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Sample records for plasma mass spectrometer

  1. Indigenous instrumentation for mass spectrometry: Part II - development of plasma source mass spectrometers. PD-5-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraju, V.

    2007-01-01

    The growing demands from analytical community, for a precise isotope ratio and ultra trace concentration measurements, has lead to significant improvement in mass spectrometer instrumentation development with respect to sensitivity, detection limits, precision and accuracy. Among the many analytical techniques available, plasma source mass spectrometers like Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), multi collector (MC) ICPMS and Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS), have matured into reliable tools for the above applications. Where as ICPMS is by far the most successful method for aqueous solutions, GDMS is being applied for bulk and impurity analysis of conducting as well non-conducting solids. VPID, BARC has been developing mass spectrometers for different inorganic applications of DAE users. Over the years expertise has been developed in all the aspects of mass spectrometry instrumentation. Part 1 of this indigenous instrumentation on mass spectrometry gives details of magnetic sector instruments with either EI or TI source for isotopic ratio analysis. The present paper is a continuation of that on plasma source and quadrupole mass spectrometers. This paper covers i) ICP-QMS, ii) MC-ICPMS, iii) GDMS and iv) QMS

  2. Reduction of determinate errors in mass bias-corrected isotope ratios measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, W.

    2015-01-01

    A nebulizer-centric instrument response function model of the plasma mass spectrometer was combined with a signal drift model, and the result was used to identify the causes of the non-spectroscopic determinate errors remaining in mass bias-corrected Pb isotope ratios (Tl as internal standard) measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer. Model calculations, confirmed by measurement, show that the detectable time-dependent errors are a result of the combined effect of signal drift and differences in the coordinates of the Pb and Tl response function maxima (horizontal offset effect). If there are no horizontal offsets, then the mass bias-corrected isotope ratios are approximately constant in time. In the absence of signal drift, the response surface curvature and horizontal offset effects are responsible for proportional errors in the mass bias-corrected isotope ratios. The proportional errors will be different for different analyte isotope ratios and different at every instrument operating point. Consequently, mass bias coefficients calculated using different isotope ratios are not necessarily equal. The error analysis based on the combined model provides strong justification for recommending a three step correction procedure (mass bias correction, drift correction and a proportional error correction, in that order) for isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer

  3. Special features of the isotope ratio determination using mass-spectrometer with induction-bound plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.I.; Ramendik, G.I.; Fatyushina, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    The origin of the errors arising upon measuring relative abundance of Nd, Yb, and Gd isotopes on a HP-4500 mass-spectrometer (USA) is studied. It is shown that the main origin of the error is the different sensitivity of the mass-spectrometer to ions of different masses. Optimal content of the elements in the solutions is established upon determination of their isotopic abundance [ru

  4. Evaluation of lead isotope compositions of NIST NBS 981 measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometer and multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglin Yuan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because Pb isotopes can be used for tracing, they are widely used in many disciplines. The detection and analysis of Pb isotopes of bulk samples are usually conducted using thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS and multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS, both of which need external reference materials with known isotopic compositions to correct for the mass discrimination effect produced during analysis. NIST NBS 981 is the most widely used reference material for Pb isotope analysis; however, the isotopic compositions reported by various analytical laboratories, especially those using TIMS, vary from each other. In this study, we statistically evaluated 229 reported TIMS analysis values collected by GeoReM in the last 30 years, 176 reported MC-ICP-MS analysis values, and 938 MC-ICP-MS analysis results from our laboratory in the last five years. After careful investigation, only 40 TIMS results were found to have double or triple spikes. The ratios of the overall weighted averages, 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb, obtained from 40 spiked TIMS reports and 1114 MC-ICP-MS results of NIST NBS 981 isotopes were 16.9406 ± 0.0003 (2s, 15.4957 ± 0.0002 (2s, and 36.7184 ± 0.0007 (2s, respectively.

  5. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  6. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  7. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  8. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector

  9. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector. (author)

  10. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  11. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  12. Molecular weight determination of bisbenzyl-isoquinoline alkaloids by 252Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Hiroi, Tomoko; Kouyama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masashi; Yago, Nagasumi; Nakamura, Iwao

    1995-01-01

    Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids of Stephania cepharantha have been used for various clinical purposes and recently reevaluated as stimulators of interleukin secretion in tissues. We analyzed molecular stuctures of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids by determining their molecular weights using the 252 Cf-plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS). The spectra were accumulated for 500 000 fission events. The acceleration voltage used here was 15 kV. Samples were analyzed using nitrocellulose-coated sample targets. Of the 5 alkaloids studied here, cepharanthine gave a main peak of molecular weight of 606.1 for the theoretical molecular weight of 606.7. The other minor peaks were considered to be demethylated fragment ions. 252 Cf-PDMS should be quite useful in studying structure, metabolism and pharmacokinetics of various drugs with extremely low coefficients of variation. (author)

  13. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  14. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  15. Determination of strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with single collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Miyuki; Ariyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Akira; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains was developed. The samples investigated in this study were rice, barley and wheat. The samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and heated in a heating block. Strontium and lead were separated from the matrix by adding an acid digested solution into a column packed with Sr resin, which has selectivity for the absorption of strontium and lead. Strontium and lead isotope ratios were determined using a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) with a single collector. The intraday relative standard deviations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) by HR-ICP-MS measurements were < 0.06% and around 0.1%, respectively. This method enabled us to determine strontium and lead isotope ratios in two days. (author)

  16. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  17. A small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer for simultaneous measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Yukihiko

    1986-01-01

    A principle for simultaneous and real time measurement of neutral and ionic species effusing from plasma by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is proposed. A simple, small sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with a dc glow discharge tube and an ion sampling electrode system for the simultaneous measurement on the basis of the proposed plinciple, has been constructed and tested. Details of the experimental setup including the geometry and the electronic hardware are described. It is shown that mass spectra of neutrals and ions from the positive column of the argon dc glow discharge are successfully observed on a single oscilloscope display. (author)

  18. Organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and its astrobiological consequences: I. Views towards Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) and ion neutral mass spectrometer (INMS) experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A.; Sittler, E. C.; Chornay, D.; Rowe, B. R.; Puzzarini, C.

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of carbocations and carbanions by Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft in Titan's upper atmosphere is truly amazing for astrochemists and astrobiologists. In this paper we identify the reaction mechanisms for the growth of the complex macromolecules observed by the CAPS Ion Beam Spectrometer (IBS) and Electron Spectrometer (ELS). This identification is based on a recently published paper (Ali et al., 2013. Planet. Space Sci. 87, 96) which emphasizes the role of Olah's nonclassical carbonium ion chemistry in the synthesis of the organic molecules observed in Titan's thermosphere and ionosphere by INMS. The main conclusion of that work was the demonstration of the presence of the cyclopropenyl cation - the simplest Huckel's aromatic molecule - and its cyclic methyl derivatives in Titan's atmosphere at high altitudes. In this study, we present the transition from simple aromatic molecules to the complex ortho-bridged bi- and tri-cyclic hydrocarbons, e.g., CH2+ mono-substituted naphthalene and phenanthrene, as well as the ortho- and peri-bridged tri-cyclic aromatic ring, e.g., perinaphthenyl cation. These rings could further grow into tetra-cyclic and the higher order ring polymers in Titan's upper atmosphere. Contrary to the pre-Cassini observations, the nitrogen chemistry of Titan's upper atmosphere is found to be extremely rich. A variety of N-containing hydrocarbons including the N-heterocycles where a CH group in the polycyclic rings mentioned above is replaced by an N atom, e.g., CH2+ substituted derivative of quinoline (benzopyridine), are found to be dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere. The mechanisms for the formation of complex molecular anions are discussed as well. It is proposed that many closed-shell complex carbocations after their formation first, in Titan's upper atmosphere, undergo the kinetics of electron recombination to form open-shell neutral

  19. Mass spectrometer diagnostic technique in the study of stationary afterglow plasmas in helium, argon and krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenwalter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Since some years the method of massspectrometric monitoring has become an important tool in the analysis of time resolved (or stationary) afterglow plasmas. The present thesis reports the construction and testing of a new fully bakeable UHV-stationary-afterglow-apparatus using a hollow cathode discharge as plasma source for the first time. The hollow cathode is moveable perpendicular to its axis relative to the sampling orifice (i.e. a very small hole at the centre of the plasma container's boundary), so that the radical distribution of the charged particle density can be studied. Several specific extraction conditions for ions from the plasma especially the sampling probe potential have been systematically investigated. Results are illustrated and discussed. The new apparatus has been tested by determining the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of the molecular ion He 2 + in a pure Helium-plasma in thermal equilibrium. The present result (Dsub(a2) = 603 +- 38 / P 0 cm 2 s -1 ) is in agreement with results reported by other workers. Finally an example for the radial behaviour of the Ar + -sampling current in an Argon-discharge for several different times in the afterglow period is given. The shown behaviour agrees relatively well with the theoretically predicted radial ion density distribution, i.e. the zero-order Ressel'function. (Author)

  20. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  1. Software for mass spectrometer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curuia, Marian; Culcer, Mihai; Anghel, Mihai; Iliescu, Mariana; Trancota, Dan; Kaucsar, Martin; Oprea, Cristiana

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes a software application for the MAT 250 mass spectrometer control, which was refurbished. The spectrometer was bring-up-to-date using a hardware structure on its support where the software application for mass spectrometer control was developed . The software application is composed of dedicated modules that perform given operations. The instructions that these modules have to perform are generated by a principal module. This module makes possible the change of information between the modules that compose the software application. The use of a modal structure is useful for adding new functions in the future. The developed application in our institute made possible the transformation of the mass spectrometer MAT 250 into a device endowed with other new generation tools. (authors)

  2. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltz, Douglas; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-01-01

    When high current (1-10 A cm -2 ) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 μm and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 μl) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO 3 ) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 μg s -1 as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 μg s -1 as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of 52 Cr + , 55 Mn + and 60 Ni + during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals (±10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of the colloidal suspension caused this effect

  3. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Douglas; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-07-01

    When high current (1-10 A cm -2) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 μm and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 μl) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO 3) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 μg s -1 as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 μg s -1 as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of 52Cr +, 55Mn + and 60Ni + during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals (±10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the heterogeneous nature of the colloidal suspension caused this effect.

  4. Electroerosion of metal in aqueous solution for sample introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goltz, Douglas E-mail: dgoltz@uwinnipeg.ca; Boileau, Michael; Reinfelds, Gundars

    2003-07-18

    When high current (1-10 A cm{sup -2}) is applied between two conductive samples (metals) in aqueous solution, electroerosion occurs on the surface as a result of electrolysis and possibly collisions of dissolved ions with the metal surface. The power supply for the electroerosion apparatus in this work was a modified spark source unit. Current could be varied in intervals of 2.5, 5 and 10 A in either half-wave (unipolar) or full-wave (bipolar) output. The electroeroded metal forms a colloidal suspension in aqueous solution with particle sizes of the order of 1-10 {mu}m and possibly larger. The suspension is readily dissolved using a small amount (100 {mu}l) of concentrated acid (HCl or HNO{sub 3}) prior to analysis. Electroerosion of steel and brass in aqueous solution is described both for rapid sample dissolution and as a solid sampling approach for ICP-MS. Some of the electroerosion properties described in this paper include rates of erosion as a function of gap between the conductive samples and solution conductivity. Rates of electroerosion decreased from 120 to 30 {mu}g s{sup -1} as the gap was increased from 2 to 5 mm. Rates of electroerosion also increased significantly from 200 to 1000 {mu}g s{sup -1} as the conductivity of the electroerosion solution increased from 0.01 to 0.05 M NaCl. Interfacing the electroerosion apparatus to an ICP-MS was straight forward, as no special equipment was required. Therefore, the electroerosion apparatus can be used for rapid 'on-line' sample dissolution prior to introduction into an ICP. ICP-MS time profiles of selected metals in stainless steel 308L illustrate the behavior of {sup 52}Cr{sup +}, {sup 55}Mn{sup +} and {sup 60}Ni{sup +} during a typical electroerosion cycle. Aspiration of the colloidal suspension into the ICP did not appear to load the plasma significantly, however, all of the metals produced noisy signals ({+-}10%). A glass concentric nebulizer was used without clogging, so it is likely that the

  5. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spe...

  6. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  7. Analysis of corrosions-products in tissue samples near surgical implants by means of LAMMA (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) and ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlagenhaufen, C.

    1996-08-01

    In this work corrosion products of surgical implants in tissue samples were identified. For the characterization of the corrosion products the LAMMA 500 (Laser Microprobe Mass Analyzer) was used. Additional analysis were made with the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer) to determine the concentration of chromium, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum in the tissues. In the first part several synthetic chromium- and molybdenum compounds were investigated with LAMMA. With the anionic mass spectra of the chromium-compounds it is possible to the oxidation state of chromium. The mass spectra of the synthetic compounds were used to identify, the compounds in the corrosion products. In the second part thin sections prepared from the tissue samples from the surrounding of the implants were analyzed. Several embedding and cutting methods were tested. Histological staining methods and LAMMA spectra were used to characterize the deposits in the tissue. Three different deposits were found in the tissue. In all tissues metal splinters from the implant were found. In most of the tissues iron-rich deposits were found, that were identified as iron-phosphate. As definitive corrosion products of the implant mixtures of chromium(III)phosphate, calcium molybdate, calcium phosphate and chromium(III) molybdate were identified. The ICP-MS results show in comparison to normal values, very high concentrations for chromium, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. These results support the conclusions based on LAMMA results. The results of these investigations clearly indicate, that stainless steel implants, are not corrosion-resistant in the body. Relatively high amounts of the constituents, of the implant dissolved, and are deposited as solid compounds in the tissue next to the implant. (author)

  8. Preparation of the study of the quark-gluon plasma in ALICE: the V0 detector and the low masses resonances in the muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nendaz, F.

    2009-09-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) experiment at LHC will study from 2010 the quark-gluon plasma (QGP), phase of the matter in which quarks and gluons are deconfined. The work presented here was done within the ALICE collaboration, for preparing the analysis of the incoming experimental data. Besides a theoretical approach of the QGP and of the chiral symmetry, we develop three experimental aspects: the V0 sub-detector, the study of the low mass mesons and the deconvolution. First, we detail the measures of luminosity and multiplicity that can be done with the V0. We then develop the study of the dimuons in the muon spectrometer. We concentrate on the low masses mesons: the rho, the omega and the phi. Finally, we present a method for improving the spectrometer data: the Richardson-Lucy deconvolution. (author)

  9. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A. [High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  10. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions

  11. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G. B.; Poehlmann, F. R.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  12. A Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer for characterizing ion energy distributions in a coaxial plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieker, G B; Poehlmann, F R; Cappelli, M A

    2013-07-01

    Measurements of ion energy distribution are performed in the accelerated plasma of a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun operating in a gas-puff mode at relatively low discharge energy (900 J) and discharge potential (4 kV). The measurements are made using a Thomson-type mass and energy spectrometer with a gated microchannel plate and phosphor screen as the ion sensor. The parabolic ion trajectories are captured from the sensor screen with an intensified charge-coupled detector camera. The spectrometer was designed and calibrated using the Geant4 toolkit, accounting for the effects on the ion trajectories of spatial non-uniformities in the spectrometer magnetic and electric fields. Results for hydrogen gas puffs indicate the existence of a class of accelerated protons with energies well above the coaxial discharge potential (up to 24 keV). The Thomson analyzer confirms the presence of impurities of copper and iron, also of relatively high energies, which are likely erosion or sputter products from plasma-electrode interactions.

  13. Acquisition of HPLC-Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-18

    31-Jan-2015 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer The views, opinions and/or findings...published in peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Acquisition of HPLC -Mass Spectrometer Report Title The acquisition of the mass spectrometer has been a

  14. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  15. Composition of hot ions /0.1-16 keV/e/ as observed by the GEOS and ISEE mass spectrometers and inferences for the origin and circulation of magnetospheric plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsiger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of hot magnetospheric plasma through different regions of the magnetosphere is described on the basis of mass spectrometer measurements by the GEOS 1, GEOS 2, and ISEE-1 spacecraft. Coordinated composition measurements on the different spacecraft also provide information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of the plasma during storms. Data on ion origins are also provided.

  16. Pb and Sr isotope measurements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: efficient time management for precision improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monna, F.; Loizeau, J.-L.; Thomas, B. A.; Guéguen, C.; Favarger, P.-Y.

    1998-08-01

    One of the factors limiting the precision of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is the counting statistics, which depend upon acquisition time and ion fluxes. In the present study, the precision of the isotopic measurements of Pb and Sr is examined. The time of measurement is optimally shared for each isotope, using a mathematical simulation, to provide the lowest theoretical analytical error. Different algorithms of mass bias correction are also taken into account and evaluated in term of improvement of overall precision. Several experiments allow a comparison of real conditions with theory. The present method significantly improves the precision, regardless of the instrument used. However, this benefit is more important for equipment which originally yields a precision close to that predicted by counting statistics. Additionally, the procedure is flexible enough to be easily adapted to other problems, such as isotopic dilution.

  17. Analysis of plasma protein adsorption onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes by HPLC-CHIP coupled to a Q-TOF mass spectrometer

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà , Aldo

    2010-01-01

    Plasma protein adsorption is regarded as a key factor in the in vivo organ distribution of intravenously administered drug carriers, and strongly depends on vector surface characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize the "protein corona" absorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes. This system was chosen because it is one of the most efficient and widely used non-viral formulations in vitro and a potential candidate for in vivo transfection of genetic material. After incubation of human plasma with cationic liposomes, nanoparticle-protein complex was separated from plasma by centrifugation. An integrated approach based on protein separation by one-dimensional 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the automated HPLC-Chip technology coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer was employed for protein corona characterization. Thirty gel lanes, approximately 2 mm, were cut, digested and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Fifty-eight human plasma proteins adsorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes were identified. The knowledge of the interactions of proteins with liposomes can be exploited for future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins in body fluids. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Analysis of plasma protein adsorption onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes by HPLC-CHIP coupled to a Q-TOF mass spectrometer

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2010-09-22

    Plasma protein adsorption is regarded as a key factor in the in vivo organ distribution of intravenously administered drug carriers, and strongly depends on vector surface characteristics. The present study aimed to characterize the "protein corona" absorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes. This system was chosen because it is one of the most efficient and widely used non-viral formulations in vitro and a potential candidate for in vivo transfection of genetic material. After incubation of human plasma with cationic liposomes, nanoparticle-protein complex was separated from plasma by centrifugation. An integrated approach based on protein separation by one-dimensional 12% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by the automated HPLC-Chip technology coupled to a high-resolution mass spectrometer was employed for protein corona characterization. Thirty gel lanes, approximately 2 mm, were cut, digested and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Fifty-eight human plasma proteins adsorbed onto DC-Chol-DOPE cationic liposomes were identified. The knowledge of the interactions of proteins with liposomes can be exploited for future controlled design of colloidal drug carriers and possibly in the controlled creation of biocompatible surfaces of other devices that come into contact with proteins in body fluids. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Multidetector calibration for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Fiedler, R.

    1994-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory has performed calibration experiments to measure the different efficiencies among multi-Faraday detectors for a Finnigan-MAT 261 mass spectrometer. Two types of calibration experiments were performed: (1) peak-shift experiments and (2) peak-jump experiments. For peak-shift experiments, the ion intensities were measured for all isotopes of an element in different Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by shifting the isotopes to various Faraday detectors. Two different peak-shifting schemes were used to measure plutonium (UK Pu5/92138) samples. For peak-jump experiments, ion intensities were measured in a reference Faraday detector for a single isotope and compared with those measured in the other Faraday detectors. Repeated measurements were made by switching back-and-forth between the reference Faraday detector and a selected Faraday detector. This switching procedure is repeated for all Faraday detectors. Peak-jump experiments were performed with replicate measurements of 239 Pu, 187 Re, and 238 U. Detector efficiency factors were estimated for both peak-jump and peak-shift experiments using a flexible calibration model to statistically analyze both types of multidetector calibration experiments. Calculated detector efficiency factors were shown to depend on both the material analyzed and the experimental conditions. A single detector efficiency factor is not recommended for each detector that would be used to correct routine sample analyses. An alternative three-run peak-shift sample analysis should be considered. A statistical analysis of the data from this peak-shift experiment can adjust the isotopic ratio estimates for detector differences due to each sample analysis

  20. Recent ion optics and mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of the third order approximation method for computing the orbit of the ion optical system for mass spectrometers and the completion of its computer program are reported. A feature of this orbit computation is in that the effect of the fringing field can be considered with the accuracy of third order approximation. Several new ion optical systems for mass spectrometers have been proposed by using such orbit computing programs. Brief explanation and the description on the future prospect and problems are made on the following items: the vertual image double focusing mass spectrometer, the second order double focusing mass spectrometer, the E x B superposed field mass spectrometer, and the apparatus with a cylindrical electric field and Q-lens. In the E x B superposed field with Matsuda plates, if the magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet instead of a permanent magnet, the dispersion of mass and energy can be changed at will. The Matsuda plates are known as the auxiliary electrodes positioned at the top and bottom of a cylindrical capacitor. Utilizing those characteristics, a zoom spectrometer can be made, with which only a necessary part of mass spectra can be investigated in detail, but the whole spectra are investigated roughly. In addition, the distribution of energy can be investigated simultaneously after the separation of ionic mass similarly to the parabola apparatus. (Iwakiri, K.)

  1. Laser ablation - inductive coupled plasma - mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS) geochemistry characterization of albitites associated to uranium in Lagoa da Rabicha deposit, Lagoa Real, BA (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lucilia A. Ramos de; Rios, Francisco Javier; Amorim, Lucas Eustaquio Dias; Souza, Aurelio da Silva; Prates, Sonia Pinto; Yardley, Bruce; Matos, Evando Carele

    2009-01-01

    The LA-ICP-MS technique is a good tool for mineral geochemical characterization. The technique has high spatial resolution, elevated sensibility, low detection limits and multi-elementary analysis possibility. Almost all chemistry elements can be analyzed by this methodology. Briefly, this methodology consists in vaporize the sample by Laser Ablation, which is dragged by argon into the Plasma where are created and accelerated the ions. They are separated by their mass/charge ratio into the Mass Spectrometer, being conveyed to a detector that convert the signals in specters. In this work LA-ICP-MS analyses were performed in two albitites thin sections, a mineralized and a non mineralized sample. Both samples are from the Lagoa da Rabicha Deposit, Uranium Lagoa Real Province, BA. From these analysis it was possible to chemically characterize the minerals present in the samples and better understand the trace elements on them. The results for plagioclase in both samples show that it is albite (NaAlSi 3 O 8 ). The albite from sample 200907-20 shows traces of strontium, lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium and thorium in one crystal. The albite from sample 200907-23 has strontium with uranium, yttrium and lead in smaller quantities. The results obtained in this work are very important and contribute to a better understanding of the uranium origin in Lagoa Real deposits. (author)

  2. Quantitation of isobaric phosphatidylcholine species in human plasma using a hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, Petr; Bukowski, M.; Rosenberger, T. A.; Picklo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2016), s. 2225-2234 ISSN 0022-2275 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : shotgun lipidomics * triple quadrupole/ion-trap * human blood plasma * phosphatidylcholines Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.810, year: 2016 http://www.jlr.org/content/57/12/2225.full

  3. Actinides analysis in emergency situation by on-line coupling between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghdadi, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In the event of a nuclear crisis, involving actinides (U, Pu, Am) it is important to have fast analysis methods available in order to identify people that could be contaminated. Usually, they are performed in urine or faeces. Even though, analytical methods used with alpha detection are reliable they are lengthy and tedious to set up. This work consisted in developing an on-line coupling method between a calix[6]arene-based chromatography column and an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). To do so, a speciation study of actinides in mineralised urine was developed to understand the chemical equilibria happening during the actinides extraction. A protocol was elaborated to extract simultaneously all three actinides at pH = 5, then co-elute them with 0.25 mol.L -1 H 3 PO 4 . Recovery was 56 %, 74 % and 85 % for U, Pu and Am respectively. The column was then coupled to the ICP-MS. A parameter study helped defining mineralisation duration, extraction and elution flow-rates. It was then possible to propose an on-line coupling system allowing reaching detection limits lower than 0.5 mBq.L-1 for 238 U and 243 Am and lower than 5 mBq.L -1 for 239 Pu and 241 Am, for analysis duration lower than 6 hours. These analytical performances show the interest of this technique for a use in a nuclear crisis situation. (author)

  4. Trace metal analysis in arctic aerosols by an inductively coupled plasma-time of flight-mass spectrometer combined with an inductively heated vaporizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luedke, Christian; Skole, Jochen; Taubner, Kerstin; Kriews, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Two newly developed instruments were combined to analyze the trace metal content in size separated arctic aerosols during the measurement campaign ASTAR 2004 (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation 2004) at Spitsbergen in May-June 2004. The aim of this extensive aerosol measurement campaign was to obtain a database for model-calculations of arctic aerosol, which play an important role in the global climate change. The ASTAR project was centered on two aircraft measurement campaigns, scheduled from 2004 to 2005, addressing both aerosol and cloud measurements, combined with ground-based and satellite observations. In the present paper one example for the analysis of ground-based aerosol particles is described. The sampling of aerosol particles was performed in a well-known manner by impaction of the particles on cleaned graphite targets. By means of a cascade impactor eight size classes between 0.35 and 16.6 μm aerodynamic diameters were separated. To analyze the metal content in the aerosol particles the targets were rapidly heated up to 2700 deg. C in an inductively heated vaporizer system (IHVS). An argon flow transports the vaporized sample material into the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) used as ionization source for the time of flight-mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The simultaneous extraction of the ions from the plasma, as realized in the TOF instrument, allows to obtain the full mass spectrum of the sample during the vaporization pulse without any limitation in the number of elements detected. With optimized experimental parameters the element content in arctic aerosol particles was determined in a mass range between 7 Li and 209 Bi. Comparing the size distribution of the elemental content of the aerosol particles, two different meteorological situations were verified. For calibration acidified reference solutions were placed on the cleaned target inside the IHVS. The limits of detection (LOD) for the element mass on the target range

  5. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  6. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  7. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate

  8. Gas-dust-impact mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Semkin, N D; Myasnikov, S V; Pomelnikov, R A

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes design of a mass spectrometer to study element composition of micro meteorite and man-made particles in space. Paper describes a way to improve resolution of mass spectrometer based on variation of parameters of accelerating electric field in time. The advantage of the given design of mass spectrometer in comparison with similar ones is its large operating area and higher resolution at the comparable weight and dimensions. Application of a combined design both for particles and for gas enables to remove space vehicle degassing products from the spectrum and, thus, to improve reliability of the acquired information, as well as, to acquire information on a gas component of the external atmosphere of a space vehicle

  9. Quantitative real-time monitoring of multi-elements in airborne particulates by direct introduction into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Sato, Hikaru; Hiyoshi, Katsuhiro; Furuta, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    A new calibration system for real-time determination of trace elements in airborne particulates was developed. Airborne particulates were directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, and the concentrations of 15 trace elements were determined by means of an external calibration method. External standard solutions were nebulized by an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) coupled with a desolvation system, and the resulting aerosol was introduced into the plasma. The efficiency of sample introduction via the USN was calculated by two methods: (1) the introduction of a Cr standard solution via the USN was compared with introduction of a Cr(CO) 6 standard gas via a standard gas generator and (2) the aerosol generated by the USN was trapped on filters and then analyzed. The Cr introduction efficiencies obtained by the two methods were the same, and the introduction efficiencies of the other elements were equal to the introduction efficiency of Cr. Our results indicated that our calibration method for introduction efficiency worked well for the 15 elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl and Pb). The real-time data and the filter-collection data agreed well for elements with low-melting oxides (V, Co, As, Mo, Sb, Tl, and Pb). In contrast, the real-time data were smaller than the filter-collection data for elements with high-melting oxides (Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Ba). This result implies that the oxides of these 8 elements were not completely fused, vaporized, atomized, and ionized in the initial radiation zone of the inductively coupled plasma. However, quantitative real-time monitoring can be realized after correction for the element recoveries which can be calculated from the ratio of real-time data/filter-collection data. - Highlights: ► APs were directly introduced into ICP-MS and real-time analysis was performed. ► The real-time data were calibrated by a multi-element standard solution from USN. ► During real

  10. Strategies for method development for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with bandpass reaction cell. Approaches with different reaction gases for the determination of selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattendorf, Bodo; Guenther, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with dynamic reaction cell (DRC) was used to investigate different approaches for chemical resolution of Ar 2 + ions and to improve the determination of Se. Hydrogen, methane, oxygen and nitrous oxide were used as reaction gases. The method development for each approach consists of the acquisition of spectra for blank and spiked samples at different operating parameters, including reaction gas flow and transmission settings, of the DRC. Isotope ratio studies and the analytes signal to background ratio (SBR), were used as criteria to determine the operating conditions of the DRC where spectral interferences from the ion source or from polyatomic ions formed inside the DRC are minimized. Methane was found to provide the highest reaction efficiency for determination of Se. Nitrous oxide and oxygen also very efficiently suppress the Ar 2 + interference but reaction or scattering losses of Se + and SeO + are significant. Hydrogen is the least efficient gas for Ar 2 + reduction but little scattering or reactive loss lead to a good SBR. The determination of Se as SeO + was investigated with oxygen and nitrous oxide as reaction gases. The efficiency when using the oxygenation reaction was found to be similar to the efficiency for the charge transfer reactions but the slow oxygenation of the potentially interfering Mo + renders this approach less useful for analytical purposes. Using a natural water sample it could be shown that very good agreement is obtained using methane or hydrogen for analysis of 80 Se + at the μg/l level. Limits of detection are lowest (2 ng/l) when methane is used to suppress the Ar 2 + ion and when 80 Se + is used for analysis

  11. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer instrument - IMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro; Kucharek, Harald; Saito, Yoshifumi; Fraenz, Markus; Verdeil, Christophe; Leblanc, Frederic; Techer, Jean-Denis; Jeandet, Alexis; Macri, John; Gaidos, John; Granoff, Mark; Yokota, Shoichiro; Fontaine, Dominique; Berthomier, Matthieu; Delcourt, Dominique; Kistler, Lynn; Galvin, Antoniette; Kasahara, Satoshi; Kronberg, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. Specifically, THOR will study how turbulent fluctuations at kinetic scales heat and accelerate particles in different turbulent environments within the near-Earth space. To achieve this goal, THOR payload is being designed to measure electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functions with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Here we present the Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) instrument that will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of near-Earth main ion species (H+, He+, He++ and O+) at high time resolution (~ 150 ms for H+ , ~ 300 ms for He++) with energy resolution down to ~ 10% in the range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q and angular resolution ~ 10°. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting multiple sensors around the spacecraft body, in similar fashion to the MMS/FPI instrument. Each sensor combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCP) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification, discrimination and time-to-digital conversion (TDC). IMS is being designed to address many of THOR science requirements, in particular ion heating and acceleration by turbulent fluctuations in foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built by an international consortium of scientific institutes with main hardware contributions from France, USA, Japan and Germany.

  12. Automation of a thermal ionisation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamula, A.; Leuca, M.; Albert, S.; Benta, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    A thermal ionization mass spectrometer was upgraded in order to be monitored by a PC. A PC-LMP-16 National Instruments data acquisition board was used for the ion current channel and the Hall signal channel. A dedicated interface was built to allow commands from the computer to the current supply of the analyzing magnet and to the high voltage unit of the mass spectrometer. A software application was worked out to perform the adjustment of the spectrometer, magnetic scanning and mass spectra acquisition, data processing and isotope ratio determination. The apparatus is used for isotope ratio 235 U/ 238 U determination near the natural abundance. A peak jumping technique is applied to choose between the 235 U and 238 U signal, by switching the high voltage applied to the ion source between two preset values. This avoids the delay between the acquisition of the peaks of interest, a delay that would appear in the case of a 'pure' magnetic scanning. Corrections are applied for the mass discrimination effects and a statistical treatment of the data is achieved. (authors)

  13. Contamination measurements with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohatka, S.; Berecz, I.; Langer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A sensitive quadrupole mass spectrometer of our own construction was used for different purity measurements. The analysis of gases in operating rooms showed a 1 ppm-10 5 ppm concentration of narcotics and helped to develop an effective and cheap method for regenerating narcotic filters. We regularly control the gases used in radioactive pollution measurements by internal GM counters and in radiocarbon dating technique. Combustion products and the gases of a fermenter are investigated for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  14. A new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, C.; Merren, T.O.; Unsworth, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The Isomass 54E, a new thermal ionisation mass spectrometer for precise measurements of isotopic composition is described in detail. It combines the fruits of three development pro ects, viz. automation, energy filters and extended geometry with existing micromass expertise and experience. The hardware and software which are used for the automation as well as the energy filter used, are explained. The 'extended geometry' ion optical system adopted for better performance is discussed in detail. (K.B.)

  15. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  16. New mass spectrometers for hydrogen isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes are being evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4, an abundance sensitivity of > 100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet, and a sophisticated electronic control and data collection system. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic-focusing instrument in which exceptionally high ion intensities (> 1 x 10 -9 A) result in high signal to noise ratios. A containment facility with sample inlet systems and a standard distribution system was built to permit testing with tritium mixtures. The characteristics of the mass spectrometers under a variety of operating conditions will be presented. Factors to be discussed include: sample equilibration and its elimination; linearity; trimer formation; gas interference; stability; signal to noise ratio; mass discrimination; and anticipated precision and accu sublimed molybdenum collector of Converter No. 262; and (3) demonstration of tungsten CVD onto molybdenum flange using a reuseable graphite mandrel

  17. Evaluating the accuracy of uranium isotope amount ratio measurements performed by a quadrupole and a multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira de Oliveira, O. Jr.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Ponzevera, E.; Alonso, A.; De Bolle, W.; Quetel, C.

    2008-01-01

    The n(U 235 )/n(U 238 ) isotope amount ratio in a set of samples was measured using two modern analytical techniques: quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and multi-collector magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The measured ratios were compared to the certified ratios provided by the high accuracy gas source mass spectrometry (GSMS). The components of the uncertainty were identified and their contribution to the combined standard uncertainty was estimated using the recommendations of the ISO-GUM guide. The values of the measurement uncertainty and bias were determined and then compared to the International Target Values for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials. It appears that only the measurements performed by MC-ICPMS can meet the stringent requirements of international nuclear safeguards. (authors)

  18. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A·Mass 1/2 + B·(Mass) p where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs

  19. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A{center_dot}Mass{sup 1/2} + B{center_dot}(Mass){sup p} where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  20. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  1. SIMS device with quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szigethy, D.; Riedel, M.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) has been designed and constructed. The device is applicable for dinamic and static SIMS investigations. The sputtering and ionisation can be studied simultaneously. Oil diffusion pumps and an auxiliary ion-getter pump are used. A commercial ion gun is used in the working chamber. The secondary ion optics assures the preliminary filtering of fast ions, and the collection of sputtered ions for a separate microprobe analysis. The performance of the apparatus is illustrated with examples. (R.J.)

  2. An achromatic multipassage magnetic mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, P.; Baril, M.

    1999-01-01

    A design providing achromatic correction to a multipassage magnetic mass spectrometer previously described by the author is presented. The energy spatial dispersion caused by repeated passages in the magnetic prism is corrected by three supplementary mirrors placed in a reinjection loop. From this study one can see that we simultaneously eliminate the energy dispersion term C ΔE/E and the opening angle aberration term C α 2 and we may also eliminate the coupled aberration term C αΔE/E

  3. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlov, B.N.; Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.; Shebelin, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing a pulsed ion source with an electron gun and two electrodes limiting ionization range, drift space and ion acceptor, is described. To expand functional possibilities, a slot collimator of the gas stream, two quantum generators and two diaphragms for the inlet of quantum generator radiation located on both sides of the ion source, are introduced in the ion source. The above invention enables to study details of the complex interaction process of laser radiation with molecules of the gas stream, which is actual for laser isotope separation

  4. Computerized mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of data acquisition allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  5. Mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly-swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of sweeping allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  6. Simultaneous measurement of 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneau, F.

    1999-01-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  7. Mass spectrometer with two ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, L.G.; Mit', A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Static mass spectrometer with mid-plane near which ions are moving is considered in this article. Two ion sources are used, their exit slits are perpendicular to the mid-plane. The simple method of the replacement of source is offered. Two concave two-electrode transaxial mirrors with two-plate electrodes are used for this aim. The mid-plane of these mirrors coincides with the mid-plane of the device. The exit slit of each source is located in the principal plane of the object space. The principal planes of the image space of the both mirrors coincide. The images of the exit slits of the sources are in these planes and coincide too. We used the mirrors making stigmatic images with the magnification one to one, in which the dispersion on energy and spherical aberrations of the second order are equal to zero. These images are the objects on which the ion-optical system of the mass spectrometer is tuned. When you choose one from two ion sources it is enough to switch the corresponding mirror

  8. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  9. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Austin, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).

  10. Direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds into the spray chamber of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Sensitivity enhancement for selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, Miroslav; Goessler, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The effect of signal enhancement of elements with ionization potentials in the range from 9 to 11 eV by carbon-containing compounds is a well-known phenomenon in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). It has traditionally been exploited through the addition of organic solvents to the sample matrix or to the mobile phase to improve sensitivity. In the present work, aqueous solutions of volatile carbon compounds (acetone, methanol and acetic acid) were directly introduced into the thermostatted spray chamber rather than being added to the sample matrix. It is presumed that no aerosol is produced from these solutions and only vapors of organic compounds are swept into the plasma together with the sample aerosol. When a 0.40 mol l -1 aqueous solution of acetone was introduced directly into the spray chamber, the signals for arsenic and selenium were enhanced by a factor of 4.2. The usefulness of this approach was demonstrated through the achievement of lower instrumental detection limits for selenium at m/z 82 (0.1 ng ml -1 ) compared to the system without direct introduction of volatile carbon compounds (0.5 ng ml -1 ). The method was successfully applied in the determination of traces of selenium in natural water, urine and bovine liver reference material

  11. Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Gupta, Satish C.; Jyoti, G.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample submicrometer-diameter ring particles and impact ejecta from Saturn's satellites. The CDA measures a mass spectrum of each particle that impacts the chemical analyzer sector of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target plate at velocities of 1-100 km/s and produce some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of positive valence, single-charged ions. These are analyzed via a TOF MS. Initial tests employed a pulsed N2 laser acting on samples of kamacite, pyrrhotite, serpentine, olivine, and Murchison meteorite induced bursts of ions which were detected with a microchannel plate and a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). Pulses from the N2 laser (1011 W/cm2) are assumed to simulate particle impact. Using aluminum alloy as a test sample, each pulse produces a charge of ~4.6 pC (mostly Al+1), whereas irradiation of a stainless steel target produces a ~2.8 pC (Fe+1) charge. Thus the present system yields ~10-5% of the laser energy in resulting ions. A CSA signal indicates that at the position of the microchannel plate, the ion detector geometry is such that some 5% of the laser-induced ions are collected in the CDA geometry. Employing a multichannel plate detector in this MS yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy and kamacite targets well-defined peaks at 24 (Mg+1), 27(Al+1), and 64 (Cu+1) and 56 (Fe+1), 58 (Ni+1), and 60 (Ni+1) dalton, respectively.

  12. Determination of low concentrations of iron, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other trace elements in natural samples using an octopole collision/reaction cell equipped quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Angela R; Misra, Sambuddha; Landing, William M

    2015-04-30

    Accurate determination of trace metals has many applications in environmental and life sciences, such as constraining the cycling of essential micronutrients in biological production and employing trace metals as tracers for anthropogenic pollution. Analysis of elements such as Fe, As, Se, and Cd is challenged by the formation of polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, which are overcome in this study. We utilized an Octopole Collision/Reaction Cell (CRC)-equipped Quadrupole-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer for the rapid analysis of small volume samples (~250 μL) in a variety of matrices containing HNO3 and/or HCl. Efficient elimination of polyatomic interferences was demonstrated by the use of the CRC in Reaction Mode (RM; H2 gas) and in Collision-Reaction Mode (CRM; H2 and He gas), in addition to hot plasma (RF power 1500 W) and cool plasma (600 W) conditions. It was found that cool plasma conditions with RM achieved the greatest signal sensitivity while maintaining low detection limits (i.e. (56) Fe in 0.44 M HNO3 has a sensitivity of 160,000 counts per second (cps)-per-1 µg L(-1) and a limit of detection (LoD) of 0.86 ng L(-1) ). The average external precision was ≤ ~10% for minor (≤10 µg L(-1) ) elements measured in a 1:100 dilution of NIST 1643e and for iron in rainwater samples under all instrumental operating conditions. An improved method has been demonstrated for the rapid multi-element analysis of trace metals that are challenged by polyatomic mass spectrometric interferences, with a focus on (56) Fe, (75) As, (78) Se and (111) Cd. This method can contribute to aqueous environmental geochemistry and chemical oceanography, as well as other fields such as forensic chemistry, agriculture, food chemistry, and pharmaceutical sciences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Fabrication and testing of the recoil mass spectrometer at Bombay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recoil mass spectrometer (RMS) has been designed, fabricated and installed ... first order and only mass dispersion is obtained at the focal plane of the ... more details, like, the specifications and a typical beam profile through the ... Further experiments are now in progress to characterize the spectrometer, i.e., to measure.

  14. Theoretical resolving power of a radiofrequency mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coc, A.; Le Gac, R.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiofrequency mass spectrometers of L.G. Smith's type can reach a resolving power of 10 6 -10 7 and a precision of 10 -9 -10 -10 . The resolving power, shape of peaks and limitations are described. As an example, the spectrometer to be used in an experiment aimed at measuring the anti p/p mass ratio is considered. (orig.)

  15. Real-Time Food Authentication Using a Miniature Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Neese, Stephan; Penner, Alexander; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2017-10-17

    Food adulteration is a threat to public health and the economy. In order to determine food adulteration efficiently, rapid and easy-to-use on-site analytical methods are needed. In this study, a miniaturized mass spectrometer in combination with three ambient ionization methods was used for food authentication. The chemical fingerprints of three milk types, five fish species, and two coffee types were measured using electrospray ionization, desorption electrospray ionization, and low temperature plasma ionization. Minimum sample preparation was needed for the analysis of liquid and solid food samples. Mass spectrometric data was processed using the laboratory-built software MS food classifier, which allows for the definition of specific food profiles from reference data sets using multivariate statistical methods and the subsequent classification of unknown data. Applicability of the obtained mass spectrometric fingerprints for food authentication was evaluated using different data processing methods, leave-10%-out cross-validation, and real-time classification of new data. Classification accuracy of 100% was achieved for the differentiation of milk types and fish species, and a classification accuracy of 96.4% was achieved for coffee types in cross-validation experiments. Measurement of two milk mixtures yielded correct classification of >94%. For real-time classification, the accuracies were comparable. Functionality of the software program and its performance is described. Processing time for a reference data set and a newly acquired spectrum was found to be 12 s and 2 s, respectively. These proof-of-principle experiments show that the combination of a miniaturized mass spectrometer, ambient ionization, and statistical analysis is suitable for on-site real-time food authentication.

  16. Inficon Transpector MPH Mass Spectrometer Random Vibration Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Bond, Jo; Captain, Janine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this test report is to summarize results from the vibration testing of the INFICON Transpector MPH100M model Mass Spectrometer. It also identifies requirements satisfied, and procedures used in the test. As a payload of Resource Prospector, it is necessary to determine the survivability of the mass spectrometer to proto-qualification level random vibration. Changes in sensitivity of the mass spectrometer can be interpreted as a change in alignment of the instrument. The results of this test will be used to determine any necessary design changes as the team moves forward with flight design.

  17. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fractional no. d. measurements for a radiofrequency plasma needle operating at atm. pressure were obtained using a mol. beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atm. plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes

  18. A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer for ion source characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Wan, X.; Jin, D. Z.; Tan, X. H.; Huang, Z. X.; Tan, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    A compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer with overall dimension of about 413 × 250 × 414 mm based on orthogonal injection and angle reflection has been developed for ion source characterization. Configuration and principle of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer are introduced in this paper. The mass resolution is optimized to be about 1690 (FWHM), and the ion energy detection range is tested to be between about 3 and 163 eV with the help of electron impact ion source. High mass resolution and compact configuration make this spectrometer useful to provide a valuable diagnostic for ion spectra fundamental research and study the mass to charge composition of plasma with wide range of parameters

  19. Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Earth Science Research, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By drastically reducing the physical footprint of a mass spectrometer to the size of a beverage can, Ceramitron could set a new performance/price standard in the...

  20. Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The system generates superior quality mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from both atmospheric pressure ionization (API) and...

  1. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  2. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Costa, Giuseppe; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cannavò, Antonino; Restuccia, Nancy; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA) acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC) at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  3. Mass-spectrometer MASHA - testing results on heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Belozerov, A.V.; Vanin, D.V.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.; Lebedev, A.N.; Oganesyan, Yu.Ts.; Salamatin, V.S.; Sivachek, I.; Chernysheva, E.V.; Yukhimchuk, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Description of mass-spectrometer MASHA, developed for the mass identification of superheavy elements, is given. The efficiency and operation speed in the off-line mode were measured with four calibrated leakages of noble gases. The total efficiency and operation speed of mass-spectrometer with hot catcher and ECR ion source were determined using the 40 Ar beam. The test experiment was carried out by measuring the alpha decay of Hg and Rn isotopes, produced in fusion reactions 40 Ar+ nat Sm→ nat-xn Hg+xn and 40 Ar+ 166 Er→ 206-xn Rn+xn, in the focal plane of mass-spectrometer. The operation speed of the given technique and relative yields of isotopes in the test reactions were determined

  4. A Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer /SUMS/ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Duckett, R. J.; Hinson, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    A magnetic mass spectrometer is currently being adapted to the Space Shuttle Orbiter to provide repeated high altitude atmosphere data to support in situ rarefied flow aerodynamics research, i.e., in the high velocity, low density flight regime. The experiment, called Shuttle Upper Atmosphere Mass Spectrometer (SUMS), is the first attempt to design mass spectrometer equipment for flight vehicle aerodynamic data extraction. The SUMS experiment will provide total freestream atmospheric quantitites, principally total mass density, above altitudes at which conventional pressure measurements are valid. Experiment concepts, the expected flight profile, tradeoffs in the design of the total system and flight data reduction plans are discussed. Development plans are based upon a SUMS first flight after the Orbiter initial development flights.

  5. Extending The Useful Life Of Older Mass Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261(trademark) Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  6. Design of a new focused multipassage mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, P [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Photonic and Sensors Section; Baril, M [Laval Univ., Quebec City (Canada). Dept. de Physique

    1990-12-01

    This paper descirbes a new type of multipassage mass spectrometer using tricylindrical mirrors as reflexive elements and a symmetric quadrupolar lens triplet as focusing element. We study the first order optics and then emphasize on beam transport problems as well as on conditions for maximum mass resolution. The effect of first and second order aberrations on the ultimate resolution of the spectrometer and the procedure for minimizing them by selecting proper operating conditions are discussed. The contributions of the third order aberration terms and of space charge are not considered. (orig.).

