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Sample records for plasma generation induced

  1. Plasma generation induced by triboelectrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Michelsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    A gas discharge plasma can be induced by triboelectrification around a sliding contact. The detailed physical mechanism of triboelectrification is unknown, but an empirical classification scheme can be referred to in practice. It is reported that intense ultra-violet emission from a plasma...... is observed adjacent to the sliding contact, of which the location has a gap ranging from approximately 1 μm to 11 μm. When the gap is short enough, a theory predicts that the breakdown voltage can monotonically decrease with a decrease in the gap. However, when the gap is comparable to electron’s mean free...

  2. Cascade generation in Al laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagli, Lev; Gaft, Michael; Raichlin, Yosef; Gornushkin, Igor

    2018-05-01

    We found cascade IR generation in Al laser induced plasma. This generation includes doublet transitions 3s 25s 2S1/2 → 3s24p 2P1/2,3/2 → 3s24s 2S1/2; corresponding to strong lines at 2110 and 2117 nm, and much weaker lines at 1312-1315 nm. The 3s25s2S 1/2 starting IR generation level is directly pumped from the 3s23p 2P3/2 ground level. The starting level for UV generation at 396.2 nm (transitions 3s24s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2) is populated due to the fast collisional processes in the plasma plume. These differences led to different time and special dependences on the lasing in the IR and UV spectral range within the aluminum laser induced plasma.

  3. Nuclear Fusion Effects Induced in Intense Laser-Generated Plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Torrisi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deutered polyethylene (CD2n thin and thick targets were irradiated in high vacuum by infrared laser pulses at 1015W/cm2 intensity. The high laser energy transferred to the polymer generates plasma, expanding in vacuum at supersonic velocity, accelerating hydrogen and carbon ions. Deuterium ions at kinetic energies above 4 MeV have been measured by using ion collectors and SiC detectors in time-of-flight configuration. At these energies the deuterium–deuterium collisions may induce over threshold fusion effects, in agreement with the high D-D cross-section valuesaround 3 MeV energy. At the first instants of the plasma generation, during which high temperature, density and ionacceleration occur, the D-D fusions occur as confirmed by the detection of mono-energetic protonsand neutrons with a kinetic energy of 3.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV, respectively, produced by the nuclear reaction. The number of fusion events depends strongly on the experimental set-up, i.e. on the laser parameters (intensity, wavelength, focal spot dimension, target conditions (thickness, chemical composition, absorption coefficient, presence of secondary targets and used geometry (incidence angle, laser spot, secondary target positions.A number of D-D fusion events of the order of 106÷7 per laser shot has been measured.

  4. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Wright, E. M.; Moloney, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse.

  5. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)

  7. Study on THz wave generation from air plasma induced by quasi-square Airy beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijing; Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Guangtong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) wave has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of its potential applications. The intense THz waves generated from air plasma induced by two-color femtosecond laser are widely used due to its high generation efficiency and broad frequency bandwidth. The parameters of the laser change the distribution of the air plasma, and then affect the generation of THz wave. In this research, we investigate the THz wave generation from air plasma induced by quasi-square Airy beam. Unlike the common Gauss beam, the quasi-square Airy beam has ability to autofocus and to increase the maximum intensity at the focus. By using the spatial light modulator (SLM), we can change the parameters of phase map to control the shape of the Airy beam. We obtain the two-color laser field by a 100-um-thick BBO crystal, then use a Golay detector to record THz wave energy. By comparing terahertz generation at different modulation depths, we find that terahertz energy produced by quasi-square Airy beam is up to 3.1 times stronger than that of Gauss beam with identical laser energy. In order to understand the influence of quasi-square Airy beam on the BBO crystal, we record THz wave energy by changing the azimuthal angle of BBO crystal with Gauss beam and Airy beam at different modulation depths. We find that the trend of terahertz energy with respect to the azimuthal angle of the BBO crystal keeps the same for different laser beams. We believe that the quasi-square Airy beam or other auto focusing beam can significantly improve the efficiency of terahertz wave generation and pave the way for its applications.

  8. Role of plasma-induced defects in the generation of 1/f noise in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultrera, Alessandro; Callegaro, Luca; Marzano, Martina; Ortolano, Massimo; Amato, Giampiero

    2018-02-01

    It has already been reported that 1/f noise in graphene can be dominated by fluctuations of charge carrier mobility. We show here that the increasing damage induced by oxygen plasma on graphene samples result in two trends: at low doses, the magnitude of the 1/f noise increases with the dose; and at high doses, it decreases with the dose. This behaviour is interpreted in the framework of 1/f noise generated by carrier mobility fluctuations where the concentration of mobility fluctuation centers and the mean free path of the carriers are competing factors.

  9. Plasma generated in culture medium induces damages of HeLa cells due to flow phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yusuke; Sato, Takehiko; Yoshino, Daisuke

    2018-03-01

    Plasma in a liquid has been anticipated as an effective tool for medical applications, however, few reports have described cellular responses to plasma generated in a liquid similar to biological fluids. Herein we report the effects of plasma generated in a culture medium on HeLa cells. The plasma in the culture medium produced not only heat, shock waves, and reactive chemical species but also a jet flow with sub millimeter-sized bubbles. Cells exposed to the plasma exhibited detachment, morphological changes, and changes in the actin cytoskeletal structure. The experimental results suggest that wall shear stress over 160 Pa was generated on the surface of the cells by the plasma. It is one of the main factors that cause those cellular responses. We believe that our findings would provide valuable insight into advancements in medical applications of plasma in a liquid.

  10. Influences on the Emissions of Bacterial Plasmas Generated through Nanosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenfant, Dylan J.

    In the past decade, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been shown to provide compositional data that can be used for discrimination between bacterial specimens at the strain level. This work demonstrates the viability of this technique in a clinical setting. Studies were conducted to investigate the impact of emissions generated by a nitrocellulose filter paper background on the classification of four species: E. coli, S. epidermidis, M. smegmatis, and P. aeruginosa. Limits of detection were determined as 48+/-12 kCFU per ablation event for new mounting procedures using standard diagnostic laboratory techniques, and a device for centrifuge filtration was designed for sampling from low-titer bacterial suspensions. Plasma emissions from samples grown at biological levels of magnesium, zinc, and glucose were shown not to deviate from controls. A limit of detection for environmental zinc was found to be 11 ppm. Discrimination with heat-killed samples was demonstrated, providing a sterile diagnostic environment.

  11. Terahertz Pulse Generation in Underdense Relativistic Plasmas: From Photoionization-Induced Radiation to Coherent Transition Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déchard, J.; Debayle, A.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.; Bergé, L.

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz to far-infrared emission by two-color, ultrashort optical pulses interacting with underdense helium gases at ultrahigh intensities (>1019 W /cm2 ) is investigated by means of 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The terahertz field is shown to be produced by two mechanisms occurring sequentially, namely, photoionization-induced radiation (PIR) by the two-color pulse, and coherent transition radiation (CTR) by the wakefield-accelerated electrons escaping the plasma. We exhibit laser-plasma parameters for which CTR proves to be the dominant process, providing terahertz bursts with field strength as high as 100 GV /m and energy in excess of 10 mJ. Analytical models are developed for both the PIR and CTR processes, which correctly reproduce the simulation data.

  12. Cell death induced on cell cultures and nude mouse skin by non-thermal, nanosecond-pulsed generated plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duval

    Full Text Available Non-thermal plasmas are gaseous mixtures of molecules, radicals, and excited species with a small proportion of ions and energetic electrons. Non-thermal plasmas can be generated with any high electro-magnetic field. We studied here the pathological effects, and in particular cell death, induced by nanosecond-pulsed high voltage generated plasmas homogeneously applied on cell cultures and nude mouse skin. In vitro, Jurkat cells and HMEC exhibited apoptosis and necrosis, in dose-dependent manner. In vivo, on nude mouse skin, cell death occurred for doses above 113 J/cm(2 for the epidermis, 281 J/cm(2 for the dermis, and 394 J/cm(2 for the hypodermis. Using electron microscopy, we characterized apoptosis for low doses and necrosis for high doses. We demonstrated that these effects were not related to thermal, photonic or pH variations, and were due to the production of free radicals. The ability of cold plasmas to generate apoptosis on cells in suspension and, without any sensitizer, on precise skin areas, opens new fields of application in dermatology for extracorporeal blood cell treatment and the eradication of superficial skin lesions.

  13. Non-thermal plasma induces mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway via ROS generation in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yu, K N; Ma, Jie; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Cheng; Zhou, Fangjian; Cai, Zhiming; Han, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic method for anticancer treatment. Although increasing evidence suggests that NTP selectively induces apoptosis in some types of tumor cells, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we further investigated possible molecular mechanisms for NTP-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The results showed that NTP exposure significantly inhibited the growth and viability of HeLa cells. Morphological observation and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that NTP exposure induced HeLa cell apoptosis. NTP exposure also activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, which subsequently cleaved poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase. Furthermore, NTP exposure suppressed Bcl-2 expression, enhanced Bax expression and translocation to mitochondria, activated mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway, followed by the release of cytochrome c. Further studies showed that NTP treatment led to ROS generation, whereas blockade of ROS generation by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, ROS scavengers) significantly prevented NTP-induced mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptosis of HeLa cells via suppressing Bax translocation, cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our results indicated that NTP exposure induced mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis of HeLa cells was activated by ROS generation. These findings provide insights to the therapeutic potential and clinical research of NTP as a novel tool in cervical cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  15. Comment on ''Generation of Electromagnetic Pulses from Plasma Channels Induced by Femtosecond Light Strings''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, Gennady; Kaganovich, Igor; Startsev, Edward

    2002-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Cheng et al. calculated/predicted several new effects: that (a) fraction of the short laser pulse momentum can be imparted to plasma electrons via collisional damping of the laser, thereby exciting a long-lived (longer than an oscillation period) plasma wave, which (b) gives rise to a spatially uniform dipole moment of a plasma, which (c) emits far-field narrow-band radiation at the plasma frequency omega subscript ''p'' over the recombination time of the plasma. We claim that the calculation of the effect (a) is in error and the predicted effects (b,c) do not occur as described. In fact, predicted narrow-band emission at omega subscript ''p'' would not occur even if the momentum transfer and the dipole excitation were calculated correctly

  16. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolka, E.

    1993-07-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  17. Plasma wave and second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Sharma, J.K.; Tewari, D.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kaushik, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of a plasma wave at pump wave frequency and second harmonic generation caused by a self induced transverse inhomogeneity introduced by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a hot collisionless plasma. In the presence of a Gaussian beam the carriers get redistributed from the high field region to the low field region by ponderomative force and a transverse density gradient is established in the plasma. When the electric vector of the main beam is parallel to this density gradient, a plasma wave at the pump wave frequency is generated. In addition to this the transverse intensity gradient of the electromagnetic wave also contributes significantly to the plasma wave generation. The power of the plasma wave exhibits a maximum and minimum with the power of the pump wave (at z = 0). The generated plasma wave interacts with the electromagnetic wave and leads to the generation of a second harmonic. Furthermore, if the initial power of the pump wave is more than the critical power for self-focusing, the beam gets self-focused and hence the generated plasma wave and second harmonic which depend upon the background electron concentration and power of the main beam also get accordingly modified. (author)

  18. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  19. An ECR table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Palinkas, J.; Bin, S.

    2012-01-01

    A compact ECR plasma device was built in our lab using the 'spare parts' of the ATOMKI ECR ion source. We call it 'ECR Table Plasma Generator'. It consists of a relatively big plasma chamber (ID=10 cm, L=40 cm) in a thin NdFeB hexapole magnet with independent vacuum and gas dosing systems. For microwave coupling two low power TWTAs (Travelling Wave tube amplifier) can be applied individually or simultaneously, operating in the 6-18 GHz range. There is no axial magnetic trap and there is no extraction. The technical details of the plasma generator and preliminary plasma photo study results are shown. This paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  20. An amplitude modulated radio frequency plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Fan; Li, Xiaoping; Liu, Yanming; Liu, Donglin; Yang, Min; Xie, Kai; Yao, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A glow discharge plasma generator and diagnostic system has been developed to study the effects of rapidly variable plasmas on electromagnetic wave propagation, mimicking the plasma sheath conditions encountered in space vehicle reentry. The plasma chamber is 400 mm in diameter and 240 mm in length, with a 300-mm-diameter unobstructed clear aperture. Electron densities produced are in the mid 1010 electrons/cm3. An 800 W radio frequency (RF) generator is capacitively coupled through an RF matcher to an internally cooled stainless steel electrode to form the plasma. The RF power is amplitude modulated by a waveform generator that operates at different frequencies. The resulting plasma contains electron density modulations caused by the varying power levels. A 10 GHz microwave horn antenna pair situated on opposite sides of the chamber serves as the source and detector of probe radiation. The microwave power feed to the source horn is split and one portion is sent directly to a high-speed recording oscilloscope. On mixing this with the signal from the pickup horn antenna, the plasma-induced phase shift between the two signals gives the path-integrated electron density with its complete time dependent variation. Care is taken to avoid microwave reflections and extensive shielding is in place to minimize electronic pickup. Data clearly show the low frequency modulation of the electron density as well as higher harmonics and plasma fluctuations.

  1. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author)

  2. Hollow core plasma channel generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, Heinrich Martin

    2018-03-01

    The use of a hollow plasma channel in plasma-based acceleration has beneficial properties for the acceleration of electron and positron bunches. In the scope of the FLASHForward facility at DESY, the generation of such a plasma structure is examined. Therefore, the generation of a ring-shaped laser intensity profile with different techniques is analyzed. From the obtained intensity profiles the electron density of a hollow plasma channel is simulated in the focal region. Different parameters are scanned to understand their influence on the electron density distribution - an important parameter being, for example, the radius of the central region of the channel. In addition to the simulations, experiments are presented, during which a laser pulse is transformed into a hollow beam with a spiral phase plate. Subsequently, it forms a plasma during the interaction with hydrogen, where the plasma is imaged with interferometry. For energies above 0.9 mJ a hollow plasma structure can be observed at the location of first plasma formation.

  3. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  4. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation in plasmas: the influence of induced ion-acoustic and Langmuir waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzato, F.B.

    1992-01-01

    A nonlinear emission mechanism of electromagnetic waves at the fundamental plasma frequency has been examined. This mechanism is based on the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability driven by two oppositely propagating Langmuir waves. The excitation of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability is due to nonlinear wave-wave coupling involving Langmuir waves, low-frequency density waves and electromagnetic waves. The Chian and Alves model is improved using the generalized Zakharov equations. Attention is directed toward the influence of induced low-frequency and Langmuir waves on the properties of the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Presumably, the properties derived in the present context may be relevant to both space and laboratory plasmas. (author)

  5. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  6. Generation and Role of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Induced by Plasma, Lasers, Chemical Agents, and Other Systems in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Nayansi; Ryu, Jae Jun

    2017-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) has been found to occur during inflammatory procedures, during cell ischemia, and in various crucial developmental processes such as cell differentiation and along cell signaling pathways. The most common sources of intracellular RONS are the mitochondrial electron transport system, NADH oxidase, and cytochrome P450. In this review, we analyzed the extracellular and intracellular sources of reactive species, their cell signaling pathways, the mechanisms of action, and their positive and negative effects in the dental field. In dentistry, ROS can be found—in lasers, photosensitizers, bleaching agents, cold plasma, and even resin cements, all of which contribute to the generation and prevalence of ROS. Nonthermal plasma has been used as a source of ROS for biomedical applications and has the potential for use with dental stem cells as well. There are different types of dental stem cells, but their therapeutic use remains largely untapped, with the focus currently on only periodontal ligament stem cells. More research is necessary in this area, including studies about ROS mechanisms with dental cells, along with the utilization of reactive species in redox medicine. Such studies will help to provide successful treatment modalities for various diseases. PMID:29204250

  7. Wakefield generation in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holkundkar, Amol; Brodin, Gert; Marklund, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    We consider wakefield generation in plasmas by electromagnetic pulses propagating perpendicular to a strong magnetic field, in the regime where the electron cyclotron frequency is equal to or larger than the plasma frequency. Particle-in-cell simulations reveal that for moderate magnetic field strengths previous results are reproduced, and the wakefield wave number spectrum has a clear peak at the inverse skin depth. However, when the cyclotron frequency is significantly larger than the plasma frequency, the wakefield spectrum becomes broadband, and simultaneously the loss rate of the driving pulse is much enhanced. A set of equations for the scalar and vector potentials reproducing these results are derived, using only the assumption of a weakly nonlinear interaction.

  8. Efficient plasma and bubble generation underwater by an optimized laser excitation and its application for liquid analyses by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, Violeta; Jovicevic, Sonja; Fantoni, Roberta; Colao, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements were performed on bulk water solutions by applying a double-pulse excitation from a Q-Switched (QS) Nd:YAG laser emitting at 1064 nm. In order to optimize the LIBS signal, laser pulse energies were varied through changing of the QS trigger delays with respect to the flash-lamp trigger. We had noted that reduction of the first pulse energy from 92 mJ to 72 mJ drastically improves the signal, although the second pulse energy was also lowered from 214 mJ to 144 mJ. With lower pulse energies, limit of detection (LOD) for Mg in pure water was reduced for one order of magnitude (34 ppb instead of 210 ppb). In order to explain such a phenomenon, we studied the dynamics of the gas bubble generated after the first laser pulse through measurements of the HeNe laser light scattered on the bubble. The influence of laser energy on underwater bubble and plasma formation and corresponding plasma emission intensity were also studied by photographic technique. From the results obtained, we conclude that the optimal first pulse energy should be kept close to the plasma elongation threshold, in our case about 65 mJ, where the gas bubble has its maximum lateral expansion and the secondary plasma is still well-localized. The importance of a multi-pulse sequence on the LIBS signal was also analyzed, where the pulse sequence after the first QS aperture was produced by operating the laser close to the lasing threshold, with the consequent generation of relaxation oscillations. Low-energy multi-pulses might keep the bubble expansion large prior to the probing pulse, but preventing the formation of secondary weak plasmas in multiple sites, which reduces the LIBS signal. The short interval between the pre-pulses and the probing pulse is another reason for the observed LIBS signal enhancement

  9. Generators of nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautov, G.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Results are described of a study and of the characteristics of sources of a non-equilibrium gas-discharge plasma. The plasma generators considered include glow, high frequency, and arc discharge generators. Thermodynamic, ionic, and electronic processes occurring in the plasmas are evaluated

  10. Arc generators of low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, Cz.; Niewiedzial, R.; Siwiec, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is a review of works concerning investigation and use of low-temperature plasma in arc plasma generators made in Electric Power Institute of PP. There are discussed: analytical approach to a problem of volt-current and operational characteristics of DC arc plasma generators, determination of limits of their stable work and possibilities of their use to technological aims. (author)

  11. Determination of trace cadmium in rice by liquid spray dielectric barrier discharge induced plasma - chemical vapor generation coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhu, Zhenli; Bao, Zhengyu; Zheng, Hongtao; Hu, Shenghong

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium contamination in rice has become an increasing concern in many countries including China. A simple, cost-effective, and highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of trace cadmium in rice samples based on a new high-efficient liquid spray dielectric barrier discharge induced plasma (LSDBD) vapor generation coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The analytical procedure involves the efficient formation of Cd volatile species by LSDBD plasma induced chemical processes without the use of any reducing reagents (Na/KBH4 in conventional hydride generation). The effects of the addition of organic substances, different discharge parameters such as discharge voltage and discharge gap, as well as the foreign ion interferences were investigated. Under optimized conditions, a detection limit of 0.01 μg L- 1 and a precision of 0.8% (RSD, n = 5, 1 μg L- 1 Cd) was readily achieved. The calibration curve was linear in the range between 0.1 and 10 μg L- 1, with a correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.9995. Compared with the conventional acid-BH4- vapor generation, the proposed method not only eliminates the use of unstable and expensive reagents, but also offers high tolerance for coexisting ions, which is well suited to the direct analysis of environmental samples. The validation of the proposed method was demonstrated by the analysis of Cd in reference material of rice (GBW080684). It was also successfully applied to the determination of trace cadmium in locally collected 11 rice samples, and the obtained Cd concentrations are ranged from 7.2 to 517.7 μg kg- 1.

  12. Generation of plasma rotation by ICRH in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.; Greenwald, M.; Grassie, J.S. de

    2001-01-01

    A physical mechanism to generate plasma rotation by ICRH is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a non-ambipolar minor-radial flow of resonant ions. This induces a return current j p r in the plasma, which then drives plasma rotation through the j p r xB force. It is estimated that the fast-wave power in the present-day tokamak experiments can be strong enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. (author)

  13. Water-stabilized plasma generators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 6 (1998), s. 1157-1162 ISSN 0033-4545 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0592; GA ČR GV106/96/K245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma torch, water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.677, year: 1998

  14. Optical plasma torch electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wittig

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel, flexible method of witness electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators is described. A quasistationary plasma region is ignited by a focused laser pulse prior to the arrival of the plasma wave. This localized, shapeable optical plasma torch causes a strong distortion of the plasma blowout during passage of the electron driver bunch, leading to collective alteration of plasma electron trajectories and to controlled injection. This optically steered injection is more flexible and faster when compared to hydrodynamically controlled gas density transition injection methods.

  15. Multielemental Determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in Agricultural Samples Using Hydride Generation Coupled to Microwave-Induced Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Raquel C; Amaral, Clarice D B; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Araujo Nogueira, Ana Rita

    2017-06-14

    A microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometer with N 2 -based plasma was combined with a multimode sample introduction system (MSIS) for hydride generation (HG) and multielemental determination of As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn in samples of forage, bovine liver, powdered milk, agricultural gypsum, rice, and mineral fertilizer, using a single condition of prereduction and reduction. The accuracy of the developed analytical method was evaluated using certified reference materials of water and mineral fertilizer, and recoveries ranged from 95 to 106%. Addition and recovery experiments were carried out, and the recoveries varied from 85 to 117% for all samples evaluated. The limits of detection for As, Bi, Ge, Sb, and Sn were 0.46, 0.09, 0.19, 0.46, and 5.2 μg/L, respectively, for liquid samples, and 0.18, 0.04, 0.08, 0.19, and 2.1 mg/kg, respectively, for solid samples. The method proposed offers a simple, fast, multielemental, and robust alternative for successful determination of all five analytes in agricultural samples with low operational cost without compromising analytical performance.

  16. Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovko Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.

  17. Beam-generated plasmas for processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meger, R. A.; Blackwell, D. D.; Fernsler, R. F.; Lampe, M.; Leonhardt, D.; Manheimer, W. M.; Murphy, D. P.; Walton, S. G.

    2001-05-01

    The use of moderate energy electron beams (e-beams) to generate plasma can provide greater control and larger area than existing techniques for processing applications. Kilovolt energy electrons have the ability to efficiently ionize low pressure neutral gas nearly independent of composition. This results in a low-temperature, high-density plasma of nearly controllable composition generated in the beam channel. By confining the electron beam magnetically the plasma generation region can be designated independent of surrounding structures. Particle fluxes to surfaces can then be controlled by the beam and gas parameters, system geometry, and the externally applied rf bias. The Large Area Plasma Processing System (LAPPS) utilizes a 1-5 kV, 2-10 mA/cm2 sheet beam of electrons to generate a 1011-1012cm-3 density, 1 eV electron temperature plasma. Plasma sheets of up to 60×60 cm2 area have been generated in a variety of molecular and atomic gases using both pulsed and cw e-beam sources. The theoretical basis for the plasma production and decay is presented along with experiments measuring the plasma density, temperature, and potential. Particle fluxes to nearby surfaces are measured along with the effects of radio frequency biasing. The LAPPS source is found to generate large-area plasmas suitable for materials processing.

  18. Streaming metal plasma generation by vacuum arc plasma guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGill, R.A.; Dickinson, M.R.; Anders, A.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed several different embodiments of repetitively pulsed vacuum arc metal plasma gun, including miniature versions, multicathode versions that can produce up to 18 different metal plasma species between which one can switch, and a compact high-duty cycle well-cooled version, as well as a larger dc gun. Plasma guns of this kind can be incorporated into a vacuum arc ion source for the production of high-energy metal ion beams, or used as a plasma source for thin film formation and for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. The source can also be viewed as a low-energy metal ion source with ion drift velocity in the range 20 - 200 eV depending on the metal species used. Here we describe the plasma sources that we have developed, the properties of the plasma generated, and summarize their performance and limitations. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Generation of ultra-high-pressure shocks by collision of a fast plasma projectile driven in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme with a solid target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Badziak, J.; Rosinski, M.; Krouský, Eduard; Kucharik, M.; Liska, R.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 3 (2015), s. 1-11, č. článku 032709. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089; GA MŠk LM2010014 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 284464 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * ultra-high-pressure shocks * laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.207, year: 2015

  20. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4b inhibits nitric oxide generation through calcium-induced dynamic interaction with neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wenjuan; Zhou, Juefei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Teng; Chen, Qianqian; Yang, Fuyu; Wei, Taotao

    2013-04-01

    The activation and deactivation of Ca(2+)- and calmodulindependent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the central nervous system must be tightly controlled to prevent excessive nitric oxide (NO) generation. Considering plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) is a key deactivator of nNOS, the present investigation aims to determine the key events involved in nNOS deactivation of by PMCA in living cells to maintain its cellular context. Using time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we determined the occurrence of Ca(2+)-induced protein-protein interactions between plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4b (PMCA4b) and nNOS in living cells. PMCA activation significantly decreased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i), which deactivates nNOS and slowdowns NO synthesis. Under the basal [Ca(2+)]i caused by PMCA activation, no protein-protein interactions were observed between PMCA4b and nNOS. Furthermore, both the PDZ domain of nNOS and the PDZ-binding motif of PMCA4b were essential for the protein-protein interaction. The involvement of lipid raft microdomains on the activity of PMCA4b and nNOS was also investigated. Unlike other PMCA isoforms, PMCA4 was relatively more concentrated in the raft fractions. Disruption of lipid rafts altered the intracellular localization of PMCA4b and affected the interaction between PMCA4b and nNOS, which suggest that the unique lipid raft distribution of PMCA4 may be responsible for its regulation of nNOS activity. In summary, lipid rafts may act as platforms for the PMCA4b regulation of nNOS activity and the transient tethering of nNOS to PMCA4b is responsible for rapid nNOS deactivation.

  1. A plasma needle generates nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffels, E; Gonzalvo, Y Aranda; Whitmore, T D; Seymour, D L; Rees, J A

    2006-01-01

    Generation of nitric oxide (NO) by a plasma needle is studied by means of mass spectrometry. The plasma needle is an atmospheric glow generated by a radio-frequency excitation in a mixture of helium and air. This source is used for the treatment of living tissues, and nitric oxide may be one of the most important active agents in plasma therapy. Efficient NO generation is of particular importance in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Mass spectrometric measurements have been performed under various plasma conditions; gas composition in the plasma and conversion of feed gases (nitrogen and oxygen) into other species has been studied. Up to 30% of the N 2 and O 2 input is consumed in the discharge, and NO has been identified as the main conversion product

  2. Calibrated kallikrein generation in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft, D; Sidelmann, J J; Olsen, L F

    2016-01-01

    generation method as a template. RESULTS: A suitable kallikrein specific fluorogenic substrate was identified (KM=0.91mM, kcat=19s(-1)), and kallikrein generation could be measured in undiluted plasma when silica was added as activator. Disturbing effects, including substrate depletion and the inner......-filter effect, however, affected the signal. These problems were corrected for by external calibration with α2-macroglobulin-kallikrein complexes. Selectivity studies of the substrate, experiments with FXII and PK depleted plasmas, and plasma with high or low complement C1-esterase inhibitor activity indicated...

  3. Investigation and applications of a plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frere, Isabelle

    1992-01-01

    This work describes the experimental study of a plasma generator: a cylindrical or parallelepipedic rectangle cathode. A permanent magnet creates an axial magnetic field of a few hundred Gauss. A cold and abnormal glow discharge plasma is obtained. The experimental research on the correlation between the discharge parameters (electrode geometry, gas pressure, discharge voltage and current, magnetic field) of the discharge is presented. Another part of the text mentions some generator applications to surface treatment: evaporation, sputtering, surface modification of polymers by exposure to plasma. (author) [fr

  4. Atmospheric plasma generation for LCD panel cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyu-Sik; Won, Chung-Yuen; Choi, Ju-Yeop; Yim, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    UV lamp systems have been used for cleaning of display panels of TFT LCD or Plasma Display Panel (PDP). However, the needs for high efficient cleaning and low cost made high voltage plasma cleaning techniques to be developed and to be improved. Dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs), also referred to as barrier discharges or silent discharges have for a long time been exclusively related to ozone generation. In this paper, a 6kW high voltage plasma power supply system was developed for LCD cleaning. The -phase input voltage is rectified and then inverter system is used to make a high frequency pulse train, which is rectified after passing through a high-power transformer. Finally, bi-directional high voltage pulse switching circuits are used to generate the high voltage plasma. Some experimental results showed the usefulness of atmospheric plasma for LCD panel cleaning.

  5. Characterization of a microwave generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, D.J.; Mahoney, L.; Asmussen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated a microwave ion beam source without and with static magnetic fields in inert gases and in oxygen gases. This plasma generation configuration also has uses in the areas of plasma processing such as plasma etching, plasma assisted thin flim deposition and plasma assisted oxide growth. These ion beam and plasma processing applications have provided motivation to investigate microwave discharge properties, such as electron density, electron temperature, gas temperature, degree of ionization, etc., of the microwave generated plasma over a wide range of experimental operating conditions. This paper presents the results of experimental measurements which attempt to characterize the experimental microwave discharge in the absence of a static magnetic field. Measurements from a double probe, which is located in the plasma in a zero microwave field region, are presented in argon, xenon and oxygen gases. Variations of plasma density and electron temperature versus absorbed microwave power, gas pressure (0.2 m Torr to 200 m Torr) and discharge diffusion length are presented and compared to dc positive column discharge theory

  6. A high-voltage pulse generator for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Gompel, van F.M.; Leuken, van H.E.M.; Matyas, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a high-voltage pulse generator for producing corona plasma. The generator consists of three resonant charging circuits, a transmission line transformer, and a triggered spark-gap switch. Voltage pulses in the order of 30-100 kV with a rise time of 10-20 ns, a pulse duration of

  7. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Z, S.

    1996-01-01

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  8. Spectroscopic characterization of low power argon microwave-induced plasma with gaseous species produced from ethanol-water solutions in continuous hydride generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlodarczyk, Magdalena; Zyrnicki, Wieslaw E-mail: zyrnicki@ichn.ch.pwr.wroc.pl

    2003-03-31

    Low power microwave-induced argon plasma generated by resonant TE{sub 101} rectangular cavity was investigated upon introduction of volatile species formed in the reaction with sodium tetraborohydrate(III) in hydrochloric acid-ethanol solution. The molecular emission bands of OH and CH were used for rotational temperature (T{sub rot}) determination, while the atomic emission lines of Ar, H and Sb were applied for excitation temperature (T{sub exc}) measurement. Assuming a Boltzmann distribution, the temperatures were calculated with the aid of the least squares method. Electron number density (n{sub e}) derived from Stark broadening of the H{sub {beta}} line was found to be between 2.5x10{sup 15} and 0.57x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. The detection limits (DL) were determined for Hg and Sb. The influence of ethanol concentration in analyte solution and microwave power on measured parameters, was investigated. The results showed that T{sub rot}(OH) increased from 2970 to 3820 K while T{sub rot}(CH) decreased from 6100 to 4540 K with ethanol concentration in the solution, ranging from 10 to 90%. Under the same experimental conditions the excitation temperature for Ar, H and Sb varied in the following ranges: 5670-4800, 6190-3950 and 10500-7390 K, respectively. It was observed that element DL were significantly influenced by the presence of ethanol in the sample solution. The DL values for Hg and Sb were, as follows: 0.5-11 and 5.3-35 {mu}g l{sup -1}, respectively.

  9. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  10. Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S.

    2007-01-01

    A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds

  11. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van G.J.; Veremiyenko, V.P.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Versloot, T.W.; Whyte, D.G.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5×1020 m-3 electron density, ~2 eV electron and ion

  12. Plasma driven neutron/gamma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Antolak, Arlyn

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for the generation of neutron/gamma rays is described including a chamber which defines an ion source, said apparatus including an RF antenna positioned outside of or within the chamber. Positioned within the chamber is a target material. One or more sets of confining magnets are also provided to create a cross B magnetic field directly above the target. To generate neutrons/gamma rays, the appropriate source gas is first introduced into the chamber, the RF antenna energized and a plasma formed. A series of high voltage pulses are then applied to the target. A plasma sheath, which serves as an accelerating gap, is formed upon application of the high voltage pulse to the target. Depending upon the selected combination of source gas and target material, either neutrons or gamma rays are generated, which may be used for cargo inspection, and the like.

  13. Generation of toroidal pre-heat plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics of toroidal plasma in the initial stage of electric discharge were investigated. A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the present work. A magnetic probe was used to measure the magnetic field. The time of beginning of discharge was determined by observing the variation of the magnetic field. The initial gas pressure dependence of the induced electric field regions, in which electric discharge can be caused, was studied. It is necessary to increase the initial induced electric field for starting discharge. The delay time of large current discharge was measured, and it was about 2 microsecond. Dependences of the electric fields at the beginning of discharge on the charging voltage of capacitors, on the initial gas pressure, and on the discharge frequency were studied. The formation mechanism of plasma column was analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  14. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.

    2008-09-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  15. On helicon wave induced radial plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-04-01

    Estimates of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented. The wave induced transport grows or decreases in dependence on the sign of the azimuthal wave number; these changes in transport may play an important role in helicon wave plasma sources. (author) 5 figs., 18 refs

  16. Numerical studies of third-harmonic generation in laser filament in air perturbed by plasma spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liubin; Lu Xin; Liu Xiaolong; Li Yutong; Chen Liming; Ma Jinglong; Dong Quanli; Wang Weimin; Xi Tingting; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; He Duanwei

    2012-01-01

    Third-harmonic emission from laser filament intercepted by plasma spot is studied by numerical simulations. Significant enhancement of the third-harmonic generation is obtained due to the disturbance of the additional plasma. The contribution of the pure plasma effect and the possible plasma-enhanced third-order susceptibility on the third-harmonic generation enhancement are compared. It is shown that the plasma induced cancellation of destructive interference [Y. Liu et al., Opt. Commun. 284, 4706 (2011)] of two-colored filament is the dominant mechanism of the enhancement of third-harmonic generation.

  17. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap seimconductors (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas

  18. Beat-wave generation of plasmons in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    It is shown that in semiconductor plasmas, it is possible to generate large amplitude plasma waves by the beating of two laser beams with frequency difference close to the plasma frequency. For narrow gap semiconductor (for example n-type InSb), the system can simulate the physics underlying beat wave generation in relativistic gaseous plasmas. (author). 7 refs

  19. Velocity shear generated Alfven waves in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogava, A.D.; Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Linear MHD modes in cold, nonrelativistic electron-positron plasma shear flow are considered. The general set of differential equations, describing the evolution of perturbations in the framework of the nonmodal approach is derived. It is found, that under certain circumstances, the compressional and shear Alfven perturbations may exhibit large transient growth fuelled by the mean kinetic energy of the shear flow. The velocity shear also induces mode coupling allowing the exchange of energy as well as the possibility of a strong mutual transformation of these modes into each other. The compressional Alfven mode may extract the energy of the mean flow and transfer it to the shear Alfven mode via this coupling. The relevance of these new physical effects to provide a better understanding of the laboratory e + e - plasma is emphasized. It is speculated that the shear-induced effects in the electron-positron plasmas could also help solve some astrophysical puzzles (e.g., the generation of pulsar radio emission). Since most astrophysical plasma are relativistic, it is shown that the major results of the study remain valid for weakly sheared relativistic plasmas. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs

  20. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.

    2010-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  1. On the electric and magnetic field generation in expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, H.J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the generation of electric and magnetic fields in expanding plasmas. The theoretical model used to calculate the different field quantities in such plasmas is discussed in part 1 and is in fact an analysis of Ohm's law. A general method is given that decomposes each of the forces terms in Ohm's law in a component that induces a charge separation in the plasma and in a component that can drive current. This decomposition is unambiguous and depends upon the boundary conditions for the electric potential. It is shown that in calculating the electromagnetic field quantities in a plasma that is located in the vicinity of a boundary that imposes constraints on the electric potential, Ohm's law should be analyzed instead of the so-called induction equation. Three applications of the model are presented. A description is given of the unipolar arc discharge where both plasma and sheath effects have been taken into account. Secondly a description is presented of the plasma effects of a cathode spot. The third application of the model deals with the generation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas. The second part of this thesis describes the experiments on a magnetized argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. With the use of spectroscopic techniques the electron density, ion temperature and the rotation velocity profiles of the ion gas have been determined. The magnetic field generated by the plasma has been measured with the use of the Zeeman effect. Depending on the channel diameter of the nozzle of the cascaded arc, self-generated magnetic fields with axial components of the order of 1% of the externally applied mangetic field have been observed. From the measured ion rotation it has been concluded that this magnetic field is mainly generated by azimuthal electron currents. The corresponding azimuthal current density is of the order of 15% of the axial current density. The observed ion rotation is caused by electron-ion friction. (author

  2. Modeling thrombin generation: plasma composition based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E; Everse, Stephen J; Mann, Kenneth G; Orfeo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Thrombin has multiple functions in blood coagulation and its regulation is central to maintaining the balance between hemorrhage and thrombosis. Empirical and computational methods that capture thrombin generation can provide advancements to current clinical screening of the hemostatic balance at the level of the individual. In any individual, procoagulant and anticoagulant factor levels together act to generate a unique coagulation phenotype (net balance) that is reflective of the sum of its developmental, environmental, genetic, nutritional and pharmacological influences. Defining such thrombin phenotypes may provide a means to track disease progression pre-crisis. In this review we briefly describe thrombin function, methods for assessing thrombin dynamics as a phenotypic marker, computationally derived thrombin phenotypes versus determined clinical phenotypes, the boundaries of normal range thrombin generation using plasma composition based approaches and the feasibility of these approaches for predicting risk.

  3. D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaltin, J.

    1990-06-01

    The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)

  4. ICRF induced edge plasma convection in ASDEX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Feng, Yuehe; Lunt, Tilmann; Jacquot, Jonathan; Coster, David; Bilato, Roberto; Bobkov, Volodymyr; Ochoukov, Roman [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching/Greifswald (Germany); University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium); Colas, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-07-01

    Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating is one of the main auxiliary plasma heating methods in tokamaks. It relies on the fast wave to heat the plasma. However the slow wave can also be generated parasitically. The parallel electric field of the slow wave can induce large biased plasma potential through sheath rectification. The rapid variation of this rectified potential across the magnetic field can cause significant E x B convection in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL). The ICRF induced convection can affect the SOL density, influence the ICRF power coupling and enhance the strength of plasma-wall interactions. To explore these physics, we not only show the experimental evidences in ASDEX Upgrade, but also present the associated simulation results with the 3D edge plasma fluid code EMC3-Eirene. Further simulations via combination of EMC3-Eirene and a sheath code SSWICH in an iterative and quasi self-consistent way can give good predictions for future experiments.

  5. Beryllium dust generation resulting from plasma bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Mays, C.

    1997-01-01

    The beryllium dust resulting from erosion of beryllium samples subjected to plasma bombardment has been measured in PISCES-B. Loose surface dust was found to be uniformly distributed throughout the device and accounts for 3% of the eroded material. A size distribution measurement of the loose surface dust shows an increasing number of particles with decreasing diameter. Beryllium coatings on surfaces with a line of sight view of the target interaction region account for an additional 33% of the eroded beryllium material. Flaking of these surface layers is observed and is thought to play a significant role in dust generation inside the vacuum vessel. (orig.)

  6. Feasibility of generating a useful laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plasma on rocks at high pressure: preliminary study for a Venus mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arp, Zane A.; Cremers, David A.; Harris, Ronny D.; Oschwald, David M.; Parker, Gary R.; Wayne, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is being developed for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. The method also has potential for use on probes to other planets, the Moon, asteroids and comets. Like Mars, Venus is of strong interest because of its proximity to earth, but unlike Mars, conditions at the surface are far more hostile with temperatures in excess of 700 K and pressures on the order of 9.1 MPa (90 atm). These conditions present a significant challenge to spacecraft design and demand that rapid methods of chemical data gathering be implemented. The advantages of LIBS (e.g. stand-off and very rapid analysis) make the method particularly attractive for Venus exploration because of the expected short operational lifetimes (∼2 h) of surface instrumentation. Although the high temperature of Venus should pose no problem to the analytical capabilities of the LIBS spark, the demonstrated strong dependence of laser plasma characteristics on ambient gas pressures below earth atmospheric pressure requires that LIBS measurements be evaluated at the high Venus surface pressures. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of LIBS at 9.1 MPa for application to the analysis of a basalt rock sample. The results suggest the feasibility of the method for a Venus surface probe and that further study is justified

  7. Feasibility of generating a useful laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy plasma on rocks at high pressure: preliminary study for a Venus mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arp, Zane A.; Cremers, David A. E-mail: cremers_david@lanl.gov; Harris, Ronny D.; Oschwald, David M.; Parker, Gary R.; Wayne, David M

    2004-07-30

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is being developed for future use on landers and rovers to Mars. The method also has potential for use on probes to other planets, the Moon, asteroids and comets. Like Mars, Venus is of strong interest because of its proximity to earth, but unlike Mars, conditions at the surface are far more hostile with temperatures in excess of 700 K and pressures on the order of 9.1 MPa (90 atm). These conditions present a significant challenge to spacecraft design and demand that rapid methods of chemical data gathering be implemented. The advantages of LIBS (e.g. stand-off and very rapid analysis) make the method particularly attractive for Venus exploration because of the expected short operational lifetimes ({approx}2 h) of surface instrumentation. Although the high temperature of Venus should pose no problem to the analytical capabilities of the LIBS spark, the demonstrated strong dependence of laser plasma characteristics on ambient gas pressures below earth atmospheric pressure requires that LIBS measurements be evaluated at the high Venus surface pressures. Here, we present a preliminary investigation of LIBS at 9.1 MPa for application to the analysis of a basalt rock sample. The results suggest the feasibility of the method for a Venus surface probe and that further study is justified.

  8. Novel methods of ozone generation by micro-plasma concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fateev, A.; Chiper, A.; Chen, W.; Stamate, E.

    2008-02-15

    The project objective was to study the possibilities for new and cheaper methods of generating ozone by means of different types of micro-plasma generators: DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge), MHCD (Micro-Hollow Cathode Discharge) and CPED (Capillary Plasma Electrode Discharge). This project supplements another current project where plasma-based DeNOx is being studied and optimised. The results show potentials for reducing ozone generation costs by means of micro-plasmas but that further development is needed. (ln)

  9. Power consumption analysis DBD plasma ozone generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M.; Restiwijaya, M.; Muchlisin, Z.; Arianto, F.; Susan, I. A.; Widyanto, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the consumption of energy by an ozone generator with various constructions electrodes of dielectric barrier discharge plasma (DBDP) reactor has been carried out. This research was done to get the configuration of the reactor, that is capable to produce high ozone concentrations with low energy consumption. BDBP reactors were constructed by spiral- cylindrical configuration, plasma ozone was generated by high voltage AC voltage up to 25 kV and maximum frequency of 23 kHz. The reactor consists of an active electrode in the form of a spiral-shaped with variation diameter Dc, and it was made by using copper wire with diameter Dw. In this research, we variated number of loops coil windings N as well as Dc and Dw. Ozone concentrations greater when the wire's diameter Dw and the diameter of the coil windings applied was greater. We found that impedance greater will minimize the concentration of ozone, in contrary to the greater capacitance will increase the concentration of ozone. The ozone concentrations increase with augmenting of power. Maximum power is effective at DBD reactor spiral-cylinder is on the Dc = 20 mm, Dw = 1.2 mm, and the number of coil windings N = 10 loops with the resulting concentration is greater than 20 ppm and it consumes energy of 177.60 watts (paper)

  10. Study of a continuous plasma generated by electron bombardment and its mixing with a laser induced plasma. Influence of collisions on resonance cone phenomenon; Contribution a l`etude d`un plasma cree de facon continue par bombardement electronique et de son melange avec un photo-plasma pulse. Influence des collisions sur les cones de resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besuelle, E.

    1997-02-25

    This thesis deals with three different fields of plasma physics. In the first part, we studied free expansion of an ionised uranium vapour generated in an electron beam evaporator. The electron temperature and the electron density of the expanding plasma have been measured by a Langmuir probe. The experimental results have been compared with the ones obtained by numerical simulation using a fluid code. The calculated points are in the error bars. We observe that there are two electron populations with different temperatures, which undergo a mixing during the plasma expansion. The neutral density influence on the electron temperature by collisional relaxation is also studied. The second part deals with a plasma diagnostic which can replace Langmuir probe in the case of a cold magnetized plasma: the resonance cone phenomenon. After recalling the wave propagation theory in a cold plasma, we introduce a new calculation of the potential radiated by an antenna in a collisional magnetized plasma. The domain where the resonance cone exists in considerably reduced because of collisions. More of that, the cone angle is reduced by this phenomenon too. The experiments performed show that we must take into account a wave turbulence phenomenon to explain the High collision frequency that we observe. The third part is about the study of the expansion of a plasma into another one. We solve this problem with fluid codes and Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. THe electron families have a counter stream motion locally. Then, we study the electrostatic extraction of two plasmas-one pulsed, one continuous-in which we observe electron unfurling. (author).

