pas utiliser un systeme utilisant 1'electricite proche de la pompe, du tuyau ou du reservoir du carburant du vehicule. Nous avons choisi la technologie RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) et avons opte pour l'utilisation des etiquettes passives, etant donne que les etiquettes semi-passives ou actives contiennent une batterie electrique et sont nettement plus cheres. Un vehicule motorise sera identifie avec une etiquette RFID passive collee au-dessus du goulot de son reservoir. Deux autres etiquettes RFID seront placees sur le pistolet de sorte que le flux du carburant ne sera autorise que lorsque les trois etiquettes sont alignees. Notre travail etait a la demande d'une entreprise petroliere ayant une chaine internationale de stations de carburant. Le travail consiste en la conception, par la recherche, du systeme requis et s'articule sur l'optimisation de la topologie des antennes et des etiquettes de sorte que le systeme juge qu'il y a alignement lorsque le bec du pistolet est fonce dans le goulot du reservoir, et par consequent autorise le versement du carburant. Dans tous les autres cas, le systeme doit juger qu'il n

  10. Implementation and utilisation of community-based mortality surveillance: a case study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowden Sarah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective surveillance is a recognised approach for measuring death rates in humanitarian emergencies. However, there is limited evidence on how such surveillance should optimally be implemented and on how data are actually used by agencies. This case study investigates the implementation and utilisation of mortality surveillance data by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF in eastern Chad. We aimed to describe and analyse the community-based mortality surveillance system, trends in mortality data and the utilisation of these data to guide MSF’s operational response. Methods The case study included 5 MSF sites including 2 refugee camps and 3 camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs. Data were obtained through key informant interviews and systematic review of MSF operational reports from 2004–2008. Results Mortality data were collected using community health workers (CHWs. Mortality generally decreased progressively. In Farchana and Breidjing refugee camps, crude death rates (CDR decreased from 0.9 deaths per 10,000 person-days in 2004 to 0.2 in 2008 and from 0.7 to 0.1, respectively. In Gassire, Ade and Kerfi IDP camps, CDR decreased from 0.4 to 0.04, 0.3 to 0.04 and 1.0 to 0.3. Death rates among children under 5 years (U5DR followed similar trends. CDR and U5DR crossed emergency thresholds in one site, Kerfi, where CDR rapidly rose to 2.1 and U5DR to 7.9 in July 2008 before rapidly decreasing to below emergency levels by September 2008. Discussion Mortality data were used regularly to monitor population health status and on two occasions as a tool for advocacy. Lessons learned included the need for improved population estimates and standardized reporting procedures for improved data quality and dissemination; the importance of a simple and flexible model for data collection; and greater investment in supervising CHWs. Conclusions This model of community based mortality surveillance can be adapted and used by

  11. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  12. Resource utilisation and costs associated with the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Prospective data from the Eurodiale Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompers, L.; Huijberts, M.; Schaper, N.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of the present study was to investigate resource utilisation and associated costs in patients with diabetic foot ulcers and to analyse differences in resource utilisation between individuals with or without peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and/or infection. Methods Data....... In view of the magnitude of the costs associated with in-hospital stay, reducing the number and duration of hospital admissions seems an attractive option to decrease costs in diabetic foot disease Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...... on resource utilisation were collected prospectively in a European multicentre study. Data on 1,088 patients were available for the analysis of resource use, and data on 821 patients were included in the costing analysis. Costs were calculated for each patient by multiplying the country-specific direct...

  13. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  14. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women's inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerleider, Agatha W; Manniën, Judith; van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Wiegers, Therese A; Feijen-de Jong, Esther I; Spelten, Evelien R; Devillé, Walter L J M

    2015-04-21

    Little research into non-western women's prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women's prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Data from 3300 women participating in a prospective cohort of primary midwifery care clients (i.e. women with no complications or no increased risk for complications during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium who receive maternity care by autonomous midwives) in the Netherlands (the DELIVER study) was used. Gestational age at entry and the total number of prenatal visits were aggregated into an index. The extent to which potential factors explained non-western women's prenatal care utilisation was assessed by means of blockwise logistic regression analyses and percentage changes in odds ratios. The unadjusted odds of first and second-generation non-western women making inadequate use of prenatal care were 3.26 and 1.96 times greater than for native Dutch women. For the first generation, sociocultural factors explained 43% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation, socioeconomic factors explained 33% and demographic and pregnancy factors explained 29%. For the second generation, sociocultural factors explained 66% of inadequate prenatal care utilisation. Irrespective of generation, strategies to improve utilisation should focus on those with the following sociocultural characteristics (not speaking Dutch at home, no partner or a first-generation non-Dutch partner). For the first generation, strategies should also focus on those with the following demographic, pregnancy and socioeconomic characteristics (aged ≤ 19 or ≥ 36, unplanned pregnancies, poor obstetric histories (extra-uterine pregnancy, molar pregnancy or abortion), a low educational level, below average net household income and no supplementary insurance.

  15. The use of secure anonymised data linkage to determine changes in healthcare utilisation following severe open tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Piers R J; Trickett, Ryan W; Rahman, Shakeel M; Walters, Angharad; Pinder, Leila M; Brooks, Caroline J; Hutchings, Hayley; Pallister, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Severe open fractures of the lower limbs are complex injuries requiring expert multidisciplinary management in appropriate orthoplastic centres. This study aimed to assess the impact of open fractures on healthcare utilisation and test the null hypotheses that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation between the year before and year after injury, and that there is no difference in healthcare utilisation in the year post-injury between patients admitted directly to an orthoplastic centre in keeping with the joint BOA/BAPRAS standards and those having initial surgery elsewhere. This retrospective cohort study utilising secure anonymised information linkage (SAIL), a novel databank of anonymised nationally pooled health records, recruited patients over 18 years of age sustaining severe open lower limb fractures managed primarily or secondarily at our centre and who had data available in the SAIL databank. 101 patients met inclusion criteria and 90 of these had records in the SAIL databank. The number of days in hospital, number of primary care attendances, number of outpatient attendances and number of emergency department attendances in the years prior and subsequent to injury were recorded. Patients sustaining open fractures had significantly different healthcare utilisation in the year after injury when compared with the year before, in terms of days spent in hospital (23.42 vs. 1.70, p=0.000), outpatient attendances (11.98 vs. 1.05, p=0.000), primary care attendances (29.48 vs. 11.99, p=0.000) and emergency department presentations (0.2 vs. 0.01, p=0.025). Patients admitted directly to orthoplastic centres had significantly fewer operations (1.78 vs. 3.31) and GP attendances (23.6 vs. 33.52) than those transferred in subsequent to initial management in other units. There is a significant increase in healthcare utilisation after open tibial fracture. Adherence to national standards minimises the impact of this on both patients and health services.

  16. Utilisation-Focused Evaluation of ICT in Education: The Case of DFAQ Consultation Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Brown

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an evaluation of a web-based consultation space (a dynamic frequently asked questions environment - DFAQ in which learners consult one another using questions, and in which both the flow of interaction and its artefacts become a resource available to a community of learners. The DFAQ is a special form of a Computer-Mediated-Communication tool specifically developed to facilitate question-based interaction. We argue that education is too complex a social structure to be evaluated using deterministic positivist quantitative approaches. Given the volatility of determining what constitutes value, costs, inputs and outputs and the complexity of dynamics of socialization, a non-deterministic qualitative approach, utilisation-focused evaluation approach is used. Our conclusion is that the DFAQ does contribute to students’ academic performance and frees the lecturer-learner consultation time.

  17. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  18. The effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme on health care utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchet, N J; Fink, G; Osei-Akoto, I

    2012-06-01

    The study investigates the effect of Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) on health care utilisation. We provide a short history of health insurance in Ghana, and briefly discuss general patterns of enrolment in Ghana as well as in Accra in a first step. In a second step, we use data from the Women's Health Study of Accra wave II to evaluate the effect of insurance on health seeking behaviour using propensity score matching. We find that on average individuals enrolled in the insurance scheme are significantly more likely to obtain prescriptions, visit clinics and seek formal health care when sick. These results suggest that the government's objective to increase access to the formal health care sector through health insurance has at least partially been achieved.

  19. Coupled oscillators utilised as gait rhythm generators of a two-legged walking machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, T

    1996-03-01

    The gait of current two-legged walking machines differs from that of humans, although the kinematic structures of these machines' legs frequently imitate human limbs. This paper presents a method of generating the trajectories of hip and knee joint angles resulting in a gait pattern similar to that of a human. For this purpose the solutions of coupled van der Pol oscillator equations are utilised. There is much evidence that these equations can be treated as a good model of the central pattern generator generating functional (also locomotional) rhythms in living creatures. The oscillator equations are solved by numerical integration. The method of changing the type of gait by changing appropriate parameter values in the oscillator equations is presented (change of velocity and trajectory of leg-ends). The results obtained enable enhanced control of two-legged walking systems by including gait pattern generators which will assume a similar role to that of biological generators.

  20. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Ibukun A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps (16 and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56 in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a

  1. Practical operation strategies for pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES) utilising electricity price arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Finn, P.

    2011-01-01

    that almost all (not, vert, similar97%) of the profits can be obtained by a PHES facility when it is optimised using the 24Optimal strategy developed, which optimises the energy storage based on the day-ahead electricity prices. However, to maximise profits with the 24Optimal strategy, the day......In this paper, three practical operation strategies (24Optimal, 24Prognostic, and 24Hsitrocial) are compared to the optimum profit feasible for a PHES facility with a 360 MW pump, 300 MW turbine, and a 2 GWh storage utilising price arbitrage on 13 electricity spot markets. The results indicate......-ahead electricity prices must be the actual prices which the PHES facility is charged or the PHES operator must have very accurate price predictions. Otherwise, the predicted profit could be significantly reduced and even become a loss. Finally, using the 24Optimal strategy, the PHES profit can surpass the annual...

  2. Contactless utilisation of an electronic purse for automatic fare management in public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruendel, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Verkehrs- und Infrastruktursysteme, Dresden (Germany); Lorenz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Wissens- und Technologietransfer der Technischen Univ. Dresden mbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The need for a precise revenue split within harmonised fare systems in public transport and a desired reduction of passengers' fare knowledge and user-required actions can be met by automatic fare management systems. Such a system representing the final level of a three-step approach is described in this paper with the main focus on the contactless utilisation of an interoperable electronic purse. This has been for the first time realised by an electronic folder developed within the EC projects ICARE and CALYPSO, which integrates a contactless ISO 14443 communication interface and a comprehensive user interface. Finally, an outlook of new opportunities with respect to fare systems and mobility management is given. (orig.)

  3. Importance of structure and density of macroalgae communities (Fucus serratus) for photosynthetic production and light utilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    Determination of photosynthetic production in plant communities is essential for evaluating plant growth rates and carbon fluxes in ecosystems, but it cannot easily be derived from the photosynthetic response of individual leaves or thalli, which has been the focus of virtually all previous aquatic...... studies. To evaluate the regulation of aquatic community production, we measured the photosynthetic production of thallus parts and entire communities of Fucus serratus (L.) of different density and spatial structure exposed to varying photon flux density and dissolved CO2 concentration. Photosynthetic...... production in relation to photon flux density differed considerably between entire communities and individual thallus parts. No light saturation occurred in the communities, and all photosynthetic variables such as light compensation point, efficiency of light utilisation at low light and maximum production...

  4. Composting of biological waste. Processes and utilisation. Summary report; Bioabfallkompostierung. Verfahren und Verwertung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronauer, A.; Claassen, N.; Ebertseder, T.; Fischer, P.; Gutser, R.; Helm, M.; Popp, L.; Schoen, H.

    1997-12-31

    The project investigated environmentally compatible concepts for processing and utilisation of biological waste by means of composting and spreading on agriculataural and gardening plots. The project comprised three parts: Composting techniques, applications of compost in agriculture and gardening, and applications in landscaping. This volume comprises the summaries of the three part-projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die umweltschonende Aufbereitung und Verwertung von Bioabfall durch Kompostierung und Rueckfuehrung auf landwirtschaftliche und gaertnerische Flaechen wurde untersucht. Dieses Projekt war dreigeteilt in die Bereiche der Kompostierung selbst, der Anwendung des Komposts in der Landwirtschaft und seiner Anwendung im Gartenbau sowie im Garten- und Landschaftsbau (GaLa-Bau). Die vorliegende Schrift enthaelt die Zusammenfassung der genannten drei Teilberichte. (orig./SR)

  5. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewu, Durojaye A; Ayodele, Ibukun A

    2009-12-04

    Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions. These include infertility

  6. Le grès ferrugineux de Puisaye : provenance et utilisation architecturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Subtil

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available L’objectif de cette étude était de définir le faciès du grès ferrugineux de Puisaye ainsi que ses zones d’exploitation, puis de déterminer l’utilisation architecturale de cette roche dans les édifices monumentaux (XIe au XVIe siècle et d’en définir les aires de diffusion.Cette roche est issue d’intercalations gréseuses et locales à l’intérieur de l’importante formation détritique de l’Albien (Crétacé inférieur. Cet ensemble forme une écharpe, d’orientation sud-ouest - nord-est entre l’Yonne...

  7. The effect of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in COPD patients in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Rusch, Ea; Andersen, Per Kragh;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Integrated Rehabilitation Programme for Chronic Conditions project (SIKS) implemented rehabilitation programmes for people with four chronic conditions in the local area within the Municipality of Copenhagen. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact...... of rehabilitation on health-care utilisation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients as a subgroup of SIKS. METHODS: For the analyses, data from Danish National Registers' were obtained. The following outcomes were analysed: (i) COPD hospital admissions, (ii) COPD bed days, (iii) COPD outpatient...... visits, (iv) COPD emergency room visits, (v) general practitioner visits, (vi) specialist visits, and (vii) COPD specific medication. The rehabilitation group consisted of 118 patients who completed the programme. The control group consisted of 236 COPD patients in Copenhagen who did not undergo...

  8. Biomass productivity and radiation utilisation of innovative cropping systems for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manevski, Kiril; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jiao, Xiurong

    2017-01-01

    In order to supply future biorefineries there is a need to sustainably intensify the biomass production on current agricultural land. The aim of this work was to determine biomass yield and associated radiation utilisation for novel perennial grasses and annual crops in rotations optimised...... for biomass production, and compare their performance with traditional cropping systems commonly used in northern European agriculture. Measurements of biomass yield from 2012 to 2015 at two Danish sites differing in soil type and climatic conditions were conducted in three main cropping systems: i) optimised...... monocultures of maize and triticale, and a rotation of spring barley − winter barley − winter rapeseed). The results showed that on sandy loam soil, the highest biomass yield (mean of three years following the establishing year) was achieved by festulolium (20.4 Mg ha−1), followed by tall fescue (18.5 Mg ha−1...

  9. Evaluation of methane-utilising bacteria products as feed ingredients for monogastric animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øverland, Margareth; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Shearer, Karl;

    2010-01-01

    Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), is a promising source of protein based on criteria such as amino acid composition, digestibility, and animal performance and health. Future research challenges include modified downstream processing to produce value-added products, and improved understanding of factors......Bacterial proteins represent a potential future nutrient source for monogastric animal production because they can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water, and climate conditions. This review summarises the current knowledge on methane-utilising bacteria as feed...... ingredients for animals. We present results from earlier work and recent findings concerning bacterial protein, including the production process, chemical composition, effects on nutrient digestibility, metabolism, and growth performance in several monogastric species, including pigs, broiler chickens, mink...

  10. Spirometry utilisation among Danish adults initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette

    2015-01-01

    with pharmacotherapy targeting obstructive lung disease and only few have additional tests conducted, although the predictive value of respiratory symptoms for diagnosing obstructive lung disease has proven to be low. Spirometry is recommended as the gold standard for confirming obstructive lung disease, and testing...... and being exposed to unnecessary economic costs and medication risks. The literature has indicated that many users of medication targeting obstructive lung medication have not had spirometry performed and do not actually have obstructive lung disease. This potential quality gap needs to be assessed. Also......, in order to target interventions enhancing earlier spirometry utilisation among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease, improved knowledge on patient and practice factors associated with spirometry testing is needed. AIMS: Among first time users of obstructive lung medication we...

  11. OCNELE MARI-OCNIŢA, VÂLCEA COUNTY RESOURCES, EXPLOITATION, RISKS, UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂŞTESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocnele Mari-Ocniţa. Resources, exploitation, risks, valorization. In Ocnele Mari Town and its constituent locality - Ocniţa, Vâlcea County, following the extraction of a large volume of salt through its underground dissolution, the soil and the breccias covering the salt have become unstable, producing landfalls and landslides that affected the exploitation installations, the transport infrastructure and several homes, during the last decennia, especially in the area of Ocniţa locality. In order to avoid major imbalances in this geographic area, following the mining activities, and also in order to reduce the consequences of the pollution triggered by saltwater, the main affected areas-locations have been identified and analyzed. This paper presents the resources existing in the exploitation area, the modifications occurred following the salt mining activities and their effects on: economic efficiency, local population, environmental balance, tourist potential and utilisation.

  12. A simple model of light transmission through the atmosphere over the Baltic Sea utilising satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Paszkuta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple spectral model of solar energy input to the sea surface was extended to incorporate space-borne data. The extension involved finding a method of determining aerosol optical thickness (on the basis of AVHRR data and the influence of cloudiness (on the basis of METEOSAT data on the solar energy flux. The algorithm for satellite data assimilation involves the analysis of satellite images from the point of view of cloud identification and their classification with respect to light transmission. Solar energy input values measured at the Earth's surface by traditional methods were used to calibrate and validate the model. Preliminary evaluation of the results indicates a substantial improvement in the accuracy of estimates of solar energy input to the sea surface in relation to models utilising only traditionally obtained data on the state of the atmosphere.

  13. Impact of caprock permeability on vertical ground surface displacements in geological underground utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Tillner, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Geological underground utilisation inducing pore pressure changes in underground reservoirs is generally accompanied by hydro-mechanical processes. Thereby, pore pressure increase due to fluid injection may trigger ground surface uplift, while a decrease in pore pressure due to reservoir fluid production is known to induce ground subsidence. Different coupled hydro-mechanical simulation studies (e.g. Klimkowski et al., 2015, Kempka et al., 2014, Tillner et al., 2014) indicate that ground surface displacements can achieve a magnitude of several decimetres, if storage or production operations are being carried out at an industrial scale. Consequently, detailed knowledge on the parameters impacting ground surface uplift or subsidence is of major interest for the success of any geological underground utilisation in order to avoid surface infrastructure damage by spatially varying deformations. Furthermore, ground subsidence may result increased groundwater levels as experienced in different underground coal mining districts. In the present study, we carried out coupled hydro-mechanical simulations to account for the impact of caprock permeability on ground surface displacements resulting from geological underground utilisation. Thereto, different simulation scenarios were investigated using a synthetic 3D coupled numerical simulation model with varying caprock permeability and vertical location of the open well section in the target reservoir. Material property ranges were derived from available literature, while a normal faulting stress state was applied in all simulation scenarios. Our simulation results demonstrate that caprock permeability has a significant impact on the pressure development, and thus on vertical displacements at the ground surface as well as at the reservoir top. An increase in caprock permeability from 1 x 10-20 m2 by two orders of magnitude doubles vertical displacements at the ground surface, whereas vertical displacements at the reservoir top

  14. Detailed Analysis of Wheat Straw Node and Internode for their Prospective Efficient Utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Seyed Hamidreza; Fan, Mizi; Zhou, Yonghui; AboMadyan, Omar

    2017-09-27

    In order to efficiently utilise wheat straw, the systematic examination of their cell wall components, chemical structures, morphology and relation to the physicochemical and mechanical properties is necessary. Detailing of node and internode signifies their different features and characteristics which can ultimately lead to their separated processing for enhanced efficiency and higher added-value bio-refinery. In this study, distinct variations were found amongst characteristics of node and internode, inner and outer surface. It was revealed that node has more extractives, Klason lignin and ash content than internode, higher contents of extractives and ash in the node are related to the thicker epidermis tissue. Hot-water followed by mild steam pre-treatment was used to examine the effects on the characteristics of wheat straw. The results showed: 1) reduced level of waxes and Si (weight %) from the outer surface, and 2) significantly lower (P < 0.05) extractives content in both internode and node.

  15. Numerical system utilising a Monte Carlo calculation method for accurate dose assessment in radiation accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Endo, A

    2007-01-01

    A system utilising radiation transport codes has been developed to derive accurate dose distributions in a human body for radiological accidents. A suitable model is quite essential for a numerical analysis. Therefore, two tools were developed to setup a 'problem-dependent' input file, defining a radiation source and an exposed person to simulate the radiation transport in an accident with the Monte Carlo calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. Necessary resources are defined by a dialogue method with a generally used personal computer for both the tools. The tools prepare human body and source models described in the input file format of the employed Monte Carlo codes. The tools were validated for dose assessment in comparison with a past criticality accident and a hypothesized exposure.

  16. Investigating public perceptions of carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technology: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C R; Kaklamanou, D; Stuttard, W M; Radford, R L; Burley, J

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide utilisation (CDU) technologies hold promise for helping to limit atmospheric releases of CO2 while generating saleable products. However, while there is growing investment in the research and development required to bring CDU to the market, to date there has been very little systematic research into public perceptions of the technology. The current research reports upon the findings of a series of six qualitative focus groups (and an associated questionnaire) held with members of the UK public in order to discuss the perceived benefits and risks of CDU technology. The findings reveal that public awareness of CDU is currently very low and that there is a desire to learn more about the technology. While our participants did, on average, appear to develop an overall positive attitude towards CDU, this attitude was tentative and was associated with a number of caveats. The implications for the findings in terms of the development of communication and broader strategies of public engagements are outlined.