  7. An improved data acquisition system for isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, T.K.; Reddy, B.; Nazare, C.K.; Handu, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Isotopic ratio mass spectrometers designed and fabricated to measure the isotopic ratios with a precision of better than 0.05%. In order to achieve this precision, the measurement system consisting of ion signal to voltage converters, analog to digital converters, and data acquisition electronics should be at least one order better than the overall precision of measurement. Using state of the art components and techniques, a data acquisition system, which is an improved version of the earlier system, has been designed and developed for use with multi-collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometers

  8. A field portable mass spectrometer for monitoring organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R W

    1978-03-01

    A portable mass spectrometer has been designed and built under the sponsorship of the US Army for the purpose of monitoring low concentrations of specified organics in the ambient atmosphere. The goals of the development were discrimination, sensitivity, portability, simplicity of operation, economy and convenience. These objectives were met in a system consisting of a computer operated mass spectrometer with a Llewellyn membrane separator inlet system housed in two 26 x 18 x 9 inch aluminum cases with a total weight less than 150 pounds. This system has shown the capability for field detection of hundreds of specific organic vapors at the parts per billion level in the ambient and workplace environments.

  9. The coupling of capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer as a speciation instrument for actinides at trace level; Le couplage electrophorese capillaire-spectrometre de masse a source plasma en tant qu'instrument de speciation des actinides a l'etat de traces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delorme, A

    2004-07-01

    An interface between the separation technique (capillary electrophoresis) and the analytical technique (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometer) was developed. In that sense, bibliographic and parametric studies allowed to define necessary conditions for the good working of both techniques. The results obtained led to the realisation of an interface capillary electrophoresis / ICP-MS (CE / ICP-MS). This one was experimentally validated on classical separations (alkalis / earth-alkalis and lanthanides) and the detection limit of the analytical system was determined equal to 4 x 10{sup -11} mol.L{sup -1} for plutonium. This result exhibits a gain in detection limit of a factor higher than 10{sup 4} compared to the capillary electrophoresis in standard detection (UV). The studies were made in order to check the capacity of the CE / ICP-MS coupling as a speciation instrument for actinides at trace level and to define the associated analytical procedures. The coupling turned out to be a suited instrument for the determination of absolute electrophoretic mobilities at infinite dilution (physico-chemical property which allows to predict the migration time of an ion under an electrical field in a given electrolyte), for the determination of thermodynamic constants and for the separation of different actinide oxidation states in solution. (author)

  10. A micro-scale plasma spectrometer for space and plasma edge applications (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scime, E. E., E-mail: escime@wvu.edu; Keesee, A. M.; Elliott, D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Dugas, M.; Ellison, S.; Tersteeg, J.; Wagner, G. [Advanced Research Corporation, White Bear Lake, Minnesota 55110 (United States); Barrie, A.; Rager, A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A plasma spectrometer design based on advances in lithography and microchip stacking technologies is described. A series of curved plate energy analyzers, with an integrated collimator, is etched into a silicon wafer. Tests of spectrometer elements, the energy analyzer and collimator, were performed with a 5 keV electron beam. The measured collimator transmission and energy selectivity were in good agreement with design targets. A single wafer element could be used as a plasma processing or fusion first wall diagnostic.

  11. Cherenkov detectors and a new effective-mass spectrometer method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 75, - (2006), s. 854-855 ISSN 0969-806X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Cherenkov radiation * spectrometer * effective mass method Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2006

  12. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, δ notation. (Author)

  13. The History of Planetary Exploration Using Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    At the Planetary Probe Workshop Dr. Paul Mahaffy will give a tutorial on the history of planetary exploration using mass spectrometers. He will give an introduction to the problems and solutions that arise in making in situ measurements at planetary targets using this instrument class.

  14. Design and construction of a magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaqua, R.S.; Ludwig, G.O.; Montes, A.

    1991-08-01

    In this work we describe the design and construction of a sector magnetic mass spectrometer. The main parts of the instrument are: ion source, grids (extraction, energy analysis and ion acceleration), electrostatic lens, magnetic sector and detector. All these components are kept inside a vacuum chamber evacuated by a turbomolecular pump. (author)

  15. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yonghao; Li Deming; Chen Maobai; Lu Xiangshun

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitive mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described together with the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having been operating for five years, which provides a basis for consideration of improvements to the injection system. An optimized injection system with an analytical magnet added prior to the minicyclotron has been proposed and calculated

  16. A mass spectrometer based explosives trace detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkov, Andrey; Jorabchi, Kaveh; Hanold, Karl; Syage, Jack A.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we describe the application of mass spectrometry (MS) to the detection of trace explosives. We begin by reviewing the issue of explosives trace detection (ETD) and describe the method of mass spectrometry (MS) as an alternative to existing technologies. Effective security screening devices must be accurate (high detection and low false positive rate), fast and cost effective (upfront and operating costs). Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is the most commonly deployed method for ETD devices. Its advantages are compact size and relatively low price. For applications requiring a handheld detector, IMS is an excellent choice. For applications that are more stationary (e.g., checkpoint and alternatives to IMS are available. MS is recognized for its superior performance with regard to sensitivity and specificity, which translate to lower false negative and false positive rates. In almost all applications outside of security where accurate chemical analysis is needed, MS is usually the method of choice and is often referred to as the gold standard for chemical analysis. There are many review articles and proceedings that describe detection technologies for explosives. 1,2,3,4 Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Mass spectrometry (MS): MS offers high levels of sensitivity and specificity compared to other technologies for chemical detection. Its traditional disadvantages have been high cost and complexity. Over the last few years, however, the economics have greatly improved and MS is now capable of routine and automated operation. Here we compare MS and IMS and identify the strengths and weaknesses of each method. - Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS): 5 MS-ETD Screening System IMS is similar in concept to MS except that the ions are dispersed by gas-phase viscosity and not by molecular weight. The main advantage of IMS is that it does not use a vacuum system, which greatly reduces the size, cost, and complexity

  17. Ion beam alignment in the MSX-4 mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busygin, A.I.; Nevzorov, A.A.; Ul'masbaev, B.Sh.

    1977-01-01

    A method for electrically adjusting an ion beam in an MSKh-4 mass-spectrometer has been developed. The adjusting system consists of two deflecting plates fastened to the frame of the ion source. By adjusting the potential difference at the plates in the range 0-150 v, one can increase the intensity of the mass-spectrum by a factor of 3 to 5

  18. Advanced mass spectrometers for hydrogen-isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastagner, P.; Daves, H.L.; Hess, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    Two advanced mass spectrometers for the accurate analysis of mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes were evaluated by Du Pont personnel at the Savannah River Laboratory. One is a large double-focusing instrument with a resolution of 2000 at mass 4 and an abundance sensitivity of >100,000 for the HT-D 2 doublet. The second is a smaller, simpler, stigmatic focusing instrument with exceptionally high ion intensities (>1 x 10 - 9 A at 600 resolution and about 1 x 10 - 10 A at 1300 resolution) for high signal-to-noise ratios. Both instruments are computer controlled. Once a scan is started, peak switching, scanning, mass discrimination control, data collection, and data reduction are done without operator intervention. Utility routines control hysteresis effects and instrument calibration. A containment facility, with dual inlet systems and a standard distribution system, permits testing with tritium mixtures. Helium flow standards and tritium activity meters provide independent verification of the mass spectrometer calibrations. A recovery system prevents the release of tritium to the environment. The performance of the mass spectrometers was essentially equal under simulated process control conditions. Precision and accuracy for the D/T ratio was <0.5% (rel 2sigma limits). Performance factors were: sample equilibration <300 ppM; linearity within +-0.3%; and gas interference <0.1%. Mass discrimination was controlled reliably by the computers

  19. Micro mass spectrometer on a chip.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Dolores Y.; Blain, Matthew Glenn; Fleming, James Grant

    2005-11-01

    The design, simulation, fabrication, packaging, electrical characterization and testing analysis of a microfabricated a cylindrical ion trap ({mu}CIT) array is presented. Several versions of microfabricated cylindrical ion traps were designed and fabricated. The final design of the individual trap array element consisted of two end cap electrodes, one ring electrode, and a detector plate, fabricated in seven tungsten metal layers by molding tungsten around silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) features. Each layer of tungsten is then polished back in damascene fashion. The SiO{sub 2} was removed using a standard release processes to realize a free-hung structure. Five different sized traps were fabricated with inner radii of 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 10 {micro}m and heights ranging from 3-24 {micro}m. Simulations examined the effects of ion and neutral temperature, the pressure and nature of cooling gas, ion mass, trap voltage and frequency, space-charge, fabrication defects, and other parameters on the ability of micrometer-sized traps to store ions. The electrical characteristics of the ion trap arrays were determined. The capacitance was 2-500 pF for the various sized traps and arrays. The resistance was in the order of 1-2 {Omega}. The inductance of the arrays was calculated to be 10-1500 pH, depending on the trap and array sizes. The ion traps' field emission characteristics were assessed. It was determined that the traps could be operated up to 125 V while maintaining field emission currents below 1 x 10{sup -15} A. The testing focused on using the 5-{micro}m CITs to trap toluene (C{sub 7}H{sub 8}). Ion ejection from the traps was induced by termination of the RF voltage applied to the ring electrode and current measured on the collector electrode suggested trapping of ions in 1-10% of the traps. Improvements to the to the design of the traps were defined to minimize voltage drop to the substrate, thereby increasing trapping voltage applied to the ring electrode, and to

  20. Inhomogeneous oscillatory electric field time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    The mass-to-charge ratio of an ion can be determined from the measurement of its flight time in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field produced by the potential distribution V(x, y, t) = Vsub(DC) + Vsub(AC) cos ωt) (αsub(x)X 2 + αsub(y)Y 2 + αsub(z)Z 2 ). The governing equation of motion is the Mathieu equation. The principle of operation of this novel mass spectrometer is described and results of computer calculations of the flight time and resolution are reported. An experimental apparatus and results and results demonstrating the feasibility of this mass spectrometer principle are described. (author)

  1. Exploring ECD on a Benchtop Q Exactive Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fort, Kyle L; Cramer, Christian N; Voinov, Valery G

    2018-01-01

    As the application of mass spectrometry intensifies in scope and diversity, the need for advanced instrumentation addressing a wide variety of analytical needs also increases. To this end, many modern, top-end mass spectrometers are designed or modified to include a wider range of fragmentation...... applications including middle-down proteomics, top-down proteomics, glycoproteomics, and disulfide bond mapping. We describe the modification of the popular Q Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer to extend its fragmentation capabilities to include ECD. We show that this modification allows ≥85% matched ion...... intensity to originate from ECD fragment ion types as well as provides high sequence coverage (≥60%) of intact proteins and high fragment identification rates with ∼70% of ion signals matched. Finally, the ECD implementation promotes selective disulfide bond dissociation, facilitating the identification...

  2. Direct mass measurements of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilling, J.; Audi, G.; Beck, D.; Bollen, G.; Henry, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lunney, D.; Moore, R.B.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schwarz, S.; Sikler, G.; Szerypo, J.

    2002-01-01

    The masses of Xe isotopes with 124≥A≥114 have been measured using the ISOLTRAP spectrometer at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. A mass resolving power of 500 000 was chosen resulting in an accuracy of δm∼12 keV for all isotopes investigated. Conflicts with existing mass data of several standard deviations were found

  3. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  4. AI mass spectrometers for space shuttle health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The facility Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a mass spectrometer based gas analyzer. Two instruments make up the HGDS, which is installed in a prime/backup arrangement, with the option of using both analyzers on the same sample line, or on two different lines simultaneously. It is used for monitoring the Shuttle during fuel loading, countdown, and drainback, if necessary. The use of complex instruments, operated over many shifts, has caused problems in tracking the status of the ground support equipment (GSE) and the vehicle. A requirement for overall system reliability has been a major force in the development of Shuttle GSE, and is the ultimate driver in the choice to pursue artificial intelligence (AI) techniques for Shuttle and Advanced Launch System (ALS) mass spectrometer systems. Shuttle applications of AI are detailed.

  5. The development of a completely automated oxygen isotope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahern, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    A completely automated mass spectrometer system has been developed to measure the oxygen isotope ratio of carbon dioxide samples. The system has an accuracy of 0.03 percent, and is capable of analyzing more than 100 samples a day. The system uses an Interdata minicomputer as the primary controller. The intelligence of the system is contained within hardware circuits, software within the minicomputer, and firmware written for a Motorola 6802 microprocessor. A microprocessor-based inlet system controller maximizes the throughput of carbon dioxide samples within the inlet system. The inlet system normally contains four different aliquots of carbon dioxide and introduces these samples to the mass spectrometer through a single admittance leak. The system has been used in the analysis of 111 samples of ice taken from the Steele glacier

  6. A high efficiency thermal ionization source adapted to mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, E.P.; Olivares, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A tungsten crucible thermal ionization source mounted on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. The crucible is a disposable rod with a fine hole bored in one end; it is heated by electron bombardment. The schematic design of the assembly, including water cooling, is described and depicted. Historically, the design is derived from that of ion sources used on ion separators at Los Alamos and Dubna, but the crucible is made smaller and simplified. 10 refs., 4 figs

  7. A quadrupole mass spectrometer system for nuclear safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.

    1987-12-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor for nuclear safeguards-related surveillance of a pilot-scale gas centrifuge plant is described. This monitor utilises a quadrupole mass spectrometer to measure the isotopic composition of UF 6 in the feed and product gas streams. Details of the design and construction are given, and several difficulties are identified and discussed. Finally, the performance of this system is illustrated with typical results

  8. Commissioning of the AEI MS702 mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearton, D.C.G.; Sobiecki, A.

    1978-01-01

    The setting-up and commissioning of the AEI MS702 mass spectrometer is described. Its individual components and their use are discussed, as well as the sample preparation, analysis, and reduction of data. A comprehensive list is given of instrumental breakdowns, and the application of the technique to several matrices is outlined. Improvements and modifications to the technique, including the use of a minicomputer, are suggested

  9. Application of the mass-spectrometer MASHA for mass-spectrometry and laser-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.

    2010-02-01

    We report the present status of the mass-spectrometer MASHA (Mass-Analyzer of Supper Heavy Atoms) designed for determination of the masses of superheavy elements. The mass-spectrometer is connected to the U-400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) JINR, Dubna. The first experiments on mass-measurements for 112 and 114 elements will be performed in the upcoming 2010. For this purpose a hot catcher, based on a graphite stopper, is constructed. The α-decay of the superheavy nuclides or spontaneous fission products will be detected with a silicon 192 strips detector. The experimental program of future investigations using the technique of a gas catcher is discussed. It should be regarded as an alternative of the classical ISOL technique. The possibilities are considered for using this mass-spectrometer for laser spectroscopy of nuclei far off-stability.

  10. Application of the mass-spectrometer MASHA for mass-spectrometry and laser-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A. M.; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    We report the present status of the mass-spectrometer MASHA (Mass-Analyzer of Supper Heavy Atoms) designed for determination of the masses of superheavy elements. The mass-spectrometer is connected to the U-400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) JINR, Dubna. The first experiments on mass-measurements for 112 and 114 elements will be performed in the upcoming 2010. For this purpose a hot catcher, based on a graphite stopper, is constructed. The α-decay of the superheavy nuclides or spontaneous fission products will be detected with a silicon 192 strips detector. The experimental program of future investigations using the technique of a gas catcher is discussed. It should be regarded as an alternative of the classical ISOL technique. The possibilities are considered for using this mass-spectrometer for laser spectroscopy of nuclei far off-stability.

  11. Application of the mass-spectrometer MASHA for mass-spectrometry and laser-spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodin, A. M., E-mail: rodin@nrmail.jinr.ru; Belozerov, A. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Vanin, D. V. [JINR, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    We report the present status of the mass-spectrometer MASHA (Mass-Analyzer of Supper Heavy Atoms) designed for determination of the masses of superheavy elements. The mass-spectrometer is connected to the U-400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) JINR, Dubna. The first experiments on mass-measurements for 112 and 114 elements will be performed in the upcoming 2010. For this purpose a hot catcher, based on a graphite stopper, is constructed. The {alpha}-decay of the superheavy nuclides or spontaneous fission products will be detected with a silicon 192 strips detector. The experimental program of future investigations using the technique of a gas catcher is discussed. It should be regarded as an alternative of the classical ISOL technique. The possibilities are considered for using this mass-spectrometer for laser spectroscopy of nuclei far off-stability.

  12. Precise mass measurements of exotic nuclei--the SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Eliseev, S.; Hessberger, F.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Rauth, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Neidherr, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Neumayr, J.

    2007-01-01

    The SHIPTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer has been designed and constructed to measure the mass of short-lived, radioactive nuclei. The radioactive nuclei are produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated in flight with the velocity filter SHIP at GSI in Darmstadt. They are captured in a gas cell and transfered to a double Penning trap mass spectrometer. There, the cyclotron frequencies of the radioactive ions are determined and yield mass values with uncertainties ≥4.5·10 -8 . More than 50 nuclei have been investigated so far with the present overall efficiency of about 0.5 to 2%

  13. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina; Bocos-Bintintan, V

    2009-01-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  14. Ion mobility analyzer - quadrupole mass spectrometer system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuna, C; Leuca, M; Lupsa, N; Mirel, V; Cuna, Stela; Cosma, V; Tusa, Florina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Bocos-Bintintan, V, E-mail: cornel.cuna@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, 3 Fantanele, 400294 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Because of their extremely high sensitivity for chemicals with elevated electronegativity or high proton affinity the ion mobility analysers are ideal for the ultra-trace detection of toxic or explosive chemicals, most of these situated often at concentration levels of sub-ppb (parts-per-billion). Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) can be used to identify illicit drugs or environmental pollutants. Since resolution of an IMS is relatively low, to achieve an accurate identification of target analyte it is recommended to couple the IMS with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) or a time of flight mass spectrometer, acquiring in this way confirmatory information. This coupling is made through a specific interface. In this paper, an experimental model of such a tandem instrument, IMS-QMS is described. Accomplishment of this general purpose will be done, overcoming a series of specific issues. This implies the solving, using innovative solutions, of a series of complex issues: ensuring the stability of the ions beam generated by ion source; transfer with a good efficiency of the ionic current from IMS analyser to QMS; and realization of a special electronic circuitry which will be able to detect both positive and negative ions.

  15. Mass measurements on radioactive isotopes using the ISOLTRAP spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dilling, J; Kluge, H J; Kohl, A; Lamour, E; Marx, G; Schwarz, S C; Bollen, G; Kellerbauer, A G; Moore, R B; Henry, S

    2000-01-01

    ISOLTRAP is a Penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the on line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN. Direct measurements of the masses of short lived radio isotopes are performed using the existing triple trap system. This consists of three electromagnetic traps in tandem: a Paul trap to accumulate and bunch the 60 keV dc beam, a Penning trap for cooling and isobar separation, and a precision Penning trap for the determination of the masses by cyclotron resonance. Measurements of masses of unknown mercury isotopes and in the vicinity of doubly magic /sup 208/Pb are presented, all with an accuracy of delta m/m approximately=1*10/sup -7/. Developments to replace the Paul trap by a radiofrequency quadrupole ion guide system to increase the collection efficiency are presently under way and the status is presented. (10 refs).

  16. The AMS [Accelerator Mass Spectrometer] program at LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, I.D.

    1988-09-01

    Livermore will have an operational Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) by mid-1989 as part of its new Multi-user Tandem Laboratory. The spectrometer was designed primarily for applications in archaeology and the geosciences and was co-funded by the University of California Regents. Radiological control for personnel protection, ion sources and injection systems, the tandem and all beam handling hardware are operated with a distributed processor computer control system. The Tandem is the former University of Washington injector FN which has been upgraded with Dowlish tubes, pelletron charging and SF 6 gas. Design goals for the AMS system, computer aided operation, automated measurement capability, initial results and some of our intended applications will be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) measures gas-phase compounds in ambient air and headspace samples before using chemical ionization to produce positively charged molecules, which are detected with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This ionization method uses a gentle proton transfer reaction method between the molecule of interest and protonated water, or hydronium ion (H3O+), to produce limited fragmentation of the parent molecule. The ions produced are primarily positively charged with the mass of the parent ion, plus an additional proton. Ion concentration is determined by adding the number of ions counted at the molecular ion’s mass-to-charge ratio to the number of air molecules in the reaction chamber, which can be identified according to the pressure levels in the reaction chamber. The PTRMS allows many volatile organic compounds in ambient air to be detected at levels from 10–100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The response time is 1 to 10 seconds.

  18. Recent Advances in Water Analysis with Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAskill, John A.; Tsikata, Edem

    2014-01-01

    We report on progress made in developing a water sampling system for detection and analysis of volatile organic compounds in water with a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS). Two approaches are described herein. The first approach uses a custom water pre-concentrator for performing trap and purge of VOCs from water. The second approach uses a custom micro-volume, split-splitless injector that is compatible with air and water. These water sampling systems will enable a single GC-based instrument to analyze air and water samples for VOC content. As reduced mass, volume, and power is crucial for long-duration, manned space-exploration, these water sampling systems will demonstrate the ability of a GCMS to monitor both air and water quality of the astronaut environment, thereby reducing the amount of required instrumentation for long duration habitation. Laboratory prototypes of these water sampling systems have been constructed and tested with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer as well as a thermal conductivity detector. Presented herein are details of these water sampling system with preliminary test results.

  19. Modification of an achromatic mass spectrometer to include transverse focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, M; Noel, M

    1987-08-15

    Modification has been made to a magnetic mass spectrometer, comprising a magnetic prism and a parallel plane mirror, to increase its transmission and to obtain a stigmatic image. This has been done by adding two quadrupole lenses, one between the magnetic prism and the mirror to add some focusing in the transverse direction, the other after the mirror to correct the astigmatism created by the first quadrupole lens. In this paper, we derive all the parameters of the quadrupole lenses needed to ensure this objective.

  20. Instruction manual for ORNL tandem high abundance sensitivity mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.; Chrisite, W.H.; Walker, R.L.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-06-01

    This manual describes the physical characteristics of the tandem mass spectrometer built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency. Specific requirements met include ability to run small samples, high abundance sensitivity, good precision and accuracy, and adequate sample throughput. The instrument is capable of running uranium samples as small as 10 -12 g and has an abundance sensitivity in excess of 10 6 . Precision and accuracy are enhanced by a special sweep control circuit. Sample throughput is 6 to 12 samples per day. Operating instructions are also given

  1. Performance and application of a fourfold monopole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.; Huey, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Some preliminary tests with an experimental fourfold monopole mass spectrometer described, illustrating that the device performs acceptably (at the low resolutions used) despite the fact that the field-forming surfaces of the driven electrodes are only one quadrant of a cylinder. Coupling between adjacent channels is shown not to be a problem so that applications requiring simultaneous measurements using two or more of the monopole channels can be entertained. Owing to its parellel structure the instrument is suggested as being suited particularly to isotope ratio measurements with precisions which could be significantly better than would be possible with a quadrupole device. (Auth.)

  2. A mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of gaseous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, C.; Ortel, Y.; Taieb, J.

    1950-01-01

    A mass spectrometer for leak detection and rapid gas analysis were constructed, having the characteristics and several structural features of a simple instrument described by Siry in Rev. Sri. Instruments. 540 (1947). Although exhibiting a good resolving power, the apparatus, which has no ion lenses and whose electrodes can be regulated during the performance, has not been sufficiently tested. Since several design defects have been discovered, it will probably be rebuilt with various improvements (ion source outside the magnetic field, modified circuits, etc.). (author)

  3. Process for detecting leak faults using a helium mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divet, Claude; Morin, Claude.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a process for detecting very small leak faults putting into communication the outer and inner sides of the wall of a containment, one of these wall sides being in contact with gaseous helium under a pressure of around one torr, the other side being one of the limits of a space pumped down to a residual gas pressure under 10 -3 torr. This space is in communication with the measuring cell of a helium mass spectrometer. This process may be applied to the detection of faults in metal claddings of the fuel rods used in nuclear reactors [fr

  4. Linear electric field time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funsten, Herbert O [Los Alamos, NM; Feldman, William C [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-06-10

    A linear electric field ion mass spectrometer having an evacuated enclosure with means for generating a linear electric field located in the evacuated enclosure and means for injecting a sample material into the linear electric field. A source of pulsed ionizing radiation injects ionizing radiation into the linear electric field to ionize atoms or molecules of the sample material, and timing means determine the time elapsed between ionization of atoms or molecules and arrival of an ion out of the ionized atoms or molecules at a predetermined position.

  5. A reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, X

    1991-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of a reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the details of the ion mirror are discussed. The principle of velocity focusing with a single-stage ion mirror and the effect of the acceleration region are discussed. The performance of the reflecting instrument is described. Its detection limit is illustrated by observation of [M + H][sup +] ions from [approximately]5-35 femtomoles of various peptides. The factors that affect the resolution are discussed. The principle and operation of the reflecting instrument as a tandem mass spectrometer is described; this involves correlated detection of neutral and ionized fragments. The efficiency, resolution, sensitivity, and mass determination of daughter ions by this method are discussed. Methods of sample preparation are described. By using a nitrocellulose substrate, organic molecular ions as large as bovine insulin (MW 5733) were detected for the first time with low energy (keV) ion bombardment of a solid surface. Many daughter ion spectra resulting from metastable decay of parent ions have been studied. Secondary ions [(CsI)[sub n]Cs][sup +] with n up to [approximately]50 were detected; all clusters were found to be metastable, with most lifetimes <100 [mu]s, and for n>10 the daughter ions are dominant in the mass spectrum. Peptides of mass up to [approximately]2000 u have been studied with the correlated method; the daughter ion spectra were found to be strongly influenced by the identity of the bound cation (H[sup +], Na[sup +], K[sup +], or Ag[sup +]). Many daughter ions formed by known reactions yield structure and sequence information about the peptides. In addition, the [M + Na][sup +] and [M + Ag][sup +] ions decompose by a previously unreported pathway, namely, rearrangement of a C-terminal carboxyl oxygen onto the daughter ion containing the N-terminus. Both the reflected spectra and daughter ion spectra were found useful in peptide sequencing.

  6. Ion sampling and transport in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2017-08-01

    Quantitative accuracy and high sensitivity in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) depend on consistent and efficient extraction and transport of analyte ions from an inductively coupled plasma to a mass analyzer, where they are sorted and detected. In this review we examine the fundamental physical processes that control ion sampling and transport in ICP-MS and compare the results of theory and computerized models with experimental efforts to characterize the flow of ions through plasma mass spectrometers' vacuum interfaces. We trace the flow of ions from their generation in the plasma, into the sampling cone, through the supersonic expansion in the first vacuum stage, through the skimmer, and into the ion optics that deliver the ions to the mass analyzer. At each stage we consider idealized behavior and departures from ideal behavior that affect the performance of ICP-MS as an analytical tool.

  7. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  8. System for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1998-07-21

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high (n,f) reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  9. Method for studying a sample of material using a heavy ion induced mass spectrometer source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, D.P.; Browning, J.F.

    1999-02-16

    A heavy ion generator is used with a plasma desorption mass spectrometer to provide an appropriate neutron flux in the direction of a fissionable material in order to desorb and ionize large molecules from the material for mass analysis. The heavy ion generator comprises a fissionable material having a high n,f reaction cross section. The heavy ion generator also comprises a pulsed neutron generator that is used to bombard the fissionable material with pulses of neutrons, thereby causing heavy ions to be emitted from the fissionable material. These heavy ions impinge on a material, thereby causing ions to desorb off that material. The ions desorbed off the material pass through a time-of-flight mass analyzer, wherein ions can be measured with masses greater than 25,000 amu. 3 figs.

  10. Rapid tryptic mapping using enzymatically active mass spectrometer probe tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogruel, D.; Williams, P.; Nelson, R.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A method has been developed for rapid, sensitive, and accurate tryptic mapping of polypeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass analysis. The technique utilizes mass spectrometer probe tips which have been activated through the covalent immobilization of trypsin. The enzymatically active probe tips were used for the tryptic mapping of chicken egg lysozyme and the results compared with those obtained using either free trypsin or agarose-immobilized trypsin. A significant increase in the overall sensitivity of the process was observed using the active probe tips, as well as the production of more characteristic proteolytic fragments and the elimination of background signals due to the autolysis of the trypsin. Further, probe tip digestions were found to be rapid and convenient. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Set-up with electrostatic analyzer for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.P.; Sysoev, A.A.; Samsonov, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    An attachment with an electrostatic analyzer that enables to implement a double focusing of ion beams when used in conjunction with a magnetic analyzer, is suggested. Used as the electrostatic analyzer is a cylindrical capacitor placed in a vacuum chamber. Apart from this, the attachment includes a vacuum pump, a nitrogen trap, a battery supply unit, one-beam ion receivers and a bellows inlet for capacitor adjustment. All assemblies and parts of the attachment are made of stainless steel. The test of a combined operation of the mass-spactrometer and the attachment indicate that the use of the attachment enables the utilization of sources which form ion beams with an energy dispersion of up to 1.5%, the mass-spectrometer resolving power being unchanged

  12. Accurate mass measurements of short-lived isotopes with the MISTRAL rf spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Toader, C F; Borcea, C; Doubre, H; Duma, M; Jacotin, M; Henry, S; Képinski, J F; Lebée, G; Le Scornet, G; Lunney, M D; Monsanglant, C; De Saint-Simon, M; Thibault, C

    1999-01-01

    The MISTRAL experiment has measured its first masses at ISOLDE. Installed in May 1997, this radiofrequency transmission spectrometer is to concentrate on nuclides with particularly short half-lives. MISTRAL received its first stable beam in October and first radioactive beam in November 1997. These first tests, with a plasma ion source, resulted in excellent isobaric separation and reasonable transmission. Further testing and development enabled first data taking in July 1998 on neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms.

  13. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Single particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been estimated using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulphate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal/optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and ten discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. Potassium content was used to identify particles associated with biomass combustion. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorization, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulphate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA/EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidized OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of primary and

  14. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  15. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Crippa, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Evans, G. J.; Wenger, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC), organic aerosol (OA), ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a thermal-optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC). ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67-0.78), and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA) is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA) was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA) was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the temporal

  16. Direct mass measurements of neutron-deficient xenon isotopes using the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dilling, J; Beck, D; Bollen, G; Herfurth, F; Kellerbauer, A G; Kluge, H J; Moore, R B; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G

    2004-01-01

    The masses of the noble-gas Xe isotopes with 114 $\\leq$ A $\\leq$ 123 have been directly measured for the first time. The experiments were carried out with the ISOLTRAP triple trap spectrometer at the online mass separator ISOLDE/CERN. A mass resolving power of the Penning trap spectrometer of $m/\\Delta m$ of close to a million was chosen resulting in an accuracy of $\\delta m \\leq 13$ keV for all investigated isotopes. Conflicts with existing, indirectly obtained, mass data by several standard deviations were found and are discussed. An atomic mass evaluation has been performed and the results are compared to information from laser spectroscopy experiments and to recent calculations employing an interacting boson model.

  17. Atom-probe field-ion-microscope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    The titled analyzer, called simply atom-probe, has been developed by combining a field ion microscope (FIM) and a mass spectrometer, and is divided into the time-of-flight type, magnetic sector type, and quadrupole type depending on the types of mass spectrometers. In this paper, the author first describes on the principle and construction of a high resolution, time-of-flight atom-probe developed and fabricated in his laboratory. The feature of the atom-probe lies in the analysis of atoms and molecules in hyper-fine structure region one by one utilizing the high resolution of FIM. It also has the advantages of directly determining the composition by a ratio of the numbers of respective ions because of a constant detection sensitivity regardless of mass numbers, of the resolution as high as single atom layer in depth direction, and of detecting the positional relationship among detected ions by the order of detection in a sample. To determine the composition in a hyperfine structure region, the limited small number of atoms and molecules in the region must be identified distinctly one by one. In the analyzed result of Ni-silicide formed by heating Si evaporated on a Ni tip at 1000 K for 5 minutes, each isotope was not only clearly separated, but also their abundance ratio was very close to the natural abundance ratio. The second half of the paper reports on the analysis of TiC promising for a cold cathode material, adsorption of CO and alcohol, and the composition and structure of silicides, as a few application examples. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  19. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  20. Controllable isotope fractionation with thermal ionisation mass-spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebeda, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Isotopic ratios measured with thermal ionisation mass-spectrometers are biased by fractionation effects. A sample must therefore be analyzed according to the same procedures as applied for the analysis of the standard reference material. A comparison of the behaviour of the sample with that of the standard can then be used as a criterion whether the analytical results are acceptable or not. In this way it is possible to obtain reproducibilities similar to those for elements acceptable or not. In this way it is possible to obtain reproducibilities similar to those for elements where the fractionation can be determined by an internal standard. This procedure of controlled fractionation is demonstrated by means of the 88 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios measured on geological samples and the SRM 987 standard. (orig.)

  1. MASS-SAT: Matter-antimatter space spectrometer on satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Basini, G; Massimo Brancaccio, F; Ricci, M; Bocciolini, M; Spillantini, P; Wang, Y F; Bongiorno, F; de Pascale, M P; Morselli, A; Picozza, P; de Marzo, C; Erriquez, O; Barbiellini, G; Vacchi, A; Galeotti, P; Ballocchi, G; Simon, M; Carlson, P; Goret, P; Golden, R L

    The MASS-SAT Experiment (Matter-Antimatter Space Spectrometer on SATellite) presented here is conceived to search for an experimental answer to many open problems related to both Astrophysics and Physics, through the detection of positrons, antiprotons, nuclei and, overall, antinuclei if they exist. Among these problems there are the hypothesized presence of antigalaxies in the Universe (the matter-antimatter symmetry problem), the existence of black holes as possible antiproton sources (the Hawking effect), the existence of photinos as antiproton sources (related to the dark-matter problem), the understanding of the mechanism of cosmic-ray acceleration in the interstellar medium, the determination of the relative abundancies of isotopes in cosmic rays and many others. The choice of an orbit expecially appropriate for that (geostationary or polar orbit) as well as the choice of an apparatus composed only of solid-state detectors and permanent magnets (no gas and no liquid helium on board, avoiding complexity ...

  2. The role of vacuum in the quality of TOF mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhowmick, A.; Gadkari, S.C.; Yakhmi, J.V.; Sahni, V.C.

    2005-01-01

    The art in the designing of time-of-flight mass spectrometers has come across a long course of development. The present day state-of-the-art machines are essentially the outcome of knowledge from the advances in different other areas of technology. This article discusses exclusively the role of UHV to enhance the quality of the TOF mass spectrometers and its application to the recently developed high resolution TOF mass spectrometer at TP and PED-BARC. (author)

  3. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  4. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ''MS Expert'' system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills avilable on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system ''shell.'' The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it will also provide structures diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell. 22 refs., 5 figs

  5. Multiple-ion-beam time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Continetti, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase the throughput of mass spectrometric analyses using a multiple-ion-beam mass spectrometer is described. Two sample spots were applied onto a laser desorption/ionization target and each spot was simultaneously irradiated by a beam of quadrupled Nd:YLF laser radiation (261.75 nm) to produce ions by laser-desorption ionization. Acceleration of the ions in an electric field created parallel ion beams that were focused by two parallel einzel lens systems. After a flight path of 2.34 m, the ions were detected with a microchannel plate-phosphor screen assembly coupled with a charge coupled device camera that showed two resolved ion beams. Time-of-flight mass spectra were also obtained with this detector. Experiments were performed using both metal atom cations (Ti + and Cr + ) produced by laser desorption/ionization and the molecular ions of two different proteins (myoglobin and lysozyme), created by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization using an excess of nicotinic acid as matrix

  6. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, E.E.; Rankin, R.A.; Webb, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The MS Expert system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho General Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills available on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system shell. The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it also provides structured diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and, a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell

  7. Simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR ICP-MS) in marine sediments; Mesure des isotopes du plutonium des sediments marins par spectrometrie de masse a plasma couple inductivement haute resolution (HR ICP-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruneau, F

    1999-07-01

    Transuranics elements are of particular interest in radioecological studies because of their radiotoxicity and their potential use to decipher source fingerprints and transport processes. The simultaneous measurement of {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 242}Pu in environmental samples requires a specific chemical procedure. This work deals with an analytical procedure which yields a very high grade of purification of Pu suitable for ultra low level detection by HR ICP-MS, from marine sediments. After the elimination of major elements (Fe, Al, Mg...) by a first chromatographic separation, a new device of purification by solvent extraction and concentration by a second chromatographic separation is used to obtain a concentrated and high purified solution of plutonium. The chemical procedure have been validated on IAEA certified sediment samples and on sediment samples collected in the roads of Cherbourg which had been previously analysed by other techniques (a spectrometry and thermo-ionisation mass spectrometer). (author)

  8. Using a fully automatic mass spectrometer for fissile material control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmi, M.

    1978-08-01

    The demand for higher accuracy and a shorter delay in the analysis together with better objectifiability and data security needed in safeguards, lead to the automation of a mass spectrometer. Starting with a continuous feeding of samples via a high vacuum lock and including the subsequent heating, focussing and scanning of the samples as well as the final evaluation of the source data (taking alpha spectrometry and the weights required for the isotope dilution technique into account), the mass spectrometric procedure was completely automated. For this purpose, a serial CH-5 instrument of varian mat was modified to be operated by a varian 620/I computer. A newly developed three chamber high vacuum lock was attached to this system and the final evaluation is made with an IBM 370. The system has been used in operation for the isotope analysis of U, Pu and Nd for one year. Major breakdowns of the hardware did not occur, however, the computer programmes had to be steadily improved according to the changing characteristics of the samples. Compared to manual operation, the automat is superior in its throughput and speed of analysing series of similar samples. The automatic procedure objectifies the analysis and the complete evaluation ensures a better data security. (Orig./HP). (author)

  9. 21 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Greatly Expands Mass Spectrometry Toolbox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Jared B.; Lin, Tzu-Yung; Leach, Franklin E.; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Tolić, Nikola; Robinson, Errol W.; Koppenaal, David W.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana

    2016-10-12

    We provide the initial performance evaluation of a 21 Tesla Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer operating at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The spectrometer constructed for the 21T system employs a commercial dual linear ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to a FTICR spectrometer designed and built in-house. Performance gains from moving to higher magnetic field strength are exemplified by the measurement of peptide isotopic fine structure, complex natural organic matter mixtures, and large proteins. Accurate determination of isotopic fine structure was demonstrated for doubly charged substance P with minimal spectral averaging, and 8,158 molecular formulas assigned to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid standard with RMS error of 10 ppb. We also demonstrated superior performance for intact proteins; namely, broadband isotopic resolution of the entire charge state distribution of apotransferrin (78 kDa) and facile isotopic resolution of monoclonal antibody under a variety of acquisition parameters (e.g. 6 s time-domains with absorption mode processing yielded resolution of approximately 1M at m/z =2,700).

  10. Mass Spectrometer Sounding of the Turbopause Region on Commercial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurairajah, B.; Bailey, S. M.; Syrstad, E. A.; Fish, C. S.; Siskind, D. E.; Russell, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The turbopause region near 100 km remains one of the most poorly explored yet crucial regions of the upper atmosphere. In the vicinity of this altitude, the atmosphere reaches its lowest temperature and changes from being well mixed to being in diffusive equilibrium. Dynamical energy in the form of tides as well as gravity and planetary waves propagate from the lower atmosphere up to the ionosphere and thermosphere. Some energy and reactive chemical species are transported down across the turbopause to lower altitudes where the impact is significant. There is a significant dearth of composition observations near the turbopause. Few measurement techniques work well at this altitude, and it is too low for satellite orbits. Amazingly, major species with relatively large abundances such as O2, O, and CO2 are all poorly understood at these attitudes. While there are several experiments that measure temperature, the uncertainties in the temperature measurements are large because the techniques that are used rely on knowledge of CO2 or sometimes of O2. The lack of composition information thus hinders those observations that do occur near the turbopause and mesopause and leaves us with an overall poor understanding of this altitude region. We are soon to enter a new era in space exploration. Routine visits to the 100km region by commercial vehicles are on the verge of becoming a reality. The relevant organizations have expressed a willingness and even enthusiasm for including scientific instrumentation with their tourism and related commercial goals. We propose a major step forward in understanding the turbopause region by developing a mass spectrometer capable of being manifested on these commercial vehicles. Such an implantation could ultimately result in daily sounding of the turbopause region and greatly expand the database of measurements there. Our suggested instrument is a cryogenic time-of-flight mass Spectrometer. This technique has heritage, and our

  11. High-Precision Mass Measurements of Exotic Nuclei with the Triple-Trap Mass Spectrometer Isoltrap

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Zuber, K T; Stanja, J

    2002-01-01

    The masses of close to 200 short-lived nuclides have already been measured with the mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP with a relative precision between 1$\\times$10$^{-7}$ and 1$\\times$10^{-8}$. The installatin of a radio-frequency quadrupole trap increased the overall efficiency by two orders of magnitude which is at present about 1%. In a recent upgrade, we installed a carbon cluster laser ion source, which will allow us to use carbon clusters as mass references for absolute mass measurements. Due to these improvements and the high reliability of ISOLTRAP we are now able to perform accurate high-precision mass measurements all over the nuclear chart. We propose therefore mass measurements on light, medium and heavy nuclides on both sides of the valley of stability in the coming four years. ISOLTRAP is presently the only instrument capable of the high precision required for many of the proposed studies.

  12. Installation of a tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, Toshihiko; Togawa, Orihiko; Mizutani, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi

    2000-02-01

    Tandem-type accelerator mass spectrometer (hereinafter referred to as Tandetron) was installed at the Ominato Facility of Mutsu Establishment, JAERI in April, 1997. The objective of its installation is to investigate the mechanism of the mixing and circulation of seawater in the ocean, by collecting seawater samples around Japan and analyzing the horizontal and vertical distributions of 14 C contained in the samples. The Tandetron consists of two lines to measure isotopic ratios of carbon and those of heavier iodine. The adjustment for the carbon line was finished and the measurements of seawater samples were started. The iodine line, on the other hand, is on the final step of its adjustment and performance tests are being carried out with a TOF (Time of Flight) detector. The iodine line will be used to analyze 129 I released from a spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and other nuclear facilities. In this report, we summarize the status of installation of the carbon and iodine lines for the Tandetron. The report describes the situations of their adjustments until now, the outline of the Tandetron, tests of measurement performance, evaluation and inspection of shielding performance, problems and their solutions, and so on. (author)

  13. Precise mass measurements of astrophysical interest made with the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.A.; Barber, R.C.; Blank, B.; Boudreau, C.; Buchinger, F.; Crawford, J.E.; Gulick, S.; Hardy, J.C.; Heinz, A.; Lee, J.K.P.; Levand, A.F.; Moore, R.B.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Sharma, K.S.; Sprouse, G.D.; Trimble, W.; Vaz, J.; Wang, J.C.; Zhou, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The processes responsible for the creation of elements more massive than iron are not well understood. Possible production mechanisms involve the rapid capture of protons (rp-process) or the rapid capture of neutrons (r-process), which are thought to occur in explosive astrophysical events such as novae, x-ray bursts, and supernovae. Mass measurements of the nuclides involved with uncertainties on the order of 100 keV or better are critical to determine the process 'paths', the energy output of the events, and the resulting nuclide abundances. Particularly important are the masses of 'waiting-point' nuclides along the rp-process path where the process stalls until the subsequent β decay of the nuclides. This paper will discuss the precise mass measurements made of isotopes along the rp-process and r-process paths using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer, including the mass of the critical waiting-point nuclide 68 Se

  14. Simultaneous ion detection in a mass spectrometer with variable mass dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuithof, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis mainly describes the ion-optics of a magnetic mass spectrometer system, especially applied to the projection of a significant part of the mass spectrum onto a flat ion-detector. The complete detector consists of a channeltron electron multiplier array with phosphor screen and a Vidicon-multichannel analyzer combination for simultaneous read-out. In order to optimise the spectral range projected onto the channelplate, by varying the mass dispersion and to rotate the oblique angle of the mass focal plane with respect to the detector surface, the sector magnet has been combined with electrostatic and magnetic quadrupole lenses. This detector will find wide application in the analysis of minute sample quantities, in the recording of extremely short ion events (large molecules) and at collision activation mass-spectrometry studies

  15. Sensitive helium leak detection in a deuterium atmosphere using a high-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroki, S.; Abe, T.; Murakami, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In fusion machines, realizing a high-purity plasma is a key to improving the plasma parameters. Thus, leak detection is a necessary part of reducing the leak rate to a tolerable level. However, a conventional helium ( 4 He) leak detector is useless in fusion machines with a deuterium (D 2 ) plasma, because retained D particles on the first walls release D 2 for a long period and the released D 2 interferes with the signals from the leaked 4 He due to the near identical masses of 4.0026 u ( 4 He) and 4.0282 u (D 2 ). A high-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer (HR-QMS) that we have recently developed, can detect a 4 He + population as small as 10 -4 peak in a D 2 atmosphere. Thus, the HR-QMS has been applied to detect 4 He leaks. To improve the minimum detectable limit of 4 He leak, a differentially pumped HR-QMS analyzer was attached to a chamber of the 4 He leak detector. In conclusion, the improved 4 He leak detector could detect 4 He leaks of the order of 10 -10 Pa · m 3 /s in a D 2 atmosphere. (Author)

  16. Ion deposition by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, K.; Houk, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is used with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS) for ion deposition. The deposited element is introduced as a nebulized aqueous solution. Modifications to the ICP-MS device allow generation and deposition of a mass-resolved beam of 165 Ho + at 5x10 12 ions s -1 . The ICP is a universal, multielement ion source that can potentially be used for applications such as deposition of mixtures of widely varying stoichiometry or of alternating layers of different elements. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  17. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  18. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  19. Invited Article: Characterization of background sources in space-based time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Gershman, D. J.; Gloeckler, G.; Lundgren, R. A.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Orlando, T. M.; McLain, J.; Steiger, R. von

    2014-01-01

    For instruments that use time-of-flight techniques to measure space plasma, there are common sources of background signals that evidence themselves in the data. The background from these sources may increase the complexity of data analysis and reduce the signal-to-noise response of the instrument, thereby diminishing the science value or usefulness of the data. This paper reviews several sources of background commonly found in time-of-flight mass spectrometers and illustrates their effect in actual data using examples from ACE-SWICS and MESSENGER-FIPS. Sources include penetrating particles and radiation, UV photons, energy straggling and angular scattering, electron stimulated desorption of ions, ion-induced electron emission, accidental coincidence events, and noise signatures from instrument electronics. Data signatures of these sources are shown, as well as mitigation strategies and design considerations for future instruments

  20. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  1. Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer Peak Calibrations from Statistical Analysis of Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, A. K.; Johnson, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) is an actuating time-of-flight (TOF) instrument capable of resolving ion mass, energy, and trajectory over a field of view that captures nearly the entire sky. One of three instruments composing the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer, IMS sampled plasma throughout the Kronian magnetosphere from 2004 through 2012 when it was permanently disabled due to an electrical malfunction. Initial calibration of the flight instrument at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was limited to a handful of ions and energies due to time constraints, with only about 30% of planned measurements carried out prior to launch. Further calibration measurements were subsequently carried out after launch at SwRI and Goddard Space Flight Center using the instrument prototype and engineering model, respectively. However, logistical differences among the three calibration efforts raise doubts as to how accurately the post-launch calibrations describe the behavior of the flight instrument. Indeed, derived peak parameters for some ion species differ significantly from one calibration to the next. In this study we instead perform a statistical analysis on 8 years of flight data in order to extract ion peak parameters that depend only on the response of the flight instrument itself. This is accomplished by first sorting the TOF spectra based on their apparent compositional similarities (e.g. primarily water group ions, primarily hydrocarbon ions, etc.) and normalizing each spectrum. The sorted, normalized data are then binned according to TOF, energy, and counts in order to generate energy-dependent probability density maps of each ion peak contour. Finally, by using these density maps to constrain a stochastic peak fitting algorithm we extract confidence intervals for the model parameters associated with various measured ion peaks, establishing a logistics-independent calibration of the body of IMS data gathered over the course of the Cassini mission.