  11. Proton emission from laser-generated plasmas at different intensities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 237-240 ISSN 0029-5922. [International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas (PLASMA). Warsaw, 12.09.2011-16.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-generated plasma * hydrogenated targets * proton acceleration Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2012

  12. Laser-induced gas plasma machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhadj, Selim; Bass, Isaac Louis; Guss, Gabriel Mark; Matthews, Manyalibo J.

    2017-10-17

    Techniques for removing material from a substrate are provided. A laser beam is focused at a distance from the surface to be treated. A gas is provided at the focus point. The gas is dissociated using the laser energy to generate gas plasma. The substrate is then brought in contact with the gas plasma to enable material removal.

  13. Runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by killer pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, K; Feher, T; Smith, H; Fueloep, T; Helander, P

    2008-01-01

    Tokamak discharges are sometimes terminated by disruptions that may cause large mechanical and thermal loads on the vessel. To mitigate disruption-induced problems it has been proposed that 'killer' pellets could be injected into the plasma in order to safely terminate the discharge. Killer pellets enhance radiative energy loss and thereby lead to rapid cooling and shutdown of the discharge. But pellets may also cause runaway electron generation, as has been observed in experiments in several tokamaks. In this work, runaway dynamics in connection with deuterium or carbon pellet-induced fast plasma shutdown is considered. A pellet code, which calculates the material deposition and initial cooling caused by the pellet is coupled to a runaway code, which determines the subsequent temperature evolution and runaway generation. In this way, a tool has been created to test the suitability of different pellet injection scenarios for disruption mitigation. If runaway generation is avoided, the resulting current quench times are too long to safely avoid large forces on the vessel due to halo currents

  14. Nonlinear generation of the fundamental radiation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.L.; Rizzato, F.B.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by intense Langmuir waves in the vicinity of the fundamental plasma frequency f p is of current interest in space and laboratory plasmas. In a pioneer work, Lashmore-Davies demonstrated that an efficient process for converting intense Langmuir waves into f p electromagnetic radiation can be achieved by two counterstreaming Langmuir pump waves through an electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability. Recently Chian and Alves, Akimoto and Rizzato and Chian extended the formalism of Lashmore-Davies in order to include mixed processes with induced modes which are purely electrostatic or electromagnetic. In this paper we extend our previous analysis, in order to study the nonlinear interaction involving travelling electromagnetic pumps, low-frequency density fluctuations and high-frequency f p modes which can be electrostatic-electromagnetic hybrids. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  16. Recent trends in atomic spectrometry with microwave-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekaert, Jose A.C.; Siemens, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The state-of-the-art and trends of development in atomic spectrometry with microwave-induced plasmas (MIPs) since the 1998s are presented and discussed. This includes developments in devices for producing microwave plasma discharges, with reference also to miniaturized systems as well as to progress in sample introduction for microwave-induced plasmas, such as pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulization using membrane desolvation, to the further development of gaseous analyte species generation systems and to both spark and laser ablation (LA). The features of microwave-induced plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) as an alternative to inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-MS are discussed. Recent work on the use of microwave-induced plasma atomic spectrometry for trace element determinations and monitoring, their use as tandem sources and for particle sizing are discussed. Recent applications of the coupling of gas chromatography and MIP atomic spectrometry for the determination of organometallic compounds of heavy metals such as Pb, Hg, Se and Sn are reviewed and the possibilities of trapping for sensitivity enhancement, as required for many applications especially in environmental work, are showed at the hand of citations from the recent literature

  17. Plasma flow driven by fusion-generated alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1978-05-01

    The confinement of fusion-generated alpha particles will affect the transports of the background plasma particles by the momentum transfer from the energetic alphas. The ions tend to migrate towards the center of plasma (i.e. fuel injection) and electrons towards the plasma periphery. This means the existence of a mechanism which enable to pump out the ashes in the fuel plasma because of the momentum conservation of whole plasma particles. (author)

  18. Thermal Plasma Generators with Water Stabilized Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2009), s. 99-104 ISSN 1876-5343 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal plasma * plasma torch * Gerdien arc Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.bentham.org/open/toppj/openaccess2.htm

  19. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  20. The use of cold plasma generators in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomiiets R.O.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasma treatment of wounds is a modern area of therapeutic medicine. We describe the physical mechanisms of cold plasma, the principles of therapeutic effects and design of two common types of cold plasma generators for medical use. This work aims at disclosing the basic principles of construction of cold atmospheric plasma generators in medicine and prospects for their further improvement. The purpose of this work is to improve the existing cold atmospheric plasma generators for use in medical applications. Novelty of this work consists in the application of new principles of construction of cold atmospheric plasmas medical apparatus, namely the combination of the gas discharge chamber, electrodes complex shape forming device and plasma flow in a single package. This helps to achieve a significant reduction in the size of the device, and a discharge chamber design change increases the therapeutic effect. The design of cold atmospheric plasma generator type «pin-to-hole», which is able to control parameters using the plasma current (modulation fluctuations in the primary winding and mechanically (using optional rotary electrode. It is also possible to combine some similar generators in the set, which will increase the surface area of the plasma treatment. We consider the basic principles of generating low atmospheric plasma flow, especially the formation of the plasma jet, changing its shape and modulation stream. The features of cold plasma generator design and information about prospects for further application, and opportunities for further improvement are revealed. The recommendations for further use of cold atmospheric plasma generators in medicine are formulated.

  1. RMP-Flutter-Induced Pedestal Plasma Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C., E-mail: callen@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Cole, A. J. [Columbia University, New York (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Plasma toroidal rotation can prevent or limit reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields {delta}B on rational magnetic flux surfaces. Hence, it causes the induced radial perturbations to vanish or be small there, and thereby inhibits magnetic island formation and stochasticity in the edge of high (H-mode) confinement tokamak plasmas. However, the radial component of the spatial magnetic flutter induced by RMP fields off rational surfaces causes a radial electron thermal diffusivity of (1/2)({delta}B{sub p}/B){sup 2} times a magnetic-shear-influenced effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity. The resultant RMP-flutter-induced electron thermal diffusivity can be comparable to experimentally inferred values at the top of H-mode pedestals. This process also causes a factor of about 3 smaller RMP-induced electron density diffusivity there. Because this electron density transport is non-ambipolar, it produces a toroidal torque on the plasma, which is usually in the co-current direction. Kinetic-based cylindrical screw-pinch and toroidal models of these RMP-flutter-induced plasma transport effects have been developed. The RMP-induced increases in these diffusive plasma transport processes are typically spatially inhomogeneous in that they are strongly peaked near the rational surfaces in low collisionality pedestals, which may lead to resonant sensitivities to the local safety factor q. The effects can be large enough to reduce the radially averaged gradients of the electron temperature and density at the top of H-mode edge pedestals, and modify the plasma toroidal rotation and radial electric field there. At high collisionality the various effects are less strongly peaked at rational surfaces and thus less likely to exhibit RMP-induced resonant behavior. These RMP-flutter-induced plasma transport processes provide a new paradigm for developing an understanding of how RMPs modify the pedestal structure to stabilize

  2. Plasma generation using the hollow cathod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A hollow cathode of tungsten was adapted to an University of California, Berkely, LBL bucket ion source to investigate ion density fluctuations at the extractior grid. Fluctuations in plasma ion density are observed to range between 100kHz to 2 MHz. The observed fluctuation frequencies of plasma ion density are found to be inversely proportional to the square root of ion masses. It is guessed that the plasma fluctuation are also correlated with the hollow cathode length. (Author)

  3. Plasmid DNA damage induced by helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Cantrell, William A.; Escobar, Erika E.; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    A helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is applied to induce damage to aqueous plasmid DNA. The resulting fractions of the DNA conformers, which indicate intact molecules or DNA with single- or double-strand breaks, are determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The DNA strand breaks increase with a decrease in the distance between the APPJ and DNA samples under two working conditions of the plasma source with different parameters of applied electric pulses. The damage level induced in the plasmid DNA is also enhanced with increased plasma irradiation time. The reactive species generated in the APPJ are characterized by optical emission spectra, and their roles in possible DNA damage processes occurring in an aqueous environment are also discussed.

  4. Magnetic-flutter-induced pedestal plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Cole, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma toroidal rotation can limit reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields δB on rational magnetic flux surfaces. Hence it causes the induced radial perturbations δB ρ to be small there, thereby inhibiting magnetic island formation and stochasticity at the top of pedestals in high (H-mode) confinement tokamak plasmas. However, the δB ρ s induced by RMPs increase away from rational surfaces and are shown to induce significant sinusoidal radial motion (flutter) of magnetic field lines with a radial extent that varies linearly with δB ρ and inversely with distance from the rational surface because of the magnetic shear. This produces a radial electron thermal diffusivity that is (1/2)(δB ρ /B 0 ) 2 times a kinetically derived, electron-collision-induced, magnetic-shear-reduced, effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity in the absence of magnetic stochasticity. These low collisionality flutter-induced transport processes and thin magnetic island effects are shown to be highly peaked in the vicinity of rational surfaces at the top of low collisionality pedestals. However, the smaller but finite level of magnetic-flutter-induced electron heat transport midway between rational surfaces is the primary factor that determines the electron temperature difference between rational surfaces at the pedestal top. The magnetic-flutter-induced non-ambipolar electron density transport can be large enough to push the plasma toward an electron density transport root. Requiring ambipolar density transport is shown to determine the radial electric field, the plasma toroidal rotation (via radial force balance), a reduced electron thermal diffusivity and increased ambipolar density transport in the pedestal. At high collisionality the various flutter effects are less strongly peaked at rational surfaces and generally less significant. They are thus less likely to exhibit flutter-induced resonant behaviour and transition toward an

  5. Magnetic-flutter-induced pedestal plasma transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C.; Cole, A. J.

    2013-11-01

    Plasma toroidal rotation can limit reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields δB on rational magnetic flux surfaces. Hence it causes the induced radial perturbations δBρ to be small there, thereby inhibiting magnetic island formation and stochasticity at the top of pedestals in high (H-mode) confinement tokamak plasmas. However, the δBρs induced by RMPs increase away from rational surfaces and are shown to induce significant sinusoidal radial motion (flutter) of magnetic field lines with a radial extent that varies linearly with δBρ and inversely with distance from the rational surface because of the magnetic shear. This produces a radial electron thermal diffusivity that is (1/2)(δBρ/B0)2 times a kinetically derived, electron-collision-induced, magnetic-shear-reduced, effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity in the absence of magnetic stochasticity. These low collisionality flutter-induced transport processes and thin magnetic island effects are shown to be highly peaked in the vicinity of rational surfaces at the top of low collisionality pedestals. However, the smaller but finite level of magnetic-flutter-induced electron heat transport midway between rational surfaces is the primary factor that determines the electron temperature difference between rational surfaces at the pedestal top. The magnetic-flutter-induced non-ambipolar electron density transport can be large enough to push the plasma toward an electron density transport root. Requiring ambipolar density transport is shown to determine the radial electric field, the plasma toroidal rotation (via radial force balance), a reduced electron thermal diffusivity and increased ambipolar density transport in the pedestal. At high collisionality the various flutter effects are less strongly peaked at rational surfaces and generally less significant. They are thus less likely to exhibit flutter-induced resonant behaviour and transition toward an electron

  6. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro

    2016-09-01

    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  7. Measurement of performance parameters of plasma source for plasma opening switch on Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Weixi; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lei Tianshi; Wang Liangping; Hu Yixiang; Sun Tieping; Huang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The plasma source (cable guns) of the plasma opening switch (POS) on Qiangguang Ⅰ generator was chosen as the study object. The plasma source performance was investigated by using charge collectors. Experimental results show that the plasma ejection density is positively correlated with the structural parameter, the distance between gun core tip and muzzle plane, and the plasma ejection velocity is negatively correlated with the parameter. The increasing rate of plasma ejection density is less than that of drive current. As far as a plasma source with tens of cable plasma guns is concerned, the influence of single cable gun's discharge dispersancy on plasma uniformity is little. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the uncertainty of measurement can be reduced by increasing the number of experiments and averaging the results. The combined standard uncertainty of plasma ejection density is less than 10%. (authors)

  8. The influence of plasma motion on disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage due to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increases. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that control circuitry on strongly influence runaway behavior. A comparison of disruption data from several shots on JET and D3-D with model results, demonstrate the effects of plasma motion on runaway number density and energy. 6 refs., 12 figs

  9. Flux compression generators as plasma compression power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.; Thomson, D.B.; Garn, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A survey is made of applications where explosive-driven magnetic flux compression generators have been or can be used to directly power devices that produce dense plasmas. Representative examples are discussed that are specific to the theta pinch, the plasma gun, the dense plasma focus and the Z pinch. These examples are used to illustrate the high energy and power capabilities of explosive generators. An application employing a rocket-borne, generator-powered plasma gun emphasizes the size and weight potential of flux compression power supplies. Recent results from a local effort to drive a dense plasma focus are provided. Imploding liners ae discussed in the context of both the theta and Z pinches

  10. Resonant and hollow beam generation of plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, I.; Kim, K.Y.; Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H.M.; Margolin, L.Ya.; Pyatnitskii, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    We report two variations on plasma channel generation using the propagation of intense Bessel beams. In the first experiment, the propagation of a high intensity Bessel beam in neutral gas is observed to give rise to resonantly enhanced plasma channel generation, resulting from resonant self-trapping of the beam and enhanced laser-plasma heating. In the second experiment, a high power, hollow Bessel beam (J 5 ) is produced and the optical breakdown of a gas target and the generation of a tubular plasma channel with such a beam is realized for the first time. Hydrodynamic simulations of the laser-plasma interaction of are in good agreement with the results of both experiments

  11. Generation mechanism and properties of plasma double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.

    1985-01-01

    The generation mechanism of plasma double layers is studied surveying the results of some experiments. The main mechanism is the same in the cases of collisional and collisionless plasmas. Inelastic quantum collision processes taking place between plasma electrons, accelerated in a local field up to near the same oriented velocity and the neutral particles of the background gases create the necessary conditions for double layer formation. (D.Gy.)

  12. Novel modulator topology for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, T.H.P.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Z.; Heesch, van E.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gas cleaning using plasma technology is slowly introduced into industry nowadays. Several challenges still have to be overcome: increasing the scale, safety, life time and reducing costs. In 2006 we demonstrated a 20 kW nanosecond pulsed corona system. The electrical efficiency was > 90%. O-radical

  13. The linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER) has built the new experimental research facility Magnum-PSI. In Magnum-PSI, Plasma Surface Interaction (PSI) research for the nuclear fusion reactor ITER and reactors beyond ITER will be carried out. As such, it is essential that the

  14. Plasma generator utilizing dielectric member for carrying microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklufi, M.E.; Brock, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a system in which electromagnetic energy is used to generate a plasma from a gas. It comprises a reaction chamber which is evacuated to less than ambient pressure and into which the gas is introduced; and a nonconductive member for carrying the electromagnetic energy and for emitting the electromagnetic energy so that a plasma is formed from the gas

  15. Generation of zonal flows in rotating fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous generation of large-scale flows by the rectification of small-scale turbulent fluctuations is of great importance both in geophysical flows and in magnetically confined plasmas. These flows regulate the turbulence and may set up effective transport barriers. In the present....... The analogy to large-scale flow generation in drift-wave turbulence dynamics in magnetized plasma is briefly discussed....

  16. Plasma X-ray sources powered by megajoule magnetocumulative generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Averchenkov, V Ya; Pikar` , A S; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Lazarev, S A; Borodkov, V V; Nazarenko, S T; Makartsev, G F [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    Experiments using magnetocumulative generators (MCGs) were performed to power three different types of high-energy-density plasma discharges suitable for intense x-ray generation. These included the H-pressed discharge, the capillary z-pinch, and the {theta}-pinch. The MCGs were operated both with and without plasma opening switches. The characteristic currents were approximately 10 MA and characteristic time scales approximately 1 {mu}s. (author). 7 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Light ion beams generation in dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The high energy deuterons and protons in a Mather type plasma focus device were measured by nuclear activation techniques. The radioactivity induced in graphite, aluminum and copper targets provided the deuteron intensity, energy spectra and angular dependence. High energy protons were measured by cellulose nitrate particle track detectors. The plasma focus device was operated at 30 kV for a stored energy of 18 kJ at 1.5 Torr D 2 (low pressure mode), and 5 Torr D 2 (high pressure mode). The yield ratio of N-13 and Al-28 showed the mean deuteron energy of 1.55 MeV under low pressure mode and of 1.44 MeV under high pressure mode. The deuteron energy spectra were measured by the stacks of 10 aluminum foils, and consisted of two components as well as the proton energy spectra measured by CN film technique. The angular spread of deuteron beam was within 30 degree under low pressure mode. Under high pressure mode, the distribution showed multi-structure, and two peaks were observed at the angle smaller than 20 degree and at 60 degree. The protons with energy more than 770 keV were directed in the angle of 10 degree. The high energy electron beam was also observed. A three-channel ruby laser holographic interferometry was used to see the spatial and temporal location of the generation of high energy ions. The ion temperature in plasma focus was estimated from D + He 3 mixture gas experiment. (Kato, T.)

  18. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickersham, C.E. Jr.; Poole, J.E.; Fan, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al 2 O 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect density, and the intensity of the optical emission from the arcing plasma indicates that the critical aluminum oxide inclusion area for arcing is 0.22±0.1 mm2 when the sputtering plasma sheath dark-space λ d , is 0.51 mm. Inclusions with areas greater than this critical value readily induce arcing and macroparticle ejection during sputtering. Inclusions below this critical size do not cause arcing or macroparticle ejection. When the inclusion major axis is longer than 2λ d and lies perpendicular to the sputter erosion track tangent, the arcing activity increases significantly over the case where the inclusion major axis lies parallel to the erosion track tangent

  19. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  20. Metal surface nitriding by laser induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, A. L.; Boulmer-Leborgne, C.; Andreazza-Vignolle, C.; Andreazza, P.; Hermann, J.; Blondiaux, G.

    1996-10-01

    We study a nitriding technique of metals by means of laser induced plasma. The synthesized layers are composed of a nitrogen concentration gradient over several μm depth, and are expected to be useful for tribological applications with no adhesion problem. The nitriding method is tested on the synthesis of titanium nitride which is a well-known compound, obtained at present by many deposition and diffusion techniques. In the method of interest, a laser beam is focused on a titanium target in a nitrogen atmosphere, leading to the creation of a plasma over the metal surface. In order to understand the layer formation, it is necessary to characterize the plasma as well as the surface that it has been in contact with. Progressive nitrogen incorporation in the titanium lattice and TiN synthesis are studied by characterizing samples prepared with increasing laser shot number (100-4000). The role of the laser wavelength is also inspected by comparing layers obtained with two kinds of pulsed lasers: a transversal-excited-atmospheric-pressure-CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) and a XeCl excimer laser (λ=308 nm). Simulations of the target temperature rise under laser irradiation are performed, which evidence differences in the initial laser/material interaction (material heated thickness, heating time duration, etc.) depending on the laser features (wavelength and pulse time duration). Results from plasma characterization also point out that the plasma composition and propagation mode depend on the laser wavelength. Correlation of these results with those obtained from layer analyses shows at first the important role played by the plasma in the nitrogen incorporation. Its presence is necessary and allows N2 dissociation and a better energy coupling with the target. Second, it appears that the nitrogen diffusion governs the nitriding process. The study of the metal nitriding efficiency, depending on the laser used, allows us to explain the differences observed in the layer features

  1. Spectral characteristics of a relativistic plasma microwave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Ul'yanov, D.K.; Shkvarunets, A.G.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation spectrum of a broad-band relativistic plasma microwave generator, in which a hollow relativistic electron beam is injected into a plasma waveguide consisting of a hollow plasma within a round metallic waveguide is measured experimentally. The radiation spectrum is measured using a wide-aperture calorimetric spectrometer in the frequency range 3-32 GHz. The influence of the plasma density and the beam-plasma gap on the radiation spectrum is investigated. The amplification of the noise electromagnetic radiation when a relativistic electron beam is injected into the plasma waveguide is calculated on the basis of the nonlinear theory. The theory predicts passage from a one-particle generation regime to a collective regime and narrowing of the radiation spectrum as the plasma density and the gap between the hollow beam and the plasma increases. A comparison of the measurement results with the nonlinear theory accounts for several features of the measured spectrum. However, the predicted change in the generation regimes is not observed experimentally. Qualitative arguments are advanced, which explain the observed phenomena and call for further theoretical and experimental research, are advanced

  2. The low-current low-temperature plasma generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautov, G.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    In this article, the results of low-current gas-discharge plasma generator investigations carried out by a group of scientists from the Kazan' Aviation Institute are presented. When considered necessary, the results are compared with the data obtained by other authors. The basic configurations and theoretical calculation peculiarities of plasma generators are described. The electrical, thermal and energy characteristics of discharges in gas flows, as well as summarised empirical formulae and experimental data necessary for calculations and design of plasma devices are presented. (author)

  3. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1989-01-01

    This is a second year progress report which details the work on the generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators being carried out at UCLA. The status of the experimental work is described and the future directions are outlined. We have completed the first phase of experiments on the plasma wiggler generation and characterization. Suitability of a null-pinch as a plasma source was investigated in great detail. It is found that a w of a few percent can be excited but there are trapped magnetic fields within null-pinch plasma which hinder the injection of the electrons. A new more uniform and field-free plasma source is now being characterized

  4. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1989-01-01

    This is a second year progress report which details the work on the generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators being carried out at UCLA. The status of the experimental work is described and the future directions are outlined. We have completed the first phase of experiments on the plasma wiggler generation and characterization. Suitability of a θ-pinch as a plasma source was investigated in great detail. It is found that a w of a few percent can be excited but there are trapped magnetic fields within θ-pinch plasma which hinder the injection of the electrons. A few more uniform and field-free plasma source is now being characterized. 8 refs., 5 figs

  5. Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.

  6. Waves generated in the plasma plume of helicon magnetic nozzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan; Ranganath, Praveen [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Experimental measurements have shown that the plasma plume created in a helicon plasma device contains a conical structure in the plasma density and a U-shaped double layer (US-DL) tightly confined near the throat where plasma begins to expand from the source. Recently reported two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations verified these density and US-DL features of the plasma plume. Simulations also showed that the plasma in the plume develops non-thermal feature consisting of radial ion beams with large densities near the conical surface of the density structure. The plasma waves that are generated by the radial ion beams affecting the structure of the plasma plume are studied here. We find that most intense waves persist in the high-density regions of the conical density structure, where the transversely accelerated ions in the radial electric fields in the plume are reflected setting up counter-streaming. The waves generated are primarily ion Bernstein modes. The nonlinear evolution of the waves leads to magnetic field-aligned striations in the fields and the plasma near the conical surface of the density structure.

  7. Water plasma generation under atmospheric pressure for HFC destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Tsuru, Taira

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the decomposition process of hydrofluoroethylene (HFC-134a) by water plasmas. The water plasma was generated by DC arc discharge with a cathode of hafnium embedded into a copper rod and a nozzle-type copper anode. The advantage of the water plasma torch is the generation of 100%-water plasma by DC discharge. The distinctive steam generation leads to the portable light-weight plasma generation system that does not require the gas supply unit, as well as the high energy efficiency owing to the nonnecessity of the additional water-cooling. HFC-134a was injected into the water plasma jet to decompose it in the reaction tube. Neutralization vessel was combined to the reaction tube to absorb F 2 and HF generated from the HFC-134a decomposition. The decomposition was performed with changing the feed rate of HFC-134a up to 185 mmol/min. The decomposition efficiency of 99.9% can be obtained up to 0.43 mmol/kJ of the ratio of HFC-134a feed rate to the arc power, hence the maximum feed rate was estimated to be 160 g/h at 1 kW of the arc power

  8. Time variations of hf induced plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showen, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Intense plasma waves are generated by an HF pump wave in an ionospheric heating experiment at the Arecibo Observatory. These plasma waves can be observed as enhancements to the ion and plasma lines of the incoherent backscatter echo. The enhancements can be three or four orders of magnitude more intense than the unenhanced lines, and tend to fluctuate wildly. Both the purely growing and the decay mode parametric instabilities are present. When the pump wave is turned on abruptly the enhancements develop in time in a repeatable manner. A rather remarkable feature on time scales of seconds is an overshoot in instability power. These overshoots occur frequently but not universally and last for 1 to 6 seconds. They can have a magnitude from ten to hundreds of times the average instability level. Field aligned irregularities may be the cause of the overshoots. The overshoots appear definitely related to an unusually rapid rise in measured electron temperature that cannot be understood in terms of ohmic energy deposition. On time scales of milliseconds there is a ''mini-overshoot'' before the growth of the instability to a large value. The spectral details also change in a striking manner. The instabilities can first be detected 2 to 4 msec after the pump wave turn-on. The decay mode is present as well as a broad featureless ''noise bump'', which partially sharpens into a line as time progresses. These changes of the spectra in time seem to run counter to the currently accepted theories of plasma wave saturation

  9. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-01

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Hologaphy of a CO2 laser generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkerbout, A.C.H.; Van Dijk, J.W.; Donaldson, T.P.

    1976-01-01

    An expermental technique for generating holographic interferograms is discussed and illustrated with results obtained on a plasma generated by a 75 J CO 2 laser pulse incident at intensities of approximately 9 x 10 12 W/cm 2 on a plane carbon target. (author)

  11. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, E.; Sarron, V.; Riès, D.; Dozias, S.; Vandamme, M.; Pouvesle, J.-M.

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 107-108 cm s-1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications.

  12. Characterization of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams (PAPS) generated by a plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, E; Sarron, V; Riès, D; Dozias, S; Vandamme, M; Pouvesle, J-M

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of atmospheric-pressure rare gas plasma propagation in a high-aspect-ratio capillary is reported. The plasma is generated with a plasma gun device based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor powered by either nanosecond or microsecond rise-time high-voltage pulses at single-shot to multi-kHz frequencies. The influence of the voltage waveform, pulse polarity, pulse repetition rate and capillary material have been studied using nanosecond intensified charge-coupled device imaging and plasma-front velocity measurements. The evolution of the plasma appearance during its propagation and the study of the role of the different experimental parameters lead us to suggest a new denomination of pulsed atmospheric-pressure plasma streams to describe all the plasma features, including the previously so-called plasma bullet. The unique properties of such non-thermal plasma launching in capillaries, far from the primary DBD plasma, are associated with a fast ionization wave travelling with velocity in the 10 7 –10 8 cm s −1 range. Voltage pulse tailoring is shown to allow for a significant improvement of such plasma delivery. Thus, the plasma gun device affords unique opportunities in biomedical endoscopic applications. (paper)

  13. γ -Ray Generation from Plasma Wakefield Resonant Wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bifeng; Wang, Jingwei; Kharin, Vasily; Zepf, Matt; Rykovanov, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    A flexible gamma-ray radiation source based on the resonant laser-plasma wakefield wiggler is proposed. The wiggler is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of a short laser pulse in a plasma channel. Electrons (self-)injected in such a wakefield experience both oscillations due to the transverse electric fields and energy gain due to the longitudinal electric field. The oscillations are significantly enhanced when the laser pulse centroid oscillations are in resonance with the electron betatron oscillations, extending the radiation spectrum to the gamma-ray range. The polarization of the radiation can be easily controlled by adjusting the injection of the laser pulse into the plasma channel.

  14. Transport of high fluxes of hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W.A.J.; Al, R.S.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Peppel, van de R.J.E.; Schram, D.C.; Shumack, A.E.; Westerhout, J.; Rooij, van G.J.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was made to quantify the losses during the convective hydrogen plasma transport in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI due to volume recombination. A transport efficiency of 35% was achieved at neutral background pressures below ~7 Pa in a magnetic field of 1.2 T. This efficiency decreased

  15. Poloidal rotation induced by injecting lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yiming; Gao Qingdi; Shi Bingren

    2001-01-01

    The poloidal rotation of the magnetized edge plasma in tokamak driven by the ponderomotive force which is generated by injecting lower hybrid wave (LHW) electric field has been studied. The LHW is launched from a waveguide in the plasma edge, and by Brambilla's grill theory, analytic expressions for the wave electric field in the slab model of an inhomogeneous cold plasma have been derived. It is shown that a strong wave electric field will be generated in the plasma edge by injecting LH wave of the power in MW magnitude, and this electric field will induce a poloidal rotation with a sheared poloidal velocity

  16. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Antonino; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Calcagno, Lucia; Sciuto, Antonella; Mazzillo, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2) and high (1018 W/cm2) intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  17. Characterization of X-ray emission from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannavò Antonino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray emission from laser generated plasma was studied at low (1010 W/cm2 and high (1018 W/cm2 intensity using ns and fs laser, respectively. Plasma characteristics were controlled trough the laser parameters, the irradiation conditions and the target properties. The X-ray spectra were acquired using fast detection technique based on SiC diodes with different active regions. The X-ray yield increases with the atomic number of the target, both at low and high intensity, and a similar empirical law has been obtained. The X-ray emission mechanisms from plasma are correlated to the plasma temperature and density and to the Coulomb charge particle acceleration, due to the charge separation effects produced in the non-equilibrium plasma. Functional dependences, theoretical approaches and interpretation of possible mechanism will be presented and discussed.

  18. Generator of the low-temperature heterogeneous plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupov, D. I.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Chinnov, V. F.; Sargsyan, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    A generator of low-temperature dc plasma with an expanding channel of an output electrode for gas-thermal spraying was designed and constructed. The delivery of the sprayed powder into the cathode and anode arc-binding zones or into the plasma jet below the anode binding was realized. The electrophysical characteristics of both the plasma torch and the heterogeneous plasma flow with Al2O3 powder are studied. It is shown that the current-voltage characteristic (CVC) of a plasma torch depends on the gas flow rate. If the flow rate varies from 1 to 3 g/s, the falling CVC becomes gradually increasing. The speed and temperature of the sprayed powder are determined.

  19. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  20. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasushi; Azuma, Kingo

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun.

  2. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1, Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-84 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  4. Plasma blob generation due to cooperative elliptic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, P; Xu, M; Müller, S H; Fedorczak, N; Thakur, S C; Yu, J H; Tynan, G R

    2011-11-04

    Using fast-camera measurements the generation mechanism of plasma blobs is investigated in the linear device CSDX. During the ejection of plasma blobs the plasma is dominated by an m=1 mode, which is a counterrotating vortex pair. These flows are known to be subject to the cooperative elliptic instability, which is characterized by a cooperative disturbance of the vortex cores and results in a three-dimensional breakdown of two-dimensional flows. The first experimental evidence of a cooperative elliptic instability preceding the blob-ejection is provided in terms of the qualitative evolution of the vortex geometries and internal wave patterns.

  5. Edge Plasma Boundary Layer Generated By Kink Modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the electric current generated by external kink modes at the plasma edge using the ideally conducting plasma model. It is found that the edge current layer is created by both wall touching and free boundary kink modes. Near marginal stability, the total edge current has a universal expression as a result of partial compensation of the (delta)-functional surface current by the bulk current at the edge. The resolution of an apparent paradox with the pressure balance across the plasma boundary in the presence of the surface currents is provided.

  6. Hollow laser plasma self-confined microjet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizyuk, Valeryi; Hassanein, Ahmed; CenterMaterials under Extreme Environment Team

    2017-10-01

    Hollow laser beam produced plasma (LPP) devices are being used for the generation of the self-confined cumulative microjet. Most important place by this LPP device construction is achieving of an annular distribution of the laser beam intensity by spot. An integrated model is being developed to detailed simulation of the plasma generation and evolution inside the laser beam channel. The model describes in two temperature approximation hydrodynamic processes in plasma, laser absorption processes, heat conduction, and radiation energy transport. The total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation for the description of plasma hydrodynamic is used. Laser absorption and radiation transport models on the base of Monte Carlo method are being developed. Heat conduction part on the implicit scheme with sparse matrixes using is realized. The developed models are being integrated into HEIGHTS-LPP computer simulation package. The integrated modeling of the hollow beam laser plasma generation showed the self-confinement and acceleration of the plasma microjet inside the laser channel. It was found dependence of the microjet parameters including radiation emission on the hole and beam radiuses ratio. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, PIRE project.

  7. A study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth Herbert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory.

  8. Study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.H. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory

  9. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokashiki, Ken; Bai, KeunHee; Baek, KyeHyun; Kim, Yongjin; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Jootae

    2007-01-01

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  10. Generation of low-temperature air plasma for food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Olga; Demidova, Maria; Astafiev, Alexander; Pinchuk, Mikhail; Balkir, Pinar; Turantas, Fulya

    2015-11-01

    The project is aimed at developing a physical and technical foundation of generating plasma with low gas temperature at atmospheric pressure for food industry needs. As known, plasma has an antimicrobial effect on the numerous types of microorganisms, including those that cause food spoilage. In this work an original experimental setup has been developed for the treatment of different foods. It is based on initiating corona or dielectric-barrier discharge in a chamber filled with ambient air in combination with a certain helium admixture. The experimental setup provides various conditions of discharge generation (including discharge gap geometry, supply voltage, velocity of gas flow, content of helium admixture in air and working pressure) and allows for the measurement of the electrical discharge parameters. Some recommendations on choosing optimal conditions of discharge generation for experiments on plasma food processing are developed.

  11. Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2014-01-01

    The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs

  12. Foil-less plasma-filled diode for HPM generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltchaninov, A A; Kovalchuk, B M; Kurkan, I K; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    Plasma-filled diode regarded as perspective source of electron beam feeding HPM generator of GW power level, comparing to conventional explosive emission vacuum diode. Electron beam generation occurs in plasma double layer, where plasma boundary plays as an anode. It allows cancelling the usage of anode foils or grids in HPM generators with the virtual cathode, which could limit its life time to few shots. The presence of ions in the e-beam drift space could raise the limiting current for a drift space, but it could affect to microwave generation also. Sectioned plasma-filled diode with beam current of about 100 kA, electron beam energy of about 0.5 MV and beam current density of 1-10 kA/cm 2 was realized. Cylindrical transport channel with the diameter of 200 mm and the length of about 30 cm was attached to the diode. Beam current measurements in a drift space were performed. Computer simulations of electron beam transport with the presence of ions were carried out with the 2.5D axisymmetric version of PiC-code KARAT. Obtained results would help optimizing electrodynamic system of HPM generator subjected to the presence of ions

  13. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1991-10-01

    We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Sum frequency generation for studying plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roke, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of a plasma with a surface results in chemical and physical restructuring of the surface as well as the plasma in the vicinity of the surface. Studying such a reorganization of the atoms and molecules in the surface layer requires optical tools that can penetrate the plasma environment. At the same time, surface specificity is required. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) is an optical method that fulfills these requirements. SFG has been developed into a surface specific probe during the eighties and nineties. Nowadays SFG is routinely applied in the research of complex interfaces. In such experiments, liquid/gas, solid/gas, solid/liquid, or liquid/liquid interfaces are probed, and the chemical surface composition, orientational distribution, order and chirality can be retrieved. An application to investigate plasma-wall interactions is feasible too.

  16. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  17. Rf probe technology for the next generation of technological plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, V.J.; Kenyon, A.J.; Thornhill, N.F.; Seeds, A.J.; Batty, I.

    2001-01-01

    We describe radio frequency (rf) analysis of technological plasmas at the 13.56 MHz fundamental drive frequency and integer narrow-band harmonics up to n = 9. In particular, we demonstrate the use of harmonic amplitude information as a process end-point diagnostic. Using very high frequency (vhf) techniques, we construct non-invasive ex situ remote-coupled probes: a diplexer, an equal-ratio-arm bridge, and a dual directional coupler used as a single directional device. These probes bolt into the plasma-tool 50 Ω transmission-line between the rf generator and matching network, and hence do not require modification of the plasma tool. The 50 Ω probe environment produces repeatable measurements of the chamber capacitance and narrow-band harmonic amplitude with an end-point detection sensitivity corresponding to a 2 dB change in the harmonic amplitude with the removal of 1 cm 2 of photoresist. The methodology and design of an instrument for the measurement of the plasma-tool frequency response, and the plasma harmonic amplitude and phase response are examined. The instrument allows the monitoring of the plasma phase delay, plasma-tool short- and long-term ageing, and process end-point prediction. (author)

  18. Pulsed x-ray generation from a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M; Bruzzone, H; Sidelnikov, Y; Kies, W; Moreno, C; Sylvester, G; Silva, P; Moreno, J; Soto, L

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical pinches coupled to electrodes like the dense Z-pinch or the dense plasma focus have been intensively studied in the last four decades for their high fusion efficiency and their application potential. Though the expectations of the eighties of the last century, scaling these pinches up to fusion reactors, did not come true, the development of fast and powerful experiments resulted in new insights in pinch physics and paved the way for developing compact dynamical pinches as pulsed neutron and X-radiation sources for many applications. There is a permanent and growing interest in the research community for understanding and determining the generation properties of X-rays, neutrons and charged particles emitted from a high-temperature high-density plasmas, especially in the plasma focus configuration. The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN has developed the SPEED4 fast-plasma focus device, in collaboration with the Plasma Physics Group of the Dusseldorf University, in order to perform experimental studies such as X-ray and neutron emission, and electron and ion beam characterization (author)

  19. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  20. Formation dynamics of UV and EUV induced hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.A.; Lee, Christopher James; Yakushev, O.; Lopaev, D.V.; Abrikosov, A.; Krivtsun, V.M.; Zotovich, A.; Bijkerk, F.

    2014-01-01

    The comparative study of the dynamics of ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) induced hydrogen plasma was performed. It was shown that for low H2 pressures and bias voltages, the dynamics of the two plasmas are significantly different. In the case of UV radiation, the plasma above the

  1. 27.12 MHz plasma generation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Ayato; Toyota, Hiromichi; Nomura, Shinfuku; Takemori, Toshihiko; Mukasa, Shinobu; Maehara, Tsunehiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted for generating high-frequency plasma in supercritical carbon dioxide; it is expected to have the potential for applications in various types of practical processes. It was successfully generated at 6-20 MPa using electrodes mounted in a supercritical cell with a gap of 1 mm. Emission spectra were then measured to investigate the physical properties of supercritical carbon dioxide plasma. The results indicated that while the emission spectra for carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide could be mainly obtained at a low pressure, the emission spectra for atomic oxygen could be obtained in the supercritical state, which increased with the pressure. The temperature of the plasma in supercritical state was estimated to be approximately 6000-7000 K on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium and the calculation results of thermal equilibrium composition in this state showed the increase of atomic oxygen by the decomposition of CO 2

  2. Pre-Excitation Studies for Rubidium-Plasma Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Aladi, M; Barna, I.F.; Czitrovszky, Aladar; Djotyan, Gagik; Dombi, Peter; Dzsotjan, David; FöLdes, Istvan; Hamar, Gergo; Ignacz, Peter; Kedves, Miklos; Kerekes, Attila; Levai, Peter; Marton, Istvan; Nagy, Attila; Oszetzky, Daniel; Pocsai, Mihaly; Racz, Peter; Raczkevi, Bela; Szigeti, Janos; Sörlei, Zsuzsa; Szipöcs, Robert; Varga, Dezso; Varga-Umbrich, Karoly; Varro, Sandor; Vamos, Lenard; Vesztergombi, György

    2014-01-01

    The key element in the Proton-Driven-Plasma-Wake-Field-Accelerator (AWAKE) project is the generation of highly uniform plasma from Rubidium vapor. The standard way to achieve full ionization is to use high power laser which can assure the over-barrier-ionization (OBI) along the 10 meters long active region. The Wigner-team in Budapest is investigating an alternative way of uniform plasma generation. The proposed Resonance Enhanced Multi Photon Ionization (REMPI) scheme probably can be realized by much less laser power. In the following the resonant pre-excitations of the Rb atoms are investigated, theoretically and the status report about the preparatory work on the experiment are presented.

  3. Generation of nano roughness on fibrous materials by atmospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulyk, I; Scapinello, M; Stefan, M

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric plasma technology finds novel applications in textile industry. It eliminates the usage of water and of hazard liquid chemicals, making production much more eco-friendly and economically convenient. Due to chemical effects of atmospheric plasma, it permits to optimize dyeing and laminating affinity of fabrics, as well as anti-microbial treatments. Other important applications such as increase of mechanical resistance of fiber sleeves and of yarns, anti-pilling properties of fabrics and anti-shrinking property of wool fabrics were studied in this work. These results could be attributed to the generation of nano roughness on fibers surface by atmospheric plasma. Nano roughness generation is extensively studied at different conditions. Alternative explanations for the important practical results on textile materials and discussed.

  4. Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Yu Wei; Yuan Xiao; Xu Han; Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10 21 W/cm 2 and plasma background density below 10 19 cm −3 . In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.

  5. Air spark-like plasma source for antimicrobial NOx generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovich, M J; Galleher, C; Curtis, B; Clark, D S; Graves, D B; Ono, T; Machala, Z

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate and analyse the generation of nitrogen oxides and their antimicrobial efficacy using atmospheric air spark-like plasmas. Spark-like discharges in air in a 1 L confined volume are shown to generate NO x at an initial rate of about 1.5  ×  10 16 NO x molecules/J dissipated in the plasma. Such a discharge operating in this confined volume generates on the order of 6000 ppm NO x in 10 min. Around 90% of the NO x is in the form of NO 2 after several minutes of operation in the confined volume, suggesting that NO 2 is the dominant antimicrobial component. The strong antimicrobial action of the NO x mixture after several minutes of plasma operation is demonstrated by measuring rates of E. coli disinfection on surfaces and in water exposed to the NO x mixture. Some possible applications of plasma generation of NO x (perhaps followed by dissolution in water) include disinfection of surfaces, skin or wound antisepsis, and sterilization of medical instruments at or near room temperature. (paper)

  6. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Subramanian, Gayathri; Ayan, Halim; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N 2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage–current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. (paper)

  7. Plasma Modification of Poly Lactic Acid Solutions to Generate High Quality Electrospun PLA Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nikiforov, Anton; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-02-02

    Physical properties of pre-electrospinning polymer solutions play a key role in electrospinning as they strongly determine the morphology of the obtained electrospun nanofibers. In this work, an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma directly submerged in the liquid-phase was used to modify the physical properties of poly lactic acid (PLA) spinning solutions in an effort to improve their electrospinnability. The electrical characteristics of the plasma were investigated by two methods; V-I waveforms and Q-V Lissajous plots while the optical emission characteristics of the plasma were also determined using optical emission spectroscopy (OES). To perform a complete physical characterization of the plasma-modified polymer solutions, measurements of viscosity, surface tension, and electrical conductivity were performed for various PLA concentrations, plasma exposure times, gas flow rates, and applied voltages. Moreover, a fast intensified charge-couple device (ICCD) camera was used to image the bubble dynamics during the plasma treatments. In addition, morphological changes of PLA nanofibers generated from plasma-treated PLA solutions were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The performed plasma treatments were found to induce significant changes to the main physical properties of the PLA solutions, leading to an enhancement of electrospinnability and an improvement of PLA nanofiber formation.

  8. [Study of enhancement effect of laser-induced crater on plasma radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin; Su, Hong-Xin; Li, Guang

    2009-02-01

    Single pulses exported from high-energy neodymium glass laser were used to act on the same position of soil sample surface repeatedly, and the plasma emission spectra generated from sequential laser pulse action were collected by spectral recording system. The experimental results show that the laser-induced soil plasma radiation was enhanced continuously under the confinement effect of the crater walls, and the line intensities and signal-to-background ratios both had different improvements along with increasing the number of acting pulses. The photographs of the plasma image and crater appearance were taken to study the plasma shape, laser-induced crater appearance, and the mass of the ablated sample. The internal mechanism behind that laser-induced crater enhanced plasma radiation was researched. Under the sequential laser pulse action, the forming plasma as a result enlarges gradually first, leading to distortion at the trail of plasma plume, and then, its volume diminishes slowly. And also, the color of the plasma changes from buff to white gradually, which implies that the temperature increases constantly. The laser-induced crater had a regular shape, that is, the diameter increased from its bottom to top gradually, thus forming a taper. The mass of the laser-ablated substance descends along with increasing the amount of action pulse. Atomization degree of vaporized substance was improved in virtue of the crater confinement effect, Fresnel absorption produced from the crater walls reflection, and the inverse bremsstrahlung, and the plasma radiation intensity was enhanced as a result.