  17. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  18. Dekkera and Brettanomyces growth and utilisation of hydroxycinnamic acids in synthetic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Victoria; Ford, Christopher M; Jiranek, Vladimir; Grbin, Paul R

    2008-04-01

    Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeast are important spoilage organisms in a number of food and beverage products. Isolates of both genera were cultured in a defined medium and supplemented with hydroxycinnamic acids and vinylphenols to investigate their influence on growth and the formation of ethyl phenol derivatives. The growth rate of Brettanomyces species in the presence of acids was reduced, and no significant conversion to vinyl or ethyl derivatives was observed. The growth rate and substrate utilisation rates of Dekkera anomala and Dekkera bruxellensis yeast differed depending on strain and the acid precursor present. Growth of D. bruxellensis was slowed by the presence of ferulic acid with the addition of 1 mM ferulic acid completely inhibiting growth. This study provides an insight into the spoilage potential of these organisms and possible control strategies involving hydroxycinnamic acids.

  19. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  20. Health care utilisation amongst Shenzhen migrant workers: does being insured make a difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hanping

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the Pearl River Delta of South China, Shenzhen attracts millions of migrant workers annually. The objectives of this study were to compare health needs, self-reported health and healthcare utilisation of insured and uninsured migrant workers in Shenzhen, China, where a new health insurance scheme targeting at migrant workers was initiated. Methods A cross-sectional survey using multi-staged sampling was conducted to collect data from migrant factory workers. Statistical tests included logistic regression analysis were used. Results Among 4634 subjects (96.54% who responded to the survey, 55.11% were uninsured. Disease patterns were similar irrespective of insurance status. The uninsured were more likely to be female, single, younger and less educated unskilled labourers with a lower monthly income compared with the insured. Out of 1136 who reported illness in the previous two weeks, 62.15% did not visit a doctor. Of the 296 who were referred for inpatient care, 48.65% did not attend because of inability to pay. Amongst those who reported sickness, 548 were insured and 588 were uninsured. Those that were insured, and had easier access to care were more likely to make doctor visits than those who were uninsured. Conclusion Health care utilisation patterns differ between insured and uninsured workers and insurance status appears to be a significant factor. The health insurance system is inequitably distributed amongst migrant workers. Younger less educated women who are paid less are more likely to be uninsured and therefore to pay out of pocket for their care. For greater equity this group need to be included in the insurance schemes as they develop.

  1. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Tow

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA and the online resource UpToDate. Methods This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Results Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8% responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3% owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7% used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Conclusion Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  2. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  3. Utilisation of sexual health services by female sex workers in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Teijlingen Edwin R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS in 2006 showed that more than half (56% of the women with sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including HIV, in Nepal sought sexual health services. There is no such data for female sex workers (FSWs and the limited studies on this group suggest they do not even use routine health services. This study explores FSWs use of sexual health services and the factors associated with their use and non-use of services. Methods This study aimed to explore the factors associated with utilisation of sexual health services by FSWs in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, and it used a mixed-method approach consisting of an interviewer administered questionnaire-based survey and in-depth interviews. Results The questionnaire survey, completed with 425 FSWs, showed that 90% FSWs self-reported sickness, and (30.8% reported symptoms of STIs. A quarter (25% of those reporting STIs had never visited any health facilities especially for sexual health services preferring to use non-governmental clinics (72%, private clinics (50%, hospital (27% and health centres (13%. Multiple regression analysis showed that separated, married and street- based FSWs were more likely to seek health services from the clinics or hospitals. In- depth interviews with 15 FSWs revealed that FSWs perceived that personal, structural and socio-cultural barriers, such as inappropriate clinic opening hours, discrimination, the judgemental attitude of the service providers, lack of confidentiality, fear of public exposure, and higher fees for the services as barriers to their access and utilisation of sexual health services. Conclusion FSWs have limited access to information and to health services, and operate under personal, structural and socio-cultural constraints. The 'education' to change individual behaviour, health worker and community perceptions, as well as the training of the health workers, is necessary.

  4. How residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant and UpToDate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow Keang

    2008-07-14

    In this era of evidence-based medicine, doctors are increasingly using information technology to acquire medical knowledge. This study evaluates how residents and interns utilise and perceive the personal digital assistant (PDA) and the online resource UpToDate. This is a questionnaire survey of all residents and interns in a tertiary teaching hospital. Out of 168 doctors, 134 (79.8%) responded to the questionnaire. Only 54 doctors (40.3%) owned a PDA. Although these owners perceived that the PDA was most useful for providing drug information, followed by medical references, scheduling and medical calculators, the majority of them did not actually have medical software applications downloaded on their PDAs. The greatest concerns highlighted for the PDA were the fear of loss and breakage, and the preference for working with desktop computers and paper. Meanwhile, only 76 doctors (56.7%) used UpToDate, even though the hospital had an institutional subscription for it. Although 93.4% of these users would recommend UpToDate to a colleague, only 57.9% stated that the use of UpToDate had led to a change in their management of patients. Although UpToDate and various PDA software applications were deemed useful by some of the residents and interns in our study, both digital tools were under-utilised. More should be done to facilitate the use of medical software applications on PDAs, to promote awareness of tools for evidence-based medicine such as UpToDate, and to facilitate the application of evidence-based medicine in daily clinical practice.

  5. Contraceptive Utilisation Among Mothers of Reproductive Age in Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to determine contraceptive utilisation among mothers aged 18–49 years old in Ajman, United Arab Emirates (UAE. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to November 2013. A total of 400 participants were recruited from two primary healthcare centres and one private hospital in Ajman. An interviewer-administered validated questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: The frequency of previous and current contraceptive use was 68.0% and 61.8%, respectively. Expatriates more frequently used contraceptives in comparison to Emiratis (77.3% versus 54.3%, respectively. Contraceptive use increased significantly with age (75.5% among >35-year-olds versus 57.3% among ≤25-year-olds; P <0.050 and education level (83.3% among postgraduates versus 60.0% among those with primary education; P <0.050. In addition, contraceptive use was significantly higher among those living in a nuclear family system (P <0.050. A univariate analysis indicated significant associations between contraceptive use and age, nationality, education level, type of family system, employment sector, parity, knowledge of birth control measures and source of birth control information (P <0.050 each. However, no significant associations were found via multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Healthcare practitioners can play a pivotal role in providing contraceptive advice which could lead to an improvement in contraceptive utilisation. Efforts are recommended to raise awareness regarding newer forms of contraceptives among mothers of reproductive age in the UAE.

  6. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  7. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves); Etude des proprietes des plasmas denses au moyen d'ondes electromagnetiques de tres haute frequence (ondes lumineuses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)

  8. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  9. Laser-plasma-based Space Radiation Reproduction in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, B.; Karger, O.; Königstein, T.; Pretzler, G.; Manahan, G. G.; McKenna, P.; Gray, R.; Wilson, R.; Wiggins, S. M.; Welsh, G. H.; Beaton, A.; Delinikolas, P.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Karmakar, A.; Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Costantino, A.; Muschitiello, M.; Daly, E.

    2017-01-01

    Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space. In combination with the established sources, utilisation of the growing number of ever more potent laser-plasma-accelerator facilities worldwide as complementary space radiation sources can help alleviate the shortage of available beamtime and may allow for development of advanced test procedures, paving the way towards higher reliability of space missions. PMID:28176862

  10. Laser-plasma-based Space Radiation Reproduction in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, B; Karger, O; Königstein, T; Pretzler, G; Manahan, G G; McKenna, P; Gray, R; Wilson, R; Wiggins, S M; Welsh, G H; Beaton, A; Delinikolas, P; Jaroszynski, D A; Rosenzweig, J B; Karmakar, A; Ferlet-Cavrois, V; Costantino, A; Muschitiello, M; Daly, E

    2017-02-08

    Space radiation is a great danger to electronics and astronauts onboard space vessels. The spectral flux of space electrons, protons and ions for example in the radiation belts is inherently broadband, but this is a feature hard to mimic with conventional radiation sources. Using laser-plasma-accelerators, we reproduced relativistic, broadband radiation belt flux in the laboratory, and used this man-made space radiation to test the radiation hardness of space electronics. Such close mimicking of space radiation in the lab builds on the inherent ability of laser-plasma-accelerators to directly produce broadband Maxwellian-type particle flux, akin to conditions in space. In combination with the established sources, utilisation of the growing number of ever more potent laser-plasma-accelerator facilities worldwide as complementary space radiation sources can help alleviate the shortage of available beamtime and may allow for development of advanced test procedures, paving the way towards higher reliability of space missions.

  11. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  12. Demystifying the Rubric: A Five-Step Pedagogy to Improve Student Understanding and Utilisation of Marking Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lorraine; Allen, Bill; Dunn, Peter; Brooker, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    Marking-criteria rubrics are commonly used to judge the quality of student work, but few students receive instruction to effectively use and apply rubrics. This study investigates an intervention designed to encourage effective utilisation of rubrics. The study, completed over two years (2011: n = 189 respondents; 2012: n = 464 respondents) in a…

  13. Utilisation and Satisfaction with Rehabilitation Services in Children with Primary Language Impairment Transitioning to School: Parents' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Barbara; Dion, Karyne; Moryoussef, Aguy

    2017-01-01

    Children with disabilities require coordinated services to optimise transition into school. This study compared type, frequency and approach to service utilisation for children with primary language impairment transitioning from rehabilitation to the educational system, and examined parent satisfaction. Parents responded to a telephone…

  14. Impediments to Effective Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology Tools in Selected Universities in the North-Eastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, Mustapha

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impediments to effective use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in Nigerian universities. Series of research conducted on the factors militating against computerisation indicated that, there were impediments to effective utilisation of ICT tools in most developing countries. In the light of this, the…

  15. The Effect of Children's Rights Training on Primary School Students' Utilisation and Knowledge Level about Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozmen, Suna Kaymak; Ocal, Tugba; Ozmen, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Recently, children's rights issue has taken attention. In this study, main purpose was to investigate the utilisation and knowledge level of 4th and 5th grade primary school students after children's rights training. The participants of this survey study were selected randomly from 10 schools. Results indicated that students had the chance to…

  16. How dental utilisation in the Netherlands was affected by a radical reform of the dental insurance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, E.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Felling, A.J.A.; Severens, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of the 1995 insurance system reform on dental utilisation. STUDY DESIGN: Four categories of patients experiencing homogeneous insurance changes - public/private insurance with and without additional private dental insurance--were analysed. The reform was

  17. Energy renovation of single-family houses in Denmark utilising long-term financing based on equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Rose, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    in long-term property mortgage loans and utilising it for extensive energy renovation improves both the economy and the extent of included measures. Approximately 30% of energy consumption in Denmark is used for space heating. The existing 1 million single-family houses account for approximately half...

  18. Exploring under-utilised low carbon land resources from multiple perspectives : Case studies on regencies in Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Wicke, Birka; Potter, Lesley; Faaij, André; Zoomers, Annelies; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Mobilising under-utilised low carbon (ULC) land resources for future agricultural production can help reducing pressure on high carbon stock land from agricultural expansion, particularly for deforestation hotspots like Kalimantan. However, the potential of ULC land is not yet well understood,

  19. Specifications for refuse-derived fuels utilisation in industrial power plants; Bedingungen fuer die Ersatzbrennstoffverwertung in Industriekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, U.; Hoelter, G. [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Concepts and definitions in the refuse-derived fuels sector are presented, as well as forecasts of the volumes to be expected. Utilisation options are presented, and specifications for a refuse-derived fuel are laid down. The necessary treatment stages are described, and the cost of the various processes is compared. (orig.)

  20. Ethnic Factors in Mental Health Service Utilisation among People with Intellectual Disability in High-Income Countries: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Vila, G.; Hodes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: An emerging literature suggests that ethnic and cultural factors influence service utilisation among people with intellectual disability (ID), but this has not previously been reviewed. Aims: To investigate possible ethnic variation in uptake of mental health services in children, adolescents and adults with ID in high-income…

  1. Motivational Strategies and Utilisation of Internet Resources as Determinants of Research Productivity of Lecturers in Universities of Agriculture in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajegbomogun, Fredrick Olatunji; Popoola, Sunday Olarenwaju

    2013-01-01

    This study examined motivational strategies and utilisation of Internet resources as determinants of research productivity of lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. One thousand, one hundred and thirty two (1,132) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the lecturers in universities of agriculture in Nigeria. Eight hundred…

  2. How dental utilisation in the Netherlands was affected by a radical reform of the dental insurance system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, E.A.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.; Felling, A.J.A.; Severens, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of the 1995 insurance system reform on dental utilisation. STUDY DESIGN: Four categories of patients experiencing homogeneous insurance changes - public/private insurance with and without additional private dental insurance--were analysed. The reform was hypothes

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of the Utilisation of Emotional Intelligence by Their School Principals to Manage Mandated Curriculum Change Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobler, Bennie; Moloi, Connie; Thakhordas, Sunita

    2017-01-01

    This quantitative study investigates teachers' perceptions of how Emotional Intelligence (EI) was utilised by their school principals to manage mandated curriculum change processes in schools in the Johannesburg North district of Gauteng in South Africa. Research shows that EI consists of a range of fundamental skills that could enable school…

  4. Post-operative substrate utilisation and gas exchange using two different TPN-systems: glucose versus fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Stjernström, H

    1985-01-01

    ). Amino acids corresponding to 12 g of nitrogen were given in both groups. Gas exchange, nitrogen balance, phosphate balance, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) excretion, 1- and 3-methylhistidine in urine, acute phase proteins, immunoglobulins and albumin were followed. Substrate utilisation was calculated from...

  5. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  6. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  7. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  8. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  9. In their own words: qualitative study of high-utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankel Richard M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High utilising primary care patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS often frustrate their primary care providers. Studies that elucidate the attitudes of these patients may help to increase understanding and improve confidence of clinicians who care for them. The objective of this study was to describe and analyze perceptions and lived experiences of high utilising primary care patients with MUS. Methods A purposive sample of 19 high utilising primary care patients for whom at least 50% (69.6% in this sample of visits for two years could not be explained medically, were encouraged to talk spontaneously about themselves and answer semi-structured questions. Verbatim transcripts of interviews were analyzed using an iterative consensus building process. Results Patients with MUS almost universally described current and/or past family dysfunction and were subjected to excessive testing and ineffective empirical treatments. Three distinct groups emerged from the data. 1 Some patients, who had achieved a significant degree of psychological insight and had success in life, primarily sought explanations for their symptoms. 2 Patients who had less psychological insight were more disabled by their symptoms and felt strongly entitled to be excused from normal social obligations. Typically, these patients primarily sought symptom relief, legitimization, and support. 3 Patients who expressed worry about missed diagnoses demanded excessive care and complained when their demands were resisted. Conclusion High utilising primary care patients are a heterogeneous group with similar experiences and different perceptions, behaviours and needs. Recognizing these differences may be critical to effective treatment and reduction in utilisation.

  10. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women’s inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Stenus, C.M.V. van; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status.

  11. Explanatory factors for first and second-generation non-western women’s inadequate prenatal care utilisation: a prospective cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Manniën, J.; Stenus, C.M.V. van; Wiegers, T.A.; Feijen-de Jong, E.I.; Spelten, E.R.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little research into non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation in industrialised western countries has taken generational differences into account. In this study we examined non-western women’s prenatal care utilisation and its explanatory factors according to generational status. Me

  12. Development of plasma spray coating using coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S.C.; Sarkar, P.C.; Mishra, P.C.; Sreekumar, K.P.; Padmanabhan, P.V.A. [Regional Engineering College, Rourkela (India)

    2000-07-01

    In India about 70 million tonnes of fly ash is generated annually and the figure is growing at a faster rate due to industrial and urban demand. Worldwide, fly ash is being used to generate value added products. In India about 10% of fly ash generated is utilised and if feverish activity is not initiated the percent utilisation can go down. The present piece of work has been undertaken to use the fly ash and graphite (from the rejected electrodes of arc furnaces) for developing plasma spray composite coating on metal substrates. Fly ash and graphite powder (at 10% and 20% wt) mix was plasma sprayed at various operating conditions of the plasma torch on different metal substrate, viz. copper and stainless steel. The coating thus formed was characterised by X-ray diffraction analysis, electron microscopy, microhardness measurement and measurement of interface adhesion strength. A maximum coating thickness of {approximately} 220 micron is obtained with fly ash +20% graphite. The adherence strength is found to vary between 10-35 MNm{sup 2} and is maximum in case of copper substrates. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Comparisons of pastoralists perceptions about rangeland resource utilisation in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abule, E; Snyman, H A; Smit, G N

    2005-04-01

    Pastoralism is the most dominant land use form in the arid rangelands of Sub-Saharan Africa, but this rangeland-based lifestyle is under threat. As a consequence a study was conducted in the Middle Awash Valley of Ethiopia with the main objectives of assessing and comparing the broad perceptions of two pastoral groups (the Oromo ethnic group living in Kereyu-Fantale and the Afar ethnic group living in Awash-Fantale) on the usage of the existing rangeland resources, and their views on constraints and possible solutions. Data were collected from 90 Oromo and 55 Afar households. Despite the difference in ethnicity both of these groups share common problems. They derive their main income from the sale of animals and animal products, but with the difference that milk products rank first in the case of the Afar and last in the case of the Oromo. Both pastoral groups depend heavily on native grasses for animal feed and to a lesser extent on woody plants as a source of browse. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that the condition of the rangelands is poor, mainly due to overgrazing, droughts and increases in the human population. Availability of water is also regarded as a problem, mainly by the Oromo. Migration is the first measure taken to solve shortages of livestock feed, but many of the pastoralists replied that migration is an undesirable practise which is mostly done out of necessity. Because of the limited resources most respondents of both groups still prefer communal land tenure where resources are shared. It is concluded that the problems facing the pastoralists in the Middle Awash Valley have been created over many years and the solutions will also require time. With the current approach of the communal grazing systems, sustainable utilisation of the rangeland ecosystem is not possible. Solutions to the poor condition of the existing rangelands will require a definite commitment and full participation not only of the pastoralists, but also of

  14. Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels in rainbow trout fed a complete plant ingredient based diet and the effect of supplemental di-calcium phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antony Jesu Prabhu, P.; Schrama, J.W.; Mariojouls, C.; Godin, S.; Fontagné-Dicharry, S.; Geurden, I.; Surget, A.; Bouyssiere, B.; Kaushik, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-prandial changes in plasma mineral levels and utilisation of minerals in rainbow trout fed complete plant ingredient based diets with or without supplemental di-calcium phosphate (DCP) were studied over an 8 week period. Three diets were used: diet M was FM and fish oil (FO) based diet (control

  15. Towards zero industrial waste: Utilisation of brick dust waste in sustainable construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, J M; Nidzam, R M

    2011-08-01

    Laboratory investigations were carried out to establish the potential utilisation of brick dust (BD) in construction. The dust is a waste material from the cutting of fired clay bricks. Currently, the disposal of the dust is a problem to the brick fabrication company, and hence an environmental pollution concern. The dust was stabilised either used on its own or in combination with Pulverised Fuel Ash (PFA), a by-product material from coal combustion. The traditional stabilisers of lime and/or Portland Cement (PC) were used as controls. The main aim was to use a sustainable stabiliser material, where these stabilisers were partially replaced with Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Slag (GGBS), a by-product material from steel manufacture. Compacted cylinder test specimens were made at typical stabiliser contents and moist cured for up to 56 days prior to testing for compressive and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) strength tests, and to linear expansion during moist curing and subsequent soaking in water. The results obtained showed that partial substitution of the dust with PFA resulted in stronger material compared to using it on its own. The blended stabilisers achieved better performance. These results suggest technological, economic as well as environmental advantages of using the brick dust and similar industrial by-products to achieve sustainable infrastructure development with near zero industrial waste.

  16. Hypertension, cardiovascular risk factors and antihypertensive medication utilisation among HIV-infected individuals in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Laura D; Newell, Kevin; Ssebbowa, Paschal; Serwadda, David; Quinn, Thomas C; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J; Mondo, George; Reynolds, Steven

    2015-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of hypertension, elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in rural Rakai District, Uganda. We assessed 426 HIV-positive individuals in Rakai, Uganda from 2007 to 2010. Prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure assessed by clinical measurement was compared to clinician-recorded hypertension in case report forms. Multiple logistic regression and z-tests were used to examine the association of hypertension and elevated blood pressure with age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CD4 cell count and antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. For individuals on antihypertensives, medication utilisation was reviewed. The prevalence of hypertension (two elevated blood pressure readings at different time points) was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.4-10.6%), and that of elevated blood pressure (one elevated blood pressure reading) was 26.3% (95% CI: 22.1-30.5%). Age ≥50 years and higher BMI were positively associated with elevated blood pressure. ART use, time on ART and CD4 cell count were not associated with hypertension. Eighty-three percent of subjects diagnosed with hypertension were on antihypertensive medications, most commonly beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers. Hypertension is common among HIV-positive individuals in rural Uganda. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Influence of phenolic substrates utilised by yeast Trichosporon cutaneum on the degradation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Zlateva, Plamena; Peneva, Nadejda; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of different phenolic substrates utilised by Trichosporon cutaneum R57 was studied. The following compounds were used as substrates: phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, 3-nitrophenol, 2,6-dinitrophenol, 3-chloro phenol and p-cresol. The specific degradation rates (Qs) were described by a Haldane kinetic model. The unknown model parameters were estimated using the mathematical optimisation procedure for direct search. The results obtained demonstrated that Qs varied greatly in the experiments carried out. The level of biodegradability depended on the different structure and toxicity of compounds used as carbon substrates. The highest Qs values were observed for less toxic hydroxylated phenols (0.77–0.85 h−1), while the most toxic chlorinated phenols were characterised with the lowest Qs values (0.224 h−1). The results obtained with different concentrations of resorcinol (from 0.2 to 0.8 g L−1) and 2,6-dinitrophenol (from 0.2 to 0.7 g L−1) demonstrated a growing inhibitory effect directly correlating with the extended time necessary for complete degradation of both compounds. PMID:26692781

  18. Income-related inequalities and inequities in health care services utilisation in 18 selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, Marion

    2015-01-01

    A key policy objective in OECD countries is to achieve adequate access to health care for all people on the basis of need. Previous studies have shown that there are inequities in health care services utilisation (HCSU) in the OECD area. In recent years, measures have been taken to enhance health care access. This paper re-examines income-related inequities in doctor visits among 18 selected OECD countries, updating previous results for 12 countries with 2006-2009 data, and including six new countries. Inequalities in preventive care services are also considered for the first time. The indirect standardisation procedure is used to estimate the need-adjusted HCSU and concentration indexes are derived to gauge inequalities and inequities. Overall, inequities in HCSU remain present in OECD countries. In most countries, for the same health care needs, people with higher incomes are more likely to consult a doctor than those with lower incomes. Pro-rich inequalities in dental visits and cancer screening uptake are also found in nearly all countries, although the magnitude of these varies among countries. These findings suggest that further monitoring of inequalities is essential in order to assess whether country policy objectives are achieved on a regular basis.