  2. Measurement of mass and isotopic fission yields for heavy fission products with the LOHENGRIN mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bail, A.

    2009-05-01

    In spite of the huge amount of fission yield data available in different libraries, more accurate values are still needed for nuclear energy applications and to improve our understanding of the fission process. Thus measurements of fission yields were performed at the mass spectrometer Lohengrin at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The mass separator Lohengrin is situated at the research reactor of the institute and permits the placement of an actinide layer in a high thermal neutron flux. It separates fragments according to their atomic mass, kinetic energy and ionic charge state by the action of magnetic and electric fields. Coupled to a high resolution ionization chamber the experiment was used to investigate the mass and isotopic yields of the light mass region. Almost all fission yields of isotopes from Th to Cf have been measured at Lohengrin with this method. To complete and improve the nuclear data libraries, these measurements have been extended in this work to the heavy mass region for the reactions 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) and 241 Pu(n th ,f). For these higher masses an isotopic separation is no longer possible. So, a new method was undertaken with the reaction 239 Pu(n th ,f) to determine the isotopic yields by spectrometry. These experiments have allowed to reduce considerably the uncertainties. Moreover the ionic charge state and kinetic energy distributions were specifically studied and have shown, among others, nanosecond isomers for some masses. (author)

  3. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, James P., E-mail: james.tonks@awe.co.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Galloway, Ewan C., E-mail: ewan.galloway@awe.co.uk; King, Martin O. [AWE Plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Kerherve, Gwilherm [VACGEN Ltd, St. Leonards-On-Sea, East Sussex TN38 9NN (United Kingdom); Watts, John F. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  4. Study of extraterrestrial material by means of a high sensitive mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, O.; Kaneko, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Shimamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this report it is described about a high sensitive mass spectrometer for measurement of isotopic abundance of extraterrestrial material. Detecting isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial matter induced by cosmic ray or solar wind irradiation, we can obtain many informations about interplanetary and/or intersteller space. For this purpose we reform the mass spectrometer of Low Energy Physics Division of INS to improve the sensitivity and the resolution. In section I--VI some improvements of the mass spectrometer (vacuum system, ion source, collector etc.) are described. In section VII--X newly developed ion counting system is discussed. (auth.)

  5. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  6. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  7. Plasma rotation measurement in small tokamaks using an optical spectrometer and a single photomultiplier as detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, J H F; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetov, Yu K; Tsypin, V S; Galvão, R M O; Tendler, M

    2007-04-01

    The method for plasma rotation measurement in the tokamak TCABR is reported in this article. During a discharge, an optical spectrometer is used to scan sequentially spectral lines of plasma impurities and spectral lines of a calibration lamp. Knowing the scanning velocity of the diffraction grating of the spectrometer with adequate precision, the Doppler shifts of impurity lines are determined. The photomultiplier output voltage signals are recorded with adequate sampling rate. With this method the residual poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation velocities were determined, assuming that they are the same as those of the impurity ions. The results show reasonable agreement with the neoclassical theory and with results from similar tokamaks.

  8. Electron attachment mass spectrometry as a diagnostics for electronegative gases and plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels - Adamowicz, E.; Stoffels, W.W.; Tachibana, K.

    1998-01-01

    Electron attachment mass spectrometry (EAMS) has been developed to study mixtures of electronegative gases and plasmas. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) has been used to detect negative ions, formed from sampled species by attachment of low energy electrons. Varying the electron energy allows to

  9. Mass measurement of halo nuclides and beam cooling with the mass spectrometer Mistral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachelet, C.

    2004-12-01

    Halo nuclides are a spectacular drip-line phenomenon and their description pushes nuclear theories to their limits. The most critical input parameter is the nuclear binding energy; a quantity that requires excellent measurement precision, since the two-neutron separation energy is small at the drip-line by definition. Moreover halo nuclides are typically very short-lived. Thus, a high accuracy instrument using a quick method of measurement is necessary. MISTRAL is such an instrument; it is a radiofrequency transmission mass spectrometer located at ISOLDE/CERN. In July 2003 we measured the mass of the Li 11 , a two-neutron halo nuclide. Our measurement improves the precision by a factor 6, with an error of 5 keV. Moreover the measurement gives a two-neutron separation energy 20% higher than the previous value. This measurement has an impact on the radius of the nucleus, and on the state of the two valence neutrons. At the same time, a measurement of the Be 11 was performed with an uncertainty of 4 keV, in excellent agreement with previous measurements. In order to measure the mass of the two-neutron halo nuclide Be 14 , an ion beam cooling system is presently under development which will increase the sensitivity of the spectrometer. The second part of this work presents the development of this beam cooler using a gas-filled Paul trap. (author)

  10. Laser ionization time of flight mass spectrometer for isotope mass detection and elemental analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasar; Ahmed, Rizwan; Umar, Z. A.; Aslam Baig, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present the construction and modification of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer to improve its mass resolution. This system consists of a laser ablation/ionization section based on a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 500 mJ, 5 ns pulse duration) integrated with a one meter linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled with an electric sector and a magnetic lens and outfitted with a channeltron electron multiplier for ion detection. The resolution of the system has been improved by optimizing the accelerating potential and inserting a magnetic lens after the extraction region. The isotopes of lithium, lead and cadmium samples have been resolved and detected in accordance with their natural abundance. The capability of the system has been further exploited to determine the elemental composition of a brass alloy, having a certified composition of zinc and copper. Our results are in excellent agreement with its certified composition. This setup is found to be extremely efficient and convenient for fast analyses of any solid sample.

  11. Mars Solar Balloon Landed Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P.; Harpold, D.; Niemann, H.; Atreya, S.; Gorevan, S.; Israel, G.; Bertaux, J. L.; Jones, J.; Owen, T.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    A Mars surface lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) is described to measure the chemical composition of abundant and trace volatile species and isotope ratios for noble gases and other elements. These measurements are relevant to the study of atmospheric evolution and past climatic conditions. A Micromission plan is under study where a surface package including a miniaturized GCMS would be delivered to the surface by a solar heated hot air balloon based system. The balloon system would be deployed about 8 km above the surface of Mars, wherein it would rapidly fill with Martian atmosphere and be heated quickly by the sun. The combined buoyancy and parachuting effects of the solar balloon result in a surface package impact of about 5 m/sec. After delivery of the package to the surface, the balloon would ascend to about 4 km altitude, with imaging and magnetometry data being taken for the remainder of the daylight hours as the balloon is blown with the Martian winds. Total atmospheric entry mass of this mission is estimated to be approximately 50 kg, and it can fit as an Ariane 5 piggyback payload. The GCMS would obtain samples directly from the atmosphere at the surface and also from gases evolved from solid phase material collected from well below the surface with a Sample Acquisition and Transport Mechanism (SATM). The experiment envisioned in the Mars Micromission described would obtain samples from a much greater depth of up to one meter below the surface, and would search for organic molecules trapped in ancient stratified layers well below the oxidized surface. Insitu instruments on upcoming NASA missions working in concert with remote sensing measurement techniques have the potential to provide a more detailed investigation of mineralogy and the extent of simple volatiles such as CO2 and H2O in surface and subsurface solid phase materials. Within the context of subsequent mission opportunities such as those provided by the Ariane 5 piggyback

  12. Large acceptance spectrometers for invariant mass spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Large acceptance spectrometers at in-flight RI separators have played significant roles in investigating the structure of exotic nuclei. Such spectrometers are in particular useful for probing unbound states of exotic nuclei, using invariant mass spectroscopy with reactions at intermediate and high energies. We discuss here the key characteristic features of such spectrometers, by introducing the recently commissioned SAMURAI facility at the RIBF, RIKEN. We also investigate the issue of cross talk in the detection of multiple neutrons, which has become crucial for exploring further unbound states and nuclei beyond the neutron drip line. Finally we discuss future perspectives for large acceptance spectrometers at the new-generation RI-beam facilities.

  13. Spectrometer Development in Support of Thomson Scattering Investigations for the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Eva; Davies, Richard; Azzari, Phil; Frank, John; Frank, Jackson; James, Royce; Hopson, Jordon; Duke-Tinson, Omar; Paolino, Richard; Sherman, Justin; Wright, Erin; Turk, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Now that reproducible plasmas have been created on the Helicon Plasma Experiment (HPX) at the Coast Guard Academy Plasma Laboratory (CGAPL), a high-performance spectrometer utilizing volume-phase-holographic (VPH) grating and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera with a range of 380-1090 nm and resolution of 1024x1024 is being assembled. This spectrometer will collect doppler shifted photons created by exciting the plasma with the first harmonic of a 2.5 J Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Direct measurements of the plasma's temperature and density will be determined using HPX's Thomson Scattering (TS) system as a single spatial point diagnostic. TS has the capability of determining plasma properties on short time scales and will be used to create a robust picture of the internal plasma parameters. A prototype spectrometer has been constructed to explore the Andor CCD camera's resolution and sensitivity. Concurrently, through intensive study of the high energy TS system, safety protocols and standard operation procedures (SOP) for the Coast Guard's largest and most powerful Laser have been developed. The current status of the TS SOP, diagnostic development, and the collection optic's spectrometer will be reported. Supported by U.S. DEPS Grant [HEL-JTO] PRWJFY15-16.

  14. Physical design of time-of-flight mass spectrometer in energetic cluster impact deposition apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guoqing; Shi Ying; Chen Jingsheng; Zhu Dezhang; Pan Haochang; Xu Hongjie

    1999-01-01

    The principle and physical design of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped in the energetic cluster impact deposition apparatus are introduced. Some problems existed in experiments and their solutions are also discussed

  15. Miniature Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Space and Extraterrestrial Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PI has developed a miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), which can be op-timized for space and extraterrestrial applications, by using a...

  16. X-ray spectroscopic study of high-temperature plasmas by curved crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru.

    1983-07-01

    Extensive studies have been carried out on the structure of X-ray spectra from the highly stripped ions of first transition elements and their behavior in high temperature plasma, using a high resolution crystal spectrometer. Calculation was made on the design and the use of a curved crystal spectrometer for plasma diagnostics. A Johann type crystal spectrometer for measuring X-ray lines was constructed on the basis of the calculation. The characteristics of curved crystals of LiF, Ge and quartz used for the measurement of Kα lines from first transition elements were investigated. Vacuum sparks have been formed for producing high temperature plasma which emits X-ray lines from highly stripped ions. Two different structures of vacuum spark plasma were shown, that is, thermalized point plasma and extended plasma associated with non-thermal electrons. The X-ray lines from the extended plasma, those associated with the K shell from the point plasma and the Kα lines of Ti through Zn from the point plasma have been observed. (Kako, I.)

  17. Peter J Derrick and the Grand Scale 'Magnificent Mass Machine' mass spectrometer at Warwick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, A W; Derrick, Peter J; Bowen, Richard D

    2017-12-01

    The value of the Grand Scale 'Magnificent Mass Machine' mass spectrometer in investigating the reactivity of ions in the gas phase is illustrated by a brief analysis of previously unpublished work on metastable ionised n-pentyl methyl ether, which loses predominantly methanol and an ethyl radical, with very minor contributions for elimination of ethane and water. Expulsion of an ethyl radical is interpreted in terms of isomerisation to ionised 3-pentyl methyl ether, via distonic ions and, possibly, an ion-neutral complex comprising ionised ethylcyclopropane and methanol. This explanation is consistent with the closely similar behaviour of the labelled analogues, C 3 H 7 CH 2 CD 2 OCH 3 +. and C 3 H 7 CD 2 CH 2 OCH 3 +. , and is supported by the greater kinetic energy release associated with loss of ethane from ionised n-propyl methyl ether compared to that starting from directly generated ionised 3-pentyl methyl ether.

  18. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  19. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livemore, California 94551 (United States); Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  20. Double-arm time-of-flight mass-spectrometer of nuclear fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajvazian, G.M.; Astabatyan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A double-arm time-of-flight spectrometer of nuclear fragments for the investigation of heavy nuclei photofission in the intermediate energy range is described. The calibration results and working characteristics of the spectrometer, obtained using 252 Cf as a source of spontaneous fission, are presented. A mass resolution of σ m ∼2-3 a.m.u. was obtained within the registered fragments mass range of 80-160 a.m.u. The spectrometer was tested in the experiment on the investigation of 238 U nuclei fission by Bremsstahlung photons with Eγ max=1.75 GeV

  1. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  2. A compact E × B filter: A multi-collector cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blase, Ryan C., E-mail: rblase@swri.edu; Miller, Greg; Brockwell, Tim; Waite, J. Hunter [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, Texas 78238 (United States); Westlake, Joseph [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory LLC, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Ostrom, Nathaniel; Ostrom, Peggy H. [Department of Integrative Biology, Michigan State University, 288 Farm Lane RM 203, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A compact E × B mass spectrometer is presented. The mass spectrometer presented is termed a “perfect focus” mass spectrometer as the resolution of the device is independent of both the initial direction and energy of the ions (spatial and energy independent). The mass spectrometer is small in size (∼10.7 in.{sup 3}) and weight (∼2 kg), making it an attractive candidate for portability when using small, permanent magnets. A multi-collector Faraday cup design allows for the detection of multiple ion beams in discrete collectors simultaneously; providing the opportunity for isotope ratio monitoring. The mass resolution of the device is around 400 through narrow collector slits and the sensitivity of the device follows expected theoretical calculations of the ion current produced in the electron impact ion source. Example mass spectra obtained from the cycloidal focusing mass spectrometer are presented as well as information on mass discrimination based on instrumental parameters and isotope ratio monitoring of certain ion signals in separate Faraday cups.

  3. First direct mass measurements on nobelium and lawrencium with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworschak, Michael Gerhard

    2009-12-08

    The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt was set up for high-precision mass measurements of heavy radionuclides produced in fusion evaporation reactions and separated from the primary beam by the velocity filter SHIP. It consists of a gas stopping cell for the deceleration of the high energetic reaction products, an RFQ cooler and buncher for cooling and accumulation of the ions, and a double Penning trap system to perform mass measurements. The mass is determined by measuring the cyclotron frequency of the ion of interest in a strong homogeneous magnetic field and comparing it to the frequency of a well-known reference ion. With this method relative uncertainties in the order of 10{sup -8} can be achieved. Recently, mass measurements of the three nobelium isotopes {sup 252-254}No (Z=102) and the lawrencium isotope {sup 255}Lr (Z=103) were performed successfully. These were the first direct mass measurements of transuranium elements ever per- formed. The production rate of the atoms of interest was about one per second or less. The results of the measurements on nobelium confirm the previous mass values which were deduced from Q{sub {alpha}} values. In the case of {sup 255}Lr the mass excess value, which was previously only estimated from systematic trends, was for the first time directly measured. These results mark the first step in the exploration of the region of transuranium elements which is planned at SHIPTRAP. The main objective is to fix the endpoints of {alpha} decay chains which are originating from superheavy elements close to the predicted island of stability. (orig.)

  4. Mass-spectrometer of knock-on nuclei for reactor 'Pik'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begzhanov, P.B.; Nazarov, A.G.; Petrov, G.A.; Pikul', V.P.

    1999-01-01

    For reactor 'Pik' (that is being built in St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics) there was designed a universal two shoulder mass-spectrometer for non-decelerated fission products (FP) of nuclei. The spectrometer helps to obtain different values of linear magnification, dispersion, aberration coefficients and transmission without making structural changes in the device. To separate FP for one shoulder of spectrometer we chose ion-optical scheme (IOS) consisting of three electrostatic analyzers and three-sectional magnet 'JOSEF' that had high dispersion by masses at small deflection radius. IOS calculations of mass-spectrometer were performed with the help of program TRANSVOL (transfer of phase volume) designed basing on TRIO program. The program allows calculating of complete IOS transmission with taking into account elements aperture and beam officering

  5. Mass spectrometer and method with improved ion transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.J.; French, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a mass analyzer, and to a method of operating a mass analyzer, of the kind in which ions are transmitted through a first rod set for focussing and separation from an accompanying gas, before passing through a mass filter rod set which which permits transmission only of ions of a selected mass to charge ratio. (author). 19 figs

  6. Procedure and apparatus for controlling the ion energy in a mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fies, W J; Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    The invention relates to a process and apparatus for adjusting the energy of ions of different masses in a mass spectrometer. Specifically, it concerns a mass spectrometer having a gas inlet and ionisation space. A multipole mass filter includes several electrodes. A focusing system connects the ionisation space and the mass filter. Provision is made for applying to the electrodes a mass adjusting voltage combining a high frequency voltage and a d.c. voltage of increasing amplitude, so that the ions of a pre-determined mass can be selected. This system also includes a device connected to the electrodes, sensitive to the mass adjusting voltage and enabling the energy of the ions to be adjusted to that of the selected ions, depending on the mass of the ions, by modifying the difference in potential between the ionisation volume and the mean potential of the electrodes .

  7. Ion optics of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, T.; Ito, H.; Matsuo, T.

    1995-01-01

    The ion optics for a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been investigated. The multiple focusing (triple isochronous focusing and triple spacial focusing) conditions can be achieved by using a symmetrical arrangement of the sectors in a mass spectrometer. Both high mass resolution and high ion transmission can be accomplished simultaneously. The principles of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS analyses using a TOF mass spectrometer with electrostatic sector analyzers have been proposed. Product ion spectra can be obtained by measuring the total flight times and the kinetic energy of the products without any additional separation processes, any coincidence techniques or any special timing circuits. In an experiment, MS/MS and MS/MS/MS mass spectra have been obtained. The first generation product ions have been produced by a metastable decay, and the second generation products have been produced by a sequential decay. (orig.)

  8. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk [Sensor Tech Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H]{sup -} for TNT and DNT or [M]{sup ·-}. for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO]{sup -}. These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available.

  9. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Eight Common Chemical Explosives Using Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sehwan; Lee, Jihyeon; KIm, Jeongkwon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Goh, Eun Mee; Lee, Sungman; Koh, Sungsuk

    2013-01-01

    Eight representative explosives (ammonium perchlorate (AP), ammonium nitrate (AN), trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), cyclonite (RDX), cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexanitrostilbene (HNS)) were comprehensively analyzed with an ion trap mass spectrometer in negative ion mode using direct infusion electrospray ionization. MS/MS experiments were performed to generate fragment ions from the major parent ion of each explosive. Explosives in salt forms such as AP or AN provided cluster parent ions with their own anions. Explosives with an aromatic ring were observed as either [M.H] - for TNT and DNT or [M] ·- . for HNS, while explosives without an aromatic ring such as RDX, HMX, and PETN were detected as an adduct ion with a formate anion, i. e., [M+HCOO] - . These findings provide a guideline for the rapid and accurate detection of explosives once portable MS instruments become more readily available

  10. Electronics for processing of data from a double collector isotopic ratio mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handu, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The output data available from the mass spectrometer type MS-660 developed in the mass spectrometry section of Technical Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, for the determination of H/D ratios in liquid/gas sample consist of uncompensated mass 3 and mass 2 signals. After the mass 3 signal has been compensated for H 3 + formation, the on-line ratio of compensated mass 3 to mass 2 is calculated, displayed, and then printed on a printer for record. The electronic compensation circuit, the discrete voltage-to-frequency (V/F) converter circuit, the ratio calculating system using V/F converters, and a digital interface system for Hindustan Teleprinter to print out the ratios are explained. Results obtained on mass spectrometer MS-660 are presented. (auth.)

  11. Photoionization mass spectrometer for studies of flame chemistry with a synchrotron light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Terrill A.; McIlroy, Andrew; Qi, Fei; Westmoreland, Phillip R.; Poisson, Lionel; Peterka, Darcy S.; Ahmed, Musahid

    2005-01-01

    A flame-sampling molecular-beam photoionization mass spectrometer, recently designed and constructed for use with a synchrotron-radiation light source, provides significant improvements over previous molecular-beam mass spectrometers that have employed either electron-impact ionization or vacuum ultraviolet laser photoionization. These include superior signal-to-noise ratio, soft ionization, and photon energies easily and precisely tunable [E/ΔE(FWHM)≅250-400] over the 7.8-17-eV range required for quantitative measurements of the concentrations and isomeric compositions of flame species. Mass resolution of the time-of-flight mass spectrometer is m/Δm=400 and sensitivity reaches ppm levels. The design of the instrument and its advantages for studies of flame chemistry are discussed

  12. Investigation of material systems in industry and research by organic analytical mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decsy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The modern, many-sided and efficient organic analytical mass spectrometer possesses all the structure-and composition-examination possibilities of complex organic analytical laboratories. The article presents the advantages and possibilities of the application of mass spectrometer in different operation modes in connection with the examination of a petrochemical synthesis product: ortho-phenylene-diamine, an experimental gas odorizing material, a petroleum production auxiliary material: petroleum sulfonate, a gasoline sample and a sulfur-containing standard substance. The useful operation modes include spectrum records of low and high resolution, the application of space ionization and space desorption ion sources as well as the ''mass fragmentographic'' measuring method. (author)

  13. Studies on reducing the scale of a double focusing mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.M.; Gregg, H.R.; Andresen, B.D.

    1993-05-01

    Several groups have developed miniaturized sector mass spectrometers with the goal of remote sensing in confined spaces or portability. However, these achievements have been overshadowed by more successful development of man-portable quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometers. Despite these accomplishments the development of a reduced-scale sector mass spectrometer remains attractive as a potentially low-cost, robust instrument requiring very simple electronics and low power. Previous studies on miniaturizing sector instruments include the use of a Mattauch-Herzog design for a portable mass spectrograph weighing less than 10 kg. Other work has included the use of a Nier-Johnson design in spacecraft-mountable gas chromatography mass spectrometers for the Viking spacecraft as well as miniature sector-based MS/MS instrument. Although theory for designing an optimized system with high resolution and mass accuracy is well understood, such specifications have not yet been achieved in a miniaturized instrument. To proceed further toward the development of a miniaturized sector mass spectrometer, experiments were conducted to understand and optimize a practical, yet nonideal instrument configuration. The sector mass spectrometer studied in this work is similar to the ones developed for the Viking project, but was further modified to be low cost, simple and robust. Characteristics of this instrument that highlight its simplicity include the use of a modified Varian leak detector ion source, source ion optics that use one extraction voltage, and an unshunted fixed nonhomogeneous magnetic sector. The effects of these design simplifications on ion trajectory were studied by manipulating the ion beam along with the magnetic sector position. This latter feature served as an aid to study ion focusing amidst fringing fields as well as nonhomogeneous forces and permitted empirical realignment of the instrument

  14. Gas-phase ion-molecule reactions and high-pressure mass spectrometer, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo

    1977-01-01

    The reasons for the fact that the research in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions, to which wide interest is shown, have greatly contributed to the physical and chemical fields are that, first it is essential in understanding general phenomena concerning ions, second, it can furnish many unique informations in the dynamics of chemical reactions, and third, usefulness of '' chemical ionization'' methods has been established as its application to chemical analysis. In this review, the history and trend of studies and equipments in gas-phase ion-molecule reactions are surveyed. The survey includes the chemical ionization mass spectrometer for simultaneously measuring the positive and negative ions utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer presented by Hunt and others, flowing afterglow method derived from the flowing method which traces neutral chemical species mainly optically, ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer, trapped ion mass spectrometer and others. Number of reports referred to ion-molecule reactions issued during the last one year well exceeds the total number of reports concerning mass spectrometers presented before 1955. This truly shows how active the research and development are in this field. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Electrostatic systems used for the multipassage magnetic mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C; Baril, M

    1987-08-15

    Improvement in the power of resolution is desirable in the multiplication of passages in magnetic fields; our guiding principle is to carry out the operation using a single magnetic prism. In the multipassage process the ions must first turn back after leaving the prism. This turnback is obtained by an electrostatic mirror. We obtain a large enough number of passages by placing two mirrors and two systems with time-varying roles at right angles. These systems are referred to as lens-mirror 1. When they act as mirrors, they enable the particles to circulate in a closed circuit; when they act as lenses, they enable the particles to enter the circuit or leave it. The coupling of two multipassage spectrometers is momentarily possible thanks to lens-mirror 2. The function change results from a change in electrode potential. The requirements for these electrostatic systems and their construction are studied.

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  17. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  18. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  19. Tandem Mass Spectrometry on a Miniaturized Laser Desorption Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Cornish, Timothy; Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) is a powerful and widely-used technique for identifying the molecular structure of organic constituents of a complex sample. Application of MSMS to the study of unknown planetary samples on a remote space mission would contribute to our understanding of the origin, evolution, and distribution of extraterrestrial organics in our solar system. Here we report on the realization of MSMS on a miniaturized laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LD-TOF-MS), which is one of the most promising instrument types for future planetary missions. This achievement relies on two critical components: a curved-field reflectron and a pulsed-pin ion gate. These enable use of the complementary post-source decay (PSD) and laser-assisted collision induced dissociation (L-CID) MSMS methods on diverse measurement targets with only modest investment in instrument resources such as volume and weight. MSMS spectra of selected molecular targets in various organic standards exhibit excellent agreement when compared with results from a commercial, laboratory-scale TOF instrument, demonstrating the potential of this powerful technique in space and planetary environments.

  20. Determining plasma-fueling sources with an end-loss ion spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, D.P.; Foote, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    To help identify the major sources of fueling gas in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), we mounted a mass-sensitive, E parallel to B, end-loss ion spectrometer (ELIS) near the machine's centerline. We set the electric field in the ELIS to simultaneously measure the axial loss currents of both hydrogen and deuterium. We then initiated plasma discharges, where we injected either hydrogen or deuterium gas into the central cell. We also selected and deselected the central-cell neutral beams that were fueled with hydrogen gas. The end-cell neutral beams were always selected and fueled with deuterium. By taking the ratio of the hydrogen end-loss current to the deuterium end-loss current (with a known deuterium-gas feed rate), we were able to infer the effective fueling rates that were due to wall reflux, central-cell beams, and end-cell beams. The results were the following: wall reflux, 6 Torr.l/s; central-cell beams, 15 Torr.l/s; and end-cell beams 1 Torr.l/s. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Characterisation of an ion source on the Helix MC Plus noble gas mass spectrometer - pressure dependent mass discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Characterisation of an ion source on the Helix MC Plusnoble gas mass spectrometer - pressure dependent mass discrimination Xiaodong Zhang* dong.zhang@anu.edu.au Masahiko Honda Masahiko.honda@anu.edu.au Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia To obtain reliable measurements of noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances in a geological sample it is essential that the mass discrimination (instrument-induced isotope fractionation) of the mass spectrometer remain constant over the working range of noble gas partial pressures. It is known, however, that there are pressure-dependent variations in sensitivity and mass discrimination in conventional noble gas mass spectrometers [1, 2, 3]. In this study, we discuss a practical approach to ensuring that the pressure effect in the Helix MC Plus high resolution, multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer is minimised. The isotopic composition of atmospheric Ar was measured under a range of operating conditions to test the effects of different parameters on Ar mass discrimination. It was found that the optimised ion source conditions for pressure independent mass discrimination for Ar were different from those for maximised Ar sensitivity. The optimisation can be achieved by mainly adjusting the repeller voltage. It is likely that different ion source settings will be required to minimise pressure-dependent mass discrimination for different noble gases. A recommended procedure for tuning an ion source to reduce pressure dependent mass discrimination will be presented. References: Honda M., et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 57, 859 -874, 1993. Burnard P. G., and Farley K. A., Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, Volume 1, 2000GC00038, 2000. Mabry J., et al., Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, 27, 1012 - 1017, 2012.

  2. A neutron time of flight spectrometer appropriate for D-T plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.

    1984-02-01

    A neutron time-of-flight spectrometer with 2 m flight path for diagnostics of deuterium plasmas in JET is presently under construction. An upgrade of this spectrometer to make it appropriate for 14-MeV neutron spectroscopy is presented here. It is suggested to use backscattering in a deuterium based scintillator. The flight path length is 1-2 m and the efficiency is of the order of 2.10 -5 cm -5 . Results from test of principle are presented with estimates for neutron and gamma backgrounds

  3. The analysis of uranium in environmental sample by mass spectrometer combined with isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhonghua; Jia Baoting; Han Jun

    2003-01-01

    Uranium in the environmental sample was analyzed by mass spectrometer combined with isotopic dilution. Before mass spectrometer analysis, samples were dissolved in a concentrated acidic solution containing HNO 3 , HF and HClO 4 and chemically processed to suit the analysis requirement. Analysis results indicated that the uranium content was 0.08 μg/g in river water, 0.1 μg/g in evergreen foliage, and 5-11 μg/g in surface soil respectively. (authors)

  4. Study of the intrinsic background noise of a quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sysoev, A.A.; Islamov, I.M.; Khafizov, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    A proper background noise of a quadrupole mass-spectrometer is studied. The main sources of the noise have been analysed as well as their contributions to the overall noise of the device. It is shown that the main contribution is made by the photocurrent of the first dynode of the secondary-electron multiplier from ultraviolet radiation. The construction of the detecting system of the mass-spectrometer is given allowing one to increase the signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of > 500

  5. Long-term changes in the sensitivity of quadrupole mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.R.; McCarthy, P.J.; Dylla, H.F.; LaMarche, P.H.; Simpkins, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    We routinely use quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMS) to monitor vacuum conditions, gas purity, and plasma-wall interactions in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton. Two QMS systems have been operating on TFTR continuously for a two-year period. Both QMS systems are absolutely calibrated at weekly intervals using a six-part standard gas mixture. The calibration procedure is based on the use of transfer standards (ion gauge and capacitance manometer) that are calibrated against a primary standard (spinning rotor gauge) on an external vacuum system. We have identified variations in the efficiency of the QMS ionizer and drifts in the sensitivity of the electron multiplier ion detector to be the major reasons for the observed changes in overall OMS sensitivity. Weekly variations in sensitivity greater than 100% have been observed following system bakeout at 150 0 C and with the use of rhenium filaments which were initially in the QMS ionizer. Operation of the QMS systems with tungsten filaments and at constant temperature has yielded more stable operation with weekly sensitivity changes generally being less than 10%. 7 refs., 7 figs

  6. Environmental Technology Verification Report. Field Portable Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer. Viking Instruments Corporation SpectraTrak (Trademark) 672

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Enfield, Wayne

    1997-01-01

    .... This self-contained, field transportable system, whose design has been adapted from laboratory technology, uses a contained, chromatographic column and accompanying mass spectrometer to provide...

  7. A new approach for accurate mass assignment on a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Toshinobu; Jensen, Kirk R; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2017-12-01

    A simple, effective accurate mass assignment procedure for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is desirable. External mass calibration using a mass calibration standard together with an internal mass reference (lock mass) is a common technique for mass assignment, however, using polynomial fitting can result in mass-dependent errors. By using the multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer infiTOF-UHV, we were able to obtain multiple time-of-flight data from an ion monitored under several different numbers of laps that was then used to calculate a mass calibration equation. We have developed a data acquisition system that simultaneously monitors spectra at several different lap conditions with on-the-fly centroid determination and scan law estimation, which is a function of acceleration voltage, flight path, and instrumental time delay. Less than 0.9 mDa mass errors were observed for assigned mass to charge ratios ( m/z) ranging between 4 and 134 using only 40 Ar + as a reference. It was also observed that estimating the scan law on-the-fly provides excellent mass drift compensation.

  8. Cross contamination in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Visser, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Since the early days of geochemical isotope ratio mass spectrometry there has always been the problem of cross contamination, i.e. the contamination of the sample gas with traces of reference gas land vice versa) in a dual inlet system and the analyzer itself. This was attributable to valve leakages

  9. Method for selective detection of explosives in mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at parts-per-quadrillion level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.; Clowers, Brian H.

    2015-09-01

    A method for selective detection of volatile and non-volatile explosives in a mass spectrometer or ion mobility spectrometer at a parts-per-quadrillion level without preconcentration is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of ionizing a carrier gas with an ionization source to form reactant ions or reactant adduct ions comprising nitrate ions (NO.sub.3.sup.-); selectively reacting the reactant ions or reactant adduct ions with at least one volatile or non-volatile explosive analyte at a carrier gas pressure of at least about 100 Ton in a reaction region disposed between the ionization source and an ion detector, the reaction region having a length which provides a residence time (tr) for reactant ions therein of at least about 0.10 seconds, wherein the selective reaction yields product ions comprising reactant ions or reactant adduct ions that are selectively bound to the at least one explosive analyte when present therein; and detecting product ions with the ion detector to determine presence or absence of the at least one explosive analyte.

  10. Recent results from the Penning trap mass spectrometer JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christine; Elomaa, Viki-Veikko; Eronen, Tommi; Hakala, Jani; Jokinen, Ari; Kankainen, Anu; Rahaman, Saidur; Rissanen, Juho; Aeystoe, Juha [Department of Physics, (YFL), University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate mass determination employing Penning ion traps has gained increasing importance after the installation of several new on-line facilities at accelerator labs. These setups combine unique production possibilities for rare isotopes with elaborate ion-capture and manipulation techniques. Since the final commissioning of the JYFLTRAP setup at the IGISOL facility in Jyvaeskylae, the masses of more than 200 short-lived nuclides have been measured. Their knowledge applies to studies on nuclear structure, the modeling of nucleosynthesis processes, tests of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis and the unitarity of the CKM matrix, and furthermore, can help to assist in ongoing searches of neutrinoless double-beta decays. This presentation focuses on recent highlights studied at JYFLTRAP.

  11. Behaviour of quadrupole mass spectrometer towards noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasibullah

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a quadrupole mass spectrometric set-up for noble gas analysis with its potential application to material accountancy at the input accountability tank of a reprocessing facility. Linear dependence of ion source pressure on the inlet pressure was considered to be practicable criterion for the functionality of the instrument. Short term and long term sensitivity variations have also been discussed. No memory effect was observed under the experimental conditions. (author)

  12. Computer automated mass spectrometer for isotope analysis on gas samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamula, A.; Kaucsar, M.; Fatu, C.; Ursu, D.; Vonica, D.; Bendea, D.; Muntean, F.

    1998-01-01

    A low resolution, high precision instrument was designed and realized in the mass spectrometry laboratory of the Institute of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca. The paper presents the vacuum system, the sample inlet system, the ion source, the magnetic analyzer and the ion collector. The instrument is almost completely automated. There are described the analog-to-digital conversion circuits, the local control microcomputer, the automation systems and the performance checking. (authors)

  13. A Novel Spectrometer for Measuring Laser-Produced Plasma X-Ray in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Gang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experimental investigations of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-produced high-temperature plasma contains very abundant information, such as the electron temperature and density, ionization. In order to diagnose laser-plasma distribution in space and evolution in time, an elliptical curved crystal spectrometer has been developed and applied to diagnose X-ray of laser-produced plasma in 0.2~2.46 nm region. According to the theory of Bragg diffraction, four kinds of crystal including LiF, PET, MiCa, and KAP were chosen as dispersive elements. The distance of crystal lattice varies from 0.4 to 2.6 nm. Bragg angle is in the range of 30°~67.5°, and the spectral detection angle is in 55.4°~134°. The curved crystal spectrometer mainly consists of elliptical curved crystal analyzer, vacuum configuration, aligning device, spectral detectors and three-dimensional microadjustment devices. The spectrographic experiment was carried out on the XG-2 laser facility. Emission spectrum of Al plasmas, Ti plasma, and Au plasmas have been successfully recorded by using X-ray CCD camera. It is demonstrated experimentally that the measured wavelength is accorded with the theoretical value.

  14. Development and testing of a double-focusing, static, axisymmetric mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.

    1979-04-01

    The developed mass spectrometer affords very high acceptance (cm 2 sr) compared with conventional mass spectrometers owing to its large solid angle of 0.178 sr. The ion optical properties of the instrument were tested by bombarding various targets (Al, Ni, Ti, Cu, Si) with potassium or caesium ions from a thermionic ion source with energies of 1, 2 and 3 keV and recording mass spectra of positive and negative sputtered ions. The ion optical beam path was calculated analytically (magnet system) in part and numerically in part (energy analyzer, einzel lenses and detector system) and represented in graph form. The results obtained from the mass spectra showed that the magnet system with its twelve permanent magnets is too irregular to produce mass linses with good resolution. Furthermore, it was found that the maximum primary energy of the alkali ions that was possible in this mass spectrometer owing to the breakdown strength was not sufficient to record surface-specific mass spectra since the target surface was covered within a very short time with an at least monatomic layer of alkali ions from the thermionic ion source. (orig./HP) [de

  15. FY16 Safeguards Technology Cart-Portable Mass Spectrometer Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cyril V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitten, William B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory project for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Safeguards Technology Development Subprogram has been involved in the development of a cart portable mass spectrometer based on a Thermo ITQ ion trap mass spectrometer (referred to simply as the ITQ) for the field analysis of 235U/238U ratios in UF6. A recent discovery of the project was that combining CO2 with UF6 and introducing the mixture to the mass spectrometer (MS) appeared to increase the ionization efficiency and, thus, reduce the amount of UF6 needed for an analysis while also reducing the corrosive effects of the sample. However, initial experimentation indicated that mixing parameters should be closely controlled to ensure reproducible results. To this end, a sample manifold (SM) that would ensure the precise mixing of UF6 and CO2 was designed and constructed. A number of experiments were outlined and conducted to determine optimum MS and SM conditions which would provide the most stable isotope ratio analysis. The principal objective of the project was to provide a retrofit ITQ mass spectrometer operating with a SM capable of achieving a variation in precision of less than 1% over 1 hour of sampling. This goal was achieved by project end with a variation in precision of 0.5 to 0.8% over 1 hour of sampling.

  16. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  17. Use of the Isomass 54E thermal ionisation mass spectrometer at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, A.P.

    1982-03-01

    A Vacuum Generators Isomass 54E mass spectrometer is used to carry out isotopic analyses. The capabilities of the instrument and its method of operation are outlined, and the technique used for isotopic analysis of uranium is described in detail, with results of tests on NBS standard specimens and Zebra fuel element pellets. (U.K.)

  18. SUMS preliminary design and data analysis development. [shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary analysis and data analysis system development for the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS) experiment are discussed. The SUMS experiment is designed to provide free stream atmospheric density, pressure, temperature, and mean molecular weight for the high altitude, high Mach number region.

  19. Frequency-scanning MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I-Chung; Lin, Jung Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the first report on the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection by frequency scan. We designed, installed, and tested this radio frequency (RF) scan linear ion trap mass spectrometer and its associated electronics to dramatically extend the mass region to be detected. The RF circuit can be adjusted from 300 to 10 kHz with a set of operation amplifiers. To trap the ions produced by MALDI, a high pressure of helium buffer gas was employed to quench extra kinetic energy of the heavy ions produced by MALDI. The successful detection of the singly charged secretory immunoglobulin A ions indicates that the detectable mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of this system can reach ~385 000 or beyond.

  20. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  1. Performance results of a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF mass spectrometer for in-situ analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ayet San Andres, Samuel [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Dickel, Timo; Geissel, Hans; Plass, Wolfgang; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Yavor, Mikhail [RAS St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    A mobile multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been developed which provides a mass resolving power exceeding 250,000 and sub-ppm mass accuracy in a transportable format. Thus it allows resolving isobars and enables accurate determination of the composition and structure of biomolecules. Furthermore the device offers high mass resolving MS/MS capability via selective ion re-trapping and collisional-induced dissociation (CID). An atmospheric pressure interface (API) provides for routine measurements with various atmospheric ion sources. All supply electronics, DAQ and control system are mounted with the spectrometer into a single frame with a total volume of only 0.8 m{sup 3}. With the current system many applications like waste water monitoring at hot spots, mass-based classification of biomolecules and breath analysis are possible. In addition the mass spectrometer is readily scalable and can be adopted and simplified for even more specific use like in space science for instance. A characterization and first performance results are shown, and the implementation of MS/MS in combination with CID is discussed.

  2. Calibration of a Noble Gas Mass Spectrometer with an Atmospheric Argon Standard (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V.; Grove, M.

    2009-12-01

    Like other mass spectrometers, gas source instruments are very good at precisely measuring isotopic ratios but need to be calibrated with a standard to be accurate. The need for calibration arises due to the complicated ionization process which inefficiently and differentially creates ions from the various isotopes that make up the elemental gas. Calibration of the ionization process requires materials with well understood isotopic compositions as standards. Our project goal was to calibrate a noble gas (Noblesse) mass spectrometer with a purified air sample. Our sample obtained from Ocean Beach in San Francisco was under known temperature, pressure, volume, humidity. We corrected the pressure for humidity and used the ideal gas law to calculate the number of moles of argon gas. We then removed all active gasses using specialized equipment designed for this purpose at the United States Geological Survey. At the same time, we measured the volume ratios of various parts of the gas extraction line system associated with the Noblesse mass spectrometer. Using this data, we calculated how much Ar was transferred to the reservoir from the vacuum-sealed vial that contained the purified gas standard. Using similar measurements, we also calculated how much Ar was introduced into the extraction line from a pipette system and how much of this Ar was ultimately expanded into the Noblesse mass spectrometer. Based upon this information, it was possible to calibrate the argon sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. From a knowledge of the isotopic composition of air, it was also possible to characterize how ionized argon isotopes were fractionated during analysis. By repeatedly analyzing our standard we measured a 40Ar Sensitivity of 2.05 amps/bar and a 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 309.2 on the Faraday detector. In contrast, measurements carried out by ion counting using electron multipliers yield a value (296.8) which is much closer to the actual atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar value of 295.5.

  3. Inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a new technique for elemental and isotopic analysis which is currently attracting a great deal of interest. This relatively new technique has found wide applications in different fields of research viz., nuclear, geological, biological and environmental sciences

  4. Soft X-ray spectrometer design for warm dense plasma measurements on DARHT Axis-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, Nicholas Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, John Oliver [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-11

    A preliminary design study is being performed on a soft X-ray spectrometer to measure K-shell spectra emitted by a warm dense plasma generated on Axis-I of the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100-ns-long intense, relativistic electron pulse with a beam current of 1.7 kA and energy of 19.8 MeV deposits energy into a thin metal foil heating it to a warm dense plasma. The collisional ionization of the target by the electron beam produces an anisotropic angular distribution of K-shell radiation and a continuum of both scattered electrons and Bremsstrahlung up to the beam energy of 19.8 MeV. The principal goal of this project is to characterize these angular distributions to determine the optimal location to deploy the soft X-ray spectrometer. In addition, a proof-of-principle design will be presented. The ultimate goal of the spectrometer is to obtain measurements of the plasma temperature and density to benchmark equation-of-state models of the warm dense matter regime.

  5. Spatially resolvable optical emission spectrometer for analyzing density uniformity of semiconductor process plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Changhoon; Ryoo, Hoonchul; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hahn, Jae W.; Kim, Se-Yeon; Yi, Hun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    We proposed a spatially resolved optical emission spectrometer (SROES) for analyzing the uniformity of plasma density for semiconductor processes. To enhance the spatial resolution of the SROES, we constructed a SROES system using a series of lenses, apertures, and pinholes. We calculated the spatial resolution of the SROES for the variation of pinhole size, and our calculated results were in good agreement with the measured spatial variation of the constructed SROES. The performance of the SROES was also verified by detecting the correlation between the distribution of a fluorine radical in inductively coupled plasma etch process and the etch rate of a SiO 2 film on a silicon wafer.

  6. Isobar Separation in a Multiple-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer by Mass-Selective Re-Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, Timo; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Lippert, Wayne; Lang, Johannes; Yavor, Mikhail I.; Geissel, Hans; Scheidenberger, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    A novel method for (ultra-)high-resolution spatial mass separation in time-of-flight mass spectrometers is presented. Ions are injected into a time-of-flight analyzer from a radio frequency (rf) trap, dispersed in time-of-flight according to their mass-to-charge ratios and then re-trapped dynamically in the same rf trap. This re-trapping technique is highly mass-selective and after sufficiently long flight times can provide even isobaric separation. A theoretical treatment of the method is presented and the conditions for optimum performance of the method are derived. The method has been implemented in a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer and mass separation powers (FWHM) in excess of 70,000, and re-trapping efficiencies of up to 35% have been obtained for the protonated molecular ion of caffeine. The isobars glutamine and lysine (relative mass difference of 1/4000) have been separated after a flight time of 0.2 ms only. Higher mass separation powers can be achieved using longer flight times. The method will have important applications, including isobar separation in nuclear physics and (ultra-)high-resolution precursor ion selection in multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. The Plasma Proton Environment within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as Observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) during Saturn Orbit Insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Elrod, M. K.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Tseng, W. L.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D. J.; Shappirio, M.; Simpson, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    In analyzing the Cassini data between Saturn's A-ring outer edge and Mimas' L shell numerous inconsistencies have been reported in estimates of total ionic charge and electron density. The primary focus of our work is to understand these inconsistencies. We present our recent discovery of plasma protons during Saturn Orbit Insertion (SOI) outbound pass of the magnetospheric region between the F and G rings. We also searched for H2+ ions but no such events were found. The discovery of protons was made possible by a recent analysis of the CAPS Ion Mass Spectrometer's (IMS's) time-of-flight (TOF) composition data in a mode of reduced post-acceleration voltage at 6 kV instead of the usual 14.6 kV. All previous work for this region had not considered the TOF data. The new proton analysis was enabled by minimum scattering of 6 kV protons in the instrument's ultrathin carbon foils (CF), in comparison to larger scattering for the heavier ions such as for O+ and O2+. We use a SIMION model of the CAPS IMS including the effects of energy straggling and scattering by the instrument's CFs in an attempt to understand the TOF composition data for the heavier ions. This analysis within the uncertainties of the instrument allows us to estimate the relative abundances of the heavier ions and thus run our 2D velocity ion moments code to get ion densities, temperatures and velocities during the SOI outbound pass through the F-ring and G-ring gap. Comparisons with other data sets will be made.