  9. Electron-beam generated plasmas for processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meger, Robert; Leonhardt, Darrin; Murphy, Donald; Walton, Scott; Blackwell, David; Fernsler, Richard; Lampe, Martin; Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    NRL's Large Area Plasma Processing System (LAPPS) utilizes a 5-10 mA/cm^2, 2-4 kV, 1 cm x 30-60 cm cross section beam of electrons guided by a magnetic field to ionize a low density (10-100 mTorr) gas.[1] Beam ionization allows large area, high density, low temperature plasmas to be generated in an arbitrary gas mixture at a well defined location. Energy and composition of particle fluxes to surfaces on both sides of the plasma can be controlled by gas mixture, location, rf bias, and other factors. Experiments have been performed using both pulsed and cw beams. Extensive diagnostics (Langmuir probes, mass and ion energy analyzers, optical emissions, microwave interferometry, etc.) have been fielded to measure the plasma properties and neutral particle fluxes (ions, neutrals, free radicals) with and without rf bias on nearby surfaces both with the beam on and off. Uniform, cold (Te < 1eV), dense (ne 10^13 cm-3) plasmas in molecular and atomic gases and mixtures thereof have been produced in agreement with theoretical expectations. Initial tests of LAPPS application such as ashing, etching, sputtering, and diamond growth have been performed. Program status will be presented. [1]R.A. Meger, et al, Phys. of Plasmas 8(5), p. 2558 (2001)

  10. Enhancement of plasma generation in catalyst pores with different shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Ru; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2018-05-01

    Plasma generation inside catalyst pores is of utmost importance for plasma catalysis, as the existence of plasma species inside the pores affects the active surface area of the catalyst available to the plasma species for catalytic reactions. In this paper, the electric field enhancement, and thus the plasma production inside catalyst pores with different pore shapes is studied with a two-dimensional fluid model. The results indicate that the electric field will be significantly enhanced near tip-like structures. In a conical pore with small opening, the strongest electric field appears at the opening and bottom corners of the pore, giving rise to a prominent ionization rate throughout the pore. For a cylindrical pore, the electric field is only enhanced at the bottom corners of the pore, with lower absolute value, and thus the ionization rate inside the pore is only slightly enhanced. Finally, in a conical pore with large opening, the electric field is characterized by a maximum at the bottom of the pore, yielding a similar behavior for the ionization rate. These results demonstrate that the shape of the pore has a significantly influence on the electric field enhancement, and thus modifies the plasma properties.

  11. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  12. Generation of atto-second pulses on relativistic mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, H.

    2012-12-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser (I > 10 16 W.cm -2 ) with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is high enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This plasma is so dense (the electron density is of the order of hundred times the critical density) that it completely reflects the incident laser beam in the specular direction: this is the so-called 'plasma mirror'. When laser intensity becomes very high, the non-linear response of the plasma mirror to the laser field periodically deforms the incident electric field leading to high harmonic generation in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The goals of my work were to get a better comprehension of the properties of harmonic beams produced on plasma mirrors and design new methods to control theses properties, notably in order to produce isolated atto-second pulses instead of trains. Initially, we imagined and modeled the first realistic technique to generate isolated atto-second on plasma mirrors. This brand new approach is based on a totally new physical effect: 'the atto-second lighthouse effect'. Its principle consists in sending the atto-second pulses of the train in different directions and selects one of these pulses by putting a slit in the far field. Despite its simplicity, this technique is very general and applies to any high harmonic generation mechanism. Moreover, the atto-second lighthouse effect has many other applications (e.g in metrology). In particular, it paves the way to atto-second pump-probe experiments. Then, we studied the spatial properties of these harmonics, whose control and characterization are crucial if one wants to use this source in future application experiments. For instance, we need to control very precisely the harmonic beam divergence in order to achieve the atto-second lighthouse effect and get

  13. Control and metrology of high harmonic generation on plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchoce, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is sufficient enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This dense plasma entirely reflects the incident beam in the specular direction: this is a so-called plasma mirror. As the interaction between the laser and the plasma mirror is highly non-linear, it thus leads to the high harmonic generation (HHG) in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain, this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The aim of my PhD were to experimentally control this HHG and to measure the properties of the harmonics. We first studied the optimization of the harmonic signal, and then the spatial characterization of the harmonic beam in the far-field (harmonic divergence). These characterizations are not only important to develop an intense XUV/atto-second light source, but also to get a better understanding of the laser-matter interaction at very high intensity. We have thus been able to get crucial information of the electrons and ions dynamics of the plasma, showing that the harmonics can also be used as a diagnostic of the laser-plasma interaction. We then developed a new general approach for optically-controlled spatial structuring of overdense plasmas generated at the surface of initially plain solid targets. We demonstrate it experimentally by creating sinusoidal plasma gratings of adjustable spatial periodicity and depth, and study the interaction of these transient structures with an ultra-intense laser pulse to establish their usability at relativistically high intensities. We then show how these gratings can be used as a 'spatial ruler' to determine the source size of the high-order harmonic beams produced at the surface of an overdense plasma. These results open new directions both for the metrology of laser-plasma interactions and the emerging field of ultrahigh

  14. fabrics induced by cold plasma treatments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some selective cold plasma processing modify specific surface properties of ... obtain information on the chemical and physical processing involved in ... charges of suitable gases. such plasma species can give rise to several concurrent.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing in low density plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Snyder, David B.; Doreswamy, C. V.

    1996-01-01

    An unavoidable step in the process of space exploration is to use high-power, very large spacecraft launched into Earth orbit. Obviously, the spacecraft will need powerful energy sources. Previous experience has shown that electrical discharges occur on the surfaces of a high-voltage array, and these discharges (arcs) are undesirable in many respects. Moreover, any high voltage conductor will interact with the surrounding plasma, and that interaction may result in electrical discharges between the conductor and plasma (or between two conductors with different potentials, for example, during docking and extravehicular activity). One very important aspect is the generation of electromagnetic radiation by arcing. To prevent the negative influence of electromagnetic noise on the operation of spacecraft systems, it seems necessary to determine the spectra and absolute levels of the radiation, and to determine limitations on the solar array bias voltage that depend on the parameters of LEO plasma and the technical requirements of the spacecraft equipment. This report describes the results of an experimental study and computer simulation of the electromagnetic radiation generated by arcing on spacecraft surfaces. A large set of high quality data was obtained during the Solar Array Module Plasma Interaction Experiment (SAMPIE, flight STS-62) and ground test. These data include the amplitudes of current, pulse forms, duration of each arc, and spectra of plasma waves. A theoretical explanation of the observed features is presented in this report too. The elaborated model allows us to determine the parameters of the electromagnetic noise for different frequency ranges, distances from the arcing site, and distinct kinds of plasma waves.

  16. High-order harmonics generation from overdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. When an intense laser beam reflects on an overdense plasma generated on a solid target, high-order harmonics of the incident laser frequency are observed in the reflected beam. This process provides a way to produce XUV femtosecond and attosecond pulses in the μJ range from ultrafast ultraintense lasers. Studying the mechanisms responsible for this harmonic emission is also of strong fundamental interest: just as HHG in gases has been instrumental in providing a comprehensive understanding of basic intense laser-atom interactions, HHG from solid-density plasmas is likely to become a unique tool to investigate many key features of laser-plasma interactions at high intensities. We will present both experimental and theoretical evidence that two mechanisms contribute to this harmonic emission: - Coherent Wake Emission: in this process, harmonics are emitted by plasma oscillations in te overdense plasma, triggered in the wake of jets of Brunel electrons generated by the laser field. - The relativistic oscillating mirror: in this process, the intense laser field drives a relativistic oscillation of the plasma surface, which in turn gives rise to a periodic phase modulation of the reflected beam, and hence to the generation of harmonics of the incident frequency. Left graph: experimental harmonic spectrum from a polypropylene target, obtained with 60 fs laser pulses at 10 19 W/cm 2 , with a very high temporal contrast (10 10 ). The plasma frequency of this target corresponds to harmonics 15-16, thus excluding the CWE mechanism for the generation of harmonics of higher orders. Images on the right: harmonic spectra from orders 13 et 18, for different distances z between the target and the best focus. At the highest intensity (z=0), harmonics emitted by the ROM mechanism are observed above the 15th order. These harmonics have a much smaller spectral width then those due to CWE (below the 15th order). These ROM harmonics vanish as soon

  17. Plasma effects in attosecond pulse generation from ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the influence of plasma effects on high harmonic spectra from the interaction of ultra-intense p-polarized laser pulses with overdense plasma targets. Furthermore, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the radiation mechanism that leads to attosecond pulse generation in the reflected field. It is shown that plasma harmonic emission affects the spectral characteristics, causing deviations in the harmonic power decay as compared with the so-called universal 8/3-decay. These deviations may occur, in a varying degree, as a consequence of the extent to which the plasma line and its harmonics affect the emission. It is also found a strong correlation of the emitted attosecond pulses with electron density structures within the plasma, responsible to generate intense localised electrostatic fields. A theoretical model based on the excitation of Langmuir waves by the re-entrant Brunel electron beams in the plasma and their electromagnetic interaction with the laser field is proposed to explain the flatter power spectral emission - described by a weaker 5/3 index and observed in numerical simulations - than that of the universal decay.

  18. A plasma aerodynamic actuator supplied by a multilevel generator operating with different voltage waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, Carlo A; Cristofolini, Andrea; Grandi, Gabriele; Neretti, Gabriele; Seri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In this work a high voltage—high frequency generator for the power supply of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator for the aerodynamic control obtained by the electro-hydro-dynamic (EHD) interaction is described and tested. The generator can produce different voltage waveforms. The operating frequency is independent of the load characteristics and does not require impedance matching. The peak-to-peak voltage is 30 kV at a frequency up to 20 kHz and time variation rates up to 60 kV μs −1 . The performance of the actuator when supplied by several voltage waveforms is investigated. The tests have been performed in still air at atmospheric pressure. Voltage and current time behaviors have been measured. The evaluation of the energy delivered to the actuator allowed the estimation of the periods in which the plasma was ignited. Vibrational and rotational temperatures of the plasma have been estimated through spectroscopic acquisitions. The flow field induced in the region above the surface of the DBD actuator has been studied and the EHD conversion efficiency has been evaluated for the voltage waveforms investigated. The nearly sinusoidal multilevel voltage of the proposed generator and the sinusoidal voltage waveform of a conventional ac generator obtain comparable plasma features, EHD effects, and efficiencies. Inverse saw tooth waveform presents the highest effects and efficiency. The rectangular waveform generates suitable EHD effects but with the lowest efficiency. The voltage waveforms that induce plasmas with higher rotational temperatures are less efficient for the conversion of the electric into kinetic energy. (paper)

  19. Study of the stacked plasma generator of Maecker type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Katsuine; Machida, Ichiro; Ishihara, Kimio.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a stacked plasma generator of Maecker type has been performed at low pressures (25 - 760 Torr) and low electric currents (10 - 60 A) for argon gas. Radial distributions of electron density and electron temperature were obtained by measuring the intensities of spectral lines and continuum from cylindrically confined plasmas. Based on such data of the macroscopic plasma parameters, the SAHA equilibrium relation, and the collisional and radiative theory of BATES et al., the spatial extent of equilibrium region and nonequilibrium effects of electronic excitation of the atom have been examined. In the plasmas generated in the apparatus, electron temperature ranged from 7,500 to 11,000 0 K and electron density 7 x 10 14 to 3 x 10 16 cm -3 . It was found that thermochemical equilibrium conditions existed only in the vicinity of the tube axis even at relatively high pressures and high currents, and the higher excited levels than the 5p level of argon atom were always in SAHA equilibrium with free electrons. (author)

  20. Modelling of diamond deposition microwave cavity generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassouni, K; Silva, F; Gicquel, A

    2010-01-01

    Some aspects of the numerical modelling of diamond deposition plasmas generated using microwave cavity systems are discussed. The paper mainly focuses on those models that allow (i) designing microwave cavities in order to optimize the power deposition in the discharge and (ii) estimating the detailed plasma composition in the vicinity of the substrate surface. The development of hydrogen plasma models that may be used for the self-consistent simulation of microwave cavity discharge is first discussed. The use of these models for determining the plasma configuration, composition and temperature is illustrated. Examples showing how to use these models in order to optimize the cavity structure and to obtain stable process operations are also given. A transport model for the highly reactive H 2 /CH 4 moderate pressure discharges is then presented. This model makes possible the determination of the time variation of plasma composition and temperature on a one-dimensional domain located on the plasma axis. The use of this model to analyse the transport phenomena and the chemical process in diamond deposition plasmas is illustrated. The model is also utilized to analyse pulsed mode discharges and the benefit they can bring as far as diamond growth rate and quality enhancement are concerned. We, in particular, show how the model can be employed to optimize the pulse waveform in order to improve the deposition process. Illustrations on how the model can give estimates of the species density at the growing substrate surface over a wide domain of deposition conditions are also given. This brings us to discuss the implication of the model prediction in terms of diamond growth rate and quality. (topical review)

  1. Simulation of current generation in a 3-D plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, F.S.; Dawson, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Two wires carrying current in the same direction will attract each other, and two wires carrying current in the opposite direction will repel each other. Now, consider a test charge in a plasma. If the test charge carries current parallel to the plasma, then it will be pulled toward the plasma core, and if the test charge carries current anti-parallel to the plasma, then it will be pushed to the edge. The electromagnetic coupling between the plasma and a test charge (i.e., the A parallel circ v parallel term in the test charge's Hamiltonian) breaks the symmetry in the parallel direction, and gives rise to a diffusion coefficient which is dependent on the particle's parallel velocity. This is the basis for the open-quotes preferential lossclose quotes mechanism described in the work by Nunan et al. In our previous 2+1/2 D work, in both cylindrical and toroidal geometries, showed that if the plasma column is centrally fueled, then an initial current increases steadily. The results in straight, cylindrical plasmas showed that self generated parallel current arises without trapped particle or neoclassical diffusion, as assumed by the bootstrap theory. It suggests that the fundamental mechanism seems to be the conservation of particles canonical momenta in the direction of the ignorable coordinate. We have extended the simulation to 3D to verify the model put forth. A scalable 3D EM-PIC code, with a localized field-solver, has been implemented to run on a large class of parallel computers. On the 512-node SP2 at Cornell Theory Center, we have benchmarked the 2+1/2 D calculations using 32 grids in the previously ignored direction, and a 100-fold increase in the number of particles. Our preliminary results show good agreements between the 2+1/2 D and the 3D calculations. We will present our 3D results at the meeting

  2. Determination of Plasma Screening Effects for Thermonuclear Reactions in Laser-generated Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yuanbin; Pálffy, Adriana, E-mail: yuanbin.wu@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: Palffy@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-03-20

    Due to screening effects, nuclear reactions in astrophysical plasmas may behave differently than in the laboratory. The possibility to determine the magnitude of these screening effects in colliding laser-generated plasmas is investigated theoretically, having as a starting point a proposed experimental setup with two laser beams at the Extreme Light Infrastructure facility. A laser pulse interacting with a solid target produces a plasma through the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration scheme, and this rapidly streaming plasma (ion flow) impacts a secondary plasma created by the interaction of a second laser pulse on a gas jet target. We model this scenario here and calculate the reaction events for the astrophysically relevant reaction {sup 13}C({sup 4}He, n ){sup 16}O. We find that it should be experimentally possible to determine the plasma screening enhancement factor for fusion reactions by detecting the difference in reaction events between two scenarios of ion flow interacting with the plasma target and a simple gas target. This provides a way to evaluate nuclear reaction cross-sections in stellar environments and can significantly advance the field of nuclear astrophysics.

  3. Laser-generated plasmas by graphene nanoplatelets embedded into polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Restuccia, N.; Messina, E.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 2 (2017), s. 294-303 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : advanced targets * Au NP * graphene * laser-generated plasma * time-of-flight measurements Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016

  4. Laser-generated plasma by carbon nanoparticles embedded into polyethylene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 375, MAY (2016), s. 93-99 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : carbon nanoparticles * laser-generated plasma * Time-of-flight measurements * advanced targets Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  5. Phase-matched third harmonic generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    Relativistic third harmonic generation in a plasma is investigated. The growth of a third harmonic wave is limited by the difference between the phase velocity of the pump and driven waves. This phase velocity mismatch results in a third harmonic amplitude saturation and oscillation. In order to overcome this saturation, the authors describe a phase-matching scheme based on a resonant density modulation. The limitations of this scheme are analyzed

  6. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: generation of flow and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a \\Pi -shaped dusty plasma experimental device with micron size kaolin/melamine formaldehyde particles embedded in a background of argon plasma created by a direct current glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super particle identification code, particle image velocimetry analysis and the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral drag force responsible for the generation as well as the attenuation of the dust fluid flow is made. These techniques can be usefully employed in laboratory devices to investigate linear and non-linear collective excitations in a flowing dusty plasma.

  7. Study of non inductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of non-thermal bremsstrahlung during lower hybrid current drive is considered. The proposed method shows the role of the Compton effects at low frequencies and allows us to establish the link between the emitted power and the absorbed power at high frequency. The non-thermal emission is considered as a kinematical mode conversion between the absorbed radio-frequency mode and the emitted X ray photons. The fast electrons diagnostics and the ways to reach the wave structure are shown. Kinetic and electromagnetic problems concerning current generation are described. The plasma properties and diagnostics in the case of a non inductive current generation are discussed [fr

  8. Mechanism of solid-state plasma-induced dewetting for formation of copper and gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Ho; Choe, Han Joo; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook; Lee, Jung-Joong

    2013-09-01

    Cu and Au nanoparticles were fabricated by plasma treatment on Cu and Au films at 653 K. The nanoparticles were formed by dewetting the metallic films using plasma. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy investigations showed that the plasma-induced dewetting of the Cu and Au films proceeded through heterogeneous hole nucleation and growth along the grain boundaries to lower the surface energy. The amount of energy transferred to surface atoms by one Ar ion was calculated to be 16.1 eV, which was sufficient for displacing Cu and Au atoms. Compared to thermally activated dewetting, more uniform particles could be obtained by plasma-induced dewetting because a much larger number of holes with smaller sizes was generated. The plasma dewetting process is less sensitive to the oxidation of metallic films compared to the annealing process. As a result, Cu nanoparticles could be fabricated at 653 K, whereas the thermally activated dewetting was not possible.

  9. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A

    2016-01-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)

  10. High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...

  11. Atmospheric plasma generates oxygen atoms as oxidizing species in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefny, Mohamed Mokhtar; Pattyn, Cedric; Benedikt, Jan; Lukes, Petr

    2016-01-01

    A remote microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet ( µ APPJ) with He, He/H 2 O, He/O 2 , and He/O 2 /H 2 O gas mixtures was used to study the transport of reactive species from the gas phase into the liquid and the following aqueous phase chemistry. The effects induced by the µ APPJ in water were quantitatively studied using phenol as a chemical probe and by measuring H 2 O 2 concentration and pH values. These results were combined with the analysis of the absolute densities of the reactive species and the modeling of convective/diffusion transport and recombination reactions in the effluent of the plasma jet. Additionally, modified plasma jets were used to show that the role of emitted photons in aqueous chemistry is negligible for these plasma sources. The fastest phenol degradation was measured for the He/O 2 plasma, followed by He/H 2 O, He/O 2 /H 2 O, and He plasmas. The modeled quantitative flux of O atoms into the liquid in the He/O 2 plasma case was highly comparable with the phenol degradation rate and showed a very high transfer efficiency of reactive species from the plasma into the liquid, where more than half of the O atoms leaving the jet nozzle entered the liquid. The results indicate that the high oxidative effect of He/O 2 plasma was primarily due to solvated O atoms, whereas OH radicals dominated the oxidative effects induced in water by plasmas with other gas mixtures. These findings help to understand, in a quantitative way, the complex interaction of cold atmospheric plasmas with aqueous solutions and will allow a better understanding of the interaction of these plasmas with water or buffered solutions containing biological macromolecules, microorganisms, or even eukaryotic cells. Additionally, the µ APPJ He/O 2 plasma source seems to be an ideal tool for the generation of O atoms in aqueous solutions for any future studies of their reactivity. (paper)

  12. High-order harmonic generation in a laser plasma: a review of recent achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeev, R A

    2007-01-01

    A review of studies of high-order harmonic generation in plasma plumes is presented. The generation of high-order harmonics (up to the 101st order, λ = 7.9 nm) of Ti:sapphire laser radiation during the propagation of short laser pulses through a low-excited, low-ionized plasma produced on the surfaces of different targets is analysed. The observation of considerable resonance-induced enhancement of a single harmonic (λ = 61.2 nm) at the plateau region with 10 -4 conversion efficiency in the case of an In plume can offer some expectations that analogous processes can be realized in other plasma samples in the shorter wavelength range. Recent achievements of single-harmonic enhancement at mid- and end-plateau regions are discussed. Various methods for the optimization of harmonic generation are analysed, such as the application of the second harmonic of driving radiation and the application of prepulses of different durations. The enhancement of harmonic generation efficiency during the propagation of femtosecond pulses through a nanoparticle-containing plasma is discussed. (topical review)

  13. An experimental facility for microwave induced plasma processing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, D.S.; Ramachandran, K.; Bhide, A.L.; Venkatramani, N.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave induced plasma processing offers many advantages over conventional processes. However this technology is in the development stage. This report gives a detailed information about a microwave plasma processing facility (2.45 GHz, 700 W) set up in the Laser and Plasma Technology Division. The equipment details and the results obtained on deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films and surface modification of polymer PET (polyethylene terephthalate) using this facility are given in this report. (author)

  14. An Explorative Study to Use DBD Plasma Generation for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Zhou, Wenwu; Liu, Yang; Kolbakir, Cem

    2017-11-01

    An explorative investigation was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing thermal effect induced by Dielectric-Barrier-Discharge (DBD) plasma generation for aircraft icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in an Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). A NACA0012 airfoil/wing model embedded with DBD plasma actuators was installed in ISU-IRT under typical glaze icing conditions pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena. While a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process over the airfoil surface for the test cases with and without switching on the DBD plasma actuators, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was utilized to map the corresponding temperature distributions to quantify the unsteady heat transfer and phase changing process over the airfoil surface. The thermal effect induced by DBD plasma generation was demonstrated to be able to keep the airfoil surface staying free of ice during the entire ice accretion experiment. The measured quantitative surface temperature distributions were correlated with the acquired images of the dynamic ice accretion and water runback processes to elucidate the underlying physics. National Science Foundation CBET-1064196 and CBET-1435590.

  15. Inductive thermal plasma generation applied for the materials coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.; Pena, R.; Cota, G.; Segovia, A.; Cruz, A.

    1996-01-01

    The coatings by thermal plasma are carried out introducing particles into a plasma system where they are accelerated and melted (total or partially) before striking the substrate to which they adhere and are suddenly cooled down. The nature of consolidation and solidification of the particles allows to have control upon the microstructure of the deposit. This technique is able to deposit any kind of material that is suitable to be merged (metal, alloy, ceramic, glass) upon any type of substrate (metal, graphite, ceramic, wood) with an adjustable thickness ranging from a few microns up to several millimeters. The applications are particularly focused to the coating of materials in order to improve their properties of resistance to corrosion, thermal and mechanical efforts as well as to preserve the properties of the so formed compound. In this work the electromagnetic induction phenomenon in an ionized medium by means of electric conductivity, is described. Emphasis is made on the devices and control systems employed in order to generate the thermal plasma and in carrying out the coatings of surfaces by the projection of particles based on plasma

  16. Production and Characterization of Femtosecond-Laser-Induced Air Plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Armbruster, David R

    2008-01-01

    .... A beam expander was used to expand the beam to a diameter of approximately 6.5 mm, and the beam was focused through a 25 mm focal length achromatic lens to produce laser-induced plasma in ambient air...

  17. Laser propagation and soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W.; Li, J. Q.; Kishimoto, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The propagation characteristics of various laser modes with different polarization, as well as the soliton generation in strongly magnetized plasmas are studied numerically through one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and analytically by solving the laser wave equation. PIC simulations show that the laser heating efficiency substantially depends on the magnetic field strength, the propagation modes of the laser pulse and their intensities. Generally, large amplitude laser can efficiently heat the plasma with strong magnetic field. Theoretical analyses on the linear propagation of the laser pulse in both under-dense and over-dense magnetized plasmas are well confirmed by the numerical observations. Most interestingly, it is found that a standing or moving soliton with frequency lower than the laser frequency is generated in certain magnetic field strength and laser intensity range, which can greatly enhance the laser heating efficiency. The range of magnetic field strength for the right-hand circularly polarized (RCP) soliton formation with high and low frequencies is identified by solving the soliton equations including the contribution of ion's motion and the finite temperature effects under the quasi-neutral approximation. In the limit of immobile ions, the RCP soliton tends to be peaked and stronger as the magnetic field increases, while the enhanced soliton becomes broader as the temperature increases. These findings in 1D model are well validated by 2D simulations.

  18. Nonthermal Argon Plasma Generator and Some Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunoiu M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory - made nonthermal plasma generator is presented. It has a diameter of 0.020 m and length of 0.155 m and contains two electrodes. The first electrode is a 2% Th-W alloy, 0.002 m in diameter bar, centred inside the generator’s body by means of a four channel teflon piece; the other three channels, 0.003 m in diameter, are used for Ar supply. The second electrode is a nozzle of 0.002 m - 0.008 m diameter and 0.005m length. A ~500 kV/m electric field is generated between the two electrodes by a high frequency source (13.56 MHz ±5%, equipped with a OT-1000 (Tungsram power triode. For Ar flows ranging from 0.00008 m3/s to 0.00056 m3/s, a plasma jet of length not exceeding 0.015 m and temperature below 315 K is obtained. Anthurium andraeanumis sample , blood matrix, human hair and textile fibers may be introduced in the plasma jet. For time periods of 30 s and 60 s, various effects like, cell detexturization, fast blood coagulation or textile fiber or hair cleaning and smoothing are obtained. These effects are presented and discussed in the paper.

  19. Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Malcolm; Vinogradov, Sergel Evge'evich; Ribin, Valeri Vasil'evich; Shekalov, Valentin Ivanovich; Rutberg, Philip Grigor'evich; Safronov, Alexi Anatol'evich

    2008-12-09

    Material for electrodes of low temperature plasma generators. The material contains a porous metal matrix impregnated with a material emitting electrons. The material uses a mixture of copper and iron powders as a porous metal matrix and a Group IIIB metal component such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 is used as a material emitting electrons at, for example, the proportion of the components, mass %: iron: 3-30; Y.sub.2O.sub.3:0.05-1; copper: the remainder. Copper provides a high level of heat conduction and electric conductance, iron decreases intensity of copper evaporation in the process of plasma creation providing increased strength and lifetime, Y.sub.2O.sub.3 provides decreasing of electronic work function and stability of arc burning. The material can be used for producing the electrodes of low temperature AC plasma generators used for destruction of liquid organic wastes, medical wastes, and municipal wastes as well as for decontamination of low level radioactive waste, the destruction of chemical weapons, warfare toxic agents, etc.

  20. Spontaneous generation of electromagnetic waves in plasmas with electron thermal flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous generation of propagating electromagnetic fields due to a microinstability is investigated for plasmas which convey electron thermal fluxes. The following two cases are examined: 1) Electromagnetic fields spontaneously excited by electrons in a velocity distribution of skewed Maxwellian type. 2) Electromagnetic waves generated by electrons in a velocity distribution which consists of a main part and a high energy part. In this case, the electron thermal flux can be very high. In both cases, induced electromagnetic waves with relatively low frequencies propagate parallel to the direction of Thermal flux. (auth.)

  1. Dual-wavelength differential spectroscopic imaging for diagnostics of laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V., E-mail: vincent.motto-ros@univ-lyon1.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Ma, Q.L. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Gregoire, S. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Lei, W.Q.; Wang, X.C. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France); Pelascini, F.; Surma, F. [CRITT Matriaux Alsace, 19 rue de St Junien, 67300 Schiltigheim (France); Detalle, V. [Laboratoire de Recherche des Monuments Historiques, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Yu, J. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, CNRS, UMR5579, LASIM (France)

    2012-08-15

    A specific configuration for plasma fast spectroscopic imaging was developed, where a pair of narrowband filters, one fitting an emission line of a species to be studied and the other out of its emission line, allowed double images to be taken for a laser-induced plasma. A dedicated software was developed for the subtraction between the double images. The result represents therefore the monochromatic emission image of the species in the plasma. We have shown in this work that such configuration is especially efficient for the monitoring of a plasma generated under the atmospheric pressure at very short delays after the impact of the laser pulse on the target, when a strong continuum emission is observed. The efficiency of the technique has been particularly demonstrated in the study of laser-induced plasma on a polymer target. Molecular species, such as C{sub 2} and CN, as well as atomic species, such as C and N, were imaged starting from 50 ns after the laser impact. Moreover space segregation of different species, atomic or molecular, inside of the plasma was clearly observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imaging to study species with time and space resolution in laser induced plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Image display of multiple species is proposed based on RGB color model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular emission (CN and C{sub 2}) is observed at very short delays (50 ns). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Segregation of different species inside the plasma is clearly established.

  2. Generation and confinement of microwave gas-plasma in photonic dielectric microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debord, B; Jamier, R; Gérôme, F; Leroy, O; Boisse-Laporte, C; Leprince, P; Alves, L L; Benabid, F

    2013-10-21

    We report on a self-guided microwave surface-wave induced generation of ~60 μm diameter and 6 cm-long column of argon-plasma confined in the core of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. At gas pressure of 1 mbar, the micro-confined plasma exhibits a stable transverse profile with a maximum gas-temperature as high as 1300 ± 200 K, and a wall-temperature as low as 500 K, and an electron density level of 10¹⁴ cm⁻³. The fiber guided fluorescence emission presents strong Ar⁺ spectral lines in the visible and near UV. Theory shows that the observed combination of relatively low wall-temperature and high ionisation rate in this strongly confined configuration is due to an unprecedentedly wide electrostatic space-charge field and the subsequent ion acceleration dominance in the plasma-to-gas power transfer.

  3. Light-induced ion-acoustic instability of rarefied plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, I.V.; Sizykh, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    A new method of ion-acoustic instability excitation under the effect of coherent light, resonance to ion quantum transitions on collisionless plasma, is suggested. The light-induced ion-acoustic instability (LIIAI) considered is based on the induced progressive nonequilibrium resonance particles in the field of travelling electromagnetic wave. Principal possibility to use LIIAI in high-resolution spectroscopy and in applied problems of plasma physics, related to its instability, is pointed out

  4. Schlieren Technique Applied to Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Nirbhav; Pearcy, Jacob; Jaworski, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are a promising augmentation to current hydrocarbon based combustion schemes for creating electrical power. In recent years, interest in MHD generators has been revitalized due to advances in a number of technologies such as superconducting magnets, solid-state power electronics and materials science as well as changing economics associated with carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration. We use a multi-wavelength schlieren imaging system to evaluate electron density independently of gas density in a plasma torch under conditions relevant to MHD generators. The sensitivity and resolution of the optical system are evaluated alongside the development of an automated analysis and calibration program in Python. Preliminary analysis shows spatial resolutions less than 1mm and measures an electron density of ne = 1 ×1016 cm-3 in an atmospheric microwave torch. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  5. Morphology of magnetic fields generated in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.J.M.; Cooke, D.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic fields in the megagauss range have been measured in experiments on plasmas generated by irradiating targets with high power lasers. A study of the morphology of these self-generated fields is important not only for its intrinsic interest but for possible implications in laser--target physics. In this paper work on the numerical modeling of large magnetic fields generated in target experiments is reported. The results show generally satisfactory agreement with the fields measured experimentally both in terms of the magnitude of the peak fields and their morphology. In the numerical model the contribution from the Hall term in describing the evolution of the magnetic field is shown to be important especially in short pulse (≅100 psec) experiments

  6. Modelling of microwave induced plasmas : the interplay between electromagnetism, plasma chemistry and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Diaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we report on a theoretical/numerical study that is concerned with Microwave Induced Plasmas (MIPs) in general, and the application of a MIP to the Plasma-activated Chemical Vapour Deposition (PCVD) process that is used at Draka Comteq for the production of optical fibres in

  7. Spectroscopic study of microwave induced plasmas : exploration of active and passive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de N.

    2008-01-01

    Microwave induced plasmas (MIPs) are used for a number of high-tech applications like material processing, light generation, gas cleaning and spectrochemical analysis. Especially the feature that MIPs can be operated remotely and that the propagation of the microwaves can be manipulated with slits,

  8. Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L

    2017-07-12

    The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10 20  W/cm 2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.

  9. Electron beam induced emission from carbon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetstone, S.; Kammash, T.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma use as a lasing medium has many potential advantages over conventional techniques including increased power levels and greater wavelength ranges. The basic concept is to heat and then rapidly cool a plasma forcing inversion through bottleneck creation between the recombination reaction populating a given energy level and the subsequent decay processes. Much effort has been devoted to plasmas heated by lasers and pinch devices. The authors are concerned here with electron beam heated plasmas focusing on the CIV 5g-4f transition occurring at 2530 Angstroms. These studies were initiated to provide theoretical support for experiments being performed at the University of Michigan using the Michigan Electron Long-Pulse Beam Accelerator (MELBA)

  10. Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot collisional plasma by inverse Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, M.K.; Lawande, S.V.; Dutta, D.; Sarkar, S.; Khan, M.; Chakraborty, B.

    1996-01-01

    Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot and collisional plasma by an inverse Faraday effect is discussed. This field can either be induced by a circularly polarized laser beam (CPLB) or a plane-polarized laser beam (PPLB). For the CPLB, an average field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 0 λ∼11.6 MG could be produced in a DT plasma for a high intensity (I 0 =10 22 W/m 2 ) and shorter wavelength (λ=0.35 μm) laser. This field is essentially induced by the field inhomogeneity effect and dominates over that induced by the plasma inhomogeneity effect (left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 2/3 0 λ 7/3 ∼2.42 MG). The collisional and thermal contribution to left-angle Re x right-angle is just negligible for the CPLB. However, in the case of PPLB the poloidal field is generated only for a hot and collisional plasma and can be quite large for a longer wavelength laser (e.g., CO 2 laser, λ=10.6 μm). The collisional effect induces a field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼0.08 kG, which dominates near the turning point and is independent of the laser parameters. However, in the outer cronal region the thermal pressure effect dominates (e.g., left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 5/3 0 λ 4/3 ∼3.0 MG). Further, left-angle Re x right-angle for the p-polarized beam is, in general, relatively smaller than that for the s-polarized beam. Practical implications of these results and their limitations are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Low energy proton beams from laser-generated plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Caridi, F.; Di Bartolo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 140-144 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-generated plasma * proton acceleration * hydrogenated targets * proton yield * doped polymers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  12. Magnetic field generation during intense laser channelling in underdense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, A. G.; Sarri, G.; Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Vranic, M.; Guillaume, E.; Silva, L. O.; Vieira, J. [GoLP/IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Amano, Y.; Habara, H.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering Osaka University. Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Heathcote, R.; Norreys, P. A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX1 0Qx (United Kingdom); Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Channel formation during the propagation of a high-energy (120 J) and long duration (30 ps) laser pulse through an underdense deuterium plasma has been spatially and temporally resolved via means of a proton imaging technique, with intrinsic resolutions of a few μm and a few ps, respectively. Conclusive proof is provided that strong azimuthally symmetric magnetic fields with a strength of around 0.5 MG are created inside the channel, consistent with the generation of a collimated beam of relativistic electrons. The inferred electron beam characteristics may have implications for the cone-free fast-ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion.

  13. Aerospace propulsion using laser-driven plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Daozhi (Beijing Univ. of Aeronautics and Astronautics (People' s Republic of China))

    1989-04-01

    The use of a remote pulsed laser beam for aerospace vehicle propulsion is suggested. The engine will be of variable cycle type using a plasma generator, and the vehicle will be of rotary plate type. It will be launched using an external radiated-heated VTOL thruster, lifted by an MHD fanjet, and accelerated by a rotary rocket pulsejet. It is speculated that, sending the same payload into low earth orbit, the vehicle mass at liftoff will be 1/20th that of the Space Shuttle, and the propellant mass carried by the new vehicle will be only 1/40th that of the Shuttle. 40 refs.

  14. Faraday cup measurements of a laser-induced plasma for a laser-proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae

    2006-01-01

    Experiments for the generation of laser-induced protons were performed in collaboration with Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI). An intensity of 3 X 10 18 W/cm 2 was delivered to a 17-μm Al target, and the Faraday Cup signals of the charged particles generated by the laser-plasma interaction were measured. In this paper, we discuss the first experimental results of laser-induced proton generation using the APRI laser and report on the feasibility of current measurement for charged-particles when using a Faraday cup.

  15. Generation of two-dimensional binary mixtures in complex plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieben, Frank; Block, Dietmar

    2016-10-01

    Complex plasmas are an excellent model system for strong coupling phenomena. Under certain conditions the dust particles immersed into the plasma form crystals which can be analyzed in terms of structure and dynamics. Previous experiments focussed mostly on monodisperse particle systems whereas dusty plasmas in nature and technology are polydisperse. Thus, a first and important step towards experiments in polydisperse systems are binary mixtures. Recent experiments on binary mixtures under microgravity conditions observed a phase separation of particle species with different radii even for small size disparities. This contradicts several numerical studies of 2D binary mixtures. Therefore, dedicated experiments are required to gain more insight into the physics of polydisperse systems. In this contribution first ground based experiments on two-dimensional binary mixtures are presented. Particular attention is paid to the requirements for the generation of such systems which involve the consideration of the temporal evolution of the particle properties. Furthermore, the structure of these two-component crystals is analyzed and compared to simulations. This work was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG in the framework of the SFB TR24 Greifswald Kiel, Project A3b.

  16. Influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in nonthermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin Liang; Lee, How Ming; Chen, Shiaw Huei; Wei, Ta Chin; Chang, Moo Been

    2010-01-01

    Inconsistency regarding the influence of Ar addition on ozone generation in a corona discharge has been found in relevant studies. Unlike in the literature to date, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor is adopted in this study. In addition to clarifying whether using Ar as an additive would lead to different types of behavior in a DBD and a corona discharge, this study is also motivated to explore the possible causes leading to the inconsistency. The experimental results show that adding Ar into the O 2 plasma would lead to the same influence on ozone generation in the DBD and corona discharge. Moreover, all types of controversial behavior caused by Ar addition reported in the relevant literature are observed in this study as well, indicating that the results of this study are comprehensive enough to interpret the inconsistency. By examining the experimental results in detail, it is found that the controversial influences of Ar addition on ozone generation were found using different assumptions. At a fixed applied voltage, the ozone generation might increase as the Ar concentration is increased, which results from a higher discharge power. Nevertheless, for a certain specific input energy (the ratio of discharge power to gas flow rate), the ozone concentration is lower as the Ar concentration is increased. Therefore, adding Ar is not a good way to enhance ozone generation from an economic point of view.

  17. Generation and Sustainment of Plasma Rotation by ICRF Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, F. W.

    2000-10-01

    When tokamak plasmas are heated by the fundamental minority ion-cyclotron process, they are observed to rotate toroidally, even though this heating process introduces negligable angular momentum. This work proposes and evaluates a physics mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. The argument has two elements. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a v_tor = 0 boundary condition at the plasma surface and a torque-density source. When the source consists of separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a finite central rotation velocity results, even though the volume integrated torque density - the angular momentum input - vanishes. Secondly, ions energized by the ICRF process can generate separated regions of positive and negative torque density. Heating increases their banana widths which leads to radial energetic-particle transport that must be balanced by neutralizing radial currents and a j_rB_pR torque density in the bulk plasma. Additional, comparable torque density results from collisional transfer of mechanical angular momentum from energetic particles to the bulk plasma and particle loss through banana particles impacting the wall. Monte-Carlo calculations utilizing the ORBIT code evaluate all sources of torque density and rigorously assure that no net angular momentum is introduced. Two models of ICRF heating, diffusive and instantaneous, give similar results. When the resonance location is on the LFS, the calculated rotation has the magnitude, profile, and co-current sense of Alcator C-Mod observations. For HFS resonance locations, the model predicts counter-current rotation. Scans of rotational profiles vs. resonance location, initial energy, particle loss, pitch, and qm will be presented as will the location of the velocity shear layer its scaling to a reactor.

  18. Modeling of plasma plume induced during laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscicki, T.; Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.

    2005-01-01

    During laser welding, the interaction of intense laser radiation with a work-piece leads to the formation of a long, thin, cylindrical cavity in a metal, called a keyhole. Generation of a keyhole enables the laser beam to penetrate into the work-piece and is essential for deep welding. The keyhole contains ionized metal vapour and is surrounded by molten material called the weld pool. The metal vapour, which flows from the keyhole mixes with the shielding gas flowing from the opposite direction and forms a plasma plume over the keyhole mouth. The plasma plume has considerable influence on the processing conditions. Plasma strongly absorbs laser radiation and significantly changes energy transfer from the laser beam to a material. In this paper the results of theoretical modelling of plasma plume induced during welding with CO 2 laser are presented. The set of equations consists of equation of conservation of mass, energy, momentum and the diffusion equation: ∂ρ/∂t + ∇·(ρ ρ ν =0; ∂(ρE)/∂t + ∇·( ρ ν (ρE + p)) = ∇ (k eff ∇T - Σ j h j ρ J j + (τ eff · ρ ν )) + Σ i κ i I i - R; ∂/∂t(ρ ρ ν ) + ∇· (ρ ρ ν ρ ν ) = - ∇p + ∇(τ) + ρ ρ g + ρ F, where τ is viscous tensor τ = μ[(∇ ρ ν + ∇ ρT ν )-2/3∇· ρ ν I]; ∂/∂t(ρY i ) + ∇·(ρ ρ ν Y i ) = ∇·ρD i,m ∇T i ; where μ ν denotes velocity vector, E - energy, ρ mass density; k - thermal conductivity, T- temperature, κ - absorption coefficient, I i local laser intensity, R - radiation loss function, p - pressure, h j enthalpy, J j - diffusion flux of j component, ν g - gravity, μ F - external force, μ - dynamic viscosity, I - unit tensor, Y i - mass fraction of iron vapor in the gas mixture, D i,m - mass diffusion coefficient. The terms k eff and τ eff contain the turbulent component of the thermal conductivity and the viscosity, respectively. All the material functions are functions of the temperature and mass fraction only. The equations

  19. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-six leading researchers from ten nations gathered in the Homeric village of Kardamyli, on the southern coast of mainland Greece, from August 29-September 4, 1993 for the International Workshop on Acceleration and Radiation Generation in Space and Laboratory Plasmas. This Special Issue represents a cross-section of the presentations made at and the research stimulated by that meeting. According to the Iliad, King Agamemnon used Kardamyli as a dowry offering in order to draw a sulking Achilles into the Trojan War. 3000 years later, Kardamyli is no less seductive. Its remoteness and tranquility made it an ideal venue for promoting the free exchange of ideas between various disciplines that do not normally interact. Through invited presen tations, informal poster discussions and working group sessions, the Workshop brought together leaders from the laboratory and space/astrophysics communities working on common problems of acceleration and radiation generation in plasmas. It was clear from the presentation and discussion sessions that there is a great deal of common ground between these disciplines which is not at first obvious due to the differing terminologies and types of observations available to each community. All of the papers in this Special Issue highlight the role collective plasma processes play in accelerating particles or generating radiation. Some are state-of-the-art presentations of the latest research in a single discipline, while others investi gate the applicability of known laboratory mechanisms to explain observations in natural plasmas. Notable among the latter are the papers by Marshall et al. on kHz radiation in the magnetosphere ; Barletta et al. on collective acceleration in solar flares; and by Dendy et al. on ion cyclotron emission. The papers in this Issue are organized as follows: In Section 1 are four general papers by Dawson, Galeev, Bingham et al. and Mon which serves as an introduction to the physical mechanisms of acceleration

  20. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  1. Spatial diagnostics of the laser induced lithium fluoride plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, M. A.; Qamar, Aisha; Fareed, M. A.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Ali, Raheel [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-06-15

    We present spatial characteristics of the lithium fluoride plasma generated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The plume emission has been recorded spatially using five spectrometers covering the spectral region from 200 nm to 720 nm. The electron density is measured from the Stark broadened line profile of the line at 610.37 nm, whereas the plasma temperature has been determined using the Boltzmann plot method including all the observed spectral lines of lithium. Both the plasma parameters; electron density and plasma temperature decrease with the increase of the distance from the target surface. The thermal conduction towards the target, the radiative cooling of the plasma, and the conversion of thermal energy into kinetic energy are the main mechanisms responsible for the spatially decrease of the plasma parameters.

  2. DNA damage in oral cancer cells induced by nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Klas, Matej; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2013-09-01

    The nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) has been shown to effectively induce DNA double strand breaks in SCC-25 oral cancer cells. The APPJ source constructed in our laboratory consists of two external electrodes wrapping around a quartz tube and nitrogen as a feed gas and operates based on dielectric barrier gas discharge. Generally, it is more challenging to ignite plasma in N2 atmosphere than in noble gases. However, this design provides additional advantages such as lower costs compared to the noble gases for future clinical operation. Different parameters of the APPJ configuration were tested in order to determine radiation dosage. To explore the effects of delayed damage and cell self-repairing, various incubation times of cells after plasma treatment were also performed. Reactive species generated in plasma jet and in liquid environment are essential to be identified and quantified, with the aim of unfolding the mystery of detailed mechanisms for plasma-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, from the comparison of plasma treatment effect on normal oral cells OKF6T, an insight to the selectivity for cancer treatment by APPJ can be explored. All of these studies are critical to better understand the damage responses of normal and abnormal cellular systems to plasma radiation, which are useful for the development of advanced plasma therapy for cancer treatment at a later stage.

  3. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  4. Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James

    2005-10-01

    A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.

  5. Condensation induced water hammer in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Saha, P.; Wu, B.J.C.; Ginsberg, T.