  19. Differential utilisation of health facilities and services for childbirth in Peninsula Malaysia--the ethnic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhsat, H; Tan Boon Ann; Tey Nai Peng

    1985-12-01

    The ethnic factor in the differential utilization of the health facilities in Peninsular Malaysia is examined. Data from the Malaysian Population and Family Survey 1984/85 show that about 45% of the births were delivered in the government hospitals, 15% in the private hospitals/clinics and the remaining 40% were delivered at home. Utilisation of these facilities varies greatly by ethnicity. The Malays have the greatest tendency to choose home delivery (60%), as opposed to institutional delivery (40%). Although urbanization and better socioeconomic conditions have led to an increase in institutional delivery, social customs continue to exert an influence on their behavior in favor of home delivery. Almost all Chinese babies are delivered in hospitals or clinics, with those from the higher social class showing a tendency to resort to the use of private hospitals/clinics for delivery. Indians were the most frequent users of government hospital across nearly all the social strata. While institutional deliveries were all attended by trained personnel, about 71% of the home deliveries were attended by government midwives and 24% by village midwives or other untrained persons, and only 5% were delivered by a doctor or a nurse.

  20. Measurement of labile copper in wine by medium exchange stripping potentiometry utilising screen printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew C; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2016-07-01

    The presence of copper in wine is known to impact the reductive, oxidative and colloidal stability of wine, and techniques enabling measurement of different forms of copper in wine are of particular interest in understanding these spoilage processes. Electrochemical stripping techniques developed to date require significant pretreatment of wine, potentially disturbing the copper binding equilibria. A thin mercury film on a screen printed carbon electrode was utilised in a flow system for the direct analysis of labile copper in red and white wine by constant current stripping potentiometry with medium exchange. Under the optimised conditions, including an enrichment time of 500s and constant current of 1.0μA, the response range was linear from 0.015 to 0.200mg/L. The analysis of 52 red and white wines showed that this technique generally provided lower labile copper concentrations than reported for batch measurement by related techniques. Studies in a model system and in finished wines showed that the copper sulfide was not measured as labile copper, and that loss of hydrogen sulfide via volatilisation induced an increase in labile copper within the model wine system.

  1. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza Fulvio Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus (SE is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%, caudate-putamen (+30.6%, frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%, amygdala (+31.7%, entorrinal cortex (+28.2%, thalamic nucleus (+93.5%, pre-tectal area (+50.1% and substantia nigra (+50.3% when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  2. Sustainable management and utilisation of concrete slurry waste: A case study in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Uzzal; Xuan, Dongxing; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-03-01

    With the promotion of environmental protection in the construction industry, the mission to achieve more sustainable use of resources during the production process of concrete is also becoming important. This study was conducted to assess the environmental sustainability of concrete slurry waste (CSW) management by life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, with the aim of identifying a resource-efficient solution for utilisation of CSW in the production of partition wall blocks. CSW is the dewatered solid residues deposited in the sedimentation tank after washing out over-ordered/rejected fresh concrete and concrete trucks in concrete batching plants. The reuse of CSW as recycled aggregates or a cementitious binder for producing partition wall blocks, and the life cycle environmental impact of the blocks were assessed and compared with the conventional one designed with natural materials. The LCA results showed that the partition wall blocks prepared with fresh CSW and recycled concrete aggregates achieved higher sustainability as it consumed 59% lower energy, emitted 66% lower greenhouse gases, and produced lesser amount of other environmental impacts than that of the conventional one. When the mineral carbonation technology was further adopted for blocks curing using CO2, the global warming potential of the corresponding blocks production process was negligible, and hence the carbonated blocks may be considered as carbon neutral eco-product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos da Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG, which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY, an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  4. Glucose utilisation during status epilepticus in an epilepsy model induced by pilocarpine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Arida, Ricardo Mario; Priel, Margareth Rose; Calderazzo, Lineu; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão

    2002-06-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is a medical emergency and it is associated to brain damage. 2-deoxy-[14C] glucose (2-DG) procedure has been used to measure the alterations in the functional activity of the brain induced by various pharmacological and toxicological agents. The aim of this study was to determine which changes occur in the seizure anatomic substrates during the SE induced by pilocarpine (PILO) using [14C]-2 deoxyglucose functional mapping technique. Wistar male adult rats were submitted to SE PILO-induced for 6h and received [14C] 2-deoxyglucose injection via jugular vein 45 min before the 6th hour of SE. The control animals were submitted to all procedures but received saline and not pilocarpine. Brain sections were prepared and exposed X-ray film about seven days. The optical density of each region was obtained using a solid state digital analyser. The analysis revealed that 14C-2DG utilisation was pronounced in the SE rats on the areas corresponding to the hippocampal formation (+50.6%), caudate-putamen (+30.6%), frontoparietal cortex (+32.2%), amygdala (+31.7%), entorrinal cortex (+28.2%), thalamic nucleus (+93.5%), pre-tectal area (+50.1%) and substantia nigra (+50.3%) when compared to control. Our results suggest that the different activation levels of the distinct structures may be particularly important for understanding triggering and spreading mechanisms underlying epileptic activity during status epilepticus.

  5. Bryozoans and serpuloideans in skeletobiont communities from the Pleistocene of Sicily: spatial utilisation and competitive interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Rosso

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sessile encrusters with mineralised skeletons in the fossil record generally retain their original spatial relationships to the substrate and each other. Being short living and not significantly time averaged, communities on shelly substrates represent excellent systems to study such relationships. Bryozoan and serpuloidean skeletobionts on molluscs and rhodolites from Lower Pleistocene localities in Sicily have been studied. Species composition and specimen sizes testify to a short exposure of the shells on the sea floor. Skeletobiont community structure is characterised by the dominance of a few species (5 bryozoans out of 87 and 3 serpuloideans out of 17. Substrate coverage is usually low (<5%, rarely reaching 50-60% or more. On bivalves, skeletobiont distribution does not exhibit a clear trend for inner/outer sides or left/right valves.Oriented growths, differential patterns in microenvironment utilisation of the substrate and spatial competition have been analysed. Several of the recorded overgrowths resulted from superimposition of specimens growing on skeletons of previous, already dead encrusters. True competitive interactions mainly involved bryozoans and only a few serpuloideans. Within bryozoans interspecific encounters usually led to overgrowth or abutment whereas intraspecific encounters commonly resulted in standoffs and growth side by side in cheilostomes, and to fusion of colonies in some cyclostome species.

  6. L'utilisation des eaux usées organiques en pisciculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCHMIDT G.

    1981-07-01

    Full Text Available L'utilisation des eaux usées en pisciculture nécessite un traitement minimum indispensable (lagunage, épuration classique, prédilution, dilution simultanée. Une deuxième condition, non moins importante, est la sélection exclusive des eaux usées domestiques et rurales afin d'éviter la présence de métaux lourds et autres substances toxiques des rejets industriels. Dans un tel milieu enrichi, la production piscicole peut être doublée et même triplée sans nourriture additionnelle. Cependant, même si on arrive à de bons résultats, certains dangers subsistent : possibilité d'anoxie due à la dégradation des matières organiques, présence d'ammoniac, de nitrites, de détergents, risques d'infections virales et bactériennes. Des études ultérieures devraient préciser ces problèmes et tenter de les résoudre.

  7. Space utilisation patterns of bryozoans on the Patagonian scallop Psychrochlamys patagonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Gappa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the bryozoan assemblage encrusting valves of the Patagonian scallop, Psychrochlamys patagonica, in 4 beds distributed along the continental shelf off Argentina to analyse (a the distribution pattern of bryozoan colonies in different zones of the valves, (b the influence of interspecific competition on assemblage composition, (c whether encrusting species display different space utilisation strategies, and (d whether bryozoan species richness and number of colonies vary in relation to host size. The assemblage was composed of 22 taxa and was dominated by Arachnopusia monoceros and Osthimosia eatonensis, which were at least one order of magnitude more abundant than any other species. Multivariate analyses based on coverage data of multiserial bryozoans separated the beds according to species richness rather than to geographic proximity and showed significant differences in assemblage structure between upper (left and lower (right valves and among beds. Competitive interactions occurred almost exclusively on lower valves, and more frequently in peripheral zones than in central zones of these valves. Correlations between valve area and number of bryozoan colonies, coverage and species richness were low but significant. Bryozoans were significantly more frequent, larger, and taxonomically diverse on lower valves than on upper valves. The uniserial colonies of Neothoa cf. chiloensis, the weakest bryozoan competitor, were as frequent in central zones as they were in peripheral zones, and usually spread out along channels on the scallop surface. This fugitive species was partially covered by multiserial colonies, but managed to persist even in peripheral areas of the lower valves.

  8. Utilisation of three-dimensional printed heart models for operative planning of complex congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejník, Peter; Nosal, Matej; Havran, Tomas; Furdova, Adriana; Cizmar, Maros; Slabej, Michal; Thurzo, Andrej; Vitovic, Pavol; Klvac, Martin; Acel, Tibor; Masura, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the three-dimensional (3D) printing of cardiovascular structures. To explore whether utilisation of 3D printed heart replicas can improve surgical and catheter interventional planning in patients with complex congenital heart defects. Between December 2014 and November 2015 we fabricated eight cardiovascular models based on computed tomography data in patients with complex spatial anatomical relationships of cardiovascular structures. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the accuracy of 3D printing by comparing dimension measurements at analogous anatomical locations between the printed models and digital imagery data, as well as between printed models and in vivo surgical findings. The contribution of 3D printed heart models for perioperative planning improvement was evaluated in the four most representative patients. Bland-Altman analysis confirmed the high accuracy of 3D cardiovascular printing. Each printed model offered an improved spatial anatomical orientation of cardiovascular structures. Current 3D printers can produce authentic copies of patients` cardiovascular systems from computed tomography data. The use of 3D printed models can facilitate surgical or catheter interventional procedures in patients with complex congenital heart defects due to better preoperative planning and intraoperative orientation.

  9. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Assessment of phosphogypsum utilisation in underground hard coal mines in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialecka, B. [Central Mining Institute, Katewice (Poland)

    2003-12-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product obtained during the production of phosphoric acid. Over 100 million tons of phosphogypsum are produced annually world-wide, most of which is dumped. In countries of the European Union, dumping of waste products is a last resort and not the recommended means of disposal. For years, ecologically and economically sound means have been sought for the use of bulk amounts of phosphogypsum, including in farming, the construction industry and in the production of building materials. This study analysis of the potential for use of phosphogypsum in hard coal mining for: (I) precipitation of radioactive components from underground mine waters; (ii) suppression of coal dust explosions; and (iii) filling of underground mine workings. It presents an overview of the following areas: (I) a review of methods of phosphogypsum utilisation; (ii) an analysis of Polish laws regulating the application of phosphogypsum in underground mines; and (iii) an analysis of hard coal mining from the point of view of the potential use of phosphogypsum.

  11. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  12. Laparoscopic incisional hernioplasty utilising on-lay expanded polytetrafluoroethylene DualMesh: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, H; Patil, N G; Yuen, W K; Lee, F

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the early outcomes of laparoscopic incisional hernioplasties using on-lay GORE-TEX DualMesh. Prospective study. Medical centre of a regional hospital, Hong Kong. Between June 2000 and October 2001, 11 consecutive patients underwent attempted laparoscopic incisional hernioplasties at the University of Hong Kong Medical Centre. A prospective collection of perioperative data and assessment of postoperative outcomes was performed. Laparoscopic incisional hernioplasty was successfully performed for 10 (91%) patients. One patient was converted to open repair because of extensive adhesions within the peritoneal cavity. The overall mean operative time was 107 minutes. Five (45%) patients were found to have more than one hernial defect after reduction of the hernial contents. Eight (73%) patients were discharged within 2 days after operation. Postoperative morbidities included wound bruising (n=4), seroma (n=2), and prolonged suture site pain (n=1). All postoperative morbidities resolved spontaneously without intervention. With a mean follow-up of 3 months, no early recurrence was detected. Early outcomes of laparoscopic incisional hernioplasty utilising GORE-TEX DualMesh were promising. This technique confers the advantages of minimal access surgery and allows clear identification of multiple hernial defects. Extensive adhesion, which does not allow the establishment of pneumoperitoneum, is a condition that precludes the safe performance of laparoscopic repair.

  13. Myocardial glucose utilisation in type II diabetes mellitus patients treated with sulphonylurea drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Ikuo [International University of Health and Welfare, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sanno Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo (Japan); University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Yusuke [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Moritan, Toshiyuki [Suzuka University of Medical Science, Department of Clinical Engineering, Faculty of Medical Engineering, Suzuka (Japan); Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Ryozo [University of Tokyo, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    Chronic sulphonylurea treatment maintains improved glycaemic control through mechanisms other than enhancement of insulin secretion and may act on various organs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the chronic use of sulphonylurea drugs influences PET measurement of myocardial glucose utilisation (MGU) in type II diabetes mellitus. Forty-two patients with type II diabetes mellitus and 17 control subjects underwent dynamic {sup 18}F-FDG PET to measure MGU during hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamping. Twenty-one patients had been taking sulphonylurea drugs for more than 1 year (SU group), and the other 21 patients were drug naive (non-SU group). The haemoglobin A1c levels in the two patient groups were similar. Glucose disposal rate (GDR) was also determined as a marker of whole-body insulin resistance. GDR in the SU group (9.01{+-}2.53 mg min{sup -1} kg{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (4.10{+-}2.47, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (9.76{+-}2.97). MGU in the SU group (7.66{+-}3.02 mg min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}) was significantly higher than that in the non-SU group (5.53{+-}2.05, p<0.01) and was similar to that in the controls (7.49{+-}2.74). (orig.)

  14. Energy utilisation of biowaste - Sunflower-seed hulls for co-firing with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Juchelkova, Dagmar; Roubicek, Vaclav; Matysek, Dalibor [VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, CZ-70833 Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2011-01-15

    Sunflower-seed hulls (SSH) represent a source of combustible biomass characterised by high contents of potassium and phosphorus and a low silica content. The relatively high net calorific value of 20 MJ/kg d.m. is mainly influenced by the lignin content. Potassium and phosphorus are very important elements in biomass combustion for fuel, influencing slagging and fouling problems. Mixtures with different ratios of brown coal and sunflower-seed hulls (0-22% SSH) were co-fired in the Olomouc power plant. The behaviour of elements in the fly ash and the bottom ash (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Zn, Cu and Cd) varied in relation to the amount of SSH added to the coal. The fly ash from the co-firing of 20% SSH with coal had a high content of water-leachable sulphates and total dissolved solids. The utilisation of fly ash in civil engineering (land reclamation) should fulfil criteria established by the Council Decision 2003/33/EC for non-hazardous waste. To ensure that the required water-leachable sulphate concentrations are within regulatory limits the fuel may contain a maximum of 14% SSH. (author)

  15. Utilising polymorphisms to achieve allele-specific genome editing in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Capon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of genome editing has significantly altered genetic research, including research using the zebrafish model. To better understand the selectivity of the commonly used CRISPR/Cas9 system, we investigated single base pair mismatches in target sites and examined how they affect genome editing in the zebrafish model. Using two different zebrafish strains that have been deep sequenced, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites containing polymorphisms between the two strains were identified. These strains were crossed (creating heterozygotes at polymorphic sites and CRISPR/Cas9 complexes that perfectly complement one strain injected. Sequencing of targeted sites showed biased, allele-specific editing for the perfectly complementary sequence in the majority of cases (14/19. To test utility, we examined whether phenotypes generated by F0 injection could be internally controlled with such polymorphisms. Targeting of genes bmp7a and chordin showed reduction in the frequency of phenotypes in injected ‘heterozygotes’ compared with injecting the strain with perfect complementarity. Next, injecting CRISPR/Cas9 complexes targeting two separate sites created deletions, but deletions were biased to selected chromosomes when one CRISPR/Cas9 target contained a polymorphism. Finally, integration of loxP sequences occurred preferentially in alleles with perfect complementarity. These experiments demonstrate that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs present throughout the genome can be utilised to increase the efficiency of in cis genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in the zebrafish model.

  16. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron.

  17. The evolution and provision of expert knowledge and its effective utilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The specific aims of increasing Resilience to Natural Hazards in China programme are (i) to improve hazard forecasting, risk mitigation and preparedness based upon reliable knowledge of the fundamental processes involved and underpinned by basic science and, (ii) to improve the uptake of and responses to scientific advice, by developing risk-based approaches to natural hazards in collaboration with the communities at risk. One of the programme's principal goals is to integrate natural and social science research to increase the benefits for those affected by natural hazards. To that end a co-productive approach to research is expected, involving a framework for sharing knowledge and values between natural and social scientists and consultation with policy makers, civil society and other stakeholders. This paper explore knowledge relationships and reflective learning across disciplines. There is commonly a disjunction between the evolution and provision of expert knowledge and its effective utilisation. Building on experience as Strategic Advisor to the Increasing Resilience to Natural Hazards programme, this paper addresses the research needs to assess how scientific knowledge and risk reduction strategies can be most effectively developed and communicated.

  18. Thermal utilisation of solar energy: Croatian National Energy Program SUNEN, 1998-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankovic, Bernard; Jedrisko, Claudia [Rijeka Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Rijeka (Croatia); Hrastnik, Branimir [Energy Inst. `Hrvoje Pozar`, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, thermal use of solar energy as well as prospects and problems of its utilisation in Croatia have been given. The National Solar Energy Program, SUNEN, has been established to stimulate the usage of solar energy. The main goals of the program are the assessment of technical and economically viable solar potential in order to define real objectives and tasks to provide use of exploitable indigenous clean and renewable energy potential. The Program addresses benefits, the most promising solar applications and solar potential. Much attention has been given to identification of obstacles and barriers in the process of solar technology dissemination. SUNEN is an initiative to increase solar energy use and to become more compatible with the present renewable energy sources policy in EU and Mediterranean countries. The program proposes twelve different types of thermal solar energy systems, which could be multiplied up to 28 000 installations until the year 2010 with annual heat recovery of approximately 1,5 TWh (5,4 PJ). (Author)

  19. Utilisation, Reliability and Validity of Clinical Evaluation Exercise in Otolaryngology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Z; Hayden, L; Muthuswamy, K; Tolley, N S

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the utilisation, reliability and validity of clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) in otolaryngology training. Retrospective database analysis. Online assessment database. We analysed all CEXs submitted by north London core (CT) and speciality trainees (ST) in otolaryngology from 2010 to 2013. Internal consistency of the 7 CEX items rated as either O: outstanding, S: satisfactory or D: development required. Overall performance rating (pS) of 1-4 assessed against completion of training level. Receiver operating characteristic was used to describe CEX sensitivity and specificity. Overall score (cS), pS and the number of 'D'-rated items were used to investigate construct validity. One thousand one hundred and sixty CEXs from 45 trainees were included. CEX showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha= 0.85). CEX was highly sensitive (99%), yet not specific (6%). cS and pS for ST was higher than CT (99.1% ± 0.4 versus 96.6% ± 0.8 and 3.06 ± 0.05 versus 1.92 ± 0.04, respectively P otolaryngology trainees in clinical examination, but not at higher level. It has the potential to be used in a summative capacity in selecting trainees for ST positions. This would also encourage trainees to master all domains of otolaryngology clinical examination by end of CT. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sex-Based Differences in Cardiac Arrhythmias, ICD Utilisation and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, A; Maas, A H E M; Delnoy, P P H M; Ramdat Misier, A R; Ottervanger, J P; Elvan, A

    2011-01-01

    Many important differences in the presentation and clinical course of cardiac arrhythmias are present between men and women that should be accounted for in clinical practice. In this paper, we review published data on gender differences in cardiac excitable properties, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular tachycardias, sudden cardiac death, and the utilisation of implantable defibrillators and cardiac resynchronisation therapy. Women have a higher heart rate at rest, and a longer QT interval than men. They further have a narrower QRS complex and lower QRS voltages on the 12-lead ECG with more often non-specific repolarisation abnormalities at rest. Supraventricular tachycardias, such as AV nodal reentrant tachycardia, are twice as frequent in women compared with men. Atrial fibrillation, however, has a 1.5-fold higher prevalence in men. The triggers for idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract tachycardia (VT) initiation are gender specific, i.e. hormonal changes play an important role in the occurrence of these VTs in women. There are clear-cut gender differences in acquired and congenital LQTS. Brugada syndrome affects men more commonly and severely than women. Sudden cardiac death is less prevalent in women at all ages and occurs 10 years later in women than in men. This may be related to the later onset of clinically manifest coronary heart disease in women. Among patients who receive ICDs and CRT devices, women appear to be under-represented, while they may benefit even more from these novel therapies.

  1. The legal framework governing waste utilisation in mining; Der rechtliche Rahmen der Abfallverwertung im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Berg- und Umweltrecht

    2001-07-01

    Seen from the legal aspect, waste utilisation in mining is generally a very difficult issue, particularly as regards waste management law. Here it poses various problems which concern the fundamental principles of waste management law. These issues are increasingly coming under the influence of European law, which in its present state already imposes a very differentiated, absolutely binding regime on member states. Moreover, its demarcation between reutilisation and removal is decisive for the legal consequences that follow. Some Laender impose obligations to offer for sale or surrender as well as more stringent monitoring and proof requirements for hazardous wastes. EU member states also have more powerful rights of objection when it comes to the transboundary movement of waste destined for disposal. [German] Die Abfallverwertung im Bergbau ist insgesamt ein rechtlich sehr schwieriges Thema. Das gilt einmal in abfallrechtlicher Hinsicht. Hier werden verschiedene Probleme relevant, welche die Grundlagen des Abfallrechts betreffen. Das ist insbesondere die in diesem Bereich schwierige Abgrenzungsfrage zwischen Verwertung und Beseitigung. Mehr und mehr wird diese Problematik vom Europarecht gepraegt, welches bereits ein sehr differenziertes und fuer die Mitgliedstaaten verbindliches Abfallregime statuiert. Die Abgrenzung von Verwertung und Beseitigung entscheidet zudem ueber den Eintritt unterschiedlichster Rechtsfolgen. Fuer gefaehrliche Abfaelle bestehen in manchen Bundeslaendern Andienungs- und Ueberlassungspflichten und strengere Nachweis- und Ueberwachungsanforderungen. Im Rahmen der grenzueberschreitenden Verbringung von Abfaellen stehen den Mitgliedstaaten staerkere Einwendungsmoeglichkeiten zu, wenn es sich um Abfaelle zur Beseitigung handelt. (orig.)