  8. Measuring the mass and width of the Z0: The status of the energy spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, F.; Levi, M.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Von Zanthier, C.; Watson, S.; Bambade, P.; Erickson, R.; Jung, C.K.; Nash, J.; Wormser, G.

    1989-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) collides electrons and positrons produced in the linear accelerator pulse by pulse. The object is to produce collisions energetic enough to produce the heavy intermediate vector boson, the Z 0 . An essential component of the SLC physics program is the precise knowledge of the center-of-mass energy of each interaction. We measure the energy of each collision by using two energy spectrometers. The spectrometers are located in extraction lines of each beam. We will measure the energy of each beam to 20 MeV or 5 parts in 10 4 . We report here on the status of the energy spectrometer system. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Ion optics of a high resolution multipassage mass spectrometer with electrostatic ion mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, T [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Baril, M [Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences et de Genie, Universite Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    Ion trajectories in an electrostatic ion mirror are calculated. The interferences of the extended fringing fields of the mirror with finite aperture are studied. The results of the calculations are represented by three transfer matrices, which describe ion trajectories under the effects of a fringing field at the entrances, of an idealized mirror region, and of a fringing field at the exit. The focusing effects and ion-optical properties of mass spectrometers with electrostatic ion mirrors can be evaluated by using these transfer matrices. A high performance multipassage mass spectrometer is designed. The system has one magnet and four electrostatic sector analyzers and two ion mirrors. The double focusing condition and stigmatic focusing condition are achieved in any passage of the system. The mass resolution increases linearly with the number of passages in a magnet. (orig.).

  10. In situ analysis of corrosion inhibitors using a portable mass spectrometer with paper spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham; Wei, Pu; Li, Linfan; Ouyang, Zheng; Roqan, Iman S; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-07

    Paper spray (PS) ambient ionization is implemented using a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the detection of alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in a complex oil matrix. These salts are commonly used as active components in the formulation of corrosion inhibitors. They were identified in oil and confirmed by their fragmentation patterns recorded using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The cations of alkyl and benzyl-substituted quaternary ammonium salts showed characteristic neutral losses of CnH2n (n carbon number of the longest chain) and C7H8, respectively. Individual quaternary ammonium compounds were detected at low concentrations (oil samples without prior sample preparation or pre-concentration was also demonstrated using a home-built miniature mass spectrometer at levels below 1 ng μL(-1).

  11. A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Sachenko, V. D.; Gall, L. N.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2013-05-01

    A specialized isotope mass spectrometer for noninvasive diagnostics of Helicobacter pylori infection in human beings based on the carbon-13 isotope breath test has been designed and constructed. Important stages of the work included (i) calculating a low-aberration mass analyzer, (ii) manufacturing and testing special gas inlet system, and (iii) creating a small-size collector of ions. The proposed instrument ensures 13C/12C isotopic ratio measurement to within 1.7‰ (pro mille) accuracy, which corresponds to requirements for a diagnostic tool. Preliminary medical testing showed that the mass spectrometer is applicable to practical diagnostics. The instrument is also capable of measuring isotopic ratios of other light elements, including N, O, B (for BF2+ ions), Ar, Cl, and S.

  12. A high precision mass spectrometer for hydrogen isotopic analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.; Prahallada Rao, B.S.; Handu, V.K.; Satam, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    A high precision mass spectrometer with two ion collector assemblies and direct on line reduction facility (with uranium at 700 0 C) for water samples for hydrogen isotopic analysis has been designed and developed. The ion source particularly gives high sensitivity and at the same tike limits the H 3 + ions to a minimum. A digital ratiometer with a H 2 + compensator has also been developed. The overall precision obtained on the spectrometer is 0.07% 2sub(sigmasub(10)) value. Typical results on the performance of the spectrometer, which is working since a year and a half are given. Possible methods of extending the ranges of concentration the spectrometer can handle, both on lower and higher sides are discussed. Problems of memory between samples are briefly listed. A multiple inlet system to overcome these problems is suggested. This will also enable faster analysis when samples of highly varying concentrations are to be analyzed. A few probable areas in which the spectrometer will be shortly put to use are given. (auth.)

  13. Correlation between mass-spectrometer measurements and thin film characteristics using dcMS and HiPIMS discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrec, A.; Keraudy, J.; Jacq, S.; Jouan, P.Y.; Djouadi, M.A.; Schuster, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, chromium thin films were deposited using dcMS and HiPIMS technologies. To compare these technologies, we analyzed the ion flux and the Cr coating microstructure in the same plasma conditions. Ion flux was measured with a mass spectrometer in time-averaged for both discharge and time-resolved for HiPIMS discharge. Time-averaged measurements provided important information. First, the low energetic part of the ion energy distribution function (IEDF) was similar in dcMS and HiPIMS and second the high energetic component was more prominent in the HiPIMS discharge. Time-resolved measurements showed that the high energetic part of the ion flux reached the mass spectrometer faster than the lowest part. It is only after the pulse end that most of the thermalized ions arrived and then cooled the flux. The correlation of these results with microstructure analysis shows that energetic particles induced a higher film density and a smoother surface in HiPIMS compared to dcMS discharge. (authors)

  14. A Dual Source Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer of ExoMars 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickerhoff, William B.; vanAmerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R. M.; Arevalo, R.; Atanassova, M.; Hovmand, L.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cotter, R. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present details on the objectives, requirements, design and operational approach of the core mass spectrometer of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation on the 2018 ExoMars mission. The MOMA mass spectrometer enables the investigation to fulfill its objective of analyzing the chemical composition of organic compounds in solid samples obtained from the near surface of Mars. Two methods of ionization are realized, associated with different modes of MOMA operation, in a single compact ion trap mass spectrometer. The stringent mass and power constraints of the mission have led to features such as low voltage and low frequency RF operation [1] and pulse counting detection.

  15. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamura, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    The period of investigation for the previous general remarks on the progress of ICP-MS was from January, 1991 to September, 1993. In the investigation of this time, for the object of the Chemical Abstracts from January, 1994 to September, 1996, retrieval was carried out by using the STN International. As the key words, ICP-MS, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry or Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was used. The number of hit was 373 in 1994, 462 in 1995, and 356 as of September, 1996, 1191 in total. The cumulative number of the papers from 1980 to 1996 is shown. It is known how rapidly the ICP-MS has pervaded as the means of analysis. In order to cope with the enormous number of papers, this time, it was decided to do the review by limiting to the papers which were published in the main journals deeply related to analytical chemistry. As to the tendency in the last three years, it is summarized as how to overcome the spectrum interference and matrix effect in the ICP-MS and the trend of using the ICP-MS as the high sensitivity detector for separation techniques. The technical basic research of the ICP-MS on spectrum interference, sample introduction method and others and the analysis of living body samples are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Negative ion mass spectra and particulate formation in rf silane plasma deposition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howling, A.A.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.

    1992-09-01

    Negative ions have been clearly identified in silane rf plasmas used for the deposition of amorphous silicon. Mass spectra were measured for monosilicon up to pentasilicon negative ion radical groups in power-modulated plasmas by means of a mass spectrometer mounted just outside the glow region. Negative ions were only observed over a limited range of power modulation frequency which corresponds to particle-free conditions. The importance of negative ions regarding particulate formation is demonstrated and commented upon. (author) 3 figs., 19 refs

  17. Direct trace analysis of metals and alloys in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Song, K S; Yang, M; Cha, H K; Lee, J M; Lee, G H

    1999-01-01

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer adopting a quadrupole ion-trap and laser ablation/ionization method was constructed. The developed system was tested for composition analysis of some metals (Cu, stainless), and alloys (hastalloy C, mumetal) by mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed by using laser ablation from a sample probe tip followed by a mass analysis with the quadrupole ion-trap. The quadrupole ion-trap was modified to enable laser ablation by a XeCl excimer laser pulse that passed radially through the ring electrode. A mass scan of the produced ions was performed in the mass selective instability mode wherein trapped ions were successively detected by increasing the rf voltage through the ring electrode. Factors affecting the mass resolution, such as pressure of buffer gas and ablation laser power, are discussed.

  18. A new time of flight mass spectrometer for absolute dissociative electron attachment cross-section measurements in gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dipayan; Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2018-02-01

    A new time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) has been developed to study the absolute dissociative electron attachment (DEA) cross section using a relative flow technique of a wide variety of molecules in gas phase, ranging from simple diatomic to complex biomolecules. Unlike the Wiley-McLaren type TOFMS, here the total ion collection condition has been achieved without compromising the mass resolution by introducing a field free drift region after the lensing arrangement. The field free interaction region is provided for low energy electron molecule collision studies. The spectrometer can be used to study a wide range of masses (H- ion to few hundreds atomic mass unit). The mass resolution capability of the spectrometer has been checked experimentally by measuring the mass spectra of fragment anions arising from DEA to methanol. Overall performance of the spectrometer has been tested by measuring the absolute DEA cross section of the ground state SO2 molecule, and the results are satisfactory.

  19. Direct mass measurements of light neutron-rich nuclei using fast recoil spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive new mass measurement capabilities have evolved with the development of recoil spectrometers. In the Z = 3 to 9 neutron-rich region alone, 12 neutron-rich nuclei have been determined for the first time by the fast-recoil direct mass measurement method. A recent experiment using the TOFI spectrometer illustrates this technique. A systematic investigation of nuclei that lie along or near the neutron-drip line has provided a valuable first glimpse into the nuclear structure of such nuclei. No evidence for a large single-particle energy gap at N = 14 is observed; however, a change in the two-neutron separation model calculations, and is interpreted in terms of the smaller 1s/sub 1/2/ - 1s/sub 1/2/ interaction compared to that of the 0d/sub 5/2/ - 0d/sub 5/2/ neutron-neutron interaction. 18 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Scanning mass spectrometer setup for spatially resolved reactivity studies on model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Matthias; Schirling, Christian; Kielbassa, Stefan; Bansmann, Joachim; Behm, Juergen [Institut fuer Oberflaechenchemie und Katalyse, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A scanning mass spectrometer with micrometer-scale resolution was developed for investigations on the catalytic activity of microstructured planar model catalysts. Products of local surface reactions can be detected via a fine capillary orifice in a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. The position of the sample with respect to the capillary is controlled by three piezo-driven translators. The surface reactivity of a resistive heated sample can be depicted in a spatially resolved topogram, taking into account the influence of the distance between sample and capillary on the magnitude of the QMS signal and the lateral resolution. Photolithographic structured reactive patterns on top of an inactive substrate enable investigations of mesoscopic transport effects such as coupling between catalytically active areas and of (reverse) spillover phenomena on one sample by varying the size and the distances of the active areas.

  1. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in mass and ion kinetic energy spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenton, A.G.; Beynon, J.H.; Morgan, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio in mass and ion kinetic energy spectrometers is limited by noise generated from the presence of scattered ions and neutrals. Methods of eliminating this are illustrated with reference to the ZAB-2F instrument manufactured by VG-Micromass Ltd. It is estimated that after the modifications the instrument is capable, on a routine basis, of measuring peaks corresponding to the arrival of ions at a rate of the order of 1 ion s -1 . (Auth.)

  2. The distributed control system of Shanghai mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer (SMCAMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yuhe

    2001-01-01

    It is mainly introduced the composition, structure, hardware and software designing, function, and the method of communication between the host computer and the ADAM modules of the distributed control system on Shanghai Mini-cyclotron Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS). Some detail problems such as controlling the devices staying on high voltage by ADAM-4541 (RS-485 to Fiber Optic Convertor) and optical fiber are also introduced

  3. Effective mass trigger at the Brookhaven Multi-Particle Spectrometer (MPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willen, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    An effective mass trigger for use at the Brookhaven Multiparticle Spectrometer (MPS) is described. It is a microprocessor based device using extensive fast memory attached to proportional wire chambers in the MPS magnetic field. It will select kinematic quantities unique to the reaction being studied, thereby permitting higher sensitivities and a reduction in data-processing cost for MPS experiments. The principles of operation for this trigger, and the results of simulations to assess its performance, are presented

  4. A Method for Estimating Mass-Transfer Coefficients in a Biofilter from Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected...... sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios...... of a filter bed with a consortium of effective sulfur oxidizers, the most likely mechanism for incomplete removal of sulfur compounds from the exhaust air was elucidated. This was found to be insufficient mass transfer and not inadequate bacterial activity as anticipated by the manager of the BF. Thus...

  5. Portable, remotely operated, computer-controlled, quadrupole mass spectrometer for field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Newton, J.C.; Smith, C.F.

    1982-04-01

    A portable, remote-controlled mass spectrometer was required at the Nevada Test Site to analyze prompt post-event gas from the nuclear cavity in support of the underground testing program. A Balzers QMG-511 quadrupole was chosen for its ability to be interfaced to a DEC LSI-11 computer and to withstand the ground movement caused by this field environment. The inlet system valves, the pumps, the pressure and temperature transducers, and the quadrupole mass spectrometer are controlled by a read-only-memory-based DEC LSI-11/2 with a high-speed microwave link to the control point which is typically 30 miles away. The computer at the control point is a DEC LSI-11/23 running the RSX-11 operating system. The instrument was automated as much as possible because the system is run by inexperienced operators at times. The mass spectrometer has been used on an initial field event with excellent performance. The gas analysis system is described, including automation by a novel computer control method which reduces operator errors and allows dynamic access to the system parameters

  6. Data acquisition and processing system for a mass-spectrometer's site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Loginov, N.D.; Marusev, V.I.; Sviridova, Yu.F.; Temnoeva, T.A.; Fedorov, Yu.D.

    1986-01-01

    A two-level measuring-calculating system (MCS) has been developed; BESM-6 computer is used as a central computer at the upper level, at the lower - a terminal computer of the RPT type (Videoton, Hungary). MCS is designed for: the experimental data acquisition in the RPT immediate memory from several (up to five) mass spectrometers; communication of data accumulated in BESM-6 through a communication link; mathematical processing by BESM-6 and obtaining results at the mass spectrometer region. Simultaneous and independent recording of data from a mass spectrometer group as well as communication of data accumulated in BESM-6 without disturbance of RPT operating mode are provided with specially developed programs executed in RPT under OC RPS control. BESM-6 software is based on basic possibilities of OC RPS with respect to work with terminals. Received data is entered the archive in the form of variable length files by means of direct access programs; such archive organization permits to use the data for subsequent analysis and processing with the help of programs using any level languages

  7. Engineering Sensitivity Improvement of Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection System by Means Global Hard Vacuum Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa

    2006-01-01

    The engineering sensitivity improvement of Helium mass spectrometer leak detection using global hard vacuum test configuration has been done. The purpose of this work is to enhance the sensitivity of the current leak detection of pressurized method (sniffer method) with the sensitivity of 10 -3 ∼ 10 -5 std cm 3 /s, to the global hard vacuum test configuration method which can be achieved of up to 10 -8 std cm 3 /s. The goal of this research and development is to obtain a Helium leak test configuration which is suitable and can be used as routine bases in the quality control tests of FPM capsule and AgInCd safety control rod products. The result is an additional instrumented vacuum tube connected with conventional Helium mass spectrometer. The pressure and temperature of the test object during the leak measurement are simulated by means of a 4.1 kW capacity heater and Helium injection to test object, respectively. The addition of auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump of 2.4 l/s pumping speed which is directly connected to the vacuum tube, will reduce 86 % of evacuation time. The reduction of the measured sensitivity due to the auxiliary mechanical vacuum pump can be overcome by shutting off the pump soon after Helium mass spectrometer reaches its operating pressure condition. (author)

  8. Analytical applications of ion/molecule reactions in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinter, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The development of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers as a means of performing tandem mass spectrometry has provided a versatile instrument on which the ion/molecule reactions of a mass selected ion can be studied. This dissertation details the application of ion/molecule reactions in a triple quadrupole to two analytical problems. Part I. Ion/Molecule Reactions of Ammonia with Translationally Excited C 2 H 5 O + /Ions. The ability to impart low center-of-mass translational energies, which upon collision are converted into internal energy, allows the observation of reactions that require energy input. In addition, the systematic variation of the ion kinetic energy, often referred to as energy-resolved mass spectrometer, adds another dimension to the mass spectrum and can allow the observation of thresholds for reactions requiring energy input. This investigation develops methods for determining these thresholds. Part 2. The Use of Ion/Molecule Reactions in selected Reaction Monitoring GC/MSD/MS Analyses. An approach to improving the selectivity of an analysis is to improve the selectivity of the detection method. In GC/MS, one method has been to monitor a selected fragmentation reaction, either metastable or collisionally activated, in a selected reaction monitoring (SRM) analysis. This develops the use of ion/molecule reactions for selected reaction monitoring analyses

  9. Development of portable mass spectrometer with electron cyclotron resonance ion source for detection of chemical warfare agents in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urabe, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Kazuya; Kitagawa, Michiko; Sato, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Enomoto, Shuichi; Kidera, Masanori; Seto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (miniECRIS-MS) was developed. It was used for in situ monitoring of trace amounts of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) in atmospheric air. Instrumental construction and parameters were optimized to realize a fast response, high sensitivity, and a small body size. Three types of CWAs, i.e., phosgene, mustard gas, and hydrogen cyanide were examined to check if the mass spectrometer was able to detect characteristic elements and atomic groups. From the results, it was found that CWAs were effectively ionized in the miniECRIS-MS, and their specific signals could be discerned over the background signals of air. In phosgene, the signals of the 35Cl+ and 37Cl+ ions were clearly observed with high dose-response relationships in the parts-per-billion level, which could lead to the quantitative on-site analysis of CWAs. A parts-per-million level of mustard gas, which was far lower than its lethal dosage (LCt50), was successfully detected with a high signal-stability of the plasma ion source. It was also found that the chemical forms of CWAs ionized in the plasma, i.e., monoatomic ions, fragment ions, and molecular ions, could be detected, thereby enabling the effective identification of the target CWAs. Despite the disadvantages associated with miniaturization, the overall performance (sensitivity and response time) of the miniECRIS-MS in detecting CWAs exceeded those of sector-type ECRIS-MS, showing its potential for on-site detection in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutron time-of-flight counters and spectrometers for diagnostics of burning fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevant, T.; Olsson, M.

    1991-02-01

    Experiment with burning fusion plasmas in tokamaks will place particular requirements on neutron measurements from radiation resistance-, physics-, burn control- and reliability considerations. The possibility to meet these needs by measurements of neutron fluxes and energy spectra by means of time-of-flight techniques are described. Reference counters and spectrometers are proposed and characterized with respect to efficiency, count-rate capabilities, energy resolution and tolerable neutron and γ-radiation background levels. The instruments can be used in a neutron camera and are capable to operate in collimated neutron fluxes up to levels corresponding to full nuclear output power in the next generation of experiments. Energy resolutions of the spectrometers enables determination of ion temperatures from 3 (keV) through analysis of the Doppler broadening. Primarily, the instruments are aimed for studies of 14 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,t)-plasmas but can, after minor modifications, be used for analysis of 2.45 (MeV) neutrons produced in (d,d)-plasma. (au) (33 refs.)

  11. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  12. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  13. SPRED: a multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    1982-03-01

    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100 to 1100 A or 160 to 1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 ms, but up to 7 individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1 ms time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable to that of a conventional grazing incidence monochromator.

  14. SPRED: a multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Ramsey, A.T.; Yelle, R.V.

    1982-03-01

    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100 to 1100 A or 160 to 1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 ms, but up to 7 individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1 ms time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable to that of a conventional grazing incidence monochromator

  15. Reduction of plyatomic ion interferences in indictively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with cryogenic desolvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Luis C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    A desolvation scheme for introducing aqueous and organic samples into an argon inductively coupled plasma is described; the aerosol generated by nebulizer is heated (+140 C) and cooled (-80 C) repeatedly, and the dried aerosol is then injected into the mass spectrometer. Polyatomic ions are greatly suppressed. This scheme was validated with analysis of seawater and urine reference samples. Finally, the removal of organic solvents by cryogenic desolvation was studied.

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Reverse-Entry Ion Source Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltash, Michael L.; McCabe, Jacob W.; Patrick, John W.; Laganowsky, Arthur; Russell, David H.

    2018-05-01

    As a step towards development of a high-resolution ion mobility mass spectrometer using the orbitrap mass analyzer platform, we describe herein a novel reverse-entry ion source (REIS) coupled to the higher-energy C-trap dissociation (HCD) cell of an orbitrap mass spectrometer with extended mass range. Development of the REIS is a first step in the development of a drift tube ion mobility-orbitrap MS. The REIS approach retains the functionality of the commercial instrument ion source which permits the uninterrupted use of the instrument during development as well as performance comparisons between the two ion sources. Ubiquitin (8.5 kDa) and lipid binding to the ammonia transport channel (AmtB, 126 kDa) protein complex were used as model soluble and membrane proteins, respectively, to evaluate the performance of the REIS instrument. Mass resolution obtained with the REIS is comparable to that obtained using the commercial ion source. The charge state distributions for ubiquitin and AmtB obtained on the REIS are in agreement with previous studies which suggests that the REIS-orbitrap EMR retains native structure in the gas phase.

  17. Onsets of nuclear deformation from measurements with the Isoltrap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimi, S.

    2010-10-01

    Mass measurements provide important information concerning nuclear structure. This work presents results from the pioneering Penning trap spectrometer Isoltrap at CERN-Isolde. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich manganese ( 58 - 66 Mn) and krypton isotopes ( 96, 97 Kr) are presented, of which the 66 Mn and 96, 97 Kr masses are measured for the first time. In particular, the mass of 97 Kr was measured using the preparation trap and required the definition of a new fit function. In the case of the manganese isotopes, the N=40 shell closure is addressed. The two-neutron-separation energies calculated from the new masses show no shell closure at N=40 but give an estimation of the proton-neutron interaction (around 0.5 MeV) responsible for the increase of collectivity and nuclear deformation in this mass region. The new krypton masses show behavior in sharp contrast with heavier neighbors where sudden and intense deformation is present, interpreted as the establishment of a nuclear quantum shape/phase transition critical-point boundary. The new masses confirm findings from nuclear mean-square charge-radius measurements up to N=60 but are at variance with conclusions from recent gamma-ray spectroscopy. Another part of this work was the design of new decay spectroscopy system behind the Isoltrap mass spectrometer. The beam purity achievable with Isoltrap will allow decay studies with γ and β detection coupled to a tape-station. This system has been mounted and commissioned with the radioactive beam 80 Rb. (author)

  18. Aerosol quantification with the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer: detection limits and ionizer background effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Borrmann

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic laboratory experiments were performed to investigate quantification of various species with two versions of the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, a Quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS and a compact Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (c-ToF-AMS. Here we present a new method to continuously determine the detection limits of the AMS analyzers during regular measurements, yielding detection limit (DL information under various measurement conditions. Minimum detection limits range from 0.03 μg m−3 (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride up to 0.5 μg m−3 (organics for the Q-AMS. Those of the c-ToF-AMS are found between 0.003 μg m−3 (nitrate, sulfate and 0.03 μg m−3 (ammonium, organics. The DL values found for the c-ToF-AMS were ~10 times lower than those of the Q-AMS, mainly due to differences in ion duty cycle. Effects causing an increase of the detection limits include long-term instrument contamination, measurement of high aerosol mass concentrations and short-term instrument history. The self-cleaning processes which reduce the instrument background after measurement of large aerosol concentrations as well as the influences of increased instrument background on mass concentration measurements are discussed. Finally, improvement of detection limits by extension of averaging time intervals, selected or reduced ion monitoring, and variation of particle-to-background measurement ratio are investigated.

  19. Mechanism of ion output for the MI-1305 mass-spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornyushkin, YW D; Stavrovich, N V [Leningradskij Inst. Tochnoj Mekhaniki i Optiki (USSR)

    1976-01-01

    An attachment to MJ-1305 mass-spectrometer for ion ejection enabling to study interaction of ions and substance is designed. The attachment is accomodated with a block of diaphragms forming a beam of primary ions. A magneto-discharge pump has been used to improve vacuum in a sample chamber up to 5x10/sup -8/ torr. An universal exit slit permits producing ion beam currents ranging from 10/sup -9/ to 10/sup -10/ A with 4 keV energy under operating conditions of the spectrometer as an ion source. To ensure a higher noise stability of the measuring circuit the ion current is measured through a variable signal with synchronous detection employed.

  20. Fission product nuclear data obtained by use of an on-line mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Wright, J.F.; Anderl, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A Spectrometer for On-Line Analysis of Radionuclides (SOLAR) has been installed at a 1 MW TRIGA reactor at Washington State University. Fission product ions from a combination target/ion source located within the thermal column are brought out to a 60 0 magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Surface ionization provides copious beams of Rb + and Cs + ions and less intense beams of Br - and I - ions with negligible contamination by other elements. About 40 fission product nuclides can thus be chemically and physically separated in times of less than 1 second. Past results on independent and cumulative fission yields along with measurements of half-lives of some very neutron-rich nuclides are presented. Current work on delayed-neutron emission probabilities and energy spectra of delayed neutrons from individual nuclides is described. (7 tables, 2 figures) (U.S.)

  1. A fully automated mass spectrometer for the analysis of organic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillig, H.; Kueper, H.; Riepe, W.

    1979-01-01

    Automation of a mass spectrometer-computer system makes it possible to process up to 30 samples without attention after sample loading. An automatic sample changer introduces the samples successively into the ion source by means of a direct inlet probe. A process control unit determines the operation sequence. Computer programs are available for the hardware support, system supervision and evaluation of the spectrometer signals. The most essential precondition for automation - automatic evaporation of the sample material by electronic control of the total ion current - is confirmed to be satisfactory. The system operates routinely overnight in an industrial laboratory, so that day work can be devoted to difficult analytical problems. The cost of routine analyses is halved. (Auth.)

  2. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such {sup 14}C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, {sup 14}C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the {sup 14}N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  3. Easy method enhancing the sensitivity of a helium mass-spectrometer leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firpo, G.; Pozzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    Commercial He mass spectrometer leak detectors usually do not provide sufficient sensitivity to perform accurate measurements of the permeation rate of He through glass. Ultrasensitive dedicated systems have adeguate sensitivity but involve high costs and complex procedures. However, both cryogenics and photomultiplier technology routinely demand this goal. Here, we propose a novel method to increase the sensitivity of commercial devices to easily measure accurate permeation rate. We modified a commercial leak detector by reducing the pumping speed at the inlet of the rotary pump, thus increasing its sensitivity by one order of magnitude. The modified detector was used to measure the leak rate of the permeation of He through the glass walls of a photomultiplier. Further improvements made to decrease the minimum detectable signal were limited by the high ultimate pressure in the spectrometer tube

  4. Dual cascade time-of-flight mass spectrometer basing on electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, L. G.; Goloskokov, Yu. V.; Karetskaya, S.P.; Mit', A.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the report [1] we have suggested the scheme of time-of-flight spectrometer containing two electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional field that doesn't depend on one of the Cartesian coordinates). In the articles [2,3] there have been found conditions for obtaining high quality of time-of-flight and spatial focusing. One of basic advantages of this scheme - is availability of intermediate stigmatic image. In the plane where this image is it's possible to place controlled diaphragm that limits ion scatter along the energy if the scatter is too large. With the help of this diaphragm at the spectrometer you can register mass spectrum with the selected energy. Good focusing quality allows reducing of initial ion energy by this increasing the time of their flight and thus analyzers resolving ability. Ion source and receiver are spaced at rather a long distances. This can be useful to solve some practical tasks

  5. Assessment of an on-line CI-mass spectrometer as a continuous emission monitor for sewage sludge incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.R.; Hallett, D.J.; Resch, R.J.; Villinger, J.; Federer, V.

    1991-01-01

    ELI Eco Technologies Inc. tested two sewage sludge incinerators using regulator methods and a V and F CIMS-500 chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Correlations between dioxins and dibenzofurans from the regulatory MM5 trains and the continuous readings form the CIMS-500 for chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were noted. As well, correlations between chlorinated organics and other volatile organics were obvious under poor combustion conditions. ELI Eco Technologies Inc. recently completed an extensive survey of organic chemical emissions including VOCs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans from two sewage sludge incinerators. The program was funded by the Municipality of Metro Toronto, Environment Ontario, and Environment Canada. Contaminants were measured by regulatory methods (ASME Modified Method 5) and simultaneously with the continuous mass spectrometer. The purpose of the study was to provide regulatory testing and at the same time evaluate the usefulness of the CIMS-500 mass spectrometer in assessing emissions. This paper describes the evaluation of the usefulness of this mass spectrometer

  6. Field-portable Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) Unit for Semi-volatile Compound Analysis in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    the need for a convective oven, greatly reducing the size and power consumption compared to standard GC systems. These modifications to the...spectrometer. In Harsh Environment Mass Spectrometry (HEMS) Conference; September 2007; Cocoa Beach, FL. Science Applications International Corporation

  7. Design, construction and commissioning of an ortho-TOF mass spectrometer for investigations of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, S.

    2004-01-01

    Precise atomic mass measurements are very important in many disciplines of science, e.g. in physics, biochemistry, medicine, archaeology and environmental research. In nuclear physics, mass measurements of nuclides are essential for testing nuclear mass models. From the knowledge of the mass of a nuclide the nuclear binding energy can be derived. The mass measurements provide a better knowledge of the strong interaction between the constituents in the nucleus. In nuclear astrophysics, mass measurements of exotic nuclides are of great importance for our understanding of the synthesis of the elements. In biochemistry and medicine, mass measurement methods are helpful in a structural analysis of complex biomolecules. Mass measurement techniques are widely used in the trace analysis of poisonous substances in environmental research. Leak searchers and rest gas analysers are also based on the principles of mass measurements. The most precise methods of mass measurements, employed in nuclear physics, are based either on the determination of the time of flight (TOF), the revolution frequency (RF), or cyclotron frequency (CF) of the ion in mass spectrometers. Nowadays, there are several scientific centers such as GSI, CERN, GANIL and ANL employing these techniques. The RF-technique is realized at GSI in the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) (Schottky Mass Spectrometry SMS and Isochronous Mass Spectrometry IMS) for ions produced in the in-flight FRagment Separator (FRS). At GANIL, the TOF-technique is employed at the Second Separated-Sector Cyclotron (CSS2) and at the Spectrometre a Perte d'Energie du Ganil (SPEG). The CF-technique is implemented in MISTRALand in Penning traps ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE (CERN). The CF- technique is also used at SHIPTRAP at GSI and at the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT), coupled to the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerating System (ATLAS) at ANL. In the following the relative accuracy of mass determination achieved by the above mentioned techniques and typical

  8. Expanding Single Particle Mass Spectrometer Analyses for the Identification of Microbe Signatures in Sea Spray Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Prather, Kimberly A

    2017-10-03

    Ocean-derived microbes in sea spray aersosol (SSA) have the potential to influence climate and weather by acting as ice nucleating particles in clouds. Single particle mass spectrometers (SPMSs), which generate in situ single particle composition data, are excellent tools for characterizing aerosols under changing environmental conditions as they can provide high temporal resolution and require no sample preparation. While SPMSs have proven capable of detecting microbes, these instruments have never been utilized to definitively identify aerosolized microbes in ambient sea spray aersosol. In this study, an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer was used to analyze laboratory generated SSA produced from natural seawater in a marine aerosol reference tank. We present the first description of a population of biological SSA mass spectra (BioSS), which closely match the ion signatures observed in previous terrestrial microbe studies. The fraction of BioSS dramatically increased in the largest supermicron particles, consistent with field and laboratory measurements of microbes ejected by bubble bursting, further supporting the assignment of BioSS mass spectra as microbes. Finally, as supported by analysis of inorganic ion signals, we propose that dry BioSS particles have heterogeneous structures, with microbes adhered to sodium chloride nodules surrounded by magnesium-enriched coatings. Consistent with this structure, chlorine-containing ion markers were ubiquitous in BioSS spectra and identified as possible tracers for distinguishing recently aerosolized marine from terrestrial microbes.

  9. Influence of the coupling between an atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer and the low pressure ion inlet of a mass spectrometer on the mobility measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunzer Frank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS are versatile gas analyzers. Due to their small size and robustness, combined with a very high sensitivity, they are often used in gas sensing applications such as environmental monitoring. In order to improve the selectivity, they are typically combined with a mass spectrometer (MS. Since IMS works at atmospheric pressure, and MS works at vacuum, a special interface reducing the pressure over normally two stages has to be used. In this paper the influence of this coupling of different pressure areas on the IMS signal will be analyzed with help of finite elements method simulations.

  10. Chemical characterization of materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2009-11-01

    An Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer was procured for trace elemental determination in diverse samples. Since its installation a number of analytical measurements have been carried out on different sample matrices. These include chemical quality control measurements of nuclear fuel and other materials such as uranium metal. Uranium peroxide, ADU, ThO 2 , UO 2 ; isotopic composition of B, Li; chemical characterization of simulated ThO 2 + 2%UO 2 fuel; sodium zirconium phosphate and trace metallic elements in zirconium; Antarctica rock samples and wet phosphoric acid. Necessary separation methodologies required for effective removal of matrix were indigenously developed. In addition, a rigorous analytical protocol, which includes various calibration methodologies such as mass calibration, response calibration, detector cross calibration and linearity check over the entire dynamic range of 109 required for quantitative determination of elements at trace and ultra trace level,, has been standardized. This report summarizes efforts of RACD that have been put in this direction for the application of ICP-MS for analytical measurements. (author)

  11. Aerosol detection efficiency in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Joshua A.; Zigmond, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    An electrostatic size classification technique was used to segregate particles of known composition prior to being injected into an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Size-segregated particles were counted with a condensation nuclei counter as well as sampled with an ICP-MS. By injecting particles of known size, composition, and aerosol concentration into the ICP-MS, efficiencies of the order of magnitude aerosol detection were calculated, and the particle size dependencies for volatile and refractory species were quantified. Similar to laser ablation ICP-MS, aerosol detection efficiency was defined as the rate at which atoms were detected in the ICP-MS normalized by the rate at which atoms were injected in the form of particles. This method adds valuable insight into the development of technologies like laser ablation ICP-MS where aerosol particles (of relatively unknown size and gas concentration) are generated during ablation and then transported into the plasma of an ICP-MS. In this study, we characterized aerosol detection efficiencies of volatile species gold and silver along with refractory species aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Aerosols were generated with electrical mobility diameters ranging from 100 to 1000 nm. In general, it was observed that refractory species had lower aerosol detection efficiencies than volatile species, and there were strong dependencies on particle size and plasma torch residence time. Volatile species showed a distinct transition point at which aerosol detection efficiency began decreasing with increasing particle size. This critical diameter indicated the largest particle size for which complete particle detection should be expected and agreed with theories published in other works. Aerosol detection efficiencies also displayed power law dependencies on particle size. Aerosol detection efficiencies ranged from 10- 5 to 10- 11. Free molecular heat and mass transfer theory was applied, but

  12. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhou; Qiu-Nan Tong; Zhang Cong-Cong; Hu Zhan

    2015-01-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. (paper)

  13. Improvements in the injection system of the Canadian Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, J; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Gulick, S; Hardy, J C; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Savard, G; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer is designed to make precise mass measurements on a variety of stable and short-lived isotopes. Modifications to the injection system of the CPT have been implemented in recent months, the purpose being to more efficiently collect and transfer weakly-produced reaction products from the target to the Penning trap. These include a magnetic triplet situated after the target chamber to increase the acceptance of the Enge spectrograph, a velocity filter to more effectively separate the beam from the reaction products and the replacement of the Paul trap with a linear trap resulting in more efficient capture and accumulation of ions from the ion cooler. This paper will discuss these recent modifications and how they have increased our ability in making mass measurements on isotopes of low abundance, including those from a sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf fission source.

  14. Portable mass spectrometer for express analysis of dissolved in water substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogan, V.T.; Pavlov, A.K.; Savchenko, M.I.; Dobychin, O.E.

    1999-01-01

    The mass spectrometer for analysis under field conditions of chemical composition of dissolved in water substances is described. Special attention is paid to developing portable mass analyzer and device for a probe inlet. The device is intended for the systems of direct autonomous control of water basins contamination. Depending on the level of required work degree of autonomy and loading rate of the device, its dimensions and consumption way vary. The tests of the pilot device having 370x420x570 mm size, 23 kg mass and ≤ 40 W consumption capacity were carried out. The resolution capacity of the device is 100 (at the level of ≤ 3%) and relative sensitivity - ≤ 10 -6 [ru

  15. Influence of Coulomb effects on the resolving power of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblin, M G; Kopaev, I A; Monastyrskiy, M A; Alimpiev, S S; Greenfield, D E; Makarov, A A

    2015-01-01

    General theoretical approaches to the modelling of Coulomb effects in short ion bunches, developed previously by the authors, are applied in this paper to the calculation of multireflection mass-spectrometer systems. A separate module of the MASIM 3D applied software package is designed. An adaptive computational procedure for calculating the 'mirror potential' induced by an ion bunch on the surface of field-forming electrodes is proposed. The dynamics of ion bunches in a time-of-flight reflectron-type mass analyser is calculated and the limitations on the resolving power, caused by resonant Coulomb effects of self-bunching and coalescence in the groups of particles with close masses, are revealed on the basis of numerical experiments. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Detection of methyl-, dimethyl- and diethylamine using a nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, T.; Smith, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    New particle formation is one of the main sources of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) contributing approximately half of the global CCN budget. The initial steps of nucleation have been studied for decades and it is widely accepted that in most places nucleation requires presence of sulphuric acid (SA) and cluster-stabilizing vapours. Recent results from the CLOUD chamber show that only a few pptv levels of dimethylamine (DMA) with SA forms stable clusters at boundary layer conditions. Ambient sulphuric acid is typically measured using nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometers. Unfortunately, because of higher volatilities and stickiness of amines to surfaces, amine measurement techniques suffer from memory effects and high detection limits. Recently it was discovered that DMA can be detected by utilizing nitrate ionization, simultaneously with sulphuric acid measurements. Here we present results of detecting methylamine, dimethylamine and diethylamine using nitrate-based chemical ionization. We conducted a series of measurements with a home-built transverse chemical ionization inlet and a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (CI-HToF). Amine vapour was produced using permeation tubes. Three stages of dilution were applied at roughly one order-of-magnitude dilution per stage. The diluted flow of selected amine was then introduced to a sample flow rate of 7 slpm, thus achieving a final amine concentration of 10 pptv. All selected amines were detected as clusters with HNO3NO3- and showed linear response with increasing concentrations (0.5-minute integration time). Zero measurements were performed using clean nitrogen gas right after injection of a selected amine. Memory effects were only observed when using high amine concentrations (ppbv levels). Our results indicate that a variety of amines can be detected using nitrate-based chemical ionization mass spectrometers. However, more experiments are required to see if this presented method will be

  17. Methane measurement by the Pioneer Venus large probe neutral mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, T. M.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The Pioneer Venus Large Probe Mass Spectrometer detected a large quantity of methane as it descended below 20 km in the atmosphere of Venus. Terrestrial methane and Xe-136, both originating in the same container and flowing through the same plumbing, were deliberately released inside the mass spectrometer for instrumental reasons. However, the Xe-136 did not exhibit behavior similar to methane during Venus entry, nor did CH4 in laboratory simulations. The CH4 was deuterium poor compared to Venus water and hydrogen. While the inlet to the mass spectrometer was clogged with sulfuric acid droplets, significant deuteration of CH4 and its H2 progeny was observed. Since the only source of deuterium identifiable was water from sulfuric acid, we have concluded that we should correct the HDO/H2O ratio in Venus water from 3.2 x 10-2 to (5 plus or minus 0.7) x 10-2. When the probe was in the lower atmosphere, transfer of deuterium from Venus HDO and HD to CH4 can account quantitatively for the deficiencies recorded in HDO and HD below 10 km, and consequently, the mysterious gradients in water vapor and hydrogen mixing ratios we have reported. The revision in the D/H ratio reduces the mixing ratio of water vapor (and H2) reported previously by a factor of 3.2/5. We are not yet able to say whether the methane detected was atmospheric or an instrumental artifact. If it was atmospheric, its release must have been episodic and highly localized. Otherwise, the large D/H ratio in Venus water and hydrogen could not be maintained.

  18. Mass spectrometer determinations of solar wind He, Ne, and Ar and radiation belt He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warasila, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    A unique mass spectrometer system was built and used to measure He, Ne, and Ar abundances and isotopic ratios in various samples of spacecraft that have been exposed to the space environment. The Apollo 12 mission brought back sections of the Surveyor 3 vehicle suitable for mass spectrometric studies of implanted solar wind and solar cosmic ray particles. Using the mass spectrometer, a 4 He flux of 6-8 x 10 6 ions/cm 2 --sec was measured, and in addition 4 He/ 3 He = 2700 +- 50; 4 He/ 20 Ne = 410 + 30; 20 Ne/ 22 Ne = 13.5 +- 0.2; 20 Ne/ 36 Ar = 24.5 +- 2.5; and 36 Ar/ 38 Ar = 5.41 +- 0.20 isotopic abundances were measured. An upper limit for the flux of SCR 3 He in the 10-20 MeV/nucleon range was also determined, for the thirty-one month exposure period. In the radiation belt environment, 3 He was found in the aluminum antenna housing from the recovered second stage of a pre-Apollo Saturn test flight launched January 28, 1964 and returned to earth on April 28, 1966. The amount of 3 He found was about 6 x 10 -10 cc(STP)/cm 2 with a 4 He/ 3 He ratio of 145 or less. The 3 He was shown to come from the lower radiation belt as all other sources of 3 He were orders of magnitude lower than the observed value

  19. Feasibility of a Fieldable Mass Spectrometer FY 2015 Year-end Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinaga, Charles J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hager, George J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoegg, Edward D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carman, April J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Garret L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitors the production of enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6) at declared facilities by collecting a few grams of product in sample tubes that are then sent to central laboratories for processing and isotope ratio analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis of results may not be available for some time after collection. In addition, new shipping regulations will make it more difficult to transport this amount of UF6 to a laboratory. The IAEA is interested in an isotope ratio technique for uranium in UF6 that can be moved to and operated at the enrichment facility itself. This report covers the tasks and activities of the Feasibility of a Fieldable Mass Spectrometer Project for FY 2015, which investigates the feasibility of an in-field isotope ratio technique— the forward deployment of a technique to the non-laboratory situation of a protected room with power and heat at the facility of interest. A variety of nontraditional elemental ionization techniques were considered. It was determined that only two of these should be moved forward for testing with the candidate in-field mass spectrometer and with the adsorbed UF6 sample types.

  20. GoAmazon 2014/15 Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, JN [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) deployment to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility T3 site in Manacapuru, Brazil, was motivated by two main scientific objectives of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014/15 field campaign. 1) Study the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions by determining important molecular species in ambient nanoparticles. To address this, TDCIMS data will be combined with coincident measurements such as gas-phase sulfuric acid to determine the contribution of sulfuric acid condensation to nucleation and growth. We can then compare that result to TDCIMS-derived nanoparticle composition to determine the fraction of growth that can be attributed to the uptake of organic compounds. The molecular composition of sampled particles will also be used to attribute specific chemical species and mechanisms to growth, such as the condensation of low-volatility species or the oligomerization of α-dicarbonyl compounds. 2) Determine the source of new ambient nanoparticles in the Amazon. The hypothesis prior to measurements was that potassium salts formed from the evaporation of primary particles emitted by fungal spores can provide a unique and important pathway for new particle production in the Amazon basin. To explore this hypothesis, the TDCIMS recorded the mass spectra of sampled ambient particles using a protonated water cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS). Laboratory tests performed using potassium salts show that the TDCIMS can detect potassium with high sensitivity with this technique.

  1. In situ analysis of corrosion inhibitors using a portable mass spectrometer with paper spray ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Wei, Pu; Li, Linfan; Ouyang, Zheng; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Paper spray (PS) ambient ionization is implemented using a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the detection of alkyl quaternary ammonium salts in a complex oil matrix. These salts are commonly used as active components in the formulation of corrosion inhibitors. They were identified in oil and confirmed by their fragmentation patterns recorded using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The cations of alkyl and benzyl-substituted quaternary ammonium salts showed characteristic neutral losses of CnH2n (n carbon number of the longest chain) and C7H8, respectively. Individual quaternary ammonium compounds were detected at low concentrations (<1 ng μL-1) and over a dynamic range of ∼5 pg μL-1 to 500 pg μL-1 (ppb). Direct detection of these compounds in complex oil samples without prior sample preparation or pre-concentration was also demonstrated using a home-built miniature mass spectrometer at levels below 1 ng μL-1.© 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  3. Enhancement of a sector magnet RGA into a PC-assisted quantitative mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, G.M.; Schaefer, M.; Schaefer, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents design features of RGA sampling systems which should be considered when specifying or building a mass spectrometer sampling system. Important design features are described including non-fractionating, fast time response sampling system design, onboard calibration standards, multiple sample points and remote operation. PC control of both the sampling system and the RGA provides for important features including automatic peak position tuning, spectrum de-convolution, composition analysis based on actual calibration gas standards, and automatic round-robin sampling and data logging. Applications of such integrated sampling systems currently operating at industrial and government facilities performing continuous on-line monitoring and self calibration are also described. (orig.) [de

  4. Data acquisition and processing system for surface ionization mass spectrometers (types MS5 and R20)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, J.-C.; Retali, G.; Grandcollot, P.; Hagemann, R.

    1977-01-01

    The data acquisition and processing system developed for surface ionization mass spectrometers is described. The main interest of the system is to shorten significantly the duration of isotopic analysis, the results of which are printed almost immediately after the end of the acquisition of the data. The quality of the results is also improved, particularly for isotopes at low concentration owing to an automatic range selection unit driven by the computer. The processing program, which includes several options, is adapted to all types of isotopic analysis. This system, in use for more than two years, has demonstrated its versatility and its safety [fr

  5. A molecular beam/quadrupole mass spectrometer system with synchronized beam modulation and digital waveform analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellett, G. L.; Adams, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    A performance evaluation is conducted for a molecular beam/mass spectrometer (MB/MS) system, as applied to a 1-30 torr microwave-discharge flow reactor (MWFR) used in the formation of the methylperoxy radical and a study of its subsequent destruction in the presence or absence of NO(x). The modulated MB/MS system is four-staged and differentially pumped. The results obtained by the MWFR study is illustrative of overall system performance, including digital waveform analysis; significant improvements over previous designs are noted in attainable S/N ratio, detection limit, and accuracy.

  6. Isotope ratio analysis by a combination of element analyzer and mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.