    1979-06-01

    The case of condensation induced water hammer in nuclear steam generators is summarized, including both feed ring-type and economizer-type geometries. A slug impact model is described and used to demonstrate the parametric dependence of the impact pressures on heat transfer rates, initial pressures, and relative initial slug and void lengths. The results of the parametric study are related also to the economizer geometry and a suggested alternative model is presented. The importance of concerns regarding attenuation of shocks in two-phase media is delineated, and a simple experiment is described which was used to determine negligible attenuation within the accuracy of the experiment for void fractions up to over 30% in bubbly and slug flows

  6. Study on the plasma generation characteristics of an induction-triggered coaxial pulsed plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheng, CUI; Wenzheng, LIU; Jia, TIAN; Xiuyang, CHEN

    2018-02-01

    At present, spark plugs are used to trigger discharge in pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT), which are known to be life-limiting components due to plasma corrosion and carbon deposition. A strong electric field could be formed in a cathode triple junction (CTJ) to achieve a trigger function under vacuum conditions. We propose an induction-triggered electrode structure on the basis of the CTJ trigger principle. The induction-triggered electrode structure could increase the electric field strength of the CTJ without changing the voltage between electrodes, contributing to a reduction in the electrode breakdown voltage. Additionally, it can maintain the plasma generation effect when the breakdown voltage is reduced in the discharge experiments. The induction-triggered electrode structure could ensure an effective trigger when the ablation distance of Teflon increases, and the magnetic field produced by the discharge current could further improve the plasma density and propagation velocity. The induction-triggered coaxial PPT we propose has a simplified trigger structure, and it is an effective attempt to optimize the micro-satellite thruster.

  7. Operational characteristics of the high flux plasma generator magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, H.J.N.; Abrams, T.; Van Den Berg, M.A.; Brons, S.D.N.; Van Eden, G.G.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Van Der Meiden, H.J.; Morgan, T.W.; van de Pol, Marc J.; Scholten, J.; Smeets, P.H.M.; De Temmerman, G.; De Vries, P.C.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    In Magnum-PSI (MAgnetized plasma Generator and NUMerical modeling for Plasma Surface Interactions), the high density, low temperature plasma of a wall stabilized dc cascaded arc is confined to a magnetized plasma beam by a quasi-steady state axial magnetic field up to 1.3 T. It aims at conditions

  8. Characterization of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. F.; Pienaar, J.; Hogenbirk, E.; Masson, D.; Nolte, R.; Zimbal, A.; Röttger, S.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the neutron output of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator, model 35-DD-W-S, manufactured by NSD/Gradel-Fusion. The measured energy spectrum is found to be dominated by neutron peaks at 2.2 MeV and 2.7 MeV. A detailed GEANT4 simulation accurately reproduces the measured energy spectrum and confirms our understanding of the fusion process in this generator. Additionally, a contribution of 14 . 1 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium fusion is found at a level of 3 . 5%, from tritium produced in previous deuterium-deuterium reactions. We have measured both the absolute neutron flux as well as its relative variation on the operational parameters of the generator. We find the flux to be proportional to voltage V 3 . 32 ± 0 . 14 and current I 0 . 97 ± 0 . 01. Further, we have measured the angular dependence of the neutron emission with respect to the polar angle. We conclude that it is well described by isotropic production of neutrons within the cathode field cage.

  9. Marangoni flows induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berendsen, C W J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Kroesen, G M W; Darhuber, A A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the interaction of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets of Ar or air with liquid films of an aliphatic hydrocarbon on moving solid substrates. The hydrodynamic jet-liquid interaction induces a track of lower film thickness. The chemical plasma-surface interaction oxidizes the liquid, leading to a local increase of the surface tension and a self-organized redistribution of the liquid film. We developed a numerical model that qualitatively reproduces the formation, instability and coarsening of the flow patterns observed in the experiments. Monitoring the liquid flow has potential as an in-situ, spatially and temporally resolved, diagnostic tool for the plasma-liquid surface interaction. (paper)

  10. Coherent structures induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Li, Huaxing; Choi, Kwing So; Song, Longfei

    2017-11-01

    The structures of a flow field induced by a plasma actuator were investigated experimentally in quiescent air using high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technology. The motivation behind was to figure out the flow control mechanism of the plasma technique. A symmetrical Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuator was mounted on the suction side of the SC (2)-0714 supercritical airfoil. The results demonstrated that the plasma jet had some coherent structures in the separated shear layer and these structures were linked to a dominant frequency of f0 = 39 Hz when the peak-to-peak voltage of plasma actuator was 9.8 kV. The high speed PIV measurement of the induced airflow suggested that the plasma actuator could excite the flow instabilities which lead to production of the roll-up vortex. Analysis of transient results indicated that the roll-up vortices had the process of formation, movement, merging and breakdown. This could promote the entrainment effect of plasma actuator between the outside airflow and boundary layer flow, which is very important for flow control applications.

  11. Evaluations of electric field in laser-generated pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Rohlena, Karel; Wolowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), B580-B585 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22./. Prague, 26.06.2006-29.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : electric field in plasma * debye length * plasma temperature * plasma density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Effects induced by high and low intensity laser plasma on SiC Schottky detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciuto Antonella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon-Carbide detectors are extensively employed as diagnostic devices in laser-generated plasma, allowing the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions, when used in time-of-flight configuration. The plasma generated by high intensity laser (1016 W/cm2 producing high energy ions was characterized by SiC detector with a continuous front-electrode, and a very thick active depth, while SiC detector with an Interdigit front-electrode was used to measure the low energy ions of plasma generated by low intensity laser (1010 W/cm2. Information about ion energy, number of charge states, plasma temperature can be accurately obtained. However, laser exposure induces the formation of surface and bulk defects whose concentration increases with increasing the time to plasma exposure. The surface defects consist of clusters with a main size of the order of some microns and they modify the diode barrier height and the efficiency of the detector as checked by alpha spectrometry. The bulk defects, due to the energy loss of detected ions, strongly affect the electrical properties of the device, inducing a relevant increase of the leakage (reverse current and decrease the forward current related to a deactivation of the dopant in the active detector region.

  13. Effects induced by high and low intensity laser plasma on SiC Schottky detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciuto, Antonella; Torrisi, Lorenzo; Cannavò, Antonino; Mazzillo, Massimo; Calcagno, Lucia

    2018-01-01

    Silicon-Carbide detectors are extensively employed as diagnostic devices in laser-generated plasma, allowing the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions, when used in time-of-flight configuration. The plasma generated by high intensity laser (1016 W/cm2) producing high energy ions was characterized by SiC detector with a continuous front-electrode, and a very thick active depth, while SiC detector with an Interdigit front-electrode was used to measure the low energy ions of plasma generated by low intensity laser (1010 W/cm2). Information about ion energy, number of charge states, plasma temperature can be accurately obtained. However, laser exposure induces the formation of surface and bulk defects whose concentration increases with increasing the time to plasma exposure. The surface defects consist of clusters with a main size of the order of some microns and they modify the diode barrier height and the efficiency of the detector as checked by alpha spectrometry. The bulk defects, due to the energy loss of detected ions, strongly affect the electrical properties of the device, inducing a relevant increase of the leakage (reverse) current and decrease the forward current related to a deactivation of the dopant in the active detector region.

  14. Electron-positron plasma generation in a pulsar magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Istomin, Ya.N.

    1985-01-01

    The generation of an electron-positron plasma in vacuum (vacuum ''breakdown'') in the presence of an inhomogeneous electric field and strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered. A situation of this type may occur in the magnetosphere of a rotating neutron star. A general set of kinetic equations for electrons, positrons and γ quanta in a curvilinear magnetic field is derived by taking into account electron-positron pair production and emission of curvicur and synchrotron photons. The conditions for appearance of ''breakdown'' are determined and the threshold value of the elec tric field discontinuity at the surface of the star is found. Multiplication of particles in the magnetosphere is investigated and the electron, positron and γ quantum distribution functions are found. The extinction limit of pulsars is determined. The theory is shown to be in accordance with the observation results

  15. Mechanisms of polymer degradation using an oxygen plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colony, Joe A.; Sanford, Edward L.

    1987-01-01

    An RF oxygen plasma generator was used to produce polymer degradation which appears to be similar to that which has been observed in low Earth orbit. Mechanisms of this type of degradation were studied by collecting the reaction products in a cryogenic trap and identifying the molecular species using infrared, mass spectral, and X-ray diffraction techniques. No structurally dependent species were found from Kapton, Teflon, or Saran polymers. However, very reactive free radical entities are produced during the polymer degradation, as well as carbon dioxide and water. Reactions of the free radicals with the glass reaction vessel, with copper metal in the cold trap, and with a triphenyl phosphate scavenger in the cold trap, demonstrated the reactivity of the primary products.

  16. Nonlinear mode conversion with chaotic soliton generation at plasma resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, H.; Laedke, E.W.; Spatschek, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    The resonant absorption of electromagnetic waves near the critical density in inhomogeneous plasmas is studied. A driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the mode-converted oscillations is derived by multiple-scaling techniques. The model is simulated numerically. The generic transition from a stationary to a time-dependent solution is investigated. Depending on the parameters, a time-chaotic behavior is found. By a nonlinear analysis, based on the inverse scattering transform, solitons of a corresponding integrable equation are identified as the dominant coherent structures of the chaotic dynamics. Finally, a map is presented which predicts chaotic soliton generation and emission at the critical density. Its qualitative behavior, concerning the bifurcation points, is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations

  17. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D.; Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H - ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  18. Finite element thermal study of the Linac4 plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faircloth, D. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kronberger, M.; Kuechler, D.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R. [BE-ABP, Hadron Sources and Linacs, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    The temperature distribution and heat flow at equilibrium of the plasma generator of the rf-powered noncesiated Linac4 H{sup -} ion source have been studied with a finite element model. It is shown that the equilibrium temperatures obtained in the Linac4 nominal operation mode (100 kW rf power, 2 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration) are within material specifications except for the magnet cage, where a redesign may be necessary. To assess the upgrade of the Linac4 source for operation in the high-power operation mode of the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), an extrapolation of the heat load toward 100 kW rf power, 50 Hz repetition rate, and 0.4 ms pulse duration has been performed. The results indicate that a significant improvement of the source cooling is required to allow for operation in the high-power mode of SPL.

  19. Magnum-psi, a plasma generator for plasma-surface interaction research in ITER-like conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groot, B. de; Rooij, G.J. van; Veremiyenko, V.; Hellermann, M.G. von; Eck, H.J.N. van; Barth, C.J.; Kruijtzer, G.L.; Wolff, J.C.; Goedheer, W.J.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Kleyn, A.W.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Brezinsek, S.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Dahiya, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The FOM Institute for Plasma Physics is preparing the construction of the linear plasma generator, Magnum-psi. A pilot experiment (Pilot-psi) has been constructed, which we have used to optimize the cascaded arc plasma source and to explore the effect of high magnetic fields on the source operation as well as the expanding plasma beam and the effectiveness of Ohmic heating for manipulating the electron temperature and plasma density after the plasma expansion. Results are presented that demonstrate increasing source efficiency for increasing magnetic fields (up to 1.6 T). Thomson scattering measurements demonstrate that ITER relevant plasma fluxes are presently achieved in Pilot-psi: ∼10 24 m -2 s -1 and that additional heating could elevate the plasma temperature from 1.0 to 1.7 eV

  20. Comprehensive study on the pressure dependence of shock wave plasma generation under TEA CO2 laser bombardment on metal sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marpaung, A.M.; Kurniawan, H.; Tjia, M.O.; Kagawa, K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the dynamical process taking place in the plasma generated by a TEA CO 2 laser (400 mJ, 100 ns) on a zinc target when surrounded by helium gas of pressure ranging from 2 Torr to 1 atm. Plasma characteristics were examined in detail on the emission lines of Zn I 481.0 nm and He I 587.6 nm by means of an unique time-resolved spatial distribution technique in addition to an ordinary time-resolved emission measurement technique. The results reveal, for the first time, persistent shock wave characteristics in all cases throughout the entire pressure range considered. Further analysis of the data has clarified the distinct characteristics of laser plasmas generated in different ranges of gas pressure. It is concluded that three types of shock wave plasma can be identified; namely, a target shock wave plasma in the pressure range from 2 Torr to around 50 Torr; a coupling shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 50 Torr to 200 Torr and a gas breakdown shock wave plasma in the pressure range from around 200 Torr to 1 atm. These distinct characteristics are found to be ascribable to the different extents of the gas breakdown process taking place at the different gas pressures. These results, obtained for a TEA CO 2 laser, will provide a useful basis for the analyses of plasmas induced by other lasers. (author)

  1. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of proteins in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with dil......Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 micro......M) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both...... more efficient. The reaction of fresh diluted plasma with HOCl also gives rise to protein-derived nitrogen-centred radicals in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner; these have been detected by EPR spin trapping. Identical radicals have been detected with isolated HOCl-treated plasma proteins...

  2. Characteristics of semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma generated in a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Uk; Park, Chong-Ook; Park, Myung-Il; Kim, Sun-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Bok

    2002-01-01

    Plasma ignition method has been applied in various fields particularly to the rocket propulsion, pyrotechnics, explosives, and to the automotive air-bag system. Ignition method for those applications should be safe and also operate reliably in hostile environments such as; electromagnetic noise, drift voltage, electrostatic background and so on. In the present Letter, a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma ignition device was fabricated and its plasma characteristics including the propagation speed of the plasma, plasma size, and plasma temperature were investigated with the aid of the visualization of micro scale plasma (i.e., ≤350 μm), which generated from a micro-electro-mechanical poly-silicon semiconductor bridge (SCB)

  3. Optimization of laser-plasma injector via beam loading effects using ionization-induced injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Simulations of ionization-induced injection in a laser driven plasma wakefield show that high-quality electron injectors in the 50-200 MeV range can be achieved in a gas cell with a tailored density profile. Using the PIC code Warp with parameters close to existing experimental conditions, we show that the concentration of N2 in a hydrogen plasma with a tailored density profile is an efficient parameter to tune electron beam properties through the control of the interplay between beam loading effects and varying accelerating field in the density profile. For a given laser plasma configuration, with moderate normalized laser amplitude, a0=1.6 and maximum electron plasma density, ne 0=4 ×1018 cm-3 , the optimum concentration results in a robust configuration to generate electrons at 150 MeV with a rms energy spread of 4% and a spectral charge density of 1.8 pC /MeV .

  4. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in a laser-induced plasma evidenced by blackbody radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Jörg; Grojo, David; Axente, Emanuel; Craciun, Valentin

    2018-06-01

    We show that the plasma produced by laser ablation of solid materials in specific conditions has an emission spectrum that is characterized by the saturation of the most intense spectral lines at the blackbody radiance. The blackbody temperature equals the excitation temperature of atoms and ions, proving directly and unambiguously a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The present investigations take benefit from the very rich and intense emission spectrum generated by ablation of a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy. This alternative and direct proof of the plasma equilibrium state re-opens the perspectives of quantitative material analyses via calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Moreover, the unique properties of this laser-produced plasma promote its use as radiation standard for intensity calibration of spectroscopic instruments.

  5. Plasma generation using high-power millimeter-wave beam and its application for thrust generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Yasuhisa; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi

    2006-01-01

    Propagation of an ionization front in the beam channel was observed after plasma was generated using a 170 GHz millimeter-wave beam in the atmosphere. The propagation velocity of the ionization front was found to be supersonic when the millimeter-wave power density was greater than 75 kW cm -2 . The momentum coupling coefficient C m , a ratio of the propulsive impulse to the input energy, was measured using conical and cylindrical thruster models. A C m value greater than 350 N MW -1 was recorded when the ionization front propagated with supersonic velocity

  6. Laser-induced incandescence applied to dusty plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, F.M.J.H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kovacevic, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the laser heating of nanoparticles (diameters ≤1 μm) confined in a reactive plasma by short (150 ps) and intense (~63 mJ) UV (355 nm) laser pulses (laser-induced incandescence, LII). Important parameters such as the particle temperature and radius follow from analysis of the

  7. Microwave plasmas generated in bubbles immersed in liquids for hydrocarbons reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levko, Dmitry; Sharma, Ashish; Raja, Laxminarayan L

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational modeling study of microwave plasma generated in cluster of atmospheric-pressure argon bubbles immersed in a liquid. We demonstrate that the use of microwaves allows the generation of a dense chemically active non-equilibrium plasma along the gas–liquid interface. Also, microwaves allow generation of overdense plasma in all the bubbles considered in the cluster which is possible because the collisional skin depth of the wave exceeds the bubble dimension. These features of microwave plasma generation in bubbles immersed in liquids are highly desirable for the large-scale liquid hydrocarbon reforming technologies. (letter)

  8. Variations of helicon wave induced radial plasma transport in different experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1993-08-01

    Variations of the helicon wave induced radial plasma transport are presented in dependence on values of the plasma radius, magnetostatic field, plasma density, frequency of the helicon wave and on the ion charge. 22 refs., 14 figs

  9. Observation of Self-Generated Flows in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower-Hybrid-Driven Current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Wallace, G.; Parker, R.; Fiore, C.; Hughes, J. W.; Bonoli, P.; Shiraiwa, S.; Hubbard, A.; Wolfe, S.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Bitter, M.; Wilson, J.; Hill, K.

    2009-01-01

    In Alcator C-Mod discharges lower hybrid waves have been shown to induce a countercurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 60 km/s in the central region of the plasma (r/a∼<0.4). This modification of the toroidal rotation profile develops on a time scale comparable to the current redistribution time (∼100 ms) but longer than the energy and momentum confinement times (∼20 ms). A comparison of the co- and countercurrent injected waves indicates that current drive (as opposed to heating) is responsible for the rotation profile modifications. Furthermore, the changes in central rotation velocity induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are well correlated with changes in normalized internal inductance. The application of LHCD has been shown to generate sheared rotation profiles and a negative increment in the radial electric field profile consistent with a fast electron pinch

  10. On-site SiH4 generator using hydrogen plasma generated in slit-type narrow gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Norihisa; Shinoda, Fumiya; Kakiuchi, Hiroaki; Yasutake, Kiyoshi; Ohmi, Hiromasa

    2018-06-01

    We have been developing an on-site silane (SiH4) generator based on use of the chemical etching reaction between solid silicon (Si) and the high-density H atoms that are generated in high-pressure H2 plasma. In this study, we have developed a slit-type plasma source for high-efficiency SiH4 generation. High-density H2 plasma was generated in a narrow slit-type discharge gap using a 2.45 GHz microwave power supply. The plasma’s optical emission intensity distribution along the slit was measured and the resulting distribution was reflected by both the electric power distribution and the hydrogen gas flow. Because the Si etching rate strongly affects the SiH4 generation rate, the Si etching behavior was investigated with respect to variations in the experimental parameters. The weight etch rate increased monotonically with increasing input microwave power. However, the weight etch rate decreased with increasing H2 pressure and an increasing plasma gap. This reduction in the etch rate appears to be related to shrinkage of the plasma generation area because increased input power is required to maintain a constant plasma area with increasing H2 pressure and the increasing plasma gap. Additionally, the weight etch rate also increases with increasing H2 flow rate. The SiH4 generation rate of the slit-type plasma source was also evaluated using gas-phase Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy and the material utilization efficiencies of both Si and the H2 gas for SiH4 gas formation were discussed. The main etch product was determined to be SiH4 and the developed plasma source achieved a SiH4 generation rate of 10 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute) at an input power of 900 W. In addition, the Si utilization efficiency exceeded 60%.

  11. Non-thermal plasma instabilities induced by deformation of the electron energy distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Non-thermal plasma is a key component in gas lasers, microelectronics, medical applications, waste gas cleaners, ozone generators, plasma igniters, flame holders, flow control in high-speed aerodynamics and others. A specific feature of non-thermal plasma is its high sensitivity to variations in governing parameters (gas composition, pressure, pulse duration, E/N parameter). This sensitivity is due to complex deformations of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) shape induced by variations in electric field strength, electron and ion number densities and gas excitation degree. Particular attention in this article is paid to mechanisms of instabilities based on non-linearity of plasma properties for specific conditions: gas composition, steady-state and decaying plasma produced by the electron beam, or by an electric current pulse. The following effects are analyzed: the negative differential electron conductivity; the absolute negative electron mobility; the stepwise changes of plasma properties induced by the EEDF bi-stability; thermo-current instability and the constriction of the glow discharge column in rare gases. Some of these effects were observed experimentally and some of them were theoretically predicted and still wait for experimental confirmation.

  12. Effects of the background environment on formation, evolution and emission spectra of laser-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Giacomo, A.; Dell'Aglio, M.; Gaudiuso, R.; Amoruso, S.; De Pascale, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the most important features of Laser Induced Plasma (LIP) evolution were analyzed from the fundamental point of view, in order to point out the effects of background environment on the plasma emission spectra. In particular, the main differences between air and vacuum Laser-Induced Breakdown (LIBS) are discussed, as well as those arising in high-pressure gases and in liquid environment. As can be expected, the dynamics of the plasma is strongly dependent on the environment where the plasma itself expands, which can be exploited for several different applications, ranging from chemical analysis and process diagnostics to materials science. The effect of other experimental conditions, such as the state of aggregation of the irradiated target, and the effect of laser pulse duration are also briefly reviewed. - Highlights: ► General processes involved in laser ablation and plasma generation were reported. ► Effect of number density in the plasma on the spectra features was discussed. ► LIP in gases at different pressures, in liquids and in DP techniques was discussed. ► LIBS spectra in various environments and correlated applications were discussed.

  13. Time-Resolved Emission Spectroscopic Study of Laser-Induced Steel Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M. L.; Pulhani, A. K.; Suri, B. M.; Gupta, G. P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced steel plasma is generated by focusing a Q-switched Nd:YAG visible laser (532 nm wavelength) with an irradiance of ∼ 1 × 10 9 W/cm 2 on a steel sample in air at atmospheric pressure. An Echelle spectrograph coupled with a gateable intensified charge-coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions. Using time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of the plasma emissions, the temperature and electron number density of the steel plasma are determined for many times of the detector delay. The validity of the assumption by the spectroscopic methods that the laser-induced plasma (LIP) is optically thin and is also in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) has been evaluated for many delay times. From the temporal evolution of the intensity ratio of two Fe I lines and matching it with its theoretical value, the delay times where the plasma is optically thin and is also in LTE are found to be 800 ns, 900 ns and 1000 ns.

  14. Plasma extraction by centrifugo-pneumatically induced gating of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Robert; Ducrée, Jens; Reis, Nuno; Da Fonseca, João Garcia

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel valving mechanism to implement plasma extraction from whole blood on a centrifugal microfluidic ‘lab-on-a-disc’ platform. The new scheme is based on pressure-induced deflection of a liquid membrane which gates the centrifugally driven flow through a microfluidic structure. Compared to conventional concepts such as capillary burst valves, siphons or sacrificial materials, the valving structure presented here is represented by a compact, small-footprint design which obviates the need for (local) surface functionalization or hybrid materials integration, thus significantly reducing the complexity (and hence cost) of manufacture. As a pilot study of this new centrifugal flow control element, we demonstrate here the efficient separation of metered plasma from whole blood. While the flow is stopped, blood is separated into plasma and its cellular constituents by centrifugally induced sedimentation. After completion, the flow resumes by elevating the spinning frequency, providing up to 80% of the original plasma content to an overflow chamber within a short, 2 min interval. The amount of residual cells in the plasma amounts to less than 20 cells μl −1 . (paper)

  15. Local thermodynamic equilibrium considerations in powerchip laser-induced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, Jonathan A., E-mail: jmerten@astate.edu; Smith, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwsmith@chem.ufl.edu; Omenetto, Nicoló, E-mail: omenetto@chem.ufl.edu

    2013-05-01

    Time-resolved emission experiments are reported in the fast-decaying transient plasma induced by a microchip laser on an aluminum target in three different cover gases, i.e., air, argon and helium. The laser operates at 532 nm, with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz and a pulse width of less than 0.5 ns. The overall persistence of plasma emission is of the order of 100 ns. We examine the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by evaluating the temporal criteria required (in addition to the McWhirter criterion), as recommended by Cristoforetti et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B 65, 2010, 86–95). The temporal criteria examine the evolution of temperature and electron number density and compare their rate of change to the rate at which electron collisions can thermalize the change. These considerations are used to determine time windows in which LTE may be present. Our results suggest that calibration-free LIBS measurements with these lasers may be possible for some elements at early times, especially under argon. - Highlights: ► Powerchip laser-induced plasma evolution is affected by cover gas. ► Plasma often out of LTE, despite fulfilling the McWhirter criterion ► Calibration-free LIBS may be possible with powerchip laser plasmas.

  16. Local thermodynamic equilibrium considerations in powerchip laser-induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merten, Jonathan A.; Smith, Benjamin W.; Omenetto, Nicoló

    2013-01-01

    Time-resolved emission experiments are reported in the fast-decaying transient plasma induced by a microchip laser on an aluminum target in three different cover gases, i.e., air, argon and helium. The laser operates at 532 nm, with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz and a pulse width of less than 0.5 ns. The overall persistence of plasma emission is of the order of 100 ns. We examine the existence of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) by evaluating the temporal criteria required (in addition to the McWhirter criterion), as recommended by Cristoforetti et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B 65, 2010, 86–95). The temporal criteria examine the evolution of temperature and electron number density and compare their rate of change to the rate at which electron collisions can thermalize the change. These considerations are used to determine time windows in which LTE may be present. Our results suggest that calibration-free LIBS measurements with these lasers may be possible for some elements at early times, especially under argon. - Highlights: ► Powerchip laser-induced plasma evolution is affected by cover gas. ► Plasma often out of LTE, despite fulfilling the McWhirter criterion ► Calibration-free LIBS may be possible with powerchip laser plasmas

  17. Plasma generation and processing of interstellar carbonaceous dust analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, R. J.; Maté, B.; Tanarro, I.; Molpeceres, G.; Jiménez-Redondo, M.; Timón, V.; Escribano, R.; Herrero, V. J.

    2018-03-01

    Interstellar (IS) dust analogs, based on amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) were generated by plasma deposition in radio frequency discharges of CH4 + He mixtures. The a-C:H samples were characterized by means of secondary electron microscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy and UV-visible reflectivity. DFT calculations of structure and IR spectra were also carried out. From the experimental data, atomic compositions were estimated. Both IR and reflectivity measurements led to similar high proportions (≈50%) of H atoms, but there was a significant discrepancy in the sp2/sp3 hybridization ratios of C atoms (sp2/sp3 = 1.5 from IR and 0.25 from reflectivity). Energetic processing of the samples with 5 keV electrons led to a decay of IR aliphatic bands and to a growth of aromatic bands, which is consistent with a dehydrogenation and graphitization of the samples. The decay of the CH aliphatic stretching band at 3.4 μm upon electron irradiation is relatively slow. Estimates based on the absorbed energy and on models of cosmic ray (CR) flux indicate that CR bombardment is not enough to justify the observed disappearance of this band in dense IS clouds.

  18. Arc generation from sputtering plasma-dielectric inclusion interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wickersham, C E J; Fan, J S

    2002-01-01

    Arcing during sputter deposition and etching is a significant cause of particle defect generation during device fabrication. In this article we report on the effect of aluminum oxide inclusion size, shape, and orientation on the propensity for arcing during sputtering of aluminum targets. The size, shape, and orientation of a dielectric inclusion plays a major role in determining the propensity for arcing and macroparticle emission. In previous studies we found that there is a critical inclusion size required for arcing to occur. In this article we used high-speed videos, electric arc detection, and measurements of particle defect density on wafers to study the effect of Al sub 2 O sub 3 inclusion size, shape, and orientation on arc rate, intensity, and silicon wafer particle defect density. We found that the cross-sectional area of the inclusion exposed to the sputtering plasma is the critical parameter that determines the arc rate and rate of macroparticle emission. Analysis of the arc rate, particle defect...

  19. Plasma plume induced during laser welding of Magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Azharonok, V.

    2005-01-01

    assuming a certain realistic radial temperature distribution and calculating the corresponding synthetic line profile, which, subsequently, is compared to the experimental one. It has been assumed that the radial temperature profile is either Gaussian or triangular, since they are close to the solution of the time-dependent heat transfer equation with a Gaussian source. Owing to relatively high electron density, N e >10 22 m -3 , it can be assumed that a laser-induced plasma is in a state of local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The boundary temperature of 3 kK is assumed. The plasma diameter is 1.0-2.0 mm depending on the distance from the surface. The profile of the spectral line P λ is given by the Voigt function resulting from the convolution of a Gaussian (Doppler effect) and Lorenzian (Stark effect) profile. The synthetic line profiles are calculated for each plasma radius and added along the plasma diameter to get the total profiles. The maximum temperature is varied until the total synthetic profiles fit well the experimental ones and full widths of both profiles are the same. (author)

  20. Development of plasma properties along thermal plasma jet generated by hybrid water-argon torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavka, Tetyana; Hrabovský, Milan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 637-642 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : thermal plasma, plasma jet, enthalpy probe Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  1. Low-temperature plasma-induced antiproliferative effects on multi-cellular tumor spheroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plewa, Joseph-Marie; Yousfi, Mohammed; Eichwald, Olivier; Merbahi, Nofel; Frongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Lobjois, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical applications of low-temperature plasmas are of growing interest, especially in the field of plasma-induced anti-tumor effects. The present work is aimed at investigating the regionalized antiproliferative effects of low-temperature plasmas on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics the 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. We report that a low-temperature plasma jet, using helium flow in open air, inhibits HCT116 colon carcinoma MCTS growth in a dose-dependent manner. This growth inhibition is associated with the loss of Ki67, and the regionalized accumulation of DNA damage detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. This regionalized genotoxic effect leads to massive cell death and loss of the MCTS proliferative region. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and plasma-conditioned media demonstrate that the ROS generated in the media after exposure to low-temperature plasma play a major role in these observed effects. These findings strengthen the interest in the use of MCTS for the evaluation of antiproliferative strategies, and open new perspectives for studies dedicated to demonstrate the potential of low-temperature plasma in cancer therapy

  2. Low-temperature plasma-induced antiproliferative effects on multi-cellular tumor spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Joseph-Marie; Yousfi, Mohammed; Frongia, Céline; Eichwald, Olivier; Ducommun, Bernard; Merbahi, Nofel; Lobjois, Valérie

    2014-04-01

    Biomedical applications of low-temperature plasmas are of growing interest, especially in the field of plasma-induced anti-tumor effects. The present work is aimed at investigating the regionalized antiproliferative effects of low-temperature plasmas on a multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics the 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. We report that a low-temperature plasma jet, using helium flow in open air, inhibits HCT116 colon carcinoma MCTS growth in a dose-dependent manner. This growth inhibition is associated with the loss of Ki67, and the regionalized accumulation of DNA damage detected by histone H2AX phosphorylation. This regionalized genotoxic effect leads to massive cell death and loss of the MCTS proliferative region. The use of reactive oxygen species (ROS), scavenger N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and plasma-conditioned media demonstrate that the ROS generated in the media after exposure to low-temperature plasma play a major role in these observed effects. These findings strengthen the interest in the use of MCTS for the evaluation of antiproliferative strategies, and open new perspectives for studies dedicated to demonstrate the potential of low-temperature plasma in cancer therapy.

  3. Engineering design of plasma generation devices using Elmer finite element simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bondarenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma generation devices are important technology for many engineering disciplines. The process for acquiring experience for designing plasma devices requires practice, time, and the right tools. The practice and time depend on the individual and the access to the right tools can be a limiting factor to achieve experience and to get an idea on the possible risks. The use of Elmer finite element method (FEM software for verifying plasma engineering design is presented as an accessible tool that can help modeling multi-physics and verifying plasma generation devices. Furthermore, Elmer FEM will be suitable for experienced engineer and can be used for determining the risks in a design or a process that use plasma. A physical experiment was conducted to demonstrate new features of plasma generation technology where results are compared with plasma simulation using Elmer FEM.

  4. Electromagnetically induced transparency in high-temperature magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryachko, A.Yu.; Litvak, A.G.; Tokman, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    The classical analog of the presently popular in the quantum electronics effect of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The EIT effect is considered for the electron-cyclotron waves in the plasma with the finite temperature. The expression for the effective index of the electromagnetic wave refraction is identified and the dispersion law and this wave absorption under the EIT conditions are studied. It is shown, that accounting for the thermal motion, which radically changes the behavior of the signal wave dispersion curves in the EIT area, as compared with the cold plasma case [ru

  5. Spectroscopic determination of temperatures in plasmas generated by arc torches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor; Hrabovský, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 133, July (2017), s. 14-20 ISSN 0584-8547 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-19444S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Arc plasma torch * Optical emission spectroscopy * Temperature * Boltzmann plot Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.241, year: 2016

  6. Plasma waveguides: Addition of end funnels and generation in clustered gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.Y.; Alexeev, I.; Fan, J.; Parra, E.; Milchberg, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present results from some recent experiments: the generation of a plasma funnel for improved pump pulse input coupling to plasma waveguides, and the development of a single shot transient phase diagnostic with 15 fs temporal resolution. The phase diagnostic is used in two experiments. We first demonstrate that short pulse heated clustered gases can act as an optical guiding medium and are highly absorbing. We show that this leads to a method for plasma waveguide generation at densities substantially lower than current typical values. Second, we measure transient phase shifts generated by intense pump pulses injected into plasma waveguides

  7. Power supply for plasma generator of HL-1M neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Detai; Qian Jiamei; Lei Guangjiu; Shun Mengda; Jiang Shaofeng; Wang Enyao; Lu Xuejun; Yang Tiehai; Wang Xuehua; Zhao Zhimin; Hao Ming; Huang Jianrong; Yu Yanqiu; Cheng Baoqiang; Wu Zhige; Sheng Ning; Hu Qingtao

    1999-01-01

    The diagram of the HL-1M Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) and the power supply (PS) system is shown. The NBI consists of ion source, beam line and power supply system etc. The ion source includes plasma generator and three-electrode extraction system. The power supply for plasma generator consists of a filament PS, an arc PS and gas valve PS. Testing has shown that the PS for plasma generator of the HL-1M NBI has excellent stability and obtain good plasma heating effect

  8. Experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.; Ishihara, O.; Wong, K.L.; Kristiansen, M.; Hagler, M.

    1986-01-01

    The first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions is reported. Ions were asymmetrically heated by a unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow wave antenna inside a tokamak. Current generation was detected by measuring the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column

  9. The comparative analysis of the compressible plasma streams generated in QSPA from the various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, A.N.; Drukarenko, S.P.; Seytkhalilova, E.I.; Velichkin, M.A.; Solyakov, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The numerical research of streams dynamics in the channel and the compressible flows at the QSPA output is carried out for the plasma generated from hydrogen, helium, argon and xenon. The MHD equations in the one-fluid approach taking into account the final conductivity of medium, the heat conductivity and the effective losses of radiation energy underlie the numerical model of the two-dimensional axisymmetric plasma flows. Features of the compressible plasma streams generated from various gases are revealed.

  10. Degradation of polyethylene induced by plasma in oxidizing atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin, E.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    The garbage of polyethylene is not easily degradable in normal environmental conditions . The indiscriminate use of this polymer and the enormous quantity of garbage which is generated carries a damage to the environment due to its long life as waste. The objective of this work is to study the conditions in which can be carried out the degradation of polyethylene. A form of accelerating the degradation is exposing it to plasma with reactive atmospheres. In this work a study of surface modification of polyethylene by plasmas with discharges of direct current of oxygen and nitrogen is presented. (Author)

  11. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  12. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T e , n e ) ∝ v p 3 . Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data

  13. Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Gong, Zizheng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Reliability and Environment Engineering, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2014-09-15

    The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) ∝ v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.

  14. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  15. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation; Fuente de alimentacion controlada para la generacion de un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Z, S

    1997-12-31

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named `Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma` actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR`s; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author).

  16. Laser plasma as a source of intense attosecond pulses via high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.

    2013-01-01

    The incredible progress in ultrafast laser technology and Ti:sapphire lasers have lead to many important applications, one of them being high-order harmonic generation (HHG). HHG is a source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which has opened new frontiers in science by extending nonlinear optics and time-resolved spectroscopy to the XUV region, and pushing ultrafast science to the attosecond domain. Progress in attosecond science has revealed many new phenomena that have not been seen with femtosecond pulses. Clearly, the next frontier is to study nonlinear effects at the attosecond timescale and in the XUV. However, a problem with present-day attosecond pulses is that they are just too weak to induce measurable nonlinearities, which severely limits the application of this source. While HHG from solid targets has shown promise for higher conversion efficiency, there is no experiment so far that demonstrates isolated attosecond pulse generation. The generation of isolated, several 100-as pulses with few-µJ energy will enable us to enter a completely new phase in attoscience. In past works, we have demonstrated that high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma is a highly efficient method to generate coherent XUV pulses. For example, indium plasma has been shown to generate intense 13th harmonic of the Ti:sapphire laser, with conversion efficiency of 10-4. However, the quasi-monochromatic nature of indium harmonics would make it difficult to generate attosecond pulses. We have also demonstrated that one could increase the harmonic yield by using nanoparticle targets. Specifically, we showed that by using indium oxide nanoparticles or C60 film, we could obtain intense harmonics between wavelengths of 50 to 90 nm. The energy in each of these harmonic orders was measured to be a few µJ, which is sufficient for many applications. However, the problem of using nanoparticle or film targets is the rapid decrease in the harmonic intensity, due to the rapid

  17. Laser Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Plasma Couette Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noam; Skiff, Fred; Collins, Cami; Weisberg, Dave; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Garot, Kristine; Forest, Cary

    2010-11-01

    The Plasma Couette Experiment (PCX) at U. Wisconsin-Madison consists of a rotating high-beta plasma and is well-suited to the study of flow-driven, astrophysically-relevant plasma phenomena. PCX confinement relies on alternating rings of 1kG permanent magnets and the rotation is driven by electrode rings, interspersed between the magnets, which provide an azimuthal ExB. I will discuss the development of a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (LIF) to characterize the ion distribution function of argon plasmas in PCX. The LIF system--which will be scanned radially--will be used to calibrate internal Mach probes, as well as to measure the time-resolved velocity profile, ion temperature and density non-perturbatively. These diagnostics will be applied to study the magneto-rotational instability in a plasma, as well as the buoyancy instability thought to be involved in producing the solar magnetic field. This work is supported by NSF and DOE.

  18. Repetitive plasma opening switch for powerful high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Zakatov, L.P.; Nitishinskii, M.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental studies of plasma opening switches that serve to sharpen the pulses of inductive microsecond high-voltage pulse generators. It is demonstrated that repetitive plasma opening switches can be used to create super-powerful generators operating in a quasi-continuous regime. An erosion switching mechanism and the problem of magnetic insulation in repetitive switches are considered. Achieving super-high peak power in plasma switches makes it possible to develop new types of high-power generators of electron beams and X radiation. Possible implementations and the efficiency of these generators are discussed

  19. Fast electron generation and transport in a turbulent, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    The nature of fast electron generation and transport in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two electron energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast electron population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10 6 m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast electron perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast electron current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast electron density is about 4 x 10 11 cm -3 independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport are reported. By correlating electron current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the transported flux of electrons is found to be negligible outside r/a∼0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a∼0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the transport is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and electron transport rates. The convective energy transport associated with the measured particle transport is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy transport in MST

  20. Dust generation at interaction of plasma jet with surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticos, Catalin; Toader, Dorina; Banu, Nicoleta; Scurtu, Adrian; Oane, Mihai

    2013-10-01

    Coatings of W and C with widths of a few microns will be exposed to plasma jet for studying the erosion of the surface and detachment of micron size dust particles. A coaxial plasma gun has been built inside a vacuum chamber for producing supersonic plasma jets. Its design is based on a 50 kJ coaxial plasma gun which has been successfully used for accelerating hypervelocity dust. Initial shots were carried out for a capacitor bank with C = 12 μF and charged up to 2 kV. Currents of tens of amps were measured with a Rogowsky coil and plasma flow speeds of 4 km/s were inferred from high-speed images of jet propagation. An upgrade consisting in adding capacitors in parallel will be performed in order to increase the energy up to 2 kJ. A coil will be installed at the gun muzzle to compress the plasma flow and increase the energy density of the jet on the sample surface. A CCD camera with a maximum recording speed of 100 k fps and a maximum resolution of 1024 × 1024 pixels was set for image acquisition of the plasma and dust. A laser system used to illuminate the ejected dust from the surface includes a laser diode emitting at 650 nm with a beam power of 25 mW. The authors acknowledge support from EURATOM WP13-IPH-A03-P2-02-BS22.

  1. Enhanced resonant second harmonic generation in plasma based on density transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Niti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resonant second harmonic generation of a relativistic self-focusing laser in plasma with density ramp profile has been investigated. A high intense Gaussian laser beam generates resonant second harmonic beam in plasma with density ramp profile. The second harmonic undergoes periodic focusing in the plasma channel created by the fundamental wave. The normalized second harmonic amplitude varies periodically with distance and attains maximum value in the focal region. Enhancement in the second harmonic amplitude on account of relativistic self-focusing of laser based on plasma density transition is seen. Plasma density ramp plays an important role to make self-focusing stronger which leads to enhance the second harmonic generation in plasma.

  2. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma

  3. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma

  4. Ion Beam Analysis applied to laser-generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cutroneo, Mariapompea; Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Malinský, Petr; Torrisi, L.; Kormunda, M.; Barchuk, M.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, APR (2016), C04011 ISSN 1748-0221. [Conference on Plasma Physics by Laser and Applications (PPLA). Frascati, 05.10.2015-07.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S; GA MŠk LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : accelerator applications * lasers * plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFP-V) Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  5. High density plasma gun generates plasmas at 190 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    Gun has thin metal foil disc which positions or localizes gas to be ionized during electrical discharge cycle, overcoming major limiting factor in obtaining such plasmas. Expanding plasma front travels at 190 km/sec, compared to plasmas of 50 to 60 km/sec previously achieved.

  6. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-05-04

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  7. Antiresonance induced spin-polarized current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun; Min, Wen-Jing; Gao, Kun; Xie, Shi-Jie; Liu, De-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    According to the one-dimensional antiresonance effect (Wang X R, Wang Y and Sun Z Z 2003 Phys. Rev. B 65 193402), we propose a possible spin-polarized current generation device. Our proposed model consists of one chain and an impurity coupling to the chain. The energy level of the impurity can be occupied by an electron with a specific spin, and the electron with such a spin is blocked because of the antiresonance effect. Based on this phenomenon our model can generate the spin-polarized current flowing through the chain due to different polarization rates. On the other hand, the device can also be used to measure the generated spin accumulation. Our model is feasible with today's technology.

  8. Studies on EOS of shock-generated argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fanhou; Jing Fuqian

    2001-01-01

    The equation of state for argon plasma, covering the thermodynamic states of 10000-30000 K in temperature and 0.0133-0.166 GPa in pressure, is computed using the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction. Comparisons of the measured EOS with the calculated ones demonstrate the Saha model and Debye-Huckel correction can be used to well describe the essential behavior of argon plasma under the thermodynamic condition above-mentioned

  9. Investigations of Pulsed Plasma Streams Generated by 'Prosvet' device Operated with Different Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrka, O.V.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V. and others

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the investigations of plasma streams generated by pulsed plasma gun 'Prosvet' operated with different gases: krypton (m=84) and helium (m=4). Contour parameters of working gas spectral lines (full intensities and half-widths) are used for determination of spatial distributions of the electron density and temperature. Temporal distributions of the spectral lines intensities (both neutrals and ions of working gas), impurity spectral lines and continuum intensities are analyzed. Plasma stream velocity was estimated by time-of-flight method between two monochromators (MUM) connected with photo-multiplier. longitudinal distributions of the plasma pressure for different time moments and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerator. Experiments show that operation regime of the accelerator and plasma stream parameters strongly depend on the gas atomic mass

  10. Effect of self-focusing on resonant third harmonic generation of laser in a rippled density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Sukhdeep; Sharma, A. K.; Yadav, Sushila

    2010-01-01

    Resonant third harmonic generation by a Gaussian laser beam in a rippled density plasma is studied. The laser ponderomotive force induces second harmonic longitudinal velocity on electrons that couples with the static density ripple to produce a density perturbation at 2ω,2k+q, where ω and k are the frequency and wave number of the laser and q is the ripple wave number of the laser. This density perturbation beats with electron oscillatory velocity at ω,k-vector to produce a nonlinear current driving the third harmonic generation. In the regime of quadratic nonlinearity, the self-focusing of the laser enhances the third harmonic power. However, at higher intensity, plasma density is significantly reduced on the axis, detuning the third harmonic resonance and weakening the harmonic yield. Self-focusing causes enhancement in the efficiency of harmonic generation.

  11. Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru

  12. Transport and deposition of injected hydrocarbons in plasma generator PSI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmeyer, W.; Naujoks, D.; Markin, A.; Arkhipov, I.; Koch, B.; Schroeder, D.; Fussmann, G.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and deposition of hydrocarbons were studied in the stationary plasma of plasma generator PSI-2. CH 4 or C 2 H 4 were injected into the plasma at different positions in the target chamber. After an interaction between the plasma and the hydrocarbons, different species are produced, some of them having high sticking probabilities and forming a:CH films on a temperature controlled collector. The film growth is studied in situ for different plasma parameters. The 3D Monte Carlo code ERO including three different sets of atomic data is used to describe the formation of hydrocarbon films

  13. Flow induced pulsations generated in corrugated tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Swindell, R.; Tummers, R.