  2. Sustained land utilisation. A contribution to land management; Nachhaltige Flaechennutzung. Ein Beitrag zum Flaechenmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapperich, H.; Otparlik, R. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Institut fuer Geotechnik; Kompetenzzentrum fuer interdisziplinaeres Flaechenrecycling (CiF e.V.), Freiberg (Germany); Drebenstedt, C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Institut fuer Bergbau und Spezialtiefbau

    2007-10-18

    In Germany there are about 260,000 suspected contaminated sites, about 140,000 of which are derelict sites. Although 48,000 ha of these derelict sites could be developed immediately, an average area of 114 ha (2005) for housing estates and roads is currently being newly sealed every day. Derelict sites are often the legacy of commercial, industrial and mining activities with extensive changes in the natural conditions as well as derelict housing. Many problems thus have to be solved for the recultivation of these areas. There is often a risk of contamination and demolition and unsealing measures are required, issues concerning the preservation of monuments as well as nature conservation aspects must be noted. Hence precisely against this background the 'land economy' theory is logical and necessary. To utilise land for new or other purposes, however, it is necessary to note the diverse aspects, which must be interlinked in order to achieve the aim. However, the sustainability aspect is not always in the forefront. (orig.)

  3. Effects of utilisation intensity and fertilization level on forage production and quality of permanent grassland on a fluvisoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nerušil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003–2007 the issue of the forage production and quality on the permanent grassland was researched by the Crop Research Institute Prague, Research Station Jevíčko. The long-term small plot trials with tall oatgrass stand type (Arrhenatherion were established in 2003 on a fluvisoil. Four types of utilisation were used in the trial: 1. Intensive (I1 – 4 cuts per year (1st cut on 15th May, every next after 45 days; 2. Medium intensive (I2 – 3 cuts per year (1st cut on 30th May, every next after 60 days; 3. Low intensive (I3 – 2 cuts per year (1st cut on 15th June, 2nd after 90 days; 4. Extensive (I4 – 2 cuts per year (1st cut on 30th June, 2nd after 90 days and four levels of fertilizer application: F0 = no fertilization; FPK = P30K60N0; FPKN90 = P30K60+N90; FPKN180 = P30K60+N180. The overall average DM production of grasslands over five years was 7.19 t . ha−1. The lowest annual DM production is 6.77 t . ha−1 during the intensive utilisation (I1 and it increases towards the extensive (I4 utilisation to 7.62 t . ha−1, at all levels of fertilization. Application of phosphorus and potash fertilizers did not have significant effects on grassland DM yield. Application of N-fertilizer increased DM production (P0.01 already on the level FPKN90 to 8.49 t . ha−1, on the level FPKN180 DM matter still increased up to 9.51 t . ha−1. Forage quality was highest during the intensive (I1 utilisation and relatively lowest during the extensive (I4 utilisation. The intensive (I1 utilisation of permanent grassland improves OMD (P0.01, concentration of CP and NEL and decreases fiber concentration (P0.01 when compared with the extensive (I4 utilisation. Fertilizing did not affect quality significantly except for CP concentration which increases with N-fertilization while NEL concentration decreases. Optimal utilisation intensity for dairy cows with annual production of 7–8 thousand kg of milk seems to be the intensive (I1

  4. Assessing Impacts of Wood Utilisation Scenarios for a Lithuanian Bioeconomy: Impacts on Carbon in Forests and Harvested Wood Products and on the Socio-Economic Performance of the Forest-Based Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gediminas Jasinevičius; Marcus Lindner; Pieter Johannes Verkerk; Marius Aleinikovas

    2017-01-01

    ...? In this study, we examined the impacts of increased wood utilisation in Lithuania. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of increased domestic wood utilisation on: (i) employment...

  5. Investigation of Matlab® as Platform in Navigation and Control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle Utilising an Omnivision Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Kotze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  6. Investigation of Matlab® as platform in navigation and control of an Automatic Guided Vehicle utilising an omnivision sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, Ben; Jordaan, Gerrit

    2014-08-25

    Automatic Guided Vehicles (AGVs) are navigated utilising multiple types of sensors for detecting the environment. In this investigation such sensors are replaced and/or minimized by the use of a single omnidirectional camera picture stream. An area of interest is extracted, and by using image processing the vehicle is navigated on a set path. Reconfigurability is added to the route layout by signs incorporated in the navigation process. The result is the possible manipulation of a number of AGVs, each on its own designated colour-signed path. This route is reconfigurable by the operator with no programming alteration or intervention. A low resolution camera and a Matlab® software development platform are utilised. The use of Matlab® lends itself to speedy evaluation and implementation of image processing options on the AGV, but its functioning in such an environment needs to be assessed.

  7. Utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status in a peri-urban informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Viljoen, E; Rudolph, M J

    1999-04-01

    Interviews were conducted with 294 black residents (155 females and 138 males) of a peri-urban informal settlement in Gauteng to ascertain utilisation of oral health services, oral health needs and oral health status. Only 37 per cent of the sample had consulted a dentist or medical practitioner, usually for extractions. Teenagers and employed persons were significantly less likely to utilise dentists than the older age groups and unemployed persons. Forty per cent were currently experiencing oral health problems such as a sore mouth, tooth decay and bleeding/painful gums. Two hundred and twelve (73 per cent) interviewees wanted dental treatment or advice. Residents who rated their oral health status as fair or poor appeared to have the greatest need for oral health services. The use of interviews appears to be a cost-effective method of determining oral morbidity.

  8. Contribution à l'utilisation de sous-produits industriels : application au cas du phosphogypse de Sfax ( Tunisie)

    OpenAIRE

    Rouis, Badreddine

    1991-01-01

    Le travail exposé dans ce mémoire est une approche pour la réutilisation d'un sous produit industriel: Le PHOSPHOGYPSE. Nous avons commencé par un rappel du cadre géo-politique de cette étude en précisant l'origine du matériau, son mode de stockage et son incidence sur l'environnement de la ville de SFAX (Tunisie). En deuxième partie, nous avons étudié la possibilité de l'utilisation du phosphogypse en remblai en effectuant une série d'essais géotechniques dont le paramètre principal est la t...

  9. CHANGES IN THE LEVEL AND STRUCTURE OF UTILISATION OF SERVICES IN POLISH AND GERMAN AGRICULTURE IN 1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kołodziejczak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to present the differences in the level and structure of utilisation of services in Polish and German agriculture. An attempt to define the factors influencing these values was also done. The research covered the share of agricultural services, veterinary expenses and financial intermediation services in intermediate consumption, the value of the studied services per 1 hectare of agricultural land, 1 AWU or 1 DJP, as well as services absorptivity of agricultural production. It was proved that although a significant difference between the role of these services in Poland and Germany still exists, in many cases in 2012 it was not so considerable as in 1998. It can be also assumed that further absorption of funds from the European Union will stimulate investment processes in Polish agriculture, and progressive improvement in utilisation of services by Polish agriculture.

  10. Accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV images utilising low-cost navigation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Christian; Wieser, Martin; Verhoeven, Geert; Glira, Philipp; Doneus, Michael; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    control points should be used to improve the estimated values, especially to decrease the amount of systematic errors. For the bundle block adjustment the calibration of the camera and their temporal stability must be determined additionally. This contribution presents next to the theory a practical study on the accuracy analysis of direct georeferenced UAV imagery by low-cost navigation sensors. The analysis was carried out within the research project ARAP (automated (ortho)rectification of archaeological aerial photographs). The utilized UAS consists of the airplane "MAJA", manufactured by "Bormatec" (length: 1.2 m, wingspan: 2.2 m) equipped with the autopilot "ArduPilot Mega 2.5". For image acquisition the camera "Ricoh GR Digital IV" is utilised. The autopilot includes a GNSS receiver capable of DGPS (EGNOS), an inertial measurement system (INS), a barometer, and a magnetometer. In the study the achieved accuracies for the estimated position and orientation of the images are presented. The paper concludes with a summary of the remaining error sources and their possible corrections by applying further improvements on the utilised equipment and the direct georeferencing process.

  11. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT in rural Indian medical institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSHAN BHAISARE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called “death by power point” referring to boredom and fatigue. To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Methods: Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B. For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter. At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. Results: For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture. It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Conclusion: Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  12. Light Levels Affect Carbon Utilisation in Tropical Seagrass under Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Yan X; Uthicke, Sven; Collier, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Under future ocean acidification (OA), increased availability of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater may enhance seagrass productivity. However, the ability to utilise additional DIC could be regulated by light availability, often reduced through land runoff. To test this, two tropical seagrass species, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule uninervis were exposed to two DIC concentrations (447 μatm and 1077 μatm pCO2), and three light treatments (35, 100, 380 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for two weeks. DIC uptake mechanisms were separately examined by measuring net photosynthetic rates while subjecting C. serrulata and H. uninervis to changes in light and addition of bicarbonate (HCO3-) use inhibitors (carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide) and TRIS buffer (pH 8.0). We observed a strong dependence on energy driven H+-HCO3- co-transport (TRIS, which disrupts H+ extrusion) in C. serrulata under all light levels, indicating greater CO2 dependence in low light. This was confirmed when, after two weeks exposure, DIC enrichment stimulated maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) and efficiency (α) more in C. serrulata grown under lower light levels (36-60% increase) than for those in high light (4% increase). However, C. serrulata growth increased with both DIC enrichment and light levels. Growth, NPP and photosynthetic responses in H. uninervis increased with higher light treatments and were independent of DIC availability. Furthermore, H. uninervis was found to be more flexible in HCO3- uptake pathways. Here, light availability influenced productivity responses to DIC enrichment, via both carbon fixation and acquisition processes, highlighting the role of water quality in future responses to OA.

  13. Impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts on power point presentations (PPT) in rural Indian medical institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaisare, Roshan; Kamble, Bhavna

    2016-07-01

    Note taking while attending a PPT requires high activity of memory and writing process which ultimately leads to what is called "death by power point" referring to boredom and fatigue.  To overcome this we planned to evaluate the impact of utilisation of uncompleted handouts given prior to PPT presentations. Final year MBBS students were divided in 2 batches, batch A and batch B.  For a set of lectures one batch was provided with handouts before lecture while the other batch was given lectures only. Crossover was done to avoid bias, all the lectures being given by the same presenter.  At the end of each lecture, a short questionnaire of 10 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) was provided to the students. Mean scores were calculated for lectures with handouts and without handouts. For a set of lectures, when batch A was provided with handouts, the mean score was 28.2; for batch B to which no handouts were given the mean score was 23.4. Similarly, for batch B when provided with handouts the mean score was 29.1, for batch A which was not provided with handouts the mean score was 24. There was an average increase of 4.2 marks. Actual gain when handouts were provided was 1.2 marks per lecture.  It was more for the batch comprising of repeater students as compared to the batch of fresher students. Increase in attendance was also noted. Providing uncompleted handouts before a didactic lecture definitely results in increase in knowledge gain; repeater students benefit more with uncompleted handouts.

  14. Prescription monitoring of anti-hypertensive drug utilisation at the Panjab University Health Centre in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H; Kumar, A; Kulkarni, S K

    2004-03-01

    The present pilot study was conducted in order to establish the drug-prescribing trend of anti-hypertensive agents at the Panjab University Health Centre in India. A pilot study of six-month duration was conducted at the Panjab University Health Centre. The information was collected from the patients attending the outpatient department through a random sample method. World Health Organisation-based prescription-auditing proforma was used for data collection. This study revealed that most of the male patients were on monotherapy (60 percent). In the monotherapy category, four classes of drugs were used. These were calcium channel blockers (48.1 percent), beta-blockers (46.2 percent), ACE inhibitors (3.9 percent) and diuretics (1.9 percent). Among monotherapy drugs, calcium channel blockers were prescribed most whereas diuretics were least used. Among those who were treated with drug combinations, 92.1% received two drugs and 7.9 percent received three drugs. In combination therapy, a two-drug combination consisting of beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers was given to the majority of the patients. Overall, 57.8 percent patients were treated with a single anti-hypertensive drug and 42.2 percent were treated with anti-hypertensive drug combinations. The present study represents the current prescribing trend for anti-hypertensive agents and it highlights certain shortcomings in the existing prescribing practice. There is a considerable scope for improvement, particularly the under-utilisation of diuretics in the present prescribing pattern of anti-hypertensive drugs.

  15. Treatment utilisation and trauma characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Traut

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Few empirical studies have addressed the impact of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on treatment utilisation and outcome in South African youth. This study was undertaken to document demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics of child and adolescent inpatients with PTSD. Design. A retrospective chart study of all patients presenting to a child and adolescent inpatient unit was conducted between 1994-1996. For children and adolescents diagnosed with PTSD; demographic, diagnostic and treatment variables, including trauma type, family history, and delays in treatment seeking, were documented. Setting. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatient Unit, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town. Subjects. Children and adolescents (2 to 18 years presenting to an inpatient unit (n=737. Results. 10.3% (n=76 met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Gender differences were clearly evident: PTSD was six times more prevalent in girls (65 with PTSD were female and 11 were male; girls were most likely to have experienced rape or sexual abuse while boys were most likely to have witnessed a killing. Psychotherapy was the most common intervention for PTSD, followed by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant. 97.4% of children and adolescents who were treated demonstrated significant improvement. Delays in seeking treatment and problems with the primary support group were highly prevalent. Conclusion. PTSD is a common disorder that is responsive to treatment with psychotherapy and/or tricyclic antidepressants in child and adolescent inpatients. These findings underscore the importance of early identification and treatment of childhood PTSD in mental health settings, in particular tertiary service institutions.

  16. Availability, utilisation and quality of basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care services in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; Hofman, Jan; Mlava, Grace; Mhango, Chisale; van den Broek, Nynke

    2009-09-01

    To establish a baseline for the availability, utilisation and quality of maternal and neonatal health care services for monitoring and evaluation of a maternal and neonatal morbidity/mortality reduction programme in three districts in the Central Region of Malawi. Survey of all the 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) that provide maternity services in the three districts (population, 2,812,183). There were 1.6 comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) facilities per 500,000 population and 0.8 basic emergency obstetric care (BEmOC) facilities per 125,000 population. About 23% of deliveries were conducted in emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities and the met need for emergency obstetric complications was 20.7%. The case fatality rate for emergency obstetric complications treated in health facilities was 2.0%. Up to 86.7% of pregnant women attended antenatal clinic at least once and only 12.0% of them attend postnatal clinic at least once. There is a shortage of qualified staff and unequal distribution with more staff in hospitals leaving health centres severely understaffed. The total number of CEmOC facilities is adequate but the distribution is unequal, leaving some rural areas with poor access to CEmOC services. There are no functional BEmOC facilities in the three districts. In order to reduce maternal mortality in Malawi and countries with similar socio-economic profile, there is a need to upgrade some health facilities to at least BEmOC level by training staff and providing equipment and supplies.

  17. Working with Persistent Pain: An Exploration of Strategies Utilised to Stay Productive at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakman, Jodi; Kinsman, Natasha; Briggs, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Maintaining productive employment for people with persistent pain conditions is challenging. This study aims to explore supports-work and non-work- used by employees to assist them in maintaining productive employment. Methods An exploratory, mixed-methods study comprising a questionnaire battery followed by semi-structured interviews to collect in-depth qualitative data was undertaken. The questionnaires measured descriptive variables used to select participants for interviews based on maximum heterogeneity sampling. Thirty-five semi-structured interviews were undertaken (14 males; 21 females). The interview schedule covered: employment situation, workplace challenges, workplace supports, coping strategies, motivations, future employment options and any other resources utilised. Inductive content analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory approach to systematically explore the data. Results Three key themes were identified: barriers to working productively, enablers to working productively, disclosing my condition at work. A key determinant of maintaining productive employment was a supportive employer. In addition, flexibility in the work organisation was also pivotal in maintaining sustainable, productive employment. An important issue emerged with regard to disclosure of one's condition to an employer. For some, this was a significant barrier to employment. Conclusions To ensure sustainable employment is attainable for those with persistent pain conditions, a good match is required between an employee and their work. Workplace accommodations may assist with improving job fit but this requires disclosure of a condition to an employer. Weighing up the risks and benefits of disclosure is difficult, and may be assisted by knowledge of available supports to assist with maintaining ongoing employment.

  18. Utilising reinforcement learning to develop strategies for driving auditory neural implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geoffrey W.; Zambetta, Fabio; Li, Xiaodong; Paolini, Antonio G.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In this paper we propose a novel application of reinforcement learning to the area of auditory neural stimulation. We aim to develop a simulation environment which is based off real neurological responses to auditory and electrical stimulation in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) of an animal model. Using this simulator we implement closed loop reinforcement learning algorithms to determine which methods are most effective at learning effective acoustic neural stimulation strategies. Approach. By recording a comprehensive set of acoustic frequency presentations and neural responses from a set of animals we created a large database of neural responses to acoustic stimulation. Extensive electrical stimulation in the CN and the recording of neural responses in the IC provides a mapping of how the auditory system responds to electrical stimuli. The combined dataset is used as the foundation for the simulator, which is used to implement and test learning algorithms. Main results. Reinforcement learning, utilising a modified n-Armed Bandit solution, is implemented to demonstrate the model’s function. We show the ability to effectively learn stimulation patterns which mimic the cochlea’s ability to covert acoustic frequencies to neural activity. Time taken to learn effective replication using neural stimulation takes less than 20 min under continuous testing. Significance. These results show the utility of reinforcement learning in the field of neural stimulation. These results can be coupled with existing sound processing technologies to develop new auditory prosthetics that are adaptable to the recipients current auditory pathway. The same process can theoretically be abstracted to other sensory and motor systems to develop similar electrical replication of neural signals.

  19. Agricultural waste utilisation strategies and demand for urban waste compost: Evidence from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The use of agricultural waste for soil amendment is limited in developing countries. Competition between fuel and feed is the major cause for the insufficient application of agricultural waste on cropland. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to investigate variation in agricultural waste allocation between groups of farmers with different livelihood strategies and link this allocation with the nutrient balances of their production systems, (ii) to identify farm characteristics that influence utilisation of agricultural waste for soil amendment, and (iii) to assess demand for urban waste compost. A total of 220 farmers were selected randomly and interviewed using standardised semi-structured questionnaires. Four groups of farmers, namely (i) field crop farmers, (ii) vegetable producers, (iii) ornamental-plant growers, and (iv) farmers practising mixed farming, were identified using categorical principal component and two-step cluster analyses. Field crop farmers produced the largest quantity of agricultural waste, but they allocated 80% of manure to fuel and 85% of crop residues to feed. Only soils. Farmers also sold manure and crop residues, and this generated 5-10% of their annual income. Vegetable and ornamental-plant growers allocated over 40% of manure and crop residues to soil amendment. Hence, nutrient balances were less negative in vegetable production systems. Education, farm size, land tenure and access to extension services were the variables that impeded allocation of agricultural waste to soil amendment. Replacement of fuel and feed through sustainable means is a viable option for soil fertility management. Urban waste compost should also be used as alternative option for soil amendment. Our results showed variation in compost demand between farmers. Education, landownership, experience with compost and access to extension services explained variation in compost demand. We also demonstrated that labour availability should be used to estimate

  20. A qualitative enquiry into learner experience of utilising concept maps as a learning method in physical science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J Ankiewicz

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the experience of learners who utilise concept maps as a learning method in Physical Science.

    Opsomming
    Die doel met die studie was om die ervaring van leerders, wat begripskaarte as leermetode in Natuur- en Skeikunde gebruik, te beskryf. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  1. The effect of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) on health service utilisation of a Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, CLK; Fong, DYT; Lam, TPD; Lauder, IJ

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to find out whether health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was an independent determinant of health service utilisation of a Chinese population and to determine whether the addition of HRQOL data to sociodemographic and morbidity factors could significantly increase the explanatory power of risk-adjustment models. A cross-sectional random telephone survey of the general adult Chinese population in Hong Kong was conducted among 2410 Chinese aged 18-88yr old, 52% were fe...

  2. QUANTIFICATION AND COSTING OF DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY GENERATION FOR ARMIDALE, NEW SOUTH WALES, AUSTRALIA UTILISING MICRO WIND TURBINES

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a general overview of energy and renewable energy sources available in Australia was introduced, household’s electricity situation in Australia was presented, and focus wind energy was conducted. A theoretical methodology for quantification and costing of selected micro wind turbines was introduced. This methodology was applied to Armidale city, New South Wales (NSW), Australia as a case study. The methodology involved utilisation of spread sheet application and HOMER software....