    1987-06-01

    The use of stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur as analytical tool in many fields of research is of growing interest. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an Elemental Analyzer with an Isotope Mass Spectrometer, which enables the gas preparation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide from any solid or liquid sample in a fast and easy way. Results of carbon isotope measurements in food analysis are presented, whereat it is possible to check origin and treatment of sugar, oils, fats, mineral waters, spirituous liquors etc. and to detect adulterations as well. Also applications in the field of environmental research are given. (Author)

  7. A permanent magnet system for a cyclotron used as a mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Y.; Cooper, M.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Wells, R.P.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The design of a compact, low energy cyclotron used as a mass spectrometer is presented. The instrument is designed for high resolution, high sensitivity detection of trace. It features the use of permanent magnets to excite the soft iron pole pieces which provide the magnetic field of the cyclotron. Tuning magnets are used to enable the field to be varied. This significantly improves the operational requirements of the instrument when compared to one which uses electromagnets. The cyclotron will use a spiral reflector for axial injection

  8. Statistical program for the data evaluation of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Raaphorst, J. G.

    1978-12-15

    A computer program has been written to statistically analyze mass spectrometer measurements. The program tests whether the difference between signal and background intensities is statistically significant, corrects for signal drift in the measured values, and calculates ratios against the main isotope from the corrected intensities. Repeated ratio value measurements are screened for outliers using the Dixon statistical test. Means of ratios and the coefficient of variation are calculated and reported. The computer program is written in Basic and is available for anyone who is interested.

  9. Performance of the rebuilt SUERC single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Richard P.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Dougans, Andrew; Gallacher, Paul; Gulliver, Pauline; Rood, Dylan H.; Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-10-01

    The SUERC bipolar single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) has been dismantled and rebuilt to accommodate an additional rotatable pre-accelerator electrostatic spherical analyser (ESA) and a second ion source injector. This is for the attachment of an experimental positive-ion electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source in addition to a Cs-sputter source. The ESA significantly suppresses oxygen interference to radiocarbon detection, and remaining measurement interference is now thought to be from 13C injected as 13CH molecule scattering off the plates of a second original pre-detector ESA.

  10. A new method of alpha ray measurement using a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Minowa, M.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new method of alpha (α)-ray measurement that detects helium atoms with a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS). A demonstration is undertaken with a plastic-covered 241 Am α-emitting source to detect α-rays stopped in the capsule. We successfully detect helium atoms that diffuse out of the capsule by accumulating them for 1-20h in a closed chamber. The detected amount is found to be proportional to the accumulation time. Our method is applicable to probe α-emitting radioactivity in bulk material

  11. Measurement of high-mass dilepton production with the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Shchelina, Ksenia

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of dilepton production in photon-photon fusion with the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) are presented. For the first time, exclusive dilepton production at high masses have been observed in the CMS detector while one or two outgoing protons are measured in CT-PPS using around 10~${\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of data accumulated in 2016 during high-luminosity LHC operation. These first results show a good understanding, calibration and alignment of the new CT-PPS detectors installed in 2016.

  12. Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoshan.

    1995-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma is an electrodeless discharge in a gas (usually Ar) at atmospheric pressure. Radio frequency energy generated by a RF power source is inductively coupled to the plasma gas through a water cooled load coil. In ICP-MS the open-quotes Fasselclose quotes TAX quartz torch commonly used in emission is mounted horizontally. The sample aerosol is introduced into the central flow, where the gas kinetic temperature is about 5000 K. The aerosol is vaporized, atomized, excited and ionized in the plasma, and the ions are subsequently extracted through two metal apertures (sampler and skimmer) into the mass spectrometer. In ICP-MS, the matrix effects, or non-spectroscopic interferences, can be defined as the type of interferences caused by dissolved concomitant salt ions in the solution. Matrix effects can be divided into two categories: (1) signal drift due to the deposition of solids on the sampling apertures; and/or (2) signal suppression or enhancement by the presence of the dissolved salts. The first category is now reasonably understood. The dissolved salts, especially refractory oxides, tend to deposit on the cool tip of the sampling cone. The clogging of the orifices reduces the ion flow into the ICP-MS, lowers the pressure in the first stage of ICP-MS, and enhances the level of metal oxide ions. Because the extent of the clogging increases with the time, the signal drifts down. Even at the very early stage of the development of ICP-MS, matrix effects had been observed. Houk et al. found out that the ICP-MS was not tolerant to solutions containing significant amounts of dissolved solids

  13. Onsets of nuclear deformation from measurements with the Isoltrap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Naimi, Sarah

    Mass measurements provide important information concerning nuclear structure. This work presents results from the pioneering Penning trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP at CERN-ISOLDE. High-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich manganese ($^{58−66}$Mn) and krypton isotopes ($^{96,97}$Kr) are presented, of which the $^{66}$Mn and $^{96,97}$Kr masses are measured for the first time. In particular, the mass of $^{97}$Kr was measured using the preparation trap and required the definition of a new fit function. In the case of the manganese isotopes, the N = 40 shell closure is addressed. The two-neutron-separation energies calculated from the new masses show no shell closure at N = 40 but give an estimation of the proton-neutron interaction (around 0.5 MeV) responsible for the increase of collectivity and nuclear deformation in this mass region. The new krypton masses show behavior in sharp contrast with heavier neighbors where sudden and intense deformation is present, interpreted as the establishment of a nuclea...

  14. Extermination Of Uranium Isotopes Composition Using A Micro Computer With An IEEE-488 Interface For Mass Spectrometer Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajitno; Taftazani, Agus; Yusuf

    1996-01-01

    A mass spectrometry method can be used to make qualitative or quantitative analysis. For qualitative analysis, identification of unknown materials by a Mass Spectrometer requires definite assignment of mass number to peak on chart. In quantitative analysis, a mass spectrometer is used to determine isotope composition material in the sample. Analysis system of a Mass Spectrometer possession of PPNY-BATAN based on comparison ion current intensity which enter the collector, and have been used to analyse isotope composition. Calculation of isotope composition have been manually done. To increase the performance and to avoid manual data processing, a micro computer and IEEE-488 interface have been installed, also software packaged has been made. So that the determination of the isotope composition of material in the sample will be faster and more efficient. Tile accuracy of analysis using this program on sample standard U 3 O 8 NBS 010 is between 93,87% - 99,98%

  15. Design of the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the RAON facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J.W.; Park, Y.H.; Park, S.J.; Kim, G.D.; Kim, Y.K.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been proposed for high precision mass measurements on the future Korean heavy ion accelerator called RAON. MR-TOF-MS will allow us to reach very high mass resolving power (> 10 5 ) with extremely short measurement times (several ms) in a compact device. The MR-TOF-MS is composed of two electrostatic ion mirrors in combination with einzel lenses. The principle is that the injected ions travel for hundreds of revolutions inside MR-TOF-MS and ions with different masses are temporally separated. When temporal separation becomes larger than the ion bunch width, ions are extracted from the MR-TOF-MS by switching off the mirror voltages, and then arrive at a detector plane located at time focus, where an MCP detector for the mass measurement or an ion gate for the isobar separation is deployed. In this paper, simulation results for the MR-TOF-MS design using SIMION code are presented. Temporal broadenings, caused by the kinetic energy spread and the transverse emittance, were minimized by optimization of the electrode potentials, and it was demonstrated that the mass resolving power of 10 5 is achievable for the condition of an energy spread of ±30 eV and an emittance of 0.75 π*mm*mrad

  16. MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.

    1999-10-01

    MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (1-4) designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu. MacMS has two operational modules. The first module (see Figure 1) is called the "Path" module and enables the user to quantitatively examine the trajectory of an ion of given m/z ratio in the electric and magnetic fields of the simulated "instrument". By systematically measuring a series of trajectories of different ions under different electric and magnetic field conditions, the user can determine how the resolution of the "instrument" is affected by these experimentally variable parameters. The user can thus choose suitable instrumental conditions for scanning a given m/z ratio range with good separation between the peaks. The second module (see Figure 2) is called as the "Spectrometer" module and enables the user to record, under any chosen instrumental conditions, the mass spectrum of (i) the instrumental background, (ii) neon, (iii) methane, or (iv) the parent ion of carbon tetrachloride. Both voltage scanning and magnetic scanning are possible (5). A hard copy of any mass spectrum that has been recorded can also be obtained. MacMS can read ASCII data files containing mass spectral information of compounds other than those that are "built-in" to the simulator. The appropriate format for creating such data files is described in the program documentation. There are a number of instructional exercises that can be conducted using the mass spectral information contained within the simulator. These are included in the program documentation. For example, the intensities of the 20Ne+, 21Ne+, and 22Ne+ species can be determined from hard copies of mass spectra of neon that are obtained under different instrumental sensitivities. The relative abundances of the three isotopes of neon can thus be calculated and compared with the literature values (6). The simulator also includes adjustable

  17. Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price Russ, G. III

    1993-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a relatively new (5 y commercial availability) technique for simultaneously determining the concentration and isotopic composition of a large number of elements at trace levels. The principle advantages of ICP-MS are the ability to measure essentially all the metallic elements at concentrations as low as 1 part in 10 12 by weight, to analyse aqueous samples directly, to determine the isotopic composition of essentially all the metallic elements, and to analyse samples rapidly (minutes). The history of the development of ICP-MS and discussions of a variety of applications have been discussed in detail in Date and Gray (1988). Koppenaal (1988, 1990) has reviewed the ICP-MS literature. In that ICP-MS is a relatively new and still evolving technique, this chapter will discuss potential capability more than proven performance. (author). 24 refs

  18. Development of a Multi-GeV spectrometer for laser-plasma experiment at FLAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, P.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benocci, R.; Benedetti, C.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Faccini, R.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fioravanti, S.; Gallo, A.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Gizzi, L. A.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Levato, T.; Lollo, V.; Londrillo, P.; Martellotti, S.; Pace, E.; Pathak, N.; Rossi, A.; Tani, F.; Serafini, L.; Turchetti, G.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2011-10-01

    The advance in laser-plasma acceleration techniques pushes the regime of the resulting accelerated particles to higher energies and intensities. In particular, the upcoming experiments with the 250 TW laser at the FLAME facility of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, will enter the GeV regime with more than 100 pC of electrons. At the current status of understanding of the acceleration mechanism, relatively large angular and energy spreads are expected. There is therefore the need for developing a device capable to measure the energy of electrons over three orders of magnitude (few MeV to few GeV), with still unknown angular divergences. Within the PlasmonX experiment at FLAME, a spectrometer is being constructed to perform these measurements. It is made of an electro-magnet and a screen made of scintillating fibers for the measurement of the trajectories of the particles. The large range of operation, the huge number of particles and the need to focus the divergence, present challenges in the design and construction of such a device. We present the design considerations for this spectrometer that lead to the use of scintillating fibers, multichannel photo-multipliers and a multiplexing electronics, a combination which is innovative in the field. We also present the experimental results obtained with a high intensity electron beam performed on a prototype at the LNF beam test facility.

  19. Development of a Multi-GeV spectrometer for laser-plasma experiment at FLAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valente, P.; Anelli, F.; Bacci, A.; Batani, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Benocci, R.; Benedetti, C.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C.A.; Clozza, A.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Drenska, N.; Faccini, R.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fioravanti, S.; Gallo, A.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, G.

    2011-01-01

    The advance in laser-plasma acceleration techniques pushes the regime of the resulting accelerated particles to higher energies and intensities. In particular, the upcoming experiments with the 250 TW laser at the FLAME facility of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, will enter the GeV regime with more than 100 pC of electrons. At the current status of understanding of the acceleration mechanism, relatively large angular and energy spreads are expected. There is therefore the need for developing a device capable to measure the energy of electrons over three orders of magnitude (few MeV to few GeV), with still unknown angular divergences. Within the PlasmonX experiment at FLAME, a spectrometer is being constructed to perform these measurements. It is made of an electro-magnet and a screen made of scintillating fibers for the measurement of the trajectories of the particles. The large range of operation, the huge number of particles and the need to focus the divergence, present challenges in the design and construction of such a device. We present the design considerations for this spectrometer that lead to the use of scintillating fibers, multichannel photo-multipliers and a multiplexing electronics, a combination which is innovative in the field. We also present the experimental results obtained with a high intensity electron beam performed on a prototype at the LNF beam test facility.

  20. Developing a Vacuum Electrospray Source To Implement Efficient Atmospheric Sampling for Miniature Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Quan; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Xinqiong; Qian, Xiang; Ni, Kai; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-12-05

    The performance of a miniature mass spectrometer in atmospheric analysis is closely related to the design of its sampling system. In this study, a simplified vacuum electrospray ionization (VESI) source was developed based on a combination of several techniques, including the discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface, direct capillary sampling, and pneumatic-assisted electrospray. Pulsed air was used as a vital factor to facilitate the operation of electrospray ionization in the vacuum chamber. This VESI device can be used as an efficient atmospheric sampling interface when coupled with a miniature rectilinear ion trap (RIT) mass spectrometer. The developed VESI-RIT instrument enables regular ESI analysis of liquid, and its qualitative and quantitative capabilities have been characterized by using various solution samples. A limit of detection of 8 ppb could be attained for arginine in a methanol solution. In addition, extractive electrospray ionization of organic compounds can be implemented by using the same VESI device, as long as the gas analytes are injected with the pulsed auxiliary air. This methodology can extend the use of the proposed VESI technique to rapid and online analysis of gaseous and volatile samples.

  1. Chemical composition measurements of the atmosphere of Jupiter with the Galileo Probe mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Carignan, G. R.; Donahue, T. M.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Hartle, R. E.; Hunten, D. M.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Mahaffy, P. R.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The Galileo Probe entered the atmosphere of Jupiter on December 7, 1995. Measurements of the chemical and isotopic composition of the Jovian atmosphere were obtained by the mass spectrometer during the descent over the 0.5 to 21 bar pressure region over a time period of approximately 1 hour. The sampling was either of atmospheric gases directly introduced into the ion source of the mass spectrometer through capillary leaks or of gas, which had been chemically processed to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to trace species or noble gases. The analysis of this data set continues to be refined based on supporting laboratory studies on an engineering unit. The mixing ratios of the major constituents of the atmosphere hydrogen and helium have been determined as well as mixing ratios or upper limits for several less abundant species including: methane, water, ammonia, ethane, ethylene, propane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Analysis also suggests the presence of trace levels of other 3 and 4 carbon hydrocarbons, or carbon and nitrogen containing species, phosphine, hydrogen chloride, and of benzene. The data set also allows upper limits to be set for many species of interest which were not detected. Isotope ratios were measured for 3He/4He, D/H, 13C/12C, 20Ne/22Ne, 38Ar/36Ar and for isotopes of both Kr and Xe.

  2. Application of quadrupole mass spectrometer to the 40Ar-39Ar geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigami, Yutaka; Nishijima, Tadashi; Koike, Toshio; Okuma, Kouichi.

    1984-01-01

    A Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS) has commonly been used for qualitative analyses of gases in organic chemistry or for monitoring the vacuum conditions in industrial machines. No attempt has been made, however, to apply it to geochronological studies because of its disadvantages such as the difficulty in obtaining precise isotope ratios due to triangular peak shapes and poor reproducibility. On the other hand, there are advantages that a QMS is relatively inexpensive and gives a shorter scanning time for analysis compared with a sector type mass spectrometer. The latter characteristics is useful for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies, since it gives a lower background in the QMS and the possibility to obtain many more data from one sample in a limited time. In this study, we have tried to improve a commercial QMS at many parts, such as rf-generator, quadrupole, ionization chamber, source magnet, and so on, in order to meet the requirements to use it for geochronological studies. With the use of the improved QMS equipped with an on-line microcomputer, we could obtain Ar isotope data which are sufficiently precise for the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar geochronological studies. (author)

  3. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  4. Mass spectrometric evidence for suprathermal ionization in an inductively coupled argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, R.S.; Svec, H.J.; Fassel, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Mass spectra have been obtained of species in the axial channel of an inductively coupled argon plasma by extracting ions from the inductively coupled plasma into a vacuum system housing a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Ionization temperatures (T/sub ion/) are obtained from relative count rates of m/z-resolved ions according to two general types of ionization equilibrium considerations: (a) the radio of doubly/singly charged ions of the same element, and (b) the ratio of singly charged ions from two elements of different ionization energy. The T/sub ion/ values derived from measurement of Ar +2 /Ar + , Ba +2 /Ba + , Sr +2 /Sr + , and Cd + /I + are all greater than those expected from excitation temperatures measured by other workers. The latter three values for T/sub ion/ are in reasonable agreement with values obtained by optical spectrometry for a variety of argon inductively coupled plasmas

  5. Measurement of low mass muon pairs in sulphur-nucleus collisions with an optimized HELIOS muon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Dileptons provide a unique and specific tool to detect collective behaviour and to probe for signs of quark gluon plasma formation in nucleus-nucleus interactions. In particular, in the low transverse mass region, below the rho meson, dimuons probe the thermal nature of the interaction while their multiplicity dependence can indicate nuclear volume effects. \\\\\\\\This experiment uses the (almost) unchanged HELIOS muon spectrometer and a combination of a new carefully designed light absorber, at an optimized distance from the target, and multiplicity measurements provided by new Silicon ring detectors, covering more than the muon rapidity acceptance. It intends to improve in quality and quantity on the low mass, low $p_{T}$ dimuon signal already observed in the NA34/2 experiment. The wide range of rapidity from 3.5 to 6.0 will enable us to explore the rapidity dependence of the signal from high energy density at nearly central rapidity up to very forward rapidities. \\\\\\\\The commissioning of the new apparatus (...

  6. An Improvement on Space Focusing Resolution in Two-Field Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, M.; Aydin, R.; Akin, U.; Kilic, H. S.; Sise, O.; Ulu, M.; Dogan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOFMS) is a sophisticated device for the mass selective analysis of a variety of samples. The main limitation on TOFMS technique is the obtainable resolution where the two main limiting factors are the initial space and energy spread of particles created in ionization region. Similar charged particles starting at different points will reach the detector at different times. So, this problem makes space focusing is very important subject. We have presented principles of two-fields TOFMS with second-order space focusing both using analytical methods and ray-tracing simulation. This work aims understanding of ion optical system clearly and gives hint of expectation for future developments

  7. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides 99-109 Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides 112,114-121,123 Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides 114,120,122-124,126,128 Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of 99 Cd and 123 Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of 100 Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119 Ag and 123 Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for 115,117,119 Ag and 123 Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH + ] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass 96 Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of 100 In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of the rp process that will enable a more reliable determination of

  8. Electrostatic mass spectrometer for concurrent mass-, energy- and angle-resolved measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, Yu.K.; Krasnova, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    A new electron-optical scheme is considered. An energy- and mass-analyser with angular resolution are combined in one device, in which a time-of-flight principle of mass separation is used. The tool is created on the basis of electrostatic field of quasi-conical systems possessing the high-energy dispersion and high-angular resolution. A regime of simultaneous angular and energy resolution is found. If there is an ion-pulsed source then the ion groups of equal mass will be registered at the same time at a position-sensitive detector located at the edge of the field. Real parameters of the suggested scheme are calculated

  9. Expert systems technology applied to instrument operation and data acquisition of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation covers the work done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by some computer programmers and analytical chemists specializing in mass spectrometry to develop an expert system for real-time tuning and optimization of operations of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS). This capability is important to increase the sensitivity possible for selected compounds throughout the entire mass range of the instrument, rather than settling for the traditional normalized calibration which lowers sensitivity at both ends of the mass scale

  10. Turning an energy analyzer into a mass spectrometer and a charge sorter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:When a swarm of ions are accelerated by a pulsed electric field for a common duration before entering an electrostatically dispersive energy analyzer, they will be sorted according to their charge-to-mass ratio q/m. In other words, the apparent kinetic energy upon which an ion will be registered in an apparent 'energy' spectrum thus obtained is proportional to its q/m ratio. For ions of a fixed mass m, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a charge state distribution spectrum. For ions of a fixed charge q, the apparent energy spectrum becomes a mass spectrum. In essence, an energy analyzer becomes both a charge sorter and a mass spectrometer when operated in this mode. When this technique is brought to bear on the detection of photofragment ions, a distinct advantage emerges. Kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) of fragment ions conventionally is extracted from fitting of the ion time-of-flight profile to ion trajectory simulation results, as such a fair amount of uncertainty exists in the KERD thus obtained. With the current novel approach to mass spectrometry, the KERDs of photofragment ions can be obtained directly, and as a result, with a greater accuracy. This should advance the study of fragmentation dynamics considerably

  11. Advanced Laser Architecture for Two-Step Laser Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Molly E.; Li, Steven X.; Yu, Anthony W.; Getty, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrobiology missions will focus on planets with significant astrochemical or potential astrobiological features, such as small, primitive bodies and the icy moons of the outer planets that may host diverse organic compounds. These missions require advanced instrument techniques to fully and unambiguously characterize the composition of surface and dust materials. Laser desorptionionization mass spectrometry (LDMS) is an emerging instrument technology for in situ mass analysis of non-volatile sample composition. A recent Goddard LDMS advancement is the two-step laser tandem mass spectrometer (L2MS) instrument to address the need for future flight instrumentation to deconvolve complex organic signatures. The L2MS prototype uses a resonance enhanced multi-photon laser ionization mechanism to selectively detect aromatic species from a more complex sample. By neglecting the aliphatic and inorganic mineral signatures in the two-step mass spectrum, the L2MS approach can provide both mass assignments and clues to structural information for an in situ investigation of non-volatile sample composition. In this paper we will describe our development effort on a new laser architecture that is based on the previously flown Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) laser transmitter for the L2MS instrument. The laser provides two discrete midinfrared wavelengths (2.8 m and 3.4 m) using monolithic optical parametric oscillators and ultraviolet (UV) wavelength (266 nm) on a single laser bench with a straightforward development path toward flight readiness.

  12. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or levitated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap

  13. Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) and its applications in hydrocarbon research and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpana, G.; Patil, D.J.; Kumar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers have been widely used to determine the isotopic ratios of light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (CFIRMS) provides reliable data on nanomole amount of sample gas without the need for cryogenic trapping using cold fingers as in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. High sample throughput is achieved as the system is configured with automated sample preparation devices and auto samplers. This paper presents a brief description of CFIRMS exploration

  14. Performance of the Recoil Mass Spectrometer and its detector systems at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Ginter, T.N.; Shapira, D.; Milner, W.T.; McConnell, J.W.; James, A.N.; Johnson, J.W.; Mas, J.; Mantica, P.F.; Auble, R.L.; Das, J.J.; Blankenship, J.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Akovali, Y.A.; Baktash, C.; Batchelder, J.C.; Bingham, C.R.; Brinkman, M.J.; Carter, H.K.; Cunningham, R.A.; Davinson, T.; Fox, J.D.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Grzywacz, R.; Liang, J.F.; MacDonald, B.D.; MacKenzie, J.; Paul, S.D.; Piechaczek, A.; Radford, D.C.; Ramayya, A.V.; Reviol, W.; Rudolph, D.; Rykaczewski, K.; Toth, K.S.; Weintraub, W.; Williams, C.; Woods, P.J.; Yu, C.-H.; Zganjar, E.F.

    2000-01-01

    The recently commissioned Recoil Mass Spectrometer (RMS) at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) is described. Consisting of a momentum separator followed by an E-D-E Rochester-type mass spectrometer, the RMS is the centerpiece of the nuclear structure endstation at the HRIBF. Designed to transport ions with rigidities near K=100, the RMS has acceptances of ±10% in energy and ±4.9% in mass-to-charge ratio. Recent experimental results are used to illustrate the detection capabilities of the RMS, which is compatible with many detectors and devices

  15. Mass measurements on short-lived Cd and Ag nuclides at the online mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin

    2009-07-03

    In the present work, mass determinations of the eleven neutron-deficient nuclides {sup 99-109}Cd, of ten neutron-rich silver nuclides {sup 112,114-121,123}Ag, and seven neutron-rich cadmium nuclides {sup 114,120,122-124,126,128}Cd are reported. Due to the clean production of the neutron-deficient nuclides it was possible to reduce the experimental uncertainties down to 2 keV, whereas the measurements of neutron-rich nuclides were hampered by the presence of contaminations from more stable In and Cs nuclides. In the case of {sup 99}Cd and {sup 123}Ag the masses were determined for the first time and for the other nuclides the mass uncertainties could be reduced by up to a factor of 50 as in the case of {sup 100}Cd. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of a potential isomeric mixture as for {sup 115,117,119}Ag and {sup 123}Cd, where no assignment to either the ground state or the excited state was possible, the experimental results were adjusted accordingly. Afterwards all results were included in the framework of the atomic-mass evaluation and thus linked and compared with other experimental data. In the case of the neutron-deficient Cd nuclides a conflict between the mass values obtained in the present work and those published by the JYFLTRAP group [EEH{sup +}] could be solved by performing an atomic-mass evaluation. Thus, it was revealed that reason for the conflict was a different value of the JYFLTRAP reference mass {sup 96}Mo. Furthermore, a reduction of the mass uncertainty and a slight increase of the mass of {sup 100}In were obtained. These mass measurements are an important step towards an understanding of the physics of

  16. A study on the fusion reactor - Development of x-ray spectrometer for diagnosis of tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hong Young; Choi, Duk In; Seo, Sung Hun; Kwon, Gi Chung; Jun, Sang Jin; Heo, Sung Hoi; Lee, Chan Hui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technolgoy, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    This report of research is on the development of X-ray Photo-Electron Spectrometer (PES) for diagnosis of tokamak plasma. The spectrometer utilizes the fact that the energy of photo-electron is given by the difference between the energy of X-ray and the binding energy of materials. In the research of this year, we constructed two spectrometers; one is operated in KAIST tokamak and the other in KT1 tokamak. In addition, we reviewed the characteristics of the x-ray filter, the photo-electric effect of carbon foils and the detection efficiency of MCP and x-ray radiation of plasma. We measured the x-ray radiation in tokamak and diagnosed the qualitative plasma parameters from the analysis of data. The major interesting plasma parameters, which we can diagnose with the spectrometer, are the electron temperature, Z{sub eff}, the spatial distribution of x-ray radiation and etc. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs. (author)

  17. A five-collector system for the simultaneous measurement of argon isotope ratios in a static mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, J.S.; Sherrill, N.D.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Lanphere, M.A.; Carpenter, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    A system is described that utilizes five separate Faraday-cup collector assemblies, aligned along the focal plane of a mass spectrometer, to collect simultaneous argon ion beams at masses 36-40. Each collector has its own electrometer amplifier and analog-to-digital measuring channel, the outputs of which are processed by a minicomputer that also controls the mass spectrometer. The mass spectrometer utilizes a 90?? sector magnetic analyzer with a radius of 23 cm, in which some degree of z-direction focussing is provided for all the ion beams by the fringe field of the magnet. Simultaneous measurement of the ion beams helps to eliminate mass-spectrometer memory as a significant source of measurement error during an analysis. Isotope ratios stabilize between 7 and 9 s after sample admission into the spectrometer, and thereafter changes in the measured ratios are linear, typically to within ??0.02%. Thus the multi-collector arrangement permits very short extrapolation times for computation of initial ratios, and also provides the advantages of simultaneous measurement of the ion currents in that errors due to variations in ion beam intensity are minimized. A complete analysis takes less than 10 min, so that sample throughput can be greatly enhanced. In this instrument, the factor limiting analytical precision now lies in short-term apparent variations in the interchannel calibration factors. ?? 1981.

  18. Mass-spectrometer for on-line operation with an accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, B.N.; Gall', L.N.; Domkin, V.D.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes the most essential elements and parameters of a mass-spectrometer designed for the on-line operation with the Leningrad Institute for Nuclear Physics synchrocyclotron with an extracted 1 GeV proton beam. The mass-spectrometer consists of two sections: analytical and measuring. A thermal ionization ion source is used for measuring isotope composition of nuclear reaction alkaline products produced in a target under the effect of 19 ev protons. While the selection and development of an ion-optical system for the source a provision had to be made for a high efficiency of the device as well as a stobility of parameters of the ion-optical system. To meet these requirements a massive electrode principle formed the basis of the system. Electrodes were a slit-type system consisted of three cylindrical lenses. Anion-optical system scheme is given in the paper. The employment of the ion-optical system with a small angle divergence in the horizontal plane provided for a high resolution of the spectrometer, approximately 400 at the relative aperture of 14-16%. The target consisted of a stack of MPG-6 graphite plates (20-30 pcs), 0.1 mm thick, 9x18 mm; the plates were fixed (1x10 0.1 mm apart by means of narrow in terlayers (1x10 mm) of the same material. For ensuring optimal diffusion and ionization depending upon the chemical element under study the target was heated up to 1.500-1.900 deg C. Results were obtained on the production cross-sections of lithium (6, 7, 8, 9 Li) isotope in the carbon target. While measuring sup(7, 8, 9)Li isotope yields the target irradiation period was 15 min and for 6 Li 3 min. The background was measured for each line of a mass-spectrum with proton beam off. The results obtained for the lithium isotope production cross section are of interests for discussions on problems of the light element production in cosmic rays

  19. A high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for a kaon mass measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelan, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.phelan@oeaw.ac.at [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann [Stefan Meyer Institute for Subatomic Physics of The Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Tortorella, Daniele [Payr Engineering GmbH, Wiederschwing 25, A-9564 Patergassen (Austria); Bühler, Matthias; Hertrich, Theo [Low Temperature Solutions UG, Bahnhofstraße 21, D-85737 Ismaning (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    The ASPECT consortium (Adaptable Spectrometer Enabled by Cryogenic Technology) is currently constructing a generalised cryogenic platform for cryogenic detector work which will be able to accommodate a wide range of sensors. The cryogenics system is based on a small mechanical cooler with a further adiabatic demagnetisation stage and will work with cryogenic detectors at sub-Kelvin temperatures. The commercial aim of the consortium is to produce a compact, user-friendly device with an emphasis on reliability and portability which can easily be transported for specialised on-site work, such as beam-lines or telescope facilities. The cryogenic detector platform will accommodate a specially developed cryogenic sensor, either a metallic magnetic calorimeter or a magnetic penetration-depth thermometer. The detectors will be designed to work in various temperatures regions with an emphasis on optimising the various detector resolutions for specific temperatures. One resolution target is of about 10 eV at the energies range typically created in kaonic atoms experiments (soft x-ray energies). A following step will see the introduction of continuous, high-power, sub-Kelvin cooling which will bring the cryogenic basis for a high resolution spectrometer system to the market. The scientific goal of the project will produce an experimental set-up optimised for kaon-mass measurements performing high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on a beam-line provided foreseeably by the J-PARC (Tokai, Japan) or DAΦNE (Frascati, Italy) facilities.

  20. A high-throughput method for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Savolainen, Otto I

    2016-01-01

    supported extraction methods for extracting alkylresorcinols from plasma and improved a normal-phase liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer method to reduce sample analysis time. The method was validated and compared with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Sample preparation...

  1. Gas chromatography interfaced with atmospheric pressure ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry by low-temperature plasma ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Asger W.; Kofoed-Sorensen, Vivi; Svensmark, Bo

    2013-01-01

    A low temperature plasma (LTP) ionization interface between a gas chromatograph (GC) and an atmospheric pressure inlet mass spectrometer, was constructed. This enabled time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection of GC-eluting compounds. The performance of the setup was evaluated by injection...

  2. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Coevaporation of Y, BaF2, and Cu utilizing a quadrupole mass spectrometer as a rate measuring probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudner, J.; Oestling, M.; Ohlsen, H.; Stolt, L.

    1991-01-01

    An ultrahigh vacuum coevaporator equipped with three sources for preparation of Y--BaF 2 --Cu--O thin films is described. Evaporation rates of Y, BaF 2 , and Cu were controlled using a quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in a multiplexed mode. To evaluate the method depositions have been performed using different source configurations and evaporation rates. Utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry absolute values of the actual evaporation rates were determined. It was observed that the mass-spectrometer sensitivity is highest for Y, followed by BaF 2 (BaF + is the measured ion) and Cu. A partial pressure of oxygen during evaporation of Y, BaF 2 , and Cu affected mainly the rate of Y. It is shown that the mass spectrometer can be utilized to precisely control the film composition

  4. Development of a Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) Investigation for Future Planetary Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Danell, R.; Van Ameron, F.; Pinnick, V.; Li, X.; Arevalo, R.; Glavin, D.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P.; Chu, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future surface missions to Mars and other planetary bodies will benefit from continued advances in miniature sensor and sample handling technologies that enable high-performance chemical analyses of natural samples. Fine-scale (approx.1 mm and below) analyses of rock surfaces and interiors, such as exposed on a drill core, will permit (1) the detection of habitability markers including complex organics in association with their original depositional environment, and (2) the characterization of successive layers and gradients that can reveal the time-evolution of those environments. In particular, if broad-based and highly-sensitive mass spectrometry techniques could be brought to such scales, the resulting planetary science capability would be truly powerful. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS) investigation is designed to conduct fine-scale organic and inorganic analyses of short (approx.5-10 cm) rock cores such as could be acquired by a planetary lander or rover arm-based drill. LITMS combines both pyrolysis/gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GCMS) of sub-sampled core fines, and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) of the intact core surface, using a common mass analyzer, enhanced from the design used in the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument on the 2018 ExoMars rover. LITMS additionally features developments based on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation on MSL and recent NASA-funded prototype efforts in laser mass spectrometry, pyrolysis, and precision subsampling. LITMS brings these combined capabilities to achieve its four measurement objectives: (1) Organics: Broad Survey Detect organic molecules over a wide range of molecular weight, volatility, electronegativity, concentration, and host mineralogy. (2) Organic: Molecular Structure Characterize internal molecular structure to identify individual compounds, and reveal functionalization and processing. (3) Inorganic Host Environment Assess the local chemical

  5. Development and optimization of a high temperature coupling system thermoanalyzer/mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagdfeld, H.J.

    1983-11-01

    The development of a high temperature coupling system was accomplished to carry out thermodynamic investigations during glass melting to solidify highly radioactive fission products into glass at a temperature up to 1200 0 C. The actual problem consisted of the fact that the gas species evaporating from the melter have to pass without condensation or without change of their composition a multistage pressure reducing system to enter the analysator unit of the mass spectrometer in the high vacuum. With the systems, offered at present, this is only possible up to approximately 450 0 C. The development of a new high temperature coupling included investigations of the gas dynamics, raw materials and thermic behaviour. (orig./EF) [de

  6. Gibbs free energy of formation of lanthanum rhodate by quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, R.; Banerjee, Aparna; Venugopal, V.

    2003-01-01

    The ternary oxide in the system La-Rh-O is of considerable importance because of its application in catalysis. Phase equilibria in the pseudo-binary system La 2 O 3 -Rh 2 O 3 has been investigated by Shevyakov et. al. Gibbs free energy of LaRhO 3 (s) was determined by Jacob et. al. using a solid state Galvanic cell in the temperature range 890 to 1310 K. No other thermodynamic data were available in the literature. Hence it was decided to determine Gibbs free energy of formation of LaRhO 3 (s) by an independent technique, viz. quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) coupled with a Knudsen effusion cell and the results are presented

  7. Knudsen cell--mass spectrometer studies of cesium--urania interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, J.L.; Osborne, M.F.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.

    1976-06-01

    Limited Knudsen cell--mass spectrometer studies were made of the partial pressures of cesium-containing species [assumed to be primarily Cs(g)] over Cs 2 CO 3 and over phase equilibria involving UO 2 and probable Cs-U-O compounds formed from mixtures that initially contained either Cs 2 CO 3 -UO 2 or CsOH-UO 2 . Although additional work is required to further define the equilibria involved, the data demonstrate unambiguously a significant reduction in cesium partial pressures due to probable Cs-U-O compound formation and indicate essentially identical behavior with either CsOH or Cs 2 CO 3 as the starting material with UO 2

  8. High-performance hybrid Orbitrap mass spectrometers for quantitative proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James C; Edwards, Alistair V G; Verano-Braga, Thiago

    2016-01-01

    We present basic workups and quantitative comparisons for two current generation Orbitrap mass spectrometers, the Q Exactive Plus and Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid, which are widely considered two of the highest performing instruments on the market. We assessed the performance of two quantitative methods...... on both instruments, namely label-free quantitation and stable isotope labeling using isobaric tags, for studying the heat shock response in Escherichia coli. We investigated the recently reported MS3 method on the Fusion instrument and the potential of MS3-based reporter ion isolation Synchronous...... Precursor Selection (SPS) and its impact on quantitative accuracy. We confirm that the label-free approach offers a more linear response with a wider dynamic range than MS/MS-based isobaric tag quantitation and that the MS3/SPS approach alleviates but does not eliminate dynamic range compression. We...

  9. Interfacing of thermal ionization mass spectrometer with PC/XT and related software development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, A.D.; Gurba, P.B.; Rajendrakumar; Singh, R.K.; Bajpai, D.D.; Coelho, G.J.M.; Das, K.V.; Indurkar, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A completely automated Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), is used in Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE) Tarapur for precise and accurate measurement of isotopic composition and concentration determination of special nuclear materials (Uranium and Plutonium) for the purpose of input accounting of the plant. It is provided with one Hewlett-Packard, H-9845B desktop computer to control various instrument parameters and perform automatic analysis of 13 samples in sequence. The computer gave fairly good service for six years with intermittent minor maintenance before it developed major problems. In view of the fact that its repair and maintenance cost is several times the cost of locally available computer, it was decided to replace the imported Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer with PC/XT. This report describes the interfacing of TIMS with PC/XT and the related Software development. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 annexures

  10. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  11. Ion-neutral transport through quadrupole interfaces of mass-spectrometer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jugroot, M.; Groth, C.P.T.; Thomson, B.A.; Baranov, V.; Collings, B.A.; French, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The transport of free ions through highly under-expanded jet flows of neutral gases and in the presence of applied electric fields is investigated by continuum-based numerical simulations. In particular, numerical results are described which are relevant to ion flows occurring in quadrupole interfaces of mass spectrometer systems. A five-moment mathematical model and parallel multi-block numerical solution procedure is developed for predicting the ion transport. The model incorporates the effects of ion-neutral collision processes and is used in conjunction with a Navier-Stokes model and flow solver for the neutral gas to examine the key influences controlling the ion motion. The effects of the neutral gas flow, electric fields (both dc and rf), and flow field geometry on ion mobility are carefully assessed. The capability of controlling the charged particle motions through a combination of directed neutral flow and applied electric field is demonstrated for these high-speed, hypersonic, jet flows. (author)

  12. Mass spectrometer introduction line: application to the analysis of impurities in uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, M.

    1967-01-01

    The continuous mass-spectrometric analysis of impurities in UF 6 is possible industrially if certain conditions imposed by the nature of the gas are respected. The gas introduction line arriving at the spectrometer's source makes it possible to fix the flow-rate, to control the inlet pressure and to selectively destroy the gas containing the impurities. The operational conditions for the line are defined and a description is given of the theoretical and experimental study of the various elements of which it is composed, i.e. the leak valve, the flow-meter, the chemical trap and the servo-mechanism making it possible to regulate and control the gas flow. The dynamic characteristics of the line's various components and the performance of the equipment in the case of the analyses considered are given. (author) [fr

  13. On the ability of the Viking gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer to detect organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemann, Klaus

    2007-06-19

    A recent paper by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. [Navarro-Gonzalez R, Navarro KF, de la Rosa J, Iniguez E, Molina P, Miranda LD, Morales P, Cienfuegos E, Coll P, Raulin F, et al. (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:16089-16094] claims to show that the Viking GCMS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer) experiment, which carried out a search for organic matter at the surface of Mars in 1976, "may have been blind to low levels of organics." To rebut this assertion, the Viking experiment, test data, and results on Mars are reviewed, and the fallacies in the design, execution, and interpretation of the new experiments presented by Navarro-Gonzalez et al. are critically examined.

  14. MOMA and other next-generation ion trap mass spectrometers for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Getty, S.; Mahaffy, P. R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Danell, R.; Pinnick, V. T.; Li, X.; Grubisic, A.; Southard, A. E.; Hovmand, L.; Cottin, H.; Makarov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970's, quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) systems have served as low-risk, cost-efficient means to explore the inner and outer reaches of the solar system. These legacy instruments have interrogated the compositions of the lunar exosphere (LADEE), surface materials on Mars (MSL), and the atmospheres of Venus (Pioneer Venus), Mars (MAVEN) and outer planets (Galileo and Cassini-Huygens). However, the in situ detection of organic compounds on Mars and Titan, coupled with ground-based measurements of amino acids in meteorites and a variety of organics in comets, has underlined the importance of molecular disambiguation in the characterization of high-priority planetary environments. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) flight instrument, centered on a linear ion trap, enables the in situ detection of volatile and non-volatile organics, but also the characterization of molecular structures through SWIFT ion isolation/excitation and tandem mass spectrometry (MSn). Like the SAM instrument on MSL, the MOMA investigation also includes a gas chromatograph (GC), thereby enabling the chemical separation of potential isobaric interferences based on retention times. The Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (LITMS; PI: William Brinckerhoff), developed to TRL 6 via the ROSES MatISSE Program, augments the core MOMA design and adds: expanded mass range (from 20 - 2000 Da); high-temperature evolved gas analysis (up to 1300°C); and, dual polarity detector assemblies (supporting the measurement of negative ions). The LITMS instrument will be tested in the field in 2017 through the Atacama Rover Astrobiology Drilling Studies (ARADS; PI: Brian Glass) ROSES PSTAR award. Following on these advancements, the Advanced Resolution Organic Molecule Analyzer (AROMA; PI: Ricardo Arevalo Jr.), supported through the ROSES PICASSO Program, combines a highly capable MOMA/LITMS-like linear ion trap and the ultrahigh resolution CosmOrbitrap mass analyzer developed by a consortium of five

  15. Response of an aerosol mass spectrometer to organonitrates and organosulfates and implications for atmospheric chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, D K; Matsunaga, A; Docherty, K S; Surratt, J D; Seinfeld, J H; Ziemann, P J; Jimenez, J L

    2010-04-13

    Organonitrates (ON) are important products of gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds in the troposphere; some models predict, and laboratory studies show, the formation of large, multifunctional ON with vapor pressures low enough to partition to the particle phase. Organosulfates (OS) have also been recently detected in secondary organic aerosol. Despite their potential importance, ON and OS remain a nearly unexplored aspect of atmospheric chemistry because few studies have quantified particulate ON or OS in ambient air. We report the response of a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to aerosol ON and OS standards and mixtures. We quantify the potentially substantial underestimation of organic aerosol O/C, commonly used as a metric for aging, and N/C. Most of the ON-nitrogen appears as NO(x)+ ions in the AMS, which are typically dominated by inorganic nitrate. Minor organonitrogen ions are observed although their identity and intensity vary between standards. We evaluate the potential for using NO(x)+ fragment ratios, organonitrogen ions, HNO(3)+ ions, the ammonium balance of the nominally inorganic ions, and comparison to ion-chromatography instruments to constrain the concentrations of ON for ambient datasets, and apply these techniques to a field study in Riverside, CA. OS manifests as separate organic and sulfate components in the AMS with minimal organosulfur fragments and little difference in fragmentation from inorganic sulfate. The low thermal stability of ON and OS likely causes similar detection difficulties for other aerosol mass spectrometers using vaporization and/or ionization techniques with similar or larger energy, which has likely led to an underappreciation of these species.

  16. Development of a totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Barton, V.C.; Brand, H.R.; Neufeld, K.W.; Bowman, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is described. It has a number of unique features not available on current commercial instruments, including: complete computer control of source and all ion axial potentials; use of dual computers for data acquisition and data processing; and capability for self-adaptive control of experiments. Furthermore, it has been possible to produce this instrument at a cost significantly below that of commercial instruments. This triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been constructed using components commercially available from several different manufacturers. The source is a standard Hewlett-Packard 5985B GC/MS source. The two quadrupole analyzers and the quadrupole CAD region contain Balzers QMA 150 rods with Balzers QMG 511 rf controllers for the analyzers and a Balzers QHS-511 controller for the CAD region. The pulsed-positive-ion-negative-ion-chemical ionization (PPINICI) detector is made by Finnigan Corporation. The mechanical and electronics design were developed at LLNL for linking these diverse elements into a functional TQMS as described. The computer design for total control of the system is unique in that two separate LSI-11/23 minicomputers and assorted I/O peripherals and interfaces from several manufacturers are used. The evolution of this design concept from totally computer-controlled instrumentation into future self-adaptive or ''expert'' systems for instrumental analysis is described. Operational characteristics of the instrument and initial results from experiments involving the analysis of the high explosive HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazacyclooctane) are presented

  17. Data acquisition and control system for quadrupole mass spectrometer using an add-on card to an IBM PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paal, A.; Szadai, J.; Szekely, G.

    1991-01-01

    An RF/DC unit, a dedicated interface card and the PCQMS software was designed to upgrade the existing quadrupole mass spectrometer of ATOMKI series Q300C to Q300PC. The new units and the software features are described. Display modes, all in high resolution graphics are provided to include ion monitoring table, ion monitoring analog, intensity vs time or temperature, scan bargraph and scan analog. The quadrupole mass spectrometer performance has been improved by the new modifications for data acquisition and control to be accomplished automatically. (R.P.) 3 refs.; 4 figs

  18. Fullerene Soot in Eastern China Air: Results from Soot Particle-Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ge, X.; Chen, M.; Zhang, Q.; Yu, H.; Sun, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Collier, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we present for the first time, the observation and quantification of fullerenes in ambient airborne particulate using an Aerodyne Soot Particle - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) deployed during 2015 winter in suburban Nanjing, a megacity in eastern China. The laser desorption and electron impact ionization techniques employed by the SP-AMS allow us to differentiate various fullerenes from other aerosol components. Mass spectrum of the identified fullerene soot is consisted by a series of high molecular weight carbon clusters (up to m/z of 2000 in this study), almost identical to the spectral features of commercially available fullerene soot, both with C70 and C60 clusters as the first and second most abundant species. This type of soot was observed throughout the entire study period, with an average mass loading of 0.18 μg/m3, accounting for 6.4% of the black carbon mass, 1.2% of the total organic mass. Temporal variation and diurnal pattern of fullerene soot are overall similar to those of black carbon, but are clearly different in some periods. Combining the positive matrix factorization, back-trajectory and analyses of the meteorological parameters, we identified the petrochemical industrial plants situating upwind from the sampling site, as the major source of fullerene soot. In this regard, our findings imply the ubiquitous presence of fullerene soot in ambient air of industry-influenced area, especially the oil and gas production regions. This study also offers new insights into the characterization of fullerenes from other environmental samples via the advanced SP-AMS technique.