    2008-01-01

    Corrugated tubes can produce a tonal noise when used for gas transport, for instance in the case of flexible risers. The whistling sound is generated by shear layer instability due to the boundary layer separation at each corrugation. This whistling is examined by investigating the frequency,

  14. Laser induced plasma methodology for ignition control in direct injection sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, José V.; García-Oliver, José M.; García, Antonio; Pinotti, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Laser Induced Plasma Ignition system is designed and applied to a Diesel Spray. • A method for quantification of the system effectiveness and reliability is proposed. • The ignition system is optimized in atmospheric and engine-like conditions. • Higher system effectiveness is reached with higher ambient density. • The system is able to stabilize Diesel combustion compared to auto-ignition cases. - Abstract: New combustion modes for internal combustion engines represent one of the main fields of investigation for emissions control in transportation Industry. However, the implementation of lean fuel mixture condition and low temperature combustion in real engines is limited by different unsolved practical issues. To achieve an appropriate combustion phasing and cycle-to-cycle control of the process, the laser plasma ignition system arises as a valid alternative to the traditional electrical spark ignition system. This paper proposes a methodology to set-up and optimize a laser induced plasma ignition system that allows ensuring reliability through the quantification of the system effectiveness in the plasma generation and positional stability, in order to reach optimal ignition performance. For this purpose, experimental tests have been carried out in an optical test rig. At first the system has been optimized in an atmospheric environment, based on the statistical analysis of the plasma records taken with a high speed camera to evaluate the induction effectiveness and consequently regulate and control the system settings. The same optimization method has then been applied under engine-like conditions, analyzing the effect of thermodynamic ambient conditions on the plasma induction success and repeatability, which have shown to depend mainly on ambient density. Once optimized for selected engine conditions, the laser plasma induction system has been used to ignite a direct injection Diesel spray, and to compare the evolution of combustion

  15. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi [Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-11

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed.

  16. Chemically reactive species in liquids generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas and their roles in plasma medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Plasmas whose gas temperatures are close to room temperature may be generated in ambient air or a gas at atmospheric pressure with the use of low-frequency high voltage or low-power radio-frequency (RF) or microwave power applied to electrodes. Such plasmas can serve as a powerful source of free radicals and/or chemically reactive species that arise from atoms and molecules of the ambient gas. Recently use of such plasmas for medical purposes has attracted much attention as they can be implemented in possible medical devices that can cause blood coagulation, heal wounds, facilitate angiogenesis, sterilize surgical devices as well as living tissues without harming healthy cells, and selectively inactivate cancer cells. Especially of interest among reactive species generated by atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APP) are reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that are generated in liquid phase. Since most living tissues and cells are immersed in liquids (such as blood or culture media), reactive species generated by APPs in the gas phase are transported to the liquid phase and possibly converted to different types of reactive species therein before causing some influence on the tissues or cells. In this study, the rate equations are solved to evaluate concentrations of various reactive species in pure water that are originated by plasma reactions in atmosphere and possible effects of such species (including ROS/RNS) on living tissues and cells are discussed

  17. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO 2 : N 2 : He), O 2 , N 2 , and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis

  19. ELM-Induced Plasma Wall Interactions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Yu, J.H.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.M.; Lasnier, C.J.; McLean, A.G.; Moyer, R.A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tynan, G.R.; Wampler, W.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.C.; Zeng, L.; Bastasz, R.J.; Buchenauer, D.; Whaley, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intense transient fluxes of particles and heat to the main chamber components induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) are of serious concern for ITER. In DIII-D, plasma interaction with the outboard chamber wall is studied using Langmuir probes and optical diagnostics including a fast framing camera. Camera data shows that ELMs feature helical filamentary structures localized at the low field side of the plasma and aligned with the local magnetic field. During the nonlinear phase of an ELM, multiple filaments are ejected from the plasma edge and propagate towards the outboard wall with velocities of 0.5-0.7 km/s. When reaching the wall, filaments result in 'hot spots'--regions of local intense plasma-material interaction (PMI) where the peak incident particle and heat fluxes are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those between ELMs. This interaction pattern has a complicated geometry and is neither toroidally nor poloidally symmetric. In low density/collisionality H-mode discharges, PMI at the outboard wall is almost entirely due to ELMs. In high density/collisionality discharges, contributions of ELMs and inter-ELM periods to PMI at the wall are comparable. A Midplane Material Evaluation Station (MiMES) has been recently installed in order to conduct in situ measurements of erosion/redeposition at the outboard chamber wall, including those caused by ELMs

  20. Numerical study of extreme-ultra-violet generated plasmas in hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astakhov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the development and study a numerical model of EUV-induced plasma. Understanding of behavior of low pressure low density plasmas is of industrial relevance, because of their potential use for on-line removal of different forms of contaminations from multilayer mirrors,

  1. High excitation of the species in nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance microwave discharge of N2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of Al target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Peipei; Li, Yanli; Cai, Hua; You, Qinghu; Yang, Xu; Huang, Feiling; Sun, Jian; Xu, Ning; Wu, Jiada

    2014-01-01

    A reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave discharge of N 2 gas and pulsed laser ablation of an Al target is characterized spectroscopically by time-integrated and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N 2 species are determined by spectral simulation. The generated plasma strongly emits radiation from a variety of excited species including ambient nitrogen and ablated aluminum and exhibits unique features in optical emission and temperature evolution compared with the plasmas generated by a pure ECR discharge or by the expansion of the ablation plume. The working N 2 gas is first excited by ECR discharge and the excitation of nitrogen is further enhanced due to the fast expansion of the aluminum plume induced by target ablation, while the excitation of the ablated aluminum is prolonged during the plume expansion in the ECR nitrogen plasma, resulting in the formation of strongly reactive nitrogen–aluminum plasma which contains highly excited species with high vibrational and rotational temperatures. The enhanced intensities and the prolonged duration of the optical emissions of the combined plasma would provide an improved analytical capability for spectrochemical analysis. - Highlights: • ECR discharge and pulsed laser ablation generate highly excited ECR–PLA plasma. • The expansion of PLA plasma results in excitation enhancement of ECR plasma species. • The ECR plasma leads to excitation prolongation of PLA plasma species. • The ECR–PLA plasma emits strong emissions from a variety of excited species. • The ECR–PLA plasma maintains high vibrational–rotational temperatures for a long time

  2. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  3. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  4. Particle-in-cell simulations of multi-MeV pulsed X-ray induced air plasmas at low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribière, M.; D'Almeida, T.; Gaufridy de Dortan, F. de; Maulois, M.; Delbos, C.; Garrigues, A.; Cessenat, O.; Azaïs, B.

    2016-01-01

    A full kinetic modelling of the charge particles dynamics generated upon the irradiation of an air-filled cavity by a multi-MeV pulsed x-ray is performed. From the calculated radiative source generated by the ASTERIX generator, we calculated the electromagnetic fields generated by x-ray induced air plasmas in a metallic cavity at different pressures. Simulations are carried out based on a Particle-In-Cell interpolation method which uses 3D Maxwell-Vlasov calculations of the constitutive charged species densities of air plasmas at different pressures at equilibrium. The resulting electromagnetic fields within the cavity are calculated for different electron densities up to 4 × 10"1"0" cm"−"3. For each air pressure, we show electronic plasma waves formation followed by Landau damping. As electron density increases, the calculations exhibit space-charged neutralization and return current formation.

  5. Dense strongly non-ideal plasma generation by laser isobaric heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, P.P.; Rozanov, E.K.; Riabii, V.A.; Titov, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    A method of generation of a dense strongly non-ideal plasma by slow isobaric heating of a small target in a high inert gas medium is discussed. The characteristic life-time of dense plasma is 10 -3 sec. Estimations show that such a plasma is homogeneous. Conditions are found for temperature uniformity. The experimental results of the isobaric heating of a thin potassium foil target by a ruby laser beam at 500 atm are described. (Auth.)

  6. Numerical simulation of the ion beam generated in the diode with anode plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrba, P.; Sunka, P.

    1991-02-01

    The ion beam generation in a high current diode with anode plasma slab was studied. The ions were extracted from the anode plasma by the strong electric field of a deep potential well (virtual cathode), arising after the propagation of relativistic electrons through the anode plasma slab. The movement of this potential well with the front part of the ion beam leads to collective ion acceleration up to the 10 MeV energy range. (author). 7 figs., 5 refs

  7. Strain-induced generation of silicon nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollani, Monica; Osmond, Johann; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Spinella, Corrado; Narducci, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Silicon metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) is a nanostructuring technique exploiting the enhancement of the silicon etch rate at some metal–silicon interfaces. Compared to more traditional approaches, MACE is a high-throughput technique, and it is one of the few that enables the growth of vertical 1D structures of virtually unlimited length. As such, it has already found relevant technological applications in fields ranging from energy conversion to biosensing. Yet, its implementation has always required metal patterning to obtain nanopillars. Here, we report how MACE may lead to the formation of porous silicon nanopillars even in the absence of gold patterning. We show how the use of inhomogeneous yet continuous gold layers leads to the generation of a stress field causing spontaneous local delamination of the metal—and to the formation of silicon nanopillars where the metal disruption occurs. We observed the spontaneous formation of nanopillars with diameters ranging from 40 to 65 nm and heights up to 1 μm. Strain-controlled generation of nanopillars is consistent with a mechanism of silicon oxidation by hole injection through the metal layer. Spontaneous nanopillar formation could enable applications of this method to contexts where ordered distributions of nanopillars are not required, while patterning by high-resolution techniques is either impractical or unaffordable. (paper)

  8. Generation of Suprathermal Electrons by Collective Processes in Collisional Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    The ubiquity of high-energy tails in the charged particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) observed in space plasmas suggests the existence of an underlying process responsible for taking a fraction of the charged particle population out of thermal equilibrium and redistributing it to suprathermal velocity and energy ranges. The present Letter focuses on a new and fundamental physical explanation for the origin of suprathermal electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in a collisional plasma. This process involves a newly discovered electrostatic bremsstrahlung (EB) emission that is effective in a plasma in which binary collisions are present. The steady-state EVDF dictated by such a process corresponds to a Maxwellian core plus a quasi-inverse power-law tail, which is a feature commonly observed in many space plasma environments. In order to demonstrate this, the system of self-consistent particle- and wave-kinetic equations are numerically solved with an initially Maxwellian EVDF and Langmuir wave spectral intensity, which is a state that does not reflect the presence of EB process, and hence not in force balance. The EB term subsequently drives the system to a new force-balanced steady state. After a long integration period it is demonstrated that the initial Langmuir fluctuation spectrum is modified, which in turn distorts the initial Maxwellian EVDF into a VDF that resembles the said core-suprathermal VDF. Such a mechanism may thus be operative at the coronal source region, which is characterized by high collisionality.

  9. Generation of uniform atmospheric pressure argon glow plasma by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electron temperature and electron density of the plasma are determined ... Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and APGD are the subjects of research for the last ... The gap between the electrodes can be varied from 0.5 mm to 2 mm and Ar ...

  10. A model for steady-state large-volume plasma generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Miller, J.D.; Schneider, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, new scheme to generate a uniform, steady-state, large-volume plasma is presented. The weakly magnetized plasma is created by direct ionization of the background gas by low-energy electrons generated from thermionic filaments. An annular arrangement of the filaments ensures a uniform plasma density in the radial direction as predicted by theory. Experiments have been performed to characterize the plasma generated in such a configuration. In order to explain the experimental observation, we develop a bulk plasma theory based on plasma transport via cross-field diffusion. As assumed in the theoretical model, the experimental measurements indicate a uniform plasma density along the axis. Both the theory and experiment indicate that the plasma density is a function of the square of the external magnetic field. The theory also predicts the plasma density to be proportional to the neutral density to the two-thirds power in agreement with the experimental data. We also observe the experimental data to agree remarkably well with theoretical prediction for a broad range of system parameters

  11. Evaluation on nitrogen oxides and nanoparticle removal and nitrogen monoxide generation using a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehana, Kotaro; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Okubo, Masaaki

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from power plants and combustion sources cause air pollution problems. Selective catalytic reduction technology is remarkably useful for NOx removal. However, there are several drawbacks such as preparation of reducing agents, usage of harmful heavy metals, and higher cost. On the other hand, trace NO is a vasodilator agent and employed in inhalation therapies for treating pulmonary hypertension in humans. Considering these factors, in the present study, a wet-type nonthermal plasma reactor, which can control NOx and nanoparticle emissions and generate NO, is investigated. The fundamental characteristics of the reactor are investigated. First, the experiment of nanoparticle removal is carried out. Collection efficiencies of over 99% are achieved for nanoparticles at 50 and 100 ml min‑1 of liquid flow rates. Second, experiments of NOx removal under air atmosphere and NOx generation under nitrogen atmosphere are carried out. NOx-removal efficiencies of over 95% under the air plasma are achieved in 50–200 ml min‑1 liquid flow rates. Moreover, under nitrogen plasma, NOx is generated, of which the major portion is NO. For example, NO concentration is 25 ppm, while NOx concentration is 31 ppm at 50 ml min‑1 liquid flow rate. Finally, experiments of NO generation under the nitrogen atmosphere with or without flowing water are carried out. When water flows on the inner surface of the reactor, approximately 14 ppm of NO is generated. Therefore, NO generation requires flowing water. It is considered that the reaction of N and OH, which is similar to the extended Zeldovich mechanism, could occur to induce NO formation. From these results, it is verified that the wet-type plasma reactor is useful for NOx removal and NO generation under nitrogen atmosphere with flowing water.

  12. Modeling and experiments on differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.N.; Koppers, W.R.; Rooij, van G.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Kleyn, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method was used to investigate the efficiency of differential pumping in linear plasma generators operating at high gas flows. Skimmers are used to separate the neutrals from the plasma beam, which is guided from the source to the target by a strong axial

  13. Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meiden, van der H.J.; Lof, A.R.; Berg, van den M.A.; Brons, S.; Donné, A.J.H.; Eck, van H.J.N.; Koelman, Peter; Koppers, W.R.; Kruijt, O.G.; Naumenko, N.N.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P.R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Schram, D.C.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Star, van der G.; Tugarinov, S.N.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating

  14. Software architecture for control and data acquisition of linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, P. W. C.; van Beveren, V.; Broekema, A.; Busch, P. J.; Genuit, J. W.; Kaas, G.; Poelman, A. J.; Scholten, J.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma

    2013-01-01

    The FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research has completed the construction phase of Magnum-PSI, a magnetized, steady-state, large area, high-flux linear plasma beam generator to study plasma surface interactions under ITER divertor conditions. Magnum-PSI consists of

  15. AC/DC/pulsed-power modulator for corona-plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, T.H.P.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Liu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-cleaning techniques using nonthermal plasma are slowly introduced into industry nowadays. In this paper, we present a novel power modulator for the efficient generation of large-volume corona plasma. No expensive high-voltage components are required. Switching is done at an intermediate voltage

  16. Enhancement and stabilization of plasma using collinear long-short double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minchao; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fujita, Yuki; Liu, Renwei; Shiou, Fang-Jung; Zhao, Shengdun

    2018-04-01

    A collinear long-short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) method was employed to enhance and stabilize the laser-induced plasma from steel sample. The long-pulse-width laser beam with the pulse width of 60 μs was generated by a Nd: YAG laser which was operated at FR (free running) mode. The comparative experiments were carried out between single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and long-short DP-LIBS. The recorded results showed that the emission intensities and the temperature of plasma were enhanced by long-short DP-LIBS. The plasma images showed that the plasma was bigger and had a longer lifetime in long-short DP-LIBS situation. Through the calculation of time-resolved plasma temperature and intensity ratio, it can be concluded that the plasma was stabilized by the long-pulse-width laser beam. The long-short DP-LIBS method also generated the stable plasma condition from the samples with different initial temperatures, which overcame the difficulties of LIBS in the online measurement for steel production line.

  17. Influence of the RF electrode cleanliness on plasma characteristics and dust-particle generation in methane dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géraud-Grenier, I.; Desdions, W.; Faubert, F.; Mikikian, M.; Massereau-Guilbaud, V.

    2018-01-01

    The methane decomposition in a planar RF discharge (13.56 MHz) leads both to a dust-particle generation in the plasma bulk and to a coating growth on the electrodes. Growing dust-particles fall onto the grounded electrode when they are too heavy. Thus, at the end of the experiment, the grounded electrode is covered by a coating and by fallen dust-particles. During the dust-particle growth, the negative DC self-bias voltage (VDC) increases because fewer electrons reach the RF electrode, leading to a more resistive plasma and to changes in the plasma chemical composition. In this paper, the cleanliness influence of the RF electrode on the dust-particle growth, on the plasma characteristics and composition is investigated. A cleanliness electrode is an electrode without coating and dust-particles on its surface at the beginning of the experiment.

  18. On the improvement of signal repeatability in laser-induced air plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Sheta, Sahar; Hou, Zong-Yu; Wang, Zhe

    2018-04-01

    The relatively low repeatability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) severely hinders its wide commercialization. In the present work, we investigate the optimization of LIBS system for repeatability improvement for both signal generation (plasma evolution) and signal collection. Timeintegrated spectra and images were obtained under different laser energies and focal lengths to investigate the optimum configuration for stable plasmas and repeatable signals. Using our experimental setup, the optimum conditions were found to be a laser energy of 250 mJ and a focus length of 100 mm. A stable and homogeneous plasma with the largest hot core area in the optimum condition yielded the most stable LIBS signal. Time-resolved images showed that the rebounding processes through the air plasma evolution caused the relative standard deviation (RSD) to increase with laser energies of > 250 mJ. In addition, the emission collection was improved by using a concave spherical mirror. The line intensities doubled as their RSDs decreased by approximately 25%. When the signal generation and collection were optimized simultaneously, the pulse-to-pulse RSDs were reduced to approximately 3% for O(I), N(I), and H(I) lines, which are better than the RSDs reported for solid samples and showed great potential for LIBS quantitative analysis by gasifying the solid or liquid samples.

  19. Effects of B Vitamins Overload on Plasma Insulin Level and Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wuping; Zhai, Mingzhu; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Chengrui; Jiang, Changyu

    2017-08-31

    It has been reported that nicotinamide-overload induces oxidative stress associated with insulin resistance, the key feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the effects of B vitamins in T2DM. Glucose tolerance tests were carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of B vitamins. More specifically, insulin tolerance tests were also carried out in adult Sprague-Dawley rats treated with or without cumulative doses of Vitamin B3. We found that cumulative Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 administration significantly increased the plasma H₂O₂ levels associated with high insulin levels. Only Vitamin B3 reduced muscular and hepatic glycogen contents. Cumulative administration of nicotinic acid, another form of Vitamin B3, also significantly increased plasma insulin level and H₂O₂ generation. Moreover, cumulative administration of nicotinic acid or nicotinamide impaired glucose metabolism. This study suggested that excess Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B3 caused oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  20. Surface plasma resonance enhanced photocurrent generation in NiO photoanode based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong; Cui, Jin [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Li, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies for Comprehensive Utilization of Platinum Metals, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Cao, Kun; Yuan, Shuai [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Cheng, Yibing [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Wang, Mingkui, E-mail: mingkui.wang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics Department, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • SPR effect from Au-nanostructures was first investigated in NiO-based solar cells. • Enhanced photocurrent generation was observed in p-DSC and perovskite solar cell. • Au-nanorods SPR effect induced charge kinetics were investigated. - Abstract: Surface plasma resonance (SPR) effect has been demonstrated to improve solar cell performance. This work reports on the SPR effect from Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} on p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} works as an antenna to transform photons with long wavelength into electric field followed by an enhanced excitation of dye. The devices using the NiO electrode containing Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} shows overall power conversion efficiencies of about 0.2% in combination with I{sup −}/I{sub 3}{sup −} electrolyte, and 0.29% with T{sup −}/T{sub 2} electrolyte, which are superior to those without adding Au nanorods. Detailed investigation including spectroscopy and transient photovoltage decay measurements reveals that plasma effect of Au nanorod@SiO{sub 2} contribute to charge injection efficiency, and thus on the photocurrent. The effect of Au NRs can be further extended to the inverted planar perovskite solar cells, showing obviously improvement in photocurrent.

  1. Modeling of Plasma-Induced Ignition and Combustion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyd, Iain D; Keidar, Michael

    2008-01-01

    .... Phenomena that must be considered in an electrothermal chemical gun model include the initial capillary plasma properties, the plasma-air interaction, plasma sheath effects, and the plasma-propellant interaction itself...

  2. Influence of mode-beating pulse on laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, M.; Freund, J. B.; Glumac, N. G.; Elliott, G. S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses the influence of mode-beating pulse on laser-induced plasma. The second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser, operated either with the single mode or multimode, was used for non-resonant optical breakdown, and subsequent plasma development was visualized using a streak imaging system. The single mode lasing leads to a stable breakdown location and smooth envelopment of the plasma boundary, while the multimode lasing, with the dominant mode-beating frequency of 500-800 MHz, leads to fluctuations in the breakdown location, a globally modulated plasma surface, and growth of local microstructures at the plasma boundary. The distribution of the local inhomogeneity was measured from the elastic scattering signals on the streak image. The distance between the local structures agreed with the expected wavelength of hydrodynamic instability development due to the interference between the surface excited wave and transmitted wave. A numerical simulation, however, indicates that the local microstructure could also be directly generated at the peaks of the higher harmonic components if the multimode pulse contains up to the eighth harmonic of the fundamental cavity mode.

  3. Influence of micro- and macro-processes on the high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R. A., E-mail: rashid-ganeev@mail.ru [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan); Physical Department, Voronezh State University, Voronezh 394006 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-21

    We compare the resonance-induced enhancement of single harmonic and the quasi-phase-matching-induced enhancement of the group of harmonics during propagation of the tunable mid-infrared femtosecond pulses through the perforated laser-produced indium plasma. We show that the enhancement of harmonics using the macro-process of quasi-phase-matching is comparable with the one using micro-process of resonantly enhanced harmonic. These studies show that joint implementation of the two methods of the increase of harmonic yield could be a useful tool for generation of strong short-wavelength radiation in different spectral regions. We compare these effects in indium, as well as in other plasmas.

  4. Cold plasma interactions with plants: Morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica induced by argon plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Xu, Kunning G; Kolobov, Vladimir I

    2017-12-01

    Low temperature (cold) plasma finds an increasing number of applications in biology, medicine and agriculture. In this paper, we report a new effect of plasma induced morphing and movements of Venus flytrap and Mimosa pudica. We have experimentally observed plasma activation of sensitive plant movements and morphing structures in these plants similar to stimulation of their mechanosensors in vivo. Application of an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet to the inside or outside of a lobe, midrib, or cilia in Dionaea muscipula Ellis induces trap closing. Treatment of Mimosa pudica by plasma induces movements of pinnules and petioles similar to the effects of mechanical stimulation. We have conducted control experiments and simulations to illustrate that gas flow and UV radiation associated with plasma are not the primary reasons for the observed effects. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) produced by cold plasma in atmospheric air appear to be the primary reason of plasma-induced activation of phytoactuators in plants. Some of these RONS are known to be signaling molecules, which control plants' developmental processes. Understanding these mechanisms could promote plasma-based technology for plant developmental control and future use for plant protection from pathogens. Our work offers new insight into mechanisms which trigger plant morphing and movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Beam-plasma generators of stochastic microwave oscillations using for plasma heating in fusion and plasma-chemistry devices and ionospheric investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitin, L A; Perevodchikov, V I; Shapiro, A L; Zavyalov, M A [All-Russian Electrotechnical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bliokh, Yu P; Fajnberg, Ya B [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a generator of stochastic microwave power based on a beam-plasma inertial feedback amplifier is discussed with a view to using stochastic oscillations for plasma heating. The plasma heating efficiency in the region of low-frequency resonance in the geometry of the Tokamak is considered theoretically. It is shown that the temperature of heating is proportional to the power multiplied by the spectra width of the noiselike signal. The creation and heating of plasma by stochastic microwave power in an oversized waveguide without external magnetic field is discussed with a view to plasma-chemistry applications. It is shown that the efficiency of heating are defined by the time of phase instability of the stochastic power. (author). 3 figs., 13 refs.

  6. PLASMA-WAVE GENERATION IN A DYNAMIC SPACETIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Huan [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L2Y5 (Canada); Zhang, Fan [Gravitational Wave and Cosmology Laboratory, Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-02-01

    We propose a new electromagnetic (EM)-emission mechanism in magnetized, force-free plasma, which is driven by the evolution of the underlying dynamic spacetime. In particular, the emission power and angular distribution of the emitted fast-magnetosonic and Alfvén waves are separately determined. Previous numerical simulations of binary black hole mergers occurring within magnetized plasma have recorded copious amounts of EM radiation that, in addition to collimated jets, include an unexplained, isotropic component that becomes dominant close to the merger. This raises the possibility of multimessenger gravitational-wave and EM observations on binary black hole systems. The mechanism proposed here provides a candidate analytical characterization of the numerical results, and when combined with previously understood mechanisms such as the Blandford–Znajek process and kinetic-motion-driven radiation, it allows us to construct a classification of different EM radiation components seen in the inspiral stage of compact-binary coalescences.

  7. Thomson parabola spectrometry for gold laser generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Andó, L.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2013), 023106-023106 ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : acceleration * ions * Thomson parabola spectrometry * PALS laser * laser targets * gold ions Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.249, year: 2013 http://pop.aip.org/resource/1/phpaen/v20/i2/p023106_s1

  8. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented

  9. Plasma jet generation by flyer disk collision with massive target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasperczuk, A.; Pisarczyk, T.; Borodziuk, S.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Ullschmied, Jiří; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Kálal, M.; Pisarczyk, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-10 ISSN 0078-5466 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : Plasma jets * flyer targets * laser targets * laser ablation * shock waves * craters * PALS facility Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.284, year: 2007

  10. Curves of growth of spectral lines emitted by a laser-induced plasma: influence of the temporal evolution and spatial inhomogeneity of the plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, J.A.; Bengoechea, J.; Aragon, C. E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es

    2003-02-03

    The curves of growth (COG) of five Fe I lines emitted from a laser-induced plasma, generated with Fe-Ni alloys in air at atmospheric pressure, have been investigated. Spectral lines with different energy levels and line widths, emitted with a broad range of optical depths, have been included in the study in order to check the validity of theoretical models proposed for COG generation, based in the radiative transfer within a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The COGs have been measured at time windows of 4-5 {mu}s and 15-18 {mu}s. The Stark widths of the Fe I lines have been obtained, and the line widths have been determined by measuring the plasma electron density at the time windows selected. It is shown that at a time window of 4-5 {mu}s, the inhomogeneity of the plasma magnitudes has an important influence on the COGs of intense lines. For this time window, a two-region model of the plasma has been used to generate theoretical COGs that describe satisfactorily the experimental curves of all the lines using a single set of plasma parameters. The results reveal the existence of considerable gradients between the inner and the outer plasma regions in the temperature (9400-7800 K) and in the density of Fe atoms (4x10{sup 16}-0.02x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). On the contrary, at the time window 15-18 {mu}s, at which the plasma has suffered most of its expansion and cooling process, the COGs of all the lines may be described by a single-region model, corresponding to a plasma with uniform temperature (6700 K) and density of Fe atoms (0.06x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). It is also shown that at initial times, the plasma inhomogeneity has an important effect in the line profiles of intense spectral lines, which are described by using the two-region model of the laser-induced plasma.

  11. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Mayo; Johkura, Kohei; Sato, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H 2 O 2 -added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H 2 O 2 . As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H 2 O 2 -medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H 2 O 2 -medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H 2 O 2 -medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN and FOS, were detected and notably elevated in

  12. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semicoductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Michael C.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a "cold plasma" which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place.

  13. Magnetic filter apparatus and method for generating cold plasma in semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, M.C.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed herein is a system and method for providing a plasma flood having a low electron temperature to a semiconductor target region during an ion implantation process. The plasma generator providing the plasma is coupled to a magnetic filter which allows ions and low energy electrons to pass therethrough while retaining captive the primary or high energy electrons. The ions and low energy electrons form a ``cold plasma`` which is diffused in the region of the process surface while the ion implantation process takes place. 15 figs.

  14. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  15. Prediction of ultraviolet-induced damage during plasma processes in dielectric films using on-wafer monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Yasushi; Katoh, Yuji; Okigawa, Mitsuru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    We measured electron-hole pairs generated in dielectric film using our developed on-wafer monitoring technique to detect electrical currents in the film during the plasma etching processes. The electron-hole pairs were generated by plasma induced ultraviolet (UV) photons, and the number of electron-hole pairs depends on the UV wavelength. In SiO 2 film, UV light, which has a wavelength of less than 140 nm, generates electron-hole pairs, because the band gap energy of the film is 8.8 eV. On the other hand, in Si 3 N 4 film, which has a band gap energy level of 5.0 eV, UV light below 250 nm induces the electron-hole pairs. Additionally, we evaluated the fluorocarbon gas plasma process that induces UV radiation damage using multilayer sensors that consisted of both SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 stacked films. In these cases, electron-hole pair generation depended on the dielectric film structure. There were more electron-hole pairs generated in the SiO 2 deposited on the Si 3 N 4 film than in the Si 3 N 4 deposited on the SiO 2 film. As a result, our developed on-wafer monitoring sensor was able to predict electron-hole pair generation and the device characteristics

  16. Mapping return currents in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas using proton deflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Sinenian, N.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Zylstra, A. B.; Petrasso, R. D.; Beg, F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic return currents and electromagnetic field structure in laser-generated Z-pinch plasmas have been measured using proton deflectometry. Experiments were modeled to accurately interpret deflections observed in proton radiographs. Current flow is shown to begin on axis and migrate outwards with the expanding coronal plasma. Magnetic field strengths of ∼1 T are generated by currents that increase from ∼2 kA to ∼7 kA over the course of the laser pulse. Proton deflectometry has been demonstrated to be a practical alternative to other magnetic field diagnostics for these types of plasmas.

  17. Method and apparatus for generating and utilizing a compound plasma configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koloc, P.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating and utilizing a compound plasma configuration is disclosed. The plasma configuration includes a central toroidal plasma with electrical currents surrounded by a generally ellipsoidal mantle of ionized particles or electrically conducting matter. The preferred methods of forming this compound plasma configuration include the steps of forming a helical ionized path in a gaseous medium and simultaneously discharging a high potential through the ionized path to produce a helical or heliform current which collapses on itself to produce a toroidal current, or generating a toroidal plasmoid, supplying magnetic energy to the plasmoid, and applying fluid pressure external to the plasmoid. The apparatus of the present invention includes a pressure chamber wherein the compound plasma configuration can be isolated or compressed by fluid or other forms of mechanical or magnetic pressure. 47 claims, 10 figures

  18. Quantitative detection of plasma-generated radicals in liquids by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tresp, H; Hammer, M U; Winter, J; Reuter, S; Weltmann, K-D

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the qualitative and quantitative detection of oxygen radicals in liquids after plasma treatment with an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is investigated. Absolute values for · OH and O 2 ·- radical concentration and their net production rate in plasma-treated liquids are determined without the use of additional scavenging chemicals such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) or mannitol (D-MAN). The main oxygen-centred radical generation in PBS was found to originate from the superoxide radical. It is shown that hidden parameters such as the manufacturer of chemical components could have a big influence on the comparability and reproducibility of the results. Finally, the effect of a shielding gas device for the investigated plasma jet with a shielding gas composition of varying oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio on radical generation after plasma treatment of phosphate-buffered saline solution was investigated. (paper)

  19. Method of generating magnetoactive plasma for forming thin surface layers on solid substrates and equipment therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardos, L.; Loncar, G.; Musil, J.; Zacek, F.

    1979-01-01

    The invention essentially consists in the use of the axially symmetrical high-frequency magnetized plasma column for thin layer formation. The plasma is generated using a cylindrical microwave slow-down structure in the outer magnetic field. Plasma particles density and temperature and their radial distribution are adjusted by changing the intensity of the magnetic field and of high-frequency power. The plasma may be generated from any gases in a pressure range of 10 -3 to 10 2 Pa. In an oxygen plasma, e.g., it is thus possible to form layers of 200 nm in thickness in 60 mins at an input high-frequency power of 100 to 300 W. (J.U.)

  20. Short-range wakefields generated in the blowout regime of plasma-wakefield acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupakov, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the past, calculation of wakefields generated by an electron bunch propagating in a plasma has been carried out in linear approximation, where the plasma perturbation can be assumed small and plasma equations of motion linearized. This approximation breaks down in the blowout regime where a high-density electron driver expels plasma electrons from its path and creates a cavity void of electrons in its wake. In this paper, we develop a technique that allows us to calculate short-range longitudinal and transverse wakes generated by a witness bunch being accelerated inside the cavity. Our results can be used for studies of the beam loading and the hosing instability of the witness bunch in plasma-wakefield and laser-wakefield acceleration.

  1. Operational characteristics of the high flux plasma generator Magnum-PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, H.J.N. van, E-mail: h.j.n.vaneck@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Abrams, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Berg, M.A. van den; Brons, S.; Eden, G.G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Meiden, H.J. van der; Morgan, T.W.; Pol, M.J. van de; Scholten, J.; Smeets, P.H.M.; De Temmerman, G.; Vries, P.C. de; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We have described the design and capabilities of the plasma experiment Magnum-PSI. •The plasma conditions are well suited for PSI studies in support of ITER. •Quasi steady state heat fluxes over 10 MW m{sup −2} have been achieved. •Transient heat and particle loads can be generated to simulate ELM instabilities. •Lithium coating can be applied to the surfaces of samples under vacuum. -- Abstract: In Magnum-PSI (MAgnetized plasma Generator and NUMerical modeling for Plasma Surface Interactions), the high density, low temperature plasma of a wall stabilized dc cascaded arc is confined to a magnetized plasma beam by a quasi-steady state axial magnetic field up to 1.3 T. It aims at conditions that enable fundamental studies of plasma–surface interactions in the regime relevant for fusion reactors such as ITER: 10{sup 23}–10{sup 25} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} hydrogen plasma flux densities at 1–5 eV. To study the effects of transient heat loads on a plasma-facing surface, a high power pulsed magnetized arc discharge has been developed. Additionally, the target surface can be transiently heated with a pulsed laser system during plasma exposure. In this contribution, the current status, capabilities and performance of Magnum-PSI are presented.

  2. MAGNUM-PSI, a plasma generator for plasma-surface interaction research in ITER-like conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedheer, W.J.; Rooij, G.J. van; Veremiyenko, V.; Ahmad, Z.; Barth, C.J.; Eck, H.J.N. van; Groot, B. de; Hellermann, M.G. von; Kruijtzer, G.L.; Wolff, J.C.; Brezinsek, S.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Samm, U.; Schweer, B.; Dahiya, R.P.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Fantz, U.; Kleyn, A.W.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    The FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics - together with its TEC partners - is preparing the construction of Magnum-psi, a magnetized (3 T), steady-state, large area (100 cm 2 ), high-flux (up to 10 24 H + ions m -2 s -1 ) plasma generator. The research programme of Magnum-psi will address the questions for the ITER divertor: erosion, redeposition and hydrogen retention with carbon substrates, melting of metal surfaces, erosion and redeposition with mixed materials. In order to explore and develop the techniques to be applied in Magnum-psi, a pilot experiment (Pilot-psi), operating at a magnetic field up to 1.6 Tesla, has been constructed. Pilot-psi produces a hydrogen plasma beam with the required parameters (T e ≤ 1eV and flux ≥ 10 23 m -2 s -1 ) over an area of 1 cm 2 . In this paper the results of extensive diagnostic measurements on Pilot-psi (a.o., Thomson Scattering and high-resolution spectroscopy), combined with numerical studies of the source and the expansion of the plasma will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the large Magnum-psi plasma generator. (author)

  3. Laser-induced plasma spectrometry: truly a surface analytical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadillo, Jose M.; Laserna, J.

    2004-01-01

    For a long period, analytical applications of laser induced plasma spectrometry (LIPS) have been mainly restricted to overall and quantitative determination of elemental composition in bulk, solid samples. However, introduction of new compact and reliable solid state lasers and technological development in multidimensional intensified detectors have made possible the seeking of new analytical niches for LIPS where its analytical advantages (direct sampling from any material irrespective of its conductive status without sample preparation and with sensitivity adequate for many elements in different matrices) could be fully exploited. In this sense, the field of surface analysis could take advantage from the cited advantages taking into account in addition, the capability of LIPS for spot analysis, line scan, depth-profiling, area analysis and compositional mapping with a single instrument in air at atmospheric pressure. This review paper outlines the fundamental principles of laser-induced plasma emission relevant to sample surface studies, discusses the experimental parameters governing the spatial (lateral and in-depth) resolution in LIPS analysis and presents the applications concerning surface examination

  4. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  5. Numerical simulation for the influence of laser-induced plasmas addition on air mass capture of hypersonic inlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian

    2012-03-01

    The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.

  6. Perforin rapidly induces plasma membrane phospholipid flip-flop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil S Metkar

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic cell granule secretory pathway is essential for host defense. This pathway is fundamentally a form of intracellular protein delivery where granule proteases (granzymes from cytotoxic lymphocytes are thought to diffuse through barrel stave pores generated in the plasma membrane of the target cell by the pore forming protein perforin (PFN and mediate apoptotic as well as additional biological effects. While recent electron microscopy and structural analyses indicate that recombinant PFN oligomerizes to form pores containing 20 monomers (20 nm when applied to liposomal membranes, these pores are not observed by propidium iodide uptake in target cells. Instead, concentrations of human PFN that encourage granzyme-mediated apoptosis are associated with pore structures that unexpectedly favor phosphatidylserine flip-flop measured by Annexin-V and Lactadherin. Efforts that reduce PFN mediated Ca influx in targets did not reduce Annexin-V reactivity. Antigen specific mouse CD8 cells initiate a similar rapid flip-flop in target cells. A lipid that augments plasma membrane curvature as well as cholesterol depletion in target cells enhance flip-flop. Annexin-V staining highly correlated with apoptosis after Granzyme B (GzmB treatment. We propose the structures that PFN oligomers form in the membrane bilayer may include arcs previously observed by electron microscopy and that these unusual structures represent an incomplete mixture of plasma membrane lipid and PFN oligomers that may act as a flexible gateway for GzmB to translocate across the bilayer to the cytosolic leaflet of target cells.

  7. Multi-probe ionization chamber system for nuclear-generated plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W.Y.; Ellis, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) plasma diagnostic system used in studies of nuclear seeded plasma kinetics upgraded to increase the capabilities and extend the range of plasma parameter measurements to higher densities and temperatures. The PIC plasma diagnostic chamber has been provided with additional measurement features in the form of conductivity and Langmuir probes, while the overall experimental system has been fully automated, with computerized control, measurement, data acquisition and analysis by means of IEEE-488 (GPIB) bus control and data transfer protocols using a Macintosh series microcomputer. The design and use of a simple TTL switching system enables remote switching among the various GPIB instruments comprising the multi-probe plasma diagnostic system using software, without the need for a microprocessor. The new system will be used to extend the present study of nuclear generated plasma in He, Ar, Xe, fissionable UF 6 and other fluorine containing gases

  8. State-space modeling of the radio frequency inductively-coupled plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, Rakesh Kumar; Punjabi, Sangeeta B; Mangalvedekar, H A; Lande, B K; Joshi, N K; Barve, D N

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models of RF-ICP are useful in understanding the basic transport phenomenon in an ICP torch under a wide variety of operating conditions. However, these models lack the ability to evaluate the effects of the plasma condition on the RF generator. In this paper, simulation of an induction plasma generator has been done using state space modelling by considering inductively coupled plasma as a part of RF network .The time dependent response of the RF-ICP generator circuit to given input excitation has been computed by extracting the circuit's state-space variables and their constraint matrices. MATLAB 7.1 software has been used to solve the state equations. The values of RF coil current, frequency and plasma power has been measured experimentally also at different plate bias voltage. The simulated model is able to predict RF coil current, frequency, plasma power, overall efficiency of the generator. The simulated and measured values are in agreement with each other. This model can prove useful as a design tool for the Induction plasma generator.

  9. Temperature dependence on plasma-induced damage and chemical reactions in GaN etching processes using chlorine plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zecheng; Ishikawa, Kenji; Imamura, Masato; Tsutsumi, Takayoshi; Kondo, Hiroki; Oda, Osamu; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    Plasma-induced damage (PID) on GaN was optimally reduced by high-temperature chlorine plasma etching. Energetic ion bombardments primarily induced PID involving stoichiometry, surface roughness, and photoluminescence (PL) degradation. Chemical reactions under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and chlorine radical exposure at temperatures higher than 400 °C can be controlled by taking into account the synergism of simultaneous photon and radical irradiations to effectively reduce PID.

  10. Neutron Generation by Laser-Driven Spherically Convergent Plasma Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, G.; Yan, J.; Liu, J.; Lan, K.; Chen, Y. H.; Huo, W. Y.; Fan, Z.; Zhang, X.; Zheng, J.; Chen, Z.; Jiang, W.; Chen, L.; Tang, Q.; Yuan, Z.; Wang, F.; Jiang, S.; Ding, Y.; Zhang, W.; He, X. T.

    2017-04-01

    We investigate a new laser-driven spherically convergent plasma fusion scheme (SCPF) that can produce thermonuclear neutrons stably and efficiently. In the SCPF scheme, laser beams of nanosecond pulse duration and 1 014- 1 015 W /cm2 intensity uniformly irradiate the fuel layer lined inside a spherical hohlraum. The fuel layer is ablated and heated to expand inwards. Eventually, the hot fuel plasmas converge, collide, merge, and stagnate at the central region, converting most of their kinetic energy to internal energy, forming a thermonuclear fusion fireball. With the assumptions of steady ablation and adiabatic expansion, we theoretically predict the neutron yield Yn to be related to the laser energy EL, the hohlraum radius Rh, and the pulse duration τ through a scaling law of Yn∝(EL/Rh1.2τ0.2 )2.5. We have done experiments at the ShengGuangIII-prototype facility to demonstrate the principle of the SCPF scheme. Some important implications are discussed.

  11. Collimated fast electron beam generation in critical density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwawaki, T., E-mail: iwawaki-t@eie.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Habara, H.; Morita, K.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Baton, S.; Fuchs, J.; Chen, S. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M. [LULI, CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique-Université Pierre et Marie Curie-CEA, 91128 Palaiseau (France); European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility (XFEL) GmbH (Germany); Rousseaux, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Filippi, F. [La SAPIENZA, University of Rome, Dip. SBAI, 00161 Rome (Italy); Nazarov, W. [School of Chemistry, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is observed when an ultra-intense laser pulse (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 300 fs) irradiates a uniform critical density plasma. The uniform plasma is created through the ionization of an ultra-low density (5 mg/c.c.) plastic foam by X-ray burst from the interaction of intense laser (I = 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, 600 ps) with a thin Cu foil. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation well reproduces the collimated electron beam with a strong magnetic field in the region of the laser pulse propagation. To understand the physical mechanism of the collimation, we calculate energetic electron motion in the magnetic field obtained from the 2D PIC simulation. As the results, the strong magnetic field (300 MG) collimates electrons with energy over a few MeV. This collimation mechanism may attract attention in many applications such as electron acceleration, electron microscope and fast ignition of laser fusion.

  12. Ground penetrating radar using a microwave radiated from laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, H; Tanaka, K A [Graduate School of Engineering and Institute of Laser Engineering, Suita, Osaka University (Japan); Yamaura, M; Shimada, Y; Fujita, M [Institute for Laser Technology, Suita, Osaka (Japan)], E-mail: nakajima-h@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2008-05-01

    A plasma column radiates a microwave to surroundings when generated with laser irradiation. Using such a microwave, we are able to survey underground objects and architectures from a remote place. In this paper, the microwave radiated from a plasma column induced by an intense laser ({approx} 10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}) were measured. Additionally, a proof test of this method was performed by searching an underground aluminum disk (26 cm in diameter, 1 cm in depth, and 1 m apart from a receiving antenna). As the result, the characteristics of the radiated microwave were clarified, and strong echoes corresponding to the edges of an aluminum disk were found. Based on these results, the feasibility of a ground penetrating radar was verified.