  3. The Climate Impact of Energy Peat Utilisation in Sweden - the Effect of former Land-Use and After-treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Kristina [Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Mats [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2004-12-01

    The potential climate impact from the use of peat for energy production in Sweden was evaluated in terms of contribution to atmospheric radiative forcing. The calculations consider emissions from combustion and from the peatlands before, during and after harvesting. Four main groups of peatlands in use for peat harvesting were identified: 1. pristine peatlands; 2. drained peatlands used for agriculture; 3. drained peatlands used for forestry (low productive); 4. peatlands previously (historically) used for peat harvesting. The radiative forcing of different scenarios using the mentioned peatland types for energy peat production was calculated, using literature and empirical data related to peat harvesting, at these four types of mires. In the calculations the original land-use was set as reference scenario. The radiative forcing caused by using agricultural peatlands for energy peat production was much lower than for the corresponding use of pristine peatlands and old peat harvesting areas. The calculated value for the radiative forcing of current (20-year period of harvesting and combustion) peat utilisation for energy in a 100-year perspective ranges between 80-90% of the corresponding radiative forcing from using coal and 165-180% from using natural gas. The scenarios for different peatland types and the currently used peatlands show that there is a potential to reduce the radiative forcing caused by energy peat production and utilisation in Sweden by selecting peat harvesting area and after-treatment method. It was concluded that both the greenhouse gas balance of the peatland before harvesting and the after-treatment methods strongly impact the radiative forcing from energy peat utilisation. The radiative forcing from continuous utilisation of energy peat was also calculated a few scenarios. The results show a slower development than the shorter harvesting/combustion scenarios. Since new peat continuously is burnt it will take longer time before the benefit of

  4. Utilisation of the National Antiretroviral Therapy Guidelines among health care professionals working in Abuja treatment centres, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindiwe I. Zungu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to and utilisations of the National Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines (NATG are valuable factors for effective programme implementation. The objective of this study was to investigate the accessibility of the NATG and their utilisation by health care professionals from five treatment centres in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 2007 using purposively sampled health care professionals. Questionnaires were self-administered to participants who consented in writing to participate in the survey.Results: 97 health care professionals participated in this study with about equal numbers of men and women: 48 (49.5% women and 49 (50.5% men. Of these, 21.6% were unaware of the existence of the NATG in their treatment centres. More than half (51.5% reported that they did not have access to the NATG as opposed to those (48.5% who had access to the guidelines. Furthermore, 16.5% of the participants confirmed that they had access to an institutional copy of the NATG while 14.4% indicated that they had individual copies and only 3.1% stated that they had individual copies and access to the hospital copy as well. Regarding utilisation of the NATG, 41.2% rarely used them, 32.9% never used them and only 25.7% often used them. The most frequent use of the NATG was among pharmacists (38.1% compared to the least frequent use among nurses (20.0%.Conclusion: Poor accessibility of the NATG may have a negative impact on guidelines utilisation among health care professionals in Nigeria.

  5. Surface modification of PET films using pulsed AC plasma polymerisation aimed at preventing protein adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ademovic, Z.; Wei, J.; Winther-Jensen, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    We utilise pulsed AC plasma polymerisation to create thin films that either contain reactive acid functional groups (by deposition of maleic anhydride (MAH) followed by hydrolysis) or are poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-like in nature (by using diethylene glycol vinyl ether (DEGVE) as monomer). The MAH...... films were further modified with PEG chains using a two-step wet chemical method. For the DEGVE films the plasma power was varied in order to change the degree of monomer fragmentation and thus retention of PEG-like character. The chemistry of the surfaces was determined using Fourier-transform infrared...

  6. Intervention of One Rupee Rice in PDS: Utilisation and Impact in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha States in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahendran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To find out the utilisation and impact of the scheme of pricing one kg rice at one rupee among the poor people and other beneficiaries at PDS outlets in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha states of India. For the purpose of this study, multi-stage random sampling method was used. Quantitative data was collected from the public using structured questionnaire. Data collection was done between 2nd December 2013 and 11th February 2014. The results show that more than 94.8% of poor families are utilising PDS grains in Odisha and 92.5% of BPL families are utilising PDS grains in Andhra Pradesh. In both the state’s 30% of the population is Above Poverty Line (APL families, and they do not buy most of the commodities and more particularly in rice. As part of PDS reform, both these states have improved transparency with computerised ration shops and biometric ration cards and pin numbers. PDS outlets are more useful to poor people than for the Above Poverty Line families. This study suggests that allotments of rice for APL families must be cut to control corruption and leakages, this study also suggest that millets must be introduced in the PDS to increase nutrition security.

  7. Health and health care utilisation among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands: design of a study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article discusses the design of a study on the prevalence of health problems (both physical and mental and the utilisation of health care services among asylum seekers and refugees in the Netherlands, including factors that may be related to their health and their utilisation of these services. Methods/Design The study will include random samples of adult asylum seekers and refugees from Afghanistan, Iran and Somali (total planned sample of 600, as these are among the largest groups within the reception centres and municipalities in the Netherlands. The questionnaire that will be used will include questions on physical health (chronic and acute diseases and somatization, mental health (Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 and Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, utilisation of health care services, pre- and post-migratory traumatic experiences, life-style, acculturation, social support and socio-demographic background. The questionnaire has gone through a translation process (translation and back-translation, several checks and a pilot-study and cross-cultural adaptation. Respondents will be interviewed by bilingual and bicultural interviewers who will be specifically trained for this purpose. This article discusses the selection of the study population, the chosen outcome measures, the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the measurement instrument, the training of the interviewers and the practical execution of the study. The information provided may be useful for other researchers in this relatively new field of epidemiological research among various groups of asylum seekers and refugees.

  8. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  9. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  10. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  11. Effect of niacin supplementation on digestibility, nitrogen utilisation and milk and blood variables in lactating dairy cows fed a diet with a negative rumen nitrogen balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschemann, Martina; Lebzien, Peter; Hüther, Liane; Döll, Susanne; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to determine if a niacin supplementation of 6 g/d to lactating dairy cow diets can compensate negative effects of a rumen nitrogen balance (RNB) deficit. A total of nine ruminally and duodenally fistulated lactating multiparous German Holstein cows were successively assigned to one of three diets consisting of 10 kg maize silage (dry matter [DM] basis) and 7 kg DM concentrate: Diet RNB- (n = 6) with energy and utilisable crude protein at the duodenum (uCP) according to the average requirement of the animals but with a negative RNB (-0.41 g N/MJ metabolisable energy [ME]); Diet RNB0 (n = 7) with energy, uCP and a RNB (0.08 g N/MJ ME) according to the average requirement of the animals and, finally, Diet NA (n = 5), which was the same diet as RNB-, but supplemented with 6 g niacin/d. Samples of milk were taken on two consecutive days, blood samples were taken on one day pre- and post-feeding and faeces and urine were collected completely over five consecutive days. The negative RNB reduced milk and blood urea content and apparent total tract digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Also N excretion with urine, the total N excreted with urine and faeces and the N balance were reduced when the RNB was negative. Supplementation of niacin elevated plasma glucose concentration after feeding and the N balance increased. Supplementing the diet with a negative RNB with niacin led to a more efficient use of dietary N thereby avoiding the negative effects of the negative RNB on the digestibility of DM, OM and NDF.

  12. The utilisation of a career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Bezuidenhout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This  study  constituted  and  reported  on  the  outcomes  of  a  structured  career conversation  framework  based  on  Schein’s  eight  career  anchors  in  an  open  distance  and e-learning (ODeL university in South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to report on the utilisation of a structured career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors model.Motivation for the study: The rationale for the study was the paucity of studies investigating career anchors in South Africa’s multicultural organisational context.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative approach was adopted in the study. The population consisted of 4200 employees at a university in South Africa. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA as well as a Scheffe post hoc test.Main  findings: The  findings  of  this  study  suggest  that  career  conversation  has  a  dynamic nature (i.e. it changes over a period of time. Consequently, career development interventions in the workplace need to approach the workforce holistically.Practical/managerial implications: The findings and results will assist managers, practitioners and  career  development  specialists  in  the  practical  implementation  of  the  career  anchor concept.Contribution/value-add: The career conversation framework based on Schein’s career anchors has expanded the existing theory to find the right balance between career conversations and career anchors to keep people motivated to perform optimally in an organisation.

  13. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schmiedl

    Full Text Available Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children. Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%. Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3% and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%. The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0% and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%. Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections

  14. The ingestion of protein with a maltodextrin and fructose beverage on substrate utilisation and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Michael D; Roberts, Justin D; Kass, Lindsy S; Tarpey, Richard J; Roberts, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated the ingestion of maltodextrin, fructose, and protein on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation (CHOEXO) and exercise performance. Seven trained cyclists and (or) triathletes (maximal oxygen consumption, 59.20 ± 9.00 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed 3 exercise trials that consisted of 150 min of cycling at 50% maximal power output (160 ± 11 W), followed by a 60-km time trial. One of 3 beverages were randomly assigned during each trial and consumed at 15-min intervals: (i) 0.84 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.52 g · min(-1) fructose + 0.34 g · min(-1) protein (MD+F+P); (ii) 1.10 g · min(-1) maltodextrin + 0.60 g · min(-1) fructose (MD+F); or (iii) 1.70 g · min(-1) maltodextrin (MD). CHO(EXO) and fuel utilisation were assessed via measurement of expired air (13)C content and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Mean total CHO oxidation (CHOTOT) rates were 2.35 ± 0.18, 2.76 ± 0.08, and 2.61 ± 0.17 g · min(-1) with MD, MD+F, and MD+F+P, respectively, although not significantly different. Peak CHO(EXO) rates with MD+F were significantly greater by 41.4% (p = 0.001) and 45.4% (p = 0.0001) compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively (1.57 ± 0.22 g · min(-1), 1.11 ± 0.08 g · min(-1), and 1.08 ± 0.11 g · min(-1), respectively). Performance times were 2.2% and 5.0% faster with MD+F compared with MD+F+P and MD, respectively; however, they were not statistically significant. Ingestion of an MD-fructose-protein commercial sports beverage significantly reduced peak and mean CHO(EXO) rates compared with MD+F, but did not significantly influence CHOTOT. The addition of protein to an MD+F beverage did not enhance performance times.

  15. Utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine content for broilers and layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, S V; Reddy, V

    2001-07-01

    1. The relative utilisation of different phosphorus sources in relation to their fluorine (F) content was studied in commercial broilers (5 to 40 d) and White Leghorn layers (252 to 364 d). The phosphorus (P) sources tested were bonemeal (BM), low fluorine (LFRP) and high fluorine (HFRP) rock phosphates and a commercial mineral mixture (CMM). The P sources were incorporated in broiler and layer diets by replacing dicalcium phosphate (DCP) on a P basis. 2. The F contents of diets based on BM, LFRP, CMM and HFRP were 53, 365, 622 and 1383 mg/kg in the broiler experiment and 34, 242, 437 and 967 mg/kg in the layer experiment, respectively. F was not detected in DCP based diets. 3. In broilers, body weight gain, food intake, gain: food, P retention and serum inorganic P content on P sources (BM and LFRP) containing F up to 365 mg/kg diet were similar to those on DCP. Body weight gain, food intake, serum calcium and inorganic P contents and retention of P were depressed in groups fed on CMM and HFRP, which may have been due to the toxic effects of F (622 and 1383 mg/kg) present in diets based on these P sources. 4. Bone ash and its P content were not affected by feeding diets containing F up to 1383 mg/kg from various P sources. The amount of F deposited in tibia increased significantly with increases in dietary F concentration. 5. In layers, egg production and food intake were not affected by F up to 437 mg/kg in diets containing BM, LFRP or CMM as the sole source of supplemental P. Egg production and food intake were depressed significantly in layers given the diet containing 967 mg F/kg from HFRP. 6. Egg mass: food, egg weight, shell quality (shell thickness and shell weight) and serum calcium and inorganic P levels were not affected by F up to 967 mg/kg in diets containing different P sources. 7. It may be concluded that the performance of broilers and layers was not affected by feeding various P supplements with dietary levels of F up to 365 and 437 mg

  16. Rapakivi Granite: An architectural emblem of St Petersburg and its utilisation in other world cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey; Gavrilenko, Vladimir; Panova, Helen

    2015-04-01

    The wide-ranging utilisation of Rapakivi Granite in St Petersburg is typified by the the famous Alexander Column, and 114 stone columns of St Isaac's Cathedralas well as the pedestal of the Nicholas I monument, and portals and basements of buildings of the Admiralty, General Staff, Senate and Synod. The stone is also frequently seen among pavement slabs and in parapets of embankments and bridges around the city. This list of examples where Rapakivi Granite has been used could be expanded further. All Rapakivi Granites used in the buildings of St.Petersburg were quarried from the so-called Vyborg massif. At present it has been found that the massif occupies an area of about 18 000 km2. In the past granite of the Vyborg massif was worked from several quarries in the vicinity of Fredrikshamn (Hamina) in Finland for use in St Peterburg. The best known granite quarries are at Piterlaks (Piuterlahti) and Gimmekyul (Hämeenkylä). Sometimes Rapakivi Granite form Finland differs in appearance from typical varieties. Thus columns of a classical portal in the house at N 7 in Pochtamtskaya Street are hewn from this greyish variety. Other examples are the plinth of the General Staff and Trade Store buildings. After the 1960s varieties from the Leningrad district, and Korosten (Ukraine) massifs were used in St Petersburg. Today it is possible to find examples of Rapakivi Granite from Finland in cities in the USA, South Africa, United Kingdom and Germany. It is a long used stone as demonstrated by its cultural heritage. It is also used as an ornamental or decorative stone in modern architecture. References: 1) Bulakh, A.G., Abakumova, N.B., and Romanovsky, J.V. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p. (In English). 2) Tutakova, A.Ya., Romanovskiy, A.Z., Bulakh, A.G., and Leer, V.I. Dimension Stone of the Leningrad Region. Granites of the Karelia Isthmus in Architecture of the Modern St Petersburg. 2011. St Petersburg. 78 p

  17. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0-1 year old to 2.4 at 5-8 years (pSocio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the disparities in GP utilisation for children in Australian context.

  18. Prostate specific antigen testing is associated with men's psychological and physical health and their healthcare utilisation in a nationally representative sample: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flahavan, Evelyn M; Drummond, Frances J; Bennett, Kathleen; Barron, Thomas I; Sharp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    ...) testing in primary care. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between PSA testing and the psychological and physical health, and healthcare utilisation of men in a population where PSA testing is widespread...

  19. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  20. Variant for geothermal utilisation of the infrastructure of collieries in North Rhine-Westphalia; Variante zur geothermischen Nutzung der Infrastruktur von Steinkohlenbergwerken in Nordrhein-Westfalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlen, Klaus [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg (Germany). Dezernat 64 - Energiewirtschaft, Tagesanlagen, Schornsteinfegerwesen; Albrecht, Dieter [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg (Germany). Dezernat 62 - Energetische Rohstoffe im Tiefbau; Pohlmann, Michael [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistik

    2010-06-15

    When considering the utilisation of geothermal energy in the coal mining industry warm mine water and the quantities of thermal energy, which can be raised day by day from the mines and fed into the surface water immediately springs to mind. Under certain conditions, however, the infrastructure collieries, may also favour quite different hitherto hardly ever considered possibilities of geothermal utilisation. One of these possibilities will be explained in more detail here. (orig.)

  1. THE PRIMARY FACTORS OF THE NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR UTILISING “GREEN ENERGY†(BIOMASS) BY INCINERATION TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Gergely, Sandor

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the current trends we can state that green energy production is becoming increasingly important in the utilisation of agricultural areas. In our paper we compare the characteristics of land utilisation by energy forests, energy grass, energy hemp, and china reed (Myscanthus gigantheus). The analysis is based on market position, equity requirements and profitability, the effects on the national economy and/or on a particular region, as well as the environmental and social effec...

  2. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A

    2005-01-01

    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  3. A distributed knowledge-based system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomusa Dlodlo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the concept and development of a knowledge-based advisory system for the optimum utilisation of South African wool for the benefit of present and potential investors and other interested parties. Wool is a natural animal fibre produced in varying quantities around the world. The wool fibre is far from homogenous; its type and quality, such as fineness and length, depending on the breed of sheep and the environmental conditions prevailing during its growth. Wool is used in a variety of end uses, ranging from fi ne worsted suiting, to hand knitting yarn, carpets, blankets and aircraft upholstery, its use depending largely on its fibre fineness and length. The wool industry is one of the oldest agricultural industries in South Africa, playing an important economic role as an earner of foreign exchange, and providing a living to many people. Wool is produced in many parts of South Africa under extensive, semi-extensive or intensive conditions, and is largely an export commodity. It is produced and traded in a sophisticated free market business environment into the international market place, where supply and demand forces determine price levels. More than 90% of locally produced wool is exported in an unprocessed or semi-processed form which detrimentally affects employment, foreign exchange and income-generating opportunities associated with value-addition prior to export. To reduce the amount of wool exported in unprocessed or semi-processed form, wool-processing enterprises need to be established to produce internationally marketable end products. Therefore, South Africa needs to attract investors into the wool sector, who will set up manufacturing mills in an economically sustainable manner. Potential and present investors in the South African (S.A. wool industry need easily accessible and up-to-date information on the production statistics, processing properties and end-use pplications of the wool they need for the

  4. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  5. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B.; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Graham, William G.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30–60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27242335

  6. Non-thermal Plasma Exposure Rapidly Attenuates Bacterial AHL-Dependent Quorum Sensing and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Padrig B; Busetti, Alessandro; Wielogorska, Ewa; Chevallier, Olivier P; Elliott, Christopher T; Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P; Graham, William G; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2016-05-31

    The antimicrobial activity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been exhaustively characterised, however elucidation of the interactions between biomolecules produced and utilised by bacteria and short plasma exposures are required for optimisation and clinical translation of cold plasma technology. This study characterizes the effects of non-thermal plasma exposure on acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-dependent quorum sensing (QS). Plasma exposure of AHLs reduced the ability of such molecules to elicit a QS response in bacterial reporter strains in a dose-dependent manner. Short exposures (30-60 s) produce of a series of secondary compounds capable of eliciting a QS response, followed by the complete loss of AHL-dependent signalling following longer exposures. UPLC-MS analysis confirmed the time-dependent degradation of AHL molecules and their conversion into a series of by-products. FT-IR analysis of plasma-exposed AHLs highlighted the appearance of an OH group. In vivo assessment of the exposure of AHLs to plasma was examined using a standard in vivo model. Lettuce leaves injected with the rhlI/lasI mutant PAO-MW1 alongside plasma treated N-butyryl-homoserine lactone and n-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-homoserine lactone, exhibited marked attenuation of virulence. This study highlights the capacity of atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma to modify and degrade AHL autoinducers thereby attenuating QS-dependent virulence in P. aeruginosa.

  7. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  8. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Olga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. Methods The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147, with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. Results As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31. University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06, gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62 and mammography among older (more than 40 years women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98. Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Conclusions Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  9. The role and utilisation of public health evaluations in Europe: a case study of national hand hygiene campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluations are essential to judge the success of public health programmes. In Europe, the proportion of public health programmes that undergo evaluation remains unclear. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control sought to determine the frequency of evaluations amongst European national public health programmes by using national hand hygiene campaigns as an example of intervention. Methods A cohort of all national hand hygiene campaigns initiated between 2000 and 2012 was utilised for the analysis. The aim was to collect information about evaluations of hand hygiene campaigns and their frequency. The survey was sent to nominated contact points for healthcare-associated infection surveillance in European Union and European Economic Area Member States. Results Thirty-six hand hygiene campaigns in 20 countries were performed between 2000 and 2012. Of these, 50% had undergone an evaluation and 55% of those utilised the WHO hand hygiene intervention self-assessment tool. Evaluations utilised a variety of methodologies and indicators in assessing changes in hand hygiene behaviours pre and post intervention. Of the 50% of campaigns that were not evaluated, two thirds reported that both human and financial resource constraints posed significant barriers for the evaluation. Conclusion The study identified an upward trend in the number of hand hygiene campaigns implemented in Europe. It is likely that the availability of the internationally-accepted evaluation methodology developed by the WHO contributed to the evaluation of more hand hygiene campaigns in Europe. Despite this rise, hand hygiene campaigns appear to be under-evaluated. The development of simple, programme-specific, standardised guidelines, evaluation indicators and other evidence-based public health materials could help promote evaluations across all areas of public health. PMID:24507086

  10. Biogas in Lusaka ? Feasibility study: Possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, Emma; Nelson, Sara

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate possibilities to extract and utilise biogas from municipal solid waste in Lusaka, considering environmental, financial, technological and social aspects. The outcome provided three recommendations: 1 - a new landfill with biocells. The only legal tipping site in Lusaka has been condemned and there are plans for the construction of a new landfill. We recommend that the new site should be a sanitary landfill with full gas and leachate management. Thus, the costs for extracting biogas would be included in the investments for the landfill. It would be advisable to start with a simple end-use application during a running-in period when the technique and organisation is tested. Utilising the gas for internal heating or in a nearby industry will probably be the easiest and cheapest choice. 2 - a pilot project in a high-density area for co-dispersal of latrine and putrescibles. The sanitary conditions in high-density areas, where pit-latrines are the principal sanitary method, are insufficient. It is of great importance to master the situation in order to avoid further epidemics and water pollution. Compared to other solutions we consider a fermentation digester to be the best alternative. The main purpose for this pilot plant would, at least in the initial stage, be to investigate whether this method is a feasible solution for the problems with pit latrines. The aim of the end-use application could then merely be to demonstrate and inform the public about biogas. 3 - further investigations regarding the possibilities to extract and utilise biogas in industries and from manure, The estimated biogas potential from industries and manure and droppings from livestock and chickens is much bigger than from municipal solid waste and should be exploited. The end-use applications would probably be for internal use (heat and/or electricity). This was not investigated any further in our study.