  19. Chemical characterization of microparticles by laser ablation in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a new technique for the chemical characterization of microparticles based upon the use of electrodynamic traps. The electrodynamic trap has achieved widespread use in the mass spectrometry community in the form of the ion trap mass spectrometer or quadrupole ion trap. Small macroscopic particles can be confined or leviated within the electrode structure of a three-dimensional quadrupole electrodynamic trap in the same way as fundamental charges or molecular ions by using a combination of ac and dc potentials. Our concept is to use the same electrode structure to perform both microparticle levitation and ion trapping/mass analysis. The microparticle will first be trapped and spatially stabilized within the trap for characterization by optical probes, i.e., absorption, fluorescence, or Raman spectroscopy. After the particle has been optically characterized, it is further characterized using mass spectrometry. Ions are generated from the particle surface using laser ablation or desorption. The characteristics of the applied voltages are changed to trap the ions formed by the laser with the ions subsequently mass analyzed. The work described in this paper focuses on the ability to perform laser desorption experiments on microparticles contained within the ion trap. Laser desorption has previously been demonstrated in ion trap devices by applying the sample to a probe which is inserted so as to place the sample at the surface of the ring electrode. Our technique requires the placement of a microparticle in the center of the trap. Our initial experiments have been performed on falling microparticles rather than levitated particles to eliminate voltage switching requirements when changing from particle to ion trapping modes

  20. A high-resolution mass spectrometer to measure atmospheric ion composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Junninen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present recent achievements on developing and testing a tool to detect the composition of ambient ions in the mass/charge range up to 2000 Th. The instrument is an Atmospheric Pressure Interface Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (APi-TOF, Tofwerk AG. Its mass accuracy is better than 0.002%, and the mass resolving power is 3000 Th/Th. In the data analysis, a new efficient Matlab based set of programs (tofTools were developed, tested and used. The APi-TOF was tested both in laboratory conditions and applied to outdoor air sampling in Helsinki at the SMEAR III station. Transmission efficiency calibrations showed a throughput of 0.1–0.5% in the range 100–1300 Th for positive ions, and linearity over 3 orders of magnitude in concentration was determined. In the laboratory tests the APi-TOF detected sulphuric acid-ammonia clusters in high concentration from a nebulised sample illustrating the potential of the instrument in revealing the role of sulphuric acid clusters in atmospheric new particle formation. The APi-TOF features a high enough accuracy, resolution and sensitivity for the determination of the composition of atmospheric small ions although the total concentration of those ions is typically only 400–2000 cm−3. The atmospheric ions were identified based on their exact masses, utilizing Kendrick analysis and correlograms as well as narrowing down the potential candidates based on their proton affinities as well isotopic patterns. In Helsinki during day-time the main negative ambient small ions were inorganic acids and their clusters. The positive ions were more complex, the main compounds were (polyalkyl pyridines and – amines. The APi-TOF provides a near universal interface for atmospheric pressure sampling, and this key feature will be utilized in future laboratory and field studies.

  1. Dual Source Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer and Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, W.; Mahaffy, P.; Cornish, T.; Cheng, A.; Gorevan, S.; Niemann, H.; Harpold, D.; Rafeek, S.; Yucht, D.

    We present details of an instrument under development for potential NASA missions to planets and small bodies. The instrument comprises a dual ionization source (laser and electron impact) time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) and a carousel sam- ple handling system for in situ analysis of solid materials acquired by, e.g., a coring drill. This DSTOF instrument could be deployed on a fixed lander or a rover, and has an open design that would accommodate measurements by additional instruments. The sample handling system (SHS) is based on a multi-well carousel, originally de- signed for Champollion/DS4. Solid samples, in the form of drill cores or as loose chips or fines, are inserted through an access port, sealed in vacuum, and transported around the carousel to a pyrolysis cell and/or directly to the TOF-MS inlet. Samples at the TOF-MS inlet are xy-addressable for laser or optical microprobe. Cups may be ejected from their holders for analyzing multiple samples or caching them for return. Samples are analyzed with laser desorption and evolved-gas/electron-impact sources. The dual ion source permits studies of elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of unprepared samples with a single mass spectrometer. Pulsed laser desorption per- mits the measurement of abundance and isotope ratios of refractory elements, as well as the detection of high-mass organic molecules in solid samples. Evolved gas analysis permits similar measurements of the more volatile species in solids and aerosols. The TOF-MS is based on previous miniature prototypes at JHU/APL that feature high sensitivity and a wide mass range. The laser mode, in which the sample cup is directly below the TOF-MS inlet, permits both ablation and desorption measurements, to cover elemental and molecular species, respectively. In the evolved gas mode, sample cups are raised into a small pyrolysis cell and heated, producing a neutral gas that is elec- tron ionized and pulsed into the TOF-MS. (Any imaging

  2. High-temperature quadrupole mass spectrometer for studying vaporization from materials heated by a CO2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredin, L.; Hansen, G.P.; Sampson, M.P.; Margrave, J.L.; Behrens, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mass spectrometry techniques in studying vaporization from selected materials, we designed a mass spectrometer than can be used either with a continuous wave or pulsed laser heating system or with a conventional furnace heating system. Our experimental apparatus, the components of which are described in detail, consisted of a quadrupole mass spectrometer positioned in a crossed-beam configuration, controlling electronics, a data acquisition system, a vacuum system, a cryogenic collimation system, and a laser heating system. Results of mass spectral scans taken during laser pyrolysis of polymeric materials and laser vaporization of graphite were compatible with data reported in other studies. Results of mass spectral studies of laser-induced combustion in the Ti + C system are also presented

  3. Precision measurements with the multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer of ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko; Ascher, Pauline; Borgmann, Christopher; Boehm, Christine; Eliseev, Sergey; Eronen, Tommi; George, Sebastian; Kisler, Dmitry; Naimi, Sarah [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Dietrich; Herfurth, Frank; Litvinov, Yuri; Minaya Ramirez, Enrique; Neidherr, Dennis [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Breitenfeldt, Martin [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, Celestijnenlaan 200d - bus 2418, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Cakirli, Burcu [University of Istanbul, Department of Physics, 34134 Istanbul (Turkey); Cocolios, Thomas Elias [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Herlert, Alexander Josef [FAIR GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kowalska, Magdalena [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Kreim, Susanne [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Lunney, David; Manea, Vladimir [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, 91405 Orsay Campus, Bat. 104, 108 (France); Rosenbusch, Marco; Schweikhard, Lutz; Wienholtz, Frank; Wolf, Robert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Stanja, Juliane; Zuber, Kai [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The masses of exotic nuclides are among the most important input parameters for modern nuclear theory and astrophysical models. At the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-ToF-MS) in combination with a Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) can be used to achieve high-resolution isobar purification with mass-resolving powers of 105 in a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, the MR-ToF device can be used as a spectrometer to determine the masses of nuclides with very low yields and short half-lives, where a Penning-trap mass measurement becomes impractical due to the lower transport efficiency and decay losses during the purification and measurement cycles. Recent cross-check experiments show that the MR-ToF MS allows mass measurements with uncertainties in the sub-ppm range. In a first application the mass measurements of the nuclides 53,54Ca was performed, delivered with production rates as low as 10/s and half-lives of only 90(6) ms. The nuclides serve as important benchmarks for testing modern chiral effective theory with realistic 3-body forces. The contribution presents the on-line mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP focusing on the new applications, which became possible after the implementation of the MR-ToF MS into the current setup. In particular, the mass measurements of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes up to A=54 are discussed. In addition, measurements of the isotonic potassium isotopes are reported.

  4. MSM, an Efficient Workflow for Metabolite Identification Using Hybrid Linear Ion Trap Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Robert; Huang, Yingying; Schwartz, Jae C.; Chen, Yan; Carlson, Timothy J.; Ma, Ji

    2012-05-01

    Identification of drug metabolites can often yield important information regarding clearance mechanism, pharmacologic activity, or toxicity for drug candidate molecules. Additionally, the identification of metabolites can provide beneficial structure-activity insight to help guide lead optimization efforts towards molecules with optimal metabolic profiles. There are challenges associated with detecting and identifying metabolites in the presence of complex biological matrices, and new LC-MS technologies have been developed to meet these challenges. In this report, we describe the development of an experimental approach that applies unique features of the hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometer to streamline in vitro and in vivo metabolite identification experiments. The approach, referred to as MSM, utilizes multiple collision cells, dissociation methods, mass analyzers, and detectors. With multiple scan types and different dissociation modes built into one experimental method, along with flexible post-acquisition analysis options, the MSM workflow offers an attractive option to fast and reliable identification of metabolites in different kinds of in vitro and in vivo samples. The MSM workflow was successfully applied to metabolite identification analysis of verapamil in both in vitro rat hepatocyte incubations and in vivo rat bile samples.

  5. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehpour, M., E-mail: mehran.salehpour@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Applied Nuclear Physics Division, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, Applied Nuclear Physics Division, P.O. Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A. [Ion Physics, ETH Zurich, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, 8093 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV {sup 14,13,12}C{sup 3+} ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C and the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  6. Performance report for the low energy compact radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometer at Uppsala University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehpour, M.; Håkansson, K.; Possnert, G.; Wacker, L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2016-03-01

    A range of ion beam analysis activities are ongoing at Uppsala University, including Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). Various isotopes are used for AMS but the isotope with the widest variety of applications is radiocarbon. Up until recently, only the 5 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator had been used at our site for radiocarbon AMS, ordinarily using 12 MeV 14,13,12C3+ ions. Recently a new radiocarbon AMS system, the Green-MICADAS, developed at the ion physics group at ETH Zurich, was installed. The system has a number of outstanding features which will be described. The system operates at a terminal voltage of 175 kV and uses helium stripper gas, extracting singly charged carbon ions. The low- and high energy mass spectrometers in the system are stigmatic dipole permanent magnets (0.42 and 0.97 T) requiring no electrical power nor cooling water. The system measures both the 14C/12C and the 13C/12C ratios on-line. Performance of the system is presented for both standard mg samples as well as μg-sized samples.

  7. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML.

  8. FATES: a flexible analysis toolkit for the exploration of single-particle mass spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M.; Cornwell, Gavin C.; Rodriguez, Paul; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2017-04-01

    Single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) analysis of aerosols has become increasingly popular since its invention in the 1990s. Today many iterations of commercial and lab-built SPMSs are in use worldwide. However, supporting analysis toolkits for these powerful instruments are outdated, have limited functionality, or are versions that are not available to the scientific community at large. In an effort to advance this field and allow better communication and collaboration between scientists, we have developed FATES (Flexible Analysis Toolkit for the Exploration of SPMS data), a MATLAB toolkit easily extensible to an array of SPMS designs and data formats. FATES was developed to minimize the computational demands of working with large data sets while still allowing easy maintenance, modification, and utilization by novice programmers. FATES permits scientists to explore, without constraint, complex SPMS data with simple scripts in a language popular for scientific numerical analysis. In addition FATES contains an array of data visualization graphic user interfaces (GUIs) which can aid both novice and expert users in calibration of raw data; exploration of the dependence of mass spectral characteristics on size, time, and peak intensity; and investigations of clustered data sets.

  9. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI- photoelectron ionization (PEI portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1 with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear.

  10. Applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) have been applied as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric techniques having multielemental capability for the characterization of solid samples in materials science. ICP-MS is used for the sensitive determination of trace and ultratrace elements in digested solutions of solid samples or of process chemicals (ultrapure water, acids and organic solutions) for the semiconductor industry with detection limits down to sub-picogram per liter levels. Whereas ICP-MS on solid samples (e.g. high-purity ceramics) sometimes requires time-consuming sample preparation for its application in materials science, and the risk of contamination is a serious drawback, a fast, direct determination of trace elements in solid materials without any sample preparation by LA-ICP-MS is possible. The detection limits for the direct analysis of solid samples by LA-ICP-MS have been determined for many elements down to the nanogram per gram range. A deterioration of detection limits was observed for elements where interferences with polyatomic ions occur. The inherent interference problem can often be solved by applying a double-focusing sector field mass spectrometer at higher mass resolution or by collision-induced reactions of polyatomic ions with a collision gas using an ICP-MS fitted with collision cell. The main problem of LA-ICP-MS is quantification if no suitable standard reference materials with a similar matrix composition are available. The calibration problem in LA-ICP-MS can be solved using on-line solution-based calibration, and different procedures, such as external calibration and standard addition, have been discussed with respect to their application in materials science. The application of isotope dilution in solution-based calibration for trace metal determination in small amounts of noble metals has been developed as a new calibration strategy. This review discusses new

  11. The Varian MAT-250 mass spectrometer. Steady isotopes laboratory; Espectrometro de masas Varian MAT-250. Laboratorio de isotopos estables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez M, V.; Tavera D, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    This work treats over the performance and applications of the Varian Mat-250 mass spectrometer which is in the environmental isotope laboratory. It can be applied over topics such as: ions formation, acceleration and collimation, ions separation, ions detection, data transformation, sampling, {delta} notation. (Author)

  12. Design of a reflex time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the study of the desorption of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggi, F.

    1991-01-01

    A reflex time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the study of the desorption and dissociation of molecular ions has been designed. A general overview of the instrument is reported, together with the different experimental aspects of the technique. These include mechanical and vacuum solutions, secondary ion optics in the electrostatic mirror, electronics, data acquisition and analysis

  13. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m∕z channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular

  14. STRAPS v1.0: evaluating a methodology for predicting electron impact ionisation mass spectra for the aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, David O.; Allan, James; Rami Alfarra, M.; Aumont, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    Our ability to model the chemical and thermodynamic processes that lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is thought to be hampered by the complexity of the system. While there are fundamental models now available that can simulate the tens of thousands of reactions thought to take place, validation against experiments is highly challenging. Techniques capable of identifying individual molecules such as chromatography are generally only capable of quantifying a subset of the material present, making it unsuitable for a carbon budget analysis. Integrative analytical methods such as the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) are capable of quantifying all mass, but because of their inability to isolate individual molecules, comparisons have been limited to simple data products such as total organic mass and the O : C ratio. More detailed comparisons could be made if more of the mass spectral information could be used, but because a discrete inversion of AMS data is not possible, this activity requires a system of predicting mass spectra based on molecular composition. In this proof-of-concept study, the ability to train supervised methods to predict electron impact ionisation (EI) mass spectra for the AMS is evaluated. Supervised Training Regression for the Arbitrary Prediction of Spectra (STRAPS) is not built from first principles. A methodology is constructed whereby the presence of specific mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) channels is fitted as a function of molecular structure before the relative peak height for each channel is similarly fitted using a range of regression methods. The widely used AMS mass spectral database is used as a basis for this, using unit mass resolution spectra of laboratory standards. Key to the fitting process is choice of structural information, or molecular fingerprint. Our approach relies on using supervised methods to automatically optimise the relationship between spectral characteristics and these molecular fingerprints. Therefore

  15. Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM for organic aerosol studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaie-Levrel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM, samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL, sodium chloride (NaCl and dioctylphtalate (DOP particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL and detection efficiency (DE were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110–120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (λ = 248 nm used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10−15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules. DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles

  16. Open Source Software Tool Skyline Reaches Key Agreement with Mass Spectrometer Vendors | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full proteomics analysis of a small tumor sample (similar in mass to a few grains of rice) produces well over 500 megabytes of unprocessed "raw" data when analyzed on a mass spectrometer (MS). Thus, for every proteomics experiment there is a vast amount of raw data that must be analyzed and interrogated in order to extract biological information. Moreover, the raw data output from different MS vendors are generally in different formats inhibiting the ability of labs to productively work together.

  17. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Hongsen.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T e ) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n e ) is in the range 10 8 --10 10 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10 4 --10 5 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z 2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z 2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument

  18. A Virtual Research Environment for a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbeck, M.; Schäfer, L.; Klump, J.; Galkin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Overview: This poster describes the development of a Virtual Research Environment for the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) at GFZ Potsdam. Background: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) are extremely sensitive instruments for analyzing the surfaces of solid and thin film samples. These instruments are rare, expensive and experienced operators are very highly sought after. As such, measurement time is a precious commodity, until now only accessible to small numbers of researchers. The challenge: The Virtual SIMS Project aims to set up a Virtual Research Environment for the operation of the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR instrument at the GFZ Potsdam. The objective of the VRE is to provide SIMS access not only to researchers locally present in Potsdam but also to scientists working with SIMS cooperation partners in e.g., South Africa, Brazil or India. The requirements: The system should address the complete spectrum of laboratory procedures - from online application for measurement time, to remote access for data acquisition to data archiving for the subsequent publication and for future reuse. The approach: The targeted Virtual SIMS Environment will consist of a: 1. Web Server running the Virtual SIMS website providing general information about the project, lab access proposal forms and calendar for the timing of project related tasks. 2. LIMS Server, responsible for scheduling procedures, data management and, if applicable, accounting and billing. 3. Remote SIMS Tool, devoted to the operation of the experiment within a remote control environment. 4. Publishing System, which supports the publication of results in cooperation with the GFZ Library services. 5. Training Simulator, which offers the opportunity to rehearse experiments and to prepare for possible events such as a power outages or interruptions to broadband services. First results: The SIMS Virtual Research Environment will be mainly based on open source software, the only exception being the CAMECA IMS

  19. Dustbuster: a New Generation Impact-ionization Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometer for in situ Analysis of Cosmic Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. E.; Ahrens, T. J.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    We have developed and tested a small impact-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for analysis of cosmic dust, suitable for use on deep space missions. This mass spectrometer, named Dustbuster, incorporates a large target area and a reflectron, simultaneously optimizing mass resolution, sensitivity, and collection efficiency. Dust particles hitting the 65-cm2 target plate are partially ionized. The resulting ions are accelerated through a modified reflectron that focuses the ions in space and time to produce high-resolution spectra. The instrument, shown below, measures 10 x 10 x 20 cm, has a mass of 500 g, and consumes little power. Laser desorption ionization of metal and mineral samples (embedded in the impact plate) simulates particle impacts for instrument performance tests. Mass resolution in these experiments is near 200, permitting resolution of isotopes. The mass spectrometer can be combined with other instrument components to determine dust particle trajectories and sizes. This project was funded by NASA's Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the analysis of biological samples and pharmaceutical drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossipov, K.; Seregina, I. F.; Bolshov, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in the analysis of biological samples (whole blood, serum, blood plasma, urine, tissues, etc.) and pharmaceutical drugs. The shortcomings of this method related to spectral and non-spectral interferences are manifested in full measure in determination of the target analytes in these complex samples strongly differing in composition. The spectral interferences are caused by similarity of masses of the target component and sample matrix components. Non-spectral interferences are related to the influence of sample matrix components on the physicochemical processes taking place during formation and transportation of liquid sample aerosols into the plasma, on the value and spatial distribution of plasma temperature and on the transmission of the ion beam from the interface to mass spectrometer detector. The review is devoted to analysis of different mechanisms of appearance of non-spectral interferences and to ways for their minimization or elimination. Special attention is paid to the techniques of biological sample preparation, which largely determine the mechanisms of the influence of sample composition on the results of element determination. The ways of lowering non-spectral interferences by instrumental parameter tuning and application of internal standards are considered. The bibliography includes 189 references.

  1. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry using TANDEM accelerator in National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizota, Takeshi; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuo [Particle Beam Sceince Laboratory, Multi-Function Material Science Department, National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry (PDMS) analysis was studied using TANDEM accelerator. The heavy ions of MeV range emit the secondary ions of atoms, molecules, polymers and clusters from the irradiated samples without destruction. The analysis system of PDMS designed and set-up using a mass spectrometer of Time of Flight and the TANDEM accelerator. The system performance was tested for C-60 fullerene on the surface of the samples using 11.2 MeV {sup 28}Si beams produced by the TANDEM accelerator of 1.7MV. The result shows that the hydrogen and hydrocarbons can be analyzed in the range of 1amu unit. The resolution (M/{delta}M) of the Mass Spectrometry system is confirmed to be about 1000 from the separation of the 720 and 721amu peaks, which is attributed to the C-60 fullerene including {sup 13}C atoms. (H. Katsuta)

  2. Measurements of ion temperature and flow of pulsed plasmas produced by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device using an ion Doppler spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    It is important to know surface damage characteristics of plasma-facing component materials during transient heat and particle loads such as type I ELMs. A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device has been used as transient heat and particle source in ELM simulation experiments. Characteristics of pulsed plasmas produced by the MCPG device play an important role for the plasma material interaction. In this study, ion temperature and flow velocity of pulsed He plasmas were measured by an ion Doppler spectrometer (IDS). The IDS system consists of a light collection system including optical fibers, 1m-spectrometer and a 16 channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector. The IDS system measures the width and Doppler shift of HeII (468.58 nm) emission line with the time resolution of 1 μs. The Doppler broadened and shifted spectra were measured with 45 and 135 degree angles with respect to the plasmoid traveling direction. The observed emission line profile was represented by sum of two Gaussian components to determine the temperature and flow velocity. The minor component at around the wavelength of zero-velocity was produced by the stationary plasma. As the results, the ion velocity and temperature were 68 km/s and 19 eV, respectively. Thus, the He ion flow energy is 97 eV. The observed flow velocity agrees with that measured by a time of flight technique.

  3. Evaluation of errors for mass-spectrometric analysis with surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer (statistical evaluation of mass-discrimination effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The surface-ionization type mass-spectrometer is widely used as an apparatus for quality assurance, accountability and safeguarding of nuclear materials, and for this analysis it has become an important factor to statistically evaluate an analytical error which consists of a random error and a systematic error. The major factor of this systematic error was the mass-discrimination effect. In this paper, various assays for evaluating the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect were studied and the data obtained were statistically evaluated. As a result of these analyses, it was proved that the factor of variation on the mass-discrimination effect was not attributed to the acid concentration of sample, sample size on the filament and supplied voltage for a multiplier, but mainly to the filament temperature during the mass-spectrometric analysis. The mass-discrimination effect values β which were usually calculated from the measured data of uranium, plutonium or boron isotopic standard sample were not so significant dependently of the difference of U-235, Pu-239 or B-10 isotopic abundance. Furthermore, in the case of U and Pu, measurement conditions and the mass range of these isotopes were almost similar, and these values β were not statistically significant between U and Pu. On the other hand, the value β for boron was about a third of the value β for U or Pu, but compared with the coefficient of the correction on the mass-discrimination effect for the difference of mass-number, ΔM, these coefficient values were almost the same among U, Pu, and B.As for the isotopic analysis error of U, Pu, Nd and B, it was proved that the isotopic abundance of these elements and the isotopic analysis error were in a relationship of quadratic curves on a logarithmic-logarithmic scale

  4. Factor analysis of combined organic and inorganic aerosol mass spectra from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Sun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Positive matrix factorization (PMF was applied to the merged high resolution mass spectra of organic and inorganic aerosols from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements to investigate the sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosols in New York City in summer 2009. This new approach is able to study the distribution of organic and inorganic species in different types of aerosols, the acidity of organic aerosol (OA factors, and the fragment ion patterns related to photochemical processing. In this study, PMF analysis of the unified AMS spectral matrix resolved 8 factors. The hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and cooking OA (COA factors contain negligible amounts of inorganic species. The two factors that are primarily ammonium sulfate (SO4-OA and ammonium nitrate (NO3-OA, respectively, are overall neutralized. Among all OA factors the organic fraction of SO4-OA shows the highest degree of oxidation (O/C = 0.69. Two semi-volatile oxygenated OA (OOA factors, i.e., a less oxidized (LO-OOA and a more oxidized (MO-OOA, were also identified. MO-OOA represents local photochemical products with a diurnal profile exhibiting a pronounced noon peak, consistent with those of formaldehyde (HCHO and Ox(= O3 + NO2. The NO+/NO2+ ion ratio in MO-OOA is much higher than that in NO3-OA and in pure ammonium nitrate, indicating the formation of organic nitrates. The nitrogen-enriched OA (NOA factor contains ~25% of acidic inorganic salts, suggesting the formation of secondary OA via acid-base reactions of amines. The size distributions of OA factors derived from the size-resolved mass spectra show distinct diurnal evolving behaviors but overall a progressing evolution from smaller to larger particle mode as the oxidation degree of OA increases. Our results demonstrate that PMF analysis of the unified aerosol mass spectral matrix which contains both

  5. High precision measurements of carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane using a continuous flow mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Morimoto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision measurement system for the carbon isotope ratio of atmospheric CH4 (δ^(13CH_4 was developed using a pre-concentration device for CH4 and a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-C-IRMS. The measurement system required 100 mlSTP of an atmospheric air sample, corresponding to approximately 0.18μlSTP of CH_4, to determine the δ^(13CH_4 value with a reproducibility of 0.07‰. Replicated analyses of a CH_4-in-air standard gas during the period from 2002 to 2008 indicated that the value of δ^(13CH_4 measured by this system was consistent within the measurement reproducibility. To evaluate the δ^(13CH_4 measurement system, thus developed, diurnal variations of the atmospheric CH_4 concentration and δ^(13CH_4 were observed in the northern part of the Tokyo metropolitan area. From the relationship between the CH_4 concentration and δ^(13CH_4, dominant sources of the observed CH4 fluctuations were identified.

  6. UV Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy of Haloanilinium Ions in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christopher S.; Kirk, Benjamin B.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; O'Hair, Richard. A. J.; Trevitt, Adam J.

    2013-06-01

    UV-vis photodissociation action spectroscopy is becoming increasingly prevalent because of advances in, and commercial availability of, ion trapping technologies and tunable laser sources. This study outlines in detail an instrumental arrangement, combining a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer and tunable nanosecond pulsed laser source, for performing fully automated photodissociation action spectroscopy on gas-phase ions. The components of the instrumentation are outlined, including the optical and electronic interfacing, in addition to the control software for automating the experiment and performing online analysis of the spectra. To demonstrate the utility of this ensemble, the photodissociation action spectra of 4-chloroanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-iodoanilinium cations are presented and discussed. Multiple photoproducts are detected in each case and the photoproduct yields are followed as a function of laser wavelength. It is shown that the wavelength-dependent partitioning of the halide loss, H loss, and NH3 loss channels can be broadly rationalized in terms of the relative carbon-halide bond dissociation energies and processes of energy redistribution. The photodissociation action spectrum of (phenyl)Ag2 + is compared with a literature spectrum as a further benchmark.

  7. Ultrasensitive leak detection during ultrahigh vacuum evacuation by quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xu; Huang Tianbin; Wang Ligong; Jin Qiji; Cha Liangzhen

    2006-01-01

    One must do ultrasensitive leak detection during ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) evacuation, especially just before the device is sealed off from the vacuum system, to guarantee the longevity of the sealed high-vacuum or even UHV devices with small volume. A quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with an UHV evacuation system can be used under accumulation mode to do the testing. Possible accumulate modes, as well as their advantages and shortcomings, are studied experimentally and discussed in this paper. We found that the opening action of the metal valve during accumulation mode always severely affects the height of the peak indicated by QMS and causes considerable errors. If we determine the leak rate by the peak area instead of the peak height, the situation is much improved. This method has proven quite useful in ensuring the tightness quality for complex sealed UHV devices with small volumes. Ultrasensitive leak detection has been carried out for such real evacuating devices, and a leak rate of 2x10 -14 Pa·m 3 /s was detected, which is far lower than its dynamic mode and the detection limit of the current advanced commercial leak detectors

  8. Study on volatilization mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide from nitrosyl ruthenium nitrate by using mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Tetsuya, E-mail: tkato@criepi.denken.or.jp [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Usami, Tsuyoshi; Tsukada, Takeshi [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Shibata, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi [Safety Technology Division, Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    In a cooling malfunction accident of a high-level liquid waste (HLLW) tank, behavior of ruthenium (Ru) attracts much attention, since Ru could be oxidized to a volatile chemical form in the boiling and drying of HLLW, and part of radioactive Ru can potentially be released to the environment. In this study, nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) dissolved in nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), which is commonly contained in a simulated HLLW, was dried and heated up to 723 K, and the evolved gas was introduced into a mass spectrometer. The well-known volatile species, ruthenium tetroxide (RuO{sub 4}) was detected in a temperature range between 390 K and 500 K with the peak top around 440 K. Various gases such as HNO{sub 3}, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), nitrogen monoxide (NO) also evolved due to evaporation of the nitric acid and decomposition of the nitrate ions. The ion current of RuO{sub 4} seems to increase with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO{sub 3} decreases. More volatilization of RuO{sub 4} was observed from the HNO{sub 3} solution containing not only Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} but also cerium nitrate (Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O) which was added for extra supply of nitrate ion, compared with that from the HNO{sub 3} solution containing only Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. These experimental results suggest that Ru could be oxidized to form RuO{sub 4} by the nitrate ion as well as HNO{sub 3}. - Graphical abstract: Ion current intensities of the mass numbers corresponding to O, NO, O{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, and RuO{sub 4} obtained in mass spectrometry for dried nitric acid solution containing Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. Heating rate: 5 K min{sup −1}, sample solution weight: 6.61 mg, contained Ru weight: 0.56 mg. The ion current of RuO{sub 4} increases with the increasing decomposition of nitrate, while the evaporation of HNO{sub 3} decreases. - Highlights: • Nitrosyl Ru nitrate (Ru(NO)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) dissolved in

  9. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  10. High-pressure duo-multichannel soft x-ray spectrometer for tokamak plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, J.L.; Wouters, A.W.; Suckewer, S.

    1987-03-01

    A high-resolution, time-resolving soft X-ray multichannel spectrometer (SOXMOS) that permits the simultaneous measurement of emission in two different spectral ranges has been developed and tested extensively for tokamak plasma diagnostics. The basic instrument is a high-resolution, interferometrically adjusted, extreme grazing incidence Schwob-Fraenkel duochromator. The instrument is equipped with two multichannel detectors that are adjusted interferometrically and scan along the Rowland circle. Each consists of an MgF 2 coated, funneled microchannel plate, associated with a phosphor screen image intensifier that is coupled to a 1024-element photodiode array by a flexible fibrer optic conduit. The total wavelength coverage of the instrument is 5 to 340 0 A with a measured resolution (FWHM) of about 0.2 A when equipped with a 600 g/mm grating, and 5 to 85 A with a resolution of about 0.06 A using a 2400 g/mm grating. The simultaneous spectral coverage of each detector varies from 15 A at the short wavelength limit to 70 A at the long wavelength limit with the lower dispersion grating. The minimum read-out time for a full spectral portion is 17 ms, but several individual lines can be measured with 1 ms time resolution by selected pixel readout. Higher time resolution can be achieved by replacing one multichannel detector with a single channel electron multiplier detector. Examples of data from the PLT and TFTR tokamaks are presented to illustrate the instrument's versatility, high spectral resolution, and high signal-to-noise ratio even in the 10 A region. 44 refs., 20 figs

  11. Use of a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer to understand processes involving volatile corrosion products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    Many high-temperature corrosion processes generate volatile products in addition to condensed phase products. Examples of these volatile products are chlorides, oxychlorides, and certain oxides and hydroxyl species. One of the best techniques to identify high temperature vapor molecules is mass spectrometry. Most mass spectrometers operate in high vacuum and are generally used to examine processes ocurring at greatly reduced pressures. However, a free-jet expansion, molecular beam mass spectrometer system allows direct sampling of volatile corrosion products. This instrument is described. Several examples from our studies on chlorination/oxidation of metals and ceramics are discussed. In addition, reactions of Cr 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 with water vapor, which produce volatile hydroxyl species are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Precise determination of cosmogenic Ne in CREU-1 quartz standard, using the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D.; Honda, M.; Zhang, X.; Phillips, D.; Matchan, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Helix-MC Plus multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometer at the Australian National University is uniquely equipped with three high mass resolution collectors on H2, Axial and L2 positions. Their mass resolution and mass resolving power are as high as 1,800 and 8,000, respectively. The Helix-MC Plus can totally separate 20Ne+ from 40Ar++ isobaric interference and also partially separate 21Ne+ from 20NeH+ and 22Ne+ from 12C16O2++. By adjusting collector positions, we are able to measure interference-free Ne isotope intensities and have re-determined the 21Ne abundance in air [1]. Analyses by Honda et al. [1] demonstrated that 20Ne1H contributes approximately 2% to previously determined atmospheric 21Ne values [2], and a new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne ratio of 0.002906 was calculated. Using the Helix-MC Plus mass spectrometer, we measured Ne abundances in the CREU-1 quartz standard [3] and determined cosmogenic concentrations by subtraction of atmospheric Ne with the new atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne value. The average concentration of cosmogenic 21Ne determined from four repeated analyses is 338 ± 12 × 106 atom/g (2σ). This compares with the average concentration of 348 ± 10 × 106 atom/g (2σ) from 45 analyses determined by several laboratories [3], where Ne isotope analyses were undertaken by conventional low resolution mass spectrometers and atmospheric Ne was subtracted using the conventional atmospheric 21Ne/20Ne [2]. On this basis, for a sample with abundant cosmogenic Ne, like CREU-1 quartz, previously measured by low mass resolution mass spectrometers are likely valid and their geological implications are unaffected. However, for low 21Ne concentration samples, combining new generation of mass spectrometers as well as the new atmospheric ratio may have significance for cosmogenic 21Ne surface exposure dating. References: [1] Honda M., et. al., International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 387, 1 (2015). [2] Eberhardt P., et. al., Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung, 20

  13. Elemental analysis of chamber organic aerosol using an aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Chhabra

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of laboratory chamber secondary organic aerosol (SOA from glyoxal uptake, α-pinene ozonolysis, isoprene photooxidation, single-ring aromatic photooxidation, and naphthalene photooxidation is evaluated using Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer data. SOA O/C ratios range from 1.13 for glyoxal uptake experiments to 0.30–0.43 for α-pinene ozonolysis. The elemental composition of α-pinene and naphthalene SOA is also confirmed by offline mass spectrometry. The fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 is generally a good measure of SOA oxygenation for α-pinene/O3, isoprene/high-NOx, and naphthalene SOA systems. The agreement between measured and estimated O/C ratios tends to get closer as the fraction of organic signal at m/z 44 increases. This is in contrast to the glyoxal uptake system, in which m/z 44 substantially underpredicts O/C. Although chamber SOA has generally been considered less oxygenated than ambient SOA, single-ring aromatic- and naphthalene-derived SOA can reach O/C ratios upward of 0.7, well within the range of ambient PMF component OOA, though still not as high as some ambient measurements. The spectra of aromatic and isoprene-high-NOx SOA resemble that of OOA, but the spectrum of glyoxal uptake does not resemble that of any ambient organic aerosol PMF component.

  14. Handheld low-temperature plasma probe for portable "point-and-shoot" ambient ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Joshua S; Shelley, Jacob T; Cooks, R Graham

    2013-07-16

    We describe a handheld, wireless low-temperature plasma (LTP) ambient ionization source and its performance on a benchtop and a miniature mass spectrometer. The source, which is inexpensive to build and operate, is battery-powered and utilizes miniature helium cylinders or air as the discharge gas. Comparison of a conventional, large-scale LTP source against the handheld LTP source, which uses less helium and power than the large-scale version, revealed that the handheld source had similar or slightly better analytical performance. Another advantage of the handheld LTP source is the ability to quickly interrogate a gaseous, liquid, or solid sample without requiring any setup time. A small, 7.4-V Li-polymer battery is able to sustain plasma for 2 h continuously, while the miniature helium cylinder supplies gas flow for approximately 8 continuous hours. Long-distance ion transfer was achieved for distances up to 1 m.

  15. Proof of Concept Coded Aperture Miniature Mass Spectrometer Using a Cycloidal Sector Mass Analyzer, a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Field Emission Electron Ionization Source, and an Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Jason J.; Herr, Philip J.; Landry, David M. W.; Kim, William; Vyas, Raul; Parker, Charles B.; Kirley, Matthew P.; Keil, Adam D.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Hall, Stephen D.; Carlson, James B.; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Stokes, David; Di Dona, Shane T.; Russell, Zachary E.; Grego, Sonia; Edwards, Steven J.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2018-02-01

    Despite many potential applications, miniature mass spectrometers have had limited adoption in the field due to the tradeoff between throughput and resolution that limits their performance relative to laboratory instruments. Recently, a solution to this tradeoff has been demonstrated by using spatially coded apertures in magnetic sector mass spectrometers, enabling throughput and signal-to-background improvements of greater than an order of magnitude with no loss of resolution. This paper describes a proof of concept demonstration of a cycloidal coded aperture miniature mass spectrometer (C-CAMMS) demonstrating use of spatially coded apertures in a cycloidal sector mass analyzer for the first time. C-CAMMS also incorporates a miniature carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron ionization source and a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) ion array detector. Results confirm the cycloidal mass analyzer's compatibility with aperture coding. A >10× increase in throughput was achieved without loss of resolution compared with a single slit instrument. Several areas where additional improvement can be realized are identified.

  16. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  17. Performance optimisation of a new-generation orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Tony; Constantine, Jill; Harrison, Mark; Cavoit, Fabien

    2008-04-01

    Orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole time-of-flight (oa-QTOF) mass spectrometers, employed for accurate mass measurement, have been commercially available for well over a decade. A limitation of the early instruments of this type was the narrow ion abundance range over which accurate mass measurements could be made with a high degree of certainty. Recently, a new generation of oa-QTOF mass spectrometers has been developed and these allow accurate mass measurements to be recorded over a much greater range of ion abundances. This development has resulted from new ion detection technology and improved electronic stability or by accurate control of the number of ions reaching the detector. In this report we describe the results from experiments performed to evaluate the mass measurement performance of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q, a member of the new-generation oa-QTOFs. The relationship between mass accuracy and ion abundance has been extensively evaluated and mass measurement accuracy remained stable (+/-1.5 m m/z units) over approximately 3-4 orders of magnitude of ion abundance. The second feature of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q that was evaluated was the SigmaFit function of the software. This isotope pattern-matching algorithm provides an exact numerical comparison of the theoretical and measured isotope patterns as an additional identification tool to accurate mass measurement. The smaller the value, the closer the match between theoretical and measured isotope patterns. This information is then employed to reduce the number of potential elemental formulae produced from the mass measurements. A relationship between the SigmaFit value and ion abundance has been established. The results from the study for both mass accuracy and SigmaFit were employed to define the performance criteria for the micrOTOF-Q. This provided increased confidence in the selection of elemental formulae resulting from accurate mass measurements.

  18. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of taraxicuum officinale flowers oil by gas chromatography mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Ullah, R.

    2013-01-01

    Taraxicum officinale, is a highly valuable medicinal plant. The roots is an important herbal drug, having long been used on the continent as a remedy for liver complaints. Keeping in view the importance and wide applications in the pharmaceutical industries, the present study was therefore aimed to analyze the chemical constituents of the flowers of T. officinale. The T. officinale flowers oil constituents of methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids were analyzed applying gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer. The results obtained showed the presence of both containing the saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids in T. officinale flower oils. A total of 19 different components were identified and quantified. The concentration level of Methyl ester of Lenolenic acid was found very effective in concentration 3.33%, among the identified analytes of interest. In addition, the level of other chemical constituents of methyl ester of palmitic acid 3.11%, myristic acid 1.87, linolenic acids 1.67%, stearic acid 0.97 were found. The concentration level of the rest of identified fatty acids analytes were below 1%. Thus the results obtained from the current initiative is very promising due to the presence of high percentage of valuable analytes concentrations recorded in the fatty acid of T. officinale flower oil. Thus due to the presence of highly important analytes which have increased their importance for consumption in the pharmaceuticals as well as its applications in the new formulations for different skin, cosmetics and health purposes and for use by local practioners. The study will also provide a scientific database line. (author)

  19. Performance of a mass spectrometer for determining low tritium levels from 3He/4He measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.F.; Kay, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Micromass 3000 mass spectrometer is based on Clarke's 3 He/ 4 He instrument of McMaster University. The principal special features of the MM3000 are: (i) The double collector system, which uses an electron multiplier for the small 3 He + ion beams and a conventional Faraday detector for 4 He + ; (ii) The high sensitivity ion source; and (iii) The low-volume analyser tube employing static vacuum techniques. The sensitivity, resolution and background of the system are designed to permit measurement of 3 He and 4 He levels of the order of 10 -12 cm 3 STP and 10 -6 cm 3 STP, respectively, with a precision of 0.5%, although smaller quantities are detectable. The inherent resolution of the instrument is well in excess of 2000, but a resolution of 600-1000 is normally used for the 3 He + collector as this is sufficient to separate 3 He + from any interfering HD + or H + 3 ions. At this resolution 900 ions per second of 3 He + ions are obtained from 10 -12 cm 3 STP of 3 He. This is the size of 3 He samples obtained from water samples containing tritium at levels around 200 tritium units (1 tritium unit (TU) = IT/10 18 H). At lower tritium levels the 3 He + signal is correspondingly reduced, but the same techniques (described below) allow signals from 1-TU samples (5 ions/s) to be measured with good precision. The limit of detection is reached with quantities of 3 He in the region of 10 -15 cm 3 STP and tritium levels of around 0.1 TU. (author)

  20. Onsite well screening with a transportable gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Eckenrode, B.A.; Owens, B.

    1992-01-01

    The number of hazardous waste site operations continue to multiply. The requirements for efficient chemical assessment and monitoring of these sites become more stringent daily. As more samples are required, the time required for cleanup operations also increases and may make analytical costs prohibitive. Thus improvements in operation efficiency and reduction of cost in evaluating specific sites to minimize or eliminate their toxic effects on the surrounding environment are critical. For many years a formal policy did not exist for the disposal of waste solvents and other chemicals, thus many of these compounds were disposed of ensite. So long as these materials were contained onsite they were not considered to pose a threat to the surrounding environment. We have since determined that many of these compounds found their way into the groundwater. Contaminants such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, which were heavily used for cleaning and degreasing purposes, must be monitored. Groundwater wells can be used to define the location and extent of the migration of any contaminant plume and aid in the determination of required cleanup. The major problem is that monitoring of hundreds of wells may be necessary, requiring several hundred samples on a quarterly basis to characterize the degree and extent of any contamination. Onsite analysis of monitoring wells for this characterization of waste operations could provide time savings and significant cost reduction. Field analyses can provide the required analytical results quickly and at a reduced cost without compromising either sample integrity or data quality. By using onsite analytical instrumentation, such as a field-transportable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS), screening analyses can be performed to eliminate retturning to the laboratory with meaningless samples. Onsite GC/MS will provide qualitative or semi-quantitative information that can significantly simplify subsequent laboratory analyses

  1. Airborne observations of formic acid using a chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Breton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first airborne measurements of formic acid mixing ratios over the United Kingdom were measured on the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft on 16 March 2010 with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer using I reagent ions. The I ionization scheme was able to measure formic acid mixing ratios at 1 Hz in the boundary layer.

    In-flight standard addition calibrations from a formic acid source were used to determine the instrument sensitivity of 35 ± 6 ion counts pptv−1 s−1 and a limit of detection of 25 pptv. Routine measurements were made through a scrubbed inlet to determine the instrumental background. Three plumes of formic acid were observed over the UK, originating from London, Humberside and Tyneside. The London plume had the highest formic acid mixing ratio throughout the flight, peaking at 358 pptv. No significant correlations of formic acid with NOx and ozone were found, but a positive correlation was observed between CO and HCOOH within the two plumes where coincident data were recorded.

    A trajectory model was employed to determine the sources of the plumes and compare modelled mixing ratios with measured values. The model underestimated formic acid concentrations by up to a factor of 2. This is explained by missing sources in the model, which were considered to be both primary emissions of formic acid of mainly anthropogenic origin and a lack of precursor emissions, such as isoprene, from biogenic sources, whose oxidation in situ would lead to formic acid formation.

  2. Neutron spectrometry for D-T plasmas in JET, using a tandem annular-radiator proton-recoil spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Bond, D.S.; Kiptily, V.; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Conroy, S.W

    2002-01-01

    A selection of the 14-MeV neutron spectra obtained at the JET Joint Undertaking tokamak during the deuterium-tritium operating campaign in 1997 are presented and analyzed. While several neutron spectrometers were operational during this campaign, the present paper is concerned solely with one: the tandem annular-radiator proton-recoil spectrometer (or proton recoil telescope, for brevity). During neutral beam heating with combined d- and t-beams, analysis of the spectra can define the core fuel composition (D:T) ratio. The spectra are sensitive to the population balance of the fast ions streaming in directions parallel and opposite to that of the injected beams. During ICRF heating of minority deuterium in bulk tritium plasmas, the spectra provide measurements of the effective temperature of the fast-deuteron energy tail and of its relative strength, which vary with the deuterium concentration. This information contributes to the overall understanding of the fusion performance of the various operating scenarios.

  3. Improved detection limits for electrospray ionization on a magnetic sector mass spectrometer by using an array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R B; Tamura, J; Finch, J W; Musselman, B D

    1994-03-01

    Array detection was compared with point detection for solutions of hen egg-white lysozyme, equine myoglobin, and ubiquitin analyzed by electrospray ionization with a magnetic sector mass spectrometer. The detection limits for samples analyzed by using the array detector system were at least 10 times lower than could be achieved by using a point detector on the same mass spectrometer. The minimum detectable quantity of protein corresponded to a signal-to-background ratio of approximately 2∶1 for a 500 amol/μL solution of hen egg-white lysozyme. However, the ultimate practical sample concentrations appeared to be in the 10-100 fmol/μL range for the analysis of dilute solutions of relatively pure proteins or simple mixtures.

  4. From carbon to actinides: A new universal 1MV accelerator mass spectrometer at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hotchkis, M.; Levchenko, V.; Fink, D. [Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Hauser, T.; Kitchen, R. [National Electrostatics Corporation, 7540 Graber Road, Middleton, WI 53562-0310 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    A new 1 MV NEC pelletron AMS system at ANSTO is presented. The spectrometer comprises large radius magnets for actinide measurements. A novel feature of the system is fast switching between isotopes both at low and high energy sections allowing measurements of up to 8 isotopes within a single sequence. Technical details and layout of the spectrometer is presented. Performance data for {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al and actinides demonstrate the system is ready for routine AMS measurements.

  5. From carbon to actinides: A new universal 1MV accelerator mass spectrometer at ANSTO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Hotchkis, M.; Levchenko, V.; Fink, D.; Hauser, T.; Kitchen, R.

    2015-10-01

    A new 1 MV NEC pelletron AMS system at ANSTO is presented. The spectrometer comprises large radius magnets for actinide measurements. A novel feature of the system is fast switching between isotopes both at low and high energy sections allowing measurements of up to 8 isotopes within a single sequence. Technical details and layout of the spectrometer is presented. Performance data for 14C, 10Be, 26Al and actinides demonstrate the system is ready for routine AMS measurements.

  6. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, N V S; Vishwottam, K N; Manoj, S; Koteshwara, M; Wishu, S; Varma, D P

    2005-12-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of hydrochlorothiazide (I), a common diuretic and anti-hypertensive agent. The analyte and internal standard, tamsulosin (II) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) using a Glas-Col Multi-Pulse Vortexer. The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase column (Waters symmetry C18) with a mobile phase of 10 mm ammonium acetate-methanol (15:85, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in negative ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The mass transitions m/z 296.1 solidus in circle 205.0 and m/z 407.2 solidus in circle 184.9 were used to measure I and II, respectively. The assay exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5-200 ng/mL for hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. The lower limit of quantitation was 500 pg/mL, with a relative standard deviation of less than 9%. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve ranges. A run time of 2.5 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a throughput of more than 400 human plasma samples per day. The validated method has been successfully used to analyze human plasma samples for application in pharmacokinetic, bioavailability or bioequivalence studies. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Upgrades of imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for high-resolution and high-temperature plasma diagnostics on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Wang, F. D.; Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pan, X. Y.; Chen, J.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Pablant, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Lee, S. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Upgrade of the imaging X-ray crystal spectrometers continues in order to fulfill the high-performance diagnostics requirements on EAST. For the tangential spectrometer, a new large pixelated two-dimensional detector was deployed on tokamaks for time-resolved X-ray imaging. This vacuum-compatible detector has an area of 83.8 × 325.3 mm{sup 2}, a framing rate over 150 Hz, and water-cooling capability for long-pulse discharges. To effectively extend the temperature limit, a double-crystal assembly was designed to replace the previous single crystals for He-like argon line measurement. The tangential spectrometer employed two crystal slices attached to a common substrate and part of He- and H-like Ar spectra could be recorded on the same detector when crystals were chosen to have similar Bragg angles. This setup cannot only extend the measurable Te up to 10 keV in the core region, but also extend the spatial coverage since He-like argon ions will be present in the outer plasma region. Similarly, crystal slices for He-like iron and argon spectra were adopted on the poloidal spectrometer. Wavelength calibration for absolute rotation velocity measurement will be studied using cadmium characteristic L-shell X-ray lines excited by plasma radiation. A Cd foil is placed before the crystal and can be inserted and retracted for in situ wavelength calibration. The Geant4 code was used to estimate X-ray fluorescence yield and optimize the thickness of the foil.