  13. Liquid steel analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    2002-11-01

    When a nanosecond pulsed laser is focused onto a sample and the intensity exceeds a certain threshold, material is vaporized and a plasma is formed above the sample surface. The laser-light becomes increasingly absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and by photo-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms and molecules. The positive feedback, by which the number of energetic electrons for ionization is increased in an avalanche-like manner under the influence of laser-light, is the so-called optical breakdown. Radiating excited atoms and ions within the expanding plasma plume produce a characteristic optical emission spectrum. A spectroscopic analysis of this optical emission of the laser-induced plasma permits a qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the investigated sample. This technique is therefore often called laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIPS is a fast non-contact technique, by which solid, liquid or gaseous samples can be analyzed with respect to their chemical composition. Hence, it is an appropriate tool for the rapid in-situ analysis of not easily accessible surfaces for process control in industrial environments. In this work, LIPS was studied as a technique to determine the chemical composition of solid and liquid steel. A LIPS set-up was designed and built for the remote and continuous in-situ analysis of the steel melt. Calibration curves were prepared for the LIPS analysis of Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in solid steel using reference samples with known composition. In laboratory experiments an induction furnace was used to melt steel samples in crucibles, which were placed at a working distance of 1.5 m away from the LIPS apparatus. The response of the LIPS system was monitored on-line during the addition of pure elements to the liquid steel bath within certain concentration ranges (Cr: 0.11 - 13.8 wt%, Cu: 0.044 - 0.54 wt%, Mn: 1.38 - 2.5 wt%, Ni: 0.049 - 5.92 wt%). The analysis of an element

  14. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  15. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  16. Enhanced efficiency of plasma acceleration in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, J; Rosiński, M; Jabłoński, S; Pisarczyk, T; Chodukowski, T; Parys, P; Rączka, P; Krousky, E; Ullschmied, J; Liska, R; Kucharik, M

    2015-01-01

    Among various methods for the acceleration of dense plasmas the mechanism called laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) is capable of achieving the highest energetic efficiency. In the LICPA scheme, a projectile placed in a cavity is accelerated along a guiding channel by the laser-induced thermal plasma pressure or by the radiation pressure of an intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. This arrangement leads to a significant enhancement of the hydrodynamic or electromagnetic forces driving the projectile, relative to standard laser acceleration schemes. The aim of this paper is to review recent experimental and numerical works on LICPA with the emphasis on the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles and dense ion beams. The main experimental part concerns the research carried out at the kilojoule sub-nanosecond PALS laser facility in Prague. Our measurements performed at this facility, supported by advanced two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, have demonstrated that the LICPA accelerator working in the long-pulse hydrodynamic regime can be a highly efficient tool for the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles to hyper-velocities and the generation of ultra-high-pressure (>100 Mbar) shocks through the collision of the macroparticle with a solid target. The energetic efficiency of the macroparticle acceleration and the shock generation has been found to be significantly higher than that for other laser-based methods used so far. Using particle-in-cell simulations it is shown that the LICPA scheme is highly efficient also in the short-pulse high-intensity regime and, in particular, may be used for production of intense ion beams of multi-MeV to GeV ion energies with the energetic efficiency of tens of per cent, much higher than for conventional laser acceleration schemes. (paper)

  17. Megawatt low-temperature DC plasma generator with divergent channels of gas-discharge tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Isakaev, E. Kh.; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Yusupov, D. I.; Sargsyan, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We have developed and studied a new effective megawatt double-unit generator of low-temperature argon plasma, which belongs to the class of dc plasmatrons and comprises the cathode and anode units with divergent gas-discharge channels. The generator has an efficiency of about 80-85% and ensures a long working life at operating currents up to 4000 A.

  18. On the equivalence of convergent kinetic equations for hot dilute plasmas: Generating functions for collision brackets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, J.S.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The generating functions for the collision brackets associated with two alternative convergent kinetic equations are derived for small values of the plasma parameter. It is shown that the first few terms in the asymptotic expansions of these generating functions are identical. Consequently, both

  19. Lifetime and shelf life of sealed tritium-filled plasma focus chambers with gas generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Lemeshko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the operation features of plasma focus chambers using deuterium–tritium mixture. Handling tritium requires the use of sealed, vacuum-tight plasma focus chambers. In these chambers, there is an accumulation of the impurity gases released from the inside surfaces of the electrodes and the insulator while moving plasma current sheath inside chambers interacting with β-electrons generated due to the decay of tritium. Decay of tritium is also accompanied by the accumulation of helium. Impurities lead to a decreased yield of neutron emission from plasma focus chambers, especially for long term operation. The paper presents an option of absorption type gas generator in the chamber based on porous titanium, which allows to significantly increase the lifetime and shelf life of tritium chambers. It also shows the results of experiments on the comparison of the operation of sealed plasma focus chambers with and without the gas generator. Keywords: Plasma focus, Neutron yield, Tritium-filled plasma focus chambers, PACS Codes: 29.25.-v, 52.58.Lq

  20. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper

  1. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Hajdu, P; Pálinkás, J

    2014-02-01

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the "big" ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  2. Fast camera studies at an electron cyclotron resonance table plasma generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rácz, R., E-mail: rracz@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary); Biri, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem tér 18/c (Hungary); Hajdu, P.; Pálinkás, J. [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1 (Hungary)

    2014-02-15

    A simple table-size ECR plasma generator operates in the ATOMKI without axial magnetic trap and without any particle extraction tool. Radial plasma confinement is ensured by a NdFeB hexapole. The table-top ECR is a simplified version of the 14 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Plasma diagnostics experiments are planned to be performed at this device before installing the measurement setting at the “big” ECRIS. Recently, the plasma generator has been operated in pulsed RF mode in order to investigate the time evolution of the ECR plasma in two different ways. (1) The visible light radiation emitted by the plasma was investigated by the frames of a fast camera images with 1 ms temporal resolution. Since the visible light photographs are in strong correlation with the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the cold electron components of the plasma it can be important to understand better the transient processes just after the breakdown and just after the glow. (2) The time-resolved ion current on a specially shaped electrode was measured simultaneously in order to compare it with the visible light photographs. The response of the plasma was detected by changing some external setting parameters (gas pressure and microwave power) and was described in this paper.

  3. Self-consistent modeling of radio-frequency plasma generation in stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V. E., E-mail: moiseenk@ipp.kharkov.ua; Stadnik, Yu. S., E-mail: stadnikys@kipt.kharkov.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine); Lysoivan, A. I., E-mail: a.lyssoivan@fz-juelich.de [Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, Laboratory for Plasma Physics (Belgium); Korovin, V. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Science Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (Ukraine)

    2013-11-15

    A self-consistent model of radio-frequency (RF) plasma generation in stellarators in the ion cyclotron frequency range is described. The model includes equations for the particle and energy balance and boundary conditions for Maxwell’s equations. The equation of charged particle balance takes into account the influx of particles due to ionization and their loss via diffusion and convection. The equation of electron energy balance takes into account the RF heating power source, as well as energy losses due to the excitation and electron-impact ionization of gas atoms, energy exchange via Coulomb collisions, and plasma heat conduction. The deposited RF power is calculated by solving the boundary problem for Maxwell’s equations. When describing the dissipation of the energy of the RF field, collisional absorption and Landau damping are taken into account. At each time step, Maxwell’s equations are solved for the current profiles of the plasma density and plasma temperature. The calculations are performed for a cylindrical plasma. The plasma is assumed to be axisymmetric and homogeneous along the plasma column. The system of balance equations is solved using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. Maxwell’s equations are solved in a one-dimensional approximation by using the Fourier transformation along the azimuthal and longitudinal coordinates. Results of simulations of RF plasma generation in the Uragan-2M stellarator by using a frame antenna operating at frequencies lower than the ion cyclotron frequency are presented. The calculations show that the slow wave generated by the antenna is efficiently absorbed at the periphery of the plasma column, due to which only a small fraction of the input power reaches the confinement region. As a result, the temperature on the axis of the plasma column remains low, whereas at the periphery it is substantially higher. This leads to strong absorption of the RF field at the periphery via the Landau mechanism.

  4. Characteristics of indirect laser-induced plasma from a thin film of oil on a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Jun-Shan; Bai, Xue-Shi; Motto-Ros, Vincent; Yu, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Optical emissions from the major and trace elements embodied in a transparent gel prepared from cooking oil were detected after the gel was spread in a thin film on a metallic substrate. Such emissions are due to the indirect breakdown of the coating layer. The generated plasma, a mixture of substances from the substrate, the layer, and the ambient gas, was characterized using emission spectroscopy. The characteristics of the plasma formed on the metal with and without the coating layer were investigated. The results showed that Al emission induced from the aluminum substrates coated with oil films extends away from the target surface to ablate the oil film. This finally formed a bifurcating circulation of aluminum vapor against a spherical confinement wall in the front of the plume, which differed from the evolution of the plasma induced from the uncoated aluminum target. The strongest emissions of elements from the oil films can be observed at 2 mm above the target after a detection delay of 1.0 μs. A high temperature zone has been observed in the plasma after the delay of 1.0 μs for the plasma induced from the coated metal. This higher temperature determined in the plasma allows the consideration of the sensitive detection of trace elements in liquids, gels, biological samples, or thin films.

  5. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering and magnetic field generation in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawa'aneh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of laser-plasma interactions related to fusion reactions; in particular thermoelectric magnetic field generation around a hole dug in plasma by intense laser beams, and stimulated Brillouin back scattering (SBBS) from plasmas containing hot spots. A hole, of the size of the laser focal spot, is dug in the plasma when illuminated by intense laser if the laser pressure exceeds the plasma thermal pressure. This hole is found to have steep, radial density gradients. My first concern arose from the prediction that magnetic fields might be generated around the hole-plasma interface in places where the steep density gradients overlap with the non-aligned temperature gradients. When a high-power laser beam is focused on a solid pellet, plasma is formed at the surface. In order to create conditions for thermonuclear reactions in the interior of the pellet, an effective deposition of the laser energy to thermal energy of the pellet via laser-plasma coupling is necessary. When light irradiates a plasma collective processes occur, which can either enhance or reduce the light absorption. For a better understanding of the fusion problem a knowledge of the nature of these collective processes and of the fraction of light reflected from the plasma modes is required. Local hot spots seen experimentally lead to higher gain levels of scattered light. These local temperature inhomogeneities could lead to non-equilibrium distributions, which result in a free energy leading to some interesting phenomena in plasma. In the second part of the thesis stimulated Brillouin back scattering from an ion acoustic mode in a hot spot is studied. Temperature inhomogeneities lead to an ion acoustic instability, and to higher levels of SBBS gain, which leads to lower thresholds for the same electron to ion temperature ratios. This could be the answer for the observed high levels of scattering from hot spots. (author)

  6. Conducting grids to stabilize MHD generator plasmas against ionization instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veefkind, A.

    1972-09-01

    Ionization instabilities in MHD generators may be suppressed by the use of grids that short circuit the AC electric field component corresponding to the direction of maximum growth. An analysis of the influence of the corresponding boundary conditions has been performed in order to obtain more quantitative information about the stabilizing effect of this system

  7. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds

  8. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  9. Radiation pressure induced difference-sideband generation beyond linearized description

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Hao; Fan, Y. W.; Yang, X.; Wu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate radiation-pressure induced generation of the frequency components at the difference-sideband in an optomechanical system, which beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interactions between cavity fields and the mechanical oscillation. We analytically calculate amplitudes of these signals, and identify a simple square-root law for both the upper and lower difference-sideband generation which can describe the dependence of the intensities of these signals...

  10. High kinetic energy plasma jet generation and its injection into the Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.V.; Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Abramova, K.B.; Sklyarova, E.M.; Tolstyakov, S.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Progress in the theoretical and experimental development of the plasma jet source and injection of hydrogen plasma and neutral gas jets into the Globus-M spherical tokamak is discussed. An experimental test bed is described for investigation of intense plasma jets that are generated by a double-stage plasma gun consisting of an intense source for neutral gas production and a conventional pulsed coaxial accelerator. A procedure for optimizing the accelerator parameters so as to achieve the maximum possible flow velocity with a limited discharge current and a reasonable length of the coaxial electrodes is presented. The calculations are compared with experiment. Plasma jet parameters, among them pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc, were measured. Plasma jets with densities of up to 10 22 m -3 , total numbers of accelerated particles (1-5) x 10 19 , and flow velocities of 50-100 km s -1 were successfully injected into the plasma column of the Globus-M tokamak. Interferometric and Thomson scattering measurements confirmed deep jet penetration and a fast density rise ( 19 to 1 x 10 19 ) did not result in plasma degradation

  11. Transverse Space-Charge Field-Induced Plasma Dynamics for Ultraintense Electron-Beam Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tarkeshian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Similarly to laser or x-ray beams, the interaction of sufficiently intense particle beams with neutral gases will result in the creation of plasma. In contrast to photon-based ionization, the strong unipolar field of a particle beam can generate a plasma where the electron population receives a large initial momentum kick and escapes, leaving behind unshielded ions. Measuring the properties of the ensuing Coulomb exploding ions—such as their kinetic energy distribution, yield, and spatial distribution—can provide information about the peak electric fields that are achieved in the electron beams. Particle-in-cell simulations and analytical models are presented for high-brightness electron beams of a few femtoseconds or even hundreds of attoseconds, and transverse beam sizes on the micron scale, as generated by today’s free electron lasers. Different density regimes for the utilization as a potential diagnostics are explored, and the fundamental differences in plasma dynamical behavior for e-beam or photon-based ionization are highlighted. By measuring the dynamics of field-induced ions for different gas and beam densities, a lower bound on the beam charge density can be obtained in a single shot and in a noninvasive way. The exponential dependency of the ionization yield on the beam properties can provide unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution, at the submicrometer and subfemtosecond scales, respectively, offering a practical and powerful approach to characterizing beams from accelerators at the frontiers of performance.

  12. Laser Induced Fluorescence of Helium Ions in a Helicon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, C. S.; Biloui, C.; Hardin, R. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Scime, E. E.; Boivin, R.

    2003-10-01

    The lack of a suitable Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) scheme for helium ions at visible wavelengths has prevented LIF from being employed in helium plasmas for measurements of ion temperature and bulk ion flow speeds. In this work, we will discuss our attempts to perform LIF of helium ions in a helicon source plasma using an infrared, tunable diode laser operating at 1012.36 nm. The infrared transition corresponds to excitation from the n = 4 level (4f ^2F) to the n = 5 (5g ^2G) level of singly ionized helium and therefore requires substantial electron temperatures (> 10 eV) to maintain an adequate ion population in the n = 4 state. Calculations using a steady state coronal model predict that the n = 4 state population will be 25% larger than the n = 5 population for our experimental conditions. The fluorescence decay from the n = 5 (5f ^2F) level of singly ionized helium level to the n = 3 (3d ^2D) level at 320.31 nm is monitored as the diode laser is swept through 10 GHz around the 1012.36 nm line. Note that the fluorescence emission requires a collisionally coupled transition between two different n = 5 quantum states. We will also present measurements of the emission intensities of both the 1012.36 nm and the 320.31 nm lines as a function of source neutral pressure, rf power, and plasma density. This work supported by the U.S. DoE EPSCoR Lab Partnership Program.

  13. A differentially pumped argon plasma in the linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI: gas flow and dynamics of the ionized fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, H.J.N.; Hansen, T.A.R.; Kleyn, A.W.; van der Meiden, H.J.; Schram, D.C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma-surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is

  14. Induced Compton scattering of a laser in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.S.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    A laser propagating through a high temperature low density plasma undergoes induced Compton backscattering involving the coupling of the laser pump and the scattered electromagnetic wave via the resonant electrons or the resistive quasimode. The region of nonlinear interaction is localized due to plasma inhomogeneity. At short density scale lengths when the interaction region is strongly localized and resonant electrons quickly move out of it, the electron distribution function remains Maxwellian and Compton reflectivity is significant at laser intensity >10 16 W/cm 2 . In gentle density gradients the resonant electrons are trapped in the ponderomotive and self-consistent potential well of the quasimode as they enter the interaction region. The ones with velocity v z p (v p being the phase velocity of the ponderomotive wave propagating along z direction) are accelerated to v p while those with v z >v p are retarded to v p . Since the number of the former is more than that of the latter there is a net momentum transfer to electrons. Momentum and action conservation lead to a reflectivity, R, that initially goes as the square of pump intensity, then rises gradually at higher intensity. R decreases rapidly with v th /v p , where v th is the thermal velocity of electrons

  15. Can black hole superradiance be induced by galactic plasmas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.

    2018-05-01

    Highly spinning Kerr black holes with masses M = 1- 100M⊙ are subject to an efficient superradiant instability in the presence of bosons with masses μ ∼10-10-10-12eV. We observe that this matches the effective plasma-induced photon mass in diffuse galactic or intracluster environments (ωpl ∼10-10-10-12eV). This suggests that bare Kerr black holes within galactic or intracluster environments, possibly even including the ones produced in recently observed gravitational wave events, are unstable to formation of a photon cloud that may contain a significant fraction of the mass of the original black hole. At maximal efficiency, the instability timescale for a massive vector is milliseconds, potentially leading to a transient rate of energy extraction from a black hole in principle as large as ∼1055ergs-1. We discuss possible astrophysical effects this could give rise to, including a speculative connection to Fast Radio Bursts.

  16. Experimental investigation of the hot point generation in the Z pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, V.I.; Podgornov, V.A.; Litvin, D.N.; Senik, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments to explode thin composite (W-Al-W, W-SiO 2 -W) wires in SIGNAL fast high-current generator diode under about 200 kA load current amplitude and about 50 ns rise duration were carried out to study the possibility to control generation of hot point in Z pinch plasma. The parameters of generated hot points were studied using X-ray techniques. Analysis of the experiment results shows the possibility to control this process [ru

  17. Generation and sustainment of plasma rotation by ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.; White, R.; Bonoli, P.T.; Chan, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed and evaluated for driving rotation in tokamak plasmas by minority ion-cyclotron heating, even though this process introduces negligible angular momentum. The mechanism has two elements: First, angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a non-slip boundary condition at the separatrix. Second, Monte-Carlo calculations show that energized particles will provide a torque density source which has a zero volume integral but separated positive and negative regions. With such a source, a solution of the diffusion equation predicts the on-axis rotation frequency Ω to be Ω=(4q max WJ*)eBR 3 a 2 n e (2π) 2 ) -1 (τ M /τ E ) where vertical bar J* vertical bar ∼ 5-10 is a non-dimensional rotation frequency calculated by the Monte-Carlo ORBIT code. Overall, agreement with experiment is good, when the resonance is on the low-field-side of the magnetic axis. The rotation becomes more counter-current and reverses sign on the high field side for a no-slip boundary. The velocity shear layer position is controllable and of sufficient magnitude to affect microinstabilities. (author)

  18. Chemical kinetics and relaxation of non-equilibrium air plasma generated by energetic photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulois, Melissa; Ribière, Maxime; Eichwald, Olivier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Azaïs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of electromagnetic perturbations of electronic devices, due to air plasma-induced electromagnetic field, requires a thorough study on air plasma. In the aim to understand the phenomena at the origin of the formation of non-equilibrium air plasma, we simulate, using a volume average chemical kinetics model (0D model), the time evolution of a non-equilibrium air plasma generated by an energetic X-ray flash. The simulation is undertaken in synthetic air (80% N_2 and 20% O_2) at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. When the X-ray flash crosses the gas, non-relativistic Compton electrons (low energy) and a relativistic Compton electron beam (high energy) are simultaneously generated and interact with the gas. The considered chemical kinetics scheme involves 26 influent species (electrons, positive ions, negative ions, and neutral atoms and molecules in their ground or metastable excited states) reacting following 164 selected reactions. The kinetics model describing the plasma chemistry was coupled to the conservation equation of the electron mean energy, in order to calculate at each time step of the non-equilibrium plasma evolution, the coefficients of reactions involving electrons while the energy of the heavy species (positive and negative ions and neutral atoms and molecules) is assumed remaining close to ambient temperature. It has been shown that it is the relativistic Compton electron beam directly created by the X-ray flash which is mainly responsible for the non-equilibrium plasma formation. Indeed, the low energy electrons (i.e., the non-relativistic ones) directly ejected from molecules by Compton collisions contribute to less than 1% on the creation of electrons in the plasma. In our simulation conditions, a non-equilibrium plasma with a low electron mean energy close to 1 eV and a concentration of charged species close to 10"1"3" cm"−"3 is formed a few nanoseconds after the peak of X-ray flash intensity. 200 ns after the

  19. Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Garreau, Jean Claude

    2001-01-01

    The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.

  20. Characterization studies of lithium vapour generated in heat pipe oven for the Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, K.K.; Mahavar, Kanchan; Ajai Kumar; Kumar, Ravi A.V.

    2013-01-01

    Characterization and optimization studies of lithium vapor by white light as well as UV laser absorption were carried out as part of generation of photo ionized Li plasma for the Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Experiment. Temperature and buffer gas pressure dependency of the neutral density of lithium vapor was studied in detail. The line integrated neutral density of Li(n o L) was found to be of the order of 10 17 -10 18 cm -2 at heat pipe oven temperatures in the range from 600-800℃ which is sufficient to obtain the required 1013-1014 cm -3 plasma densities by photo ionization. (author)

  1. Probing plasma wakefields using electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Li, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Chu, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We show experimental results of probing the electric field structure of plasma wakes by using femtosecond relativistic electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. Snapshots of laser-driven linear wakes in plasmas with different densities and density gradients are captured. The spatiotemporal evolution of the wake in a plasma density up-ramp is recorded. Two parallel wakes driven by a laser with a main spot and sidelobes are identified in the experiment and reproduced in simulations. The capability of this new method for capturing the electron- and positron-driven wakes is also shown via 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Plasma waves generated by rippled magnetically focused electron beams surrounded by tenuous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Petran, F.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter investigates the electrostatic instability and the corresponding unstable wave spectrum of magnetically focused neutralized rippled electron beams under spacelike conditions. Topics considered include general equations and equilibrium, the derivation of the dispersion relation, and the solution of the dispersion relation (long wavelength perturbations, short wavelength perturbations, the rippled beam). The results indicate that in the long wavelength limit two types of instability (extending over different frequency ranges) exist. An instability of the beam-plasma type occurs due to the interaction between the beam electrons and the surrounding plasm electrons at the beam-plasma interface. A parametric type instability is produced by the coupling of a fast forward wave and a fast backward wave due to the rippling (modulation) of the beam. It is demonstrated that in the short wavelength limit, surface waves which are stable for the laminar beam may become unstable in the rippled beam case

  3. Dynamic processes in the generation of quasisteady magnetic fields in a laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksich, N.; Andreev, N.E.; Bychenko, V.Yu.

    1991-01-01

    Research on the generation of quasisteady magnetic fields (QSMF) in plasma under the action of strong electro-magnetic fields has long attracted attention in connection with its role when high-power laser radiation interacts with matter. In connection with the problem of laser thermonuclear fusion, a great deal of attention has been devoted to the generation of QSMF through resonant conversion of the heating radiation into electron plasma oscillations near the critical surface. Under conditions which are of interest for present-day experiments, this conversion is nonlinear due to the ponderomotive action of the radiation on the plasma plays an important role; when it is taken into account the picture of the nonlinear interaction between the radiation and the plasma changes fundamentally. Moreover, thus far QSMF generation under the action of the heating radiation has been studied mainly without including both (nonlinearity and plasma expansion) of these factors, although in the numerical simulation of the problem QSMF has been studied for a comparatively long time. The present work presents results of a theoretical study of QSMF excitation made using the LAST code, which treats the self-consistent dynamical nonlinear picture of the plasma electrodynamics and hydrodynamics

  4. Decontamination possibilities of high-toxic wastes by means of dense plasma generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutberg, P.G.; Kolikov, V.A.; Bogomaz, A.A.; Budin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    In present time the idea of plasma generators application for the high-toxic agents and wastes decontamination has become very urgent. It is known that chemical bonds energy of some molecules being part of these substances is so high that it is impossible to destroy them using traditional methods. Taking into account the fact that the temperature of plasma generator's arc column may be of tens eV, and its energy of hundreds kJ, one may state that any known chemical substances taken in quite large amount, may be dissociated to the atoms. In this paper simplified construction of plasma generator and technological scheme of plasmachemical installation are presented. (author)

  5. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

  6. Study of noninductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of noninductive current generation are treated: (1) The kinetic problem, i.e., coupling between current-carrying energetic electrons on the one hand, and the electromagnetic wave and thermal particles on the other. (2). The electromagnetic problem, i.e., calculation of the wave structure produced by the antennas. (3) The study of nonthermal radiation and electrical responses. Green's functions are used to solve the kinetic problem. The electron distribution function is calculated. For the electromagnetic problem of wave structure at different wave numbers, the Green's function of the Maxwell equations in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium which is spatially and temporally scattered was calculated. Perturbation of propagation by diffusion and conversion was studied. The calculation of nonthermal radiation and of transfer of electromagnetic wave energy into magnetic energy is derived from the two preceding problems. A method to produce fusion power quasi-continuously using two inductively and thermally coupled tokamaks is proposed [fr

  7. Induced magnetic-field effects in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    In inductive plasma sources, the rapid spatial decay of the electric field arising from the skin effect produces a large radio frequency (RF) magnetic field via Faraday's law. We previously determined that this magnetic field leads to a reduction of the electron density in the skin region, as well as a reduction in the collisionless heating rate. The electron deficit leads to the formation of an electrostatic potential which pulls electrons in to restore quasineutrality. Here we calculate the electron density including both the induced and electrostatic fields. If the wave frequency is not too low, the ions respond only to the averaged fields, and hence the electrostatic field is oscillatory, predominantly at the second harmonic of the applied field. We calculate the potential required to establish a constant electron density, and compare with numerical orbit-code calculations. For times short compared to ion transit times, the quasineutral density is just the initial ion density. For timescales long enough that the ions can relax, the density profile can be found from the solution of fluid equations with an effective (ponderomotive-like) potential added. Although the time-varying electrostatic potential is an extra source of heating, the net effect of the induced magnetic and electrostatic fields through trapping, early turning, and direct heating is a significant reduction in collisionless heating for parameters of interest

  8. A special cell morphology of saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by low-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Dajun; Cao Jinxiang

    2003-01-01

    A special cell morphology, cavity-like cells, was found in posterities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated by low-temperature air plasma with different powers. The feature of the special morphology indicates that the cavity-like cells may be formed by cellular mutation effect induced by the plasma, instead of direct cellular damage by the plasma. The results suggest that the cellular mutation effect of the low-temperature plasma is a complex process

  9. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  10. Secondary immunization generates clonally related antigen-specific plasma cells and memory B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Daniela; Giesecke, Claudia; Mei, Henrik E; Reiter, Karin; Daridon, Capucine; Lipsky, Peter E; Dörner, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Rechallenge with T cell-dependent Ags induces memory B cells to re-enter germinal centers (GCs) and undergo further expansion and differentiation into plasma cells (PCs) and secondary memory B cells. It is currently not known whether the expanded population of memory B cells and PCs generated in secondary GCs are clonally related, nor has the extent of proliferation and somatic hypermutation of their precursors been delineated. In this study, after secondary tetanus toxoid (TT) immunization, TT-specific PCs increased 17- to 80-fold on days 6-7, whereas TT-specific memory B cells peaked (delayed) on day 14 with a 2- to 22-fold increase. Molecular analyses of V(H)DJ(H) rearrangements of individual cells revealed no major differences of gene usage and CDR3 length between TT-specific PCs and memory B cells, and both contained extensive evidence of somatic hypermutation with a pattern consistent with GC reactions. This analysis identified clonally related TT-specific memory B cells and PCs. Within clusters of clonally related cells, sequences shared a number of mutations but also could contain additional base pair changes. The data indicate that although following secondary immunization PCs can derive from memory B cells without further somatic hypermutation, in some circumstances, likely within GC reactions, asymmetric mutation can occur. These results suggest that after the fate decision to differentiate into secondary memory B cells or PCs, some committed precursors continue to proliferate and mutate their V(H) genes.

  11. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Suyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns and picosecond (ps lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS using He ambient gas.

  12. Signal enhancement of neutral He emission lines by fast electron bombardment of laser-induced He plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyanto, Hery [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, Kampus Bukit Jimbaran, Denpasar 80361, Bali (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Pelita Harapan, 1100 M.H. Thamrin Boulevard, Lippo Village, Tangerang 15811 (Indonesia); Hedwig, Rinda [Department of Computer Engineering, Bina Nusantara University, 9 K.H. Syahdan, Jakarta 14810 (Indonesia); Marpaung, Alion Mangasi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Jakarta State University, Rawamangun, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia); Ramli, Muliadi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik, E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, NAD (Indonesia); Tjia, May On [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha,Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Fukui Science Education Academy, Takagi Chuo 2 chome, Fukui 910-0804 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A time-resolved spectroscopic study is performed on the enhancement signals of He gas plasma emission using nanosecond (ns) and picosecond (ps) lasers in an orthogonal configuration. The ns laser is used for the He gas plasma generation and the ps laser is employed for the ejection of fast electrons from a metal target, which serves to excite subsequently the He atoms in the plasma. The study is focused on the most dominant He I 587.6 nm and He I 667.8 nm emission lines suggested to be responsible for the He-assisted excitation (HAE) mechanism. The time-dependent intensity enhancements induced by the fast electrons generated with a series of delayed ps laser ablations are deduced from the intensity time profiles of both He emission lines. The results clearly lead to the conclusion that the metastable excited triplet He atoms are actually the species overwhelmingly produced during the recombination process in the ns laser-induced He gas plasma. These metastable He atoms are believed to serve as the major energy source for the delayed excitation of analyte atoms in ns laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using He ambient gas.

  13. Determination of self generated magnetic field and the plasma density using Cotton Mouton polarimetry with two color probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi A.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Self generated magnetic fields (SGMF in laser produced plasmas are conventionally determined by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of a linearly polarized laser probe beam passing through the plasma along with the interferogram for obtaining plasma density. In this paper, we propose a new method to obtain the plasma density and the SGMF distribution from two simultaneous measurements of Cotton Mouton polarimetry of two linearly polarized probe beams of different colors that pass through plasma in a direction normal to the planar target. It is shown that this technique allows us to determine the distribution of SGMF and the plasma density without doing interferometry of laser produced plasmas.

  14. Explosive-driven hemispherical implosions for generating fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagie, D.; Glass, I.I.

    1982-03-01

    The UTIAS explosive-driven-implosion facility was used to produce stable, centered and focussed hemispherical implosions to generate neutrons from D-D reactions. A high resolution scintillator-detection system measured the neutrons and γ-rays resulting from the fusion of deuterium. Several approaches were used to initiate fusion in deuterium. The simplest and most direct proved to be in a predetonated stoichiometric mixture of deuterium-oxygen. The other successful method was a miniature Voitenko-type compressor where a plane diaphragm was driven by the implosion wave into a secondary small spherical cavity that contained pure deuterium gas at one atmosphere. A great deal of work still remains in order to measure accurately the neutron flux and its velocity distribution as well as the precise interactions of the neturons with the steel chamber which produced the γ-rays. Nevertheless, this is the only known work where fusion neutrons were produced by chemical energy only in a direct and indirect manner

  15. Study on Laser Induced Plasma Produced in Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, N.; Yamada, J.

    2003-01-01

    When an intense laser light is focused in liquid, a hot plasma is produced at the focal spot. The breakdown threshold and the transmittance of sodium choroids solution are observed using excimer laser or YAG laser. The breakdown threshold decreases with increasing NaCl concentration. Threshold intensity of plasma produced by YAG laser is lower than excimer laser. The behavior of plasma development is observed by a streak camera. The plasma produced by a YAG laser develops only backward. However, the plasma produced by excimer laser develops not only backward but also forward same as the plasma development in high-pressure gases

  16. Detailed study of the plasma-activated catalytic generation of ammonia in N2-H2 plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, J. H.; Wagemans, W.; Yagci, G.; Zijlmans, R. A. B.; Schram, D. C.; Engeln, R.; Lombardi, G.; Stancu, G. D.; Röpcke, J.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the efficiency and formation mechanism of ammonia generation in recombining plasmas generated from mixtures of N2 and H2 under various plasma conditions. In contrast to the Haber-Bosch process, in which the molecules are dissociated on a catalytic surface, under these plasma conditions the precursor molecules, N2 and H2, are already dissociated in the gas phase. Surfaces are thus exposed to large fluxes of atomic N and H radicals. The ammonia production turns out to be strongly dependent on the fluxes of atomic N and H radicals to the surface. By optimizing the atomic N and H fluxes to the surface using an atomic nitrogen and hydrogen source ammonia can be formed efficiently, i.e., more than 10% of the total background pressure is measured to be ammonia. The results obtained show a strong similarity with results reported in literature, which were explained by the production of ammonia at the surface by stepwise addition reactions between adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen containing radicals at the surface and incoming N and H containing radicals. Furthermore, our results indicate that the ammonia production is independent of wall material. The high fluxes of N and H radicals in our experiments result in a passivated surface, and the actual chemistry, leading to the formation of ammonia, takes place in an additional layer on top of this passivated surface.

  17. Radiation pressure induced difference-sideband generation beyond linearized description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Hao, E-mail: haoxiong1217@gmail.com; Fan, Yu-Wan; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wu, Ying, E-mail: yingwu2@126.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-08-08

    We investigate radiation-pressure induced generation of the frequency components at the difference-sideband in an optomechanical system, which beyond the conventional linearized description of optomechanical interactions between cavity fields and the mechanical oscillation. We analytically calculate amplitudes of these signals, and identify a simple square-root law for both the upper and lower difference-sideband generation which can describe the dependence of the intensities of these signals on the pump power. Further calculation shows that difference-sideband generation can be greatly enhanced via achieving the matching conditions. The effect of difference-sideband generation, which may have potential application for manipulation of light, is especially suited for on-chip optomechanical devices, where nonlinear optomechanical interaction in the weak coupling regime is within current experimental reach.

  18. Diagnostics in dusty C-H-O plasmas with diamond and graphitic nanoparticle generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, T; Vandenbulcke, L; De Persis, S; Rouzaud, J N

    2010-01-01

    A decrease in electron density and a strong increase of electron energy, which induce the enhancement of excitation rates, have been observed in CH 4 -CO 2 plasmas when the inlet methane concentration is high enough and the input microwave power sufficiently low. Together with the decrease in the electron density with plasma duration, they are characteristic of dust formation in these plasmas. In these conditions, the formation of hydrocarbon radicals which are well known precursors of soot and the formation of first stable aromatics are reported, as observed by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Modelling of the chemistry in the plasma is carried out, which can also predict the formation of low concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. These species could be involved in the homogeneous nucleation process of carbon. As a function of the plasma duration, various carbon nanostructures are observed in the particles collected downstream of the plasma. For short durations, nanodiamond grains are formed with the size range 15-100 nm. They are composed of diamond nanocrystals of about 2-10 nm in size; these values are generally observed for all diamond nanocrystals formed in extraterrestrial and terrestrial conditions. For longer plasma durations, sp 2 -hybridized carbons are obtained. Their structure varies from soot to more ordered graphitic carbons nearly similar to 'onions' and structures similar to those observed in tokamaks. The control of the size and the microstructure of the nanodiamond grains are especially important as this could open possibilities for applications in a wide range of fields.

  19. Ion beam generation at the plasma sheet boundary layer by kinetic Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C.K.; Smith, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic Alfven wave, an Alfven wave with a perpendicular wavelength comparable to the ion gyroradius, can diffuse ions both in velocity and coordinate spaces with comparable transport rates. This may lead to the generation of ion beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL). To investigate the ion beam generation process numerically, a two-dimensional quasi-linear code was constructed. Assuming that the plasma β (the ratio of plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure) varies from β = 1 to β << 1 across the magnetic field, the dynamics of the ion beam generation in the PSBL was studied. It was found that if your start with an ion distribution function which monotonically decreases with velocity along the magnetic field and a density gradient across the magnetic field, ions diffuse in velocity-coordinate space until nearly a plateau is established along the diffusion path. Depending on the topology of the magnetic field at the lobe side of the simulation system, i.e., open or closed field lines, the ion distribution function may or may not reach a steady state. If the field lines are open there, i.e., if the diffusion extends into the lobe, the double diffusion process may provide a mechanism for continuously transferring the ions from the central plasma sheet to the lobe. The authors comment on the effect of the particle loss on the establishment of the pressure balance in the plasma sheet

  20. Finite toroidal flow generated by unstable tearing mode in a toroidal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, G. Z., E-mail: haogz@swip.ac.cn; Wang, A. K.; Xu, Y. H.; He, H. D.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sun, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cui, S. Y. [School of Mathematics and Statistics Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2014-12-15

    The neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity torque and electromagnetic torque, generated by tearing mode (TM) in a toroidal plasma, are numerically investigated using the MARS-Q code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042503 (2013)]. It is found that an initially unstable tearing mode can intrinsically drive a toroidal plasma flow resulting in a steady state solution, in the absence of the external momentum input and external magnetic field perturbation. The saturated flow is in the order of 0.5%ω{sub A} at the q=2 rational surface in the considered case, with q and ω{sub A} being the safety factor and the Alfven frequency at the magnetic axis, respectively. The generation of the toroidal flow is robust, being insensitive to the given amplitude of the perturbation at initial state. On the other hand, the flow amplitude increases with increasing the plasma resistivity. Furthermore, the initially unstable tearing mode is fully stabilized by non-linear interaction with the self-generated toroidal flow.

  1. Efficient second- and third-harmonic radiation generation from relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N., E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, H. [Department of Physics and Photon Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.

  2. Efficient second- and third-harmonic radiation generation from relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case

  3. Production of organic compounds in plasmas - A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Thomas W.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Borucki, William J.; Giver, Lawrence P.; Van Ghyseghem, Hilde

    1989-01-01

    In order to ascertain the features of organic compound-production in planetary atmospheres under the effects of plasmas and shocks, various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2 modeling the atmosphere of Titan were subjected to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas, and UV radiation. The experimental results obtained suggest that UV photolysis from the plasma is an important organic compound synthesis process, as confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples that were exposed to the light but not to the shock waves emitted by the sparks. The thermodynamic equilibrium theory is therefore incomplete in the absence of photolysis.

  4. Generation of Low-Energy High-Current Electron Beams in Plasma-Anode Electron Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozur, G. E.; Proskurovsky, D. I.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies on the generation of low-energy high-current electron beams in electron guns with a plasma anode and an explosive-emission cathode. The problems related to the initiation of explosive electron emission under plasma and the formation and transport of high-current electron beams in plasma-filled systems are discussed consecutively. Considerable attention is given to the nonstationary effects that occur in the space charge layers of plasma. Emphasis is also placed on the problem of providing a uniform energy density distribution over the beam cross section, which is of critical importance in using electron beams of this type for surface treatment of materials. Examples of facilities based on low-energy high-current electron beam sources are presented and their applications in materials science and practice are discussed.

  5. Surface hardening induced by high flux plasma in tungsten revealed by nano-indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D., E-mail: dterenty@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bakaeva, A. [SCK-CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Pardoen, T.; Favache, A. [Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering, Université catholique de Louvain, Place Sainte Barbe 2 L5.02.02, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zhurkin, E.E. [Department of Experimental Nuclear Physics K-89, Faculty of Physics and Mechanics, St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytekhnicheskaya str., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    Surface hardness of tungsten after high flux deuterium plasma exposure has been characterized by nanoindentation. The effect of plasma exposure was rationalized on the basis of available theoretical models. Resistance to plastic penetration is enhanced within the 100 nm sub-surface region, attributed to the pinning of geometrically necessary dislocations on nanometric deuterium cavities – signature of plasma-induced defects and deuterium retention. Sub-surface extension of thereby registered plasma-induced damage is in excellent agreement with the results of alternative measurements. The study demonstrates suitability of nano-indentation to probe the impact of deposition of plasma-induced defects in tungsten on near surface plasticity under ITER-relevant plasma exposure conditions.

  6. High-Density Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, A.G.; Han, J.; Lester, L.F.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Willison, C.G.; Zhang, L.; Zolper, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Anisotropic, smooth etching of the group-III nitrides has been reported at relatively high rates in high-density plasma etch systems. However, such etch results are often obtained under high de-bias and/or high plasma flux conditions where plasma induced damage can be significant. Despite the fact that the group-III nitrides have higher bonding energies than more conventional III-V compounds, plasma-induced etch damage is still a concern. Attempts to minimize such damage by reducing the ion energy or increasing the chemical activity in the plasma often result in a loss of etch rate or anisotropy which significantly limits critical dimensions and reduces the utility of the process for device applications requiring vertical etch profiles. It is therefore necessary to develop plasma etch processes which couple anisotropy for critical dimension and sidewall profile control and high etch rates with low-damage for optimum device performance. In this study we report changes in sheet resistance and contact resistance for n- and p-type GaN samples exposed to an Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, plasma-induced damage was more sensitive to ion bombardment energies as compared to plasma flux. In addition, p-GaN was typically more sensitive to plasma-induced damage as compared to n-GaN

  7. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced swine muscle tissue plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.J. [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L., E-mail: luis.diaz@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Ramirez, S. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Caceres, J.O. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Cuidad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of muscle tissue sample plasma induced by a high-power transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} pulsed laser at vacuum conditions (0.1–0.01 Pa) has been investigated using high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and imaging methods. The induced plasma shows mainly electronically excited neutral Na, K, C, Mg, H, Ca, N and O atoms, ionized C{sup +}, C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Mg{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, N{sup +}, N{sup 2+}, Ca{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sup 2+} species and molecular band systems of CN(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}), C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}Π{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u}), CH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup −}–X{sup 2}Π; A{sup 2}Δ–X{sup 2}Π), NH(A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}), OH(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2} Σ{sup +}), and CaOH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}; A{sup 2}Π–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}). Time-resolved two-dimensional emission spectroscopy is used to study the expanded distribution of different species ejected during ablation. Spatial and temporal variations of different atoms and ionic excited species are reported. Plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature were measured from the spatio-temporal analysis of different species. Average velocities of some plasma species were estimated. - Highlights: • LIBS of swine muscle tissue sample generated by CO{sub 2} laser pulses has been done for the first time. • Average velocities of some plasma species have been calculated from spatial and temporally resolved 2D OES images. • Electron density (~ 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) has been studied with spatial and temporal resolution. • Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature has been calculated by means of Boltzmann plots.

  8. Surface treatment by the ion flow from electron beam generated plasma in the forevacuum pressure range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimov Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research results of peculiarities of gas ion flows usage and their generation from large plasma formation (>50 sq.cm obtained by electron beam ionization of gas in the forevacuum pressure range. An upgraded source was used for electron beam generation, which allowed obtaining ribbon electron beam with no transmitting magnetic field. Absence of magnetic field in the area of ion flow formation enables to obtain directed ion flows without distorting their trajectories. In this case, independent control of current and ion energy is possible. The influence of electron beam parameters on the parameters of beam plasma and ion flow – current energy and density – was determined. The results of alumina ceramics treatment with a beam plasma ions flow are given.

  9. Using self-generated harmonics as a diagnostic of high intensity laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K; Watts, I; Tatarakis, M; Gopal, A; Wagner, U; Beg, F N; Clark, E L; Clarke, R J; Dangor, A E; Norreys, P A; Wei, M S; Zepf, M

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses (up to I∼10 20 W cm -2 ) with plasmas can generate very high order harmonics of the laser frequency (up to the 75th order have been observed). Measurements of the properties of these harmonics can provide important insights into the plasma conditions which exist during such interactions. For example, observations of the spectrum of the harmonic emission can provide information of the dynamics of the critical surface as well as information on relativistic non-linear optical effects in the plasma. However, most importantly, observations of the polarization properties of the harmonics can provide a method to measure the ultra-strong magnetic fields (greater than 350 MG) which can be generated during these interactions. It is likely that such techniques can be scaled to provide a significant amount of information from experiments at even higher intensities

  10. Generation of various radicals in nitrogen plasma and their behavior in media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the generation of radicals in nitrogen plasma shows that the most dominant radicals are excited nitrogen molecules in the metastable state of N 2 (A 3 ∑ u + ). Hydroxyl molecules are generated from the dissociation of water molecules upon contact with excited nitrogen molecules. The estimated densities of various radicals in nitrogen plasma with an electron temperature of 1 eV are presented in this study. The behavior of these radicals in media is also investigated. Excited nitrogen molecules in the N 2 (A 3 ∑ u + ) state from a plasma jet are injected into water, after which the molecules disappear instantaneously within a few tens of nm, producing hydroxyl molecules. Hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen dioxide, and nitrogen monoxide molecules can diffuse much deeper into water, implying the possibility that a chemical reaction between hydrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide molecules produces hydroxyl molecules in deep water, even though density in this case may not be very high

  11. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim P.

    2003-06-26

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power THz radiation, of order 100 (mu)J/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art THz sources.

  12. Characterization of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization: focus on OH radical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Shota; Honda, Ryosuke; Hokari, Yutaro; Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) is used medically for plasma-induced cell permeabilization. However, how plasma irradiation specifically triggers permeabilization remains unclear. In an attempt to identify the dominant factor( s ), the distribution of plasma-produced reactive species was investigated, primarily focusing on OH radicals. A stronger plasma discharge, which produced more OH radicals in the gas phase, also produced more OH radicals in the liquid phase (OH aq ), enhancing the cell membrane permeability. In addition, plasma irradiation-induced enhancement of cell membrane permeability decreased markedly with increased solution thickness (<1 mm), and the plasma-produced OH aq decayed in solution (diffusion length on the order of several hundred micrometers). Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of OH aq corresponded with the distribution of the permeabilized cells by plasma irradiation, while the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species in solution (detected by iodine-starch reaction) exhibited a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that OH aq, among the plasma-produced oxidizing species, represents the dominant factor in plasma-induced cell permeabilization. These results enhance the current understanding of the mechanism of APP as a cell-permeabilization tool. (paper)

  13. Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mammalian Endangered Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Nun, Inbar Friedrich; Montague, Susanne C; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver; Loring, Jeanne F

    2015-01-01

    For some highly endangered species there are too few reproductively capable animals to maintain adequate genetic diversity, and extraordinary measures are necessary to prevent their extinction. Cellular reprogramming is a means to capture the genomes of individual animals as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which may eventually facilitate reintroduction of genetic material into breeding populations. Here, we describe a method for generating iPSCs from fibroblasts of mammalian endangered species.