  11. Health Care Utilisation and Transitions between Health Care Settings in the Last 6 Months of Life in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähler, Caroline; Signorell, Andri; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background Many efforts are undertaken in Switzerland to enable older and/or chronically ill patients to stay home longer at the end-of-life. One of the consequences might be an increased need for hospitalisations at the end-of-life, which goes along with burdensome transitions for patients and higher health care costs for the society. Aim We aimed to examine the health care utilisation in the last six months of life, including transitions between health care settings, in a Swiss adult population. Methods The study population consisted of 11'310 decedents of 2014 who were insured at the Helsana Group, the leading health insurance in Switzerland. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the health care utilisation by age group, taking into account individual and regional factors. Zero-inflated Poisson regression model was used to predict the number of transitions. Results Mean age was 78.1 in men and 83.8 in women. In the last six months of life, 94.7% of the decedents had at least one consultation; 61.6% were hospitalised at least once, with a mean length of stay of 28.3 days; and nursing home stays were seen in 47.4% of the decedents. Over the same time period, 64.5% were transferred at least once, and 12.9% experienced at least one burdensome transition. Main predictors for transitions were age, sex and chronic conditions. A high density of home care nurses was associated with a decrease, whereas a high density of ambulatory care physicians was associated with an increase in the number of transitions. Conclusions Health care utilisation was high in the last six months of life and a considerable number of decedents were being transferred. Advance care planning might prevent patients from numerous and particularly from burdensome transitions. PMID:27598939

  12. Utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services in the early medical response to major incidents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Anne Siri; Fattah, Sabina; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius

    2016-02-09

    This systematic review identifies, describes and appraises the literature describing the utilisation of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the early medical response to major incidents. Early prehospital phase of a major incident. Systematic literature review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cinahl, Bibsys Ask, Norart, Svemed and UpToDate were searched using phrases that combined HEMS and 'major incidents' to identify when and how HEMS was utilised. The identified studies were subjected to data extraction and appraisal. The database search identified 4948 articles. Based on the title and abstract, the full text of 96 articles was obtained; of these, 37 articles were included in the review, and an additional five were identified by searching the reference lists of the 37 articles. HEMS was used to transport medical and rescue personnel to the incident and to transport patients to the hospital, especially when the infrastructure was damaged. Insufficient air traffic control, weather conditions, inadequate landing sites and failing communication were described as challenging in some incidents. HEMS was used mainly for patient treatment and to transport patients, personnel and equipment in the early medical management of major incidents, but the optimal utilisation of this specialised resource remains unclear. This review identified operational areas with improvement potential. A lack of systematic indexing, heterogeneous data reporting and weak methodological design, complicated the identification and comparison of incidents, and more systematic reporting is needed. CRD42013004473. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Inequalities in health and health service utilisation among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubikaytis, Tatiana; Larivaara, Meri; Kuznetsova, Olga; Hemminki, Elina

    2010-11-11

    Russian society has faced dramatic changes in terms of social stratification since the collapse of the Soviet Union. During this time, extensive reforms have taken place in the organisation of health services, including the development of the private sector. Previous studies in Russia have shown a wide gap in mortality between socioeconomic groups. There are just a few studies on health service utilisation in post-Soviet Russia and data on inequality of health service use are limited. The aim of the present study was to analyse health (self-rated health and self-reported chronic diseases) and health care utilisation patterns by socioeconomic status (SES) among reproductive age women in St. Petersburg. The questionnaire survey was conducted in 2004 (n = 1147), with a response rate of 67%. Education and income were used as dimensions of SES. The association between SES and health and use of health services was assessed by logistic regression, adjusting for age. As expected low SES was associated with poor self-rated health (education: OR = 1.48; personal income: OR = 1.42: family income: OR = 2.31). University education was associated with use of a wider range of outpatient medical services and increased use of the following examinations: Pap smear (age-adjusted OR = 2.06), gynaecological examinations (age-adjusted OR = 1.62) and mammography among older (more than 40 years) women (age-adjusted OR = 1.98). Personal income had similar correlations, but family income was related only to the use of mammography among older women. Our study suggests a considerable inequality in health and utilisation of preventive health service among reproductive age women. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify barriers to health promotion resources.

  14. Multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation among high-cost patients in the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Pal Chee, Christine; Wagner, Todd H; Yoon, Jean; Cohen, Danielle M; Holmes, Tyson H; Ritchie, Christine; Asch, Steven M

    2015-04-16

    To investigate the relationship between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation patterns among the highest cost patients in a large, integrated healthcare system. In this retrospective cross-sectional study of all patients in the U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System, we aggregated costs of individuals' outpatient and inpatient care, pharmacy services and VA-sponsored contract care received in 2010. We assessed chronic condition prevalence, multimorbidity as measured by comorbidity count, and multisystem multimorbidity (number of body systems affected by chronic conditions) among the 5% highest cost patients. Using multivariate regression, we examined the association between multimorbidity and healthcare utilisation and costs, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, homelessness and health insurance status. USA VA Health Care System. 5.2 million VA patients. Annual total costs; absolute and share of costs generated through outpatient, inpatient, pharmacy and VA-sponsored contract care; number of visits to primary, specialty and mental healthcare; number of emergency department visits and hospitalisations. The 5% highest cost patients (n=261,699) accounted for 47% of total VA costs. Approximately two-thirds of these patients had chronic conditions affecting ≥3 body systems. Patients with cancer and schizophrenia were less likely to have documented comorbid conditions than other high-cost patients. Multimorbidity was generally associated with greater outpatient and inpatient utilisation. However, increased multisystem multimorbidity was associated with a higher outpatient share of total costs (1.6 percentage points per affected body system, psystem, p<0.01). Multisystem multimorbidity is common among high-cost VA patients. While some patients might benefit from disease-specific programmes, for most patients with multimorbidity there is a need for interventions that coordinate and maximise efficiency of outpatient services across multiple

  15. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  16. The utilisation of the right of children to shelter to alleviate poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jansen van Rensburg

    2004-06-01

    their duty or the children are removed from their care. This does not in the least mean that the state has no responsibilities to children living with their parents. The state must still provide the framework in which parents can facilitate the realisation of their children's rights. The state can fulfil this obligation by taking reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise everyone's right of access to adequate housing progressively. Therefore, it is submitted that the measures taken to realise section 26 also indirectly ensures the realisation of children's right to basic shelter (section 28(1(c.It has been largely accepted by the courts and academics alike that all fundamental human rights are indivisible and interrelated. Clearly then, the state's obligations in terms of section 28(1(c cannot be properly interpreted without referring to the interpretation of those obligations conferred upon it by section 26(2 and the other socio-economic rights in the Constitution. Hence, section 28(1(c must be seen in the context of the Constitution as a whole. Put simply, the state must take reasonable legislative and other measures within its available resources to realise children's right to basic housing/shelter progressively.This article will focus on the utilisation of the right to shelter of the child to alleviate poverty. Essential to this discussion is an effective understanding of the right to basic shelter as entrenched by section 28 of the Constitution in conjunction with the right of access to adequate housing conferred on everyone by virtue of section 26. This will be achieved by studying the general working of such rights including their limitations and enforcement.

  17. Utilisation of simulation in industrial design and resulting business opportunities (SISU) - MASIT18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M.; Leppaevuori, J.; Manninen, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Valli, A.; Hasari, H.; Koistinen, A.; Leppaenen, S. (Helsinki Polytechnic Stadia, City of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)); Lahti, S. (EVTEK University of Applied Sciences, Vantaa (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    difficult problem in power plant tests has been the lack of critical measurements; therefore, the current emphasis of the study is two-phase MDR. Real-time application and preliminary semi-dynamic trials have also started. A simulation model for system testing has been made with InTouch and SQL. In this simulator it is possible to develop and test various automatic gross-error elimination and data warehouse strategies. In the case study of Fortum and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland - Flow rates in a peat power plant - the aim is to apply VTT's and Fortum's dynamical process simulation tool Apros to calculate flow rates, temperatures and pressures in peat drying process, which utilises the combustion gas of the power plant itself. This test case has been finalised and reported. The Apros tool was partially successful in answering the questions given by power plant operators. The biggest advantage of using Apros, compared to studying the minute-based process data from the plant itself, is that cause and effects are clearly distinguishable. It is relatively straightforward to calculate correlations and some more advanced measures between analysed process parameters, but it is difficult to reason out causes from all that data. The other important advantage is to study the plant in states which are encountered rarely or never in the typical use of the plant. Sometimes it might even be dangerous to run the plant in certain conditions, which are safely demonstrated by Apros

  18. Utilisation of theoretical models and frameworks in the process of evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Christina M; Harrison, Margaret B; Graham, Ian D; Ross-White, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review is a comprehensive enquiry or study of secondary data sources. There is a research question, an a priori articulation of methods and a set of procedures to focus the investigation. Despite these rigorous structures to guide the review, synthesising evidence is a challenging, resource intense and time consuming process. Large volumes of information complicate not only the search functions, but also the conceptualisation of the evidence needed to create the concise and integrated results. Use of a theoretical model or framework could serve as an essential element in effectively focusing the review and designing the methods to respond to the knowledge question. This scoping review sought to confirm the value of models or frameworks used by authors working within traditional methodologies for evidence synthesis. Types of participants The focus of this review was on the context of health care.Types of intervention(s)/phenomena of interest All studies that discussed models or frameworks used specifically to address the process of synthesis were included.Types of studies Discussion, scholarship or methodology papers and reviews were included.Types of outcome All theoretical models or frameworks were described, with specific attention to the purpose of the framework for each study, and the contribution of the framework to the process of synthesis. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. A three-step search strategy was utilised. The databases for published material included CINAHL; Medline; EMBASE; PsycINFO; AMED; Cochrane; Biomed Central; Scirus; and Mednar. Databases for unpublished material included Dissertation Abstracts; Sociological Abstracts; Conference proceedings. The review was a focused scoping review to locate and describe the contribution of theoretical models or frameworks to the process of synthesis. The methodological quality of the discussion papers was therefore not assessed. Data was extracted from

  19. On the measurement of capacity utilisation and coast efficiency: a non-parametric approach at firm level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prior Diego

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the inefficiency generated by an inadequate structure of the fixed inputs and by the difficulty to adjust them in the short-run in a sample of Romanian firms in the chemical industry over the period 1996-1997. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and apply this methodology in an innovative setting using a cost analysis instead of the technical efficiency approach. The results show inefficiency in most of the cases due to a low degree of capacity utilisation.

  20. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi

    2000-11-01

    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  1. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  2. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  3. Individual utilisation thresholds and exploring how GPs' knowledge of their patients affects diagnosis: a qualitative study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels-Corsten, Matthias; Bösner, Stefan; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert

    2017-05-01

    One of the tenets of general practice is that continuity of care has a beneficial effect on patient care. However, little is known about how continuity can have an impact on the diagnostic reasoning of GPs. To explore GPs' diagnostic strategies by examining GPs' reflections on their patients' individual thresholds for seeking medical attention, how they arrive at their estimations, and which conclusions they draw. Qualitative study with 12 GPs in urban and rural practices in Germany. After each patient consultation GPs were asked to reflect on their diagnostic reasoning for that particular case. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of consultations and interview content were undertaken. A total of 295 primary care consultations were recorded, 134 of which contained at least one diagnostic episode. When elaborating on known patients, GPs frequently commented on how 'early' or 'late' in an illness progression a patient tended to consult. The probability of serious disease was accordingly regarded as high or low. This influenced GPs' behaviour regarding further investigations or referrals, as well as reassurance and watchful waiting. GPs' explanations for a patient's utilisation threshold comprised medical history, the patient's characteristics, family background, the media, and external circumstances. The concept of an individual threshold for the utilisation of primary care would explain how GPs use their knowledge of individual patients and their previous help-seeking behaviour for their diagnostic decision making. Whether the assumption behind this concept is valid, and whether its use improves diagnostic accuracy, remains to be investigated. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  4. Differences in carbon source utilisation by orchid mycorrhizal fungi from common and endangered species of Caladenia (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, S; Morrison, P D; Coates, F; Lawrie, A C

    2017-02-01

    Terrestrial orchids depend on orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) as symbionts for their survival, growth and nutrition. The ability of OMF from endangered orchid species to compete for available resources with OMF from common species may affect the distribution, abundance and therefore conservation status of their orchid hosts. Eight symbiotically effective OMF from endangered and more common Caladenia species were tested for their ability to utilise complex insoluble and simple soluble carbon sources produced during litter degradation by growth with different carbon sources in liquid medium to measure the degree of OMF variation with host conservation status or taxonomy. On simple carbon sources, fungal growth was assessed by biomass. On insoluble substrates, ergosterol content was assessed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). The OMF grew on all natural materials and complex carbon sources, but produced the greatest biomass on xylan and starch and the least on bark and chitin. On simple carbon sources, the greatest OMF biomass was measured on most hexoses and disaccharides and the least on galactose and arabinose. Only some OMF used sucrose, the most common sugar in green plants, with possible implications for symbiosis. OMF from common orchids produced more ergosterol and biomass than those from endangered orchids in the Dilatata and Reticulata groups but not in the Patersonii and Finger orchids. This suggests that differences in carbon source utilisation may contribute to differences in the distribution of some orchids, if these differences are retained on site.

  5. Utilisation of health services and geography: deconstructing regional differences in barriers to facility-based delivery in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Andrew; Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Jimenez-Soto, Eliana

    2015-03-01

    While established that geographical inaccessibility is a key barrier to the utilisation of health services, it remains unknown whether disparities are driven only by limited access to these services, or are also attributable to health behaviour. Significant disparities exist in health outcomes and the coverage of many critical health services between the mountains region of Nepal and the rest of the country, yet the principal factors driving these regional disparities are not well understood. Using national representative data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, we examine the extent to which observable factors explain the overall differences in the utilisation of maternal health services. We apply nonlinear Blinder-Oaxaca-type decomposition methods to quantify the effect that differences in measurable characteristics have on the regional coverage gap in facility-based delivery. The mean coverage of facility-based deliveries was 18.6 and 36.3 % in the mountains region and the rest of Nepal, respectively. Between 54.8 and 74.1 % of the regional coverage gap was explained by differences in observed characteristics. Factors influencing health behaviours (proxied by mothers' education, TV viewership and tobacco use, and household wealth) and subjective distance to the health facility were the major factors, contributing between 52.9 and 62.5 % of the disparity. Mothers' birth history was also noteworthy. Policies simultaneously addressing access and health behaviours appear necessary to achieve greater coverage and better health outcomes for women and children in isolated areas.

  6. An evaluation of resource utilisation of single stage porcine acellular dermal matrix assisted breast reconstruction: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilchenmann, Ashley J R; Lardi, Alessia M; Ho-Asjoe, Mark; Junge, Klaus; Farhadi, Jian

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate resource utilization of single stage porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) assisted breast reconstruction compared with tissue expander (TE), latissimus dorsi flap and implant (LD/I) and latissimus dorsi flap and TE (LD/TE) reconstructive techniques. Clinical data was collected for length of stay, operative time, additional hospitalisations and operative procedures, and outpatient appointments for 101 patients undergoing unilateral implant based breast reconstruction. Resources utilised by ADM (Strattice Reconstructive Tissue Matrix™) patients were analysed and compared to the resource usage of traditional techniques. 25 patients undergoing single stage ADM (ADM/I) were compared with 27 having TE, 32 having LD/I and 17 having LD/TE reconstructions. Follow up was 24 months. Compared to TE, ADM/I had similar length of stay and operative time, lower rate and number of additional procedures, fewer, shorter re-admissions (p reconstructions in both complication-free and complicated settings over a 24-month period, despite requiring aesthetic revision in 60.9% of patients. Compared to LD/I, resource utilisation was commensurate in complication-free and complicated settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  8. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  9. L’utilisation des strat��gies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE L’utilisation des stratégies d’apprentissage d’une langue dans un environnement des TICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Atlan

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude des différences individuelles qui caractérisent les apprenants s'intègre de plus en plus dans les travaux en didactique des langues. L'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage est un type de différences individuelles qui semble être assez sensible à l'environnement pédagogique. Cet article rend compte d'une étude expérimentale entreprise avec des étudiants français en IUT qui avait pour objectif de déterminer si l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage par un apprenant de langues est influencée par la technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC utilisée pour la présentation d'une tâche d'apprentissage. Le "Strategy Inventory for Language Learning" d'Oxford a été utilisé comme instrument lors de cette étude. L'étude a montré qu'il y a effectivement interaction entre la TIC utilisée et le choix de stratégies effectué par l'apprenant et les résultats permettent de tirer quelques conclusions quant à l'utilité d'un entraînement spécifique à l'utilisation des stratégies d'apprentissage en présence des technologies de l’information et de la communication pour l’enseignement (TICE.The study of the individual differences which characterize learners is becoming more and more common in language learning research, and the use of learning strategies is an instance of individual differences which seems to be rather sensitive to the pedagogical environment. This article reports on an experimental study undertaken with students in a French technical college to determine if the use of learning strategies by a foreign language student is influenced by the technology used to present a language learning task. Oxford's Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was the principal instrument used for this study. The study showed that there was indeed some interaction between the technology used and the choice of learning strategies and the results lead to some interesting considerations on the usefulness

  10. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  11. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  12. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    an electron-ion pair in the discharge. Fig. 2. EEDF is non - Maxwellian and changes along the plasma column The electron–neutral collision...plasma radius. Even at atmospheric pressure the EEDF is non - Maxwellian and it is changing along the plasma column. ...18 31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain EEDF usually strongly differs from Maxwellian and chages along the plasma column (this is

  13. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  14. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  15. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  16. Plasma in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  17. The Plasma Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Curt

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. The fourth state of matter; 2. The music and dance of plasmas; 3. The Sun-Earth connection; 4. Bringing the Sun to Earth: the story of controlled thermonuclear fusion; 5. The cosmic plasma theater: galaxies, stars, and accretion disks; 6. Putting plasmas to work; Index.

  18. Differences between mono-generic and mixed diatom silicon isotope compositions trace present and past nutrient utilisation off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Kristin; Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Crosta, Xavier; Fleury, Sophie; Frank, Martin; Schneider, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    In this study we combine for the first time silicon (Si) isotope compositions of small mixed diatom species (δ30SibSiO2) and of large handpicked mono-generic (i.e. genus = Coscinodiscus) diatom samples (δ30SiCoscino) with diatom assemblages extracted from marine sediments in the Peruvian upwelling region in order to constrain present and past silicate utilisation. The extension of a previous core-top data set from the Peruvian shelf demonstrates that δ30SiCoscino values record near-complete Si utilisation, as these are similar to the isotopic composition of the subsurface source waters feeding the upwelling. In contrast, the δ30SibSiO2 of small mixed diatom species increase southward along the shelf as well as towards the shore. We attribute highest δ30SibSiO2 values partly to transient iron limitation but primarily to the gradual increase of Si isotope fractionation within the seasonal diatom succession, which are mainly recorded by small diatom species during intense bloom events. In contrast, lower δ30SibSiO2 values are related to initial Si isotope utilisation during periods of weak upwelling, when low Si(OH)4 concentrations do not permit intense blooms and small diatom species record substantially lower δ30Si signatures. As such, we propose that the intensity of the upwelling can be deduced from the offset between δ30SibSiO2 and δ30SiCoscino (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2), which is low for strong upwelling conditions and high for prevailing weak upwelling. We apply the information extracted from surface sediments to generate a record of the present-day main upwelling region covering the past 17,700 years and find that this location has also been characterized by a persistent offset (Δ30Sicoscino-bSiO2). By comparison with the diatom assemblages we show that the coastal upwelling system changed markedly between weak and strong upwelling conditions. In addition, our model calculations to quantify species-specific Si isotope fractionation effects based on the

  19. Dietary Prebiotics and Probiotics Influence the Growth Performance, Feed Utilisation, and Body Indices of Snakehead (Channa striata) Fingerlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Mohammad Bodrul; Hashim, Roshada; Abdul Manaf, Mohammad Suhaimee; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2016-08-01

    This study used a two-phase feeding trial to determine the influence of selected dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth performance, feed utilisation, and morphological changes in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings as well as the duration of these effects over a post-experimental period without supplementation. Triplicate groups of fish (22.46 ±0.17 g) were raised on six different treatment diets: three prebiotics (0.2% β-glucan, 1% galacto-oligosaccharides [GOS], 0.5% mannan-oligosaccharides [MOS]), two probiotics (1% live yeast [Saccharomyces cerevisiae] and 0.01% Lactobacillus acidophilus [LBA] powder) and a control (unsupplemented) diet; there were three replicates for each treatment. All diets contained 40% crude protein and 12% crude lipid. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily. No mortalities were recorded during Phase 1; however, 14% mortality was documented in the control and prebiotic-amended fish during Phase 2. At the end of Phase 1, growth performance and feed utilisation were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the LBA-treated fish, followed by live yeast treatment, compared with all other diets tested. The performance of fish on the three prebiotic diets were not significantly different from one another but was significantly higher than the control diet. During Phase 2 (the post-feeding phase), fish growth continued until the 6th week for the probiotic-based diets but levelled off after four weeks for the fish fed the prebiotic diets. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was higher in all treatments during the post-feeding period. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly among the tested diets. The visceral somatic index (VSI) and intraperitoneal fat (IPF) were highest in the LBA-based diet and the control diet, respectively. The body indices were significantly different (p<0.05) between Phases 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that probiotic-based diets have a more positive influence on the growth, feed utilisation, and

  20. Next Generation Solar Cells Based on Graded Bandgap Device Structures Utilising Rod-Type Nano-Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imyhamy M. Dharmadasa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current solar cells under research and development utilise mainly one absorber layer limiting the photon harvesting capabilities. In order to develop next generation solar cells, research should move towards effective photon harvesting methods utilising low-cost solar energy materials. This will lead to reduce the $W−1 figure for direct solar energy conversion to electrical energy. In this work, a graded bandgap solar cell has been designed to absorb all photons from the UV, visible and IR regions. In addition, impurity PV effect and impact ionisation have been incorporated to enhance charge carrier creation within the same device. This new design has been experimentally tested using the most researched MOCVD grown GaAs/AlGaAs system, in order to confirm its validity. Devices with high Voc ~ 1175 mV and the highest possible FF ~ (0.85–0.87 have been produced, increasing the conversion efficiency to ~20% within only two growth runs. These devices were also experimentally tested for the existence of impurity PV effect and impact ionisation. The devices are PV active in complete darkness producing over 800 mV, Voc indicating the harvesting of IR radiation from the surroundings through impurity PV effect. The quantum efficiency measurements show over 140% signal confirming the contribution to PV action from impact ionisation. Since the concept is successfully proven, the low-cost and scalable electrodeposited semiconducting layers are used to produce graded bandgap solar cell structures. The utilisation of nano- and micro-rod type materials in graded bandgap devices are also presented and discussed in this paper. Preliminary work on glass/FTO/n-ZnS/n-CdS/n-CdTe/Au graded bandgap devices show 10%–12% efficient devices indicating extremely high Jsc values ~48 mA·cm−2, showing the high potential of these devices in achieving higher efficiencies. The detailed results on these low-cost and novel graded bandgap devices are presented in a separate

  1. Support groups for dementia caregivers - Predictors for utilisation and expected quality from a family caregiver's point of view: A questionnaire survey PART I*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luttenberger Katharina

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Support groups have proved to be effective in reducing the burden on family caregivers of dementia patients. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors that influence utilisation or quality expectations of family caregivers. These questions are addressed in the following paper. Methods The cross-sectional study was carried out as an anonymous written survey of family caregivers of dementia patients in Germany. Qualitative and quantitative data from 404 caregivers were analysed using content analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results The only significant predictor for utilisation is assessing how helpful support groups are for the individual care situation. Family caregivers all agree that psycho-educative orientation is a priority requirement. Conclusions In order to increase the rate of utilisation, family caregivers must be convinced of the relevant advantages of using support groups. Support groups which offer an exchange of experiences, open discussion, information and advice meet the requirements of family caregivers.