  8. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  9. A multiple-orbit time-of-flight mass spectrometer based on a low energy electrostatic storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Spanjers, T. L.; Thorn, P. A.; Reddish, T. J.; Hammond, P.

    2012-11-01

    The results are presented for an electrostatic storage ring, consisting of two hemispherical deflector analyzers (HDA) connected by two separate sets of cylindrical lenses, used as a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Based on the results of charged particle simulations and formal matrix model, the Ion Storage Ring is capable of operating with multiple stable orbits, for both single and multiply charged ions simultaneously.

  10. Direct coupling of a dense (supercritical) gas chromatograph to a mass spectrometer using a supersonic molecular beam interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, L.G.; Wahrhaftig, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detecting mass spectrometer has been successfully coupled to a dense gas (supercritical fluid) chromatograph to produce an instrument (DGC/MS) that may be an alternative to high performance liquid chromatograph/mass spectrometer instruments (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer instruments (GC/MS) for analysis of involatile and/or thermally labile compounds. The mobile phase in DGC is a gas held at temperatures above the critical temperature and at pressures sufficient to obtain nearly liquid-like densities. DGC combines advantages of GC and HPLC: rapid separations, moderate operating temperatures, and analysis of involatile compounds. An advantage unique to DGC is the solvent power dependence upon pressure. While several groups have studied DGC, its development has been limited by the lack of a sensitive and selective detector. Hence, work has been directed towards the design and construction of a DGC/MS resulting in a trial instrument capable of chromatographic pressures of at least 300 atm and temperatures from 10 0 to 60 0 C. The DGC/MS coupling has been accomplished by the use of a supersonic molecular beam interface. This application of molecular beam formation appears to be unique in its requirements of a large pressure ratio (approx.10 8 ), low flow rates, and low final pressures. The authors outline characteristics of supersonic jets and molecular beams pertinent to the design of such an instrument. The interface which uses pumping speeds of 2400 and 1200 l/s in the beam forming chambers is described in detail, while the other components: the detecting mass spectrometer, the dense gas supply, and the DGC: are briefly described. Preliminary work with this instrument has established the feasibility of DGC/MS as an analytical technique and further development is recommended

  11. Mass and energy analysis of the ions in a plasma flood system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooding, A.C.; Armour, D.G.; Berg, J.A. van den; Holmes, A.J.T.; Burgess, C.; Goldberg, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma flood systems, capable of providing a copious supply of electrons are used in ion implanters to control wafer charging and provide effective space charge neutralisation of the ion beam in the post-analysis/post-deceleration section of the beamline. Under appropriate conditions the plasma from the flood system interacts with the ion beam and this bridging leads to an enhanced beam transport efficiency in the final critical stage of the beamline. The effectiveness of this process depends on the properties of the plasma emanating from the system. In this study, a plasma analyser comprising a double hemi-spherical electrostatic energy analyser and a quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used to measure the energy distributions of all the ion species leaving a magnetically confined argon plasma, generated in the discharge chamber of a conventional flood neutraliser. The energy distributions extended to surprisingly high energies and the peak structures depended strongly on discharge voltage, discharge current and gas pressure. The nature of these dependencies was complex with both the pressure and arc current affecting the way in which the ion energy distributions depended on arc voltage. In all cases, multiply charged ions played a significant role in determining the nature of the ion energy distributions

  12. Mass and energy analysis of the ions in a plasma flood system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooding, A.C. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Armour, D.G. [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den [Institute of Materials Research, University of Salford, Salford M54WT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.a.vandenberg@salford.ac.uk; Holmes, A.J.T. [Marcham Scientific, Hungerford, Berks RG17 0LH (United Kingdom); Burgess, C. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom); Goldberg, R.D. [Applied Materials UK Ltd., Foundry Lane, Horsham, West Sussex RH13 5PX (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    Plasma flood systems, capable of providing a copious supply of electrons are used in ion implanters to control wafer charging and provide effective space charge neutralisation of the ion beam in the post-analysis/post-deceleration section of the beamline. Under appropriate conditions the plasma from the flood system interacts with the ion beam and this bridging leads to an enhanced beam transport efficiency in the final critical stage of the beamline. The effectiveness of this process depends on the properties of the plasma emanating from the system. In this study, a plasma analyser comprising a double hemi-spherical electrostatic energy analyser and a quadrupole mass spectrometer, was used to measure the energy distributions of all the ion species leaving a magnetically confined argon plasma, generated in the discharge chamber of a conventional flood neutraliser. The energy distributions extended to surprisingly high energies and the peak structures depended strongly on discharge voltage, discharge current and gas pressure. The nature of these dependencies was complex with both the pressure and arc current affecting the way in which the ion energy distributions depended on arc voltage. In all cases, multiply charged ions played a significant role in determining the nature of the ion energy distributions.

  13. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, L.

    1990-01-01

    The instrument in operation at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories is a VG Plasma-quad PQ 2. A schematic diagram of the instrument components is presented along with its applicability to various fields of research and its perceived limitations. Apart from its high sensitivity the capability for rapid multi-element analysis in one of its major advantages over other instrumental method analysis. The necessity to present the sample in the form of a solution is probably its major drawback. 4 tabs, 7 figs

  14. Pollutants identification of ambient aerosols by two types of aerosol mass spectrometers over southeast coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Li, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Two different aerosol mass spectrometers, Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) were deployed to identify the aerosol pollutants over Xiamen, representing the coastal urban area. Five obvious processes were classified during the whole observation period. Organics and sulfate were the dominant components in ambient aerosols over Xiamen. Most of the particles were in the size range of 0.2-1.0μm, accounting for over 97% of the total particles measured by both instruments. Organics, as well as sulfate, measured by AMS were in good correlation with measured by SPAMS. However, high concentration of NH 4 + was obtained by AMS, while extremely low value of NH 4 + was detected by SPAMS. Contrarily, high particle number counts of NO 3 - and Cl - were given by SPAMS while low concentrations of NO 3 - and Cl - were measured by AMS. The variations of POA and SOA obtained from SPAMS during event 1 and event 2 were in accordance with the analysis of HOA and OOA given by AMS, suggesting that both of AMS and SPAMS can well identify the organic clusters of aerosol particles. Overestimate or underestimate of the aerosol sources and acidity would be present in some circumstances when the measurement results were used to analyze the aerosol properties, because of the detection loss of some species for both instruments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of ...

  16. Novel control modes to improve the performance of rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xinming; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Cheng'an; Wang, Xiaohao

    2016-10-01

    The rectilinear ion trap (RIT) has gradually become one of the preferred mass analyzers for portable mass spectrometers because of its simple configuration. In order to enhance the performance, including sensitivity, quantitation capability, throughput, and resolution, a novel RIT mass spectrometer with dual pressure chambers was designed and characterized. The studied system constituted a quadrupole linear ion trap (QLIT) in the first chamber and a RIT in the second chamber. Two control modes are hereby proposed: Storage Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (SQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used at high pressure for ion storage and isolation, and the RIT was used for analysis; and Analysis Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap-Rectilinear Ion Trap (AQLIT-RIT) mode, in which the QLIT was used for ion storage and cooling. Subsequently, synchronous scanning and analysis were carried out by QLIT and RIT. In SQLIT-RIT mode, signal intensity was improved by a factor of 30; the limit of quantitation was reduced more than tenfold to 50 ng mL-1, and an optimal duty cycle of 96.4% was achieved. In AQLIT-RIT mode, the number of ions coexisting in the RIT was reduced, which weakened the space-charge effect and reduced the mass shift. Furthermore, the mass resolution was enhanced by a factor of 3. The results indicate that the novel control modes achieve satisfactory performance without adding any system complexity, which provides a viable pathway to guarantee good analytical performance in miniaturization of the mass spectrometer.

  17. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  18. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  19. Two Dual Ion Spectrometer Flight Units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi

    2014-01-01

    Two Dual Ion Spectrometer flight units of the Fast Plasma Instrument Suite (FPI) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) have returned to MSFC for flight testing. Anticipated to begin on June 30, tests will ensue in the Low Energy Electron and Ion Facility of the Heliophysics and Planetary Science Office (ZP13), managed by Dr. Victoria Coffey of the Natural Environments Branch of the Engineering Directorate (EV44). The MMS mission consists of four identical spacecraft, whose purpose is to study magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of Earth's magnetosphere.

  20. Search for QGP signals at AGS with a TPC spectrometer, and comparison of our event generator predictions for plasma model and cascade interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.; Foley, K.J.; Eiseman, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested a TPC Magnetic Spectrometer to search for QGP signals produced by ion beams at AGS. We also developed a cascade and plasma event generator the predictions of which are used to illustrate how our technique can detect possible plasma signals. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Islam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The clean-up of soils contaminated with heavy metals is one of the most difficult tasks for environmental engineering. Heavy metals are highly persistent in soil and a number of techniques have been developed that aim to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. A method has been adopted to evaluate dynamic leaching of metal contaminants from industrial soil samples obtained from textile industrial sites in Lahore, Pakistan. In the extraction procedures employed five different leaching liquors were used: 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/, 1 M HNO/sub 3/, a 1:1 mixture of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaCl, 0.01 M EDTA and pH controlled 0.5 M acetic acid. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and As were extracted in the soil samples in varying concentration when using the different leach liquors. The predominant metals which were leached were As 78.7 ng/ml in 0.01 M EDTA; Zn 1.81 mu g/ml and Fe 898.96 macro g/ml in HNO/sub 3/. (author)

  2. An Automated High Performance Capillary Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer for High-Throughput Proteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Mikhail E.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Wingerd, Mark A.; Udseth, Harold R.; Tang, Keqi; Prior, David C.; Swanson, Kenneth R.; Buschbach, Michael A.; Strittmatter, Eric F.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    We report on a fully automated 9.4 tesla Fourier transform ion resonance cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectrometer coupled to reverse-phase chromatography for high-throughput proteomic studies. Modifications made to the front-end of a commercial FTICR instrument--a dual-ESI-emitter ion source; dual-channel electrodynamic ion funnel; and collisional-cooling, selection and accumulation quadrupoles--significantly improved the sensitivity, dynamic range and mass measurement accuracy of the mass spectrometer. A high-pressure capillary liquid chromatography (LC) system was incorporated with an autosampler that enabled 24 h/day operation. A novel method for accumulating ions in the ICR cell was also developed. Unattended operation of the instrument revealed the exceptional reproducibility (1-5% deviation in elution times for peptides from a bacterial proteome), repeatability (10-20% deviation in detected abundances for peptides from the same aliquot analyzed a few weeks apart) and robustness (high-throughput operation for 5 months without downtime) of the LC/FTICR system. When combined with modulated-ion-energy gated trapping, the internal calibration of FTICR mass spectra decreased dispersion of mass measurement errors for peptide identifications in conjunction with high resolution capillary LC separations to < 5 ppm over a dynamic range for each spectrum of 10 3

  3. PDS4 vs PDS3 - A Comparison of PDS Data for Two Mars Rovers - Existing Mars Curiosity Mission Mass Spectrometer (SAM) PDS3 Data vs Future ExoMars Rover Mass Spectrometer (MOMA) PDS4 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, E.; Franz, H. B.; Prats, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument is a suite of instruments on Mars aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Centered on a mass spectrometer, SAM delivers its data to the PDS Atmosphere's node in PDS3 format. Over five years on Mars the process of operating SAM has evolved and extended significantly from the plan in place at the time the PDS3 delivery specification was written. For instance, SAM commonly receives double or even triple sample aliquots from the rover's drill. SAM also stores samples in spare cups for long periods of time for future analysis. These unanticipated operational changes mean that the PDS data deliveries are absent some valuable metadata without which the data can be confusing. The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument is another suite of instruments centered on a mass spectrometer bound for Mars. MOMA is part of the European ExoMars rover mission schedule to arrive on Mars in 2021. While SAM and MOMA differ in some important scientific ways - MOMA uses an linear ion trap compared to the SAM quadropole mass spectrometer and MOMA has a laser desorption experiment that SAM lacks - the data content from the PDS point of view is comparable. Both instruments produce data containing mass spectra acquired from solid samples collected on the surface of Mars. The MOMA PDS delivery will make use of PDS4 improvements to provide a metadata context to the data. The MOMA PDS4 specification makes few assumptions of the operational processes. Instead it provides a means for the MOMA operators to provide the important contextual metadata that was unanticipated during specification development. Further, the software tools being developed for instrument operators will provide a means for the operators to add this crucial metadata at the time it is best know - during operations.

  4. Ambient Aerosol in Southeast Asia: High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Measurements Over Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G.; Dimarco, C.; Misztal, P.; Nemitz, E.; Farmer, D.; Kimmel, J.; Jimenez, J.

    2008-12-01

    The emission of organic compounds in the troposphere is important factor in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). A very large proportion of organic material emitted globally is estimated to arise from biogenic sources, with almost half coming from tropical and sub-tropical forests. Preliminary analyses of leave cuvette emission studies suggest that oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is a significantly larger source of isoprene than tropical forest. Much larger sources of isoprene over oil palm allied with a larger anthropogenic component of local emissions contrast greatly with the remote tropical forest environment and therefore the character of SOA formed may differ significantly. These issues, allied with the high price of palm oil on international markets leading to increased use of land for oil palm production, could give rise to rapidly changing chemical and aerosol regimes in the tropics. It is therefore important to understand the current emissions and composition of organic aerosol over all important land-uses in the tropical environment. This in turn will lead to a greater understanding of the present, and to an improvement in predictive capacity for the future system. To help address these issues, a high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed in the Sabahmas (PPB OIL) oil palm plantation near Lahad Datu, in Eastern Sabah, as part of the field component of the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) project, part of the UK NERC APPRAISE program. This project was allied closely with measurements made of similar chemical species and aerosol components at a forest site in the Danum Valley as part of the UK Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest (OP3) project. Measurements of submicron non- refractory aerosol composition are presented along with some preliminary analysis of chemically resolved aerosol fluxes made with a new eddy covariance system, based on the

  5. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  6. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Chen Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T.; Hudson, Eric R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates.

  7. A homemade high-resolution orthogonal-injection time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a heated capillary inlet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Changjuan; Huang Zhengxu; Gao Wei; Nian Huiqing; Chen Huayong; Dong Junguo; Shen Guoying; Fu Jiamo; Zhou Zhen

    2008-01-01

    We describe a homemade high-resolution orthogonal-injection time-of-flight (O-TOF) mass spectrometer combing a heated capillary inlet. The O-TOF uses a heated capillary tube combined with a radio-frequency only quadrupole (rf-only quadrupole) as an interface to help the ion transmission from the atmospheric pressure to the low-pressure regions. The principle, configuration of the O-TOF, and the performance of the instrument are introduced in this paper. With electrospray ion source, the performances of the mass resolution, the sensitivity, the mass range, and the mass accuracy are described. We also include our results obtained by coupling atmospheric pressure matrix-assisted laser deporption ionization with this instrument

  8. Use of an A.E.I. MS 10 mass spectrometer for 40Ar-39Ar dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of an AEI mass spectrometer for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating could, in principle, be problematical due to its limited mass resolution and because of non-linear mass discrimination under certain operating conditions. These possible drawbacks have been investigated and are found to be easy to overcome. Tailing corrections are relatively small and can be applied precisely for 40 Ar/ 39 Ar ratios <= 300. By operating the instrument with a trap current of 50 μA and an ion repeller voltage of +1.0 w.r.t. cage, problems due to non-linear mass discrimination are eliminated. Using the incremental heating technique and total fusion studies on very small subsamples (10-25 mg.), the homogeneity of some well-known inter-laboratory standards has been investigated; the relative merits of these standards are discussed. (K.B.)

  9. Determination of fluspirilene in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, K J; Sutherland, F C; van Essen, G H; Hundt, H K; Hundt, A F

    1998-12-18

    An ultra-sensitive method for the determination of fluspirilene in plasma was established, using high-performance liquid chromatographic separation with tandem mass spectrometric detection. The samples were extracted with hexane/isoamyl alcohol, separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 5 mu 150 x 2.1 mm column with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water-acetic acid (600:400:1) at a flow-rate of 0.3 ml/min. Detection was achieved by a Finnigan Matt mass spectrometer (LCQ) at unit resolution in full scan mode scanning the product ion spectrum from m/z 130-500 and monitoring the transition of the protonated molecular ion at m/z 476.2, to the sum of the largest product ions m/z 371, 342 and 274 (MS-MS). Electrospray ionisation was used for ion production. The mean recovery for fluspirilene was 90% with a lower limit of quantification of 21.50 pg/ml using 1 ml plasma for extraction. This is the first chromatographic method described for the determination of fluspirilene in plasma that is accurate and sensitive enough to be used in pharmacokinetic studies.

  10. The TOFOR Neutron Spectrometer For High-Performance Measurements of D Plasma Fuel Ion Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M. Gatu; Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Weiszflog, M.; Sunden, E. Andersson; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hellesen, C.; Ronchi, E.; Sjoestrand, H.; Kaellne, J.; Gorini, G.; Tardocch, M.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of scattered neutrons on the total flux reaching the TOFOR spectrometer at JET has been studied to allow for improvement of the data analysis. The scattered neutrons are demonstrated to contribute significantly to the flux. This will have implications for any neutron diagnostic on ITER

  11. Setting up of Nuclide GRAF-3S spark source mass spectrometer for the analysis of high purity materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.; Murugaiyan, P.; Soni, K.S.; Venkateswarlu, Ch.

    1975-01-01

    A spark source mass spectrometer model GRAF-35 manufactured by the Nuclide Corporation, U.S.A., was set up for analysis of nuclear-grade and high purity materials. The main difficulty with its successful operation was to achieve and maintain the required level of vacuum i.e. less than 2X10 -8 torr in the magnetic analyser region. With 100 1/s ion pump, the required vacuum could be achieved, but the spectrometer required periodical baking which minimises the life of the instrument. The pumping system was replaced by Ultek Boostivac pump - a combination of ion pump (150 1/s) and a titanium sublimation pump (1000 1/sec speed for condensable vapours) which eliminated baking as the necessary level of vacuum could be easily achieved whenever required. Results of the analysis of zone-refined indium and uranium for trace impurities are given. (M.G.B.)

  12. A Micro-Cylindrical Ion Trap (µ-CIT) Micro-Mass Spectrometer Instrument System (µ-MSIS) for NASA Planetary Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this follow-on early stage innovation activity is to advance the development of new, extremely small, low power, and low cost "micro" mass spectrometer...

  13. Laboratory and field measurements of organic aerosols with the photoionization aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Matthew A.

    Analytical methods developed to sample and characterize ambient organic aerosols often face the trade-off between long sampling times and the loss of detailed information regarding specific chemical species present. The soft, universal ionization scheme of the Photoionization Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (PIAMS) allows for identification of various chemical compounds by a signature ion, often the molecular ion. The goal of this thesis work is to apply PIAMS to both laboratory and field experiments to answer questions regarding the formation, composition, and behavior of organic aerosols. To achieve this goal, a variety of hardware and software upgrades were administered to PIAMS to optimize the instrument. Data collection and processing software were either refined or built from the ground up to simplify difficult or monotonous tasks. Additional components were added to PIAMS with the intent to automate the instrument, enhance the results, and make the instrument more rugged and user-friendly. These changes, combined with the application of an external particle concentration system (mini-Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System, m-VACES), allowed PIAMS to be suitable for field measurements of organic aerosols. Two such field campaigns were completed, both at the State of Delaware Air Quality Monitoring Site in Wilmington, Delaware: a one week period in June, 2006, and an 18 day period in October and November of 2007. A sampling method developed was capable of collecting sufficient ambient organic aerosol and analyzing it with a time resolution of 3.5 minutes. Because of this method, short term concentration changes of individual species can be tracked. Combined with meteorological data, the behavior of these species can be analyzed as a function of time or wind direction. Many compounds are found at enhanced levels during the evening/night-time hours; potentially due to the combined effects of temperature inversion, and fresh emissions in a cooler environment

  14. Search for high mass resonances in the dimuon channel using the muon spectrometer of the atlas experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsens, C.

    2009-06-01

    This thesis covers the search of new neutral gauge bosons decaying into a pair of muons in the ATLAS detector. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will produce parton collisions with very high center of mass energy and may produce Z' predicted by many theories beyond the standard model. Such a resonance should be detected by the ATLAS experiment. For the direct search of Z' decaying into two muons, a small number of events is enough for its discovery, which is possible with the first data. We shall study in particular the effects of the muon spectrometer alignment on high p T tracks and on the Z' discovery potential in the ATLAS experiment. The discovery potentials computed with this method have been officially approved by the ATLAS collaboration and published. At the start of the LHC operation, the muon spectrometer alignment will not have reached the nominal performances. This analysis aims at optimizing the discovery potential of ATLAS for a Z' boson in this degraded initial conditions. The impact on track reconstruction of a degraded alignment is estimated with simulated high p T tracks. Results are given in terms of reconstruction efficiency, momentum and invariant mass resolutions, charge identification and sensitivity to discovery or exclusion. With the first data, an analysis using only the muon spectrometer in stand alone mode will be very useful. Finally, a study on how to determine the initial geometry of the spectrometer (needed for its absolute alignment) is performed. This study uses straight tracks without a magnetic field and also calculates the beam time necessary for reaching a given accuracy of the alignment system. (author)

  15. Interfacing a gas proportional counter with a mass spectrometer: Simultaneous display of GC/MS and radiocarbon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.S.; Laemmerhirt, D.F.; Weaver, A.

    1985-01-01

    To facilitate the location of pesticides and monitor their metabolism in environmental and biological systems, carbon-14 labelling of the parent compound is used. Detection of the radiolabel is achieved using a gas proportional counter, while identification of the labelled components is most easily accomplished with mass spectrometry. However, when these two operations are performed separately, correlation of the information is awkward, at best. Since each is a destructive detector, simultaneous monitoring of the outposts requires an effluent splitter. The complete system consists of a variable splitter, which allows control of the ratio of the GC effluent to the two instruments, and signal processing circuitry for simultaneous recording and storage of radiocarbon and mass spectral data. Modifications to a Finnigan GC/MS and Gas Proportional Counter included a high temperature GC effluent splitter with glass-lined connecting tubing, and a data interface, including analog to digital and serial to parallel conversions with optical isolation between the gas proportional counter and the computer. The splitter restricted the flow to the mass spectrometer, preventing flow completely in the closed position. The split was adjusted to maximize flow to the mass spectrometer using the vacuum as a rough guide (1.0 x 10 -5 torr in EI, 7.5 x 10 -5 torr in CI). A heated transfer line between the transfer oven and gas proportional counter prevented condensation of eluting components prior to radiocarbon detection

  16. Calibration of a High Resolution X-ray Spectrometer for High-Energy-Density Plasmas on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, B.; Gao, L.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Efthimion, P.; Schneider, M. B.; Chen, H.; Ayers, J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Liedahl, D.; Macphee, A. G.; Thorn, D. B.; Bettencourt, R.; Kauffman, R.; Le, H.; Nelson, D.

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution, DIM-based (Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator) x-ray crystal spectrometer has been calibrated for and deployed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to diagnose plasma conditions and mix in ignition capsules near stagnation times. Two conical crystals in the Hall geometry focus rays from the Kr He- α, Ly- α, and He- β complexes onto a streak camera for time-resolved spectra, in order to measure electron density and temperature by observing Stark broadening and relative intensities of dielectronic satellites. Signals from these two crystals are correlated with a third crystal that time-integrates the intervening energy range. The spectrometer has been absolutely calibrated using a microfocus x-ray source, an array of CCD and single-photon-counting detectors, and K- and L-absorption edge filters. Measurements of the integrated reflectivity, energy range, and energy resolution for each crystal will be presented. The implications of the calibration on signal levels from NIF implosions and x-ray filter choices will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DoE by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Following the Ions through a Mass Spectrometer with Atmospheric Pressure Interface: Simulation of Complete Ion Trajectories from Ion Source to Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2016-07-19

    Ion trajectory simulation is an important and useful tool in instrumentation development for mass spectrometry. Accurate simulation of the ion motion through the mass spectrometer with atmospheric pressure ionization source has been extremely challenging, due to the complexity in gas hydrodynamic flow field across a wide pressure range as well as the computational burden. In this study, we developed a method of generating the gas flow field for an entire mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure interface. In combination with the electric force, for the first time simulation of ion trajectories from an atmospheric pressure ion source to a mass analyzer in vacuum has been enabled. A stage-by-stage ion repopulation method has also been implemented for the simulation, which helped to avoid an intolerable computational burden for simulations at high pressure regions while it allowed statistically meaningful results obtained for the mass analyzer. It has been demonstrated to be suitable to identify a joint point for combining the high and low pressure fields solved individually. Experimental characterization has also been done to validate the new method for simulation. Good agreement was obtained between simulated and experimental results for ion transfer though an atmospheric pressure interface with a curtain gas.

  18. Characterization of nova plasmas using an x-ray spectrometer with temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back, C.A.; Kauffman, R.L.; Bell, P.; Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-05-01

    Spectroscopic diagnostics have great potential to obtain high temperature measurements of plasmas created in ICF targets. The plasmas may be over 1 mm in size and therefore, one of the first steps in making accurate spectroscopic measurements has been to improve the resolution of the instrument. A spectrograph is now available for Nova experiments which takes advantage of gated technology by coupling a Bragg crystal to a microchannel plate that can record data over a 250 ps time frame. The crystal disperses the x-rays, while slits add the ability to image the plasmas in the perpendicular direction. The characteristics of this diagnostic, TSPEC, will be evaluated for laser-produced plasmas. Recent data will be presented from colliding plasmas and large-scale hohlraums which indicate that imaging can greatly enhance the ability to diagnose these plasmas

  19. Positive-column plasma studied by fast-flow glow discharge mass spectrometry: Could it be a 'Rydberg gas?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Rod S.; Miller, Pat D.; Mortimer, Ifor; Mitchell, David J.; Dash, Neil A.

    2003-01-01

    Ions created from the fast-flowing positive column plasma of a glow discharge were monitored using a high voltage magnetic sector mass spectrometer. Since the field gradient and sheath potentials created by the plasma inside the source opposed cation transfer, it is inferred that the ions detected were the field-ionized Rydberg species. This is supported by the mass spectral changes which occurred when a negative bias was applied to the sampling aperture and by the contrasting behavior when attached to a quadrupole analyzer. Reaction with H 2 (titrated into the flowing plasma) quenched not only the ionization of discharge gas Rydberg atoms but also the passage of electric current through the plasma, without significant changes to the field and sheath potentials. Few 'free' ions were present and the lifetimes of the Rydberg atoms detected were much longer than seen in lower pressure experiments, indicating additional stabilization in the plasma environment. The observations support the model of the flowing plasma, given previously [R. S. Mason, P. D. Miller, and I. P. Mortimer, Phys. Rev. E 55, 7462 (1997)] as mainly a neutral Rydberg atom gas, rather than a conventional ion-electron plasma

  20. Instrumentations in x-ray plasma polarization spectroscopy. Crystal spectrometer, polarimeter and detectors for astronomical observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baronova, Elena O.; Stepanenko, Mikhail M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jakubowski, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk-Otwock (Poland); Tsunemi, Hiroshi [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Science, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    This report discusses the various problems which are encountered when a crystal spectrometer is used for the purpose of observing polarized x-ray lines. A polarimeter is proposed based on the novel idea of using two series of equivalent atomic planes in a single crystal. The present status of the astronomical x-ray detection techniques are described with emphasis on two dimensional detectors which are polarization sensitive. (author)

  1. High-energy resolution Thomson Parabola spectrometer for laser plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague, Czech Republic and Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Ter-Avetisyan, S. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Università 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Tramontana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Velyhan, A. [Institute of Physics of the ASCR, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-26

    Thomson Parabola (TP) spectrometers are widely used devices for laser-driven beam diagnostics as they provide a complete set of information on the accelerated particles. A novel TP has been developed at LNS with a design able to detect protons up to 20 MeV. The layout design and some results obtained during the experimental campaign at PALS laboratory will be reported in the following.

  2. Attachment to a mass spectrometer for studying the processes of semiconductor compound deposition from a gaseous phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousov, V.I.; Zhuravlev, G.I.; Popenko, N.I.; Novozhilov, A.F.; Matveev, I.V.; Murav'ev, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    An attachment to the mass spectrometer for studying the processes of semiconductor compounds deposition from a gaseous phase at the pressure of 1x10 5 Pa and the temperature of 400-1300 K is described. The attachment consists of the Neer ion source with ionization section cooled upto the temperature of liquid nitrogen, a two-zone vacuum furnace, and a quartz epitaxy reactor of the horzontal type.The attachment is equipped with the systems of process gas distribution in 5 flows and temperature stabilization. The rate of mass spectrum recording constitutes 2 mass/s at the resolution being equal to 1000 at the 10% level. The sensitivity at the steam-gas mixture components partial pressure determination constitutes 1x10 -4 Pa

  3. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to a portable mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjunju, Fred P M; Maher, Simon; Li, Anyin; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K; Taylor, Stephen; Cooks, R Graham

    2015-02-01

    Desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) is implemented on a portable mass spectrometer and applied to the direct detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkyl substituted benzenes. The presence of these compounds in the environment poses a significant threat to the health of both humans and wildlife because of their carcinogenic, toxic, and mutagenic properties. As such, instant detection outside of the laboratory is of particular importance to allow in-situ measurement at the source. Using a rapid, high throughput, miniature, handheld mass spectrometer, several alkyl substituted benzenes and PAHs (i.e., 1,2,3,5-tetramethylbenzene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, acenaphthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, 9-ethylfluorene, and 1-benzyl-3-methyl-naphthalene) were identified and characterized using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) from ambient surfaces, in the open air. This method can provide almost instantaneous information while minimizing sample preparation, which is advantageous in terms of both cost and simplicity of analysis. This MS-based technique is applicable to a wide range of environmental organic molecules.

  4. Real-time monitoring of trace-level VOCs by an ultrasensitive compact lamp-based VUV photoionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W. Q.; Shu, J. N.; Zhang, P.; Li, Z.; Li, N. N.; Liang, M.; Yang, B.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a compact lamp-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometer (PIMS; hereafter referred to as VUV-PIMS) in our laboratory; it is composed of a radio frequency-powered VUV lamp, a VUV photoionizer, an ion-immigration region, and a reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer. By utilizing the novel photoionizer consisting of a photoionization cavity and a VUV light baffle, extremely low background noise was obtained. An ultrasensitive detection limit (2σ) of 3 pptv was achieved for benzene after an acquisition time of 10 s. To examine its potential for application in real-time sample monitoring, the developed VUV-PIMS was employed for the continuous measurement of urban air for six days in Beijing, China. Strong signals of trace-level volatile organic compounds such as benzene and its alkylated derivatives were observed in the mass spectra. These initial experimental results reveal that the instrument can be used for the online monitoring of trace-level species in the atmosphere.

  5. A Microchannel Inlet to Reduce High-Velocity Impact Fragmentation of Molecules in Orbital and Fly-by Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brandon; Anupriya, Anupriya; Sevy, Eric; Austin, Daniel E.

    2017-10-01

    Closed source neutral mass spectrometers are often used on flyby missions to characterize the molecular components of planetary exospheres. In a typical closed source, neutrals are thermalized as they deflect off the walls within a spherical antechamber prior to ionization and mass analysis. However, the high kinetic energy of each molecule as it impacts the chamber can lead to fragmentation before the ionization region is reached. Due to this fragmentation, the original composition of the molecule can be altered, leading to ambiguous identification.Even knowing the fragmentation pathways that occur may not allow deconvolution of data to give the correct composition. Only stable, volatile fragments will be observed in the subsequent mass spectrometer and different organic compounds likely give similar fragmentation products. Simply detecting these products will not lead to unambiguous identication of the precursor molecules. Here, we present a hardware solution to this problem—an inlet that reduces the fragmentation of molecules that impact at high velocities.We present a microchannel inlet that reduces the impact fragmentation by allowing the molecules to dissipate kinetic energy faster than their respective dissociation lifetimes. Preliminary calculations indicate that impact-induced fragmentation will be reduced up to three orders of magnitude compared with conventional closed sources by using this inlet. The benefits of such an inlet apply to any orbital or flyby velocity. The microchannel inlet enables detection of semi-volatile molecules that were previously undetectable due to impact fragmentation.

  6. The leakage problem in vacuum system. Realization of a mass spectrometer detecting leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, R.

    1954-11-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the problem of leaks in vacuum systems, and their detection. We consider in particular the method of detection by means of a helium spectrometer. The second part deals with the experimental set p. The analyser and the ion source have been studied in great detail, and we have also discussed the technological and mechanical aspects of the apparatus and its performances. (author) [fr

  7. Separation and analysis of lanthanides by isotachophoresis coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, Laurent; Cretier, Gerard; Rocca, Jean-Louis; Chartier, Frederic; Geertsen, Valerie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Helene

    2012-01-01

    This study is a large project initiated by the French Nuclear Agency, and concerns the development of a new electrolyte system for the separation of lanthanides by isotachophoresis. This new system is based on a leading electrolyte that incorporates 2-hydroxy-2-methylbutyric acid as complexing agent. The optimization of separation conditions (complexing agent concentration, pH, capillary dimensions, injection conditions, and current intensity) performed by experiments on a commercial capillary instrument with contactless conductivity detection, which allows to improve the separation of 13 lanthanides (La to Lu, except Pm and Ho). We have also directly coupled the isotachophoresis to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer to visualize the mono-elementary elution bands and demonstrate the potentiality of the method for isotope ratio measurements. The application to a simulated solution representative of a fraction of fission products present in a MOX spent fuel is presented in this paper to demonstrate the possible application in future on nuclear fuel samples. (authors)

  8. Use of the Isomass 54E thermal ionisation mass spectrometer at AEE Winfrith. Part II: plutonium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    This report describes the application of the Isomass 54E Thermal ionisation mass spectrometer for the isotopic analysis of plutonium, and gives details of the development of a method for quantitative determination of plutonium in sample solutions using isotopic dilution. A computer program for the control of the 54E is also described. Isotope dilution was used to compare results of plutonium content of twelve zebra reactor fuel pellets with results obtained by titrimetry. The Isomass 54E is shown to be capable of high precision analysis of plutonium sample solutions for both isotopic content and total plutonium concentration using an isotope dilution technique. (U.K.)

  9. Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S; Ramakrishna, B; Doria, D; Sarri, G; Zepf, M; Borghesi, M; Ehrentraut, L; Stiel, H; Steinke, S; Priebe, G; Schnürer, M; Nickles, P V; Sandner, W

    2009-10-01

    Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

  10. Complementary ion and extreme ultra-violet spectrometer for laser-plasma diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Ramakrishna, B.; Doria, D.; Sarri, G.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Ehrentraut, L.; Stiel, H.; Steinke, S.; Schnuerer, M.; Nickles, P. V.; Sandner, W.; Priebe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous detection of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) and ion emission along the same line of sight provides comprehensive insight into the evolution of plasmas. This type of combined spectroscopy is applied to diagnose laser interaction with a spray target. The use of a micro-channel-plate detector assures reliable detection of both XUV and ion signals in a single laser shot. The qualitative analysis of the ion emission and XUV spectra allows to gain detailed information about the plasma conditions, and a correlation between the energetic proton emission and the XUV plasma emission can be suggested. The measured XUV emission spectrum from water spray shows efficient deceleration of laser accelerated electrons with energies up to keV in the initially cold background plasma and the collisional heating of the plasma.

  11. Studies of the mass spectrometer of the PALOMA instrument dedicated to Mars atmosphere analysis from a landed platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulpeau, G.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Covinhes, J.; Chassefière, E.; Jambon, A.; Agrinier, P.; Sarda, Ph.

    2003-04-01

    An instrument to analyze the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of Mars atmosphere from a landed platform is being developed under CNES funding. This instrument, called PALOMA (PAyload for Local Observation of Mars Atmosphere), will be proposed in response to the AO for the instrumentation of the NASA Mars Smart Lander mission, planned to be launched in 2009. It might be part as well of the EXOMARS mission presently studied at ESA in the frame of the Aurora program. Noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xr, Xe), stable isotopes (C, H, O, N) and trace constituents of astrobiological interest, like CH4, H2CO, N2O, H2S, will be analyzed by using a system of gas purification and separation, coupled with a mass spectrometer. Isotopic ratios have to be measured with an accuracy of about 1‰, or better, in order to provide a clear diagnostic of possible life signatures, to allow a detailed comparison of Earth and Mars atmospheric fractionation patterns, finally to accurately disentangle escape, climatic, geochemical and hypothesized biological effects. In order to reach these high sensitivity levels, two spectrometers of complitely different conceptions have been developed. The first one is constituted of conscutive electrostatic and magnetic sectors. It’s an application of E. G. Johnson and A. O. Nier’s previous work in that domain. Theirs parameters have been calculated in a way both angular and energetic optical aberrations from the two fields compensate each other to the second order. Simulated flights of ions in the resulting electromagnetic optic forshadow the effectiveness of the instrument. The second spectrometer is of the time of flight type. Its developpement, as a possible alternative to the magnetic system, shows the TOF spectrometer as an instrument allying great sensitivity and reduiced weight and dimensions.

  12. Study of plasma parameters influencing fractionation in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäckle, M.; Merten, D.

    2010-12-01

    Methods permitting to test the influence of the matrix as well as of its local and temporal distribution on the plasma conditions in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) are developed. For this purpose, the MS interface is used as plasma probe allowing to investigate the average plasma condition within the ICP zone observed in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of the matrix. Inserted matrix particles, particularly when being atomized and ionized, can cause considerable changes in both electron density and plasma temperature thus influencing the ionization equilibrium of the individual analytes. In this context, the plasma probe covers a region of the plasma for which no local thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed. The differences in temperature, identified within the region of the plasma observed, amounted up to 3000 K. While in the central region conditions were detected that would not allow efficient atomization and ionization of the matrix, these conditions improve considerably towards the margin of the area observed. Depending on the nature as well as on the temporally and locally variable density of the matrix, this can lead to varying intensity ratios of the analytes and explain fractionation effects. By means of a derived equation it is shown that the deviation of the intensity ratio from the concentration ratio turns out to be more serious the higher the difference of the ionization potential of the analytes observed, the lower the plasma temperature and the higher the matrix concentration within the area observed.

  13. Quantitation of tamsulosin in human plasma by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Li; Li, Limin; Tao, Ping; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Zhengxing

    2002-02-05

    A highly sensitive method for quantitation of tamsulosin in human plasma using 1-(2,6-dimethyl-3-hydroxylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-methoxyphenylethylamino)-propane hydrochloride as the internal standard (I.S.) was established using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). After alkalization with saturated sodium bicarbonate, plasma were extracted by ethyl acetate and separated by HPLC on a C18 reversed-phase column using a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid-triethylamine (620:380:1.5:1.5, v/v). Analytes were quantitated using positive electrospray ionization in a quadrupole spectrometer. LC-ESI-MS was performed in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using target ions at m/z 228 for tamsulosin and m/z 222 for the I.S. Calibration curves, which were linear over the range 0.2-30 ng/ml, were analyzed contemporaneously with each batch of samples, along with low (0.5 ng/ml), medium (3 ng/ml) and high (30 ng/ml) quality control samples. The intra- and inter-assay variability ranged from 2.14 to 8.87% for the low, medium and high quality control samples. The extraction recovery of tamsulosin from plasma was in the range of 84.2-94.5%. The method has been used successfully to study tamsulosin pharmacokinetics in adult humans.

  14. Mass spectrometric detection of siRNA in plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Maxie; Thomas, Andreas; Walpurgis, Katja; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) molecules can effect the expression of any gene by inducing the degradation of mRNA. Therefore, these molecules can be of interest for illicit performance enhancement in sports by affecting different metabolic pathways. An example of an efficient performance-enhancing gene knockdown is the myostatin gene that regulates muscle growth. This study was carried out to provide a tool for the mass spectrometric detection of modified and unmodified siRNA from plasma samples. The oligonucleotides are purified by centrifugal filtration and the use of an miRNA purification kit, followed by flow-injection analysis using an Exactive mass spectrometer to yield the accurate masses of the sense and antisense strands. Although chromatography and sensitive mass spectrometric analysis of oligonucleotides are still challenging, a method was developed and validated that has adequate sensitivity (limit of detection 0.25-1 nmol mL(-1)) and performance (precision 11-21%, recovery 23-67%) for typical antisense oligonucleotides currently used in clinical studies.

  15. Real-time breath analysis with active capillary plasma ionization-ambient mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregy, Lukas; Sinues, Pablo Martinez-Lozano; Nudnova, Maryia M; Zenobi, Renato

    2014-06-01

    On-line analysis of exhaled human breath is a growing area in analytical science, for applications such as fast and non-invasive medical diagnosis and monitoring. In this work, we present a novel approach based on ambient ionization of compounds in breath and subsequent real-time mass spectrometric analysis. We introduce a plasma ionization source for this purpose, which has no need for additional gases, is very small, and is easily interfaced with virtually any commercial atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (API-MS) without major modifications. If an API-MS instrument exists in a laboratory, the cost to implement this technology is only around [Formula: see text]500, far less than the investment for a specialized mass spectrometric system designed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis. In this proof-of-principle study we were able to measure mass spectra of exhaled human breath and found these to be comparable to spectra obtained with other electrospray-based methods. We detected over 100 VOCs, including relevant metabolites like fatty acids, with molecular weights extending up to 340 Da. In addition, we were able to monitor the time-dependent evolution of the peaks and show the enhancement of the metabolism after a meal. We conclude that this approach may complement current methods to analyze breath or other types of vapors, offering an affordable option to upgrade any pre-existing API-MS to a real-time breath analyzer.

  16. A clinical assay for the measurement of milrinone in plasma by HPLC mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihoho, B; Sage, A B; Smolenski, R T; Vazir, A; Rose, M L; Banner, N R; Leaver, N V

    2012-05-01

    Milrinone is a bipyridine phosphodiesterase inhibitor with positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects. As interest in longer term use of intravenous therapy increases, it becomes essential to monitor its plasma concentration owing to a narrow therapeutic range, an increased half-life in renal failure and toxicity associated with high levels. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with mass (MS) detection using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer is presented. The method was compared with the UV/HPLC method and validated according to current international guidelines. Coefficients of variation of less than 7.5% were obtained across the therapeutic range and 18.3% at 2.4 ng/mL, the lower limit of quantitation. Plasma from 13 cardiac surgery patients receiving standard intravenous doses of milrinone were measured. Eight patients achieved therapeutic milrinone levels within 3-4 h post start of infusion, one was borderline sub-therapeutic and four patients achieved levels that were above the upper limit of the therapeutic range and potentially toxic. This method offers high sensitivity, is rapid, easy to use and requires minimal amount of sample. We believe this method could become the reference procedure for clinical monitoring of milrinone and help to improve the safety of the use of this drug in patients with cardiac failure. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of metoprolol tartrate and ramipril in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, K Veeran; Mandal, Uttam; Senthamil Selvan, P; Sam Solomon, W D; Ghosh, Animesh; Sarkar, Amlan Kanti; Agarwal, Sangita; Nageswar Rao, T; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2007-10-15

    A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of metoprolol tartrate (MT) and ramipril, in human plasma. Both the drugs were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether-dichloromethane (70:30, v/v). The chromatographic separation was performed on a reversed-phase C8 column with a mobile phase of 10 mM ammonium formate-methanol (3:97, v/v). The protonated analyte was quantitated in positive ionization by multiple reaction monitoring with a mass spectrometer. The method was validated over the concentration range of 5-500 ng/ml for metoprolol and ramipril in human plasma. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 268.0-103.10 and m/z 417.20-117.20 were used to measure metoprolol and ramipril, respectively.

  18. LAVA Subsystem Integration and Testing for the RESOLVE Payload of the Resource Prospector Mission: Mass Spectrometers and Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Stewart, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload is part of Resource Prospector (RP) along with a rover and a lander that are expected to launch in 2020. RP will identify volatile elements that may be combined and collected to be used for fuel, air, and water in order to enable deeper space exploration. The Resource Prospector mission is a key part of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). The demand for this method of utilizing resources at the site of exploration is increasing due to the cost of resupply missions and deep space exploration goals. The RESOLVE payload includes the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The main instrument used to identify the volatiles evolved from the lunar regolith is the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). LAVA analyzes the volatiles emitted from the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) Subsystem. The objective of OVEN is to obtain, weigh, heat and transfer evolved gases to LAVA through the connection between the two subsystems called the LOVEN line. This paper highlights the work completed during a ten week internship that involved the integration, testing, data analysis, and procedure documentation of two candidate mass spectrometers for the LAVA subsystem in order to aid in determining which model to use for flight. Additionally, the examination of data from the integrated Resource Prospector '15 (RP' 15) field test will be presented in order to characterize the amount of water detected from water doped regolith samples.