  14. Ultra-low emittance electron beam generation using ionization injection in a plasma beatwave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams can be generated using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield excited by a plasma beatwave accelerator. This all-optical method of electron beam generation uses three laser pulses of different colors. Two long-wavelength laser pulses, with frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency, resonantly drive a plasma wave without fully ionizing a gas. A short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the beating long-wavelength lasers, ionizes a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wakefield. Using the beating of long-wavelength pulses to generate the wakefield enables atomically-bound electrons to remain at low ionization potentials, reducing the required amplitude of the ionization pulse, and, hence, the initial transverse momentum and emittance of the injected electrons. An example is presented using two lines of a CO2 laser to form a plasma beatwave accelerator to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  15. Coherent bremsstrahlung generation of harmonics in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Viktor P

    1999-01-01

    Foundations of a theory of generation of the harmonics of a laser pump in a fully ionised plasma are proposed. This theory makes it possible to describe the relationships governing harmonic generation in an analytical form. For an elliptically polarised pump field with a low degree of circular polarisation A, the range of plasma parameters is established in which the number of harmonics is found to be of the order of A -1 . Anomalous polarisation properties of the harmonics are predicted. In this case, their polarisation is seen to be nearly perpendicular to the pump polarisation and the degree of circular polarisation increases with the harmonic order number. The harmonic-order-dependent intensity of the pump field which results in circular polarisation of a harmonic is determined making allowance for thermal plasma motion. The conditions under which increasing the low degree of circular pump polarisation increases the efficiency of harmonic generation are established. The nonlinear dependence of the pump polarisation on its intensity under the conditions of collisional absorption in a plasma are identified and an instability of the circular polarisation is revealed. For a plane-polarised pump, it is shown how the maximum power of a harmonic and the pump power corresponding to this maximum scale up with the harmonic order number. The conditions under which the number of harmonics generated is limited owing to the relativistic nature of electron motion in the pump field are established. This effect appears for an unexpectedly weak relativity. (invited paper)

  16. Effects of electrode geometry on transient plasma induced ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, B; Gururajan, V; Eisazadeh-Far, K; Windom, B; Egolfopoulos, F N; Singleton, D; Gundersen, M A

    2013-01-01

    Achieving effective ignition of reacting mixtures using nanosecond pulsed discharge non-equilibrium transient plasma (TP), requires that the effects of several experimental parameters be quantified and understood. Among them are the electrode geometry, the discharge location especially in non-premixed systems, and the relative ignition performance by spark and TP under the same experimental conditions. In the present investigation, such issues were addressed experimentally using a cylindrical constant volume combustion chamber and a counterflow flame configuration coupled with optical shadowgraph that enables observation of how and where the ignition process starts. Results were obtained under atmospheric pressure and showed that the electrode geometry has a notable influence on ignition, with the needle-to-semicircle exhibiting the best ignition performance. Furthermore, it was determined that under non-premixed conditions discharging TP in the reactants mixing layer was most effective in achieving ignition. It was also determined that in the cases considered, the TP induced ignition initiates from the needle head where the electric field and electron densities are the highest. In the case of a spark, however, ignition was found to initiate always from the hot region between the two electrodes. Comparison of spark and TP discharges in only air (i.e. without fuel) and ignition phenomena induced by them also suggest that in the case of TP ignition is at least partly non-thermal and instead driven by the production of active species. Finally, it was determined that single pulsed TP discharges are sufficient to ignite both premixed and non-premixed flames of a variety of fuels ranging from hydrogen to heavy fuels including F-76 diesel and IFO380 bunker fuel even at room temperature. (paper)

  17. Confinement effects of shock waves on laser-induced plasma from a graphite target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Feiling; Liang, Peipei; Yang, Xu; Cai, Hua; Wu, Jiada; Xu, Ning; Ying, Zhifeng; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The spatial confinement effects of shock waves on the laser-induced plasma (LIP) from a graphite target in air were studied by probe beam deflection (PBD) measurements and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). A clear relationship between the confinement of the LIP by the shock wave and the effects on the LIP emission was observed, and the underlying mechanisms are discussed. PBD monitoring revealed that the laser-ablation induced shock wave could be well analogized to the shock wave generated by a point explosion and would be reflected by a block. OES measurements indicated that the optical emission of the LIP exhibited significant variations with the block placement. A first enhancement and then a fast decay of CN molecular emission as well as a suppression of carbon atomic emission were observed in the presence of the block. The results revealed that the reflected shock wave spatially confined the expansion of the LIP and compressed the LIP after encountering it, pushing back the species of the LIP and changing the density of the LIP species including luminous carbon atoms and CN molecules. It is suggested that the change of the LIP emission is attributed to the density variation of the LIP species due to the compression of the LIP and the reactions occurring in the plasma.

  18. The Tethered Balloon Current Generator - A space shuttle-tethered subsatellite for plasma studies and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, P. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Tethered Balloon Current Generator experiment are to: (1) generate relatively large regions of thermalized, field-aligned currents, (2) produce controlled-amplitude Alfven waves, (3) study current-driven electrostatic plasma instabilities, and (4) generate substantial amounts of power or propulsion through the MHD interaction. A large balloon (a diameter of about 30 m) will be deployed with a conducting surface above the space shuttle at a distance of about 10 km. For a generally eastward directed orbit at an altitude near 400 km, the balloon, connected to the shuttle by a conducting wire, will be positive with respect to the shuttle, enabling it to collect electrons. At the same time, the shuttle will collect positive ions and, upon command, emit an electron beam to vary current flow in the system.

  19. Laser induced focusing for over-dense plasma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Peter; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Mulser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The capability of ion acceleration with high power, pulsed lasers has become an active field of research in the past years. In this context, the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) mechanism has been the topic of numerous theoretical and experimental publications. Within that mechanism, a high power, pulsed laser beam hits a thin film target. In contrast to the target normal sheath acceleration, the entire film target is accelerated as a bulk by the radiation pressure of the laser. Simulations predict heavy ion beams with kinetic energy up to GeV, as well as solid body densities. However, there are several effects which limit the efficiency of the RPA: On the one hand, the Rayleigh-Taylor-instability limits the predicted density. On the other hand, conventional accelerator elements, such as magnetic focusing devices are too bulky to be installed right after the target. Therefore, we present a new beam transport method, suitable for RPA-like/over-dense plasma beams: laser induced focusing

  20. Scratch induced failure of plasma sprayed alumina based coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S; Bandyopadhyay, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scratch induced failure of alumina based coatings including nanostructured is reported. ► Ceramic is deposited on bond coat instead of steel, emulating a realistic situation. ► Lateral force data is supplemented with microscopy to observe coating failure. ► The failure mechanism during scratching has been identified. ► Critical load of failure has been calculated for each bond-top coat combination. -- Abstract: A set of plasma sprayed coatings were obtained from three alumina based top coat and two bond coat powders. Scratch test was undertaken on these coatings, under constant and linearly varying load. Test results include the lateral force data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Failure occurred by large area spallation of the top coat and in most cases tensile cracks appeared on the exposed bond coat. The lateral force showed an increasing trend with an increase in normal load up to a certain point and beyond this, it assumed a steady average value. The locations of coating spallation and occurrence of maximum lateral force did not coincide. A bond coat did not show a significant role in determining the scratch adhesion strength.

  1. ZnO nanostructures induced by microwave plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Elsayed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microwave induced hydrogen plasma is used to fabricate ZnO thin films at low ambient gas pressure and controlled oxygen content in the gas mixture. The emission spectra have been observed. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical reaction mechanism. Structural quality of the so-obtained nanoparticles was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. SEM results showed that nanorods were formed in the process, and XRD results along with nanorod dimensions obtained from SEM are consistent with the formation of single and poly-crystalline ZnO nanorods. The alignment of these nanorods with respect to the substrates depends on the lattice mismatch between ZnO and the glass substrate. The minimum crystallite grain size as obtained from the SEM measurements was ∼24 nm and the average diameter is 70 nm with a length of 1–2 μm. The deposited ZnO thin films have a wide energy band gap that equals ∼3 eV.

  2. Solenoid for Laser Induced Plasma Experiments at Janus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sallee; Leferve, Heath; Kemp, Gregory; Mariscal, Derek; Rasmus, Alex; Williams, Jackson; Gillespie, Robb; Manuel, Mario; Kuranz, Carolyn; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R.

    2017-10-01

    Creating invariant magnetic fields for experiments involving laser induced plasmas is particularly challenging due to the high voltages at which the solenoid must be pulsed. Creating a solenoid resilient enough to survive through large numbers of voltage discharges, enabling it to endure a campaign lasting several weeks, is exceptionally difficult. Here we present a solenoid that is robust through 40 μs pulses at a 13 kV potential. This solenoid is a vast improvement over our previously fielded designs in peak magnetic field capabilities and robustness. Designed to be operated at small-scale laser facilities, the solenoid housing allows for versatility of experimental set-ups among diagnostic and target positions. Within the perpendicular field axis at the center there is 300 degrees of clearance which can be easily modified to meet the needs of a specific experiment, as well as an f/3 cone for transmitted or backscattered light. After initial design efforts, these solenoids are relatively inexpensive to manufacture.

  3. Electric susceptibility of a magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, E

    2011-01-01

    This study derives the electric susceptibility tensor of a cold magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime (Litvak and Tokman 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 095003, Shvets and Wurtele 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 115003) in which an intense right-hand circularly polarized pump wave is injected parallel to the background magnetic field. A dispersion relation of the wave in the electron cyclotron frequency range for an arbitrary propagation angle is obtained from this susceptibility tensor. In the case of purely parallel propagation of the probe wave, the dispersion relation obtained by Litvak, Shvets and others is recaptured. A new finding is that a stop band emerges between left-hand cutoff and upper hybrid frequencies, in which originally an extraordinary-mode (X) branch exists, in the case of perpendicular propagation to the background magnetic field under the EIT. The bandwidth of the stop band expands as the pump wave is intensified. For the situation of launching the probe wave from the high-field side in a tokamak, the accessibility of the probe wave to the region where the EIT effect appears is investigated. The EIT region which is a resonance layer created by the EIT is accessible to the probe wave, indicating the possibility of the application of EIT to control the spatial position of wave power deposition.

  4. New generation of plasma-sprayed mullite coatings on silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1995-01-01

    Mullite is promising as a protective coating for silicon-based ceramics in aggressive high-temperature environments. Conventionally plasma-sprayed mullite on SiC tends to crack and debond on thermal cycling. It is shown that this behavior is due to the presence of amorphous mullite in the conventionally sprayed mullite. Heating the SiC substrate during the plasma spraying eliminated the amorphous phase and produced coatings with dramatically improved properties. The new coating exhibits excellent adherence and crack resistance under thermal cycling between room temperature and 1000 to 1400 C. Preliminary tests showed good resistance to Na2CO3-induced hot corrosion.

  5. Numerical study of extreme-ultra-violet generated plasmas in hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Astakhov, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we present the development and study a numerical model of EUV-induced plasma. Understanding of behavior of low pressure low density plasmas is of industrial relevance, because of their potential use for on-line removal of different forms of contaminations from multilayer mirrors, which will help increase the throughput of EUV lithography. The model is 2D axially symmetric particle-in-cell code, hence it allows the full geometry of an axially symmetric chamber to be taken into...

  6. Microbial Inactivation in the Liquid Phase Induced by Multigas Plasma Jet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Takamatsu

    Full Text Available Various gas atmospheric nonthermal plasmas were generated using a multigas plasma jet to treat microbial suspensions. Results indicated that carbon dioxide and nitrogen plasma had high sterilization effects. Carbon dioxide plasma, which generated the greatest amount of singlet oxygen than other gas plasmas, killed general bacteria and some fungi. On the other hand, nitrogen plasma, which generated the largest amount of OH radical, killed ≥ 6 log of 11 species of microorganisms, including general bacteria, fungi, acid-fast bacteria, spores, and viruses in 1-15 min. To identify reactive species responsible for bacterial inactivation, antioxidants were added to bacterial suspensions, which revealed that singlet oxygen and OH radicals had greatest inactivation effects.

  7. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  8. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  9. Strategies for mitigating the ionization-induced beam head erosion problem in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. An

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for mitigating ionization-induced beam head erosion in an electron-beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA are explored when the plasma and the wake are both formed by the transverse electric field of the beam itself. Beam head erosion can occur in a preformed plasma because of a lack of focusing force from the wake at the rising edge (head of the beam due to the finite inertia of the electrons. When the plasma is produced by field ionization from the space charge field of the beam, the head erosion is significantly exacerbated due to the gradual recession (in the beam frame of the 100% ionization contour. Beam particles in front of the ionization front cannot be focused (guided causing them to expand as in vacuum. When they expand, the location of the ionization front recedes such that even more beam particles are completely unguided. Eventually this process terminates the wake formation prematurely, i.e., well before the beam is depleted of its energy. Ionization-induced head erosion can be mitigated by controlling the beam parameters (emittance, charge, and energy and/or the plasma conditions. In this paper we explore how the latter can be optimized so as to extend the beam propagation distance and thereby increase the energy gain. In particular we show that, by using a combination of the alkali atoms of the lowest practical ionization potential (Cs for plasma formation and a precursor laser pulse to generate a narrow plasma filament in front of the beam, the head erosion rate can be dramatically reduced. Simulation results show that in the upcoming “two-bunch PWFA experiments” on the FACET facility at SLAC national accelerator laboratory the energy gain of the trailing beam can be up to 10 times larger for the given parameters when employing these techniques. Comparison of the effect of beam head erosion in preformed and ionization produced plasmas is also presented.

  10. Impact of plasma jet vacuum ultraviolet radiation on reactive oxygen species generation in bio-relevant liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonowski, H.; Hammer, M. U.; Reuter, S. [Center for Innovation Competence plasmatis, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bussiahn, R.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Woedtke, Th. von [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, INP Greifswald e.V. Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Plasma medicine utilizes the combined interaction of plasma produced reactive components. These are reactive atoms, molecules, ions, metastable species, and radiation. Here, ultraviolet (UV, 100–400 nm) and, in particular, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) radiation generated by an atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet were investigated regarding plasma emission, absorption in a humidified atmosphere and in solutions relevant for plasma medicine. The energy absorption was obtained for simple solutions like distilled water (dH{sub 2}O) or ultrapure water and sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as well as for more complex ones, for example, Rosewell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI 1640) cell culture media. As moderate stable reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was studied. Highly reactive oxygen radicals, namely, superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup •−}) and hydroxyl radicals ({sup •}OH), were investigated by the use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. All species amounts were detected for three different treatment cases: Plasma jet generated VUV and UV radiation, plasma jet generated UV radiation without VUV part, and complete plasma jet including all reactive components additionally to VUV and UV radiation. It was found that a considerable amount of radicals are generated by the plasma generated photoemission. From the experiments, estimation on the low hazard potential of plasma generated VUV radiation is discussed.

  11. Large potential change induced by pellet injection in JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Y.; Sato, K.N.; Sakakita, H.

    1995-05-01

    A large, rapid change in the local plasma potential is found to be induced by off-axis hydrogen ice-pellet injection into a tokamak plasma. The polarity of the rapid change is reversed when the pellet is injected into the upper and lower halves of the poloidal plasma cross-section. This change can be interpreted as being due to the gradient-B drift of particles in the high-density plasmas of the pellet cloud, before the increase of the plasma density due to the ablation becomes uniform on the magnetic surface. (author)

  12. Effects of induced magnetic field on large scale pulsed MHD generator with two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Koshiba, Y.; Matsushita, T.

    2004-01-01

    A large pulsed MHD generator 'SAKHALIN' was constructed in Russia (the former Soviet-Union) and operated with solid fuels. The 'SAKHALIN' with the channel length of 4.5 m could demonstrate the electric power output of 510 MW. The effects of induced magnetic field and two phase flow on the shock wave within the 'SAKHALIN' generator have been studied by time dependent, one dimensional analyses. It has been shown that the magnetic Reynolds number is about 0.58 for Run No. 1, and the induced magnetic flux density is about 20% at the entrance and exit of the MHD channel. The shock wave becomes stronger when the induced magnetic field is taken into account, when the operation voltage becomes low. The working gas plasma contains about 40% of liquid particles (Al 2 O 3 ) in weight, and the present analysis treats the liquid particles as another gas. In the case of mono-phase flow, the sharp shock wave is induced when the load voltage becomes small such as 500 V with larger Lorentz force, whereas in the case of two phase flow, the shock wave becomes less sharp because of the interaction with liquid particles

  13. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  14. Modeling of the plasma generated in a rarefied hypersonic shock layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbar, Erin D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a rigorous numerical model is developed to simulate the plasma generated in a rarefied, hypersonic shock layer. The model uses the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to treat the particle collisions and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to simulate the plasma dynamics in a self-consistent manner. The model is applied to compute the flow along the stagnation streamline in front of a blunt body reentering the Earth's atmosphere at very high velocity. Results from the rigorous DSMC-PIC model are compared directly to the standard DSMC modeling approach that uses the ambipolar diffusion approximation to simulate the plasma dynamics. It is demonstrated that the self-consistent computation of the plasma dynamics using the rigorous DSMC-PIC model captures many physical phenomena not accurately predicted by the standard modeling approach. These computations represent the first assessment of the validity of the ambipolar diffusion approximation when predicting the rarefied plasma generated in a hypersonic shock layer.

  15. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  16. Characterization of light ion beams generated by a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon Cheul

    1999-02-01

    Plasma focus device has been studied as neutron and X-ray sources generated from the high pressure fusion reaction during Z-pinch. Recently, the scope of the device is focused on efficient neutron generation, X-ray lithography, preliminary fusion experiment, and ion/electron beam generation devices. A Hexagonal Beam Generator with six parallel capacitors has been developed and generated ion beams from 30kJ(C=6 μ F, V= 100kV) maximum energy. To find the optimum condition of ion beam generation, the correlation among charging voltage(20∼30kV), operation pressure of chamber(0.1∼5 torr), and length of electrode has been studied. To measure ion beam, a Faraday Cup and 3 Rogowski coils were installed. Energy of ion beam was obtained by adopting time-of -flight method between Rogowski coils

  17. Outline of the relativistic electron beam (REB) generator at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Tetsuya

    1979-01-01

    The REB generators at the Institute of Plasma Physics are introduced. The generators Phoebus-2 and Phoebus-3 are main generators. The generators consist of a Marx generator (a condenser bank), a pulse forming line (PFL), a transmission line (TL) and a diode part. The rise time of current in the Marx generator must be short. The charge up time of the Phoebus-2 and the Phoebus-3 is less than 400 ns. The jitter is less than 10 ns. The dielectric material of the PFL is water, since the dielectric constant is large, and it makes self recovering. The inductance of gap at the edge of PFL should be small. The gap is useful for short rise time. The TL prevents the prepulse at the time of charging-up and works as an impedance transformer. The Phoebus-3 is connected to the torus system (SPAC-6) to make experiment on REB ring formation. (Kato, T.)

  18. Spatial properties of a terahertz beam generated from a two-color air plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Wang, Tianwu; Buron, Jonas Christian Due

    2013-01-01

    We present a spatial characterization of terahertz (THz) beams generated from a two-color air plasma under different conditions by measuring full 3D beam profiles using a commercial THz camera. We compare two THz beam profiles emitted from plasmas generated by 35 fs and 100 fs laser pulses...... that this reduces the beam waist, and that the beam spot shape changes from Lorentzian to Gaussian. Finally, we observe a forward-propagating Gaussian THz beam by spatially filtering away the conical off-axis radiation with a 1 cm aperture......., and show that the spatial properties of the two THz beams do not change significantly. For the THz beam profile generated by the 35 fs pulse, the spatial effect of eliminating the lower frequencies is investigated by implementing two crossed polarizers working as a high-pass filter. We show...

  19. Arc Voltage Fluctuation in DC Laminar and Turbulent Plasma Jets Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Wu Chengkang

    2006-01-01

    Arc voltage fluctuations in a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma generator are experimentally studied, in generating a jet in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes. The study is with a view toward elucidating the mechanism of the fluctuations and their relationship with the generating parameters, arc root movement and flow regimes. Results indicate that the existence of a 300 Hz alternating current (AC) component in the power supply ripples does not cause the transition of the laminar plasma jet into a turbulent state. There exists a high frequency fluctuation at 4 kHz in the turbulent jet regime. It may be related to the rapid movement of the anode attachment point of the arc

  20. Generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence and related energy transfer in drifting proton-alpha plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Poedts, S.

    2018-05-01

    The power spectra of magnetic field fluctuations in the solar wind typically follow a power-law dependence with respect to the observed frequencies and wave-numbers. The background magnetic field often influences the plasma properties, setting a preferential direction for plasma heating and acceleration. At the same time the evolution of the solar-wind turbulence at the ion and electron scales is influenced by the plasma properties through local micro-instabilities and wave-particle interactions. The solar-wind-plasma temperature and the solar-wind turbulence at sub- and sup-ion scales simultaneously show anisotropic features, with different components and fluctuation power in parallel with and perpendicular to the orientation of the background magnetic field. The ratio between the power of the magnetic field fluctuations in parallel and perpendicular direction at the ion scales may vary with the heliospheric distance and depends on various parameters, including the local wave properties and nonthermal plasma features, such as temperature anisotropies and relative drift speeds. In this work we have performed two-and-a-half-dimensional hybrid simulations to study the generation and evolution of anisotropic turbulence in a drifting multi-ion species plasma. We investigate the evolution of the turbulent spectral slopes along and across the background magnetic field for the cases of initially isotropic and anisotropic turbulence. Finally, we show the effect of the various turbulent spectra for the local ion heating in the solar wind.

  1. Two-phase flow induced vibrations in CANDU steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidi, A.

    2009-01-01

    The U-Bend region of nuclear steam generators tube bundles have suffered from two-phase cross flow induced vibrations. Tubes in this region have experienced high amplitude vibrations leading to catastrophic failures. Turbulent buffeting and fluid-elastic instability has been identified as the main causes. Previous investigations have focused on flow regime and two-phase flow damping ratio. However, tube bundles in steam generators have vapour generated on the surface of the tubes, which might affect the flow regime, void fraction distribution, turbulent intensity levels and tube-flow interaction, all of which have the potential to change the tube vibration response. A cantilevered tube bundle made of electric cartridges heaters was built and tested in a Freon-11 flow loop at McMaster University. Tubes were arranged in a parallel triangular configuration. The bundle was exposed to two-phase cross flows consisting of different combinations of void from two sources, void generated upstream of the bundle and void generated at the surface of the tubes. Tube tip vibration response was measured optically and void fraction was measured by gamma densitometry technique. It was found that tube vibration amplitude in the transverse direction was reduced by a factor of eight for void fraction generated at the tube surfaces only, when compared to the upstream only void generation case. The main explanation for this effect is a reduction in the correlation length of the turbulent buffeting forcing function. Theoretical calculations of the tube vibration response due to turbulent buffeting under the same experimental conditions predicted a similar reduction in tube amplitude. The void fraction for the fluid-elastic instability threshold in the presence of tube bundle void fraction generation was higher than that for the upstream void fraction generation case. The first explanation of this difference is the level of turbulent buffeting forces the tube bundle was exposed to

  2. Temperature and Nitric Oxide Generation in a Pulsed Arc Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namihira, T.; Sakai, S.; Matsuda, M.; Wang, D.; Kiyan, T.; Akiyama, H.; Okamoto, K.; Toda, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is increasingly being used in medical treatments of high blood pressure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and other illnesses related to the lungs. Currently a NO inhalation system consists of a gas cylinder of N 2 mixed with a high concentration of NO. This arrangement is potentially risky due to the possibility of an accidental leak of NO from the cylinder. The presence of NO in the air leads to the formation of nitric dioxide (NO 2 ), which is toxic to the lungs. Therefore, an on-site generator of NO would be highly desirable for medical doctors to use with patients with lung disease. To develop the NO inhalation system without a gas cylinder, which would include a high concentration of NO, NAMIHIRA et al have recently reported on the production of NO from room air using a pulsed arc discharge. In the present work, the temperature of the pulsed arc discharge plasma used to generate NO was measured to optimize the discharge condition. The results of the temperature measurements showed the temperature of the pulsed arc discharge plasma reached about 10,000 K immediately after discharge initiation and gradually decreased over tens of microseconds. In addition, it was found that NO was formed in a discharge plasma having temperatures higher than 9,000 K and a smaller input energy into the discharge plasma generates NO more efficiently than a larger one

  3. Modeling of plasma distortions by laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) and implications for the interpretation of LIAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.; Gierse, N.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2015-09-01

    For the interpretation of the line radiation observed from laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) such parameters as the density and temperature of electrons within very compact clouds of atoms and singly charged ions of ablated material have to be known. Compared to the local plasma conditions prior to the laser pulse, these can be strongly changed during LIAS since new electrons are generated by the ionisation of particles ejected from the irradiated target. Because of their transience and spatial inhomogeneity it is technically difficult to measure disturbances induced in the plasma by LIAS. To overcome this uncertainty a numerical model has been elaborated, providing a self-consistent description for the spreading of ablated particles and accompanying modifications in the plasma. The results of calculations for LIAS performed on carbon-containing targets in Ohmic and additionally heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR are presented. Due to the increase in the electron density the ‘ionisation per photon’ ratio, S/XB factor, is significantly enhanced compared to unperturbed plasma conditions. The impact of the amount of material ablated and of the plasma conditions before LIAS on the level of the S/XB-enhancement is investigated.

  4. Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency

  5. Generation of static magnetic fields by a test charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Yu.M.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Frolov, A.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    Structure of electomagnetic field generated with a charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature has been studied. Unlike a hydrodynamical approach to study on the magnetic field qeneration with a test charge a kinetic theory describing spatial distribution of both magnetic and electrostatic components of charge field was constructed. Such theory results permit to investigate the charge field structure both at distances larger than length of free electron path and not exceeding it. The developed theory can serve as the basis for development of new methods for anisotropic plasma diagnostics.

  6. Generation of high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with liquid electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lifang; Mao Zhiguo; Yin Zengqian; Ran Junxia

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for generating atmospheric pressure plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge reactor with two liquid electrodes. Four distinct kinds of discharge, including stochastic filaments, regular square pattern, glow-like discharge, and Turing stripe pattern, are observed in argon with a flow rate of 9 slm. The electrical and optical characteristics of the device are investigated. Results show that high-power-density atmospheric pressure plasma with high duty ratio in space and time can be obtained. The influence of wall charges on discharge power and duty ratio has been discussed

  7. Diamond detectors for time-of-flight measurements in laser-generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Margarone, D.; Milani, E.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Prestopino, G.; Tuvè, C.; Potenza, R.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 164, 5-6 (2009), s. 369-375 ISSN 1042-0150. [Workshop on European Collaboration for Higher Education and Research in Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Protection /4./. Favignana, 26.05.2008-28.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : diamond detector * laser-generated plasma * x-ray detection Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2009

  8. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach

  9. Influence of external-detonation-generated plasmas on the performance of semi-confined explosive charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udy, L.L.

    1979-02-01

    External-detonation-generated plasmas, highly ionized zones of reacting material ejected from the surface of detonating explosive charges, are shown to be the cause of channel desensitization, i.e., the self-quenching of a detonating explosive column loaded in a borehole with an air annulus between the explosive and the borehole wall. The effects of this phenomenon on several explosive compositions and types are demonstrated and discussed. The explosives tested include aluminum-sensitized and explosive-sensitized slurries, ANFO, liquid explosives and dynamites. Various techniques are described that can be used to reduce or eliminate the plasma effect.

  10. Impedance Mismatch study between the Microwave Generator and the PUPR Plasma Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudier, Jorge R.; Castellanos, Ligeia; Encarnacion, Kabir; Zavala, Natyaliz; Rivera, Ramon; Farahat, Nader; Leal, Edberto

    2006-01-01

    Impedance mismatch inside the connection from the microwave power generator to the plasma machine is studied. A magnetron power generator transmits microwaves of 2.45 GHz and variable power from 50W to 5000W, through a flexible rectangular waveguide to heat plasma inside a Mirror Cusp devise located at the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. Before the production of plasma, the residual gas of the devise must be extracted by a vacuum system (5Torr or better), then Argon gas is injected to the machine. The microwaves heat the Argon ions to initiate ionization and plasma is produced. A dielectric wall is used inside the rectangular waveguide to isolate the plasma machine and maintain vacuum. Even though the dielectric will not block the wave propagation, some absorption of microwaves will occur. This absorption will cause reflection, reducing the efficiency of the power transfer. Typically a thin layer of Teflon is used, but measurements using this dielectric show a significant reflection of power back to the generator. Due to the high-power nature of the generator (5KW), this mismatch is not desirable. An electromagnetic field solver based on the Finite Difference Time Domain Method(FDTD) is used to model the rectangular waveguide connection. The characteristic impedance of the simulation is compared with the analytical formula expression and a good agreement is obtain. Furthermore the Teflon-loaded guide is modeled using the above program and the input impedance is computed. The reflection coefficient is calculated based on the transmission line theory with the characteristic and input impedances. Based on the simulation results it is possible to optimize the thickness, shape and dielectric constant of the material, in order to seal the connection with a better match

  11. Harmonic generation by atomic and nanoparticle precursors in a ZnS laser ablation plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oujja, M.; Lopez-Quintas, I.; Benítez-Cañete, A.; Nalda, R. de; Castillejo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Plume species in infrared ns laser ablation of ZnS studied by low-order harmonic generation. • Different spatiotemporal properties of harmonics from atoms and nanoparticles. • Results compared with calculations of optical frequency up-conversion in perturbative regime. - Abstract: Harmonic generation of a driving laser propagating across a laser ablation plasma serves for the diagnosis of multicomponent plumes. Here we study the contribution of atomic and nanoparticle precursors to the generation of coherent ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light as low-order harmonics of the fundamental emission (1064 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a nanosecond infrared ZnS laser ablation plasma. Odd harmonics from the 3rd up to the 9th order (118.2 nm) have been observed with distinct temporal and spatial characteristics which were determined by varying the delay between the ablation and driving nanosecond pulses and by spatially scanning the plasma with the focused driving beam propagating parallel to the target. At short distances from the target surface (≤1 mm), the harmonic intensity displays two temporal components peaked at around 250 ns and 10 μs. While the early component dies off quickly with increasing harmonic order and vanishes for the 9th order, the late component is notably intense for the 7th harmonic and is still clearly visible for the 9th. Spectral analysis of spontaneous plume emissions help to assign the origin of the two components. While the early plasma component is mainly constituted by neutral Zn atoms, the late component is mostly due to nanoparticles, which upon interaction with the driving laser are subject to breakup and ionization. With the aid of calculations of the phase matching integrals within the perturbative model of optical harmonic generation, these results illustrate how atom and nanoparticle populations, with differing temporal and spatial distributions within the ablation plasma, contribute to the nonlinear

  12. Gene expression responses of HeLa cells to chemical species generated by an atmospheric plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Mayo, E-mail: yokoyama@plasma.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Johkura, Kohei, E-mail: kohei@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Histology and Embryology, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sato, Takehiko, E-mail: sato@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Response of HeLa cells to a plasma-irradiated medium was revealed by DNA microarray. • Gene expression pattern was basically different from that in a H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-added medium. • Prominently up-/down-regulated genes were partly shared by the two media. • Gene ontology analysis showed both similar and different responses in the two media. • Candidate genes involved in response to ROS were detected in each medium. - Abstract: Plasma irradiation generates many factors able to affect the cellular condition, and this feature has been studied for its application in the field of medicine. We previously reported that hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was the major cause of HeLa cell death among the chemical species generated by high level irradiation of a culture medium by atmospheric plasma. To assess the effect of plasma-induced factors on the response of live cells, HeLa cells were exposed to a medium irradiated by a non-lethal plasma flow level, and their gene expression was broadly analyzed by DNA microarray in comparison with that in a corresponding concentration of 51 μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. As a result, though the cell viability was sufficiently maintained at more than 90% in both cases, the plasma-medium had a greater impact on it than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. Hierarchical clustering analysis revealed fundamentally different cellular responses between these two media. A larger population of genes was upregulated in the plasma-medium, whereas genes were downregulated in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium. However, a part of the genes that showed prominent differential expression was shared by them, including an immediate early gene ID2. In gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes, the plasma-medium showed more diverse ontologies than the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-medium, whereas ontologies such as “response to stimulus” were common, and several genes corresponded to “response to reactive oxygen species.” Genes of AP-1 proteins, e.g., JUN

  13. Laser light scattering in a laser-induced argon plasma: Investigations of the shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokrzywka, B. [Obserwatorium Astronomiczne na Suhorze, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny, ulica Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Mendys, A., E-mail: agata.mendys@uj.edu.pl [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Dzierzega, K.; Grabiec, M. [Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Pellerin, S. [GREMI, site de Bourges, Universite d' Orleans, CNRS, rue Gaston Berger BP 4043, 18028 Bourges (France)

    2012-08-15

    Shock wave produced by a laser induced spark in argon at atmospheric pressure was examined using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering. The spark was generated by focusing a laser pulse from the second harmonic ({lambda} = 532 nm) of a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser using an 80 mm focal length lens, with a fluence of 2 kJ{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. Images of the spark emission were recorded for times between 30 ns and 100 {mu}s after the laser pulse in order to characterize its spatial evolution. The position of the shock wave at several instants of its evolution and for several plasma regions was determined from the Rayleigh-scattered light of another nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 40 J{center_dot}cm{sup -2} fluence). Simultaneously, Thomson scattering technique was applied to determine the electron density and temperature in the hot plasma core. Attempts were made to describe the temporal evolution of the shock wave within a self-similar model, both by the simple Sedov-Taylor formula as well as its extension deduced by de Izarra. The temporal radial evolution of the shock position is similar to that obtained within theory taking into account the counter pressure of the ambient gas. Density profiles just behind the shock front are in qualitative agreement with those obtained by numerically solving the Euler equations for instantaneous explosion at a point with counter pressure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated shock wave evolution by Rayleigh scattering method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2D map of shockwave position for several times after plasma generation is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shock wave evolution is not satisfactorily described within self-similar models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evolution of shock position similar to theory taking into account counter pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Density profile behind the shock similar to numerical solution of Euler equations.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC POWER GENERATOR UNDER DC ARC PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle Oluwaseun Ayeleso

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The generation of electric power through the conventional systems (thermal and hydroelectric is no longer sufficient to meet the increasing industrial and commercial usage. Therefore, an alternative energy conversion system is currently being sought. The aim of the presented study is to develop a direct energy conversion system (Magnetohydrodynamics, MHD generator to generate electric power using plasma. Additionally, the generator electric response is investigated based on the Faraday’s principle of electromagnetism and fluid dynamics. For this purpose, a rectangular MHD generator prototype with segmented electrodes was constructed and subjected to continuous plasma from a DC arc source at test facilities available in the Western Cape region (South Africa. Subsequently, the terminal voltages at the middle-electrodes were measured one after another across 1, 100 and 470 Ω load resistors. In all experiments, the absolute time-averages of the measured terminal voltage across each load resistor were similar, which indicates a generation of power. The maximum power of the order 0.203mW was obtained when 1 Ω resistor was connected to the middle-electrodes. Conclusively, these results validate the measurement approach of the MHD generator with segmented electrodes and could be used to design a large MHD unit that can be incorporated to the existing conventional thermal plant to improve their cyclic thermal efficiency.

  15. Two-dimensional nanoparticle self-assembly using plasma-induced Ostwald ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J; Photopoulos, P; Tsoukalas, D; Tserepi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel Ag nanoparticle self-assembly process based on plasma-induced two-dimensional Ostwald ripening is demonstrated. Ag nanoparticles are deposited on p-doped Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering process. With the assistance of O 2 /Ar plasma treatment, different sizes and patterns of Ag nanoparticles are formed, due to the Ostwald ripening. The evolution of plasma-induced nanoparticle ripening is studied and a clear increase in particle size and a decrease in particle density are observed with increasing plasma treatment. From the experiments, it is concluded that the initial nanoparticle density and the plasma gas mixture (Ar/O 2 ratio) are important factors that affect the ripening process. The proposed plasma-directed Ag nanoparticle self-assembly provides a rapid method of tailoring the nanoparticle distribution on substrates, with potential applications in the fields of solar cells, biosensors, and catalysis.

  16. Experimental Evidence of Momentum Transport Induced by an Up-Down Asymmetric Magnetic Equilibrium in Toroidal Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Szepesi, G.; Bortolon, A.; Duval, B. P.; Federspiel, L.; Karpushov, A. N.; Piras, F.; Sauter, O.

    2010-01-01

    The first experimental evidence of parallel momentum transport generated by the up-down asymmetry of a toroidal plasma is reported. The experiments, conducted in the Tokamak a Configuration Variable, were motivated by the recent theoretical discovery of ion-scale turbulent momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. The toroidal rotation gradient is observed to depend on the asymmetry in the outer part of the plasma leading to a variation of the central rotation by a factor of 1.5-2. The direction of the effect and its magnitude are in agreement with theoretical predictions for the eight possible combinations of plasma asymmetry, current, and magnetic field.

  17. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Induced Etch Damage of GaN p-n Junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHUL, RANDY J.; ZHANG, LEI; BACA, ALBERT G.; WILLISON, CHRISTI LEE; HAN, JUNG; PEARTON, S.J.; REN, F.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma-induced etch damage can degrade the electrical and optical performance of III-V nitride electronic and photonic devices. We have investigated the etch-induced damage of an Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) etch system on the electrical performance of mesa-isolated GaN pn-junction diodes. GaN p-i-n mesa diodes were formed by Cl 2 /BCl 3 /Ar ICP etching under different plasma conditions. The reverse leakage current in the mesa diodes showed a strong relationship to chamber pressure, ion energy, and plasma flux. Plasma induced damage was minimized at moderate flux conditions (≤ 500 W), pressures ≥2 mTorr, and at ion energies below approximately -275 V

  18. Characterization Of High Explosives Detonations Via Laser-Induced Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    One objective of the Department of Energy’s National Security Administration is to develop technologies that can help the United States government to detect foreign nuclear weapons development activities. The realm of high explosive (HE) experiments is one of the key areas to assess the nuclear ambitions of a country. SRNL has participated in the collection of particulates from HE experiments and characterized the material with the purpose to correlate particulate matter with HE. Since these field campaigns are expensive, on-demand simulated laboratory-scale explosion experiments are needed to further our knowledge of the chemistry and particle formation in the process. Our goal is to develop an experimental test bed in the laboratory to test measurement concepts and correlate particle formation processes with the observables from the detonation fireball. The final objective is to use this knowledge to tailor our experimental setups in future field campaigns. The test bed uses pulsed laser-induced plasmas to simulate micro-explosions, with the intent to study the temporal behavior of the fireball observed in field tests. During FY15, a plan was prepared and executed which assembled two laser ablation systems, procured materials for study, and tested a Step-Scan Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (SS-FTIR). Designs for a shadowgraph system for shock wave analysis, design for a micro-particulate collector from ablated pulse were accomplished. A novel spectroscopic system was conceived and a prototype system built for acquisition of spectral/temporal characterization of a high speed event such as from a high explosive detonation. Experiments and analyses will continue into FY16.

  19. Beam diagnostics for Laser-induced proton generation at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Heun; Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae; Chan, Young Ho; Lee, Byung Cheol; Yoo, Byeong Duk

    2005-01-01

    With an advent of femto-second lasers, a laseraccelerated ion generation has been world-widely studied for medical and nuclear applications. It is known that protons with the energy from several tens MeV to a few hundreds MeV require for a cancer therapy and nuclear reaction. Even though, up to present, the maximum energy of laser-accelerated proton is about 60 MeV, it is expected that the energy of protons generated can be obtained at least up to 150 MeV. According to theoretical and experimental works, it turns out the energy distribution and the flux of ions strongly depends on the intensity of a fs laser at a target. However, physics on laser-plasma interaction is still not clear. The precise measurements of parameters of a fs laser and ions are important to figure out the physics and develop the theoretical interpretation. Typically, beam diagnostic system includes measurements and/or monitoring of the temporal and spatial profiles of lasers at the target as well as the energy spectrum and density profile of protons, which are critical for the analysis of mechanism and the characterization of protons generated. We fabricated and installed the target chamber for laser-accelerated proton generation and are now integrating beam diagnostic system. For laser diagnostics, beam monitoring and alignment system has been installed. For a charged particle, CR-39 detectors, Thomson parabola spectrometer, and Si charged particle detectors are installed for density profile and energy spectrum. In this paper, we discuss the laser beam monitoring and alignment system. We also estimates expected spectrum of protons from Thomson parabola spectrometer, depending on the parameters of protons

  20. A differentially pumped argon plasma in the linear plasma generator Magnum-PSI: gas flow and dynamics of the ionized fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, van H.J.N.; Hansen, T.A.R.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Schram, D.C.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Magnum-PSI is a linear plasma generator designed to reach the plasma–surface interaction (PSI) regime of ITER and nuclear fusion reactors beyond ITER. To reach this regime, the influx of cold neutrals from the source must be significantly lower than the plasma flux reaching the target. This is

  1. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs

  2. Ozone and dinitrogen monoxide production in atmospheric pressure air dielectric barrier discharge plasma effluent generated by nanosecond pulse superimposed alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2017-06-01

    The effects of nanosecond pulse superposition to alternating current voltage (NS + AC) on the generation of an air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and reactive species are experimentally studied, along with measurements of ozone (O3) and dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) in the exhausted gas through the air DBD plasma (air plasma effluent). The charge-voltage cycle measurement indicates that the role of nanosecond pulse superposition is to induce electrical charge transport and excess charge accumulation on the dielectric surface following the nanosecond pulses. The densities of O3 and N2O in NS + AC DBD are found to be significantly increased in the plasma effluent, compared to the sum of those densities generated in NS DBD and AC DBD operated individually. The production of O3 and N2O is modulated significantly by the phase in which the nanosecond pulse is superimposed. The density increase and modulation effects by the nanosecond pulse are found to correspond with the electrical charge transport and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse. It is suggested that the electrical charge transport by the nanosecond pulse might result in the enhancement of the nanosecond pulse current, which may lead to more efficient molecular dissociation, and the excess electrical charge accumulation induced by the nanosecond pulse increases the discharge coupling power which would enhance molecular dissociation.

  3. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock: The generation of downshifted oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dum, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beamvelocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially, a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely ironed out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out

  4. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock - The generation of downshifted oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beam velocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely 'ironed' out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out.

  5. Terahertz radiation generation by lasers with remarkable efficiency in electron–positron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Hitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Photo-mixing of spatial-super-Gaussian lasers and electron–positron plasma are proposed for realizing a large amplitude nonlinear current in order to generate an efficient terahertz radiation. An external magnetic field together with a proper index of the lasers helps achieving controllable current and hence, the focused radiation of tunable frequency and power along with a remarkable efficiency of the scheme as ∼6%. - Highlights: • First proposal of photo-mixing of spatial-super-Gaussian (SSG) lasers in electron–positron (e–p) plasma. • Large amplitude nonlinear current due to the contribution of both the plasma species. • Magnetic field as an additional parameter for tunable THz radiation with a remarkable efficiency of ∼6%.

  6. Propagation of laser-generated plasma jet in an ambient medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loupias, B; Falize, E; Vinci, T; Bouquet, S; Gregory, C D; Koenig, M; Ravasio, A; Pikuz, S; Waugh, J; Woolsey, N C; Nazarov, W; Michaut, C; Kuramitsu, Y; Seiichi, D; Sakawa, Y; Takabe, H; Schiavi, A; Atzeni, S

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present experimental research related to laboratory astrophysics using an intense laser. The goal of these experiments is to investigate some of the complex features of young stellar objects and astrophysical outflows, in particular the plasma jet interaction with the interstellar medium. The relevance of these experiments to astrophysics is measured through similarity criteria (scaling laws). These ensure the similarity between the astrophysical object and the laboratory provided that the dimensionless numbers are equivalent. Consequently, measurements of the plasma parameters are crucial to link laboratory research to astrophysics as they are needed for the determination of these dimensionless numbers. In this context, we designed experiments to generate plasma jets using an intense laser, and to study the evolution in vacuum and in an ambient medium.

  7. Intrinsic torque reversals induced by magnetic shear effects on the turbulence spectrum in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z. X.; Tynan, G. [Center for Energy Research and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Diamond, P. H. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization and Center for Astrophysics and Space Science, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Gao, C.; Rice, J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Intrinsic torque, which can be generated by turbulent stresses, can induce toroidal rotation in a tokamak plasma at rest without direct momentum injection. Reversals in intrinsic torque have been inferred from the observation of toroidal velocity changes in recent lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments. This work focuses on understanding the cause of LHCD-induced intrinsic torque reversal using gyrokinetic simulations and theoretical analyses. A new mechanism for the intrinsic torque reversal linked to magnetic shear (s{sup ^}) effects on the turbulence spectrum is identified. This reversal is a consequence of the ballooning structure at weak s{sup ^}. Based on realistic profiles from the Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments, simulations demonstrate that the intrinsic torque reverses for weak s{sup ^} discharges and that the value of s{sup ^}{sub crit} is consistent with the experimental results s{sup ^}{sub crit}{sup exp}≈0.2∼0.3 [Rice et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 125003 (2013)]. The consideration of this intrinsic torque feature in our work is important for the understanding of rotation profile generation at weak s{sup ^} and its consequent impact on macro-instability stabilization and micro-turbulence reduction, which is crucial for ITER. It is also relevant to internal transport barrier formation at negative or weakly positive s{sup ^}.