  2. A 15-year overview of increasing tramadol utilisation and associated mortality and the impact of tramadol classification in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Chou; Chen, Li-Chia; Knaggs, Roger David

    2017-09-24

    This study aimed to develop hypotheses to explain the increasing tramadol utilisation, evaluate the impact of tramadol classification, and explore the trend between tramadol utilisation and related deaths in the United Kingdom. This cross-sectional study used individual patient data, the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 1993 to 2015, to calculate monthly defined daily dose (DDD)/1000 registrants, monthly prevalence and incidence of tramadol users, annual supply days, and mean daily dose of tramadol. Aggregated-level national statistics and reimbursement data from 2004 to 2015 were also used to quantify annual and monthly tramadol DDD/1000 inhabitants and rate of tramadol-related deaths in England and Wales. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate the impact of tramadol classification in June 2014. Prevalence of tramadol users increased from 23 to 97.6/10 000 registrants from 2000 to 2015. Both annual dose and annual supply days of existing tramadol users were higher than new users. Level and trend of monthly utilisation (β2 : -12.9, β3 : -1.6) and prevalence of tramadol users (β2 : -6.4, β3 : -0.37) significantly reduced after classification. Both annual tramadol utilisation and rate of tramadol-related deaths increased before tramadol classification and decreased thereafter. Increasing tramadol utilisation was influenced by the increase in prevalence and incidence of tramadol users, mean daily dose, and day of supply. Prevalence of tramadol users, tramadol utilisation, and reported deaths declined after tramadol classification. Future studies need to evaluate the influencing factors to ensure the safety of long-term tramadol use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  4. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  5. Effect of two microbial phytase preparations on phosphorus utilisation in broilers fed maize-soybean meal based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. VALAJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effect of two microbial phytases, Aspergillus niger (FINASEâ FP-500, 291 PU (phytase units/g and Trichoderma reesei phytase (FINASEâ P, 5880 PU/g on phosphorus (P and calcium (Ca utilisation and ileal P and Ca digestibility in broiler chickens fed diets based on maize and soybean meal. A total of 96 Ross broiler chickens housed four birds to a cage were used. Four dietary treatments consisted of a positive control supplemented with dicalcium phosphate (17 g/kg, a negative control without inorganic P, basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Aspergillus niger phytase (2.6 g/kg and basal diet without inorganic P supplemented with Trichoderma reesei phytase (0.13 g/kg. Both phytases provided 750 PU/kg feed. P retention per unit intake was lowest and P excretion highest in birds fed the positive control diet with inorganic P (P

  6. Utilisation of preharvest dropped apple peels as a flour substitute for a lower glycaemic index and higher fibre cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Yujin; Bae, In Young; Lee, Suyong; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3 g and 6 g of dietary fibre per serving (100 g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3 g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index.

  7. Effect of audit and feedback on the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care in three districts in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, E J; Leigh, B; van den Broek, N

    2008-12-01

    Facility-based maternal death reviews and criterion-based clinical audit, were introduced in three districts in Malawi in 2006. Can audit and feedback improve the availability, utilisation and quality of emergency obstetric care (EmOC)? Observational study in which emergency obstetric care offered to women who gave birth in 73 health facilities (13 hospitals and 60 health centres) in three districts in Malawi in 2005 (baseline, 41,637 women) was compared to 2006 (43,729 women) and 2007 (51,085 women). The number of comprehensive and basic EmOC facilities did not change over the 3-year period (p for trend=1.000). Although institutional delivery rate decreased in 2006, overall it increased over 3 years (p for trendEmOC (p for trendEmOC level through training of staff and provision of equipment and supplies.

  8. Treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy like approach: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Josef; Prat, Daphna; Kornhaber, Rachel; Tessone, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Contractures to the cervical region as a result of burns has the capacity to cause restrictions in range of movement, function of the lower face, cervical spine distortion and poor aesthetic outcomes that remain a surgical challenge. Consequently, physical and aesthetic deformities as a result of cervical contractures are reported to cause depression having implications for patients' quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. At the time this research was conducted, there were no case reports describing a closed platysmotomy approach in burn patients. In this article, we review the literature surrounding closed platysmotomies and present what we believe to be the first reported case in the treatment of cervical contractures utilising a closed platysmotomy approach in a burns patient. A closed platysmotomy approach for the treatment of cervical contractures is a less invasive technique. Further investigation is warranted to determine the feasibility of this reconstructive approach in the area of burn scar management.

  9. A flexible wide-field FLIM endoscope utilising blue excitation light for label-free contrast of tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Hugh; Warren, Sean; Guedes, Joana; Yoshida, Nagisa; Charn, Tze Choong; Guerra, Nadia; Tatla, Taranjit; Dunsby, Christopher; French, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) has previously been shown to provide contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Here we present progress towards clinical and preclinical FLIM endoscopy of tissue autofluorescence, demonstrating a flexible wide-field endoscope that utilised a low average power blue picosecond laser diode excitation source and was able to acquire ∼mm-scale spatial maps of autofluorescence lifetimes from fresh ex vivo diseased human larynx biopsies in ∼8 seconds using an average excitation power of ∼0.5 mW at the specimen. To illustrate its potential for FLIM at higher acquisition rates, a higher power mode-locked frequency doubled Ti:Sapphire laser was used to demonstrate FLIM of ex vivo mouse bowel at up to 2.5 Hz using 10 mW of average excitation power at the specimen.

  10. Assessing the link between health care utilisation in general practice and morbidity patterns in the elderly in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Anders; Kristensen, Troels; Ranstad, Karin

    important areas of healthcare utilisation in general practice in the Nordic countries. In the future, this demand for healthcare services among the elderly is expected to increase. For instance, it is likely that people live longer and advanced technologies continue to be developed, affecting demand...... and individual level patient morbidity and socioeconomic characteristics among older people with extensive and complex care needs. Background: In the Nordic countries municipalities and regions are using a significant amount of resources on care for the elderly. Elderly care is one of the largest and most...... and healthcare costs. Developments in the functional level of the elderly mean that we have a growing group of well-functioning elderly. This group can do without or with little care, but at the same time there is a growing group of older people with extensive and complex care needs (e.g., dementia, COPD...

  11. Phosphorus Uptake and Utilisation Efficiencies of Different Wheat Cultivars Based on a Sand-Culture Screening System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A sand-based culture system using rock phosphate (P) was developed to simulate the situation in alkalinesoils, with respect to the dominant P form, and five wheat cultivars (Excalibur, Brookton, Krichauff, Westoniaand Sunco) were tested in this screening system to compare their P uptake and utilisation efficiencies. Resultsshowed that these cultivars differed significantly in their ability to acquire P from the sparingly available form(rock phosphate in this case). The accumulation of P by Brookton was three times that by Krichauff. Pconcentrations in plant tissues did not differ significantly, indicating that all cultivars were similar in Putilisation efficiency. A further experiment showed that the greater ability of a cultivar to take up P fromsparingly available form was related to the ability of a cultivar to acidify the rhizosphere. Seed P content wasa confounding factor in this system, and the use of relatively uniform seed with similar P content, preferablylow, was conducive to a successful outcome of the screening process.

  12. RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF JOINT POSITION SENSE MEASUREMENT IN THE LABORATORY AND CLINIC; UTILISING A NEW SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nasseri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the joint angles is used to assess the joint position sense (JPS. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, fast, less expensive and objective method of measurement for JPS. In the current research, the accuracy and reliability of a system, consist of digital photography, nonreflective markers and manual analysis were evaluated. For this purpose, digital photos were taken from 72 angles of the knee positions of twenty four healthy subjects. The angles were measured by using transparent sheets and goniometers as manual method. AutoCAD software was used to evaluate the accuracy of the manual results. The values of Pearson correlation coefficient (r, and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to establish reliability. It was noted that the AutoCAD measurements, as a new system, was reliable and precise enough so it could be utilised for evaluating the JPS.

  13. Utilisation des Techniques Ultrasonores pour le Contrôle de la Qualité des Huiles Alimentaires

    OpenAIRE

    Aouzale, Noureddine; Chitnalah, Ahmed; Jakjoud, Hicham

    2010-01-01

    National audience; L'huile d'Argan et l'huile d'olive sont parmi les huiles naturelles les plus connues pour leurs avantages nutritionnels et leur impact positif sur la santé humaine. De ce fait, elles sont très demandées dans le marché et leurs prix ne cessent d'augmenter. Cependant ce domaine n'est pas à l'abri des duperies puisqu'il y a des commerçants qui mélangent ces huiles avec de l'huile de table pour réaliser des profits élevés. Notre objectif dans ce travail est d'utiliser un systèm...

  14. Accurate dose assessment system for an exposed person utilising radiation transport calculation codes in emergency response to a radiological accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, F; Shigemori, Y; Seki, A

    2009-01-01

    A system has been developed to assess radiation dose distribution inside the body of exposed persons in a radiological accident by utilising radiation transport calculation codes-MCNP and MCNPX. The system consists mainly of two parts, pre-processor and post-processor of the radiation transport calculation. Programs for the pre-processor are used to set up a 'problem-dependent' input file, which defines the accident condition and dosimetric quantities to be estimated. The program developed for the post-processor part can effectively indicate dose information based upon the output file of the code. All of the programs in the dosimetry system can be executed with a generally used personal computer and accurately give the dose profile to an exposed person in a radiological accident without complicated procedures. An experiment using a physical phantom was carried out to verify the availability of the dosimetry system with the developed programs in a gamma ray irradiation field.

  15. Construction of a guide-RNA for site-directed RNA mutagenesis utilising intracellular A-to-I RNA editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Masatora; Umeno, Hiromitsu; Nose, Kanako; Nishitarumizu, Azusa; Noguchi, Ryoma; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    As an alternative to DNA mutagenesis, RNA mutagenesis can potentially become a powerful gene-regulation method for fundamental research and applied life sciences. Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing alters genetic information at the transcript level and is an important biological process that is commonly conserved in metazoans. Therefore, a versatile RNA-mutagenesis method can be achieved by utilising the intracellular RNA-editing mechanism. Here, we report novel guide RNAs capable of inducing A-to-I mutations by guiding the editing enzyme, human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR). These guide RNAs successfully introduced A-to-I mutations into the target-site, which was determined by the reprogrammable antisense region. In ADAR2-over expressing cells, site-directed RNA editing could also be performed by simply introducing the guide RNA. Our guide RNA framework provides basic insights into establishing a generally applicable RNA-mutagenesis method. PMID:28148949

  16. Hybrid multilevel plane wave based near-field far-field transformation utilising combined near- and far-field translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Schmidt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The radiation of large antennas and those operating at low frequencies can be determined efficiently by near-field measurement techniques and a subsequent near-field far-field transformation. Various approaches and algorithms have been researched but for electrically large antennas and irregular measurement contours advanced algorithms with low computation complexity are required. In this paper an algorithm employing plane waves as equivalent sources and utilising efficient diagonal translation operators is presented. The efficiency is further enhanced using simple far-field translations in combination with the expensive near-field translations. In this way a low complexity near-field transformation is achieved, which works for arbitrary sample point distributions and incorporates a full probe correction without increasing the complexity.

  17. Thermo- and mesophilic aerobic batch biodegradation of high-strength distillery wastewater (potato stillage)--utilisation of main carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywonos, Małgorzata; Cibis, Edmund; Lasik, Małgorzata; Nowak, Jacek; Miśkiewicz, Tadeusz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the extent to which temperature influences the utilisation of main carbon sources (reducing substances determined before and after hydrolysis, glycerol and organic acids) by a mixed culture of thermo- and mesophilic bacteria of the genus Bacillus in the course of aerobic batch biodegradation of potato stillage, a high-strength distillery effluent (COD=51.88 g O(2)/l). The experiments were performed at 20, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60 and 63 degrees C, at pH 7, in a 5l working volume stirred-tank bioreactor (Biostat B, B. Braun Biotech International) with a stirrer speed of 550 rpm and aeration at 1.6 vvm. Particular consideration was given to the following issues: (1) the sequence in which the main carbon sources in the stillage were assimilated and (2) the extent of their assimilation achieved under these conditions.

  18. Fecundity regulation in relation to habitat utilisation of two sympatric flounder (Platichtys flesus) populations in the brackish water Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissling, Anders; Thorsen, Anders; da Silva, Filipa F.G.

    2015-01-01

    and coastal spawning with demersal eggs respectively. Fecundity regulation by atresiawas assessed as prevalence (portion of fish with atresia) and intensity (calculated as the average intensity of atresia in these fish) during the reproductive cycle following start of gonad development in the autumn up......Two populations of flounder (Platichtys flesus) with different life history traits inhabit the brackish water Baltic Sea. Both types share feeding areas in coastal waters during summer-autumn but utilise different habitats for spawning in spring, namely offshore spawning with pelagic eggs...... spawners, the prevalence was 12–29% and an intensity of 2.5–6.1% during spawning. The change in fish condition was strongly related to feeding incidence and differed between populations. As feeding ceased, condition of offshore spawners decreased during winter up to spawning, whereas condition of coastal...

  19. Understanding where policies and decisions can go wrong: utilising a 360 analysis model as a proactive reputation management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwiak, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    An organisation's reputation is its most relevant asset. The perceptions of the various audiences with which an organisation interacts both directly and indirectly can enhance or destroy that reputation. Due to the critical role these audiences play in an organisation's reputation, they should be actively considered as a part of an organisation's reputation management strategy. This paper introduces the 360 analysis model, which considers the benefits, detriments and potential fallout in regard to different audiences when creating policy or making important organisational decisions. The model's goal is to foster well-considered policy and decisions that proactively protect an organisation's reputation. The model is also designed to be used as a research construct that can be utilised in the expansion of the reputation management literature in regard to heterogeneity and dynamics within and across audiences that can have an impact on an organisation's reputation.

  20. The role of transportation and co-fermentation in the CO2 balance for utilisation of biogas for energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1998-01-01

    at 19 decentralised joint biogas plants involving a varying number of farms (5-100). All of these plants use to some extent co-fermentation with industrial organic waste to increase biogas yield.A fuel chain approach for utilisation of biogas for energy purposes is carried out for determining the role...... of increased transportation distances at large biogas plants on the total CO2 balance of the biogas plant. The advantage of constructing large biogas plants is the cost-effective possibility of using industrial organic waste to increase biogas production. In some cases co-fermentation increases biogas...... production up 100%. The present study evaluate optimal transportation strategies for biogas plants taking CO2 balances into account....

  1. Re: Pregabalin prescriptions in the United Kingdom - a drug utilisation study of The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database by Asomaning et al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Tjäderborn, M; Schjerning, O

    2016-01-01

    Aim In Europe, pregabalin is approved for treatment of neuropathic pain, general anxiety disorder (GAD) and as adjunctive therapy for epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess utilisation of pregabalin in the UK, including patients with a recorded history of substance abuse, from a large...... general practice database. Methods This observational drug utilisation study (DUS) analysed pregabalin prescription data from the UK Health Improvement Network primary care database between September 2004 and July 2009. Patient demographics, diagnoses (by READ codes) and pregabalin dosing data were...

  2. Etude pilote pour l’utilisation de la Kinect V2 pour l’évaluation motrice des maladies neuromusculaires. Cas de la MFM.

    OpenAIRE

    Coton, Justine; Veytizou, Julien; Martinat, Jonathan; Barra, Kevin; THOMANN, Guillaume; Villeneuve, François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Cet article propose d'évaluer la possibilité d'utiliser un capteur de mouvement grand public pour aider les kinésithérapeutes dans l'évaluation des capacités motrices. L'outil proposé utilise le capteur Kinect pour enregistrer les mouvements du patient et les analyses à l'aide de logique floue suivant les critères du protocole médical MFM. Dans cette étude pilote, il a été testé sur 3 patients.

  3. Utilisation and Further Development of Space Science Results in the ESA SSA Programme Space Weather Service Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Alexi; Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Keil, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    ESA SSA Programme is approaching the end of its second period. Service development activities within the current period aim at advancing the SSA SWE Service Network from the initial utilisation of existing European assets toward development of these and new assets together with the associated coordination infrastructure necessary to provide consistently reliable services. The SSA SWE Service Network is based on a federated architecture where service provision is carried out by Expert Service Centres in the Programme Member States with overall coordination and helpdesk functions provided by a central node and coordination centre located at the Space Pole in Brussels, Belgium. The SSA SWE Service Network builds on the wealth of space weather expertise available within the Member States, and consequently, as the network continues to develop, emphasis will continue to be placed on building services based on demonstrated space science advances in key areas such as those highlighted by the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap, published in 2015. Activities supported by programmes including the ESA technology programmes, EC FP7 and H2020 have all demonstrated promising results, and the SSA SWE Network is actively investigating their potential application to SSA SWE Customer Requirements, and in many cases already adopting these as part of the suite of products provided via the Network to its registered users. This presentation will provide an overview of recent advances in the SSA SWE Service Network, emphasising the utilisation of scientific results within a pre-operational context. The presentation will show the layout of the federated Expert Service Centres, highlighting ongoing and upcoming service developments and provide a perspective on the service development plans for the next phase of the programme.

  4. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF VILLAGERS REGARDING PRACTICE OF UTILISATION OF SANITARY LATRINES PROVIDED BY TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herschel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is main cause of deaths in under fire age group, this can be prevent by just using sanitary latrines which were provided to villagers under T.S.C. By which provision of Rs. 8500 to every household to build a sanitary latrine in their respective house.(1 AIMS: The aim of this cross sectional study is to find out the knowledge attitude and practice of utility of sanitary latrines and its effect on the life of villager on their health and behaviour. MATERIAL & METHOD: This cross sectional study was carried out on 400 households of Khurdi village of Indore district Data was collected by using a semi structured questionnaire which ask information regarding the knowledge of villagers about diseases transmitted by or faecal route, prevention of Diarrhoea, source of infection of diarrhoea, causative organism of Diarrhoea, water borne diseases, food borne diseases, vector borne diseases and how fly transmit the diseases. RESULT: Out of 400 household interviewed 86% were literate, 100% were from low socioeconomic group 344 household knew the methods of transmission of disease and that can be prevent by using sanitary latrines and by hand washing practice after defecation and before taking any meals. It was also observed that 56 households have no knowledge of disease transmission by food, fingers, fluid, fomites or by fly. The health services providers like Asha, Usha, ANMs, LHVs. are the main source of information to the villagers. A.D.O.'s, Panchayat Sachiv are the main source of information for construction of sanitary latrines. Under Samagra Swachhata Abhiyaan(2. Additional information's they received by Radio and T.V. advertisement campaign of Govt. of India. CONCLUSION: The knowledge about utilisation of sanitary latrines to prevent faecal borne disease was found to be inadequate in this study. More efforts needed to create awareness better utilisation of sanitary latrines and make villagers aware regarding health aspect of

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilisation in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T; Billings, R J

    2011-06-01

    To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilisation in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative effectiveness study. Cross-sectional study. Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomised into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0-34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. The data showed that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilisation by inner-city preschool children.

  6. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  7. Plasma Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Diwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms. Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.

  8. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  9. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  10. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  11. Diffusion of lipids and GPI-anchored proteins in actin-free plasma membrane vesicles measured by STED-FCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Falk; Waithe, Dominic; Clausen, Mathias P

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion and interaction dynamics of molecules at the plasma membrane play an important role in cellular signalling, and they are suggested to be strongly associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we utilise super-resolution STED microscopy combined with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...... (STED-FCS) to access and compare the diffusion characteristics of fluorescent lipid analogues and GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) in the live cell plasma membrane and in actin cytoskeleton-free cell-derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). Hindered diffusion of phospholipids and sphingolipids...... forming immobile clusters, both of which disappear in GPMVs. Our data underline the crucial role of the actin cortex in maintaining hindered diffusion modes of many but not all of the membrane molecules, and highlight a powerful experimental approach to decipher specific influences on molecular plasma...

  12. Characterisation of a micro-plasma device sensor using electrical measurements and emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, D

    2002-04-01

    This thesis reports on research undertaken on the characterisation of a micro-plasma device to be used for gas analysis by mean of plasma emission spectroscopy. The work covers aspects related to the micro-plasma electrical and optical emission parameters, and their importance for the utilisation of the micro-plasma device in gas analysis. Experimental results have been used to analyse the fundamental micro-plasma processes and to develop a model, which could provide additional information. This dissertation contains a general literature review of topics related to plasma physics, plasma emission spectroscopy, gas analysis (chemical analysis and artificial olfaction) and other micro-plasma applications. Experimental work focuses on two main areas: electrical measurements and emission measurements. Firstly, electrical measurements are taken and interpretations are given. Where necessary, new theoretical treatments are suggested in order to describe better the physical phenomena. Plasma emission has been considered under different working conditions. This allowed the characterisation of the micro-plasma emission and also a better understanding of the micro-plasma processes. On the basis of the experimental data obtained and other assumptions a model has been developed. A computer simulation based on this model provided additional useful information on the micro- plasma behaviour. The first fundamental implication of this new research is the peculiar behaviour of the micro-plasma. This micro-plasma exhibited deviations from Paschen law and strong dependency on cathode material, which contributed to the formation of a low current stable regime. These results have been followed by physical interpretations and theoretical descriptions. The second implication is the establishment of the boundaries and of the influencing parameters for plasma emission spectroscopy as an analytical tool in this particular micro-plasma. From the applied perspective this study has shown that

  13. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  14. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  15. Micro-décharge plasma comme élément limiteur de puissance dans des dispositifs micro-ondes en technologie circuit imprimé

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    L’utilisation d’une micro-décharge plasma comme élément limiteur de puissance est proposée pour la protection des récepteurs micro-ondes. Plusieurs circuits planaires intégrant des micro-décharges ont été caractérisés expérimentalement afin d’évaluer leur performance.