  19. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  20. Characterization of forsythoside A metabolites in rats by a combination of UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with multiple data processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Cao, Guang-Shang; Li, Yun; Xu, Lu-Lu; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Liu, Ying; Lu, Jian-Qiu; Zhang, Jia-Yu

    2018-05-01

    Forsythoside A (FTA), the main active constituent isolated from Fructus Forsythiae, has various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-microbial activities. However, while research on FTA has been mainly focused on the treatment of diseases on a material basis, FTA metabolites in vivo have not been comprehensively evaluated. Here, a rapid and sensitive method using a UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with multiple data processing techniques including high-resolution extracted ion chromatograms, multiple mass defect filters and diagnostic product ions was developed for the screening and identification of FTA metabolites in rats. As the result, a total of 43 metabolites were identified in biological samples including 42 metabolites in urine, 22 metabolites in plasma and 15 metabolites in feces. These results demonstrated that FTA underwent a series of in vivo metabolic reactions including methylation, dimethylation, sulfation, glucuronidation, diglucuronidation, cysteine conjugation and their composite reactions. The research enhanced our understanding of FTA metabolism and built a foundation for further toxicity and safety studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. New results from the Mainz neutrino mass experiment and perspective of a new large tritium-β-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Fickinger, L.; Kraus, Ch.; Otten, E.W.; Ulrich, H.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Kazachenko, O.; Kovalik, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Mainz neutrino mass experiment investigates the endpoint region of the tritium β decay spectrum to determine the mass of the electron antineutrino. By the recent upgrade the former problem of de-wetting T 2 films has been solved and the signal-to-background-ratio was improved by a factor of 10. The latest measurement leads to m ν 2 = -1.1 ± 2.6 stat ± 1.8 sys eV 2 /c 4 (preliminary), which corresponds to an upper limit of m ν 2 (95 % C.L.) (preliminary). Some indication for the anomaly, reported by the Troitsk group, was found, but its postulated half year period is contradicted by our data. The perspectives of a new Large Tritium-β-Spectrometer to reach sub eV sensitivity will be presented. (authors)

  2. A mass spectrometer for the rapid analysis of gaseous mixtures; Spectrometre de masse pour l'analyse rapide des melanges gazeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, C; Ortel, Y; Taieb, J

    1950-07-01

    A mass spectrometer for leak detection and rapid gas analysis were constructed, having the characteristics and several structural features of a simple instrument described by Siry in Rev. Sri. Instruments. 540 (1947). Although exhibiting a good resolving power, the apparatus, which has no ion lenses and whose electrodes can be regulated during the performance, has not been sufficiently tested. Since several design defects have been discovered, it will probably be rebuilt with various improvements (ion source outside the magnetic field, modified circuits, etc.). (author)

  3. Mass analyzer ``MASHA'' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenkov, A. G.; Rassadov, D. N.; Bekhterev, V. V.; Bystrov, V. A.; Chizov, A. Yu.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Efremov, A. A.; Guljaev, A. V.; Kozulin, E. M.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Starodub, G. Ya.; Voskresensky, V. M.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Paschenko, S. V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V. I.

    2004-05-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10-3. First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency.

  4. Mass analyzer 'MASHA' high temperature target and plasma ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semchenkov, A.G.; Rassadov, D.N.; Bekhterev, V.V.; Bystrov, V.A.; Chizov, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Efremov, A.A.; Guljaev, A.V.; Kozulin, E.M.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Voskresensky, V.M.; Bogomolov, S.L.; Paschenko, S.V.; Zelenak, A.; Tikhonov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    A new separator and mass analyzer of super heavy atoms (MASHA) has been created at the FLNR JINR Dubna to separate and measure masses of nuclei and molecules with precision better than 10 -3 . First experiments with the FEBIAD plasma ion source have been done and give an efficiency of ionization of up to 20% for Kr with a low flow test leak (6 particle μA). We suppose a magnetic field optimization, using the additional electrode (einzel lens type) in the extracting system, and an improving of the vacuum conditions in order to increase the ion source efficiency

  5. Characterization of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and its applications in the study of solid surfaces; Charakterisierung eines Flugzeitmassenspektrometers und seine Anwendungen in der Festkoerperoberflaechenuntersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazarov, P.

    2006-12-21

    The object and the purpose of the present work was to develop, to assemble and to start running a new TOF (time of flight) mass spectrometer for imaging SNMS analytic which is optimized for the analysis of highly molecular secondary ions. The most important purpose was the characterization of the TOF mass spectrometer. The obtained mass spectra of indium, tantalum and silver clusters reflect the excellent properties of the TOF mass spectrometer for the detection of large clusters with good detection efficiency up to masses of 16000 amu. The possibility of the deflection of selected saturated atom and cluster peaks serves for further improvement of the detection efficiency for large molecules. The accessible mass resolution was determined to be of the order of m/{delta}m=1000 in the high mass region. Numerous measurements were carried out to characterize the useful yield of this spectrometer. For a best possible adaptation of the TOF mass spectrometer for the detection of highly molecular particles, a device for post-acceleration of the detected particles by up to 10 keV were inserted directly before the MCP detector. The detection efficiency of positive secondary ions was determined for different post-acceleration voltages for the example of sputtered indium cluster ions. In addition, a new method was developed for the quantitative determination of the spectral ionization probability {alpha}{sup +}({nu}) of sputtered particles as a function of the emission velocity. The next application of the TOF mass spectrometer is the analysis of complicated organic molecules in solid state surfaces. During measurements of the photo-ionization behaviour of neutral tryptophan molecules, it was found out that a stable molecular ion signal is generated in the SNMS spectrum with h{nu}=7.9 eV can only be observed by the use of a continuous ion beam or very long (ms range) ion pulses. (orig.)

  6. Measurement of the effective plasma ion mass in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, J.B.; Villard, L.; Ridder, G. de

    1997-01-01

    There is not yet a straightforward method for the measurement of the D-T ratio in the centre of a tokamak plasma. One of the simpler measurements put forward in the past is the interpretation of the MHD spectrum in the frequency range of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE). However, the frequencies of these modes do not only depend on the plasma mass, but are also quite strongly dependent on the details of the current and density profiles, creating a problem of deconvolution of the estimate of the plasma mass from an implicit relationship between several measurable plasma parameters and the detected eigenmode frequencies. This method has been revised to assess its likely precision for the JET tokamak. The low n GAE modes are sometimes too close to the continuum edge to be detectable and the interpretation of the GAE spectrum is rendered less direct than had been hoped. We present a statistical study on the precision with which the D-T ratio could be estimated from the GAE spectrum on JET. (author) 4 figs., 8 refs

  7. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendt, Alois; Geissler, Robert; Streibel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. ► Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. ► Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. ► The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. ► The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  8. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendt, Alois [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Geissler, Robert [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Streibel, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.streibel@uni-rostock.de [Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock (Germany); Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Cooperation Group for Analysis of Complex Molecular Systems, Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), IngolstaedterLandstr. 1, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  9. Measurement of mass yields from the 241Am(2nth,f reaction at the Lohengrin Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köster U.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of fission yields has a major impact on the characterization and understanding of the fission process and is mandatory for reactor applications. While the yields are known for the major actinides (235U, 239Pu in the thermal neutron-induced fission, only few measurements have been performed on 242Am. The interest of 242Am concerns the reduction of radiotoxicity of 241Am in nuclear wastes using transmutation reactions. This paper presents the measurement of the fission mass yields from the reaction 241Am(2nth,f performed at the Lohengrin mass spectrometer (ILL, France for both the light and the heavy peaks: a total of 41 mass yields have been measured. The experiment was also meant to determine whether there is a difference in mass yields between the isomeric state and the ground state as it exists in fission and capture cross sections. The method used to address this question is based on a repeated measurement of a set of fission mass yields as a function of the ratio between the 242gAm and the 242mAm fission rates. The presented experiment is also a first step towards the measurement of the isotopic fission yields of 242Am.

  10. Visible Spectrometer at the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment, the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment and the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak for Doppler Width and Shift Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A; Howard, S; Horton, R; Hwang, D; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; McLean, H; Terry, J

    2006-05-15

    A novel Doppler spectrometer is currently being used for ion or neutral velocity and temperature measurements on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The spectrometer has an f/No. of {approx}3.1 and is appropriate for visible light (3500-6700 {angstrom}). The full width at half maximum from a line emitting calibration source has been measured to be as small as 0.4 {angstrom}. The ultimate time resolution is line brightness light limited and on the order of ms. A new photon efficient detector is being used for the setup at C-Mod. Time resolution is achieved by moving the camera during a plasma discharge in a perpendicular direction through the dispersion plane of the spectrometer causing a vertical streaking across the camera face. Initial results from C-Mod as well as previous measurements from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) and the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) are presented.

  11. Application of a Bonner sphere spectrometer for determination of the energy spectra of neutrons generated by ≈1 MJ plasma focus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králík, M.; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Scholz, M.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.M.; Bienkowska, B.; Miklaszewski, R.; Schmidt, H.; Řezáč, K.; Klír, D.; Kravárik, J.; Kubeš, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 11 (2010), 113503/1-113503/5 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024 Grant - others:FP-6 EU(XE) RITA-CT2006-26095 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : plasma focus * fusion DD neutrons * Bonner sphere spectrometer * energy spectra of scattered neutrons * unfolded and calculated spectra Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.598, year: 2010

  12. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  13. Advances in compact proton spectrometers for inertial-confinement fusion and plasma nuclear science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, F H; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M; Zylstra, A; Manuel, M J-E; Sio, H; Waugh, C; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Frenje, J; Li, C K; Petrasso, R; Sangster, T C; Roberts, S

    2012-10-01

    Compact wedge-range-filter proton spectrometers cover proton energies ∼3-20 MeV. They have been used at the OMEGA laser facility for more than a decade for measuring spectra of primary D(3)He protons in D(3)He implosions, secondary D(3)He protons in DD implosions, and ablator protons in DT implosions; they are now being used also at the National Ignition Facility. The spectra are used to determine proton yields, shell areal density at shock-bang time and compression-bang time, fuel areal density, and implosion symmetry. There have been changes in fabrication and in analysis algorithms, resulting in a wider energy range, better accuracy and precision, and better robustness for survivability with indirect-drive inertial-confinement-fusion experiments.

  14. Optimisation of the muon spectrometer from the detector ALICE used for the study of the quark and gluon plasma at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guernane, R.

    2001-01-01

    The ALICE experiment performed at the LHC will establish and study the phase transition from hadronic matter to a matter to a state of deconfined partons called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). The suppression of heavy flavour resonances (Jφ,γ) is the most promising probe for diagnosing the formation and early stages of the QGP in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The complete spectrum of heavy quarkonia resonances, i.e. J/φ, φ', γ, γ' and φ' will be measured via their muonic decay in a forward spectrometer with a mass resolution sufficient to separate all states. It is composed of five tracking stations, each consisting of two Cathode Pad Chambers (CPC). In this work, we developed a prototype of CPC having the original feature of parallel charge read out from one segmented cathode. The geometry and operating parameters have been optimized for station 3. The expected multi-hit rate and multi-hit deconvolution have been evaluated with a complete detailed simulation and an efficient method to disentangle close hits has been proposed. The magnetic field effect on the intrinsic spatial resolution of the chambers has also been estimated. The simulated performance of the CPC's is confirmed by beam-test results obtained at CERN with prototypes. The measurement of dimuons is expected to be contaminated by beam-related background. The rate of beam-gas interactions is several orders of magnitude larger than the signal rate for p-p collisions which is the reference for further studies of p-A and A-A collisions. The ALICE Collaboration decided to equip the muon spectrometer with a level 0 trigger counter (V0) in order to validate the dimuon trigger signal in p-p mode. The various steps involved in designing the V0 scintillator hodoscope are presented in this thesis. (author)

  15. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  16. Modeling the chemistry of plasma polymerization using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrig, D F; Stockhaus, J; Scheide, F; Winkelhake, Oliver; Streuber, Oliver

    2003-04-01

    The goal of the project is a solvent free painting shop. The environmental technologies laboratory is developing processes of plasma etching and polymerization. Polymerized thin films are first-order corrosion protection and primer for painting. Using pure acetylene we get very nice thin films which were not bonded very well. By using air as bulk gas it is possible to polymerize, in an acetylene plasma, well bonded thin films which are stable first-order corrosion protections and good primers. UV/Vis spectroscopy shows nitrogen oxide radicals in the emission spectra of pure nitrogen and air. But nitrogen oxide is fully suppressed in the presence of acetylene. IR spectroscopy shows only C=O, CH(2) and CH(3) groups but no nitrogen species. With the aid of UV/Vis spectra and the chemistry of ozone formation it is possible to define reactive traps and steps, molecule depletion and processes of proton scavenging and proton loss. Using a numerical model it is possible to evaluate these processes and to calculate theoretical mass spectra. Adjustment of theoretical mass spectra to real measurements leads to specific channels of polymerization which are driven by radicals especially the acetyl radical. The estimated theoretical mass spectra show the specific channels of these chemical processes. It is possible to quantify these channels. This quantification represents the mass flow through this chemical system. With respect to these chemical processes it is possible to have an idea of pollutant production processes.

  17. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool to get on-line plasma information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altana, C.; Schillaci, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P; Tudisco, S.; Lanzalone, G.; Muoio, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we report the results of an experimental measurement performed with a TPS developed at INFN-LNS within the ELIMED project, by means of a powerful and self-consistent technique as a diagnostic tool for the ionic acceleration study in laser-generated-plasmas. (authors)

  18. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool to get on-line plasma information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Catania - Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F.; Anzalone, A.; Cirrone, G.A.P; Tudisco, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Univerita Kore di Enna - Enna (Italy); Muoio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN - Catania (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Messina - Dip.to di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we report the results of an experimental measurement performed with a TPS developed at INFN-LNS within the ELIMED project, by means of a powerful and self-consistent technique as a diagnostic tool for the ionic acceleration study in laser-generated-plasmas. (authors)

  19. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F.C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schloegl, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000 deg. C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100 μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10 ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20 ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N 2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N 2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250 deg. C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH 3 · radicals is successfully demonstrated

  20. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F. C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-05-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000°C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250°C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH3• radicals is successfully demonstrated.

  1. Space shuttle charging or beam-plasma discharge: What can electron spectrometer observations contribute to solving the question?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watermann, J.; Wilhelm, K.; Torkar, K.M.; Riedler, W.

    1988-01-01

    Several cooperative plasma experiments were carried out on board Spacelab-1, the ninth payload of the Space Transportation System (STS-9). Among them, the electron spectrometer 1ES019A was designed to observe 01.-12.5 keV electron fluxes with high temporal and spatial resolution, while the SEPAC electron beam accelerator emitted electron beams with currents up to 280 mA and maximum energies of 5 keV. Since the question of orbiter charging to high voltages has controversially been discussed in several publications on STS-3 and STS-9 electron beam experiments, an attempt is made to relate information from the return electron flux observed during the SEPAC operations to the vehicle charging interpretation. A close examination reveals that most of our observations can be understood if the occurrence of a beam-plasma discharge is assumed at least for electron beam intensities above 100 mA. This would provide a substantial return current capability. High orbiter charging effects during electron beam accelerator electron emissions are consequently not supported by the observations

  2. Identification of phlebotomine sand flies using one MALDI-TOF MS reference database and two mass spectrometer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Alexander; Depaquit, Jérôme; Dvořák, Vit; Tuten, Holly; Bañuls, Anne-Laure; Halada, Petr; Zapata, Sonia; Lehrter, Véronique; Hlavačková, Kristýna; Prudhomme, Jorian; Volf, Petr; Sereno, Denis; Kaufmann, Christian; Pflüger, Valentin; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-05-10

    Rapid, accurate and high-throughput identification of vector arthropods is of paramount importance in surveillance programmes that are becoming more common due to the changing geographic occurrence and extent of many arthropod-borne diseases. Protein profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fulfils these requirements for identification, and reference databases have recently been established for several vector taxa, mostly with specimens from laboratory colonies. We established and validated a reference database containing 20 phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) species by using specimens from colonies or field-collections that had been stored for various periods of time. Identical biomarker mass patterns ('superspectra') were obtained with colony- or field-derived specimens of the same species. In the validation study, high quality spectra (i.e. more than 30 evaluable masses) were obtained with all fresh insects from colonies, and with 55/59 insects deep-frozen (liquid nitrogen/-80 °C) for up to 25 years. In contrast, only 36/52 specimens stored in ethanol could be identified. This resulted in an overall sensitivity of 87 % (140/161); specificity was 100 %. Duration of storage impaired data counts in the high mass range, and thus cluster analyses of closely related specimens might reflect their storage conditions rather than phenotypic distinctness. A major drawback of MALDI-TOF MS is the restricted availability of in-house databases and the fact that mass spectrometers from 2 companies (Bruker, Shimadzu) are widely being used. We have analysed fingerprints of phlebotomine sand flies obtained by automatic routine procedure on a Bruker instrument by using our database and the software established on a Shimadzu system. The sensitivity with 312 specimens from 8 sand fly species from laboratory colonies when evaluating only high quality spectra was 98.3 %; the specificity was 100 %. The corresponding diagnostic values with 55 field

  3. High precision mass measurements of thermalized relativistic uranium projectile and fission fragments with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayet San Andres, Samuel [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Justus Liebig Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    At the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI, a relativistic beam of {sup 238}U at 1GeV/u was used to produce fission and projectile fragments on a beryllium target. The ions were separated in-flight at the FRS, thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell and transferred to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) where high precision mass measurements were performed. The masses of several fission and projectile fragments were measured (including short-lived nuclei with half-lives down to 18 ms) and the possibility of tailoring an isomerically clean beam for other experiments was demonstrated. With the demonstrated performance of the MR-TOF-MS and the expected production rates of exotic nuclei far from stability at the next-generation facilities such as FAIR, novel mass measurements of nuclei close to the neutron drip line will be possible and key information for understanding the r-process will be available. The results from the last experiment and an outlook of possible future mass measurements close to the neutron drip line at FAIR with the MR-TOF-MS are presented.

  4. Laboratory investigation of photochemical oxidation of organic aerosol from wood fires 2: analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Grieshop

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of photo-oxidation on organic aerosol (OA in dilute wood smoke by exposing emissions from soft- and hard-wood fires to UV light in a smog chamber. This paper focuses on changes in OA composition measured using a unit-mass-resolution quadrupole Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS. The results highlight how photochemical processing can lead to considerable evolution of the mass, volatility and level of oxygenation of biomass-burning OA. Photochemical oxidation produced substantial new OA, more than doubling the OA mass after a few hours of aging under typical summertime conditions. Aging also decreased the volatility of the OA and made it progressively more oxygenated. The results also illustrate strengths of, and challenges with, using AMS data for source apportionment analysis. For example, the mass spectra of fresh and aged BBOA are distinct from fresh motor-vehicle emissions. The mass spectra of the secondary OA produced from aging wood smoke are very similar to those of the oxygenated OA (OOA that dominates ambient AMS datasets, further reinforcing the connection between OOA and OA formed from photo-chemistry. In addition, aged wood smoke spectra are similar to those from OA created by photo-oxidizing dilute diesel exhaust. This demonstrates that the OOA observed in the atmosphere can be produced by photochemical aging of dilute emissions from different types of combustion systems operating on fuels with modern or fossil carbon. Since OOA is frequently the dominant component of ambient OA, the similarity of spectra of aged emissions from different sources represents an important challenge for AMS-based source apportionment studies.

  5. A miniaturized laser-ablation mass spectrometer for in-situ measurements of isotope composition on solar body surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedo, A.; Meyer, S.; Tulej, M.; Neuland, M.; Bieler, A.; Iakovleva, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    The in-situ analysis of extraterrestrial material onboard planetary rovers and landers is of considerable interest for future planetary space missions. Due to the low detection sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments, e.g. α-particle X-ray, γ-ray or neutron spectrometers, it is frequently possible to measure only major/minor elements in extraterrestrial materials. Nevertheless, the knowledge of minor/trace elements is of considerable interest to cosmochemistry. Chemistry puts constraints on the origin of solar system and its evolution enabling also a deeper inside to planetary transformation processes (e.g. volcanic surface alteration, space weathering). The isotopes play special role in analysis of the origin and transformation of planetary matter. They are robust tracers of the early events because their abundances are less disturbed as the elemental once. Nevertheless, if the isotope abundance ratios are fractionated, the underlying chemical and physical processes can be then encoded from the variations of abundance ratios. A detailed analysis of isotopic patterns of radiogenic elements can allow age dating of minerals and temporal evolution of planetary matter. High accuracy and sensitive measurements of isotopic pattern of bio-relevant elements, i.e., sulfur, found on planetary surfaces can be helpful for the identification of possible past and present extraterrestrial life in terms of biomarker identification. Our group has designed a self-optimizing miniaturized laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS) for in situ planetary measurements (Wurz et al., 2012; Rohner et al., 2003). Initial studies utilizing IR laser radiation for ablation, atomization and ionization of solid materials indicated a high instrumental performance in terms of sensitivity and mass resolution (Tulej et al., 2011). Current studies are conducted with a UV radiation and a high spatial resolution is achieved by focussing the laser beam to 20µm spots onto the sample. The

  6. Mass measurements on neutron-deficient nuclides at SHIPTRAP and commissioning of a cryogenic narrow-band FT-ICR mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer Garcia, R.

    2007-07-01

    The dissertation presented here deals with high-precision Penning trap mass spectrometry on short-lived radionuclides. Owed to the ability of revealing all nucleonic interactions, mass measurements far off the line of {beta}-stability are expected to bring new insight to the current knowledge of nuclear properties and serve to test the predictive power of mass models and formulas. In nuclear astrophysics, atomic masses are fundamental parameters for the understanding of the synthesis of nuclei in the stellar environments. This thesis presents ten mass values of radionuclides around A=90 interspersed in the predicted rp-process pathway. Six of them have been experimentally determined for the first time. The measurements have been carried out at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP using the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance (TOF-ICR) detection technique. Given the limited performance of the TOF-ICR detection when trying to investigate heavy/superheavy species with small production cross sections ({sigma} <1 {mu}b), a new detection system is found to be necessary. Thus, the second part of this thesis deals with the commissioning of a cryogenic double-Penning trap system for the application of a highly-sensitive, narrow-band Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance (FT-ICR) detection technique. With the non-destructive FT-ICR detection method a single singly-charged trapped ion will provide the required information to determine its mass. First off-line tests of a new detector system based on a channeltron with an attached conversion dynode, of a cryogenic pumping barrier, to guarantee ultra-high vacuum conditions during mass determination, and of the detection electronics for the required single-ion sensitivity are reported. (orig.)

  7. Rapid identification of pork for halal authentication using the electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjuliana, M; Che Man, Y B; Mat Hashim, D; Mohamed, A K S

    2011-08-01

    The volatile compounds of pork, other meats and meat products were studied using an electronic nose and gas chromatography mass spectrometer with headspace analyzer (GCMS-HS) for halal verification. The zNose™ was successfully employed for identification and differentiation of pork and pork sausages from beef, mutton and chicken meats and sausages which were achieved using a visual odor pattern called VaporPrint™, derived from the frequency of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) detector of the electronic nose. GCMS-HS was employed to separate and analyze the headspace gasses from samples into peaks corresponding to individual compounds for the purpose of identification. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for data interpretation. Analysis by PCA was able to cluster and discriminate pork from other types of meats and sausages. It was shown that PCA could provide a good separation of the samples with 67% of the total variance accounted by PC1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isotopic abundance analysis of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur with a combined elemental analyzer-mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichlmayer, F.; Blochberger, K.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio measurements of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur are of growing interest as analytical tool in many fields of research, but applications were somewhat hindered in the past by the fact that cumbersome sample preparation was necessary. A method has therefore been developed, consisting in essential of coupling an elemental analyzer with an isotope mass spectrometer, enabling fast and reliable conversion of C-, N- and S-compounds in any solid or liquid sample into the measuring gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen and sulfur dioxide for on-line isotopic analysis. The experimental set-up and the main characteristics are described in short and examples of application in environmental research, food analysis and clinical diagnosis are given. (orig.)

  9. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  10. Performance evaluation of indigenous thermal ionization mass spectrometer for determination of 235U/238U atom ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Parab, A.R.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Shah, Raju V.; Jagdish Kumar, S.; Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Bhatia, R.K.; Yadav, V.K.; Sharma, Madhavi P.; Tulsyan, Puneet; Chavda, Pradip; Sriniwasan, P.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) designed and developed at Technical Physics Division, B.A.R.C., was evaluated for its performance for the determination of 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in uranium samples. This consisted of evaluating the precision and accuracy on the 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in various isotopic reference materials as well as indigenously generated uranium samples. The results obtained by the indigenous TIMS were also compared with those obtained using a commercially available TIMS system. The internal and external precision were found to be around 0.1% for determining 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios close to those of natural uranium ( i.e. 0.00730). (author)

  11. Construction and simulation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the University of Notre Dame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, B.E., E-mail: bschult4@nd.edu; Kelly, J.M.; Nicoloff, C.; Long, J.; Ryan, S.; Brodeur, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant problems in the production of rare isotopes is the simultaneous production of contaminants, often time isobaric. Thus, a high-resolution beam purification method is required which needs to be compatible with both the low yield and short half-life of the desired radionuclide. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer meets all these criteria, in addition to boasting a smaller footprint relative to traditional separator dipole magnets. Such a device is currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame and is intended to be coupled to the IG-ISOL source of the planned cyclotron facility. The motivation and conceptual design are presented, as well as the status of simulations to determine the feasibility of using a Bradbury–Nielsen gate for bunching ion beams during initial system testing.

  12. Adaptation of a glow discharge mass spectrometer in a glove-box for the analysis of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betti, M.; Rasmussen, G.; Hiernaut, T.; Koch, L.

    1994-01-01

    A VG9000 glow discharge mass spectrometer has been modified for the direct analysis of solid nuclear samples within a glove-box environment. Because containment is needed for the analysis of this kind of material, the glove-box encloses all parts of the instrument that come into contact with the sample, namely the ion source chamber, sample interlock and associated pumping system. External modifications eliminate outside contamination by the fitting of absolute filters on all source supplies. Internally the design of the ion source has been altered to minimize the number of operations performed inside the glove-box thereby simplifying operation and routine maintenance. These modifications retain the ion extraction and focusing properties of the instrument. The data presented show that there is no compromise in the analytical performance of the instrument when placed in the glove-box. Data representative of nuclear materials is also shown. (Author)

  13. Building biomarker libraries with novel chemical sensors: correlating differential mobility spectrometer signal outputs with mass spectrometry data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schivo, Michael; Kenyon, Nicholas J [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Genome and Biomedical Sciences Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Aksenov, Alexander A; Bardaweel, Hamzeh; Zhao Weixiang; Davis, Cristina E, E-mail: cedavis@ucdavis.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-10-29

    Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is a widely used analytic tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile and semi-volatile compounds. However, GC/MS use is limited by its large size, lack of portability, high cost and inherent complexity. Smaller instruments capable of high-throughput analysis of volatile compounds have the potential of combining MS-like sensitivity with portability. The micromachined differential mobility spectrometer (DMS) is a miniature sensor capable of registering volatile compounds in sub-parts-per-million (ppm) concentrations. It is small, portable, and can be coupled with multiple other compound separation methods. Here we describe paired volatile sample analyses using both GC/MS and GC/DMS which show that the DMS is capable of registering known compounds as verified by MS. Furthermore, we show that MS can be used to help build a library for our unique DMS sensor outputs and detect compounds in chemically complex backgrounds.

  14. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  15. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  16. Measurements of δ11B in water by use of a mass spectrometer with accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fusco, Egidio; Rubino, Mauro; Marzaioli, Fabio; Di Rienzo, Brunella; Stellato, Luisa; Ricci, Andreina; Porzio, Giuseppe; D'onofrio, Antonio; Terrasi, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the tests carried out to measure the isotopic composition of Boron (B) in water samples by use of the magnetic spectrometer and accelerator of the Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE) of Italy. B was extracted from water samples to obtain Boric acid (B(OH)3), which was then analyzed. We quantified the precision of our experimental system and the variability introduced by the chemical extraction measuring chemically untreated and treated pure B(OH)3 samples. We found an instrumental precision around 10‰ (1σ), but, by increasing the number of replicates (>30), we obtained a standard deviation of the mean (σerr) around 3‰ or lower. We also tested whether the chemical extraction caused isotopic fractionation and found a small fractionation (ε = 5 ± 4‰) of treated samples normalized against untreated ones, compatible with zero at 2σ. In order to avoid δ11B biases, we decided to normalize unknown treated samples with treated standards. Finally, we measured δ11B of seawater and groundwater samples to test the analytical method, and obtained values of 30 ± 6‰ and -4 ± 4‰ respectively. We conclude that our experimental system is only suitable when remarkable (>10‰) δ11B differences exist among water samples, but cannot be used to measure natural differences (<10‰) unless the total uncertainty is significantly decreased.

  17. Profiling and identification of (-)-epicatechin metabolites in rats using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhanpeng; Wang, Fei; Dai, Shengyun; Lu, Jianqiu; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiayu

    2017-08-01

    (-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, faeces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS 1 to ESI-MS n stage. Finally, a total of 67 metabolites (including parent drug) were tentatively identified based on standard substances, chromatographic retention times, accurate mass measurement, and relevant drug biotransformation knowledge. The results demonstrated that EC underwent multiple in vivo metabolic reactions including methylation, dehydration, hydrogenation, glucosylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, ring-cleavage, and their composite reactions. Among them, methylation, dehydration, glucosylation, and their composite reactions were observed only occurring on EC when compared with C. Meanwhile, the distribution of these detected metabolites in various tissues including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, and brain were respectively studied. The results demonstrated that liver and kidney were the most important organs for EC and its metabolites elimination. In conclusion, the newly discovered EC metabolites significantly expanded the understanding on its pharmacological effects and built the foundation for further toxicity and safety studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Broadband time-resolved elliptical crystal spectrometer for X-ray spectroscopic measurements in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui-Rong; Jia Guo; Fang Zhi-Heng; Wang Wei; Meng Xiang-Fu; Xie Zhi-Yong; Zhang Fan

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray spectrometer used in high-energy-density plasma experiments generally requires both broad X-ray energy coverage and high temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions for overcoming the difficulties imposed by the X-ray background, debris, and mechanical shocks. By using an elliptical crystal together with a streak camera, we resolve this issue at the SG-II laser facility. The carefully designed elliptical crystal has a broad spectral coverage with high resolution, strong rejection of the diffuse and/or fluorescent background radiation, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. The spectra that are Bragg reflected (23° < θ < 38°) from the crystal are focused onto a streak camera slit 18 mm long and about 80 μm wide, to obtain a time-resolved spectrum. With experimental measurements, we demonstrate that the quartz(1011) elliptical analyzer at the SG-II laser facility has a single-shot spectral range of (4.64–6.45) keV, a typical spectral resolution of E/ΔE = 560, and an enhanced focusing power in the spectral dimension. For titanium (Ti) data, the lines of interest show a distribution as a function of time and the temporal variations of the He-α and Li-like Ti satellite lines and their spatial profiles show intensity peak red shifts. The spectrometer sensitivity is illustrated with a temporal resolution of better than 25 ps, which satisfies the near-term requirements of high-energy-density physics experiments. (atomic and molecular physics)

  19. Aerosol Vacuum-Assisted Plasma Ionization (Aero-VaPI) Coupled to Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Sandra L.; Ng, Nga L.; Zambrzycki, Stephen C.; Li, Anyin; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2018-02-01

    In this communication, we report on the real-time analysis of organic aerosol particles by Vacuum-assisted Plasma Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (Aero-VaPI-MS) using a home-built VaPI ion source coupled to a Synapt G2-S HDMS ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) system. Standards of organic molecules of interest in prebiotic chemistry were used to generate aerosols. Monocaprin and decanoic acid aerosol particles were successfully detected in both the positive and negative ion modes, respectively. A complex aerosol mixture of different sizes of polymers of L-malic acid was also examined through ion mobility (IM) separations, resulting in the detection of polymers of up to eight monomeric units. This noncommercial plasma ion source is proposed as a low cost alternative to other plasma ionization platforms used for aerosol analysis, and a higher-performance alternative to more traditional aerosol mass spectrometers. VaPI provides robust online ionization of organics in aerosols without extensive ion activation, with the coupling to IM-MS providing higher peak capacity and excellent mass accuracy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablant, N A; Bitter, M; Burhenn, R; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Ellis, R; Gates, D; Goto, M; Hill, K W; Langenberg, A; Lazerson, S; Mardenfeld, M; Morita, S; Neilson, G H; Oishi, T; Pedersen, T S

    2014-07-01

    A new x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) is currently being built for installation on W7-X. This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and the evolution of the radial electric field by providing high resolution temperature and rotation measurements under many plasma conditions, including ECH heated plasmas. Installation is expected before the first experimental campaign (OP1.1), making an important set of measurements available for the first W7-X plasmas. This diagnostic will also work in concert with the HR-XCS diagnostic to provide an excellent diagnostic set for core impurity transport on W7-X.

  1. High mass resolution time of flight mass spectrometer for measuring products in heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Jensen, Robert; Christensen, M. K.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combined microreactor and time of flight system for testing and characterization of heterogeneous catalysts with high resolution mass spectrometry and high sensitivity. Catalyst testing is performed in silicon-based microreactors which have high sensitivity and fast thermal...

  2. Mass spectrometic isotope dilution analysis of Am and Cm in spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantschik, M.; Koch, L.; Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe; Ganser, B.

    1983-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuels contain Am and Cm in the 10 ppb to 100 ppm range. Because of this low abundance and the necessity of handling small samples of the highly toxic fuel material only a mass-spectrometric isotope dilution analysis can give sufficiently accurate results. Since suitable spikes and/or standards have been lacking, this method has not been applied. Using known masses (+- 0.1%) of Am-241 and Cm-244 metal, Am-243 and Cm-248 spikes were calibrated to an accuracy of better than 0.2%. The standards were reanalysed by chemical titration and several radiometric techniques. The chemical conditioning is based on ionexchange chromatography with alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid. A sample size of 10 -7 g is sufficient. For the mass-spectrometric measurement 10 -9 g of the elements are required. The accuracy for the determination of the main isotope is 0.5%. (orig./BRB)

  3. A state-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant and recently installed by Finnigan factory representatives. This instrument is a refinement of the MAT 260 which has been used routinely for three years in the laboratory at SRP. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desktop computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample reconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other developments in setting up the instrument are presented

  4. State-of-the-art mass spectrometer system for determination of uranium and plutonium isotopic distributions in process samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Finnigan MAT 261 automated thermal ionization mass spectrometer system was purchased by the Savannah River Plant. The MAT 261 is a highly precise, fully automated instrument. Many features make this instrument the state-of-the-art technology in precision isotopic composition measurements. A unique feature of the MAT 261 is the ion detection system which permits measurement of the three uranium or plutonium masses simultaneously. All Faraday cup measuring channels are of the same design and each is equipped with a dedicated amplifier. Each amplifier is connected to a linear voltage/frequency measuring system for ion current integration. These outputs are fed into a Hewlett-Packard 9845T desk-top computer. The computer, and the Finnigan developed software package, control filament heating cycles, sample preconditioning, ion beam focusing, carrousel rotation, mass selection, and data collection and reduction. Precision, accuracy, and linearity were determined under normal laboratory conditions using a NBS uranium suite of standards. These results along with other development in setting up the instrument are presented

  5. Measurement and simulation of the pressure ratio between the two traps of double Penning trap mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidherr, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Ferrer, R.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Weber, C.

    2008-01-01

    Penning traps are ideal tools to perform high-precision mass measurements. For this purpose the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particles is measured. In case of on-line mass measurements of short-lived nuclides produced at radioactive beam facilities the ions get in general first prepared and cooled by buffer-gas collisions in a preparation trap to reduce their motional amplitudes and are then transported to a precision trap for the cyclotron frequency determination. In modern Penning trap mass spectrometers both traps are placed in the homogeneous region of one superconducting magnet to optimize the transport efficiency. Because the gas pressure inside the precision trap has to be very low in order to minimize the damping of the ion motion caused by collisions with rest gas molecules during the frequency determination, a pumping barrier is installed between both traps. To predict the pressure difference between the two traps in the region of molecular gas flow the motion of each particle can be simulated without consideration of the other particles. Thus, it is possible to calculate the transit probability through a tube of a given geometry. The results are compared with experimentally obtained pressure differences.

  6. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  7. Design and Analysis of a Getter-Based Vacuum Pumping System for a Rocket-Borne Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, E. A.; Syrstad, E. A.; Dyer, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The mesosphere / lower thermosphere (MLT) is a transition region where the turbulent mixing of earth’s lower atmosphere gives way to the molecular diffusion of space. This region hosts a rich array of chemical processes and atmospheric phenomena, and serves to collect and distribute particles of all sizes in thin layers. Spatially resolved in situ characterization of these layers is very difficult, due to the elevated pressure of the MLT, limited access via high-speed sounding rockets, and the enormous variety of charged and neutral species that range in size from atoms to smoke and dust particles. In terrestrial applications, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) is the technique of choice for performing fast, sensitive composition measurements with extremely large mass range. However, because of its reliance on high voltages and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors prone to discharge at elevated pressures, TOF-MS has rarely been employed for measurements of the MLT, where ambient pressures approach 10 mTorr. We present a novel, compact mass spectrometer design appropriate for deployment aboard sounding rockets. This Hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HT-TOF-MS) applies a multiplexing technique through pseudorandom beam modulation and spectral deconvolution to achieve very high measurement duty cycles (50%), with a theoretically unlimited mass range. The HT-TOF-MS employs a simple, getter-based vacuum pumping system and pressure-tolerant MCP to allow operation in the MLT. The HT-TOF-MS must provide sufficient vacuum pumping to 1) maintain a minimum mean free path inside the instrument, to avoid spectral resolution loss, and 2) to avoid MCP failure through electrostatic discharge. The design incorporates inexpensive, room temperature tube getters loaded with nano-structured barium to meet these pumping speed requirements, without the use of cryogenics or mechanical pumping systems. We present experimental results for gettering rates and

  8. Coupling between chip based isotachophoresis and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for separation and measurement of lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, Laurent; Cretier, Gerard; Rocca, Jean-Louis; Chartier, Frederic; Geertsen, Valerie; Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Isnard, Helene; Morin, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the conception and fabrication of a micro-system for lanthanides separation and its coupling with a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for isotope ratio measurements. The lanthanides separation is based on the isotachophoresis technique and the micro-system conception has been adapted in order to fit with glove box limitations in view of future spent nuclear fuels analysis. The micro-device was tested by using a mixture of standard solutions of natural elements and the separation of 13 lanthanides was successfully performed. The micro-device was then coupled to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the on-line measurements of Nd and Sm isotope ratios. The isotopes of Nd and Sm were acquired online in multi-collection mode after separation of the two elements with an injection amount of 5 ng. Results obtained on the Nd and Sm isotope ratio measurements on transient signals are presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Applications for skimmer coupling systems, combining simultaneous thermal analysers with mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisersberger, E.; Post, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Skimmer coupling for combining the simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) method TG-DTA/DSC and mass spectrometry (MS) is further improved by a factor of three using an automatic vacuum control device. Especially high mass numbers are detected without the common condensation problems met in capillary couplings, as is shown by application of the skimmer coupling for coal, CuGaSe 2 -semiconductor material and polystyrene. The basic idea of the novel pulse thermal analysis technique (PTA) is demonstrated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. A new application of hierarchical cluster analysis to investigate organic peaks in bulk mass spectra obtained with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, A. M.; Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M. L.; Bertman, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  11. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolli, C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Bahreini, R.; de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Goldan, P. D.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Roberts, J. M.; Meagher, J. F.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Marchewka, M.; Bertman, S. B.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  12. Cluster Analysis of the Organic Peaks in Bulk Mass Spectra Obtained During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marcolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We applied hierarchical cluster analysis to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS bulk mass spectral dataset collected aboard the NOAA research vessel R. H. Brown during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study off the east coast of the United States. Emphasizing the organic peaks, the cluster analysis yielded a series of categories that are distinguishable with respect to their mass spectra and their occurrence as a function of time. The differences between the categories mainly arise from relative intensity changes rather than from the presence or absence of specific peaks. The most frequent category exhibits a strong signal at m/z 44 and represents oxidized organic matter probably originating from both anthropogenic as well as biogenic sources. On the basis of spectral and trace gas correlations, the second most common category with strong signals at m/z 29, 43, and 44 contains contributions from isoprene oxidation products. The third through the fifth most common categories have peak patterns characteristic of monoterpene oxidation products and were most frequently observed when air masses from monoterpene rich regions were sampled. Taken together, the second through the fifth most common categories represent on average 17% of the total organic mass that stems likely from biogenic sources during the ship's cruise. These numbers have to be viewed as lower limits since the most common category was attributed to anthropogenic sources for this calculation. The cluster analysis was also very effective in identifying a few contaminated mass spectra that were not removed during pre-processing. This study demonstrates that hierarchical clustering is a useful tool to analyze the complex patterns of the organic peaks in bulk aerosol mass spectra from a field study.

  13. Comparison of linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of Orbitrap and ion-mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Anton; Walker, Stephan

    2017-11-30

    The linear intrascan and interscan dynamic ranges of mass spectrometers are important in metabolome and residue analysis. A large linear dynamic range is mandatory if both low- and high-abundance ions have to be detected and quantitated in heavy matrix samples. These performance criteria, as provided by modern high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), were systematically investigated. The comparison included two generations of Orbitraps, and an ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system In addition, different scan modes, as provided by the utilized instruments, were investigated. Calibration curves of different compounds covering a concentration range of five orders of magnitude were measured to evaluate the linear interscan dynamic range. The linear intrascan dynamic range and the resulting mass accuracy were evaluated by repeating these measurements in the presence of a very intense background. Modern HRMS instruments can show linear dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude. Often, however, the linear dynamic range is limited by the detection capability (sensitivity and selectivity) and by the electrospray ionization. Orbitraps, as opposed to TOF instruments, show a reduced intrascan dynamic range. This is due to the limited C-trap and Orbitrap capacity. The tested TOF instrument shows poorer mass accuracies than the Orbitraps. In contrast, hyphenation with an ion-mobility device seems not to affect the linear dynamic range. The linear dynamic range of modern HRMS instrumentation has been significantly improved. This also refers to the virtual absence of systematic mass shifts at high ion abundances. The intrascan dynamic range of the current Orbitrap technology may still be a limitation when analyzing complex matrix extracts. On the other hand, the linear dynamic range is not only limited by the detector technology, but can also be shortened by peripheral devices, where the ionization and transfer of ions take place. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley

  14. Virtual Models of Mass Spectrometers as Teaching Tools for Graduate Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gomes da Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro – UFRJ – Campus Macaé- RJMass spectrometry is an analytical powerful technique for identifying unknowns, quantitating knows and discovering chemicals properties and molecular structures. The mass spectrometry concept is very simple: The sample becomes an ion through an ionization method. Ions are selected by mass to charge ratio (m/z based upon the motion in a magnetic field and each one is register under a spectrum. To access the basic of these techniques by using appropriate literature, videos, virtual models and simulations for this machinesbehavior is today´s exclusiveness for researchers through manufacturer handbooks. This reality becomes the science popularization and knowledge diffusion about proteomic analysis something plenty arduous for the portion or part of graduate students. The work objectives were making a multimediaschool-book showing biochemical techniques for proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry. The material was make with specific software for building 3D models and animation of different ionizations methods: Electron Ionization (EI, Electro spray Ionization (ESI, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization(APCI, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (MALD and mass analyzers: Time of Flight(TOF, Quadrupole and Ion Trap.

  15. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Development and analytical characterization of a Grimm-type glow discharge ion source operated with high gas flow rates and coupled to a mass spectrometer with high mass resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, Claus; Feldmann, Ingo; Gilmour, Dave; Hoffmann, Volker; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A Grimm-type glow discharge ion source has been developed and was coupled to a commercial inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) with high mass resolution (Axiom, ThermoElemental, Winsford, UK) by exchanging the front plate of the ICP-MS interface system only. In addition to high discharge powers of up to 70 W, which are typical for a Grimm-type design, this source could be operated with relative high gas flow rates of up to 240 ml min -1 . In combination with a high discharge voltage the signal intensities are reaching a constant level within the first 20 s after the discharge has started. An analytical characterization of this source is given utilizing a calibration using the steel standard reference material NIST 1261A-1265A. The sensitivity for the investigated elements measured with a resolution of 4000 is in the range of 500-6000 cps μg -1 g -1 , and a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the measured isotope relative to Fe of less than 8% for the major and minor components of the sample has been achieved. Limits of detection at ng g -1 levels could be obtained

  17. Thomson Parabola Spectrometer: a powerful tool for on-line plasma analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altana, C. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e Astronomia - Catania (Italy); Muoio, A. [LNS - INFN and Dip.di Fisica e di Scienze della Terra - Messina (Italy); Schillaci, F. [LNS - INFN, Cirrone G.A.P. LNS - INFN, Lanzalone G. LNS - INFN and Univ. Kore di Enna (Italy); Tudisco, S. [LNS - INFN (Italy); Brandi, F. [ILIL - INO-CNR and IIT Genova (Italy); Cristoforetti, G.; Koester, P.; Fulgentini, L. [ILIL - INO-CNR (Italy); Labate, L.; Gizzi, L.A. [ILIL - INO-CNR and INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we report on a new powerful and self-consistent analysis technique aimed in order to get information online on laser generated plasmas. Performance of the method has been carried out during two set of measurement by using two different lasers. The first set of data has been collected at LENS Laboratory of INFN-LNS in Catania by using a laser which produces pulses having energies of 2 J and temporal duration of 6 ns, while the second set of data has been collected at ILIL of INO-CNR in Pisa with a laser system capable of delivering pulses of up to 10 mJ in 40 fs. (authors)

  18. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to radionuclide determinations: Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Crain, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Even from its early conception, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was thought to be well-suited to the unique measurement problems facing the nuclear industry. These thoughts were well-founded; indeed, one might consider it unusual if a modern nuclear research center did not have access to one or more ICP mass spectrometers (quadrupole or otherwise). However, as ICP-MS has matured, improvements in sensitivity and precision have made possible measurements that were inconceivable to the founding fathers of the technology. Therefore, there is a periodic need to gather information and obtain a snapshot in time of the technology and its applications in nuclear energy. This second symposium was an international event in which speakers from the US, Europe, and the Middle East described new developments in ICP-MS relevant to the nuclear energy community. The papers presented at the 1998 symposium are published herein. Several papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Separation of uranium and plutonium isotopes for measurement by multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, R.E.; Hamilton, T.F.; Kehl, S.R.; Williams, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) isotopes in coral soils, contaminated by nuclear weapons testing in the northern Marshall Islands, were isolated by ion-exchange chromatography and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The soil samples were spiked with 233 U and 242 Pu tracers, dissolved in minerals acids, and U and Pu isotopes isolated and purified on commercially available ion-exchange columns. The ion-exchange technique employed a TEVA R column coupled to a UTEVA R column. U and Pu isotope fractions were then further isolated using separate elution schemes, and the purified fractions containing U and Pu isotopes analyzed sequentially using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MCICP-MS). High precision measurements of 234 U/ 235 U, 238 U/ 235 U, 236 U/ 235 U, and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu in soil samples were attained using the described methodology and instrumentation, and provide a basis for conducting more detailed assessments of the behavior and transfer of uranium and plutonium in the environment. (author)

  20. Ion optics of a new time-of-flight mass spectrometer for quantitative surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A new time-of-flight instrument for quantitative surface analysis was developed and constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. It implements ion sputtering and laser desorption for probing analyzed samples and can operate in regimes of secondary neutral mass spectrometry with laser post-ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The instrument incorporates two new ion optics developments: (1) 'push-pull' front end ion optics and (2) focusing and deflecting lens. Implementing these novel elements significantly enhance analytical capabilities of the instrument. Extensive three-dimensional computer simulations of the instrument were conducted in SIMION 3D (c) to perfect its ion optics. The operating principles of the new ion optical systems are described, and a scheme of the new instrument is outlined together with its operating modes