  8. Ion energy loss at maximum stopping power in a laser-generated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayzac, W.

    2013-01-01

    In the frame of this thesis, a new experimental setup for the measurement of the energy loss of carbon ions at maximum stopping power in a hot laser-generated plasma has been developed and successfully tested. In this parameter range where the projectile velocity is of the same order of magnitude as the thermal velocity of the plasma free electrons, large uncertainties of up to 50% are present in the stopping-power description. To date, no experimental data are available to perform a theory benchmarking. Testing the different stopping theories is yet essential for inertial confinement fusion and in particular for the understanding of the alpha-particle heating of the thermonuclear fuel. Here, for the first time, precise measurements were carried out in a reproducible and entirely characterized beam-plasma configuration. It involved a nearly fully-stripped ion beam probing a homogeneous fully-ionized plasma. This plasma was generated by irradiating a thin carbon foil with two high-energy laser beams and features a maximum electron temperature of 200 eV. The plasma conditions were simulated with a two-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic code, while the ion-beam charge-state distribution was predicted by means of a Monte-Carlo code describing the charge-exchange processes of projectile ions in plasma. To probe at maximum stopping power, high-frequency pulsed ion bunches were decelerated to an energy of 0.5 MeV per nucleon. The ion energy loss was determined by a time-of-flight measurement using a specifically developed chemical-vapor-deposition diamond detector that was screened against any plasma radiation. A first experimental campaign was carried out using this newly developed platform, in which a precision better than 200 keV on the energy loss was reached. This allowed, via the knowledge of the plasma and of the beam parameters, to reliably test several stopping theories, either based on perturbation theory or on a nonlinear T-Matrix formalism. A preliminary

  9. DIII-D Integrated plasma control solutions for ITER and next-generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; In, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma control design approaches and solutions developed at DIII-D to address its control-intensive advanced tokamak (AT) mission are applicable to many problems facing ITER and other next-generation devices. A systematic approach to algorithm design, termed 'integrated plasma control,' enables new tokamak controllers to be applied operationally with minimal machine time required for tuning. Such high confidence plasma control algorithms are designed using relatively simple ('control-level') models validated against experimental response data and are verified in simulation prior to operational use. A key element of DIII-D integrated plasma control, also required in the ITER baseline control approach, is the ability to verify both controller performance and implementation by running simulations that connect directly to the actual plasma control system (PCS) that is used to operate the tokamak itself. The DIII-D PCS comprises a powerful and flexible C-based realtime code and programming infrastructure, as well as an arbitrarily scalable hardware and realtime network architecture. This software infrastructure provides a general platform for implementation and verification of realtime algorithms with arbitrary complexity, limited only by speed of execution requirements. We present a complete suite of tools (known collectively as TokSys) supporting the integrated plasma control design process, along with recent examples of control algorithms designed for the DIII-D PCS. The use of validated physics-based models and a systematic model-based design and verification process enables these control solutions to be directly applied to ITER and other next-generation tokamaks

  10. Modeling photothermal and acoustical induced microbubble generation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovitski, Boris; Kislev, Hanoch; Kimmel, Eitan

    2007-12-01

    Previous experimental studies showed that powerful heating of nanoparticles by a laser pulse using energy density greater than 100 mJ/cm(2), could induce vaporization and generate microbubbles. When ultrasound is introduced at the same time as the laser pulse, much less laser power is required. For therapeutic applications, generation of microbubbles on demand at target locations, e.g. cells or bacteria can be used to induce hyperthermia or to facilitate drug delivery. The objective of this work is to develop a method capable of predicting photothermal and acoustic parameters in terms of laser power and acoustic pressure amplitude that are needed to produce stable microbubbles; and investigate the influence of bubble coalescence on the thresholds when the microbubbles are generated around nanoparticles that appear in clusters. We develop and solve here a combined problem of momentum, heat and mass transfer which is associated with generation and growth of a microbubble, filled with a mixture of non-vaporized gas (air) and water vapor. The microbubble's size and gas content vary as a result of three mechanisms: gas expansion or compression, evaporation or condensation on the bubble boundary, and diffusion of dissolved air in the surrounding water. The simulations predict that when ultrasound is applied relatively low threshold values of laser and ultrasound power are required to obtain a stable microbubble from a single nanoparticle. Even lower power is required when microbubbles are formed by coalescence around a cluster of 10 nanoparticles. Laser pulse energy density of 21 mJ/cm(2) is predicted for instance together with acoustic pressure of 0.1 MPa for a cluster of 10 or 62 mJ/cm(2) for a single nanoparticle. Those values are well within the safety limits, and as such are most appealing for targeted therapeutic purposes.

  11. Iron plasma generation using a Nd:YAG laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Jun, E-mail: jtamura@post.j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kumaki, Masafumi [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kondo, Kotaro [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kanesue, Takeshi; Okamura, Masahiro [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    We investigated the high intensity plasma generated by using a Nd:YAG laser to apply a laser-produced plasma to the direct plasma injection scheme. The capability of the source to generate high charge state ions strongly depends on the power density of the laser irradiation. Therefore, we focused on using a higher power laser with several hundred picoseconds of pulse width. The iron target was irradiated with the pulsed laser, and the ion current of the laser-produced iron plasma was measured using a Faraday cup and the charge state distribution was investigated using an electrostatic ion analyzer. We found that higher charge state iron ions (up to Fe{sup 21+}) were obtained using a laser pulse of several hundred picoseconds in comparison to those obtained using a laser pulse of several nanoseconds (up to Fe{sup 19+}). We also found that when the laser irradiation area was relatively large, the laser power was absorbed mainly by the contamination on the target surface.

  12. Design of extraction system on grid of plasma generator electrode for pulsed electron irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Bambang Siswanto; Lely Susita RM; Suprapto; Anjar Anggraini H; Ihwanul Azis

    2016-01-01

    It has been carried out design and study of electron extraction particularly for obtaining the electron extraction current via grid on the Plasma Generator Chamber (PGC) caused by the existence of extraction voltage U_a. Electrons of plasma surface emitted to acceleration region through emission window and then extracted acceleration by extraction voltage U_a through foil window to atmospheric region for being applied to any target. Applied extraction voltage U_a on PEI device influences the forming and energy value of electron extraction current I_e then the PGC dimension influences the product of thermal electron emission current I_e_0. It has been determinated the PGC geometry and dimension of producing electron extraction current based on arc discharge plasma current to desire on any plasma density. From the calculation yield for the value of plasma density n_e = 78 x 10"1"0 cm"-"3 and the arc discharge current Id = 80 A (pulse width τ = 100µs) used the PGC size of (80 x 20 x 40) cm"3. Emission window area of (65 x 15) cm"2 located on the low part surface of PGC is covered by a grid sheet made of stainless steel of rectangular shape and the distance of one grid hole to another is 0,25 mm each others. Current value of I_e beside depends on plasma parameters also depends on the size of grid holes. The optimum of geometry and size is rectangular with its side size of p ≈ 0,50 mm with the plasma parameters optimum (density value n_e = 10"1"6 m"-"3 and electron temperature T_e = 6 eV). From the initial experiment yields obtained that the electron extraction efficiency value α = 37,25 % on extraction voltage V = 3 kV. (author)

  13. Generation of longitudinal current by a transverse electromagnetic field in classical and quantum plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latyshev, A. V., E-mail: avlatyshev@mail.ru; Yushkanov, A. A. [Moscow State Regional University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A distribution function for collisionless plasma is derived from the Vlasov kinetic equation in the quadratic approximation with respect to the electromagnetic field. Formulas for calculation of the electric current at an arbitrary temperature (arbitrary degree of degeneration of the electron gas) are deduced. The case of small wavenumbers is considered. It is shown that nonlinearity leads to the generation of an electric current directed along the wave vector. This longitudinal current is orthogonal to the classical transverse current, well known in the linear theory. A distribution function for collisionless quantum plasma is derived from the kinetic equation with the Wigner integral in the quadratic approximation with respect to the vector potential. Formulas for calculation of the electric current at an arbitrary temperature are deduced. The case of small wavenumbers is considered. It is shown that, at small values of the wavenumber, the value of the longitudinal current for quantum plasma coincides with that for classical plasma. The dimensionless currents in quantum and classical plasmas are compared graphically.

  14. Electron emission and plasma generation in a modulator electron gun using ferroelectric cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shutao; Zheng Shuxin; Zhu Ziqiu; Dong Xianlin; Tang Chuanxiang

    2006-01-01

    Strong electron emission and dense plasma generation have been observed in a modulator electron gun with a Ba 0.67 Sr 0.33 TiO 3 ferroelectric cathode. Parameter of the modulator electron gun and lifetime of the ferroelectric cathode were investigated. It was shown that electron emission from Ba 0.67 Sr 0.33 TiO 3 cathode with a positive triggering pulse is a sort of plasma emission. Electrons were emitted by the co-effect of surface plasma and non-compensated negative polarization charges at the surface of the ferroelectric. The element analyses of the graphite collector after emission process was performed to show the ingredient of the plasma consist of Ba, Ti and Cu heavy cations of the ceramic compound and electrode. It was demonstrated the validity of the Child-Langmuir law by introducing the decrease of vacuum gap and increase of emission area caused by the expansion of the surface plasma

  15. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  16. Electrostatic wave heating and possible formation of self-generated high electric fields in a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miracoli, R.; Castro, G.; Gambino, N.; Ciavola, G.

    2011-10-01

    A plasma reactor operates at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, and it has been used as a test-bench for the investigation of innovative mechanisms of plasma ignition based on electrostatic waves (ES-W), obtained via the inner plasma EM-to-ES wave conversion. Evidences of Bernstein wave (BW) generation will be shown. The Langmuir probe measurements have revealed a strong increase of the ion saturation current, where the BW are generated or absorbed, this being a signature of possible high energy ion flows. The results are interpreted through the Bernstein wave heating theory, which predicts the formation of high speed rotating layers of the plasma (a dense plasma ring is in fact observed). High intensity inner plasma self-generated electric fields (on the order of several tens of kV/cm) come out by our calculations.

  17. Characterization of the gas-puff imploding plasma on the NRL Gamble II generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Cooperstein, G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, an experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken at NRL aimed at contributing to understanding the physics of the implosion dynamics and of the resulting highly localized plasma pinch in such experiments. Supersonic nozzles producing a cylindrical gas flow provide the load for the Gamble II generator operating at the 1.5 TW level. The gas jet is preionized and then imploded to the axis by the machine electrical pulse in a very short time scale. During the implosion process, the attained kinetic energy is efficiently converted to plasma thermal energy and produces the desired radiation. Preliminary experimental results are presented from the study of the conditions necessary in order to efficiently couple such loads to the Gamble II generator. These results are correlated to existing scaling laws and are compared with theoretical models

  18. Modeling Laser and e-Beam Generated Plasma-Plume Experiments Using LASNEX

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, D

    1999-01-01

    The hydrodynamics code LASNEX is used to model the laser and e-beam generated plasma-plume experiments. The laser used has a wavelength of 1 (micro)m and the FWHM spot size is 1 mm. The total laser energy is 160 mJ. The simulation shows that the plume expands at a velocity of about 6 cm/(micro)s. The e-beam generated from the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) has 5.5 MeV and FWHM spot size ranges from 2 to 3.3 mm. From the simulations, the plasma plume expansion velocity ranges from about 3 to 6 mm/(micro)s and the velocity increases with decreasing spot size. All the simulation results reported here are in close agreement with experimental data.

  19. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  20. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  1. Production of organic compounds in plasmas: A comparison among electric sparks, laser-induced plasmas and UV light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T. W.; Mckay, C. P.; Borucki, W. J.; Giver, L. P.; Vanghyseghem, H.; Parris, J. E.; Miller, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the production of organic compounds in plasmas (and shocks), various mixtures of N2, CH4, and H2, modeling the atmosphere of Titan, were exposed to discrete sparks, laser-induced plasmas (LIP) and ultraviolet light. The yields of HCN and simple hydrocarbons were measured and compared to those calculated from a simple quenched thermodynamic equilibrium model. The agreement between experiment and theory was fair for HCN and C2H2. However, the yields of C2H6 and other hydrocarbons were much higher than those predicted by the model. Our experiments suggest that photolysis by ultraviolet light from the plasma is an important process in the synthesis. This was confirmed by the photolysis of gas samples exposed to the light, but not to the plasma or shock waves. The results of these experiments demonstrate that, in addition to the well-known efficient synthesis of organic compounds in plasmas, the yields of saturated species, e.g., ethane, may be higher than predicted by theory and that LIP provide a convenient and clean way of simulating planetary lightning and impact plasmas in the laboratory.

  2. Gyrofluid Simulations of Intrinsic Rotation Generation in Reversed Shear Plasmas with Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhang, Hogun; Kim, S. S.; Kwon, J. M.; Terzolo, L.; Kim, J. Y.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    It is accepted that the intrinsic rotation is generated via the residual stress, which is non-diffusive components of the turbulent Reynolds stress, without external momentum input. The physics leading to the onset of intrinsic rotation in L- and H- mode plasmas have been elucidated elsewhere. However, the physics responsible for the generation and transport of the intrinsic rotation and its relationship to the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in reversed shear (RS) plasmas have not been explored in detail, which is the main subject in the present work. The revised version of the global gyrofluid code TRB is used for this study. It is found that the large intrinsic rotation (˜10-30% of the ion sound speed depending on ITB characteristics) is generated near the ITB region and propagates into the core. The intrinsic rotation increases linearly as the temperature gradient at ITB position increases, albeit not indefinitely. Key parameters related to the symmetry breaking, such as turbulent intensity and its gradient, the flux surface averaged parallel wavenumber are evaluated dynamically during the ITB formation. In particular, the role of reversed shear and the q-profile curvature is presented in relation to the symmetry breaking in RS plasmas.

  3. Plasmas generated by ultra-violet light rather than electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, R. N. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Allen, J. E. [University College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4BH, United Kingdom and OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCCEE, Universidade de Madeira, Largo do Municipio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-12-15

    We analyze, in both plane and cylindrical geometries, a collisionless plasma consisting of an inner region where generation occurs by UV illumination, and an un-illuminated outer region with no generation. Ions generated in the inner region flow outwards through the outer region and into a wall. We solve for this system's steady state, first in the quasi-neutral regime (where the Debye length λ{sub D} vanishes and analytic solutions exist) and then in the general case, which we solve numerically. In the general case, a double layer forms where the illuminated and un-illuminated regions meet, and an approximately quasi-neutral plasma connects the double layer to the wall sheath; in plane geometry, the ions coast through the quasi-neutral section at slightly more than the Bohm speed c{sub s}. The system, although simple, therefore has two novel features: a double layer that does not require counter-streaming ions and electrons, and a quasi-neutral plasma where ions travel in straight lines with at least the Bohm speed. We close with a précis of our asymptotic solutions of this system, and suggest how our theoretical conclusions might be extended and tested in the laboratory.

  4. Modulation of terahertz generation in dual-color filaments by an external electric field and preformed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min; Li An-Yuan; Yuan Shuai; Zeng He-Ping; He Bo-Qu

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz generation driven by dual-color filaments in air is demonstrated to be remarkably enhanced by applying an external electric field to the filaments. As terahertz generation is sensitive to the dual-color phase difference, a preformed plasma is verified efficiently in modulating terahertz radiation from linear to elliptical polarization. In the presence of preformed plasma, a dual-color filament generates terahertz pulses of elliptical polarization and the corresponding ellipse rotates regularly with the change of the preformed plasma density. The observed terahertz modulation with the external electric field and the preformed plasma provides a simple way to estimate the plasma density and evaluate the photocurrent dynamics of the dual-color filaments. It provides further experimental evidence of the photo-current model in governing the dual-color filament driven terahertz generation processes. (paper)

  5. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  6. Ion tail formation and its effect on 14-MeV neutron generation in D-3He plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.; Kudo, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the triton distribution function in D- 3 He plasmas which is distorted from a Maxwellian owing to the presence of a 1.01-MeV birth component. The deuteron-triton reaction rate (i.e., 14-MeV neutron generation rate) in the plasma should be smaller than the values evaluated by assuming a Maxwellian triton distribution. A local Fokker-Planck calculation shows that although the degree of the decrease in 14-MeV neutron generation strongly depends on the plasma conditions and also on the energy loss mechanism, it becomes appreciable in actual burning plasmas

  7. Biopolymer nanostructures induced by plasma irradiation and metal sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Juřík, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Malinský, P.; Macková, A. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez, Prague 25068 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkyně University, Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Modification based on polymer surface exposure to plasma treatment exhibits an easy and cheap technique for polymer surface nanostructuring. The influence of argon plasma treatment on biopolymer poly(L-lactide acid (PLLA) will be presented in this paper. The combination of Ar{sup +} ion irradiation, consequent sputter metallization (platinum) and thermal annealing of polymer surface will be summarized. The surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy. The Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used as analytical methods. The combination of plasma treatment with consequent thermal annealing and/or metal sputtering led to the change of surface morphology and its elemental ratio. The surface roughness and composition has been strongly influenced by the modification parameters and metal layer thickness. By plasma treatment of polymer surface combined with consequent annealing or metal deposition can be prepared materials applicable both in tissue engineering as cell carriers, but also in integrated circuit manufacturing.

  8. Kr photoionized plasma induced by intense extreme ultraviolet pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, A.; Wachulak, P.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Skrzeczanowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation of any gas with an intense EUV (extreme ultraviolet) radiation beam can result in creation of photoionized plasmas. The parameters of such plasmas can be significantly different when compared with those of the laser produced plasmas (LPP) or discharge plasmas. In this work, the photoionized plasmas were created in a krypton gas irradiated using an LPP EUV source operating at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The Kr gas was injected into the vacuum chamber synchronously with the EUV radiation pulses. The EUV beam was focused onto a Kr gas stream using an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The resulting low temperature Kr plasmas emitted electromagnetic radiation in the wide spectral range. The emission spectra were measured either in the EUV or an optical range. The EUV spectrum was dominated by emission lines originating from Kr III and Kr IV ions, and the UV/VIS spectra were composed from Kr II and Kr I lines. The spectral lines recorded in EUV, UV, and VIS ranges were used for the construction of Boltzmann plots to be used for the estimation of the electron temperature. It was shown that for the lowest Kr III and Kr IV levels, the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions were not fulfilled. The electron temperature was thus estimated based on Kr II and Kr I species where the partial LTE conditions could be expected.

  9. Electric field measurements in a near atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulse discharge with picosecond electric field induced second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Benjamin M.; Chng, Tat Loon; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard B.

    2018-02-01

    We present an optical electric field measurement method for use in high pressure plasma discharges. The method is based upon the field induced second harmonic generation technique and can be used for localized electric field measurements with sub-nanosecond resolution in any gaseous species. When an external electric field is present, a dipole is induced in the typically centrosymmetric medium, allowing for second harmonic generation with signal intensities which scale by the square of the electric field. Calibrations have been carried out in 100 Torr room air, and a minimum sensitivity of 450 V/cm is demonstrated. Measurements were performed with nanosecond or faster temporal resolution in a 100 Torr room air environment both with and without a plasma present. It was shown that with no plasma present, the field follows the applied voltage to gap ratio, as measured using the back current shunt method. When the electric field is strong enough to exceed the breakdown threshold, the measured field was shown to exceed the anticipated voltage to gap ratio which is taken as an indication of the ionization wave front as it sweeps through the plasma volume.

  10. Generating capital: improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a critical discussion on improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment. The reason that investor confidence is critical in the electric power industry is due to the fact that the industry is capital intensive, the asset life is long, it is impossible to model political/regulatory risk and political action is virtually inevitable. The paper concludes that ultimately private sector investors will bear little risk, the tax payer will be on the hook for almost all risk

  11. Degradation of polyethylene induced by plasma in oxidizing atmospheres; Degradacion de polietileno inducido por plasma en atmosferas oxidantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, E.; Olayo, M.G.; Cruz, G.J. [Facultad de Quimica, UAEM, Av. Tollocan y Colon, 50000 Toluca (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The garbage of polyethylene is not easily degradable in normal environmental conditions . The indiscriminate use of this polymer and the enormous quantity of garbage which is generated carries a damage to the environment due to its long life as waste. The objective of this work is to study the conditions in which can be carried out the degradation of polyethylene. A form of accelerating the degradation is exposing it to plasma with reactive atmospheres. In this work a study of surface modification of polyethylene by plasmas with discharges of direct current of oxygen and nitrogen is presented. (Author)

  12. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  13. Roughness generation during Si etching in Cl{sub 2} pulsed plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourey, Odile; Petit-Etienne, Camille; Cunge, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Darnon, Maxime; Despiau-Pujo, Emilie; Brichon, Paulin; Lattu-Romain, Eddy; Pons, Michel; Joubert, Olivier [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA-Leti Minatec, LTM, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2016-07-15

    Pulsed plasmas are promising candidates to go beyond limitations of continuous waves' plasma. However, their interaction with surfaces remains poorly understood. The authors investigated the silicon etching mechanism in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) Cl{sub 2} operated either in an ICP-pulsed mode or in a bias-pulsed mode (in which only the bias power is pulsed). The authors observed systematically the development of an important surface roughness at a low duty cycle. By using plasma diagnostics, they show that the roughness is correlated to an anomalously large (Cl atoms flux)/(energetic ion flux) ratio in the pulsed mode. The rational is that the Cl atom flux is not modulated on the timescale of the plasma pulses although the ion fluxes and energy are modulated. As a result, a very strong surface chlorination occurs during the OFF period when the surface is not exposed to energetic ions. Therefore, each energetic ion in the ON period will bombard a heavily chlorinated silicon surface, leading to anomalously high etching yield. In the ICP pulsed mode (in which the ion energy is high), the authors report yields as high as 40, which mean that each individual ion impacts will generate a “crater” of about 2 nm depth at the surface. Since the ion flux is very small in the pulsed ICP mode, this process is stochastic and is responsible for the roughness initiation. The roughness expansion can then be attributed partly to the ion channeling effect and is probably enhanced by the formation of a SiClx reactive layer with nonhomogeneous thickness over the topography of the surface. This phenomenon could be a serious limitation of pulsed plasma processes.

  14. Aqueous reactive species induced by a PCB surface micro-discharge air plasma device: a quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Fanying; Chen, Hai-Lan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a quantitative investigation on aqueous reactive species induced by air plasma generated from a printed circuit board surface micro-discharge (SMD) device. Under the conditions amenable for proliferation of mammalian cells, concentrations of ten types of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) in phosphate buffering solution (PBS) are measured by chemical fluorescent assays and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). Results show that concentrations of several detected RNS (NO2- , NO3- , peroxynitrites, and NO2\\centerdot ) are higher than those of ROS (H2O2, O2\\centerdot - , and 1O2) in the air plasma treated solution. Concentrations of NO3- can reach 150 times of H2O2 with 60 s plasma treatment. For short-lived species, the air plasma generates more copious peroxynitrite than other RONS including NO2\\centerdot , O2\\centerdot - , 1O2, and N{{O}\\centerdot } in PBS. In addition, the existence of reaction between H2O2 and NO2- /HNO2 to produce peroxynitrite is verified by the chemical scavenger experiments. The reaction relations between detected RONS are also discussed.

  15. Production of simplex RNS and ROS by nanosecond pulse N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas for inducing myeloma cell apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Dehui; Liu, Dingxin; Cui, Qingjie; Cai, Haifeng; Li, Qiaosong; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, atmospheric pressure N2/O2 plasma jets with homogeneous shielding gas excited by nanosecond pulse are obtained to generate simplex reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), respectively, for the purpose of studying the simplex RNS and ROS to induce the myeloma cell apoptosis with the same discharge power. The results reveal that the cell death rate by the N2 plasma jet with N2 shielding gas is about two times that of the O2 plasma jet with O2 shielding gas for the equivalent treatment time. By diagnosing the reactive species of ONOO-, H2O2, OH and \\text{O}2- in medium, our findings suggest the cell death rate after plasma jets treatment has a positive correlation with the concentration of ONOO-. Therefore, the ONOO- in medium is thought to play an important role in the process of inducing myeloma cell apoptosis.

  16. Optoelectronic properties of Black-Silicon generated through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing for crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Jens, E-mail: J.Hirsch@emw.hs-anhalt.de [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Gaudig, Maria; Bernhard, Norbert [Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Faculty EMW, Bernburger Str. 55, DE-06366 Köthen (Germany); Lausch, Dominik [Fraunhofer Center for Silicon Photovoltaics CSP, Otto-Eißfeldt-Str. 12, DE-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fabrication of black silicon through inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processing. • Suppressed formation a self-bias and therefore a reduced ion bombardment of the silicon sample. • Reduction of the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8% within 5 min ICP process time. • Reflection is almost independent of the angle of incidence up to 60°. • 2.5 ms effective lifetime at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} MCD after ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface passivation. - Abstract: The optoelectronic properties of maskless inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated black silicon through SF{sub 6} and O{sub 2} are analyzed by using reflection measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quasi steady state photoconductivity (QSSPC). The results are discussed and compared to capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and industrial standard wet chemical textures. The ICP process forms parabolic like surface structures in a scale of 500 nm. This surface structure reduces the average hemispherical reflection between 300 and 1120 nm up to 8%. Additionally, the ICP texture shows a weak increase of the hemispherical reflection under tilted angles of incidence up to 60°. Furthermore, we report that the ICP process is independent of the crystal orientation and the surface roughness. This allows the texturing of monocrystalline, multicrystalline and kerf-less wafers using the same parameter set. The ICP generation of black silicon does not apply a self-bias on the silicon sample. Therefore, the silicon sample is exposed to a reduced ion bombardment, which reduces the plasma induced surface damage. This leads to an enhancement of the effective charge carrier lifetime up to 2.5 ms at 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} minority carrier density (MCD) after an atomic layer deposition (ALD) with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Since excellent etch results were obtained already after 4 min process time, we conclude that the ICP generation of black silicon is a promising technique

  17. Remote triggering of high voltage systems by laser-induced plasmas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available -induced plasma was found to play a significant role in the breakdown process – best results being obtained when the laser was focused in the centre of the gap. Finally, the shape of the laser-induced arc is dependant on the applied electric field. When the field...

  18. Positron induced scattering cross sections for hydrocarbons relevant to plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-05-01

    This article explores positron scattering cross sections by simple hydrocarbons such as ethane, ethene, ethyne, propane, and propyne. Chemical erosion processes occurring on the surface due to plasma-wall interactions are an abundant source of hydrocarbon molecules which contaminate the hydrogenic plasma. These hydrocarbons play an important role in the edge plasma region of Tokamak and ITER. In addition to this, they are also one of the major components in the planetary atmospheres and astrophysical mediums. The present work focuses on calculation of different positron impact interactions with simple hydrocarbons in terms of the total cross section (Qtot), elastic cross section (Qel), direct ionization cross section (Qion), positronium formation cross section (Qps), and total ionization cross section (Qtion). Knowing that the positron-plasma study is one of the trending fields, the calculated data have diverse plasma and astrophysical modeling applications. A comprehensive study of Qtot has been provided where the inelastic cross sections have been reported for the first time. Comparisons are made with those available from the literature, and a good agreement is obtained with the measurements.

  19. EUV laser produced and induced plasmas for nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizyuk, Tatyana; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    EUV produced plasma sources are being extensively studied for the development of new technology for computer chips production. Challenging tasks include optimization of EUV source efficiency, producing powerful source in 2 percentage bandwidth around 13.5 nm for high volume manufacture (HVM), and increasing the lifetime of collecting optics. Mass-limited targets, such as small droplet, allow to reduce contamination of chamber environment and mirror surface damage. However, reducing droplet size limits EUV power output. Our analysis showed the requirement for the target parameters and chamber conditions to achieve 500 W EUV output for HVM. The HEIGHTS package was used for the simulations of laser produced plasma evolution starting from laser interaction with solid target, development and expansion of vapor/plasma plume with accurate optical data calculation, especially in narrow EUV region. Detailed 3D modeling of mix environment including evolution and interplay of plasma produced by lasers from Sn target and plasma produced by in-band and out-of-band EUV radiation in ambient gas, used for the collecting optics protection and cleaning, allowed predicting conditions in entire LPP system. Effect of these conditions on EUV photon absorption and collection was analyzed. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, PIRE project.

  20. Light-induced modification of plant plasma membrane ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, I; Deeken, R; Hedrich, R; Roelfsema, M R G

    2010-09-01

    Light is not only the driving force for electron and ion transport in the thylakoid membrane, but also regulates ion transport in various other membranes of plant cells. Light-dependent changes in ion transport at the plasma membrane and associated membrane potential changes have been studied intensively over the last century. These studies, with various species and cell types, revealed that apart from regulation by chloroplasts, plasma membrane transport can be controlled by phytochromes, phototropins or channel rhodopsins. In this review, we compare light-dependent plasma membrane responses of unicellular algae (Eremosphaera and Chlamydomonas), with those of a multicellular alga (Chara), liverworts (Conocephalum), mosses (Physcomitrella) and several angiosperm cell types. Light-dependent plasma membrane responses of Eremosphaera and Chara are characterised by the dominant role of K(+) channels during membrane potential changes. In most other species, the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of plasma membrane anion channels represents a general light-triggered event. Cell type-specific responses are likely to have evolved by modification of this general response or through the development of additional light-dependent signalling pathways. Future research to elucidate these light-activated signalling chains is likely to benefit from the recent identification of S-type anion channel genes and proteins capable of regulating these channels.

  1. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, Tjung Jie; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kurniawan, Davy P.; Pardede, Marincan; Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha; Khumaeni, Ali; Natiq, Shouny A.; Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lee, Yong Inn; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Idris, Nasrullah; Tjia, May On

    2006-01-01

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure

  2. Elemental analysis of bead samples using a laser-induced plasma at low pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lie, Tjung Jie [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia)]. E-mail: kurnia18@cbn.net.id; Kurniawan, Davy P. [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Pardede, Marincan [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Suliyanti, Maria Margaretha [Graduate Program in Opto Electrotechniques and Laser Applications, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Indonesia, 4 Salemba Raya, Jakarta 10430 (Indonesia); Khumaeni, Ali [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Natiq, Shouny A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Tembalang Campus, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23116 (Indonesia); Lee, Yong Inn [Physics Department, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, South Korea (Korea); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Idris, Nasrullah [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2006-01-15

    An Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 8 ns, 30 mJ) was focused on various types of fresh, fossilized white coral and giant shell samples, including samples of imitation shell and marble. Such samples are extremely important as material for preparing prayer beads that are extensively used in the Buddhist faith. The aim of this research was to develop a non-destructive method to distinguish original beads from their imitations by means of spectral measurements of the carbon, hydrogen, sodium and magnesium emission intensities and by measuring the hardness of the sample using the ratio between Ca (II) 396.8 nm and Ca (I) 422.6 nm. Based on these measurements, original fresh coral beads can be distinguished from any imitation made from hard wood. The same technique was also effective in distinguishing beads made of shell from its imitation. A spectral analysis of bead was also performed on a fossilized white coral sample and the result can be used to distinguish to some extent the fossilized white coral beads from any imitation made from marble. It was also found that the plasma plume should be generated at low ambient pressure to significantly improve the hydrogen and carbon emission intensity and also to avoid energy loss inside the crater during laser irradiation at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study confirm that operating the laser-induced plasma spectroscopy at reduced ambient pressure offers distinct advantage for bead analysis over the conventional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique operated at atmospheric pressure.

  3. The dynamics of gas-puff imploding plasmas on the NRL Gamble II Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; McDonald, S.W.; Mehlman, C.G.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental study of imploding plasma loads on the NRL Gamble II generator was initiated more than a year ago. Preliminary results including scaling laws for K-line radiation output from neon puffs and the effect of plasma erosion opening switches (PEOS's) on the x-ray yields and the pinch quality were reported upon during the past year. In order to better understand the implosion dynamics of such plasmas, time-resolved photographs have been taken of the implosion history. In contrast with time-integrated x-ray pinhole photographs, the time-resolved visible-light pictures indicate that the implosion phase is essentially instability-free, while pinching and flaring occur at late times during the blow-up phase. Furthermore, these visible-light framing photographs clearly show that the discharge is flared out toward the anode at early times and becomes cylindrical at implosion. This so-called ''zipper-effect'' has been seen in previous argon-puff experiments and is due to the non-uniform initial distribution of gas across the anode-cathode gap. The authors present comparisons of time-resolved photographs taken both in visible and x-ray light along with x-ray spectra taken with and without PEOS's. The implications of these data are discussed in view of the present theoretical understanding of the plasma implosion dynamics

  4. The dynamics of gas-puff imploding plasmas on the NRL Gamble II generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Boller, J.R.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; McDonald, S.W.; Mehlman, C.G.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental study of imploding plasma loads on the NRL Gamble II generator was initiated more than a year ago. Preliminary results including scaling laws for K-line radiation output from neon puffs and the effect of plasma erosion opening switches (PEOS's) on the x-ray yields and the pinch quality were reported upon during the past year. In order to better understand the implosion dynamics of such plasmas, time-resolved photographs have been taken of the implosion history. In contrast with time-integrated x-ray pinhole photographs, the time-resolved visible-light pictures indicate that the implosion phase is essentially instability-free, while pinching and flaring occur at late times during the blow-up phase. Furthermore, these visible-light framing photographs clearly show that the discharge is flared out toward the anode at early times and becomes cylindrical at implosion. This so-called ''zipper-effect'' has been seen in previous argon-puff experiments and is due to the non-uniform initial distribution of gas across the anode-cathode gap. The authors present comparisons of time-resolved photographs taken both in visible and x-ray light along with x-ray spectra taken with and without PEOS's. The implications of these data are discussed in view of the present theoretical understanding of the plasma implosion dynamics

  5. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  6. Generation of plasma X-ray sources via high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguckis, Artūras; Plukis, Artūras; Reklaitis, Jonas; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Giniūnas, Linas; Vengris, Mikas

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we present the development and characterization of Cu plasma X-ray source driven by 20 W average power high repetition rate femtosecond laser in ambient atmosphere environment. The peak Cu- Kα photon flux of 2.3 × 109 photons/s into full solid angle is demonstrated (with a process conversion efficiency of 10-7), using pulses with peak intensity of 4.65 × 1014 W/cm2. Such Cu- Kα flux is significantly larger than others found in comparable experiments, performed in air environment. The effects of resonance plasma absorption process, when optimized, are shown to increase measured flux by the factor of 2-3. The relationship between X-ray photon flux and plasma-driving pulse repetition rate is quasi-linear, suggesting that fluxes could further be increased to 1010 photons/s using even higher average powers of driving radiation. These results suggest that to fully utilize the potential of high repetition rate laser sources, novel target material delivery systems (for example, jet-based ones) are required. On the other hand, this study demonstrates that high energy lasers currently used for plasma X-ray sources can be conveniently and efficiently replaced by high average power and repetition rate laser radiation, as a way to increase the brightness of the generated X-rays.

  7. Generation of a subgigagauss magnetic field by pinching the plasma channel of exploded-wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubsky, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    An interest in the dense pinches produced in the explosion of thin wires in the diodes of high current-nanosecond-REB-generators is provided by an opportunity to obtain high temperature-dense plasma configurations as an object of fusion studies and that in the spectroscopy of multi-charged ions. One needs to have a micrometer size of the Z-pinch neck to ignite the fusion reaction. The plasma channel pinching of the wires exploded by a megaampere current to a micrometer size of its neck can provide gigagauss magnetic fields. An important aspect of a given study is verification of an opportunity to obtain the radiation collapse of the plasma channel due to an exploded wire along its whole length up to the kA because of a line radiation cut-off due to the Braginsky-Pease current reduction to 150-200 from the plasma with left-angle Z right-angle much-gt 1. This paper presents experimental studies in this field, with the currents 0.2 MA, 0.5 MA, 1.2 MA

  8. Detecting subtle plasma membrane perturbation in living cells using second harmonic generation imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Erick K; Ibey, Bennett L; Beier, Hope T

    2014-05-20

    The requirement of center asymmetry for the creation of second harmonic generation (SHG) signals makes it an attractive technique for visualizing changes in interfacial layers such as the plasma membrane of biological cells. In this article, we explore the use of lipophilic SHG probes to detect minute perturbations in the plasma membrane. Three candidate probes, Di-4-ANEPPDHQ (Di-4), FM4-64, and all-trans-retinol, were evaluated for SHG effectiveness in Jurkat cells. Di-4 proved superior with both strong SHG signal and limited bleaching artifacts. To test whether rapid changes in membrane symmetry could be detected using SHG, we exposed cells to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields, which are believed to cause formation of nanopores in the plasma membrane. Upon nanosecond-pulsed electric fields exposure, we observed an instantaneous drop of ~50% in SHG signal from the anodic pole of the cell. When compared to the simultaneously acquired fluorescence signals, it appears that the signal change was not due to the probe diffusing out of the membrane or changes in membrane potential or fluidity. We hypothesize that this loss in SHG signal is due to disruption in the interfacial nature of the membrane. The results show that SHG imaging has great potential as a tool for measuring rapid and subtle plasma membrane disturbance in living cells. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Costa, Giuseppe; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cannavò, Antonino; Restuccia, Nancy; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA) acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC) at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  10. Diagnostics of Particles emitted from a Laser generated Plasma: Experimental Data and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giuseppe; Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    The charge particle emission form laser-generated plasma was studied experimentally and theoretically using the COMSOL simulation code. The particle acceleration was investigated using two lasers at two different regimes. A Nd:YAG laser, with 3 ns pulse duration and 1010 W/cm2 intensity, when focused on solid target produces a non-equilibrium plasma with average temperature of about 30-50 eV. An Iodine laser with 300 ps pulse duration and 1016 W/cm2 intensity produces plasmas with average temperatures of the order of tens keV. In both cases charge separation occurs and ions and electrons are accelerated at energies of the order of 200 eV and 1 MeV per charge state in the two cases, respectively. The simulation program permits to plot the charge particle trajectories from plasma source in vacuum indicating how they can be deflected by magnetic and electrical fields. The simulation code can be employed to realize suitable permanent magnets and solenoids to deflect ions toward a secondary target or detectors, to focalize ions and electrons, to realize electron traps able to provide significant ion acceleration and to realize efficient spectrometers. In particular it was applied to the study two Thomson parabola spectrometers able to detect ions at low and at high laser intensities. The comparisons between measurements and simulation is presented and discussed.

  11. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Langping; Huang Lei; Xie Zhiwen; Wang Xiaofeng; Tang Baoyin

    2008-01-01

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder

  12. Fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition facility for hybrid surface modification layer fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Langping; Huang, Lei; Xie, Zhiwen; Wang, Xiaofeng; Tang, Baoyin

    2008-02-01

    The fourth-generation plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) facility for hybrid and batch treatment was built in our laboratory recently. Comparing with our previous PIIID facilities, several novel designs are utilized. Two multicathode pulsed cathodic arc plasma sources are fixed on the chamber wall symmetrically, which can increase the steady working time from 6 h (the single cathode source in our previous facilities) to about 18 h. Meanwhile, the inner diameter of the pulsed cathodic arc plasma source is increased from the previous 80 to 209 mm, thus, large area metal plasma can be obtained by the source. Instead of the simple sample holder in our previous facility, a complex revolution-rotation sample holder composed of 24 shafts, which can rotate around its axis and adjust its position through revolving around the center axis of the vacuum chamber, is fixed in the center of the vacuum chamber. In addition, one magnetron sputtering source is set on the chamber wall instead of the top cover in the previous facility. Because of the above characteristic, the PIIID hybrid process involving ion implantation, vacuum arc, and magnetron sputtering deposition can be acquired without breaking vacuum. In addition, the PIIID batch treatment of cylinderlike components can be finished by installing these components on the rotating shafts on the sample holder.

  13. Simulations of a dense plasma focus on a high impedance generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Giuliani, John; Jackson, Stuart; Richardson, Steve; Swanekamp, Steve; Schumer, Joe; Commisso, Robert; Mosher, Dave; Weber, Bruce; Velikovich, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    We study the connection between plasma instabilities and fast ion acceleration for neutron production on a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF). The experiments will be performed on the HAWK generator (665 kA), which has fast rise time, 1.2 μs, and a high inductance, 607 nH. It is hypothesized that high impedance may enhance the neutron yield because the current will not be reduced during the collapse resulting in higher magnetization. To prevent upstream breakdown, we will inject plasma far from the insulator stack. We simulated rundown and collapse dynamics with Athena - Eulerian 3D, unsplit finite volume MHD code that includes shock capturing with Riemann solvers, resistive diffusion and the Hall term. The simulations are coupled to an equivalent circuit model for HAWK. We will report the dynamics and implosion time as a function of the initial injected plasma distribution and the implications of non-ideal effects. We also traced test particles in MHD fields and confirmed the presence of stochastic acceleration, which was limited by the size of the system and the strength of the magnetic field. Supported by DOE/NNSA and the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  14. Generation and confinement of hot ions and electrons in a reversed-field pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B E; Almagri, A F; Anderson, J K; Caspary, K J; Clayton, D J; Den Hartog, D J; Ennis, D A; Fiksel, G; Gangadhara, S; Kumar, S; Magee, R M; O'Connell, R; Parke, E; Prager, S C; Reusch, J A; Sarff, J S; Stephens, H D; Brower, D L; Ding, W X; Craig, D

    2010-01-01

    By manipulating magnetic reconnection in Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) discharges, we have generated and confined for the first time a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma with an ion temperature >1 keV and an electron temperature of 2 keV. This is achieved at a toroidal plasma current of about 0.5 MA, approaching MST's present maximum. The manipulation begins with intensification of discrete magnetic reconnection events, causing the ion temperature to increase to several kiloelectronvolts. The reconnection is then quickly suppressed with inductive current profile control, leading to capture of a portion of the added ion heat with improved ion energy confinement. Electron energy confinement is simultaneously improved, leading to a rapid ohmically driven increase in the electron temperature. A steep electron temperature gradient emerges in the outer region of the plasma, with a local thermal diffusivity of about 2 m 2 s -1 . The global energy confinement time reaches 12 ms, the largest value yet achieved in the RFP and which is roughly comparable to the H-mode scaling prediction for a tokamak with the same plasma current, density, heating power, size and shape.

  15. Non-ambipolar radio-frequency plasma electron source and systems and methods for generating electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkowitz, Noah [Madison, WI; Longmier, Benjamin [Madison, WI; Baalrud, Scott [Madison, WI

    2009-03-03

    An electron generating device extracts electrons, through an electron sheath, from plasma produced using RF fields. The electron sheath is located near a grounded ring at one end of a negatively biased conducting surface, which is normally a cylinder. Extracted electrons pass through the grounded ring in the presence of a steady state axial magnetic field. Sufficiently large magnetic fields and/or RF power into the plasma allow for helicon plasma generation. The ion loss area is sufficiently large compared to the electron loss area to allow for total non-ambipolar extraction of all electrons leaving the plasma. Voids in the negatively-biased conducting surface allow the time-varying magnetic fields provided by the antenna to inductively couple to the plasma within the conducting surface. The conducting surface acts as a Faraday shield, which reduces any time-varying electric fields from entering the conductive surface, i.e. blocks capacitive coupling between the antenna and the plasma.

  16. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  17. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  18. Investigations on laser induced nickel and titanium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.U.; Latif, A.; Bhatti, K.A.; Rafique, M.S.; Yousaf, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to find out plasma parameters for Nickel and Titanium metals which were irradiated in air (1 atm) to produce plasma plume using Q switched Nd: YAG pulsed laser of 1.1 MW, 10 m J, 1064 nm and 9-14 ns. Langmuir probe was used as a diagnostic tool. The signals at different probe voltages were recorded on digital storage oscilloscope. The information carried by the signals was utilized to calculate electron density, electron temperature, Debye's length and number of particles in Debye's sphere. The study shows that the calculated values of these parameters for Nickel and Titanium are different except Debye's length. Plasma parameters strongly depend on probe potentials, material used and ambient conditions. (author)

  19. Generation of highly collimated high-current ion beams by skin-layer laser-plasma interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Glowacz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Generation of fast ion beams by laser-induced skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration has been studied using a two-dimensional (2D) two-fluid relativistic computer code. It is shown that the key parameter determining the spatial structure and angular divergence of the ion beam is the ratio d L /L n , where d L is the laser beam diameter and L n is the plasma density gradient scale length. When d L >>L n , a dense highly collimated megaampere ion (proton) beam of the ion current density approaching TA/cm 2 can be generated by skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration, even with a tabletop subpicosecond laser

  20. Preliminary experiment of non-induced plasma current startup on SUNIST spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yexi; Zhang Liang; Xie Lifeng; Tang Yi; Yang Xuanzong; Fu Hongjun

    2005-01-01

    Non-inductive plasma current startup is an important motivation on the SUNIST spherical tokamak. In this experiment, a 100 kW, 2.45 GHz magnetron microwave system has been applied to the plasma current startup. Besides the toroidal field, a vertical field was applied to generate a preliminary toroidal plasma current without action of the central solenoid. As the evidence of the plasma current startup by the vertical field drift effect, the direction of the plasma current is changed with the changing direction of the vertical field during ECR startup discharge. We have also observed the plasma current maximum by scanning the vertical field in both directions. Additionally, we have used electrode discharge to assist the ECR current startup. (author)