  16. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  17. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  18. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  19. Socio-demographic disparities in the utilisation of general practice services for Australian children - Results from a nationally representative longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the pattern of general practice services utilization for Australian children and to examine socio-demographic disparities in general practitioner (GP) visits. Methods We used the linked data from the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) and the Medicare Australia claims data record. We used survey negative binomial and logistic regression to examine the socio-demographic factors associated with the utilisation of general practice services. Results The average number of annual GP visits gradually declined from 7.0 at 0–1 year old to 2.4 at 5–8 years (pSocio-demographic disparities existed in the utilisation of general practice services and varied at different age periods. Family socio-economic position, private health insurance coverage and region of residence strongly associates with the utilisation disparities over all age period. Further policy interventions are called to minimise the disparities in GP utilisation for children in Australian context. PMID:28448555

  20. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  1. Utilisation of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid from Anacardium occidentale as Starting Material for Organic Synthesis: A Novel Route to Lasiodiplodin from Cardols

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Maria Lucilia dos; Magalhães,Gouvan C. de

    1999-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program concerning utilisation of CNSL (Cashew Nut Shell Liquid) from Anacardium occidentale as starting material for the preparation of useful compounds, we describe the conversion of cardols (6-alkenylresorcinols) into lasiodiplodin, a naturally occurring 12-membered orsellinic acid type macrolide, which exhibits plant growth regulating and antileukemic properties.

  2. The Utilisation of the Internet by Palestinian English Language Teachers Focusing on Uses, Practices and Barriers and Overall Contribution to Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Rajab, Belal Mousa

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a study designed to investigate the utilisation of the Internet by English Language teachers in Gaza focusing on uses, practices and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature (Kabilan 2003; Kabilan & Mohamed Amin 2002) and was administered to 274 English language teachers in Gaza schools. Data reveal that…

  3. Utilisation des ecailles de cacao comme support de biofiltration pour le traitement d'effluents de l'industrie agro-alimentaire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turcotte, Veronique; Blais, Jean-Francois; Mercier, Guy; Drogui, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    ... (Kaldnes, K1) a ete utilise comme support controle de biomasse. Les ecailles de cacao ont demontre un bon potentiel pour le traitement d'effluents agro-alimentaires fortement charges (DC[O.sub.tot] 3000-6000 mg x [L.sup.-1...

  4. Impact of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of neck and upper extremities on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. IJzelenberg (Wilhelmina); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To describe the presence of musculoskeletal co-morbidity of the neck and upper extremities among industrial workers with low back pain, and to examine whether it has an impact on healthcare utilisation and sickness absence for low back pain. METHODS: A self admini

  5. Articulating Injustice: An Exploration of Young People's Experiences of Participation in a Conflict Transformation Programme That Utilises the Arts as a Form of Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reflects on a study that explores young people's engagement with the Art: a Resource for Reconciliation Over the World (ARROW) programme. The programme utilises the arts to promote critical dialogue amongst young people growing up in divided communities around the world. Dialogue has been criticised for its inability to tackle…

  6. 100 mW of blue light at 405 nm from intracavity doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO-crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    100 mW of coherent blue light with a wavelength of 405 nm was generated utilising a BiB3O6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to frequency double a Ti:Sapphire laser. Phase match curves as well as sensitivity to angular misalignment was calculated. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent for this applic...

  7. Utilisation of the energy-independent underground gasification-uvea process for carbamide production; Einsatz des energieautarken Untertagevergasungs-Urea-Prozesses zur Carbamid-Herstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas [Helmholtz Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoForschungszentrum (GFZ) Potsdam (Germany); Schlueter, Ralph [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Essen (Germany). Abt. Geologie und Bohrlochvermessungen; Hamann, Joerg [EPC Industrial Engineering Deutschland GmbH, Alzenau (Germany); Islam, Rafiqul [Dhaka Univ. (Bangladesh). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Azzam, Rafig [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieur- und Hydrogeologie

    2011-08-15

    The worldwide coal resources have an energy supply potential of several hundred years. However, great depths, thin seams and tectonic faults may greatly restrict the utilisation of the coal seams by means of conventional conveyor technologies. With the aim of production of a conveyable synthesis gas underground coal gasification (UCG) offers an environmentally friendly and economically viable possibility of utilisation of previously inaccessible coal deposits. The high-calorific UCG synthesis gas can be used, for example, for the generation of electricity in an integrated gas and steam turbine process (GaS) as well as the production of chemical starting materials. One possibility of product recovery from the UCG synthesis gas is the production of the fertiliser carbamide (CH{sub 6}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The aim of this study is the development of a utilisation concept for coal deposits on the basis of a combined and energy-independent UCG-GaS-urea process. To check the utilisation concept based on an independent electricity supply an economic feasibility study for a selected investigation area in the north of Bangladesh was carried out with consideration of the economic viability and potential of the UCG-GaS-urea process. (orig.)

  8. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  9. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  10. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  11. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T C; Gupta, P; Laha, S; Martinez, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Nagel, S B; Saenz, A D; Simien, C E; Killian, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas are formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. Through the application of atomic physics techniques and diagnostics, these experiments stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas ranges from 1-1000 K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can approach $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recombination, collective modes, and thermalization in these systems have also been studied. Optical absorption images of a strontium plasma, using the Sr$^+$ ${^2S_{1/2}} -> {^2P_{1/2}}$ transition at 422 nm, depict the density profile of the plasma, and probe kinetics on a 50 ns time-scale. The Doppler-broadened ion absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity distribution, which gives an accurate measure of the ion dynamics in the first microsecond after photoionization.

  12. What is a plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  13. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  14. The effects on tuberculosis treatment adherence from utilising community health workers: a comparison of selected rural and urban settings in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Rahedi Ong'ang'o

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Community Health Workers (CHWs have been utilised for various primary health care activities in different settings especially in developing countries. Usually when utilised in well defined terms, they have a positive impact. To support Kenya's policy on engagement of CHWs for tuberculosis (TB control, there is need to demonstrate effects of utilising them. OBJECTIVES: This study assessed TB treatment adherence among patients who utilised CHWs in management of their illness in comparison to those who did not in urban and rural settings. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in selected health facilities using standard clinical records for each TB patient registered for treatment between 2005 to 2011. Qualitative data was collected from CHWs and health care providers. RESULTS: The study assessed 2778 tuberculosis patients and among them 1499 (54% utilized CHWs for their TB treatment. The urban setting in comparison with the rural setting contributed 70% of patients utilising the CHWs (p<0.001. Overall treatment adherence of the cohort was 79%. Categorizing by use of CHWs, adherence among patients who had utilized CHWs was 83% versus 68% among those that had not (p<0.001. In comparison between the rural and urban settings adherence was 76% and 81.5% (p<0.001 respectively and when categorized by use of CHWs it was 73% and 90% (p<0.001 for the rural and urban set ups respectively. Utilisation of CHWs remained significant in enhancing treatment adherence in the cohort with unadjusted and adjusted ORs; OR 2.25, (95% 1.86-2.73 p<0.001 and OR 1.98 (95% 1.51-2.5 p<0.001 respectively. It was most effective in the urban set-up, OR 2.65 (95% 2.02-3.48, p<0.001 in comparison to the rural set up, OR 0.74 (95% 0.56-0.97 p = 0.032. CONCLUSION: Utilisation of CHWs enhanced TB treatment adherence and the best effects were in the urban set-up.

  15. Association between secure patient-clinician email and clinical services utilisation in a US integrated health system: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather

    2015-11-09

    To assess associations between secure patient-clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient-clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1-12 months before and 7-18 months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). US integrated healthcare delivery system. 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ≥30 months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88-237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI -0.3 to -0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1-12 months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7-18 months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI -0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1-12 months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7-18 months after the index date. Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7-18 months after first use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  16. Association between secure patient–clinician email and clinical services utilisation in a US integrated health system: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Di; Palen, Ted E; Tsai, Joanne; McLeod, Melanie; Garrido, Terhilda; Qian, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between secure patient–clinician email use and clinical services utilisation over time. Design Retrospective cohort study between July 2010 and December 2013. Controlling for a utilisation surge around first secure email use, we analysed difference of differences between propensity score-matched groups of secure patient–clinician email users and non-users for utilisation 1–12 months before and 7–18 months after first email (users) or a randomly assigned index date (non-users). Setting US integrated healthcare delivery system. Participants 9345 adults with first secure email use between July 2011 and July 2012 and continuous enrolment for ≥30 months and 9345 adults without secure email use between July 2010 and July 2012 matched to users on demographics, health status, and baseline utilisation. Primary Outcome Measures Rates of office visits, patient-initiated phone calls, scheduled telephone visits, after-hours clinic visits, emergency department visits, and hospitalisations. Results After controlling for multiple factors, no statistically significant differences in utilisation between secure email users and non-users occurred. Utilisation transiently increased by 88–237% around first email use. Annual rates of patient-initiated phone calls decreased among secure email users, 0.2 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.3 to −0.1), from a mean of 4.1 calls per person 1–12 months before first use to a mean of 3.8 calls per person 7–18 months after first use. Rates of patient-initiated phone calls also decreased among non-users, 0.1 fewer calls per person (95% CI −0.2 to 0.0), from a mean of 4.2 calls per person 1–12 months before the index date to mean of 4.1 calls per person 7–18 months after the index date. Conclusions Compared with non-users, patient use of secure email with clinicians was not associated with statistically significant differences in clinical services utilisation 7–18

  17. Space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  18. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Plasma Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 11 Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 Features and Benefits of APCR Technology Feature...Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 14 APC on Aluminum Removal to Primer RAM on Carbon Fiber Partial Topcoat Removal APC Topcoat RAM...60Hz Plasma Flux™ Power Supply VENT To Facility HEPA <= Filtration COTS Six-Axis Robot Aircraft part Particulate Collection System

  19. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  20. Electronic temperature measurement on the deca II plasma using the Bremsstrahlung; Mesure de la temperature electronique du plasma de deca II par etude du rayonnement de freinage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumas, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-01

    The electronic temperature of the DECA II machine's plasma is determined by studying the Bremsstrahlung. Two types of detectors are used for this measurement, a set scintillator-photo-multiplicator and a photoelectric effect detector with a massive silver target. The method used is the classical 'absorbent method', The absorbents used are thin formvar foils whose thickness is between 600 and 12 500 angstrom. The measurements done in two different working conditions of the DECA II machine have given: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV in the first case and Te {approx_equal} 70 eV in the second case. (author) [French] Nous avons determine la temperature electronique du plasma de la machine DECA II par l'etude du rayonnement de freinage. Pour cette mesure nous avons utilise deux types de detecteurs: des ensembles scintillateur-photomultiplicateur et un detecteur a effet photoelectrique a cible massive en argent. La methode utilisee pour cette mesure est la classique methode des absorbants. Nous avons utilise des feuilles de format tres mince (de 600 a 12 500 angstrom) comme absorbant. Les mesures faites dans deux regimes de travail differents de la machine DECA II nous ont conduit a: Te {approx_equal} 200 eV dans un cas et Te {approx_equal} eV dans l'autre cas. (auteur)

  1. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  2. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  3. Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Leslie Colin

    2003-01-01

    A short, self-sufficient introduction to the physics of plasma for beginners as well as researchers in a number of fields. The author looks at the dynamics and stability of magnetoplasma and discusses wave and transport in this medium. He also looks at such applications as fusion research using magnetic confinement of Deuterium plasma, solar physics with its plasma loops reaching high into the corona, sunspots and solar wind, engineering applications to metallurgy, MHD direct generation of electricity, and railguns, finally touching on the relatively new and difficult subject of dusty plasmas.

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  5. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  6. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  7. Plasma and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka

    2016-12-01

    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  8. Estimation of drought and flood recurrence interval from historical discharge data: a case study utilising the power law distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, Chris; Favis-Mortlock, David

    2010-05-01

    The choice of which statistical distribution to fit to historical discharge data is critical when attempting to predict the most extreme flows. It has been shown that depending upon the distribution selected, the calculated return periods can vary dramatically. Cunnane (1985) discussed the factors affecting the choice of distribution for river flow series data, and was able to show that small differences in the Extreme Value Type 1 (Gumbel), Type 2, and Type 3 can lead to large differences in the predicted return period. Indeed this divergence increases as the return period becomes larger: a finding which has obvious implications for fluvial management. Despite this, in many studies which fit a frequency-magnitude distribution to fluvial discharge data, the choice of distribution appears driven by regional convention, or even by some other apparently arbitrary factor. Benson (1968) analysed data for ten US stations, and compared the fit using the log-normal, gamma, Gumbel, log-Gumbel, Hazen and log-Pearson type 3 distributions. On the basis of this study alone, the standard approach to flow frequency estimation in the USA became the fitting of a log-Pearson type 3 (LP3) distribution (US Water Resources Council, 1982). While several other countries have adopted a similar approach, usage of the LP3 distribution is not geographically universal. Hydrologists in the United Kingdom conventionally utilise a fitted generalised logistic distribution for flow frequency estimation (Robson and Reed, 1999) while Chinese hydrologists utilise the log-normal distribution (Singh, 2002). Choice of fitted distribution is obviously crucial, since selecting one distribution rather than another will change the estimated probabilities of future droughts and floods, particularly the largest and rarest events. Malamud et al. (1996) showed that a flood of equivalent size to that experienced on the Mississippi in 1993 has a recurrence interval on the order of 100 years when a power

  9. Dietary utilisation of protein and energy from fresh and ensiled coffee pulp by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Moreau

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and energy utilisation of diets containing fresh and ensiled coffee pulp were studied on 3.2 ± 0.2 g Nile tilapia for 28 days. Diets formulation and feeding were designed on the basis of daily dietary protein and energy allowance. A control diet A (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance corresponding to 15 g CP kg-1 day-1 and 750 kJ kg-1 day-1, a low protein control diet B (80 % protein and 100 % energy allowance, two diets C and E (100 % protein and 100 % energy allowance where 20 % of protein were supplied by coffee pulp, and two diets D and F with the same amount of coffee pulp than in C and E and supplementation in non-protein energy. Inclusion of coffee pulp in the diet strongly impaired growth and feed utilisation. Silage process improved overall feed utilisation comparing to fresh coffee pulp. Results showed that fresh or ensiled coffee pulp was not a suitable feedstuff for Nile tilapia. However, better knowledge on modification occurring during silage process could allow finding the way to significantly improve nutritive value of coffee pulp by-products.Polpa de café ensilada foi utilizada na dieta calórica-protéica de Tilápia do Nilo na razão de 3.2 g ± 0,2 durante um período de 28 dias. As dietas calórico-protéica foram formuladas com base na ingestão diária permitida. Uma dieta A controle (100% de proteína e 100% da energia que corresponde a g PC/kg/dia e 750 Kj/Kg/dia, uma dieta B baixa em proteína (80% de proteína e 100% da energia, duas dietas C e E (100% de proteína e 100% da energia onde 20% da proteína foi suplementada com polpa de café e duas dietas D e F com a mesma concentração de polpa de café é prejudicial a dieta de crescimento. O processo de ensilagem melhorou sua utilização como alimento em comparação com a polpa de café fresca. Os resultados demonstraram que a polpa fresca ou ensilada não é para ser usada como alimentação de Tilápia do Nilo. Entretanto, uma melhor

  10. Economic impact of healthcare resource utilisation patterns among patients diagnosed with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom, Italy, and France: results from a retrospective, longitudinal survey (MELODY study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, K; Levy, A R; Lorigan, P; Maio, M; Lebbe, C; Middleton, M; Testori, A; Bédane, C; Konto, C; Dueymes, A; Sbarigia, U; van Baardewijk, M

    2012-09-01

    To describe patterns of healthcare resource utilisation and associated costs for patients with advanced melanoma in the United Kingdom (UK), Italy, and France. For patients receiving systemic treatment, or supportive care, data describing hospitalisations, hospice care, and outpatient visits were retrieved retrospectively from advanced disease diagnosis as part of a multicountry observational study. Costs were estimated by multiplying utilisation level by unit cost. In an exploratory analysis, costs were compared between individuals who died within one year of initiating first-line treatment (short-term survivors) and those with ≥ 1 year follow-up (long-term survivors). Hospitalisation costs were highest in France (€6262 per-person compared with €3225 in the UK and €2486 in Italy), reflecting higher rates of hospitalisation. In contrast, outpatient costs were highest in the UK (€782 per-person, compared with €115 in France and €72 in Italy), reflecting the highest rate and frequency of outpatient visits and the highest cost per visit. Hospitalisation rates were consistently higher during supportive care compared with systemic therapy. Roughly one-third of patients entered clinical trials and were not included in the analysis. In exploratory analysis, total costs were generally higher for long-term survivors, but monthly per-patient costs were generally lower for long-term survivors, consistent with a hypothesis that resource utilisation and costs do not necessarily increase proportionally with extended survival. Total costs associated with resource utilisation for advanced melanoma patients varied across countries. Overall cost differences were due to differences in frequency and intensity of utilisation patterns and variation in unit costs of health resources. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Effects of the distribution density of a biomass combined heat and power plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in village-town systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifei; Kang, Jian

    2017-11-01

    The building of biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants is an effective means of developing biomass energy because they can satisfy demands for winter heating and electricity consumption. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of the distribution density of a biomass CHP plant network on heat utilisation efficiency in a village-town system. The distribution density is determined based on the heat transmission threshold, and the heat utilisation efficiency is determined based on the heat demand distribution, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss. The objective of this study was to ascertain the optimal value for the heat transmission threshold using a multi-scheme comparison based on an analysis of these factors. To this end, a model of a biomass CHP plant network was built using geographic information system tools to simulate and generate three planning schemes with different heat transmission thresholds (6, 8, and 10 km) according to the heat demand distribution. The heat utilisation efficiencies of these planning schemes were then compared by calculating the gross power, heat output efficiency, and heat transmission loss of the biomass CHP plant for each scenario. This multi-scheme comparison yielded the following results: when the heat transmission threshold was low, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was high and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively small. In contrast, when the heat transmission threshold was high, the distribution density of the network was low and the biomass CHP plants tended to be relatively large. When the heat transmission threshold was 8 km, the distribution density of the biomass CHP plant network was optimised for efficient heat utilisation. To promote the development of renewable energy sources, a planning scheme for a biomass CHP plant network that maximises heat utilisation efficiency can be obtained using the optimal heat transmission threshold and the nonlinearity

  12. Biomass utilisation for combined heat and power generation: Status and perspectives for rural regions. Guelzow expert discussions; Energetische Nutzung von Biomasse mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung: Stand der Technik und Perspektiven fuer den laendlichen Raum. Guelzower Fachgespraeche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Biomass has a high potential but biomass utilisation technologies have not yet reached sufficient maturity for a general breakthrough on the market. Political boundary conditions alone are not sufficient if technical conversion processes are neglected. For the time being, the potential of biomass can not be utilised.

  13. L’utilisation du prémélange de monensin chez les vaches laitières : un suivi simple et essentiel pour s’assurer d’une utilisation adéquate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Jocelyn; Baril, Jean; DesCôteaux, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Le prémélange de monensin est utilisé fréquemment sur les fermes laitières canadiennes. L’ingrédient actif de ce produit est le monensin sodique. Bien que son utilisation chez les vaches laitières soit sécuritaire, des cas de surdose ont été rapportés à la suite de consommation de niveaux de monensin plus élevés que ceux recommandés. Un suivi hebdomadaire du pourcentage de matières grasses du réservoir de lait de la ferme devrait être fait de routine suite à la livraison d’aliment médicamenteux contenant du monensin pour détecter rapidement les situations de surdose. L’observation d’une baisse soudaine de la consommation volontaire de matière sèche et l’apparition de diarrhée dans un troupeau sont d’autres signes cliniques de surdose de monensin. Une détection rapide de ces cas permettra de corriger la situation. PMID:19721781

  14. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  15. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  16. Regional analysis of health service utilisation by persons with borderline personality disorders: implications for evidence-informed policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Marc; Andion, Oscar; Bendeck, Murielle; Calvo, Natalia; Prat, Monica; Aragones, Enric; Barral, Carmen; Casas, Miguel; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) has been associated with an intensive use of health resources and a high economic burden. The aim of this study is to analyze the use of mental healthcare resources by BPD patients, to identify the information gaps on BPD at the regional health databases and to describe specific indicators and patterns of care utilization by persons with BPD in order to guide evidence-informed policy planning in Catalonia (Spain). A multi-level cross-design synthesis approach was applied following a mixed quantitative-qualitative analysis to estimate the regional service utilisation of patients with BPD. This framing analysis included estimates based on all available data on the use of services combined with prior expert knowledge gathered through a nominal group of key stakeholders in this field. The estimated year prevalence of BPD was 0.7% but only 9.6% of all BPD patients in Catalonia had any contact with the health care system. Of those, less than half contacted mental health care. BPD represented 1.7% of the total care load in the community mental health centres. A significant information gap was identified in all the official databases and impeded their direct use for planning and resource allocation in BPD. Expert knowledge was required to estimate rates of care utilization at every level of care system (primary care, specialized outpatient care and hospital care). Nevertheless the high pattern of care utilization identified at the databases was accurate according to the experts. Detection of BPD was lower than expected in the local, regional and national databases and registries of Catalonia. Local data was judged highly inaccurate by experts in comparison to data available on other mental disorders in the same databases. Specific incentives should be implemented to improve the availability and accuracy of information on BPD at the regional databases. When present, BPD should be coded before other psychiatric disorders in clinical

  17. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  18. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  19. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  20. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.